Science.gov

Sample records for jacket type offshore

  1. Dynamic characteristics of a jacket type offshore structure considering non-linear behavior of pile foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Aaghaakouchak, A.A.; Asgarian, B.

    1996-12-31

    Dynamic characteristics of a typical six legged jacket type platform in Persian Gulf have been studied. An equivalent linearized pile stub has been used to model the pile-soil system. The properties of pile stub have been calculated for different levels of the pile-head deformations resulting from the action of different waves. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of resulting linear models have been determined and compared to each other.

  2. Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Jacket Type Offshore Platforms through Incremental Dynamic Analysis considering Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Asgarian, Behrouz; Shokrgozar, Hamed R.; Talarposhti, Ali Shakeri

    2008-07-08

    Of great interest in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) is the accurate estimation of the seismic performance of structures. A performance prediction and evaluation procedure is based on nonlinear dynamics and reliability theory. In this method, a full integration over the three key stochastic models is as follow: ground motion hazard curve, nonlinear dynamic displacement demand, and displacement capacity. Further, both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties are evaluated and carried through the analysis.In this paper, jacket and soil-pile system have been modeled using Finite Element program (OpenSees) and the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) are performed to investigate nonlinear behavior of offshore platforms. The system demand is determined by performing time history response analyses of the jacket under a suite of FEMA/SAC uniform hazard ground motions. The system capacity in terms of the drift ratio against incipient collapse is generally difficult to predict since the structural response goes into nonlinear range before collapse. All the analyses are performed in two directions and the results are compared with each others. The confidence level of a jacket in each direction for a given hazard level is calculated using the procedure described.

  3. Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Jacket Type Offshore Platforms through Incremental Dynamic Analysis considering Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgarian, Behrouz; Shokrgozar, Hamed R.; Talarposhti, Ali Shakeri

    2008-07-01

    Of great interest in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) is the accurate estimation of the seismic performance of structures. A performance prediction and evaluation procedure is based on nonlinear dynamics and reliability theory. In this method, a full integration over the three key stochastic models is as follow: ground motion hazard curve, nonlinear dynamic displacement demand, and displacement capacity. Further, both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties are evaluated and carried through the analysis. In this paper, jacket and soil-pile system have been modeled using Finite Element program (OpenSees) and the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) are performed to investigate nonlinear behavior of offshore platforms. The system demand is determined by performing time history response analyses of the jacket under a suite of FEMA/SAC uniform hazard ground motions. The system capacity in terms of the drift ratio against incipient collapse is generally difficult to predict since the structural response goes into nonlinear range before collapse. All the analyses are performed in two directions and the results are compared with each others. The confidence level of a jacket in each direction for a given hazard level is calculated using the procedure described.

  4. A simplified method in comparison with comprehensive interaction incremental dynamic analysis to assess seismic performance of jacket-type offshore platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolfaghari, M. R.; Ajamy, A.; Asgarian, B.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of seismic reassessment procedures in oil platform codes is to determine the reliability of a platform under extreme earthquake loading. Therefore, in this paper, a simplified method is proposed to assess seismic performance of existing jacket-type offshore platforms (JTOP) in regions ranging from near-elastic to global collapse. The simplified method curve exploits well agreement between static pushover (SPO) curve and the entire summarized interaction incremental dynamic analysis (CI-IDA) curve of the platform. Although the CI-IDA method offers better understanding and better modelling of the phenomenon, it is a time-consuming and challenging task. To overcome the challenges, the simplified procedure, a fast and accurate approach, is introduced based on SPO analysis. Then, an existing JTOP in the Persian Gulf is presented to illustrate the procedure, and finally a comparison is made between the simplified method and CI-IDA results. The simplified method is very informative and practical for current engineering purposes. It is able to predict seismic performance elasticity to global dynamic instability with reasonable accuracy and little computational effort.

  5. JacketSE: An Offshore Wind Turbine Jacket Sizing Tool; Theory Manual and Sample Usage with Preliminary Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, Rick

    2016-02-08

    This manual summarizes the theory and preliminary verifications of the JacketSE module, which is an offshore jacket sizing tool that is part of the Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model toolbox. JacketSE is based on a finite-element formulation and on user-prescribed inputs and design standards' criteria (constraints). The physics are highly simplified, with a primary focus on satisfying ultimate limit states and modal performance requirements. Preliminary validation work included comparing industry data and verification against ANSYS, a commercial finite-element analysis package. The results are encouraging, and future improvements to the code are recommended in this manual.

  6. Analyzing the safety of removal sequences for piles of an offshore jacket platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Zhao-De

    2009-12-01

    An inevitable consequence of the development of the offshore petroleum industry is the eventual obsolescence of large offshore structures. Proper methods for removal of decommissioned offshore platforms are becoming an important topic that the oil and gas industry must pay increasing attention to. While removing sections from a decommissioned jacket platform, the stability of the remaining parts is critical. The jacket danger indices D σ and D s defined in this paper are very useful for analyzing the safety of any procedure planned for disassembling a jacket platform. The safest piles cutting sequence can be determined easily by comparing every column of D σ and D s or simply analyzing the figures of every row of D σ and D s .

  7. Welding fabrication defects in two offshore steel jacket structures

    SciTech Connect

    Thurlbeck, S.D.; Stacey, A.; Sharp, J.V.; Nichols, N.W.

    1996-12-01

    The results of a survey of welding fabrication defects in two North Sea jacket structures fabricated in the mid 1980`s and the early 1990`s are presented in this paper. The results were used to assess the general defectiveness of the two structures. Information was collected from the initial fabrication inspections and the post-repair inspections. The defects were classified as reportable defects, which remain unrepaired, and repairable defects, which are repaired and re-inspected. The data showed that the defects were exclusively embedded defects or root defects which were detected by ultrasonic and radiographic methods respectively. No surface breaking defects were reported from the magnetic particle inspections. The data were used to determine incidence rates, expressed in terms of the length of defective weld, distributions of defect sizes and the number of defective welds. The results can be used in the consideration of fabrication inspection capability and construction standards, as well as to obtain a measure of the level of reportable defects which remain un-repaired in a steel jacket.

  8. Method and apparatus for the offshore installation of multi-ton prefabricated deck packages on partially submerged offshore jacket foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Khachaturian, J.E.

    1987-12-22

    A method for the offshore installation of multi-ton prefabricated deep package on a jacket foundation is described comprising the steps of: a. transporting the prefabricated deck package to the site of the jacket base on a first transport barge; b. attaching a triangular truss-like lifting assembly to the deck package at multiple positions on the deck package at multiple positions on the deck package that are at least on generally opposite sides of the deck package, and at upper and lower positions on the deck package respectively and at vertices of the triangular truss-like lifting assembly; c. structurally supporting the triangular truss-like lifting assembly with one or more lift barges; d. removing the transport barge as a support for the deck package so that the deck is supported by the triangular truss-like lifting assembly and lift barges, with the deck package forming a load carrying portion of the triangular truss-like lifting assembly; e. aligning the deck package with the jacket so that the deck package can be placed on the jacket; and f. lowering the deck package upon the jacket by changing the length of the horizontal chord of each triangular truss-like lifting assembly.

  9. A Comparison Study of Offshore Wind Support Structures with Monopiles and Jackets for U.S. Waters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, Rick; Dykes, Katherine; Scott, George

    2016-08-01

    U.S. experience in offshore wind is limited, and high costs are expected unless innovations are introduced in one or multiple aspects of the project, from the installed technology to the balance of system (BOS). The substructure is the main single component responsible for the BOS capital expenditure (CapEx) and thus one that, if improved, could yield significant levelized cost of energy (LCOE) savings. For projects in U.S. waters, multimember, lattice structures (also known as jackets) can render required stiffness for transitional water depths at potentially lower costs than monopiles (MPs). In this study, we used a systems engineering approach to evaluate the LCOE of prototypical wind power plants at six locations along the eastern seaboard and the Gulf of Mexico for both types of support structures. Using a reference wind turbine and actual metocean conditions for the selected sites, we calculated loads for a parked and an operational situation, and we optimized the MP- and jacket-based support structures to minimize their overall mass. Using a suite of cost models, we then computed their associated LCOE. For all water depths, the MP-based configurations were heavier than their jacket counterparts, but the overall costs for the MPs were less than they were for jackets up to depths of slightly less than 30 m. When the associated manufacturing and installation costs were included, jackets resulted in lower LCOE for depths greater than 40 m. These results can be used by U.S. stakeholders to understand the potential for different technologies at different sites, but the methodology illustrated in this study can be further employed to analyze the effects of innovations and design choices throughout wind power plant systems.

  10. A comparison study of offshore wind support structures with monopiles and jackets for U.S. waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, R.; Dykes, K.; Scott, G.

    2016-09-01

    U.S. experience in offshore wind is limited, and high costs are expected unless innovations are introduced in one or multiple aspects of the project, from the installed technology to the balance of system (BOS). The substructure is the main single component responsible for the BOS capital expenditure (CapEx) and thus one that, if improved, could yield significant levelized cost of energy (LCOE) savings. For projects in U.S. waters, multimember lattice structures (also known as jackets) can render required stiffness for transitional water depths at potentially lower costs than monopiles (MPs). In this study, we used a systems engineering approach to evaluate the LCOE of prototypical wind power plants at six locations along the eastern seaboard and the Gulf of Mexico for both types of support structures. Using a reference wind turbine and actual metocean conditions for the selected sites, we calculated loads for a parked and an operational situation, and we optimized the MP- and jacket-based support structures to minimize their overall mass. Using a suite of cost models, we then computed their associated LCOE. For all water depths, the MP-based configurations were heavier than their jacket counterparts, but the overall costs for the MPs were less than they were for jackets up to depths of slightly less than 30m. When the associated manufacturing and installation costs were included, jackets resulted in lower LCOE for depths greater than 40m. These results can be used by U.S. stakeholders to understand the potential for different technologies at different sites, but the methodology illustrated in this study can be further employed to analyze the effects of innovations and design choices throughout wind power plant systems.

  11. Development of jacket platform tsunami risk rating system in waters offshore North Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. E.; Liew, M. S.; Mardi, N. H.; Na, K. L.; Toloue, Iraj; Wong, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    This work details the simulation of tsunami waves generated by seaquakes in the Manila Trench and their effect on fixed oil and gas jacket platforms in waters offshore North Borneo. For this study, a four-leg living quarter jacket platform located in a water depth of 63m is modelled in SACS v5.3. Malaysia has traditionally been perceived to be safe from the hazards of earthquakes and tsunamis. Local design practices tend to neglect tsunami waves and include no such provisions. In 2004, a 9.3 M w seaquake occurred off the northwest coast of Aceh, which generated tsunami waves that caused destruction in Malaysia totalling US 25 million and 68 deaths. This event prompted an awareness of the need to study the reliability of fixed offshore platforms scattered throughout Malaysian waters. In this paper, we present a review of research on the seismicity of the Manila Trench, which is perceived to be high risk for Southeast Asia. From the tsunami numerical model TUNA-M2, we extract computer-simulated tsunami waves at prescribed grid points in the vicinity of the platforms in the region. Using wave heights as input, we simulate the tsunami using SACS v5.3 structural analysis software of offshore platforms, which is widely accepted by the industry. We employ the nonlinear solitary wave theory in our tsunami loading calculations for the platforms, and formulate a platform-specific risk quantification system. We then perform an intensive structural sensitivity analysis and derive a corresponding platform-specific risk rating model.

  12. Differentiating between underwater construction noise of monopile and jacket foundations for offshore windmills: a case study from the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Norro, Alain Michel Jules; Rumes, Bob; Degraer, Steven Johan

    2013-01-01

    Steel monopiles, jackets requiring four steel pinpiles, and gravity-based foundations were applied in offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea. This paper compares the underwater noise generated during the piling activities of steel monopiles at the Belwind wind farm (Blighbank) with that of jacket pinpiles at the C-Power project (Thorntonbank). Underwater noise was measured at various distances from the pile driving location. The underwater noise was quantified by its zero to peak sound pressure level (L(z-p)), unweighted sound exposure level (SEL), cumulative SEL, and 1/3 octave spectra. No significant differences in L(z-p) could be demonstrated (monopile L(z-p): 179-194 dB  re 1  μPa, jacket L(z-p): 172-189 dB  re 1  μPa). SEL showed no statistical difference between monopile and jacket and varied between 145 and 168 dB  re 1  μPa(2)s. Furthermore, near identical spectra were measured for both types of piling. Piling of the jacket pinpiles took, however, about 2.5 times the time of the monopile. When standardised to megawatt installed per foundation both types of piling scored near equally. As an illustration, the radius of major behavioural disturbance (L(p-p) = 155 dB  re 1  μPa) in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena was estimated by a model at 16 km for monopiles and at 8 km for jacket.

  13. CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY

    DOEpatents

    Brugmann, E.W.

    1958-08-26

    Reactor faul elements of the elongated cylindrical type which are jacketed in a corrosion resistant material are described. Each feel element is comprised of a plurality of jacketed cylinders of fissionable material in end to end abutting relationship, the jackets being welded together at their adjoining ends to retain the individual segments together and seat the interior of the jackets.

  14. Optimisation and evaluation of pre-design models for offshore wind turbines with jacket support structures and their influence on integrated load simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafhirt, S.; Kaufer, D.; Cheng, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years many advanced load simulation tools, allowing an aero-servo-hydroelastic analyses of an entire offshore wind turbine, have been developed and verified. Nowadays, even an offshore wind turbine with a complex support structure such as a jacket can be analysed. However, the computational effort rises significantly with an increasing level of details. This counts especially for offshore wind turbines with lattice support structures, since those models do naturally have a higher number of nodes and elements than simpler monopile structures. During the design process multiple load simulations are demanded to obtain an optimal solution. In the view of pre-design tasks it is crucial to apply load simulations which keep the simulation quality and the computational effort in balance. The paper will introduce a reference wind turbine model consisting of the REpower5M wind turbine and a jacket support structure with a high level of detail. In total twelve variations of this reference model are derived and presented. Main focus is to simplify the models of the support structure and the foundation. The reference model and the simplified models are simulated with the coupled simulation tool Flex5-Poseidon and analysed regarding frequencies, fatigue loads, and ultimate loads. A model has been found which reaches an adequate increase of simulation speed while holding the results in an acceptable range compared to the reference results.

  15. Optimum geometry of tuned liquid column-gas damper for control of offshore jacket platform vibrations under seismic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyed Amin; Zahrai, Seyed Mehdi; Bargi, Khosrow

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of a tuned liquid column-gas damper, TLCGD, on the suppression of seismicinduced vibrations of steel jacket platforms is evaluated. TLCGD is an interesting choice in the case of jacket platforms because it is possible to use the structural elements as the horizontal column of the TLCGD. The objective here is to find the optimum geometric parameters, namely orientation and configuration of vertical columns, length ratio, and area ratio of the TLCGD, considering nonlinear damping of the TLCGD and water-structure interaction between the jacket platform and sea water. The effects of different characteristics of ground motion such as PGA and frequency content on the optimum geometry are also investigated and it is observed that these features have some influence on the optimum area ratio. Finally it is observed that pulse arrangement of ground acceleration is one of the most important parameters affecting the efficiency of a TLCGD. In other words, it is found that the TLCGD's capability to reduce the RMS responses depends only on the frequency content of the ground acceleration, but its capability to reduce the maximum responses depends on both the frequency content and the pulse arrangement of the ground acceleration.

  16. Fire Protection Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NERAC, Inc., Tolland, CT, aided Paul Monroe Engineering, Orange, CA, in the development of their PC1200 Series Fire Protection Jacket that protects the oil conduit system on an offshore drilling platform from the intense hydrocarbon fires that cause buckling and could cause structural failure of the platform. The flame-proof jacketing, which can withstand temperatures of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours or more, was developed from a combination of ceramic cloth (similar to the ceramic in Space Shuttle tiles), and laminates used in space suits.

  17. CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY

    DOEpatents

    Brugmann, E.W.

    1958-08-26

    Jacketed metal bodies of the type used as fuel elements for nuclear reactors, which contain an internal elongated body of fissionable material jacketed in a corrosion resistant metal are described. The ends of the internal bodies are provided with screw threads having a tapered outer end. The jacket material overlaps the ends and extends into the tapered section of the screw threaded opening. Screw caps with a mating tapered section are screwed into the ends of the body to compress the jacket material in the tapered sections to provtde an effective seal against corrosive gases and liquids.

  18. JACKETING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.

    1959-07-14

    The bonding to uranium of sheathing of iron or cobalt, or nickel, or alloys thereof is described. The bonding is accomplished by electro-depositing both surfaces to be joined with a coating of silver and amalgamating or alloying the silver layer with mercury or indium. Then the silver alloy is homogenized by exerting pressure on an assembly of the uranium core and the metal jacket, reducing the area of assembly and heating the assembly to homogenize by diffusion.

  19. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  20. CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY

    DOEpatents

    Brugmann, E.W.

    1958-08-26

    S>Metal jacketed metallic bodies of the type used as feel elements fer nuclear reactors are presented. The fuel element is comprised of a plurality of jacketed cylindrical bodies joined in end to end abutting relationship. The abutting ends of the internal fissionable bodies are provided with a mating screw and thread means for joining the two together. The jacket material is of a corrosion resistant metal and overlaps the abutting ends of the internal bodies, thereby effectively sealing these bodies from contact with exteral reactive gases and liquids.

  1. Reduction of fatigue loads on jacket substructure through blade design optimization for multi-megawatt wind turbines at 50 m water depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njomo Wandji, W.; Pavese, C.; Natarajan, A.; Zahle, F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the reduction of the fore-aft damage equivalent moment at the tower base for multi-megawatt offshore wind turbines mounted on jacket type substructures at 50 m water depths. The study investigates blade design optimization of a reference 10 MW wind turbine under standard wind conditions of onshore sites. The blade geometry and structure is optimized to yield a design that minimizes tower base fatigue loads without significant loss of power production compared to that of the reference setup. The resulting blade design is then mounted on a turbine supported by a jacket and placed under specific offshore site conditions. The new design achieves alleviate fatigue damage equivalent loads also in the jacket members, showing the possibility to prolong its design lifetime or to save material in comparison to the reference jacket. Finally, the results suggest additional benefit on the efficient design of other components such as the constituents of the nacelle.

  2. WELDED JACKETED URANIUM BODY

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.

    1958-08-26

    A fuel element is presented for a neutronic reactor and is comprised of a uranium body, a non-fissionable jacket surrounding sald body, thu jacket including a portion sealed by a weld, and an inclusion in said sealed jacket at said weld of a fiux having a low neutron capture cross-section. The flux is provided by combining chlorine gas and hydrogen in the intense heat of-the arc, in a "Heliarc" welding muthod, to form dry hydrochloric acid gas.

  3. Postexercise Cooling Rates in 2 Cooling Jackets

    PubMed Central

    Brade, Carly; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen; Polglaze, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Cooling jackets are a common method for removing stored heat accumulated during exercise. To date, the efficiency and practicality of different types of cooling jackets have received minimal investigation. Objective: To examine whether a cooling jacket containing a phase-change material (PC17) results in more rapid postexercise cooling than a gel cooling jacket and a no-jacket (control) condition. Design: Randomized, counterbalanced design with 3 experimental conditions. Setting: Participants exercised at 75% V̇o2max workload in a hot climate chamber (temperature  =  35.0 ± 1.4°C, relative humidity  =  52 ± 4%) for 30 minutes, followed by postexercise cooling for 30 minutes in cool laboratory conditions (ambient temperature  =  24.9 ± 1.8°C, relative humidity  =  39% ± 10%). Patients or Other Participants: Twelve physically active men (age  =  21.3 ± 1.1 years, height  =  182.7 ± 7.1 cm, body mass  =  76.2 ± 9.5 kg, sum of 6 skinfolds  =  50.5 ± 6.9 mm, body surface area  =  1.98 ± 0.14 m2, V̇o2max  =  49.0 ± 7.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated. Intervention(s): Three experimental conditions, consisting of a PC17 jacket, a gel jacket, and no jacket. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core temperature (TC), mean skin temperature (TSk), and TC cooling rate (°C/min). Results: Mean peak TC postexercise was 38.49 ± 0.42°C, 38.57 ± 0.41°C, and 38.55 ± 0.40°C for the PC17 jacket, gel jacket, and control conditions, respectively. No differences were observed in peak TC cooling rates among the PC17 jacket (0.038 ± 0.007°C/min), gel jacket (0.040 ± 0.009°C/min), and control (0.034 ± 0.010°C/min, P > .05) conditions. Between trials, no differences were calculated for mean TSk cooling. Conclusions: Similar cooling rates for all 3 conditions indicate that there is no benefit associated with wearing the PC17 or gel jacket. PMID:20210620

  4. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENTS FOR GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.; Wigner, E.P.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-05-12

    Fuel elements for a heterogeneous, fluid cooled, graphite moderated reactor are described. The fuel elements are comprised of a body of natural uranium hermetically sealed in a jacket of corrosion resistant material. The jacket, which may be aluminum or some other material which is non-fissionable and of a type having a low neutron capture cross-section, acts as a barrier between the fissioning isotope and the coolant or moderator or both. The jacket minimizes the tendency of the moderator and coolant to become radioactive and/or contaminated by fission fragments from the fissioning isotope.

  5. JACKETED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1958-12-01

    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  6. CUTTING AND WEDGING JACKET REMOVER

    DOEpatents

    Freedman, M.; Raynor, S.

    1959-04-01

    A tool is presented for stripping cladded jackets from fissionable fuel elements. The tool is a tube which fits closely around the jacket and which has two cutting edges at opposite sides of one end. These cutting edges are adjusted to penetrate only the jacket so that by moving the edges downward the jacket is cut into two pieces.

  7. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A.; Malecha, Richard F.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  8. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  9. JACKETED URANIUM SLUG

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.; Cooper, C.M.

    1958-10-01

    Fuel elements for nuclear reactors are described. Eacb fuel element is comprised of a solid cylindrical slug containing fissionable material enclosed within a fluid tight jacket of neutron permeable material such as aluminum. The jacket is provided with a flexible end cap and with a sealing member having a substantially fluid-tight fit within the jacket in tight abutment with the end cap and the end of the slug. A fluid passage is provided between the end of the slug and the cap whereby leakage fiuid is principally directed to the end of the slug. In this manner, any reaction between the fissionable material and fiuid which may take place occurs more rapidly at the end of the slug than along the sides between the slug and the jacket, thereby causing longitudinal expansion of the fuel element prior to radial expansion. The longitudinal expansion can be readily detected and the fuel element removed from the coolant tube before radial expansion causes it to become jammed in the tube.

  10. Regeneratively Cooled Porous Media Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a porous media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and porous media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are porous media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.

  11. [Sunrise gold foil jacket crown].

    PubMed

    Lecardonnel, A

    1989-09-01

    This technique permits the preparation of ceramic jacket crowns made on Sunrise laminated precious metal alloy. The Sunrise foil is gold-colored, made of 99% of precious metals and is 50 microns thick. The die is prepared in order to display a moderate and regular undercut beyond the cervical limit. The margin will be underlined with a red pencil. The Sunrise foil is cut according to predetermined templates. Then the foil is applied without burnishing, according to the technique of jacket crowns on platinum foil only by finger pressure. The double folding on closure is preferably done distally or mesially. Then, the metal base is disinserted, sandblasted with 100 microns aluminum oxide, replaced on its die, and placed in a rubber casing before being placed in the isostatic press, to be subjected to a pressure of 2,000 TSI (14 kg par cm2). Sunrise's orange color reinforces rather subtetly the overall color, making these reconstructions particularly esthetic. The color of the Sunrise metal does not require, therefore a too thick opaque. Any ceramic intended to be fired on a metal base, may be used in respecting its firing protocol. Sunrise, as any other technique of this type, require a careful preparation with a shoulder that has a rounded gingivoaxial line angle. Bridges may be built on the "thimbles" crowns, fitted on Sunrise cores, the pontics being made as a ceramo-metal framework.

  12. METHOD OF JACKETING A FISSIONABLE BODY

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1960-02-16

    A method for jacketing fuel elements is described. A fissionablc body ts fitted into a steel jacket, and a steel rimmed closure disk is inserted into the open end of the jacket. The jacket is then drawn through a die, aind the rim of the disk is welded to the jacket to form an impervious seal.

  13. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  14. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  15. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  16. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  17. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  18. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, C. J.; Dorling, S. R.; von Glasow, R.; Bacon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s-1 offshore gradient wind, from 0 km to 21 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the opposite coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high along-shore gradient wind speed (>15 m s-1) conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature and initializing vertical thermodynamic profile do not significantly alter the resulting circulation, though the strengths of the simulated sea breezes are modulated if the effective land-sea thermal contrast is altered. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be considered in order to improve the accuracy of both assessments of the offshore wind energy climate and

  19. APPARATUS FOR SHEARING TUBULAR JACKETS

    DOEpatents

    Simon, J.P.

    1962-09-01

    A machine is designed for removing the jacket from the core of a used rod-like fuel element by shearing the jacket into a spiral ribbon. Three skewed rolls move the fuel element axially and rotatively, and a tool cooperates with one of the rolls to carry out the shearing action. (AEC)

  20. The influence of familiarity on life jacket donning performance: implications for participant selection.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Conor Vaughan; Brooks, Christopher James; Kozey, John William; Habib, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Laboratories and test houses keep a "pool" of test subjects that volunteer to be participants in life jacket approval testing, which is believed to be an incorrect procedure. Fifty-six participants donned 8 child/infant life jackets onto 4 infant manikins in random order with time and accuracy of donning recorded. Average donning time for all 8 life jackets decreased significantly after the first donning experience. The findings show that the effect of familiarity occurs immediately after the first test, regardless of life jacket type, thus "contaminating" the subject and making them unsuitable for further tests. These observations are important for life jacket standards where the life jacket must be donned by a naïve participant. Currently, a poorly designed life jacket may receive a pass as a result of the learning effect as shown by participants with previous donning experiences.

  1. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  2. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  3. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  4. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  5. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  6. The Seismic Reliability of Offshore Structures Based on Nonlinear Time History Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, Mahmood; Karimiyani, Somayyeh; Ghafooripour, Amin; Jabbarzadeh, Mohammad Javad

    2008-07-08

    Regarding the past earthquakes damages to offshore structures, as vital structures in the oil and gas industries, it is important that their seismic design is performed by very high reliability. Accepting the Nonlinear Time History Analyses (NLTHA) as the most reliable seismic analysis method, in this paper an offshore platform of jacket type with the height of 304 feet, having a deck of 96 feet by 94 feet, and weighing 290 million pounds has been studied. At first, some Push-Over Analyses (POA) have been preformed to recognize the more critical members of the jacket, based on the range of their plastic deformations. Then NLTHA have been performed by using the 3-components accelerograms of 100 earthquakes, covering a wide range of frequency content, and normalized to three Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) levels of 0.3 g, 0.65 g, and 1.0 g. By using the results of NLTHA the damage and rupture probabilities of critical member have been studied to assess the reliability of the jacket structure. Regarding that different structural members of the jacket have different effects on the stability of the platform, an 'importance factor' has been considered for each critical member based on its location and orientation in the structure, and then the reliability of the whole structure has been obtained by combining the reliability of the critical members, each having its specific importance factor.

  7. The Seismic Reliability of Offshore Structures Based on Nonlinear Time History Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Mahmood; Karimiyani, Somayyeh; Ghafooripour, Amin; Jabbarzadeh, Mohammad Javad

    2008-07-01

    Regarding the past earthquakes damages to offshore structures, as vital structures in the oil and gas industries, it is important that their seismic design is performed by very high reliability. Accepting the Nonlinear Time History Analyses (NLTHA) as the most reliable seismic analysis method, in this paper an offshore platform of jacket type with the height of 304 feet, having a deck of 96 feet by 94 feet, and weighing 290 million pounds has been studied. At first, some Push-Over Analyses (POA) have been preformed to recognize the more critical members of the jacket, based on the range of their plastic deformations. Then NLTHA have been performed by using the 3-components accelerograms of 100 earthquakes, covering a wide range of frequency content, and normalized to three Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) levels of 0.3 g, 0.65 g, and 1.0 g. By using the results of NLTHA the damage and rupture probabilities of critical member have been studied to assess the reliability of the jacket structure. Regarding that different structural members of the jacket have different effects on the stability of the platform, an "importance factor" has been considered for each critical member based on its location and orientation in the structure, and then the reliability of the whole structure has been obtained by combining the reliability of the critical members, each having its specific importance factor.

  8. Hydroelastic responses of pontoon type very large floating offshore structure

    SciTech Connect

    Haeda, Hisaaki; Miyajima, Shyogo; Masuda, Koich; Ikoma, Tomoki

    1996-12-31

    The authors developed the estimating method of the hydroelastic response of a very large pontoon type floating structure. In this method, the pressure distribution method with shallow draft assumption was used to obtain the hydrodynamic forces considering the elastic motion of a floating body. The elastic responses of very large floating structure were estimated by using 1-D beam modeling. On the other hand, to observe the elastic response of a large pontoon type structure they carried out experiments in head sea and head-beam sea conditions. The experimental model was an elastic model of pontoon type large floating body. To validate numerical estimation method the authors compared the numerical results with experimental results. From these results, they found good agreement and confirmed the accuracy of this numerical estimation method of the hydroelasticity of a very large pontoon type floating structure.

  9. Offshore and arctic frontiers -structures, ocean mining

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.S.

    1985-05-01

    The systematic development of offshore technology is discussed. Today, this technology enables the production of approximately 14 million barrels of oil per day, or 26% of oil production worldwide. The evolution in offshore structures is examined with emphasis on jacket and jackup platforms. Challenges are explored. Microprocessors, data-base management, and artificial intelligence are mentioned as having an impact on the offshore and arctic oil industry.

  10. Vacuum-jacketed line spacer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houte, F. A.; Mckee, H. B.; Patten, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    Device has three integral, equally spaced leaf springs. Springs separate outer vacuum jacket from fluid carrying line, yet minimize conductive heat leaks and liquid boiloff. One-piece heat spring has sufficient flexibility to accommodate differential thermal expansion of inner and outer line.

  11. METHOD OF JACKETING URANIUM BODIES

    DOEpatents

    Maloney, J.O.; Haines, E.B.; Tepe, J.B.

    1958-08-26

    An improved process is presented for providing uranium slugs with thin walled aluminum jackets. Since aluminum has a slightiy higher coefficient of thermal expansion than does uraaium, both uranium slugs and aluminum cans are heated to an elevated temperature of about 180 C, and the slug are inserted in the cans at that temperature. During the subsequent cooling of the assembly, the aluminum contracts more than does the uranium and a tight shrink fit is thus assured.

  12. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  13. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  14. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  15. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  16. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  17. Offshore medicine.

    PubMed

    Baker, D

    2001-03-01

    Offshore life can be refreshing for medics who are looking for a little change of pace; however, it is not for everyone. Working offshore can be the easiest or most boring job you'll ever have. It takes a specific type of medic to fit this mold. So, if you are considering a career in the offshore field, take all of the above into consideration. You are not just making a change in jobs, but a change in lifestyle. Once you become accustomed to this lifestyle, it will be hard to go back to the everyday hustle and bustle of the streets. For more information about working offshore, contact Acadian Contract Services at 800/259-333, or visit www.acadian.com.

  18. METHOD OF JACKETING FISSIONABLE MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Foster, L.M.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement is presented in the jacketing of a metal body accomplished by electroplating upon that portion of the metal container to be protected from the bonding material a niatcrial such as Cr which is impermeable to the bonding material. After the bonding operation the electroplate is removed and the metal container surfuce, unimpaired, may be welded to a cap which effects a closure. Generally in such an operation the metal body is U, the metal container is Al and the bonding material is a Zn alloy.

  19. Proceedings of the 21st annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include: underwater wet welding of higher strength offshore steels; the proposed extended-reach drilling project; North Sea experience with aluminum drillpipe; and load transfer mechanism to offshore jackets during pile driving.

  20. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient...

  1. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient places distributed...

  2. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient places distributed...

  3. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient...

  4. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient places distributed...

  5. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient places distributed...

  6. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient places distributed...

  7. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient...

  8. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient...

  9. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient...

  10. Probabilistic seismic performance assessment of lap-spliced RC columns retrofitted by steel wrapping jackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Youn, Heejung; Cho, Baik-Soon

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the seismic fragility curves of two reinforced concrete (RC) columns that were lap-spliced at the bottom and retrofitted with steel wrapping jackets were generated. Their seismic performance was probabilistically assessed in comparison to that of lap-spliced or continuous reinforcement RC columns. This study used two types of steel wrapping jackets, a full jacket and a split jacket. Analytical models of the four types of columns were developed based on the experimental results of the columns using OpenSEES, which is effective in conducting nonlinear time history analyses. A suite of ten artificial ground motions, modified from recorded ground motions, was used to perform nonlinear time history analyses of the analytical models with scaling of the peak ground acceleration from 0.1 g to 1.0 g in increments of 0.1 g. The steel wrapping jackets did not increase the medians for yield (slight damage state) of the lap-spiced column and did not exceed the corresponding median of the continuous reinforcement column. However, the two steel jackets increased the medians for failure by 1.872 and 2.017 times, respectively, and exceeded the corresponding median of the continuous reinforcement column by 11.8% and 20.5%, respectively.

  11. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  12. Splice connector with internal heat transfer jacket

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Frank A.; Mayer, Robert W.

    1977-01-01

    A heat transfer jacket is placed over the terminal portions of the conductors of a pair of high voltage cables which are connected in a splice connection wherein a housing surrounds the connected conductor portions, the heat transfer jacket extending longitudinally between the confronting ends of a pair of adaptor sleeves placed upon the insulation of the cables to engage and locate the adaptor sleeves relative to one another, and laterally between the conductors and the housing to provide a path of relatively high thermal conductivity between the connected conductor portions and the housing.

  13. HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE THE JACKET AND WEIGHTS. A PNEUMATIC SHOVEL PUSHES THE MORE RECENTLY POURED MOLD INTO THE COOLED MOLD, FORCING THE LATTER ONTO THE VIBRATING SHAKEOUT CONVEYOR AND LEAVING A SPACE UNDER THE RAISED JACKET AND WEIGHTS FOR A FRESHLY MADE UNPOURED MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each... light approved in accordance with § 161.012 in subchapter Q of this chapter, or other standard...

  15. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each... light approved in accordance with § 161.012 in subchapter Q of this chapter, or other standard...

  16. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each... light approved in accordance with § 161.012 in subchapter Q of this chapter, or other standard...

  17. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each... light approved in accordance with § 161.012 in subchapter Q of this chapter, or other standard...

  18. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  19. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  20. 46 CFR 185.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 185.508 Section 185.508... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist,...

  1. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  2. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  3. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  4. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  5. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  6. 46 CFR 122.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 122.508 Section 122.508... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist, including, but not limited to:...

  7. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  8. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  9. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  10. 46 CFR 185.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 185.508 Section 185.508... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist,...

  11. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  12. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  13. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  14. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  15. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  16. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  17. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  18. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  19. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  20. 46 CFR 122.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 122.508 Section 122.508... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist, including, but not limited to:...

  1. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  2. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each... light approved in accordance with § 161.012 in subchapter Q of this chapter, or other standard...

  3. Full-metal jacket: A bad strategy.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Jose Rubio; Quiroga, Juan Sierra; Lopez, Laura Reija; Bauza, Angela Granda; Cereijo, Jose Manuel Martinez; Taboada, Carola Rubio

    2014-07-01

    Although drug-eluting stents are increasingly used to treat coronary disease, restenosis remains the major limitation of these devices. We report a case of complete metal jacket using 17 stents for triple-vessel coronary disease in a 73-year-old man, for whom surgery would have been the best choice.

  4. Jacketed cryogenic piping is stress relieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Jacketed design of piping used to transfer cryogenic fluids, relieves severe stresses associated with the temperature gradients that occur during transfer cycles and ambient periods. The inner /transfer/ pipe is preloaded in such a way that stress relief takes place automatically as cycling occurs.

  5. Protective riser-conductor for offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D. A.; Albers, G. P.

    1985-07-09

    A protective sleeve for fitting about the periphery of the leg of an offshore structure. The sleeve comprises means for carrying and enclosing a plurality of conductors. It further includes one or more inner rings; an outer jacket is fixedly spaced from the rings to define longitudinal passages within which the respective conductors are fixedly positioned. The sleeve is capable of deflecting packed ice and floating objects which represent possible sources of damage to the structure or to conductors.

  6. METHOD OF MAKING JACKETED FISSIONABLE SLUG

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1959-02-10

    BS>A method is described for fabricating a jacketed fissionable body or slug to provide an effective leak-proof seal between the jacket and the end closure. A housing for the fissionable slug is first formed and then tinned on the interior. The fissionable slug is coated on its exterior surface with the same material used to tin the interior of the housing. The coated slug is then inserted into the housing. A disc shaped end closure for the housing, coated with the tinning material, is inserted into the open end of the housing while the tinning material is still liquid. The end of the housing is then swaged into good contact with the periphery of the closure.

  7. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  8. Seismic fragility analysis of lap-spliced reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by SMA wire jackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Park, Sun-Hee; Chung, Young-Soo; Kim, Hee Sun

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to provide seismic fragility curves of reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by shape memory alloy wire jackets and thus assess the seismic performance of the columns against earthquakes, comparing them with reinforced concrete columns with lap-spliced and continuous reinforcement. For that purpose, this study first developed analytical models of the experimental results of the three types of columns, (1) lap-spliced reinforcement, (2) continuous reinforcement and (3) lap-spliced reinforcement and retrofitted by SMA wire jackets, using the OpenSEES program, which is oriented to nonlinear dynamic analysis. Then, a suite of ten recorded ground motions was used to conduct dynamic analyses of the analytical models with scaling of the peak ground acceleration from 0.1g to 1.0g in steps of 0.1g. From the static experimental tests, the column retrofitted with SMA wire jackets had a larger displacement ductility by a factor of 2.3 times that of the lap-spliced column, which was 6% larger compared with the ductility of the continuous reinforcement column. From the fragility analyses, the SMA wire jacketed column had median values of 0.162g and 0.567g for yield and collapse, respectively. For the yield damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column had a median value similar to the continuous reinforcement column. However, for the complete damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column showed a 1.33 times larger median value than the continuously reinforcement column.

  9. A model for Quick Load Analysis for monopile-type offshore wind turbine substructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schløer, Signe; Garcia Castillo, Laura; Fejerskov, Morten; Stroescu, Emanuel; Bredmose, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    A model for Quick Load Analysis, QuLA, of an offshore wind turbine substructure is presented. The aerodynamic rotor loads and damping are precomputed for a load-based configuration. The dynamic structural response is represented by the first global fore-aft mode only and is computed in the frequency domain using the equation of motion. The model is compared against the state of the art aeroelastic code, Flex5, and both life time fatigue and extreme loads are considered in the comparison. In general there is good similarity between the two models. Some derivation for the sectional forces are explained in terms of the model simplifications. The difference in the sectional moments are found to be within 14% for the fatigue load case and 10% for the extreme load condition.

  10. The qualification of advanced composite pipe for use in fire water deluge systems on open type offshore oil platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, R.H.; Stubblefield, M.A.; Pang, S.S.

    1996-12-01

    Different types of FIBERBOND{reg_sign} pipe in the dry condition and with a butt and strap joint were subjected to a controlled fire for fire endurance evaluation. Testing adheres to a modification of the ASTM 1173-95 guideline, which simulates the development of an actual hydrocarbon fire. For a fire water deluge system, the pipe is in the dry condition approximately one to three minutes during an actual hydrocarbon fire. Preliminary testing shows that composite pipe is able to withstand this exposure to fire for the five minute duration of the test. This is achieved with modifying the chemical composition of the composite pipe and in some cases, adding an additional structural component to the overall pipe. Therefore, composite pipe could be used for the deluge fire system of an offshore oil platform.

  11. Dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine during normal state and emergency shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhi-qiang; Li, Liang; Wang, Jin; Hu, Qiu-hao; Shen, Ma-cheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses joint wind-wave induced dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) under normal states and fault event conditions. The analysis in this paper is conducted in time domain, using an aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation code-FAST. Owing to the unique viscous features of the reference system, the original viscous damping model implemented in FAST is replaced with a quadratic one to gain an accurate capture of viscous effects. Simulation cases involve free-decay motion in still water, steady motions in the presence of regular waves and wind as well as dynamic response in operational sea states with and without wind. Simulations also include the cases for transient responses induced by fast blade pitching after emergency shutdown. The features of platform motions, local structural loads and a typical mooring line tension force under a variety of excitations are obtained and investigated.

  12. Thermal-leak analyzer for vacuum-jacketed lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisman, R. M.; Iceland, W. F.; Ruppe, E. P.

    1978-01-01

    Technique involves coating suspected area with water-soluble black paint that gives even, infrared emission. Painted area is warmed with heat gun; an infrared scanner is used to detect cooled spot on jacket exterior. Introduction of atmospheric pressure into jacket intensifies leak jet and improves test sensitivity.

  13. Reusable neoprene jacket protects parts for chemical milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Reusable neoprene jacket is used to prepare metal part or panel for chemical milling. Jacket covers back and upper rim of part and is sealed before the masking solution is applied to surface to be milled. This reduces amount of masking material required for milling identical parts and increases production.

  14. 46 CFR 122.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 122.508 Section 122.508 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall...

  15. 46 CFR 122.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 122.508 Section 122.508 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall...

  16. 46 CFR 185.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 185.508 Section 185.508 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of...

  17. 46 CFR 122.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 122.508 Section 122.508 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall...

  18. 46 CFR 185.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 185.508 Section 185.508 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of...

  19. 46 CFR 185.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 185.508 Section 185.508 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of...

  20. Ported jacket for use in deformation measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Leslie A.; Senseny, Paul E.; Mellegard, Kirby D.; Olsberg, Steven B.

    1990-01-01

    A device for allowing deformation measurement of a jacketed specimen when the specimen is loaded includes an elastomeric specimen container or jacket surrounding a specimen while the specimen is being loaded by a test apparatus. The specimen jacket wall is compressible, and the wall follows and allows deformation of the specimen. The jacket wall of compressible material is provided with at least one opening and a thin layer or shim of substantially non-compressible (metal) material covers and seals this opening. An extensometer is then positioned with its specimen engaging contact members engaging the substantially non-compressible material to measure the deformation of the specimen when the specimen is loaded, without compressibility effects of the jacket.

  1. BARRIERS TO LIFE JACKET USE AMONG ADULT RECREATIONAL BOATERS

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.; Bennett, Elizabeth E.; Mueller, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify barriers to life jacket use. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Nine public boat ramps in western Washington State, USA, August-November, 2008. Participants 675 adult boaters (>18 years) on motor boats <26 feet long. Main outcome Low or no life jacket use (0–50% of time) versus high life jacket use (51–100% of time). Results Low/no life jacket use (0%–50% of time) was associated with longer boat length (per foot, risk ratio [RR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.05), alcohol use (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01–1.20), perception of life jackets as “uncomfortable” (RR 1.29, 95%CI 1.09–1.52), perceived greater level of swimming ability (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03–1.53 for “expert swimmer”), and possibly with lack of confidence that a life jacket may save one from drowning (RR 1.13, 95%CI 0.96–1.32). Low life jacket use was less likely when a child was onboard (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79–0.99), or if the respondent had taken a boating safety class (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.87–1.01). Conclusions Life jacket use may increase with more comfortable devices, such as inflatable life jackets, and with increased awareness of their efficacy in preventing drowning. Boater education classes may be associated with increased life jacket use among adults. PMID:24686261

  2. New optical 2D modulator jacketed in rotational plastic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinol, Horst G.; Xu, Z.; Schwarte, Rudolf; Loffeld, Otmar

    1995-12-01

    Optical and therefore nontactile 3D-measurement techniques are of increasing interest in industrial automation, especially in quality control and guidance of automotive vehicles. In connection with these demands, a new type of optical modulator jacketed in rotational plastic optics is introduced in the paper. Furthermore first results obtained by simulation studies will be presented. A simple nevertheless effective way of obtaining 3D information is to illuminate the whole 3D object or scene simultaneously with rf-modulated light. This can be well achieved by using the suggested optical modulator that incorporates the properties of a high aperture and minimum aberration in the 3D-imaging process. The mentioned modulator makes use of the effect of Frustrated Total Reflection (FTR). To exploit this FTR effect in an optical 2D mixer, the gap width between media of higher dense has to be modulated by an rf-voltage applied to a piezo crystal as an rf-controlled tuning medium. Considering the limited modulation bandwidth due to the parasitic capacity of the piezo crystal, the geometrical dimension of the modulator must be made as small as possible. Therefore the spot of the light is collimated at the focal point of the jacketing rotational ellipsoid. The integrated component made of plastic optics and piezo crystal plays a substantial role for the optical modulation and imaging. Some simulation results of this optical device show that the inherent non-linearity of the FTR modulator may be neglected in practical applications, thus yielding a high modulation depth. Furthermore, a 3D-image system adopting this plastic-made optics is also depicted in the paper, which is robust and handy for several industrial applications.

  3. Destabilization and intracranial fragmentation of a full metal jacket bullet.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, A; Raul, J S; Geraut, A; Tortel, M C; Ludes, B

    2009-10-01

    We report a case with an atypical entrance wound as a result of a destabilized full metal jacket bullet penetration. The destabilized bullet by an impact with the dorsal hand experiences a yawing to tumbling motion in flight. The large angle of yaw induces a larger presenting profile upon impact that contributes, associated to a rapid deceleration, to a greater mechanical force on the projectile structure and a fragmentation into core and jacket. Forensic pathologists have to be aware that the metal jacket bullet could tend to break up outside or inside the body particularly after a shooting through a target. This phenomenon induces atypical entrance wounds and atypical X-ray presentation.

  4. Lightweight Vacuum Jacket for Cryogenic Insulation. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, D. L.; Bell, J. E.; Brogren, E. W.; Straayer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials was examined. Design and analytical studies were made on a full-scale, orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were made for the tank assembly, including an optimized vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation system. A half-scale LH2 test model was designed and fabricated, and a force/stiffness proof test was conducted on the vacuum jacket. A vacuum leak rate of .000001 atmosphere ml of helium per second was measured, approximately 1500 hours of vacuum pressure were sustained, and 29 vacuum-pressure cycles were experienced prior to failure.

  5. "Punk" rock can be bad for you: a case of surgical emphysema from a "punk" rocker's leather jacket.

    PubMed

    Lane, N; Graudins, A

    2006-06-01

    Stab wounds to the thorax are seen in the emergency department (ED) and can be caused by a variety of mechanisms. This case highlights an unusual cause of injury: a leather jacket with spikes on the back of it. This type of jacket is often worn by "punks" as a fashion statement. We report that falling onto such a jacket may result in accidental thoracic injury leading to subcutaneous emphysema. A thorough clinical assessment is mandatory to exclude underlying lung injury or pneumothorax. In patients with subcutaneous emphysema and an otherwise normal chest radiograph, an in hospital observation period of 24 hours to check for any delayed complications is adequate if the patient remains clinically stable.

  6. An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sinpyo; Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Cheolmin; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Lim, Hee Chang

    2015-05-01

    An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine is presented. The effects of the Center of Gravity (COG), mooring line spring constant, and fair-lead location on the turbine's motion in response to regular waves are investigated. Experimental results show that for a typical mooring system of a SPAR buoy-type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT), the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of the turbine can be considered negligible. However, the pitch decreases notably as the COG increases. The COG and spring constant of the mooring line have a negligible effect on the fairlead displacement. Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis show that the wind turbine motion and its sensitivity to changes in the mooring system and COG are very large near resonant frequencies. The test results can be used to validate numerical simulation tools for FOWTs.

  7. An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sinpyo; Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Cheolmin; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Lim, Hee Chang

    2015-09-01

    An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine is presented. The effects of the Center of Gravity (COG), mooring line spring constant, and fair-lead location on the turbine's motion in response to regular waves are investigated. Experimental results show that for a typical mooring system of a SPAR buoy-type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT), the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of the turbine can be considered negligible. However, the pitch decreases notably as the COG increases. The COG and spring constant of the mooring line have a negligible effect on the fairlead displacement. Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis show that the wind turbine motion and its sensitivity to changes in the mooring system and COG are very large near resonant frequencies. The test results can be used to validate numerical simulation tools for FOWTs.

  8. Environmental effects on a structurally dense jacket platform model

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, S.K.; Gu, G.Z.

    1996-12-31

    The wave loading due to high storm waves is an important consideration in the re-qualification and upgrading of older Gulf of Mexico jackets. In particular, due to dense population of members in these jackets, blockage and shielding are important parameters. Experiments in regular waves and uniform current showed that the presence of current in waves substantially increases the blockage effect from these members. API-RP2A recommendation for blockage factor in current matches the test data well.

  9. Calibration and Validation of a Spar-Type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Model using the FAST Dynamic Simulation Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states.

  10. Discrimination of bullet types using analysis of lead isotopes deposited in gunshot entry wounds.

    PubMed

    Wunnapuk, Klintean; Minami, Takeshi; Durongkadech, Piya; Tohno, Setsuko; Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan; Moriwake, Yumi; Vichairat, Karnda; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Tohno, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    In order to discriminate bullet types used in firearms, of which the victims died, the authors investigated lead isotope ratios in gunshot entry wounds from nine lead (unjacketed) bullets, 15 semi-jacketed bullets, and 14 full-jacketed bullets by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. It was found that the lead isotope ratio of 207/206 in gunshot entry wounds was the highest with lead bullets, and it decreased in order from full-jacketed to semi-jacketed bullets. Lead isotope ratios of 208/206 or 208/207 to 207/206 at the gunshot entry wound were able to discriminate semi-jacketed bullets from lead and full-jacketed ones, but it was difficult to discriminate between lead and full-jacketed bullets. However, a combination of element and lead isotope ratio analyses in gunshot entry wounds enabled discrimination between lead, semi-jacketed, and full-jacketed bullets.

  11. Offshore rectenna feasbility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W.; Hervey, D.; Glaser, P.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility and cost of an offshore rectenna to serve the upper metropolitan east coast was performed. A candidate site at which to build a 5 GW rectenna was selected on the basis of proximity to load centers, avoidance of shipping lanes, sea floor terrain, and relocated conditions. Several types of support structures were selected for study based initially on the reference system rectenna concept of a wire mesh ground screen and dipoles each with its own rectifier and filter circuits. Possible secondary uses of an offshore rectenna were examined and are evaluated.

  12. Smarter offshoring.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2006-06-01

    During the past 15 years, companies have flocked to a handful of cities in India and Eastern Europe for offshore service functions. As a result, the most popular sites are now overheating: Demand for young professionals is outstripping supply, wages and turnover are soaring, and overburdened infrastructure systems are struggling to serve the explosive growth. The happy news is that the tight labor markets in the well-known hot spots are the exceptions, not the rule. Many attractive alternatives are emerging around the world. According to a McKinsey Global Institute study, more than 90% of the vast and rapidly growing pool of university-educated people suitable for work in multinationals are located outside the current hot spot cities. For instance, Morocco is now home to offshore centers for French and Spanish companies requiring fluent speakers of their home languages. Neighboring Tunisia has used its modern infrastructure, business-friendly regulations, and stable, low-cost workforce to attract companies such as Siemens and Wanadoo. Vietnam offers university graduates who have strong mathematics skills; speak French, English, German, or Russian; and do not demand high wages. The problems facing the hot spots, coupled with the emergence of many more countries able and willing to provide offshore services, mean that picking a site has become more complicated. In choosing a location, companies will have to focus less on low wages and much more on other ways that candidate cities can fulfill their business needs. They will have to be much more rigorous in articulating precisely what they require from an offshore location. That means evaluating their unique needs on a range of dimensions and understanding how alternative locations can meet those needs for the foreseeable future.

  13. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    High-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.

  14. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2014-12-16

    In this study, high-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.

  15. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    DOE PAGES

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; ...

    2014-12-16

    In this study, high-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale inmore » a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.« less

  16. Red Jacket and the Decolonization of Republican Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganter, Granville

    2007-01-01

    History has not always been kind to Sagoyewatha, or, as he is more commonly known, Red Jacket. One of the most eloquent spokesmen for Native sovereignty in the early national period, Sagoyewatha was nonetheless accused by his peers of cowardice, alcoholism, and egotism. Fortunately, this picture is beginning to change. Christopher Densmore's…

  17. VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, IN THE FOREGROUND, SAND RETURN FROM THE SHAKEOUT ACTUATING A SIMPLE LEVER SYSTEM THAT ADDED FRESH WATER TO THE SAND IN PREPARATION FOR ITS REUSE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  18. Use of IHTS pipe leak jacketing for LSPB

    SciTech Connect

    1983-08-15

    In an effort to reduce costs of the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB), Westinghouse and Burns and Roe examined the use of leak jacketing the Intermediate Heat Transport System (IHTS) piping in the Steam Generation Building (SGB) to reduce the amount of sodium leaked to the SGB atmosphere. The design basis leak for the LSPB, IHTS, is an Moderate Energy Fluid System (MEFS) leak. Previous calculations performed for the Mainstream Design SGB showed that high pressures, temperature and hydrogen concentrations would be produced as a result of the sodium leak. The high pressures would mean that the SGB would have to be vented to avoid overpressurization. Venting the SGB results in the dispersion of large quantities of sodium aerosols which can be ingested into reactor or spent fuel decay heat removal heat exchangers, the control room HVAC or the emergency gas turbines. This would require expensive design changes or relocating plant safety related equipment. By leak jacketing the IHTS piping, the effects of the sodium leak in the SGB can be greatly reduced. As a result of this study, it is recommended that leak jacketing of the large diameter IHTS piping in the SGB be used in the design of LSPB. The leak jacketing concept was the most cost effective means of mitigating the consequences of an MEFS leak in the SGB. This report shows the basis and results of the anaylsis, mitigation features and costs, and conclusions.

  19. Expected damages of retrofitted bridges with RC jacketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, O.; Jara, J. M.; Jara, M.; Olmos, B. A.

    2015-07-01

    The bridge infrastructure in many countries of the world consists of medium span length structures built several decades ago and designed for very low seismic forces. Many of them are reinforced concrete structures that according to the current code regulations have to be rehabilitated to increase their seismic capacity. One way to reduce the vulnerability of the bridges is by using retrofitting techniques that increase the strength of the structure or by incorporating devices to reduce the seismic demand. One of the most common retrofit techniques of the bridges substructures is the use of RC jacketing; this research assesses the expected damages of seismically deficient medium length highway bridges retrofitted with reinforced concrete jacketing, by conducting a parametric study. We select a suite of twenty accelerograms of subduction earthquakes recorded close to the Pacific Coast in Mexico. The original structures consist of five 30 m span simple supported bridges with five pier heights of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 20 and 25 m and the analyses include three different jacket thickness and three steel ratios. The bridges were subjected to the seismic records and non-linear time history analyses were carried out by using the OpenSEEs Plataform. Results allow selecting the reinforced concrete jacketing that better improves the expected seismic behavior of the bridge models.

  20. An Empirical Analysis of Life Jacket Effectiveness in Recreational Boating.

    PubMed

    Viauroux, Christelle; Gungor, Ali

    2016-02-01

    This article gives a measure of life jacket (LJ) effectiveness in U.S. recreational boating. Using the U.S. Coast Guard's Boating Accident Report Database from 2008 to 2011, we find that LJ wear is one of the most important determinants influencing the number of recreational boating fatalities, together with the number of vessels involved, and the type and engine of the vessel(s). We estimate a decrease in the number of deceased per vessel of about 80% when the operator wears their LJs compared to when they do not. The odds of dying are 86% higher than average if the accident involves a canoe or kayak, but 80% lower than average when more than one vessel is involved in the accident and 34% lower than average when the operator involved in the accident has more than 100 hours of boating experience. Interestingly, we find that LJ effectiveness decreases significantly as the length of the boat increases and decreases slightly as water temperature increases. However, it increases slightly as the operator's age increases. We find that between 2008 and 2011, an LJ regulation that requires all operators to wear their LJs-representing a 20% increase in wear rate-would have saved 1,721 (out of 3,047) boaters or 1,234 out of 2,185 drowning victims. The same policy restricted to boats 16-30 feet in length would have saved approximately 778 victims. Finally, we find that such a policy would reduce the percentage of drowning victims compared to other causes of death.

  1. Method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple

    DOEpatents

    Thermos, Anthony Constantine; Rahal, Fadi Elias

    2002-01-01

    A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

  2. Fragility curves of concrete bridges retrofitted by column jacketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Masanobu; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kushiyama, Shigeru; Yi, Jin-Hak

    2002-12-01

    The Northridge earthquake inflicted various levels of damage upon a large number of Caltrans’ bridges not retrofitted by column jacketing. In this respect, this study represents results of fragility curve development for two (2) sample bridges typical in southern California, strengthened for seismic retrofit by means of steel jacketing of bridge columns. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to study nonlinear dynamic responses of the bridges before and after column retrofit. Fragility curves in this study are represented by lognormal distribution functions with two parameters and developed as a function of PGA. The sixty (60) ground acceleration time histories for the Los Angeles area developed for the Federal Emergency Management Agcncy (FEMA) SAC (SEAOC-ATC-CUREe) steel project are used for the dynamic analysis of the bridges. The improvement in the fragility with steel jacketing is quantified by comparing fragility curves of the bridge before and after column retrofit. In this first attempt to formulate the problem of fragility enhancement, the quantification is made by comparing the median values of the fragility curves before and after the retrofit. Under the hypothesis that this quantification also applies to empirical fragility curves developed on the basis of Northridge earthquake damage, the enhanced version of the empirical curves is developed for the ensuing analysis to determine the enhancement of transportation network performance due to the retrofit.

  3. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

  4. U.S. Offshore Wind Port Readiness

    SciTech Connect

    C. Elkinton, A. Blatiak, H. Ameen

    2013-10-13

    This study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations.

  5. An ergonomic evaluation of infant life jackets: Donning time & donning accuracy.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, C V; Brooks, C J; Kozey, J W; Habib, A

    2011-01-01

    Canada is considering the development of a new standard for infant/child life jackets. Eight currently available (approved and non-approved) infant/child life jackets were procured for evaluation. Fifty-six participants were chosen as a sample of convenience from the general public for testing. The life jackets were divided into two groups of four, which were donned on a soft infant manikin procured from the Red Cross. In 224 attempts at donning, only 43 (19%) attempts resulted in the life jacket being donned correctly in less than 1 min. Only one life jacket came close to a good design and passed the life jacket standard for donning time and accuracy. Failure rates were observed across all the participants irrespective of age, gender, experience with children and experience with recreational marine equipment. Accuracy and speed of donning the life jacket were hampered as the number of donning sub-tasks increased. It was concluded that it is possible to design a life jacket that can be donned correctly in under 1 min. The life jacket must be of simple, intuitive design and fall naturally into the anatomical shape of the child. A minimum number of ties, zips and clips should be used in the design, and if such connectors are used they should be color coded or of different shapes and sizes to avoid confusion.

  6. Low Life Jacket Use among Adult Recreational Boaters: A Qualitative Study of Risk Perception and Behavior Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Bennett, Elizabeth; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Life jackets may prevent one in two drowning deaths, however, 85% of recreational boating-related drowning victims in the United States in 2012 did not wear a life jacket. This study explored behavioral factors and strategies to encourage consistent life jacket use among adult recreational boaters. Methods We conducted a qualitative study among boat owners who boat regularly, and explored factors associated with life jacket use by adults and child or adolescent passengers. Sixteen boaters participated in four focus groups. Results Most boaters reported inconsistent use of life jackets, using them only when conditions were poor. Each described episodes of unpredictable boating risk which occurred despite favorable conditions. Most required younger child passengers to wear a life jacket, but reported resistance among older children. Barriers to consistent life jacket use included discomfort and the belief that life jacket use indicated inexperience or poor swimming ability. Participants stated that laws requiring life jacket use would change behavior especially for children. The only demonstrated behavior change among group members was associated with use of inflatable life jacket devices. Conclusions Boating risk is inherently unpredictable; therefore interventions should focus on strategies for increasing consistent use of life jackets. Passage and enforcement of life jacket legislation for older children and adults is likely a promising approach for behavior change. Designing more comfortable, better-fitting, more appealing life jackets will be paramount to encouraging consistent use. PMID:24211559

  7. Scenario Analysis for Techno-Economic Model Development of U.S. Offshore Wind Support Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, Rick; Ning, Andrew; Maples, Ben; Smith, Aaron; Dykes, Katherine

    2016-09-22

    Challenging bathymetry and soil conditions of future US offshore wind power plants might promote the use of multimember, fixed-bottom structures (or 'jackets') in place of monopiles. Support structures affect costs associated with the balance of system and operation and maintenance. Understanding the link between these costs and the main environmental design drivers is crucial in the quest for a lower levelized cost of energy, and it is the main rationale for this work. Actual cost and engineering data are still scarce; hence, we evaluated a simplified engineering approach to tie key site and turbine parameters (e.g. water depth, wave height, tower-head mass, hub height and generator rating) to the overall support weight. A jacket-and-tower sizing tool, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's system engineering software suite, was utilized to achieve mass-optimized support structures for 81 different configurations. This tool set provides preliminary sizing of all jacket components. Results showed reasonable agreement with the available industry data, and that the jacket mass is mainly driven by water depth, but hub height and tower-head mass become more influential at greater turbine ratings. A larger sensitivity of the structural mass to wave height and target eigenfrequency was observed for the deepest water conditions (>40 m). Thus, techno-economic analyses using this model should be based on accurate estimates of actual metocean conditions and turbine parameters especially for deep waters. The relationships derived from this study will inform National Renewable Energy Laboratory's offshore balance of system cost model, and they will be used to evaluate the impact of changes in technology on offshore wind lower levelized cost of energy.

  8. Vacuum jacketed composite propulsion feedlines for cryogenic launch and space vehicles, volume 1. [development of glass fiber composite for strength and protection from handling damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spond, D. E.; Laintz, D. J.; Hall, C. A.; Dulaigh, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thin metallic liners that provide leak-free service in cryogenic propulsion systems are overwrapped with a glass-fiber composite that provides strength and protection from handling damage. The resultant tube is lightweight, strong, and has a low thermal flux. The inside commodity flow line and the outside vacuum jacket were fabricated using this method. Several types of vacuum jackets were fabricated and tested at operating temperatures from 294 to 21 K (+70 to minus 423 F) and operating pressure up to 69 N/cm2 (100 psi). The primary objective of the program was to develop vacuum jacket concepts, using previously developed concepts for the inner line. All major program objectives were met resulting in a design concept that is adaptable to a wide range of aerospace vehicle requirements. Major items of development included convolution of thin metallic sections up to 46 cm (18 in.) in diameter, design and fabrication of an extremely lightweight tension membrane concept for the vacuum jacket, and analytical tools that predict the failure mode and levels.

  9. The investigation of the impact of basic operational parameters on the dynamics of water jacket in a biomass boiler using numerical and experimental methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szubel, Mateusz; Filipowicz, Mariusz

    2015-05-01

    Biomass boiler application, despite its many advantages, is dependent upon many technical aspects, which require tests and optimization. Because of practical constraints, one of the most problematic areas of research is the analysis of phenomena occurring inside the water jacket of the boiler during the combustion process. The issue referred to above is significant due to its direct impact on the heating up of the operating medium for current power of the device and the total efficiency. The paper presents the analytical possibilities of the operating medium in a biomass boiler water jacket. The experimental works conducted as a part of the study were performed using an actual device - EKOPAL RM 40 straw boiler. They were aimed at defining the values of significant boundary conditions. Resistance thermometers and K-type thermocouples connected to a data acquisition system were placed in selected points of the water jacket and the combustion chambers to allow the monitoring of the conditions of the water heating process during biomass combustion. A measurement of inlet water mass flow rate was performed. To develop a numerical model of heat transfer into the water jacket, ANSYS CFX software was applied. The results of the experiments and simulations were compared and discussed. The paper describes the methodology and instruments used to perform the experimental studies, as well as some optimization solutions developed based on the results of the numeric alanalysis.

  10. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... Jackets § 180.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment carried... flotation devices (PFD) approved in accordance with § 160.077 of this chapter, or other standard...

  11. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... Jackets § 180.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment carried... flotation devices (PFD) approved in accordance with § 160.077 of this chapter, or other standard...

  12. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... Jackets § 180.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment carried... flotation devices (PFD) approved in accordance with § 160.077 of this chapter, or other standard...

  13. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... Jackets § 180.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment carried... flotation devices (PFD) approved in accordance with § 160.077 of this chapter, or other standard...

  14. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An... inflated rescue boats must be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. All repairs must be...

  15. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant... other standard specified by the Commandant. (e) Repair and maintenance of inflated rescue boats must...

  16. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An... inflated rescue boats must be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. All repairs must be...

  17. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant... other standard specified by the Commandant. (e) Repair and maintenance of inflated rescue boats must...

  18. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An... inflated rescue boats must be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. All repairs must be...

  19. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant... other standard specified by the Commandant. (e) Repair and maintenance of inflated rescue boats must...

  20. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 117.72 Section 117.72 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal...

  1. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 117.72 Section 117.72 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal...

  2. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 117.72 Section 117.72 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal...

  3. Stiffness and Confinement Ratios of SMA Wire Jackets for Confining Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Youn, Heejung

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses the effects of the stiffness and confinement ratios of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets on the behavior of confined concrete. SMA wire jackets are an effective confining material to improve concrete behavior; for example, by increasing peak strength and failure strain. The stiffness and confinement ratios of fiber-reinforced polymer jackets have been extensively discussed and their effects are well known. However, assessment of the stiffness and confinement ratios of SMA wire jackets has not previously been conducted. In this study, we investigate the effects of the stiffness and confinement ratios of steel jackets, and then compare the results with those of SMA wire jackets. In general, the stiffness ratios of SMA wire jackets are relatively smaller than those of steel jackets, and most of them have lower stiffness ratios because the Young's moduli of the SMAs are relatively small. The active confining pressure of the SMA wires does not improve the lower stiffness-ratio effect since the amount of active confining pressure is not sufficiently large.

  4. CP monitoring of wellhead jacket in the North Sea and evaluation of polarization behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Osvoll, H.; Bjornaas, F.; Duesso, F.; Tobiassen, P.

    1999-07-01

    The collection and storage of data from the CP monitoring of a North Sea Jacket. CP data was continuously measured during installation. The jacket is essentially uncoated, and very short polarization time was experienced. Computer modeling is used to predict CP conditions.

  5. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... Jackets § 180.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment carried... flotation devices (PFD) approved in accordance with § 160.077 of this chapter, or other standard...

  6. Pore Type Classification on Carbonate Reservoir in Offshore Sarawak using Rock Physics Model and Rock Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, L. A.; Harith, Z. Z. T.

    2014-03-01

    It has been recognized that carbonate reservoirs are one of the biggest sources of hydrocarbon. Clearly, the evaluation of these reservoirs is important and critical. For rigorous reservoir characterization and performance prediction from geophysical measurements, the exact interpretation of geophysical response of different carbonate pore types is crucial. Yet, the characterization of carbonate reservoir rocks is difficult due to their complex pore systems. The significant diagenesis process and complex depositional environment makes pore systems in carbonates far more complicated than in clastics. Therefore, it is difficult to establish rock physics model for carbonate rock type. In this paper, we evaluate the possible rock physics model of 20 core plugs of a Miocene carbonate platform in Central Luconia, Sarawak. The published laboratory data of this area were used as an input to create the carbonate rock physics models. The elastic properties were analyzed to examine the validity of an existing analytical carbonate rock physics model. We integrate the Xu-Payne Differential Effective Medium (DEM) Model and the elastic modulus which was simulated from a digital carbonate rock image using Finite Element Modeling. The results of this integration matched well for the separation of carbonate pore types and sonic P-wave velocity obtained from laboratory measurement. Thus, the results of this study show that the integration of rock digital image and theoretical rock physics might improve the elastic properties prediction and useful for more advance geophysical techniques (e.g. Seismic Inversion) of carbonate reservoir in Sarawak.

  7. Tensile tests of ITER TF conductors jacket materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anashkin, O. P.; Kеilin, V. E.; Krivykh, A. V.; Diev, D. N.; Dinisilov, A. S.; Shcherbakov, V. I.; Tronza, V. I.

    2012-06-01

    The set of very tough requirements has been formulated for TF jacket materials with extremely high plasticity at liquid helium temperature. The stainless steel 316LN-IG is recommended to be used for TF jacket tubes. Samples of 316LN-IG tubes (whole tubes and sub-size samples) made of the material from the same electro slag remelt have been tested in different conditions - as received tubes and tubes after prescribed compaction, 2.5% deformation at room temperature and heat treatment at 650 0C, 200 hours. The tensile tests were carried out at room, liquid nitrogen and liquid helium temperatures down to 4.2 K, meeting corresponding ASME and ASTM requirements. The low temperature testing devices are described. The tests results for sub-size samples and whole tubes show that the latter tests are considerably more representative and important for butt weld qualification at LHe temperature. It was observed that the ferromagnetic properties of all samples and especially of butt welds increase with lowering the temperature and increasing the degree of deformation. At LHe temperature a non-uniform and highly localized serrated deformations were observed.

  8. Offshore Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training Officer, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Industrial trainers face a critical challenge--supplying qualified personnel for work both off and onshore to service and run Great Britain's infant oil industry in the North Sea. A review of the activities, types of employment involved, extraneous factors affecting the industry, and employment projections are discussed. (MW)

  9. Underwater noise from three types of offshore wind turbines: estimation of impact zones for harbor porpoises and harbor seals.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Jakob; Henriksen, Oluf Damsgaard; Miller, Lee A

    2009-06-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from three different types of wind turbines in Denmark and Sweden (Middelgrunden, Vindeby, and Bockstigen-Valar) during normal operation. Wind turbine noise was only measurable above ambient noise at frequencies below 500 Hz. Total sound pressure level was in the range 109-127 dB re 1 microPa rms, measured at distances between 14 and 20 m from the foundations. The 1/3-octave noise levels were compared with audiograms of harbor seals and harbor porpoises. Maximum 1/3-octave levels were in the range 106-126 dB re 1 microPa rms. Maximum range of audibility was estimated under two extreme assumptions on transmission loss (3 and 9 dB per doubling of distance, respectively). Audibility was low for harbor porpoises extending 20-70 m from the foundation, whereas audibility for harbor seals ranged from less than 100 m to several kilometers. Behavioral reactions of porpoises to the noise appear unlikely except if they are very close to the foundations. However, behavioral reactions from seals cannot be excluded up to distances of a few hundred meters. It is unlikely that the noise reaches dangerous levels at any distance from the turbines and the noise is considered incapable of masking acoustic communication by seals and porpoises.

  10. New Structural-Dynamics Module for Offshore Multimember Substructures within the Wind Turbine Computer-Aided Engineering Tool FAST: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H.; Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.

    2013-08-01

    FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is a computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool for aero-hydro-servo-elastic analysis of land-based and offshore wind turbines. This paper discusses recent upgrades made to FAST to enable loads simulations of offshore wind turbines with fixed-bottom, multimember support structures (e.g., jackets and tripods, which are commonly used in transitional-depth waters). The main theory and strategies for the implementation of the multimember substructure dynamics module (SubDyn) within the new FAST modularization framework are introduced. SubDyn relies on two main engineering schematizations: 1) a linear frame finite-element beam (LFEB) model and 2) a dynamics system reduction via Craig-Bampton's method. A jacket support structure and an offshore system consisting of a turbine atop a jacket substructure were simulated to test the SubDyn module and to preliminarily assess results against results from a commercial finite-element code.

  11. Protective jacket enabling decision support for workers in cold climate.

    PubMed

    Seeberg, Trine M; Vardoy, Astrid-Sofie B; Austad, Hanne O; Wiggen, Oystein; Stenersen, Henning S; Liverud, Anders E; Storholmen, Tore Christian B; Faerevik, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    The cold and harsh climate in the High North represents a threat to safety and work performance. The aim of this study was to show that sensors integrated in clothing can provide information that can improve decision support for workers in cold climate without disturbing the user. Here, a wireless demonstrator consisting of a working jacket with integrated temperature, humidity and activity sensors has been developed. Preliminary results indicate that the demonstrator can provide easy accessible information about the thermal conditions at the site of the worker and local cooling effects of extremities. The demonstrator has the ability to distinguish between activity and rest, and enables implementation of more sophisticated sensor fusion algorithms to assess work load and pre-defined activities. This information can be used in an enhanced safety perspective as an improved tool to advice outdoor work control for workers in cold climate.

  12. The confining effectiveness of NiTiNb and NiTi SMA wire jackets for concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chung, Young-Soo; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Hong-Taek; Lee, Hacksoo

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the confining effectiveness of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets for concrete. The performance of SMA wire jackets was compared to that of steel jackets. A prestrained martensitic SMA wire was wrapped around a concrete cylinder and then heated by a heating jacket. In the process, a confining stress around the cylinder was developed in the SMA wire due to the shape memory effect; this jacketing method can increase the strength and ductility of the cylinder under an axial compressive load. In this study, NiTi and NiTiNb SMA wires of 1.0 mm in diameter were used for the confinement. Recovery tests were conducted on the wires to assess their recovery and residual stress. The confinement by SMA wire jackets increased the strength slightly and greatly increased the ductility compared to the strength and ductility of plain concrete cylinders. The NiTiNb SMA wire jacket showed better performance than that of the NiTi SMA wire jacket. The confining effectiveness of the SMA wire jackets of this study was estimated to be similar to that of the steel jackets. This study showed the potential of the SMA wire jacketing method to retrofit reinforced concrete columns and protect them from seismic risks.

  13. Lightweight Vacuum Jacket for Cryogenic Insulation - Appendices to Final Report. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, D. L.; Bell, J. E.; Brogren, E. W.; Straayer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility is demonstrated of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials. Design and analytical studies were made on an orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were completed for the tank assembly which included an optimized vacuum jacket and multilayered insulation system. A half-scale LH2 test model was designed and fabricated and a force/stiffness proof test was conducted on the vacuum jacket. A vacuum leak rate of 0.00001 was measured, approximately 1500 hours of vacuum pressure was sustained, and 29 vacuum pressure cycles were experienced prior to failure. For vol. 1, see N75-26192.

  14. Infrared detector Dewars - Increased LN2 hold time and vacuum jacket life spans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Boyd, W. J.; Blass, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    IR detector Dewars commonly suffer from shorter than desired LN2 hold times and insulation jacket vacuum corruption over relatively short time periods. In an attempt to solve this problem for a 9144 detector Dewar, small 1 liter/s appendage ion pumps were selected for continuous pumping of the vacuum jackets. This procedure extended LN2 hold times from 20 to 60 h and virtually eliminated vacuum jacket corruption. Thus the detector systems are usable continuously over periods of 6 months or more.

  15. A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Jacketed Cuvette for the Spectronic 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jonathan E.; Ting, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The construction of a simple and inexpensive water-jacketed cuvette for the Spectronic 20 is described. This cuvette is utilized to determine the activation energy of the reaction between crystal violet and hydroxide ion spectrophotomerically.

  16. The effect on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garlock, E A; Ellis, Greer

    1933-01-01

    Tests made on a Curtiss D-12 engine in the Altitude Laboratory at the Bureau of Standards show the following effects on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature: 1) Friction at all altitudes is a linear function of the jacket-water temperature, decreasing with increasing temperature. 2) The brake horsepower below an altitude of about 9,000 feet decreases, and at higher altitudes increases, with jacket-water temperature. 3) The brake specific fuel consumption tends to decrease, at all altitudes, with increasing jacket-water temperature. 4) The percentage change in brake power output is roughly equal to the algebraic sum of the percentage change in volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency.

  17. Yellow jackets may be an underestimated component of an ant-seed mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bale, M.T.; Zettler, J.A.; Robinson, B.A.; Spira, T.P.; Allen, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Yellow jackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) are attracted to the typically ant-dispersed seeds of trilliums and will take seeds from ants in the genus Aphaenogaster. To determine if yellow jacket, Vespula maculifrons (Buysson), presence interferes with seed foraging by ants, we presented seeds of Trillium discolor Wray to three species (A. texana carolinensis Wheeler, Formica schaufussi Mayr, and Solenopsis invicta Buren) of seed-carrying ants in areas where vespids were present or excluded. We found that interspecific aggression between yellow jackets and ants is species specific. Vespid presence decreased average foraging time and increased foraging efficiency of two of the three ant species studied, a situation that might reflect competition for a limited food source. We also found that yellow jackets removed more seeds than ants, suggestive that vespids are important, albeit underestimated, components of ant-seed mutualisms.

  18. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, Gavin; Smith, Aaron; Warner, Ethan; Sperstad, Iver Bakken; Prinsen, Bob; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto

    2016-06-02

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. The wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.

  19. 46 CFR 389.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and support utilities, and supporting structure), hull (including vertical legs and connecting pontoons or vertical cylinder), tower and base sections of a platform jacket, jacket structures, and deck... includes any type of offshore exploration, development, or production structure or component...

  20. 46 CFR 389.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and support utilities, and supporting structure), hull (including vertical legs and connecting pontoons or vertical cylinder), tower and base sections of a platform jacket, jacket structures, and deck... includes any type of offshore exploration, development, or production structure or component...

  1. 46 CFR 389.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and support utilities, and supporting structure), hull (including vertical legs and connecting pontoons or vertical cylinder), tower and base sections of a platform jacket, jacket structures, and deck... includes any type of offshore exploration, development, or production structure or component...

  2. 46 CFR 389.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and support utilities, and supporting structure), hull (including vertical legs and connecting pontoons or vertical cylinder), tower and base sections of a platform jacket, jacket structures, and deck... includes any type of offshore exploration, development, or production structure or component...

  3. Session: Offshore wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  4. Offshore Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Strach-Sonsalla, Mareike; Stammler, Matthias; Wenske, Jan; Jonkman, Jason; Vorpahl, Fabian

    2016-07-27

    In 1991, the Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm, the first offshore wind farm in the world, started feeding electricity to the grid off the coast of Lolland, Denmark. Since then, offshore wind energy has developed from this early experiment to a multibillion dollar market and an important pillar of worldwide renewable energy production. Unit sizes grew from 450 kW at Vindeby to the 7.5 MW-class offshore wind turbines (OWT ) that are currently (by October 2014) in the prototyping phase. This chapter gives an overview of the state of the art in offshore wind turbine (OWT) technology and introduces the principles of modeling and simulating an OWT. The OWT components -- including the rotor, nacelle, support structure, control system, and power electronics -- are introduced, and current technological challenges are presented. The OWT system dynamics and the environment (wind and ocean waves) are described from the perspective of OWT modelers and designers. Finally, an outlook on future technology is provided. The descriptions in this chapter are focused on a single OWT -- more precisely, a horizontal-axis wind turbine -- as a dynamic system. Offshore wind farms and wind farm effects are not described in detail in this chapter, but an introduction and further references are given.

  5. Seismic retroftting of RC columns with RC jackets and wing walls with different structural details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shuenn-Yih; Chen, Ting-Wei; Tran, Ngoc-Cuong; Liao, Wen-I.

    2014-06-01

    An original reinforced concrete (RC) column and four strengthened specimens, two with RC jackets and two with wing walls, were tested in this study. The original column specimen was designed to comply with older (pre-1999) design standards so that the usual detailing deficiencies in existing school buildings in Taiwan could be simulated. Two different structural details were chosen to fabricate the full-scale specimens for each retrofitting technique. The study confirmed that either RC jacketing or the installation of wing walls with two different structural details can effectively improve the stiffness and strength of an existing column. RC jacketing shows a better improvement in energy dissipation and ductility when compared to the columns with wing walls installed. This is because the two RC jacketed columns experienced a flexural failure, while a shear failure was found in the two columns with the wing walls installed, and thus led to a drastic decrease of the maximum lateral strengths and ductility. Since many factors may affect the installation of a post-installed anchor, it is better to use standard hooks to replace post-installed anchors in some specific points when using RC jacketing or installing wing walls.

  6. Getting offshoring right.

    PubMed

    Aron, Ravi; Singh, Jitendra V

    2005-12-01

    The prospect of offshoring and outsourcing business processes has captured the imagination of CEOs everywhere. In the past five years, a rising number of companies in North America and Europe have experimented with this strategy, hoping to reduce costs and gain strategic advantage. But many businesses have had mixed results. According to several studies, half the organizations that have shifted processes offshore have failed to generate the expected financial benefits. What's more, many of them have faced employee resistance and consumer dissatisfaction. Clearly, companies have to rethink how they formulate their offshoring strategies. A three-part methodology can help. First, companies need to prioritize their processes, ranking each based on two criteria: the value it creates for customers and the degree to which the company can capture some of that value. Companies will want to keep their core (highest-priority) processes in-house and consider outsourcing their commodity (low-priority) processes; critical (moderate-priority) processes are up for debate and must be considered carefully. Second, businesses should analyze all the risks that accompany offshoring and look systematically at their critical and commodity processes in terms of operational risk (the risk that processes won't operate smoothly after being offshored) and structural risk (the risk that relationships with service providers may not work as expected). Finally, companies should determine possible locations for their offshore efforts, as well as the organizational forms--such as captive centers and joint ventures--that those efforts might take. They can do so by examining each process's operational and structural risks side by side. This article outlines the tools that will help companies choose the right processes to offshore. It also describes a new organizational structure called the extended organization, in which companies specify the quality of services they want and work alongside providers

  7. An improved modal strain energy method for damage detection in offshore platform structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingchao; Wang, Shuqing; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    The development of robust damage detection methods for offshore structures is crucial to prevent catastrophes caused by structural failures. In this research, we developed an Improved Modal Strain Energy (IMSE) method for detecting damage in offshore platform structures based on a traditional modal strain energy method (the Stubbs index method). The most significant difference from the Stubbs index method was the application of modal frequencies. The goal was to improve the robustness of the traditional method. To demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed IMSE method, both numerical and experimental studies were conducted for different damage scenarios using a jacket platform structure. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the IMSE method in damage location when only limited, spatially incomplete, and noise-polluted modal data is available. Comparative studies showed that the IMSE index outperformed the Stubbs index and exhibited stronger robustness, confirming the superiority of the proposed approach.

  8. Application of two passive strategies on the load mitigation of large offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzadeh, Rasoul; Kühn, Martin

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the numerical results of two passive strategies to reduce the support structure loads of a large offshore wind turbine. In the first approach, an omnidirectional tuned mass damper is designed and implemented in the tower top to alleviate the structural vibrations. In the second approach, a viscous fluid damper model which is diagonally attached to the tower at two points is developed. Aeroelastic simulations are performed for the offshore 10MW INNWIND.EU reference wind turbine mounted on a jacket structure. Lifetime damage equivalent loads are evaluated at the tower base and compared with those for the reference wind turbine. The results show that the integrated design can extend the lifetime of the support structure.

  9. A model for assessing ignition, flame spread, and burn hazard potential of a multilayered jacket.

    PubMed

    Ezekoye, Ofodike A; Diller, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    An analysis is presented of ignition, flame spread, and skin burn associated with the ignition and burning of a multilayered jacket. The important physical processes can all be detailed based on simple thermophysical modeling. The ignition process associated with proximity to a radiant heat source is analyzed to see how a change in external (outer) fabric could have diminished the likelihood of ignition. Once the composite jacket has been ignited, the flame spread process is responsible for the heat transfer to the skin that causes the burn. We analyze the effects of the jacket innermost material on flame spread and on possible burn damage. We show how available thermophysical property data can be used to estimate the effect of inner layer material on burn event duration. Finally, given best-available data on the heat transfer rates between a burning inner layer and skin, we examine the kinetics of skin burn damage to determine the most likely injury that would result.

  10. R & D on Offshore Wind Power Generation System in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Kazuhito; Fukumoto, Yukinari

    Offshore wind energy has been widely exploited in Europe. Having a long coastline, the offshore wind energy will be the one of the important solutions for the increase of renewable energy in Japan. However, due to the difference in wind and marine condition between Japan and Europe, the safety, the environmental impact and the economical feasibility of the offshore wind power generation system have to be investigated in Japan. According to the data observed offshore, the wind speed is enough higher than that on land and the wind energy is economically feasible. In order to utilize the energy, the design method of the foundation against very high waves in typhoon storm should be established. For shallow offshore coastal area, gravity foundation type has been improved by hydraulic experiment. Additionally, for deeper ocean, floating types such as semi-submersible float and spar-buoy have been researched.

  11. Management of offshore wastes in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    During the process of finding and producing oil and gas in the offshore environment operators generate a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Some of these wastes are directly related to exploration and production activities (e.g., drilling wastes, produced water, treatment workover, and completion fluids) while other types of wastes are associated with human occupation of the offshore platforms (e.g., sanitary and domestic wastes, trash). Still other types of wastes can be considered generic industrial wastes (e.g., scrap metal and wood, wastes paints and chemicals, sand blasting residues). Finally, the offshore platforms themselves can be considered waste materials when their useful life span has been reached. Generally, offshore wastes are managed in one of three ways--onsite discharge, injection, or transportation to shore. This paper describes the regulatory requirements imposed by the government and the approaches used by offshore operators to manage and dispose of wastes in the US.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE FAILURE OF A RADIOACTIVE WASTE TRANSFER LINE JACKET

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B; Alan03 Plummer, A; Karthik Subramanian, K; Charles Jenkins, C; William Hinz, W; A Fellinger, A

    2007-04-06

    Radioactive wastes are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste is transported between tanks primarily via an underground transfer piping system. Due to the hazardous nature of the waste, the inner core stainless steel pipe is typically surrounded by a carbon steel pipe jacket, which provides secondary containment. Recently several through-wall penetrations were discovered on a segment of one of the jackets. An evaluation was performed to verify the failure mechanism and to estimate the degree of damage that occurred to the pipe segment. Failure analysis of a section of the jacket confirmed that pitting corrosion on the exterior of the pipe led to the through-wall penetration. Ultrasonic measurements on sections of the pipe were utilized to determine the remaining wall thickness in adjacent areas of the pipe. Based on these measurements, the degree of pitting and general corrosion was determined. Pit growth rate models were then developed to estimate the life expectancy of sections of the pipe that had not been excavated. The calculations estimated that the occurrence of through-wall failures in this jacket will begin to increase substantially in 12 years. Given that this pipe segment will be utilized beyond this time, short-term and long-term solutions to this failure were proposed. The short-term solutions focused on the repair or replace decisions that must be made to return the jacket to service as soon as practical. The long-term solutions focused on a broader strategy to address jacket integrity issues in the entire tank farm facility. These solutions included the evaluation of innovative remote inspection and repair techniques.

  13. Using the HELIOS facility for assessment of bundle-jacket thermal coupling in a CICC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, B.; Rousset, B.; Cloez, H.; Decool, P.; Duchateau, J. L.; Hoa, C.; Luchier, N.; Nicollet, S.; Topin, F.

    2016-12-01

    In a Cable In Conduit Conductor (CICC) cooled by forced circulation of supercritical helium, the heat exchange in the bundle region can play a significant role for conductor safe operation, while remaining a quite uncertain parameter. Heat exchange between bundle and jacket depends on the relative contributions of convective heat transfer due to the helium flow inside the bundle and of thermal resistance due to the wrappings between the cable and the conduit. In order to qualify this thermal coupling at realistic operating conditions, a dedicated experiment on a 1.2 m sample of ITER Toroidal Field (TF) dummy conductor was designed and performed in the HELIOS test facility at CEA Grenoble. Several methods were envisaged, and the choice was made to assess bundle-jacket heat transfer coefficient by measuring the temperature of a solid copper cylinder inserted over the conductor jacket and submitted to heat deposition on its outer surface. The mock-up was manufactured and tested in spring 2015. Bundle-jacket heat transfer coefficient was found in the range 300-500 W m-2 K-1. Results analysis suggests that the order of magnitude of convective heat transfer coefficient inside bundle is closer to Colburn-Reynolds analogy than to Dittus-Boelter correlation, and that bundle-jacket thermal coupling is mainly limited by thermal resistance due to wrappings. A model based on an equivalent layer of stagnant helium between wraps and jacket was proposed and showed a good consistency with the experiment, with relevant values for the helium layer thickness.

  14. Textile artificial magnetic conductor jacket for transmission enhancement between antennas under bending and wetness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamardin, Kamilia; Rahim, Mohamad Kamal A.; Hall, Peter S.; Samsuri, Noor Asmawati; Latef, Tarik Abdul; Ullah, Mohammad Habib

    2016-04-01

    Textile artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) waveguide jacket for transmission enhancement between on-body antennas is proposed. Transmission characteristics between antennas with different orientations and placements are studied. Significant transmission enhancement is observed for all tested positions. Bending and wetness measurements are also conducted. Bending is found not to give significant effect to the antennas and AMC performance, while wetness yields severe performance distortion. However, the original performance is retrieved once the antennas and AMC dried. The proposed AMC jacket will act as a new approach for efficient wearable body-centric communications.

  15. A jacket for assisting sensorimotor-related impairments and spatial perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Alves-Pinto, Ana; Lampe, Renée

    2017-04-01

    A sensorimotor jacket, which is able to measure distances to nearby objects with ultrasonic sensors and to transmit information about distances via vibrating transducers, has been designed with the aim of improving the spatial awareness of patients with cerebral palsy and to facilitate spatial orientation for blind people. The efficiency was tested for patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy, blind participants and healthy people. A positive impact of the sensorimotor jacket on the performance in a spatial task has been established both in patients with cerebral palsy and blind participants. Moreover, for patients with cerebral palsy, the training effect was visible after only three training exercises.

  16. Drag Measurements of a Protruding .50-caliber Machine Gun with Barrel Jacket Removed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luoma, Arvo A.

    1943-01-01

    Tests were made in 8-ft high-speed wind tunnel to determine the drag reduction possible by eliminating the barrel jacket of a protruding 50-caliber aircraft gun. It was found that the drag of a standard aircraft gun protruding into the air stream at right angles to the flow can be reduced by 23% by discarding the barrel jacket. At 300 mph and sea-level conditions, this amounts to a decrease in drag of from 83 to 64 pounds. A rough surface finish on the barrel was found to have no adverse effects on the drag of the barrel, the drag being actually less at high Mach Numbers.

  17. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  18. Current and future offshore activities in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hnatiuk, J.

    1984-05-01

    The development of innovative exploratory drilling systems for Canada's harsh Arctic offshore areas over the past decade is described. Future activity in these areas, including possible production concepts, is also discussed. The results of the experience in Canadian waters can be applied in other Arctic areas of the world including offshore Alaska. This operating experience will serve to further advance the drilling technology and will serve as a basis for the design of Arctic offshore production and transportation systems. Artificial islands, first commenced in 1972, are still being constructed but with improved designs and equipment. A step forward has been the use of subsea berms on which concrete or steel segmented caissons have been placed. Integrated-type steel caissons have also been adapted for placement on subsea berms, one of which is half of a crude oil tanker and a second, a purpose-built steel caisson to be placed this summer.

  19. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-05-01

    Offshore rectennas are feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but the type of rectenna suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. A nonground plane design minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This perferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors or tagis supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane, winter storm, and icing conditions for a one time cost of $5.7 billion. Subsequent units would be about 1.3 less expensive. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in substantially lower costs. The major advantage of an offshore rectenna is the removal of microwave radiation from populated areas.

  20. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Offshore rectennas are feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but the type of rectenna suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. A nonground plane design minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This perferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors or tagis supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane, winter storm, and icing conditions for a one time cost of $5.7 billion. Subsequent units would be about 1.3 less expensive. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in substantially lower costs. The major advantage of an offshore rectenna is the removal of microwave radiation from populated areas.

  1. Offshore platform cathodic protection retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Turnipseed, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    Cathodic protection (CP) is the primary technique used for underwater corrosion control on the majority of offshore steel structures. Offshore platforms are often kept in service far beyond their original design life. Refurbishment of the CP system is required when adequate protection can no longer be maintained. Various offshore platform CP retrofit designs are discussed.

  2. NREL Software Aids Offshore Wind Turbine Designs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    NREL researchers are supporting offshore wind power development with computer models that allow detailed analyses of both fixed and floating offshore wind turbines. While existing computer-aided engineering (CAE) models can simulate the conditions and stresses that a land-based wind turbine experiences over its lifetime, offshore turbines require the additional considerations of variations in water depth, soil type, and wind and wave severity, which also necessitate the use of a variety of support-structure types. NREL's core wind CAE tool, FAST, models the additional effects of incident waves, sea currents, and the foundation dynamics of the support structures.

  3. Offshore Wind Energy Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrove, P.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the possibility of installing offshore windmills to provide electricity and to save fuel for the United Kingdom. Favors their deployment in clusters to facilitate supervision and minimize cost. Discusses the power output and the cost involved and urges their quick development. (GA)

  4. Viability of Bismuth as a Green Substitute for Lead in Jacketed .357 Magnum Revolver Bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Joel

    In seeking to develop environmentally friendly lead-free non-toxic bullets, the research ballistically evaluated the performance of copper-jacketed handgun bullets containing a pure bismuth core. The lead was first removed from 140 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM bullets of 38 caliber (.357 diameter) by melting. The empty jackets were then refilled with pure bismuth, including the forming of a correctly sized hollow-point cavity. Due to the lower density of bismuth as compared to lead, the bismuth-cored bullets consistently weighed 125 gains. Conveniently this allowed direct comparison to commercially available 125 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM lead-cored bullets of 38 caliber. Both bismuth-cored and lead-cored versions of the 125 grain bullets had identical nose dimensions and jacket material, the only dimensional difference being the bullet length below the cannelure. Shooting took place at an outdoor range using a 357 Magnum Ruger(TM) SP101RTM revolver with 3" barrel as the test weapon. FBI protocols were followed when firing through clothing, wallboard, plywood, steel plates and laminated glass. Wound paths and bullets were captured in ballistic gelatin, with data collected for velocity, penetration, expansion, and weight retention. Bismuth compared favorably with lead in all but the laminated glass test, where it under penetrated due to jacket separation.

  5. Arikan and Alamouti matrices based on fast block-wise inverse Jacket transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moon Ho; Khan, Md Hashem Ali; Kim, Kyeong Jin

    2013-12-01

    Recently, Lee and Hou (IEEE Signal Process Lett 13: 461-464, 2006) proposed one-dimensional and two-dimensional fast algorithms for block-wise inverse Jacket transforms (BIJTs). Their BIJTs are not real inverse Jacket transforms from mathematical point of view because their inverses do not satisfy the usual condition, i.e., the multiplication of a matrix with its inverse matrix is not equal to the identity matrix. Therefore, we mathematically propose a fast block-wise inverse Jacket transform of orders N = 2 k , 3 k , 5 k , and 6 k , where k is a positive integer. Based on the Kronecker product of the successive lower order Jacket matrices and the basis matrix, the fast algorithms for realizing these transforms are obtained. Due to the simple inverse and fast algorithms of Arikan polar binary and Alamouti multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) non-binary matrices, which are obtained from BIJTs, they can be applied in areas such as 3GPP physical layer for ultra mobile broadband permutation matrices design, first-order q-ary Reed-Muller code design, diagonal channel design, diagonal subchannel decompose for interference alignment, and 4G MIMO long-term evolution Alamouti precoding design.

  6. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal flotation... persons working near or over the water. (d) Commercial hybrid personal flotation devices (PFD) approved...

  7. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  8. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  9. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  10. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  11. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal flotation... persons working near or over the water. (d) Commercial hybrid personal flotation devices (PFD) approved...

  12. Offshore Space Center (offshore launch site)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit; an industrial area for HLLV maintenance; an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower; liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms; a power generation station, docks with an unloading area; two separate launch sites; and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

  13. Offshore Wind Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This 2-page fact sheet describes NREL's offshore wind research and development efforts and capabilities. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is internationally recognized for offshore wind energy research and development (R&D). Its experience and capabilities cover a wide spectrum of wind energy disciplines. NREL's offshore wind R&D efforts focus on critical areas that address the long-term needs of the offshore wind energy industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). R&D efforts include: (1) Developing offshore design tools and methods; (2) Collaborating with international partners; (3) Testing offshore systems and developing standards; (4) Conducting economic analyses; (5) Characterizing offshore wind resources; and (6) Identifying and mitigating offshore wind grid integration challenges and barriers. NREL has developed and maintains a robust, open-source, modular computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool, known as FAST. FAST's state-of-the-art capabilities provide full dynamic system simulation for a range of offshore wind systems. It models the coupled aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, control system, and structural response of offshore wind systems to support the development of innovative wind technologies that are reliable and cost effective. FAST also provides dynamic models of wind turbines on offshore fixed-bottom systems for shallow and transitional depths and floating-platform systems in deep water, thus enabling design innovation and risk reduction and facilitating higher performance designs that will meet DOE's cost of energy, reliability, and deployment objectives.

  14. Frequency variation and sensor contribution assessment: Application to an offshore platform in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fushun; Li, Huajun; Wang, Weiying; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin

    2015-02-01

    's contribution to different modes based on an amplitude matrix. Finally, measurements from a four-leg jacket-type offshore platform located in the Beibu Gulf in China are used to study the proposed method. It can be concluded that sea-test measurements of offshore platforms show frequency-varying characteristics, and the proposed method could provide a more suitable time duration of signals for modal analysis. The assembled 24 sensors are shown to have different contributions to frequencies at 1.0375 Hz, and the amplitude of each sensor will not be a constant when different segments of a measurement are used for analysis. However, each sensor's contribution to the assigned modes can be assessed based on average values. For example, the contribution of sensor 3 is estimated to be 12.5362 per cent, sensor 15's contribution is estimated to be 7.1803 per cent. Each sensor's importance to the mode of interest could then be evaluated.

  15. Arctic offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bhula, D.N.

    1984-01-24

    An offshore structure is disclosed for use in drilling and producing wells in arctic regions having a conical shaped lower portion that extends above the surface of the water and a cylindrical upper section. The conical portion is provided with a controlled stiffness outer surface for withstanding the loads produced by ice striking the structure. The stiffness properties of the outer shell and flexible members are designed to distribute the load and avoid high local loads on the inner parts of the structure.

  16. Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Technological advancements and tax incentives have driven a global expansion in the development of renewable energy resources. Wind energy , in...particular, is now often cited as the fastest growing commercial energy source in the world. Currently, all U.S. wind energy facilities are based on land...authority to permit and regulate offshore wind energy development within the zones of the oceans under its jurisdiction. The federal government and coastal

  17. Utilizing geological and geotechnical parameters to constrain optimal siting of Mid-Atlantic Bight offshore wind projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponte, Alia

    As the offshore wind energy sector expands due to government mandates, a thorough understanding of the geologic setting of potential project sites becomes an essential component in the design process. Geophysical and geotechnical parameters yield vital information on the sediments and/or rocks that are present. The variable distribution of sediments, with concomitant variations in geotechnical properties, has significant implications for the selection (e.g., monopile, suction caisson, gravity base, jacket), design, location, installation, and subsequent scouring in the vicinity of wind turbine foundations. Identifying suitable sites based on sediment types allow for optimized engineering design solutions. Because foundations represent approximately 25% of total offshore wind project expenditures, reducing foundation costs with geologic suitability in mind could significantly decrease required initial investments, thereby expediting project and industry advancement. To illustrate how geological and geotechnical data can be used to inform site selection for foundations, geophysical data were analyzed and interpreted (chirp sub-bottom profiling, side-scan sonar, and multibeam bathymetry) from the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA). Side-scan sonar data from the WEA show three distinct acoustic intensities; each is correlated to a general bottom sediment grain size classification (muds, muddy and/or shelly sand, and sand with some gravel). Chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal the continuity and thicknesses of various depositional layers including paleochannel systems. Paleochannels consist of heterogeneous infill; creating undesirable conditions for foundation placement. This "desktop" study provides a suitability model for how the interpretation of geophysical and geotechnical data can be used to provide constraints on, and reduce uncertainties associated with, foundation location and type selection. Results from this study revealed 5 distinct subsurface units. The oldest

  18. Evaluation of offshore penetration tests at El Palito refinery, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.I.; Simone, A.; Tichatscheck, C.; Boggess, R.

    1995-12-01

    Data from an offshore study in the western part of Venezuela are presented in terms of the penetration test data and liquefaction evaluation. Two types of penetration test were performed (SPT and DCPT) and the results of each are compared. This was made possible by the comparison testing performed at two different locations where the separation between boreholes with different penetration tests was small enough to allow direct comparison of the results. To the authors` knowledge, this is the first time that dynamic cone measurements have been made in an offshore environment. Comments in relation to the evaluation of liquefaction resistance based on the results of the offshore penetration testing are made.

  19. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  20. Offshore blowouts, data for risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Holand, P.

    1995-12-31

    Blowouts are, besides gas leakages, the major contributor to the total risk for offshore installations. Therefore, the blowout risk is always included in Quantitative Risk Analyses (QRAs) of offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea. SINTEF Offshore Blowout Database has existed since 1984 (until 1990 it was called Marintek`s blowout database). In 1990 the responsibility of the database was transferred to SINTEF Safety and Reliability. Throughout these years the database has been used for assessing blowout risk associated to development and operation of fields offshore Norway. Six oil companies and two consultants are presently sponsoring the database. These companies are using the database when performing risk analyses. During the past three years the database has been subjected to a thorough quality improvement, both with respect to the user interface, and most important, regarding the blowout data included in the database. What is unique with this database, besides the high quality of blowout descriptions, is first that the blowout causes are categorized related to loss of primary and secondary barriers. Secondly that the user interface makes it possible to establish searches to withdraw information regarding any blowout type subjected for specific searches.

  1. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  2. Differences in the element contents between gunshot entry wounds with full-jacketed bullet and lead bullet.

    PubMed

    Wunnapuk, Klintean; Durongkadech, Piya; Minami, Takeshi; Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan; Tohno, Setsuko; Vichairat, Karnda; Azuma, Cho; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Tohno, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    To elucidate characteristics of gunshot residues in gunshot entry wounds with full-jacketed and lead bullets, element contents in entry gunshot wounds and control skins were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was found that a high content of Fe and Zn was deposited in the gunshot entry wounds with full-jacketed bullet, whereas a high content of Pb was deposited in the gunshot entry wounds with lead (unjacked) bullet. It should be noted that the content of Pb was significantly higher in the gunshot entry wounds with lead bullet than in those with full-jacketed bullet. Regarding the relationships among elements, it was found that there were significant direct correlations between Pb and either Sb or Ba contents in both gunshot entry wounds with full-jacketed and lead bullets. As Pb increased in both gunshot entry wounds, Sb and Ba also increased in the wounds.

  3. Mobile demersal megafauna at common offshore wind turbine foundations in the German Bight (North Sea) two years after deployment - increased production rate of Cancer pagurus.

    PubMed

    Krone, R; Dederer, G; Kanstinger, P; Krämer, P; Schneider, C; Schmalenbach, I

    2017-02-01

    Within the next decades the construction of thousands of different types of large wind turbine foundations in the North Sea will substantially increase the amount of habitat available to reef fauna. To gain first insights which effect these substantial changes in habitat structure and diversity might have on faunal stocks settling on hard substrata, we compared the mobile demersal megafauna associated with the common types of wind turbine foundations ('jacket', 'tripod' and 'monopile with scour protections of natural rock') in the southern German Bight, North Sea. Monopiles with scour protection were mostly colonized by typical reef fauna. They were inhabited by an average of about 5000 edible crabs Cancer pagurus (per foundation), which is more than twice as much as found at the foundation types without scour protection. Strong evidence was found that all three foundation types not only function as aggregation sites, but also as nursery grounds for C. pagurus. Assuming equal shares of the three foundation types in future wind farms, we project that about 27% of the local stock of C. pagurus might be produced on site. When, for example, comparing the existing fauna at 1000 ship wrecks and on the autochthonous soft substrate with those which probably will establish at the foundations of 5000 hypothetically realized wind turbines, it becomes clear that the German Bight in the future will provide new artificial reef habitats for another 320% crabs (C. pagurus) and 50% wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris) representing substrata-limited mobile demersal hard bottom species. Further research is urgently required in order to evaluate this overspill as it would be an important ecological effect of the recent offshore wind power development.

  4. Low smoke, non-corrosive, fire retardant cable jackets based on HNBR and EVM

    SciTech Connect

    Meisenheimer, H.

    1991-06-01

    This article examines the properties of the polymers HNBR and EVM which make them good candidates for use in meeting the low smoke, non-corrosive, low toxicity and fire retardant requirements for electric safety cable jackets and electric insulation. Topics of the article include density, weight, and viscosity of each polymer, mechanical proprieties of each polymer, and other results of laboratory testing of these polymers.

  5. Systematic determination of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in outdoor jackets.

    PubMed

    Gremmel, Christoph; Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P

    2016-10-01

    Sixteen outdoor jackets were purchased in 2011/12 and analyzed for 23 different perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The jackets were selected based on their origin of production, price, market, and textile, such as polyester, nylon, polyamide, and content of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) membranes. Two robust analytical methods based on high pressure liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry, as well as two liquid extractions, were developed enabling the analysis of PFASs with widely different physico-chemical properties. The jackets were found to contain PFASs in a range between 0.03 and 719 μg/m(2). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was omnipresent (0.02-171 μg/m(2)), although at lower concentrations compared to the precursors of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), namely fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) (<0.001-698 μg/m(2)). Perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their putative precursors, in particular perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, were detected much less frequently at concentrations up to 5 μg/m(2). To determine the effect of the volatility of FTOHs, four selected jackets were stored in a sealed bag in the dark at room temperature and re-analyzed after 3.5 years. Only 10%-20% of the initial concentration of 8:2-FTOH and 20%-50% of 10:2-FTOH were found, whereas the concentrations of PFOA and perfluorodecanoic acid increased significantly. This supports the hypothesis that PFAS concentrations in textiles are also strongly dependent on age, and conditions of transport and storage.

  6. Offshore outlook: the American Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jahns, M.O.

    1985-05-01

    Offshore areas in the American Arctic are highlighted and the development of the area is compared with other offshore areas where the required technology is more readily available. Principal areas are shown in which new concepts are being put to practice. Canada's east coast is examined. Several technological trends are reviewed to help operators accelerate the discovery and development of arctic petroleum reserves.

  7. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  8. Pioneering offshore excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, R.P.; Grattan, L.

    1996-11-01

    Hibernia Management and Development Company Ltd. (HMDC) was formed in 1990 by a consortium of oil companies to develop their interests in the Hibernia and Avalon reservoirs offshore Newfoundland in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. The reservoirs are located 315km ESE of St. John`s in the North Atlantic. The water depth is about 80m. The entire Hibernia field is estimated to contain more than three billion barrels of oil in place and the owners development plan area is estimated to contain two billion barrels. Recoverable reserves are estimated to be approximately 615 million barrels. The Hibernia reservoir, the principle reservoir, is located at an average depth of 3,700m. HMDC is building a large concrete gravity based structure (GBS) that which will support the platform drilling and processing facilities and living quarters for 280 personnel. In 1997 the platform will be towed to the production site and production will commence late 1997. Oil will be exported by a 2 km long pipeline to an offshore loading system. Dynamically positioned tankers will then take the oil to market. Average daily production is expected to plateau between 125,000 and 135,000 BOPD. It will be the first major development on the east coast of Canada and is located in an area that is prone to pack ice and icebergs.

  9. Climate Change, Offshore Wind Power, and the Coastal Zone Management Act

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    have begun to plan and develop coastal and offshore wind energy farms,9 the largest and best-known being Cape Wind Associates’ proposal for a 130...is produced. Offshore wind energy projects can conversely take advantage of the relatively consistent nature of coastal winds, caused by the...coastal zone management programs. The CZMA provides for two types of federal consistency, the second of which is directly relevant to offshore wind energy development

  10. Airborne sound propagation over sea during offshore wind farm piling.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Dekoninck, L

    2014-02-01

    Offshore piling for wind farm construction has attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to the extremely high noise emission levels associated with such operations. While underwater noise levels were shown to be harmful for the marine biology, the propagation of airborne piling noise over sea has not been studied in detail before. In this study, detailed numerical calculations have been performed with the Green's Function Parabolic Equation (GFPE) method to estimate noise levels up to a distance of 10 km. Measured noise emission levels during piling of pinpiles for a jacket-foundation wind turbine were assessed and used together with combinations of the sea surface state and idealized vertical sound speed profiles (downwind sound propagation). Effective impedances were found and used to represent non-flat sea surfaces at low-wind sea states 2, 3, and 4. Calculations show that scattering by a rough sea surface, which decreases sound pressure levels, exceeds refractive effects, which increase sound pressure levels under downwind conditions. This suggests that the presence of wind, even when blowing downwind to potential receivers, is beneficial to increase the attenuation of piling sound over the sea. A fully flat sea surface therefore represents a worst-case scenario.

  11. Assembly of conductor guides for off-shore drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, J. J.

    1985-12-31

    A conductor guide assembly for conductors of an off-shore well platform having a jacket with an interior pile for extending from a sea bed to above a water level which is over the sea bed. In accordance with one inventive feature, a first guide mechanism comprising a plurality of vertically spaced supports which hold the tubular conduits within the interior pile is assembled in a plurality of sections wherein the upper support of each section is provided with removable bolt-on units for supporting the first guide mechanism as successive sections are jointed thereto. In accordance with another inventive feature, a second guide mechanism comprises a pair of circular plates positioned to rotate within a lower deck opening and which are connected together and define a plurality of passages for receiving the plurality of conductors that extend in the interior pile. The connected plates are temporarily attached to the lower deck for transport so that the second guide mechanism can be detached and rotated to align the passages with the intended positions for the conductors whereafter the second guide mechanism is permanently attached to the lower deck. In accordance with another inventive feature, a third guide mechanism comprising a plurality of radially extending beams is supported on an upper deck. The second guide mechanism also has passages for access to the conductors and it too can be rotated into a position of alignment with the conductors and thereafter permanently fixed to the upper deck.

  12. Experiments on an offshore platform model by FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongsheng; Li, Hongnan; Ren, Liang; Sun, Li; Zhou, Jing

    2004-07-01

    Optical fiber sensors show superior potential for structural health monitoring of civil structures to ensure their structural integrity, durability and reliability. Apparent advantages of applying fiber optic sensors to a marine structure include fiber optic sensors" immunity of electromagnetic interference and electrical hazard when used near metallic elements over a long distance. The strains and accelerations of the newly proposed model of a single post jacket offshore platform were monitored by fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. These FBG sensors were attached to the legs and the top of the platform model in parallel with electric strain gauges or traditional piezoelectric accelerometers, respectively. Experiments were conducted under a variety of loading conditions, including underwater base earthquake simulation dynamic tests and static loading tests. Underwater seismic shaking table was utilized to provide the appropriate excitations. The natural frequencies measured by the FBG accelerometer agree well with those measured by piezo-electrical accelerometers. The monitoring network shows the availability of applying different fiber optic sensors in long-distance structural health monitoring with frequency multiplexing technology. Finally, the existing problems of packaging, strain transferring ratio between the bare fiber and the host structure on which the fiber embedded, and installation and protection of fiber optic sensors are emphasized.

  13. The cost effective use of pultruded composite mud-mats in offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Porcari, A.M.; Spessa, A.

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the development and application of pultruded fiber-reinforced plastic mud-mats used as primary load-bearing structural components in the construction of the offshore platform ``Garibaldi C``, recently installed by AGIP S.p.A. in the Adriatic sea. The pultruded composite elements were used as an alternative to traditional steel structures. The mechanical and functional performance of the composite mud-mats are the same. The cost advantages are coming from weight savings, from the necessity of a lower number of aluminum anodes, from the construction procedures used in the yard and from the installation of the jacket performed with a lifting vessel of a lower class. The solutions of particular problems connected with the design and construction of composite mud-mats, as well as cost advantages, are illustrated and discussed.

  14. Bahrain's offshore banking center

    SciTech Connect

    Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

    1983-01-01

    The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  15. Base deformation of full metal-jacketed rifle bullets as a measure of impact velocity and range of fire.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lucien C

    2015-03-01

    Full metal-jacketed rifle bullets with lead cores and open bases can experience deformation of their cylindrical shapes as they yaw during the penetration of soft tissues. The amount of deformation depends upon the strength of the bullet and the velocity in soft tissue when they go into yaw. The yaw behavior of a bullet in soft tissue depends upon its design (length, ogive shape, ogive length, center of gravity, and pre-impact stability) as it penetrates soft tissue. The yaw characteristics of common spitzer-type military rifle bullets are relatively well known and quite reproducible when fired into suitable soft tissue simulants. This, in turn, results in a relationship between the amount of deformation of the bullet's shank and impact velocity with soft tissue. The specific relationship between impact velocity and bullet deformation must be worked out through empirical testing, but this relationship can be of critical importance in determining impact velocity, which, in turn, relates to range of fire.

  16. Ice interaction with offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cammaert, A.B.; Muggeridge, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.

  17. An analytical study and systematic monitoring procedure developed for the load-out operation of the North Rankin Jacket 'A'

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, N.; Inokoshi, O.; Kitani, T.; Masuda, S.; Zarate, H.

    1983-05-01

    The loadout of the 22,000 tonnes North Rankin Jacket 'A' onto a floating barge was successfully accomplished in April, 1982. During the loadout the barge ballast was continually adjusted to compensate for both jacket weight transfer onto the barge and full tide variation. The preparation for the loadout and the operation itself was characterized by newly developed integrated techniques. The techniques included: the development of a barge, jacket and quayside three-dimensional computer model to check the validity of conventional and simple ballast system software. The model was also used to evaluate the control parameters of the operation in a series of analyses which determine the sensitivity of critical steps of the operation to human or equipment errors: the development and operation of an integrated control system for jacket load transfer that relates jacket position to barge level and ballast pump requirements; the development and operation of a tide-expectation computer programme and associated ballast pump time scheduling software to compensate for differences between actual water level and that determined from standard tide tables, and to minimize the effect of short-term, local tide variations that are not forecast; and the incorporation of fail-safe concepts and measures into the operation.

  18. Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hamilton, Erin L.

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of offshore wind energy generation projects. The development of ERES for offshore wind is closely allied to a concurrent process undertaken to examine environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy generation, although specific risk-relevant attributes will differ between the MHK and offshore wind domains. During FY10, a conceptual design of ERES for offshore wind will be developed. The offshore wind ERES mockup described in this report will provide a preview of the functionality of a fully developed risk evaluation system that will use risk assessment techniques to determine priority stressors on aquatic organisms and environments from specific technology aspects, identify key uncertainties underlying high-risk issues, compile a wide-range of data types in an innovative and flexible data organizing scheme, and inform planning and decision processes with a transparent and technically robust decision-support tool. A fully functional version of ERES for offshore wind will be developed in a subsequent phase of the project.

  19. On the instability of offshore foundations: theory and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, FuPing; Li, JinHui; Qi, WenGang; Hu, Cun

    2015-12-01

    As the offshore engineering moving from shallow to deep waters, the foundation types for fixed and floating platforms have been gradually evolving to minimize engineering costs and structural risks in the harsh offshore environments. Particular focus of this paper is on the foundation instability and its failure mechanisms as well as the relevant theory advances for the prevailing foundation types in both shallow and deep water depths. Piles, spudcans, gravity bases, suction caissons, and plate anchors are detailed in this paper. The failure phenomena and mechanisms for each type of foundations are identified and summarized, respectively. The theoretical approaches along with sophisticated empirical solutions for the bearing capacity problems are then presented. The major challenges are from flow-structure-soil coupling processes, rigorous constitutive modeling of cyclic behaviors of marine sediments, and the spatial variability of soil properties for large-spreading structures. Further researches are suggested to reveal the instability mechanisms for underpinning the evolution of offshore foundations.

  20. Offshore marine structure with corrosion protection

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D.A.; Barr, B.D.; Rommelmann, D.W.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a marine structure having a deck and a rotatable drill string for drilling wellbores into the floor of a body of water; a jacket comprised of corrodible metallic members including support legs which are mutually interconnected with cross braces, and which jacket rests on the floor and supports the deck above the water's surface, a drilling template incorporated into the jacket to accommodate drilling conductors for guiding the rotatable drill string which is lowered from the deck to form a vertical wellbore, the drilling template including vertically aligned elongated conductor guides arranged in a horizontal pattern to define a drill conductor array comprised of external conductors, which encompass at least one internal conductor, a cathodic protection system protecting the corrodible metallic members of the marine structure comprising a first sacrificial anode system disposed on discrete submerged jacket members to afford corrosion protection to the jacket members as well as to submerged sections of the drill conductor array, and other sacrificial anodes removably carried on at least one internal conductor to supplement the cathodic protection afforded by the first sacrificial anodes.

  1. Offshore search continues despite disappointments

    SciTech Connect

    Cornitius, T.

    1985-05-01

    Exploration drilling activity in Australia broke records onshore in 1984, but offshore it was a different story. A total of 373 wells were drilled, onshore and offshore, with 266 labeled as wildcats and appraisals. Out of 80 wells drilled offshore last year, 43 were exploratory compared with 49 in 1983; 48 were oil wells, seven were gas, and 25 were dusters. Offshore discoveries included the Talisman 1 off the coast of Western Australia, which tested around 6000 b/d, and Challis 1 in the Timor Sea, which flowed at 5000 b/d. The failure to establish Jabiru in the Timor Sea as a major oil province like Bass Strait was a major disappointment. However, the Challis 1 was a relief since it indicated the presence of a commercial field adjacent to Jabiru.

  2. Hybrid offshore structure

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, L.D.; Maus, L.D.

    1986-09-09

    An articulated offshore structure is described for use in a body of water, the structure comprising: a substantially rigid lower section, the lower section extending upwardly from the bottom of the body of water to a pivot point located intermediate the bottom and the surface of the body of water; a compliant upper section extending upwardly from the pivot point to a position at or above the surface of the body of water; pivot means located proximate pivot point, the pivot means interposed between and connected to the lower section and upper section and adapted to permit the upper section to pivot laterally relative to the lower section; torsion means connected to the upper section and the lower section, the torsion means adapted to transmit torsional loads from the upper section to the lower section; the pivot means being positioned above the bottom of the body of water a distance of between about 10 percent and about 50 percent of the total depth of the body of water so as to substantially minimize the weight of the structure while maintaining the flexural vibration period of the structure at or below a preselected maximum flexural vibration period.

  3. Model test of wave forces on a structurally dense jacket platform

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, G.Z.; Parsley, M.A.; Berek, E.P.; Calvo, J.J.; Johnson, R.C.; Petruska, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    In the Gulf of Mexico, there are a significant number of jacket platforms built in the 1950`s and 60`s which are still in operation. Typically, these platforms have a large number of closely spaced legs and densely arranged bracing members. Since most of these platforms are beyond their design lives but the reservoirs are still producing, their safety, serviceability and fitness-for-purpose must be re-assessed in order to continue producing from them. During Mobil`s in-house re-qualification effort, it was found that the predictions by structural analysis programs (such as SACS and KARMA) were inconsistent with the platform inspection results. The programs predicted a large number of joint can failures during design storms (such as hurricane Andrew), but underwater inspections indicated only few failures had actually occurred. It was apparent that the procedure used for the assessment was conservative--either the wave loads the platforms experienced during the hurricanes were overestimated and/or the structural resistances were underestimated. This paper addresses the wave load issue. To calibrate the force algorithms typically used in structural analysis programs, a model test of a typical aging jacket platform was conducted in the wave basin.

  4. Experimental evaluation of energy efficiency in a gas-heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, V.; García, L.; Alfonso, J.

    2014-06-01

    Gas Technological Development Center (CDT de GAS) has developed a new gas-heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle as a solution for temperature-controlled cooking of pulp fruit in the Colombian traditional candy-making industry. This initiative seeks to contribute to the promotion of natural gas as a cleaner and more efficient alternative to traditional fuels such as wood and coal in the Andean countries. Prototype follows the operational and safety rules provided by international and local standards: ASTM-F1602, ASME (section VIII, division 1), and NTC-4082. This paper presents the methodology, experimental setup and results obtained during the performance tests for heating efficiency evaluation of the kettle, according to the ASTM-F1785 standard, and the estimation of measurement uncertainty according to GUM method. The heating efficiency rate for this new prototype is higher to the convectional and commercial models of gas heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle. The results showed a heating efficiency of 63.83% ± 1.66% (k=2), whereas the emission of CO and NOX in stack gases was under the regulate limits for natural gas equipment.

  5. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  6. Proceedings of the 25th annual offshore technology conference. Volume 2 - Platform and marine system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This is volume 2 of a 4 volume set of conference proceedings dealing with offshore development of mineral resources. This particular conference centers around the design, construction, and installation of offshore platforms and underwater pipelines. It contains papers which discuss retrofitting of various types of platforms to meet current safety standards. It also discusses design criteria used to minimize wave motion in offshore platforms, moorings, and various types of support facilities. Papers also describe methods for welding joints in both platforms and pipelines. Many papers specifically address economic aspects of offshore development and the cost of complying with increasing safety regulations and standards. A few papers also deal directly with engineered safety systems as they apply to offshore platforms.

  7. Doing Research in a Professional Development School and Why I Feel like Houdini in a Straight Jacket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neapolitan, Jane

    2004-01-01

    When the author was a little girl, her father told her the story of how he once saw the great Harry Houdini escape from a straight jacket. In the early 1900s, Houdini fascinated thousands of people by performing feats of life-threatening daring and agility. Houdini was a professional in the traditional sense: he acted alone, kept his trade secrets…

  8. A way to increase the critical current in the stainless steel jacketed Nb{sub 3}Sn conductors for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Decool, P.; Duchateau, J.L.; Specking, W.

    1996-12-31

    The critical current density of Nb{sub 3}Sn under magnetic field is highly dependent on the intrinsic strain F, having a maximum value for {epsilon}=O The performance of stainless-steel jacketed conductors is usually lowered by the differential thermal expansion between steel and the superconducting filaments (J is divided by 2 for B=12T, T=5.5K, and {epsilon}={minus}0.7%). This is due to the longitudinal compression appearing on the superconducting filaments during the cool down from the reaction temperature to 4K. To overcome this difficulty, in the reference design of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the conductors are jacketed with Incoloy. A progressive test program is foreseen to demonstrate the possibility to reduce the filament compression in conductors jacketed with A316 LN. This process is based on the use of a low thermal expansion material for the supporting tools during the reaction phase. The performance level of such a reacted conductor could, in principle, be similar to a conductor jacketed with Incoloy.

  9. Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-04-12

    A report detailing the presentations and topics discussed at the Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop, an event designed to bring together offshore energy industry representatives to share information, best practices, and lessons learned.

  10. Offshore wind farm layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkinton, Christopher Neil

    Offshore wind energy technology is maturing in Europe and is poised to make a significant contribution to the U.S. energy production portfolio. Building on the knowledge the wind industry has gained to date, this dissertation investigates the influences of different site conditions on offshore wind farm micrositing---the layout of individual turbines within the boundaries of a wind farm. For offshore wind farms, these conditions include, among others, the wind and wave climates, water depths, and soil conditions at the site. An analysis tool has been developed that is capable of estimating the cost of energy (COE) from offshore wind farms. For this analysis, the COE has been divided into several modeled components: major costs (e.g. turbines, electrical interconnection, maintenance, etc.), energy production, and energy losses. By treating these component models as functions of site-dependent parameters, the analysis tool can investigate the influence of these parameters on the COE. Some parameters result in simultaneous increases of both energy and cost. In these cases, the analysis tool was used to determine the value of the parameter that yielded the lowest COE and, thus, the best balance of cost and energy. The models have been validated and generally compare favorably with existing offshore wind farm data. The analysis technique was then paired with optimization algorithms to form a tool with which to design offshore wind farm layouts for which the COE was minimized. Greedy heuristic and genetic optimization algorithms have been tuned and implemented. The use of these two algorithms in series has been shown to produce the best, most consistent solutions. The influences of site conditions on the COE have been studied further by applying the analysis and optimization tools to the initial design of a small offshore wind farm near the town of Hull, Massachusetts. The results of an initial full-site analysis and optimization were used to constrain the boundaries of

  11. Incorporation of Multi-Member Substructure Capabilities in FAST for Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Sewell, D.

    2012-05-01

    FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is an aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool widely used for analyzing onshore and offshore wind turbines. This paper discusses recent modifications made to FAST to enable the examination of offshore wind turbines with fixed-bottom, multi-member support structures (which are commonly used in transitional-depth waters).; This paper addresses the methods used for incorporating the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loading on multi-member structures in FAST through its hydronamic loading module, HydroDyn. Modeling of the hydrodynamic loads was accomplished through the incorporation of Morison and buoyancy loads on the support structures. Issues addressed include how to model loads at the joints of intersecting members and on tapered and tilted members of the support structure. Three example structures are modeled to test and verify the solutions generated by the modifications to HydroDyn, including a monopile, tripod, and jacket structure. Verification is achieved through comparison of the results to a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-derived solution using the commercial software tool STAR-CCM+.

  12. Helical piles: an innovative foundation design option for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2015-02-28

    Offshore wind turbines play a key part in the renewable energy strategy in the UK and Europe as well as in other parts of the world (for example, China). The majority of current developments, certainly in UK waters, have taken place in relatively shallow water and close to shore. This limits the scale of the engineering to relatively simple structures, such as those using monopile foundations, and these have been the most common design to date, in UK waters. However, as larger turbines are designed, or they are placed in deeper water, it will be necessary to use multi-footing structures such as tripods or jackets. For these designs, the tension on the upwind footing becomes the critical design condition. Driven pile foundations could be used, as could suction-installed foundations. However, in this paper, we present another concept-the use of helical pile foundations. These foundations are routinely applied onshore where large tension capacities are required. However, for use offshore, a significant upscaling of the technology will be needed, particularly of the equipment required for installation of the piles. A clear understanding of the relevant geotechnical engineering will be needed if this upscaling is to be successful.

  13. Investigation of Bonded Jacket Cable Insulation Failure Mechanisms: HELB Environment Results

    SciTech Connect

    L. Duncan

    2002-11-01

    When overaged from thermal or radiation environments, composite insulation composed of a layer of ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) covered with a bonded layer of chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE[Hypalon]) can crack if subjected to steam environments associated with loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). The work described in this report evaluated the effects of a lesser accident, a high-energy line break (HELB), on the aged insulating materials. The object of the test was to determine if the same cracking concerns exist for the less severe HELB environment. The work is based on the use of aged specimens that were prepared under the test program described in EPRI report Investigation of Bonded Jacket Cable Insulation Failure Mechanisms (1001002).

  14. Fatal Envenomation of a Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) From Eastern Yellow Jacket Wasps (Vespula maculifrons).

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Trupkiewicz, John G

    2014-12-01

    A 37-year-old, female Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) presented with severe facial angioedema, bilateral corneal and palpebral edema, nictitating membrane paralysis, bradycardia, bradypnea, hypothermia, and numerous stingers and remnants of eastern yellow jacket wasps (Vespula maculifrons) attached to the feathers of the head, palpebrae, and conjunctiva. Evaluation of 2 complete blood cell counts and results of plasma chemical analysis and serum protein electrophoresis revealed severe increases in creatinine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, electrolyte disturbances, and moderate increases in levels of α1, α2, β1, and γ immunoglobulins when compared with reference interval values and conspecifics. Despite intensive treatment, the bird died 19 hours after presentation. Results of histologic evaluation of tissues were compatible with envenomation. Response to envenomation in avian species is not documented but should be considered in birds presenting with angioedema.

  15. Offshore wind farm siting procedures applied offshore of Block Island, Rhode Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Christopher M.

    Since 2008, the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council (CRMC) has been leading a Rhode Island Ocean Area Management Plan (RIOSAMP) in partnership with the University of Rhode Island, resulting in an extensive multidisciplinary analysis of the Rhode Island offshore environment and its suitability for siting an offshore wind farm. As part of the RIOSAMP project, a standard siting optimization approach was first developed based on a siting index defined as the ratio of costs associated with the wind farm deployment to the available wind resource. This index, combined within a marine spatial planning approach to address ecological and societal constraints, provided an initial macro-siting tool (Spaulding et al., 2010). The multiple GIS layers required in this approach and the absence of theoretical support to optimize the resulting zoning, led to an extension of the initial optimization approach into a more comprehensive macro-siting optimization tool, integrating societal and ecological constraints into the siting tool, the Wind Farm Siting Index (WIFSI) (Grilli et al, 2012). The projects led to the definition of several favorable development areas including a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) off of Block Island, in State Waters. Deep Water Wind Inc. (DWW) plans to install and commission five 6 MW direct drive Siemens lattice jacket turbines in the REZ area, by 2014. In this thesis two major steps are accomplished to refine and expand the RIOSAMP macro-siting tool. First the macro-siting tool is expanded to include a model simulating the exclusionary zones defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations. Second a micro-siting model is developed, optimizing the relative position of each turbine within a wind farm area. The micro-siting objective is to minimize, (1) the loss in power due to the loss of wind resource in the wake of the turbines (wake "effect"), and (2) the cable costs that inter-connect the turbines and connecting the farm to the

  16. Eighteenth annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    These sixty papers were given at a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include friction effects of driving piles into sea beds of various compositions, wave forces on offshore platforms, stability, materials testing of various components such as plates, legs, wellheads, pipe joints, and protection of offshore platforms against ice and collision with icebergs.

  17. [The method of esthetic crown restoration with composite resin jacket crown in primary molars].

    PubMed

    Doi, K; Shibui, N; Suda, M; Uehara, M; Karibe, H; Kondou, K

    1990-10-01

    The term "esthetics" has recently been also used in the dental field, and a field called esthetic dentistry is increasingly being noted. The number of not only adult but also pediatric patients who visit for treatment aiming at esthetic recovery is being increased. Inpedodontics, composite resin of the coronal color is generally used in the restoration of deciduous incisors. However, the method using metal crowns for the deciduous teeth is used for the deciduous molars at present. We applied a composite resin jacket crown to the deciduous molar in a way similar to that of esthetic crown restoration for the anterior teeth. The surgical procedure before crown preparation varied slightly according to the presence or absence of pulpal treatment of vital teeth and with non-vital teeth, but the application was performed as follows: 1) Desensitization of pulp, pulpal treatment and core construction. 2) Preparation of crown. 3) Selection, trial set and occlusal equilibration of a metal crown for the deciduous tooth. 4) Precision impression with a silicone impression material. 5) Removal of the metal crown for the deciduous tooth from the impression material. 6) Making of an under-cut to the abutment tooth on the buccal lingual side. 7) Filling of the impression with chemical polymerization resin. 8) Application of pressure in the oral cavity. 9) Adjustment of edge and crown forms. Thus, the preparation method for the composite resin jacket crown was relatively simple. Since this surgery, the patient has been followed up for 1 year and 6 months, and no specifically troublesome points have been observed clinically. The patient and her parents are satisfied with the results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Evaluation of dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membranes to achieve high dialysis performance.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ayaka; Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Matsuda, Masato; Ogawa, Takehito; Yakushiji, Taiji; Miyasaka, Takehiro; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimum dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membrane, both of which are indispensable factors for achieving high dialysis performance, by clarifying the relationship between the dialysis performance and the flow of dialysate and blood in a hollow-fiber dialyzer. We evaluated the clearance, dialysate, and blood flow for four commercially available hollow-fiber dialyzers, namely, the APS-15S, APS-15SA, TS-1.6UL, and CX-1.6U. To evaluate dialysate and blood flow, we measured the residence-time distribution of dialysate and blood flow of these dialyzers by the pulse-response method. We also determined the clearances of urea, creatinine, vitamin B(12), and lysozyme to evaluate the dialysis performance of these dialyzers. While the baffle and taper structures allow effective supply of dialysate into the dialyzer jacket, the hollow-fiber shape, inner diameter, and packing density significantly influence the dialysate flow. In dialyzers with long taper-holding slits, the slit area is a key design parameter for achieving optimum dialysate flow. Similarly, the blood flow is significantly influenced by the structure of the inflowing and outflowing blood ports at the header of a dialyzer, and the shape and inner diameter of the hollow fibers. Hollow fibers with smaller inner diameters cause an increase in blood pressure, which causes blood to enter the hollow fibers more easily. The hollow-fiber shape hardly affects the blood flow. While improved dialysate and blood flow cause higher clearance of low molecular-weight substances, higher membrane area and pure-water permeability accelerate internal filtration, thereby causing an increase in the clearance of large molecular-weight substances.

  19. Foundations for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2003-12-15

    An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers.

  20. China offshore has top priority

    SciTech Connect

    Cornitius, T.A.

    1983-11-01

    Joint venture development of offshore petroleum reserves has top priority in the mammoth effort to modernize the People's Republic of China. While the country works to overcome a critical shortage of skilled personnel, export of oil, coal, consumer goods, and metals will finance technological imports.

  1. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  2. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Rice University, Brown and Root Development Inc., and Arthur D. Little Inc. have jointly conducted a feasibility study of an offshore rectenna serving the Boston/New York area. We found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. We began by engineering the reference system rectenna to the offshore location. When we estimated costs for the resulting system we found that the cost was prohibitively high. We then searched for modifications to the design which would allow significant cost reduction. The result is a non-ground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors or yagis supported on feed wires. We find that such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane, winter storm and icing conditions for a one time cost of $5.7 billion. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. It is important to note that the east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in substantially lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  3. Stress-induced martensitic transformation during tensile test of full-size TF conductor jacket tube at 4.2 K

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H. H.; Li, S. P.; Wu, Z. X.; Huang, C. J.; Huang, R. J.; Li, L. F.

    2014-01-27

    The toroidal-field (TF) conductor jacket of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is made of modified 316LN stainless steel, which is influenced by heat treatment at approximately 650 °C for 200 h to produce Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting materials at the final stage. Due to the high electromagnetic forces arising during magnet operation, higher mechanical properties of the jacket materials at cryogenic temperatures are required. In our work, mechanical properties of the full-size TF conductor jacket tube were investigated, which satisfied the ITER requirements. Stress-induced martensitic transformation mechanism during tensile test of the conductor jacket material at 4.2 K was characterized by means of in-situ temperature dependent XRD, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The tensile behavior related to the amount of stress-induced phase transformation at cryogenic temperature was also discussed.

  4. How dangerous is offshore drilling

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, T.S.

    1981-08-01

    As concluded by the National Research Council, the frequency of injuries during oil and gas operations on the outer continental shelf is comparable to that in other industries such as mining, maritime service, and heavy construction. Although an area of concern, offshore safety is not easily improved by legislation or detailed regulation. The industry itself must be committed to providing the safest possible workplace for the job and the environment. At Zapata Off-Shore Co., for example, top management recognizes the value of safety-trained personnel in terms of not only decreased downtime and lower insurance costs but also improved crew morale and productivity. The key operatives of Zapata's program are the rig representatives who provide full-time, rig-based safety, training, administrative, and employee-relations assistance to the crews.

  5. Offshore drilling platform protection device

    SciTech Connect

    Magill, J.M.

    1981-12-15

    A description is given of an offshore drilling platform protection device for use on an offshore oil well drilling vessel including a drilling platform supportable on a plurality of extendable legs wherein each leg is moved by a rack gear assembly. The rack gear assembly includes an otherwise exposed first gear which engages a second gear positioned in a housing having a rectangular corner opening through which the first gear extends, the protection device including first and second protective sections adapted for mounting over the first gear adjacent to the rectangular corner of the housing for the second gear, the first and second protective sections cooperating to provide an l-shaped opening which communicates with the opening at the second gear housing for protecting the first gear while allowing the first gear to mesh with the second gear.

  6. An experimental and numerical study of heat transfer in jacketed vessels by SiO2 nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefat, Parinaz Hafezi; Jafari, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    In the present investigation both numerical and experimental studies have been performed for SiO2/water nanofluid in different concentrations in the jacket side of a reactor that was equipped with a conventional jacket without baffle. Heat transfer rates were measured for nanofluid and base liquid. In order to solve the continuity, momentum, energy and turbulence equations, finite volume method and k-e turbulence model were utilized in three dimensions. For very dilute nanofluids (<0.1% volume fraction) no heat transfer enhancement was observed. For greater concentrations heat transfer rates augmented to some extent. Nusselt number increased with increasing the nanofluid concentration as well as Reynolds number. By using the least square method to all the experimental data two correlations for water and nanofluid were obtained.

  7. Effect of Change of Aging Heat Treatment Pattern on the JK2LB Jacket for the ITER Central Solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, Hidemasa; Saito, Toru; Kawano, Katsumi; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Yamazaki, Toru; Isono, Takaaki

    Following the recent improvement of the heat treatment pattern for the ITER CS conductor from 250 hour at 650 °C to 250 hour at 570 °C and then 100 hour at 650 °C, the mechanical properties at 4K and the material structure of the conductor jacketmade of JK2LB after heat treatment including the 570 °C phasewere studied. The mechanical test results at 4K showed no noticeable difference with the jacket heat-treated only at 650 °C to the one additionally heat-treatedat 570 °C.Both satisfied the ITER requirement. The metallographic test results also did not show large difference. In conclusion the 570 °C step does not affect noticeably the JK2LB jacket and the improved heat treatment pattern is applicable.

  8. Pipelaying in artic offshore waters

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C. G.

    1985-11-19

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for constructing pipelines in Arctic offshore waters by a directional drilling technique, thereby minimizing exposure to ice gouging and eliminating the hazards associated with unstable permafrost. A special drilling-pipe-line construction vessel is also provided which has a conical shape with reinforced outer walls to resist ice forces, which vessel includes means to install deep underground pipeline segments and means to connect and protect the pipe ends.

  9. Fatigue handbook: Offshore steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Almarnaess, A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of Offshore Steel Structures; Loads on Ocean Structures; Fracture Mechanics As a Tool in Fatigue Analysis; Basic Fatigue Properties of Welded Joints; Significance of Defects; Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints; Effects of Marine Environment and Cathodic Protection on Fatigue of Structural Steels Fatigue of Tubular Joints; Unstable Fracture; Fatigue Life Calculations; and Fatigue in Building Codes Background and Applications.

  10. Two offshore Australian crudes assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-05-09

    Two light, sweet crudes from offshore Australia have been assayed. Gippsland crude, also called Bass Strait, is produced off the coast of Victoria, in southeastern Australia. The 47 API, 0.09% sulfur crude was analyzed in mid-1993. Skua, a 42 API, 0.06 wt % sulfur crude, is produced in the Timor Sea. Data are given on the whole crude and fractions for both deposits. Both chemical and physical properties are listed.

  11. Offshore sand and gravel mining

    SciTech Connect

    Pandan, J.W.

    1983-05-01

    This paper reviews the status of mining offshore for sand and gravel on a world-wide basis. It discusses the technology for exploration and evaluation of sea floor mineral targets, as well as mining, transportation, and processing. Large operations in Japan and Europe are described, based upon personal observations of the author. The U.S. situation is outlined and opinions offered as to the outlook for the future.

  12. Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-05-01

    Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are determined to move forward. The depressed price of oil does not encourage development but recently gas prices in the US have increased, making offshore gas development more feasible. Perhaps most significant is development and application of new technology and more intense management to make sure it works. The offshore oil companies and support industries have made significant technological advances, expending over and above the dollars paid in taxes, lease fees, and royalties. The ocean industries harbor a great reservoir of high technology knowledge. They have demonstrated the ability to successfully meet a vast array of challenges in exploring for, drilling, and producing oil and gas in extreme conditions. These facts beg the question as to the rational basis of each and every regulation and the ban on drilling.

  13. Physiological Evaluation of A1 (Extreme-Cold-Weather) and A2 (Buoyant, Intermediate-Cold-Weather) Jackets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    the resting metabolic heat will be dissipated through the clothing with the remaining 25% lost through the respiratory tract and insensible sweating...AD-A258 410 PHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF Al (EXTREME-COLD-WEATHER) AND A2 (BUOYANT, INTERMEDIATE-COLD-WEATHER) JACKETS NAVY CLOTHING AND TEXTILE...Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility 523-003-30-06 21 Strathmore Road 523-003-30-08 Natick, MA 01760 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS

  14. Preliminary test of the prototype modular cryostat for a 10 MW offshore superconducting wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiuce; Ramalingam, R.; Sanz, Santiago; Neumann, Holger

    2017-02-01

    The SUPerconducting Reliable lightweight And more POWERful offshore wind turbine (SUPRAPOWER), an EU FP7 funded research project, are under development for an innovative superconducting 10 MW class offshore wind turbine. Due to the requirements of handling, maintenance, reliability of long term and offshore operation, the cryostats are divided in two major parts: the modular cryostat able to accommodate a single coil and a thermal collector that links all the modules. The prototype modular cryostat was designed, manufactured and assembled in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The paper reports preliminary test results of proto-type modular cryostat with a two-stage Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler.

  15. Offshore platform structure for artic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Einstabland, T.

    1984-11-27

    An offshore platform structure of the gravity type intended to be installed on a sea bed in artic or corresponding waters. The platform structure comprises a substructure intended to be completely submerged and supported by the sea bed when in installed position, a superstructure extending up from the substructure and up above the sea bed and a deck superstructure supported by the superstructure above the sea level. A fender is provided intended to protect the superstructure against drifting ice and icebergs, the substructure being provided with a preferably horizontal top support slab supporting the fender, the fender being movably arranged on said support slab and comprising a preferably compartmented cylindrical ring-shaped body with a large weight resting preferably freely on the substructure, intended to be arranged apart from the superstructure when in normal position.

  16. Immunotherapy with yellow jacket venom. A comparative study including three different extracts, one adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide and two unmodified.

    PubMed

    Mosbech, H; Malling, H J; Biering, I; Böwadt, H; Søborg, M; Weeke, B; Løwenstein, H

    1986-02-01

    Thirty-two patients with previous systemic allergic reaction to yellow jacket stings were randomly allocated to three groups receiving immunotherapy with different preparations of yellow jacket venom: 1) extract adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide (Alutard-SQ), 2) Pharmalgen extract or 3) non-adsorbed extract from Allergologisk Laboratorium (ALK aq.). Regular examinations showed a decrease in skin prick test size in nearly all patients. Specific IgE-antibody (RAST and CRIE scores) showed a similar, but not significant tendency to decrease in all three groups. Specific IgG-antibody increased considerably in the Alutard group only; after 2 years, however, no difference could be detected between the three groups. During dose increase, patients treated with ALK aq. generally had smaller local reactions to injections than those treated with Pharmalgen. Few systemic reactions occurred in all three groups. Nineteen patients treated for 2 1/2-3 1/2 years were challenged in-hospital with stings from yellow jackets. No systemic and only minor local reactions occurred. Consequently, with the dose regimens applied all three extracts seem effective even though no common changes in either specific IgE or IgG could be demonstrated.

  17. Control of heat transfer in continuous-feeding Czochralski-silicon crystal growth with a water-cooled jacket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenhan; Liu, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    The continuous-feeding Czochralski method is an effective method to reduce the cost of single crystal silicon. By promoting the crystal growth rate, the cost can be reduced further. However, more latent heat will be released at the melt-crystal interface under a high crystal growth rate. In this study, a water-cooled jacket was applied to enhance the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Quasi-steady-state numerical calculation was employed to investigate the impact of the water-cooled jacket on the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Latent heat released during the crystal growth process at the melt-crystal interface and absorbed during feedstock melting at the feeding zone was modeled in the simulations. The results show that, by using the water-cooled jacket, heat transfer in the growing crystal is enhanced significantly. Melt-crystal interface deflection and thermal stress increase simultaneously due to the increase of radial temperature at the melt-crystal interface. With a modified heat shield design, heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface is well controlled. The crystal growth rate can be increased by 20%.

  18. Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Transfer with GraftJacket® Augmentation to Increase Tendon Length for an Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Massive irreparable rotator cuff tears can be reconstructed with latissimus dorsi tendon transfers (LDTT). Although uncommon, the natural length of the latissimus dorsi tendon (LDT) could be insufficient for transfer even after adequate soft tissue releases. Descriptions of cases where grafts were needed to lengthen the LDT are therefore rare. We located only two reports of the use of an acellular dermal matrix to increase effective tendon length in tendon transfers about the shoulder: (1) GraftJacket patch for a pectoralis major tendon reconstruction and (2) ArthroFlex® patch for LDTT. Both of these brands of allograft patches are obtained from human cadavers. These products are usually used to cover soft tissue repairs and offer supplemental support rather than for increasing tendon length. Extending the LDTT with GraftJacket to achieve adequate length, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 50-year-old male who had a massive, irreparable left shoulder rotator cuff tear that was reconstructed with a LDTT. The natural length of his LDT was insufficient for transfer. This unexpected situation was rectified by sewing two patches of GraftJacket to the LDT. The patient had greatly improved shoulder function at two-year follow-up. PMID:28194290

  19. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Sha, O. P.; Misra, S. C.

    2010-09-01

    Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor) or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  20. Madness Decolonized?: Madness as Transnational Identity in Gail Hornstein's Agnes's Jacket.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gavin

    2017-02-13

    The US psychologist Gail Hornstein's monograph, Agnes's Jacket: A Psychologist's Search for the Meanings of Madness (2009), is an important intervention in the identity politics of the mad movement. Hornstein offers a resignified vision of mad identity that embroiders the central trope of an "anti-colonial" struggle to reclaim the experiential world "colonized" by psychiatry. A series of literal and figurative appeals makes recourse to the inner world and (corresponding) cultural world of the mad as well as to the ethno-symbolic cultural materials of dormant nationhood. This rhetoric is augmented by a model in which the mad comprise a diaspora without an origin, coalescing into a single transnational community. The mad are also depicted as persons displaced from their metaphorical homeland, the "inner" world "colonized" by the psychiatric regime. There are a number of difficulties with Hornstein's rhetoric, however. Her "ethnicity-and-rights" response to the oppression of the mad is symptomatic of Western parochialism, while her proposed transmutation of putative psychopathology from limit upon identity to parameter of successful identity is open to contestation. Moreover, unless one accepts Hornstein's porous vision of mad identity, her self-ascribed insider status in relation to the mad community may present a problematic "re-colonization" of mad experience.

  1. OrthoJacket: an active FES-hybrid orthosis for the paralysed upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Schill, Oliver; Wiegand, Roland; Schmitz, Bastian; Matthies, Richard; Eck, Ute; Pylatiuk, Christian; Reischl, Markus; Schulz, Stefan; Rupp, Rüdiger

    2011-02-01

    The loss of the grasp function in cervical spinal cord injured (SCI) patients leads to life-long dependency on caregivers and to a tremendous decrease of the quality of life. This article introduces the novel non-invasive modular hybrid neuro-orthosis OrthoJacket for the restoration of the restricted or completely lost hand and arm functions in high tetraplegic SCI individuals. The primary goal of the wearable orthosis is to improve the paralysed upper extremity function and, thus, to enhance a patient's independence in activities of daily living. The system combines the advantage of orthotics in mechanically stabilising joints together with the possibilities of functional electrical stimulation for activation of paralysed muscles. In patients with limited capacity, for force generation, flexible fluidic actuators are used to support the movement. Thus, the system is not only intended for functional restoration but also for training. Several sensor systems together with an intelligent signal processing allow for automatic adaptation to the anatomical and neurological individualities of SCI patients. The integration of novel user interfaces based on residual muscle activities and detection of movement intentions by real-time data mining methods will enable the user to autonomously control the system in a natural and cooperative way.

  2. 1991 worldwide offshore contractors and equipment directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book is the information source-book for the international offshore oil industry. Within this single convenient reference you'll find addresses, phone numbers, telex, fax and cable listings for more than 3,500 companies and their key personnel in the drilling, workover, construction, service/supply/manufacturers, geophysical, diving and transportation segments of the offshore industry. Along with this vital contact information, the authors include such pertinent data as rig specifications, ownership, an equipment index, a company index and a current survey of offshore production systems from Offshore Incorporating the Oilman.

  3. Numerical experiments in ringing of offshore systems under viscous loads

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, K.R.; Kareem, A.

    1996-12-31

    A phenomenon which has recently received much attention in offshore engineering is the ringing response of structures. This high frequency transient type response has been observed in nature, particularly in tension leg platforms (TLPs). Given the implications of this behavior on the fatigue life of tendons, it is important that it be considered for response analysis. Significant progress has been made in recent years in identifying the nonlinear mechanisms that induce ringing in complex offshore structural systems. This introductory study-uses a simple model to numerically demonstrates several of the more salient features that are commonly cited in current literature, and shows that viscous loads may result in inducing ringing type response of members under certain conditions. Ringing response in pitch due to viscous loading is simulated on a column piercing the surface, and the significant contributing force mechanisms are identified. System characteristics are altered to ameliorate the performance of these systems.

  4. What can wave energy learn from offshore oil and gas?

    PubMed

    Jefferys, E R

    2012-01-28

    This title may appear rather presumptuous in the light of the progress made by the leading wave energy devices. However, there may still be some useful lessons to be learnt from current 'offshore' practice, and there are certainly some awful warnings from the past. Wave energy devices and the marine structures used in oil and gas exploration as well as production share a common environment and both are subject to wave, wind and current loads, which may be evaluated with well-validated, albeit imperfect, tools. Both types of structure can be designed, analysed and fabricated using similar tools and technologies. They fulfil very different missions and are subject to different economic and performance requirements; hence 'offshore' design tools must be used appropriately in wave energy project and system design, and 'offshore' cost data should be adapted for 'wave' applications. This article reviews the similarities and differences between the fields and highlights the differing economic environments; offshore structures are typically a small to moderate component of field development cost, while wave power devices will dominate overall system cost. The typical 'offshore' design process is summarized and issues such as reliability-based design and design of not normally manned structures are addressed. Lessons learned from poor design in the past are discussed to highlight areas where care is needed, and wave energy-specific design areas are reviewed. Opportunities for innovation and optimization in wave energy project and device design are discussed; wave energy projects must ultimately compete on a level playing field with other routes to low CO₂ energy and/or energy efficiency. This article is a personal viewpoint and not an expression of a ConocoPhillips position.

  5. 76 FR 39410 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ..., of offshore mineral and oil operations including geophysical services; (b) One member representing construction of offshore exploration and recovery facilities; (c) One member representing employees of... the exploration for and the recovery of offshore mineral resources. Registered lobbyists are...

  6. Offshore drilling and production structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, R.K.; Palmer, H.E.; Stenning, D.G.

    1982-02-09

    The invention relates to an off-shore marine structure that provides an elevated support for a drilling and/or production platform. A structure comprised of three interlocking components is provided, the first component being a large foundation base installed on the sea bed; the second being a conical shaped support component which is engagable with the foundation base and which, releasably carries the third platform supporting component. In the preferred form, the platform supporting component comprises a centrally-disposed vertical column, means being provided to facilitate engagement of the column with the platform and the second component and to subsequently elevate the platform to an operating height above sea level.

  7. Seismic assessment for offshore pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, R.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Blaker, F.; Nadim, F.

    1995-12-31

    An international consensus on seismic design criteria for onshore pipelines has been established during the last thirty years. The need to assess seismic design for offshore pipelines has not been similarly recognized. In this paper, the geotechnical hazard for a pipeline routed across steep slopes and irregular terrains affected by earthquakes, is discussed. The integrity of both natural and artificial load bearing supports is assessed.d The response of the pipeline to direct excitation from soil or through discontinuous, sparsely distributed natural or artificial supports, is commented.

  8. The carry-through of residues of maleic hydrazide from treated potatoes, following manufacture into potato crisps and 'jacket' potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Wilkinson, K; Reynolds, S L

    1998-07-01

    Potatoes, which had been treated 'in the field' with a commercial formulation of maleic hydrazide, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps on a factory production line using standard manufacturing conditions. Samples were taken at strategic points throughout the process and analysed to determine the degree of carry-through of residues. Results demonstrated that ca 56% of the maleic hydrazide residue in a potato could be carried through into the potato crisps, irrespective of which type of crisp was being manufactured. Results from a similarly constructed study investigating the fate of pesticides applied post-harvest showed that carry-through was less than 10%. This difference is explained in terms of the different modes of action of the two classes of pesticides being investigated. It is known that, as maleic hydrazide is a systemic pesticide, it will be located within the flesh of the potato tuber and is therefore likely to be protected from the various stages of the crisping process. However, the post-harvest non-systemic pesticides are applied to the exterior surface of the tuber and are therefore not likely to be protected in the same way. The results also showed that, due to the concentration effect caused by the loss of moisture during crisp manufacture, the levels of maleic hydrazide residues in crisps (on a mg/kg product basis) were approximately twice those measured in the original potatoes.

  9. Structural features offshore northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yicheng Yang, Eason; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Chiu, Chien-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    The area offshore northern Taiwan is the place where East China Sea Shelf extends into the Southern Okinawa Trough, and where pre-Pleistocene arc-continental collision had occurred. Comparison between fault distribution in the area with previously published results suggests that the fault distribution and regional structural framework are still controversial. Using marine multichannel seismic reflection data collected in 3 marine geophysical survey cruises, we remapped the fault distribution in the northern offshore area of Taiwan. By analyzing all the seismic profiles using the KINGDOM suite (a seismic interpretation software), a new fault distribution map is presented, and a subsurface unconformity PRSB (Pliocene reflection sequence boundary) is identified. Six major NE-SW trending high-angle normal faults cut the PRSB can be traced to the fault systems on land northernmost Taiwan. These normal faults are located between the Southern Okinawa Trough and the East China Sea continental shelf basin, and have been suggested to be reactivated from pre-existing reverse faults. The offsets of fault ramps in PRSB increase toward southeast. The isopach map of the study area compiled shows that sediment strata overlying PRSB thin toward northwest.

  10. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2014-08-27

    This report is the third annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market. It includes the following major sections: Section 1: key data on developments in the offshore wind technology sector and the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the United States; Section 2: analysis of policy developments at the federal and state levels that have been effective in advancing offshore wind deployment in the United States; Section 3: analysis of actual and projected economic impact, including regional development and job creation; Section 4: analysis of developments in relevant sectors of the economy with the potential to affect offshore wind deployment in the United States

  11. Underbalanced drilling benefits now available offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Vozniak, J.P.; Cuthbertson, B.; Nessa, D.O.

    1997-05-01

    Offshore underbalanced drilling (UBD) is a reality. Applications in older, partially depleted fields and new fields are being considered. However, low productivity reservoirs and fields with sub normal pressures causing drilling problems are currently the main targets for offshore UBD. With proper planning and the correct technique, both jointed pipe and coiled tubing UBD drilling operations have been carried out offshore with success. The main concerns for offshore UBD have been altered drilling practices and surface production system operation. These issues have been examined and equipment has been designed and tested to address them. Environmental, safety and health issues are paramount and have been studied carefully. Detailed well planning, engineering, and flow modeling have proven critical for successful offshore UBD operations. Examples are given from oil and gas fields.

  12. Ice island creation, drift, recurrences, mechanical properties, and interactions with arctic offshore oil production structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Li, Fucheng; Lu, Mingchi.

    1991-03-01

    Research and engineering studies on first-year sea ice for over two decades has resulted in the design, construction, and operation of jacket platforms, of artificial islands, and of massive gravity structures which routinely withstand moving sea ice of thickness up to 2 meters. However, the less-common interactions between such structures and moving multiyear ice ([ge]3 meters thick), and also moving ice islands (10 to 60 meters thick) remain as the unknown and potentially most serious hazard for Arctic offshore structures. In this study, research was addressed across the complete span of remaining questions regarding such features. Ice island components, thickness distributions, scenarios and models for the interactions of massive ice features with offshore structures, all were considered. Ice island morphology and calving studies were directed at the cluster of 19 ice islands produced in a calving from the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on Ellesmere Island in 1983, and also at a calving from the Milne Ice Shelf in 1988. The statistics of ice island dynamics, on both a short-term small-scale basis and also on a long-term basis, were studied. Typical wind velocities of 5 to 7.5 meters per second led to ice island speeds of about 0.014 of the wind speed, at an angle of 20[degrees] to the right of the wind direction. Ice island samples were tested for their stress/strain characteristics. Compressive strength values ranged from 1.64 MPa at a strain rate of 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] s[sup [minus]1] to 6.75 MPa at a strain rate of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] s[sup [minus]1]. Scenarios for ice island/structure interactions were developed, and protective countermeasures such as spray ice and ice rubble barriers were suggested. Additional computer modeling of structure/ice interactions for massive ice features is recommended.

  13. Aeroelastic Modeling of Offshore Turbines and Support Structures in Hurricane-Prone Regions (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, R.

    2014-03-01

    US offshore wind turbines (OWTs) will likely have to contend with hurricanes and the associated loading conditions. Current industry standards do not account for these design load cases (DLCs), thus a new approach is required to guarantee that the OWTs achieve an appropriate level of reliability. In this study, a sequentially coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic modeling technique was used to address two design approaches: 1.) The ABS (American Bureau of Shipping) approach; and 2.) The Hazard Curve or API (American Petroleum Institute) approach. The former employs IEC partial load factors (PSFs) and 100-yr return-period (RP) metocean events. The latter allows setting PSFs and RP to a prescribed level of system reliability. The 500-yr RP robustness check (appearing in [2] and [3] upcoming editions) is a good indicator of the target reliability for L2 structures. CAE tools such as NREL's FAST and Bentley's' SACS (offshore analysis and design software) can be efficiently coupled to simulate system loads under hurricane DLCs. For this task, we augmented the latest FAST version (v. 8) to include tower aerodynamic drag that cannot be ignored in hurricane DLCs. In this project, a 6 MW turbine was simulated on a typical 4-legged jacket for a mid-Atlantic site. FAST-calculated tower base loads were fed to SACS at the interface level (transition piece); SACS added hydrodynamic and wind loads on the exposed substructure, and calculated mudline overturning moments, and member and joint utilization. Results show that CAE tools can be effectively used to compare design approaches for the design of OWTs in hurricane regions and to achieve a well-balanced design, where reliability levels and costs are optimized.

  14. Simplified rotor load models and fatigue damage estimates for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Muskulus, M

    2015-02-28

    The aim of rotor load models is to characterize and generate the thrust loads acting on an offshore wind turbine. Ideally, the rotor simulation can be replaced by time series from a model with a few parameters and state variables only. Such models are used extensively in control system design and, as a potentially new application area, structural optimization of support structures. Different rotor load models are here evaluated for a jacket support structure in terms of fatigue lifetimes of relevant structural variables. All models were found to be lacking in accuracy, with differences of more than 20% in fatigue load estimates. The most accurate models were the use of an effective thrust coefficient determined from a regression analysis of dynamic thrust loads, and a novel stochastic model in state-space form. The stochastic model explicitly models the quasi-periodic components obtained from rotational sampling of turbulent fluctuations. Its state variables follow a mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Although promising, more work is needed on how to determine the parameters of the stochastic model and before accurate lifetime predictions can be obtained without comprehensive rotor simulations.

  15. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F.; Lackner, Matthew A.

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  16. NREL Offshore Balance-of-System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, Michael; Maples, Benjamin; Smith, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has investigated the potential for 20% of nationwide electricity demand to be generated from wind by 2030 and, more recently, 35% by 2050. Achieving this level of wind power generation may require the development and deployment of offshore wind technologies. DOE (2008) has indicated that reaching these 2030 and 2050 scenarios could result in approximately 10% and 20%, respectively, of wind energy generation to come from offshore resources. By the end of 2013, 6.5 gigawatts of offshore wind were installed globally. The first U.S. project, the Block Island Wind Farm off the coast of Rhode Island, has recently begun operations. One of the major reasons that offshore wind development in the United States is lagging behind global trends is the high capital expenditures required. An understanding of the costs and associated drivers of building a commercial-scale offshore wind plant in the United States will inform future research and help U.S. investors feel more confident in offshore wind development. In an effort to explain these costs, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Offshore Balance-of-System model.

  17. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone. Bloater is abundant in the offshore zone but appears restricted to depths shallower than 150 m (Selgeby and Hoff 1996; Stockwell et al. 2010), although it occuppied greater depths several decades ago (Dryer 1966; Peck 1977). Shortjaw is relatively rare in the offshore zone (Hoff and Todd 2004; Gorman and Hoff 2009; Gorman and Todd 2007). Lake whitefish is also known to frequent bathymetric depths >100 m (Yule et al. 2008b). In this chapter, we develop a conceptual model of the offshore food web based on data collected during 2001-2005 and on inferences from species interactions known for the nearshore fish community. We then develop a framework for examination of energy and nutrient movements within the pelagic and benthic habitats of the offshore zone and across the offshore and nearshore zones. To document research results.

  18. Geology of offshore central California

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, D.S.; Lewis, S.D.

    1988-03-01

    The offshore central California margin records Mesozoic and Cenozoic events attributable to continental and oceanic plate interactions. Terranes, some carried thousands of kilometers northward on the Kula and/or Farallon plates, were accreted to North America by late Eocene. Following accretion to North America, terranes along the margin were silvered and redistributed by strike-slip motion along the San Andreas and related faults. During Oligocene global low sea level, much of the coastal margin was subareal and erosion stripped Upper Cretaceous and Eocene strata from elevated basement blocks. These basement blocks subsequently subsided along large-displacement near-coastal faults, and shallow-water marine upper Oligocene and/or lower Miocene volcanics on the present shelf were covered by hemipelagic sediment at bathyal to mid-bathyal depths. This subsidence coincided with tectonism and significant changes in water depth elsewhere around the Pacific margin, and may have been related to a change in Pacific and North American plate relative motion that produced transtensional motion along the California margin. Transtension may have initiated both rupture and volcanism along the San Andreas fault system at about 23 Ma and wrench tectonic deformation on the shelf. During the late Miocene, growing structural highs on the shelf edge formed elongate shelf basins. A compressional component in Pacific and North America plate relative motion, which began between 5 and 3 Ma, produced strike-parallel folds and compressional faults that now dominate the structural grain of the offshore basins. Continued compressive deformation along coastal California is documented by active thrust faults, rapid coastal uplift, and earthquake focal mechanism solutions indicative of northeast-southwest compression.

  19. Current and future offshore activities in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hnatiuk, J.

    1987-06-01

    The development of innovative exploratory drilling systems for Canada's harsh Arctic offshore areas over the past decade and future activity in these areas, including possible production concepts, are discussed. The results can be applied in other Arctic areas of the world, including offshore Alaska. This operating experience will advance technology and serve as a basis for the design of Arctic offshore production and transportation systems. Unique technology has been developed and successfully used in the discovery of major accumulations of hyrodcarbons. Continued technological advances are anticipated to have widespread Arctic applications in both exploratory and production operations.

  20. Offshore drilling to increase in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A mid-year report presents a worldwide overview of offshore drilling operations. The Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea are posting substantial gains as companies rush to drill the millions of acres acquired in those sectors both last year and in previous offerings. The Middle East, Latin America and the Asia/Pacific offshore theaters will see only slight increases. The Mediterranean and African regions are expected to sustain declines. A region-by-region summary of the 1984 offshore forecast is presented showing exploration and appraisal activities, as well as development for all of these areas.

  1. Certification of offshore mooring steel wire ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Lohne, P.W.

    1996-12-31

    The trend to produce oil in increasingly deeper water has led to the development of floating production solutions for the exploitation of the energy resources in these areas. It is a fact that steel wire ropes have been used and are being proposed as line segments in the majority of the mooring systems of these units/ships. This paper specifies requirements for the materials, design, manufacture and testing of large diameter offshore mooring steel wire ropes and may serve as a technical reference document in contractual matters between the purchaser and the manufacturer. Typical applications covered are permanently moored floating production systems (FPS), offshore loading systems and mobile offshore units.

  2. Offshore drilling, construction: Fortunes tied to stable gas prices

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.; Marsh, T.

    1993-01-01

    Significantly improved US natural gas prices fueled an upswing in offshore drilling in the Gulf of Mexico in late 1992. Stabilized gas prices will be necessary to support both the off-shore drilling and construction markets in 1993 and beyond. The article discusses both these segments in detail: offshore drilling and offshore construction.

  3. 76 FR 11503 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... offshore supply vessels or other vessels, of offshore mineral and oil operations including geophysical; (b... environmental interests; and, (e) One person representing enterprises specializing in offshore drilling. To be... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard,...

  4. Verification of the New FAST v8 Capabilities for the Modeling of Fixed-Bottom Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barahona, B.; Jonkman, J.; Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Hayman, G.

    2014-12-01

    Coupled dynamic analysis has an important role in the design of offshore wind turbines because the systems are subject to complex operating conditions from the combined action of waves and wind. The aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool FAST v8 is framed in a novel modularization scheme that facilitates such analysis. Here, we present the verification of new capabilities of FAST v8 to model fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. We analyze a series of load cases with both wind and wave loads and compare the results against those from the previous international code comparison projects-the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 23 Subtask 2 Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) and the IEA Wind Task 30 OC3 Continued (OC4) projects. The verification is performed using the NREL 5-MW reference turbine supported by monopile, tripod, and jacket substructures. The substructure structural-dynamics models are built within the new SubDyn module of FAST v8, which uses a linear finite-element beam model with Craig-Bampton dynamic system reduction. This allows the modal properties of the substructure to be synthesized and coupled to hydrodynamic loads and tower dynamics. The hydrodynamic loads are calculated using a new strip theory approach for multimember substructures in the updated HydroDyn module of FAST v8. These modules are linked to the rest of FAST through the new coupling scheme involving mapping between module-independent spatial discretizations and a numerically rigorous implicit solver. The results show that the new structural dynamics, hydrodynamics, and coupled solutions compare well to the results from the previous code comparison projects.

  5. The carry-through of residues of thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham from potatoes following manufacture into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Reynolds, S L

    1996-01-01

    Potatoes, commercially treated with thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps at a crisp factory using standard manufacturing conditions. A multi-residue method based on gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was developed and used to determine pesticide residue levels in the potatoes and potato crisps. Results showed that the residues of all three pesticides were significantly reduced to less than 2% and less than 10% of the maximum theoretical residue carry-through level for potato crisps and jacket potato crisps respectively.

  6. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Greene, H. Gary; Cochrane, Guy R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Watt, Janet T.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chin, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-12-03

    Potential marine benthic habitat types in the Offshore of Fort Ross map area include unconsolidated continental-shelf sediments, mixed continental-shelf substrate, and hard continental-shelf substrate. Rocky shelf outcrops and rubble are considered the primary habitat type for rockfish and lingcod, both of which are recreationally and commercially important species.

  7. Offshore LNG (liquefied natural gas) production and storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A barge, outfitted with gas liquefaction processing equipment and liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks, is suggested as a possible way to exploit remote offshore gas production. A similar study with a barge-mounted methanol plant was conducted several years ago, also using remote offshore feed gas. This barge-mounted, LNG system is bow-moored to a single point mooring through which feed gas is piped via seafloor pipeline from a nearby gas production facility. The barge is arranged with personnel accommodation forward, LNG storage midships, and gas liquefaction processing equipment aft. A flare boom is cantilevered off the barge's stern. The basis of design stipulates feed gas properties, area environmental data, gas liquefaction process, LNG storage tank type plus other parameters desirable in a floating process plant. The latter were concerned with safety, low maintenance characteristics, and the fact that the process barge also would serve as an offshore port where LNG export tankers would moor periodically. A brief summary of results for a barge-mounted methanol plant from an earlier study is followed then by a comparison of LNG and methanol alternatives.

  8. Offshore sand resources for coastal erosion control in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.E.; Penland, S.; McBride, R.A. ); Suter, J.R. ); Williams, J. )

    1990-09-01

    An inventory of existing geophysical data supplemented by more than 15,000 km of high-resolution seismic profiles and 400 vibracores collected cooperatively by the Louisiana Geological Survey and US Geological Survey since 1981 indicates that a wide range of aggregate minerals occurs on the continental shelf in a variety of depositional settings. The distribution of these deposits is controlled by the geometry of the preexisting fluvial and deltaic channel systems and the stratigraphic signature of the Holocene Transgression across these features. The geology of coastal and offshore Louisiana is tied to the depositional history of the Mississippi River. Offshore of the delta plain, five types of aggregate sources can be identified: inner shelf shoals, submerged barrier islands, tidal inlets, distributary channels, and barrier platforms. This paper describes the geology of offshore Louisiana, the available geophysical data sets, and the distribution of aggregate mineral resources. On the continental shelf of the Mississippi River delta plain, two extensive seismic survey grids have been developed by the Louisiana Geological Survey and US Geological Survey. The most prospective resources found are the huge sand bodies of Ship Shoal and associated distributaries, Cat Island Pass tidal channels and associated tidal deltas, and Barataria Pass/Grand Terre tidal channels and associated tidal deltas. East of the mouth of the Mississippi River are the Chandeleur Islands, where LGS identified seven major sand resource targets, truncated barrier-spit and tidal inlet deposits, submerged beach ridges, and distributaries associated with abandoned St. Bernard delta complexes. Abundant sand resources can be found in offshore Louisiana. Many of the sand bodies contain heavy minerals, but their concentration and distribution is unknown. Other potential sand resources not yet adequately explored include Sabine Bank, the Outer Shoal, and the St. Bernard shoal.

  9. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  10. Offshore oil in the alaskan arctic.

    PubMed

    Weeks, W F; Weller, G

    1984-07-27

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent nature gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas, of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  11. Civil engineering in the Arctic offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, F.L.; Machemehl, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the current state of practice and theory in the civil engineering aspects of offshore development in the Arctic. It also covers the emerging concepts and requirements, research and development needs, and a critique of present undergraduate programmes.

  12. Engineering Challenges for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Jonkman, J.; Sclavounos, P.

    2007-09-01

    The major objective of this paper is to survey the technical challenges that must be overcome to develop deepwater offshore wind energy technologies and to provide a framework from which the first-order economics can be assessed.

  13. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs.

  14. Psychosocial burden among offshore drilling platform employees.

    PubMed

    Leszczyńska, Irena; Jeżewska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Conditions of work on offshore drilling platforms are particularly hard due to extreme environmental situations created both by nature and technological processes. Oil drilling workers employed on the open sea are potentially exposed to permanently high stress. Apart from the obvious objective factors affecting drilling platform employees, a great role in the general work-related stress level is played by the working conditions and work-related psychosocial factors, defined according to Karask's concept as demands, control, and social support. A total of 184 drill platform workers were examined using objective and subjective research methods. The level of subjective stress among drilling platform workers is lower than the level of objective stress and the stress resulting from prognoses related with specificity of work in extremely hard conditions (audit). The examinations of drilling platform workers reveal a positive role of stress in psychological adaptation, being a special case of the "work ethos" and attachment to the firm. In such investigations of work-related stress on drilling platforms, which are very specific workplaces, a multi-aspect character, sociological and economic aspects, organizational culture conditions in the firm, and a tendency to conceal ailments and the stress experienced should be taken into account. It is important to apply measures referring to at least three different types of evidence (objective demands, subjective stress, health problems reported). Otherwise, the result reflecting work-related stress may not be objective and far from the truth.

  15. Fracture Control for Fixed Offshore Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    CRA&I DTIC TAB Unannounced E Jfstification Avil a’idjor iv Listing of Acronyms and Symbols ABS American Bureau of Shipping API American Petroleum Institute API...the American Petroleum Institute which is the primary design guide for American fixed offshore structures (see reference listings) ASCE American...Planning, Designing, and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms," API RP-2A, Thirteenth Edition, published by the American Petroleum Institute , Washington

  16. New perspectives in offshore wind energy

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  17. New perspectives in offshore wind energy.

    PubMed

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-02-28

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies.

  18. Arctic offshore drilling: a new challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmore, S.B.

    1985-11-01

    The arctic offshore environment provides the drilling industry with its greatest challenge yet. Problems due to sea ice, high wind, extreme cold and poor bottom soil have required the design of special structures appropriate only for arctic offshore drilling. The challenge lies not just in the obvious factors of temperature and ice, but also the basic physics of ice problems are not well understood. The arctic environment and the petroleum industry are discussed.

  19. 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce

    2014-08-25

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market.This 3rd annual report focuses on new developments that have occurred in 2014. The report provides stakeholders with a reliable and consistent data source addressing entry barriers and U.S. competitiveness in the offshore wind market. Available for download are both the full report and the report's underlying data.

  20. Arctic and offshore research. Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology are performing the following activities in Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR): (1) AOR Energy-Related Technology Data Base Development; (2) AOR seminars and workshops; (3) Arctic and Offshore Energy Research Coordination; (4) Arctic and Offshore Research which includes analysis of ice island generation, and prediction of drift paths; field and laboratory determination of (1) the engineering properties of multiyear ice, and (2) the interaction of multiyear ice with offshore structures; analysis of ice gouging in deep water (150 to 210 feet) in the Arctic Ocean, and numerical simulation modeling of the gouging process; analysis of the location and origin of the ice-ridging shear zone; analysis of sea-ice thickness using airborne radar sensing techniques; improvement of permafrost detection techniques, and analysis of permafrost characteristics; investigation of the effects of ice accretion and corrosion on offshore structures; measurements of seismic acceleration and velocity for analyzing vibration in and stability of off-shore structures; detection of oil spills that occur below the Arctic ice pack; analysis of the effects of frost heave and corrosion on pipelines; (5) Advanced Recovery Technologies; and (6) Subice Systems Development. Current activities include determining the Arctic bibliographic data base and initiating most of the research described above (except multiyear ice properties, pipeline research, and subice systems development). 10 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Problems unique to offshore measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    Most of us have arrived at this meeting in some kind of company provided transportation. This is supplied in order for us to do our assigned jobs. These may be trucks, or cars, or even helicopters, and maybe boats. All who are involved in the offshore industry know that transportation is the cost costly of all. The helicopter bill for our company is a bill which costs us somewhere in the 9 million dollar range. Since this costs us so much, we are constantly looking at ways to reduce this. The helicopters we use cost us $510.00 a flying hour plus $28,000.00 a month for lease. These helicopters fly in the neighborhood of 140 miles per hour. You can quickly see how fast the cost can climb. We have two technicians, along with a pilot, and approx. 400 lbs of test gear and spare parts. You have to carry all you think you will need for the day`s activities because it`s a long and costly trip to go pick up some gasket material or an orifice plate.

  2. Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational stratigraphic database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International Stratigraphic Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.

  3. Medical evacuations from offshore structures.

    PubMed

    Norman, J N; Ballantine, B N; Brebner, J A; Brown, B; Gauld, S J; Mawdsley, J; Roythorne, C; Valentine, M J; Wilcock, S E

    1988-09-01

    A retrospective study was carried out on medical evacuations from the installations of four major oil or gas producing companies, or both, operating offshore on the United Kingdom continental shelf. The study covered 1976-84 during which 2162 evacuations were recorded. Of these, 137 (7.7%) required the use of a chartered helicopter. In the earlier years of the study there were substantially more injuries sustained than episodes of illness recorded but from 1980 onwards the cases of illness equalled those of injury. Using the International Classification of Diseases, the digestive system was responsible for most evacuations for illness and of those, about half (115 evacuations) were for dental problems. Suspected fractures were responsible for about one third of those evacuated for an injury but injuries of hands and eye conditions were particularly common, accounting for 25% of all evacuations. As the age of the evacuee increased the proportion of evacuations for injury decreased and that for illness increased. The mean age for evacuation for injury was 28.3 years and for illness 34.4 years. Few evacuations were required for those aged over 45.

  4. Offshore oil and the coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A radical, accelerated 5-year plan to offer 875 million acres (of which 20 million could actually be leased for oil and gas extraction purposes) on the outer continental shelf (OCS) could result in the release of large volumes of drilling wastes and spillage (Environ. Sci. Tech., Nov. 1981). The actual leasing, under the 5-year plan proposed by Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt, could amount to 4-5 million acres per year—about 10 times as much, on the average, as had been leased over the past 25 years. Regulations on the environmental effects may be less complicated yet more effective in that impact statements will cover large areas instead of the tract-by-tract statements now required. A number of the new offshore leasing areas, for example, the Alaska Coast (Cook Inlet, Beaufort Bay, Gulf of Alaska), the Blake Plateau and Baltimore Canyon, and the Georges Bank, are extremely valuable in terms of renewable resources and potentially fragile in terms of environmental conditions. Fishing interests in these areas have produced considerable controversy over the planned sale of petroleum rights.

  5. Submarine landslides hazard offshore Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Oded

    2016-04-01

    Submarine landslides pose significant natural hazards. They can damage seafloor infrastructure, such as that used to recover oil and gas or seafloor telecommunication cables, and even generate tsunamis. We recently mapped 447 submarine landslides across the east Mediterranean continental slope, offshore Israel (hereafter the studied area). The mapped landslides are found at water depths of 130 m to 1,000 m and their volume ranges 10-5 - 100 km3. Landslide scars are typically related to a critical slope angle of >4° . Landslides at the northern part of the studied area are spatially associated with fault scarps and are smaller than the ones on the southern part. In this work we evaluate the potential hazard to population and to on- and off- shore facilities posed by submarine landslides across the studied area. We integrate three independent probabilities: (1) the probability for a landslide event of a given volume, based on the size distribution of the mapped landslides; (2) the probability for a landslide event in a given time, based on the reoccurrence time of triggering earthquakes with M >7, and on a 50,000 years general time frame derived from submarine landslides identified across the Mediterranean Sea; (3) the probability for a landslide event in a given area, based on the distribution of slopes exceeding the critical angle. Overall, the fraction of potentially destructive landslides (size > 0.1 km3) is small, 0.05. Thus, considering typical planning time scales of less than 100 years, the calculated hazard is only moderate. The small fraction of landslides with tsunamogenic potential (size > 1 km3), suggests that the hazard for landslide-induced tsunamis along the open slope part of the studied area is small. Landslides in the southern part of the studied area are larger and thus present a somewhat bigger potential source of tsunami waves.

  6. Offshore oil gas trends in ROVs tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.R. )

    1994-04-01

    The ROVs that operate in today's offshore environment bear little or no resemblance to those which first began supporting the oil and gas work requirements less than 15 years ago. In that short span of time, an explosion of subsea technology has occurred, rendering older equipment obsolete and expanding subsea remote intervention capabilities beyond the horizon of intervention tasks originally envisioned. Today's offshore work ROVs employ the latest in robotics, fiver optics, acoustics, video, and computer technologies, and routinely achieve better than 90 percent operational availability. Leading offshore ROV operations companies have demonstrated less than 1 percent down-time over thousands of hours of operation. As the offshore oil and gas market evolves, the ever-expanding capabilities of the work ROV plays a major role in shaping the operational concepts employed in subsea oil and gas field exploration, development, and production. This paper explores the capabilities of available ROV systems in use offshore today, the economic trends driving ROV technology development, and the new trends in the employment of ROVs and their associated sensors and tooling systems.

  7. Operational management of offshore energy assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolios, A. J.; Martinez Luengo, M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy assets and especially those deployed offshore are subject to a variety of harsh operational and environmental conditions which lead to deterioration of their performance and structural capacity over time. The aim of reduction of CAPEX in new installations shifts focus to operational management to monitor and assess performance of critical assets ensuring their fitness for service throughout their service life and also to provide appropriate and effective information towards requalification or other end of life scenarios, optimizing the OPEX. Over the last decades, the offshore oil & gas industry has developed and applied various approaches in operational management of assets through Structural Health and Condition Monitoring (SHM/CM) systems which can be, at a certain level, transferable to offshore renewable installations. This paper aims to highlight the key differences between offshore oil & gas and renewable energy assets from a structural integrity and reliability perspective, provide a comprehensive overview of different approaches that are available and applicable, and distinguish the benefits of such systems in the efficient operation of offshore energy assets.

  8. A framework for offshore vendor capability development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf Wibisono, Yogi; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Irianto, Dradjad; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a common practice conducted by companies, especially in developed countries, by relocating one or more their business processes to other companies abroad, especially in developing countries. This practice grows rapidly owing to the ease of accessing qualified vendors with a lower cost. Vendors in developing countries compete more intensely to acquire offshore projects. Indonesia is still below India, China, Malaysia as main global offshore destinations. Vendor capability is among other factors that contribute to the inability of Indonesian vendor in competing with other companies in the global market. Therefore, it is essential to study how to increase the vendor's capability in Indonesia, in the context of global offshore outsourcing. Previous studies on the vendor's capability mainly focus on capabilities without considering the dynamic of capabilities due to the environmental changes. In order to be able to compete with competitors and maintain the competitive advantage, it is necessary for vendors to develop their capabilities continuously. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework that describes offshore vendor capability development along the client-vendor relationship stages. The framework consists of three main components, i.e. the stages of client-vendor relationship, the success of each stage, and the capabilities of vendor at each stage.

  9. New OBS network deployment offshore Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pape, Florian; Bean, Chris; Craig, David; Jousset, Philippe; Horan, Clare; Hogg, Colin; Donne, Sarah; McCann, Hannah; Möllhoff, Martin; Kirk, Henning; Ploetz, Aline

    2016-04-01

    With the presence of the stormy NE Atlantic, Ireland is ideally located to investigate further our understanding of ocean generated microseisms and use noise correlation methods to develop seismic imaging in marine environments as well as time-lapse monitoring. In order to study the microseismic activity offshore Ireland, 10 Broad Band Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) units including hydrophones have been deployed in January 2016 across the shelf offshore Donegal and out into the Rockall Trough. This survey represents the first Broadband passive study in this part of the NE Atlantic. The instruments will be recovered in August 2016 providing 8 months worth of data to study microseisms but also the offshore seismic activity in the area. One of the main goal of the survey is to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of dominant microseism source regions, close to the microseism sources. Additionally we will study the coupling of seismic and acoustic signals at the sea bed and its evolution in both the deep water and continental shelf areas. Furthermore, the survey also aims to investigate further the relationship between sea state conditions (e.g. wave height, period), seafloor pressure variations and seismic data recorded on both land and seafloor. Finally, the deployed OBS network is also the first ever attempt to closely monitor local offshore earthquakes in Ireland. Ireland seismicity although relatively low can reduce slope stability and poses the possibility of triggering large offshore landslides and local tsunamis.

  10. Assessment of Ports for Offshore Wind Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Elkinton, Chris; Blatiak, Alicia; Ameen, Hafsa

    2014-03-21

    As offshore wind energy develops in the United States, port facilities will become strategic hubs in the offshore wind farm supply chain because all plant and transport logistics must transit through these facilities. Therefore, these facilities must provide suitable infrastructure to meet the specific requirements of the offshore wind industry. As a result, it is crucial that federal and state policy-makers and port authorities take effective action to position ports in the offshore wind value chain to take best advantage of their economic potential. The U.S. Department of Energy tasked the independent consultancy GL Garrad Hassan (GL GH) with carrying out a review of the current capability of U.S. ports to support offshore wind project development and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities related to upgrading this capability to support the growth of as many as 54 gigawatts of offshore wind installed in U.S. waters by 2030. The GL GH report and the open-access web-based Ports Assessment Tool resulting from this study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations. The offshore wind industry in the United States is still in its infancy and this study finds that additional port facilities capable of supporting offshore wind projects are needed to meet the anticipated project build-out by 2030; however, no significant barriers exist to prevent the development of such facilities. Furthermore, significant port capabilities are in place today with purpose-build port infrastructure currently being built. While there are currently no offshore wind farms operating in the United States, much of the infrastructure critical to the success of such projects does exist, albeit in the service of other industries. This conclusion is based

  11. Federal offshore statistics: leasing - exploration - production - revenue

    SciTech Connect

    Essertier, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Federal Offshore Statistics is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the Federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Statistics are presented under the following topics: (1) highlights, (2) leasing, (3) exploration and development, (4) production and revenue, (5) federal offshore production by ranking operator, 1983, (6) reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources, and (7) oil pollution in the world's oceans.

  12. Trophic connections in Lake Superior Part I: the offshore fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, A.E.; Hrabik, T.R.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed diet linkages within the offshore (> 80 m bathymetric depth) food web of Lake Superior are currently not well identified. We used analyses of fish stomach contents to create an empirically based food web model of the Lake Superior offshore fish community. Stomachs were collected seasonally (spring, summer, and fall) from nine offshore locations in 2005, using bottom and midwater trawls. In total, 2643 stomachs representing 12 fish species were examined. The predominant fish species collected were deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii), siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet), kiyi (Coregonus kiyi), and cisco (Coregonus artedi). Mysis diluviana was the most common prey item, indicating that changes in Mysis abundance could have a profound impact on the entire offshore food web. Mysis was the primary diet item of deepwater sculpin (≥ 53% by mass) and kiyi (≥ 96% by mass) regardless of depth or season. The invasive Bythotrephes was an important diet component of the pelagic cisco in summer and fall. Deepwater sculpin were the primary diet item of siscowet (≥ 52% by mass), with coregonines appearing in the diet of larger (> 400 mm) siscowet. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant seasonal or site-specific differences in diets of deepwater sculpin, cisco, or kiyi. Site was the primary structuring factor in siscowet diets. Generally, in Lake Superior, the diet items of the dominant offshore species did not appear to be in danger from those types of major ecological shifts occurring in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes.

  13. The challenge and prevention of epidemics: experience from offshore petroleum installations and its extrapolation to ships.

    PubMed

    Ulven, Arne Johan

    2011-01-01

    The risk of epidemics represents an important challenge in offshore petroleum activities. All personnel are needed for regular operations, and the outbreak of an epidemic will soon affect the operations. The economical consequences can be vast. The risk of an epidemic is raised due to the closeness of living and catering offshore combined with frequent changes of personnel who travel offshore from many nations. The article is based on the experience gained by the author during 22 years as a senior medical officer in a Norwegian oil company. Some endemics and epidemics are described. None of these resulted in the shutdown of production, but they still represented a major challenge to the company and to the medical staff in particular. The transfer value from experience offshore to ships is obvious but there are differences. Risk analysis and quality assurance systems play an important part in the prevention and limitation of epidemics offshore. The infrastructure of the food supply chain as well as education and training of personnel are key elements. Campaigns on different hygiene topics that address all personnel are launched at regular intervals. Contingency plans must be established and be ready for use in case of a threatening epidemic. Identification of the type and source of the infection or food poisoning, isolation of the infected personnel, safe evacuation of patients, and the establishment of other necessary barriers for reduction of spread of infection are necessary to control an outbreak of an epidemic.

  14. Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

  15. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  16. Strengthening America's Energy Security with Offshore Wind (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the current state of the offshore wind industry in the United States and the offshore wind research and development activities conducted the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program.

  17. 75 FR 80064 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... oil and gas offshore industry. The purpose of this meeting is to review and discuss reports and... other concerns affecting the offshore oil and gas industry and assists the Coast Guard in formulating...

  18. 76 FR 3919 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... safety of operations and other matters affecting the oil and gas offshore industry. The purpose of this... Coast Guard on safety and other concerns affecting the offshore oil and gas industry and assists...

  19. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  20. Concurrent engineering solution for the design of ship and offshore bracket parts and fabrication process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Won; Lim, Sang-Sub; Seok, Ho-Hyun; Kang, Chung-Gil

    2013-09-01

    Brackets in ships and offshore structures are added structures that can endure stress concentrations. In this study, a concurrent engineering solution was proposed, and a high strength low carbon cast steel alloy applicable to offshore structures was designed and developed. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the designed steel were 480 and 600 MPa, respectively. The carbon equivalent of the steel was 0.446 with a weld crack susceptibility index of 0.219. The optimal structural design of the brackets for offshore structures was evaluated using ANSYS commercial software. The possibility of replacing an assembly of conventional built-up brackets with a single casting bulb bracket was verified. The casting process was simulated using MAGMAsoft commercial software, and a casting fabrication process was designed. For the proposed bulb bracket, it was possible to reduce the size and weight by approximately 30% and 50%, respectively, compared to the conventional type of bracket.

  1. Regional method to assess offshore slope stability.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Edwards, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    The slope stability of some offshore environments can be evaluated by using only conventional acoustic profiling and short-core sampling, followed by laboratory consolidation and strength testing. The test results are synthesized by using normalized-parameter techniques. The normalized data are then used to calculate the critical earthquake acceleration factors or the wave heights needed to initiate failure. These process-related parameters provide a quantitative measure of the relative stability for locations from which short cores were obtained. The method is most applicable to offshore environments of gentle relief and simple subsurface structure and is not considered a substitute for subsequent site-specific analysis. -from ASCE Publications Information

  2. United States Offshore Wind Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-12-01

    The utilization of the offshore wind resource will be necessary if the United States is to meet the goal of having 20% of its electricity generated by wind power because many of the electrical load centers in the country are located along the coastlines. The United States Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has supported an ongoing project to assess the wind resource for the offshore regions of the contiguous United States including the Great Lakes. Final offshore maps with a horizontal resolution of 200 meters (m) have been completed for Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, northern New England, and the Great Lakes. The ocean wind resource maps extend from the coastline to 50 nautical miles (nm) offshore. The Great Lake maps show the resource for all of the individual lakes. These maps depict the wind resource at 50 m above the water as classes of wind power density. Class 1 represents the lowest available wind resource, while Class 7 is the highest resource. Areas with Class 5 and higher wind resource can be economical for offshore project development. As offshore wind turbine technology improves, areas with Class 4 and higher resource should become economically viable. The wind resource maps are generated using output from a modified numerical weather prediction model combined with a wind flow model. The preliminary modeling is performed by AWS Truewind under subcontract to NREL. The preliminary model estimates are sent to NREL to be validated. NREL validates the preliminary estimates by comparing 50 m model data to available measurements that are extrapolated to 50 m. The validation results are used to modify the preliminary map and produce the final resource map. The sources of offshore wind measurement data include buoys, automated stations, lighthouses, and satellite- derived ocean wind speed data. The wind electric potential is represented as Megawatts (MW) of potential installed capacity and is based on the square

  3. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  4. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  5. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  6. 77 FR 26562 - Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Dynamic Positioning Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Dynamic Positioning Guidance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... procedures on a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit. We received comments both as submissions to the docket and at... damage. This is particularly true for Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs), where a loss of...

  7. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in...

  8. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in...

  9. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in...

  10. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  11. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in...

  12. 47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1007 Channels for offshore... located in the specified geographical zones that provide offshore radiotelephone service. All channels... and/or airborne mobile) as indicated, for voice-grade general communications and private line...

  13. 47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1007 Channels for offshore... located in the specified geographical zones that provide offshore radiotelephone service. All channels... and/or airborne mobile) as indicated, for voice-grade general communications and private line...

  14. 78 FR 18618 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... offshore drilling; (c) One member representing companies, organizations, enterprises or similar entities... entities engaged in offshore oil exploration and production on the Outer Continental Shelf of Alaska. To be... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: United States...

  15. 77 FR 17491 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: United States Coast Guard.... SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will meet on April 11 and 12, 2012, in... affecting the oil and gas offshore industry. These meetings are open to the public. DATES: NOSAC will...

  16. 76 FR 62817 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: United States Coast Guard. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety... related to safety of operations and other matters affecting the oil and gas offshore industry. The...

  17. Boundary Spanning in Offshored Information Systems Development Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnan, Poornima

    2010-01-01

    Recent growth in offshore outsourcing of information systems (IS) services is accompanied by managing the offshore projects successfully. Much of the project failures can be attributed to geographic and organizational boundaries which create differences in culture, language, work patterns, and decision making processes among the offshore project…

  18. International Offshore Students' Perceptions of Virtual Office Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wdowik, Steven; Michael, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this study is to gauge international offshore students' perceptions of virtual office hours (VOH) to consult with their offshore unit coordinators in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data was sourced from three offshore campuses over a 12-month period…

  19. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Boezaart, Arnold; Edmonson, James; Standridge, Charles; Pervez, Nahid; Desai, Neel; Williams, Bruce; Clark, Aaron; Zeitler, David; Kendall, Scott; Biddanda, Bopi; Steinman, Alan; Klatt, Brian; Gehring, J. L.; Walter, K.; Nordman, Erik E.

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the

  20. Ice island creation, drift, recurrences, mechanical properties, and interactions with arctic offshore oil production structures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Li, Fucheng; Lu, Mingchi

    1991-03-01

    Research and engineering studies on first-year sea ice for over two decades has resulted in the design, construction, and operation of jacket platforms, of artificial islands, and of massive gravity structures which routinely withstand moving sea ice of thickness up to 2 meters. However, the less-common interactions between such structures and moving multiyear ice ({ge}3 meters thick), and also moving ice islands (10 to 60 meters thick) remain as the unknown and potentially most serious hazard for Arctic offshore structures. In this study, research was addressed across the complete span of remaining questions regarding such features. Ice island components, thickness distributions, scenarios and models for the interactions of massive ice features with offshore structures, all were considered. Ice island morphology and calving studies were directed at the cluster of 19 ice islands produced in a calving from the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on Ellesmere Island in 1983, and also at a calving from the Milne Ice Shelf in 1988. The statistics of ice island dynamics, on both a short-term small-scale basis and also on a long-term basis, were studied. Typical wind velocities of 5 to 7.5 meters per second led to ice island speeds of about 0.014 of the wind speed, at an angle of 20{degrees} to the right of the wind direction. Ice island samples were tested for their stress/strain characteristics. Compressive strength values ranged from 1.64 MPa at a strain rate of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s{sup {minus}1} to 6.75 MPa at a strain rate of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}. Scenarios for ice island/structure interactions were developed, and protective countermeasures such as spray ice and ice rubble barriers were suggested. Additional computer modeling of structure/ice interactions for massive ice features is recommended.

  1. Offshore Investments by Colleges Draw Scrutiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul; Wolverton, Brad

    2007-01-01

    Billions of dollars in untaxed, offshore investments by college endowments could be subject to taxation under a proposal being considered by the leaders of the U.S. Senate Finance Committee. The proposed change, which targets hedge funds, a popular investing strategy for many colleges, would affect the largest college endowments, including those…

  2. 31 CFR 587.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 587.406 Section 587.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA...

  3. Risk analysis for Arctic offshore operations

    SciTech Connect

    Slomski, S.; Vivatrat, V.

    1986-04-01

    Offshore exploration for hydrocarbons is being conducted in the near-shore regions of the Beaufort Sea. This activity is expected to be intensified and expanded into the deeper portions of the Beaufort, as well as into the Chukchi Sea. The ice conditions in the Beaufort Sea are very variable, particularly in the deeper water regions. This variability greatly influences the probability of success or failure of an offshore operation. For example, a summer exploratory program conducted from a floating drilling unit may require a period of 60 to 100 days on station. The success of such a program depends on: (a) the time when the winter ice conditions deteriorate sufficiently for the drilling unit to move on station; (b) the number of summer invasions by the arctic ice pack, forcing the drilling unit to abandon station; (c) the rate at which first-year ice grows to the ice thickness limit of the supporting icebreakers; and (d) the extent of arctic pack expansion during the fall and early winter. In general, the ice conditions are so variable that, even with good planning, the change of failure of an offshore operation will not be negligible. Contingency planning for such events is therefore necessary. This paper presents a risk analysis procedure which can greatly benefit the planning of an offshore operation. A floating drilling program and a towing and installation operation for a fixed structure are considered to illustrate the procedure.

  4. 31 CFR 543.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 543.406 Section 543.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS...

  5. Accord near for offshore California oil shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-15

    There are faint glimmers of hope again for offshore California operators. After more than a decade of often bitter strife over offshore oil and gas development and transportation issues, state officials and oil producers may be moving toward compromise solutions. One such solution may be forthcoming on offshore development. But the real change came with the turnabout of the California Coastal Commission (CCC), which last month approved a permit for interim tankering of crude from Point Arguello oil field in the Santa Barbara Channel to Los Angeles. The dispute over how to ship offshore California crude to market has dragged on since before Point Arguelo development plans were unveiled. The project's status has become a flashpoint in the U.S. debate over resource use and environmental concerns. The controversy flared anew in the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez tanker spill off Alaska, when CCC voided a Santa Barbara County permit for interim tankering, a move project operator Chevron Corp. linked to the Exxon Valdez accident. Faced with litigation, the state's economic devastation, and acrimonious debate over transporting California crude, Gov. Pete Wilson and other agencies approved the CCC permit. But there's a catch: A permanent pipeline must be built to handle full production within 3 years. The paper discusses permit concerns, the turnaround decision, the anger of environmental groups, and pipeline proposals.

  6. 31 CFR 537.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 537.406 Section 537.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  7. 31 CFR 542.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 542.406 Section 542.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  8. 31 CFR 542.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 542.406 Section 542.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  9. 31 CFR 542.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 542.406 Section 542.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 542.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 542.406 Section 542.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  11. Planning and evaluation parameters for offshore complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    Issues are presented for consideration in the planning and design of offshore artificial complexes. The construction of such complexes, their social, economic, and ecological impacts, and the legal-political-institutional environments within which their development could occur, are discussed. Planning, design, and construction of near-shore complexes located off the Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States is emphasized.

  12. Cut drydocking costs for offshore rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E.K.

    1985-07-01

    Heavy-lift transport vessels (HLVs) can provide an economic alternative to the conventional shipyard approach of drydocking mobile offshore rigs for regulatory body inspections and/or repairs. Contractors now can drydock rigs in areas of the world where conventional drydocks are unavailable. This article discusses pros and cons of conventional shipyard drydocking and the HLV approach.

  13. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  14. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  15. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  16. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  18. 31 CFR 593.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 593.406 Section 593.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  19. Human Rights, Academic Freedom, and Offshore Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Despite the carnage wrought on higher education by the Great Recession, evidence persists that the sector is still host to a speculator psychology. One example is the unabated stampede to set up branches and programs overseas. Colleges have many reasons to go offshore: (1) to reduce costs; (2) to build their "brands" in "emerging…

  20. 31 CFR 537.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 537.406 Section 537.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  1. Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Gareth; Trinder, Mark; Furness, Bob; Banks, Alex N.; Caldow, Richard W. G.; Hume, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool), to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979–2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species’ ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented. PMID:25210739

  2. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Gareth; Trinder, Mark; Furness, Bob; Banks, Alex N; Caldow, Richard W G; Hume, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool), to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented.

  3. Thermophysical and Corrosion Characteristics of the Actual and Potential Fuel-Element Jackets of Light-Water Reactors in the Case of an Accident with Coolant Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyuk, S. S.; Kiselev, D. S.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.; Mokrushin, A. A.; Parshin, N. Ya.; Popov, E. B.; Soldatkin, D. M.; Fedik, I. I.

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion tests were carried out and experimental data are presented on the characteristics of steam-phase oxidation of fuel-element jackets made from an É110G zirconium alloy and vacuum-melted molybdenum in a temperature range of up to 1400°C at atmospheric pressure. The shut-down cooling characteristics on repeated flooding of model fuel assemblies of large-scale stands with fuel elements simulators having jackets made from various standard materials and those from a promising molybdenum one are compared. It is shown that interaction of steam with zirconium alloy is more intense than with molybdenum. At the present time the data on molybdenum are limited.

  4. Offshore Hydrokinetic Energy Conversion for Onshore Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Design comparisons have been performed for a number of different tidal energy systems, including a fully submerged, horizontal-axis electro-turbine system, similar to Verdant Tidal Turbines in New York's East River, a platform-based Marine Current Turbine, now operating in Northern Ireland's Strangford Narrows, and the Rotech Lunar Energy system, to be installed off the South Korean Coast. A fourth type of tidal energy system studied is a novel JPL/Caltech hydraulic energy transfer system that uses submerged turbine blades which are mechanically attached to adjacent high-pressure pumps, instead of to adjacent electrical turbines. The generated highpressure water streams are combined and transferred to an onshore hydroelectric plant by means of a closed-cycle pipeline. The hydraulic energy transfer system was found to be cost competitive, and it allows all electronics to be placed onshore, thus greatly reducing maintenance costs and corrosion problems. It also eliminates the expenses of conditioning and transferring multiple offshore power lines and of building offshore platforms embedded in the sea floor.

  5. U. K. pressing campaign to improve offshore safety

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1994-02-14

    The U.K. government is making progress in its campaign to improve the safety of personnel working offshore. The government's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) plans to assess and pass judgment on at lease one safety plan, called a safety case, from each U.K. North Sea operator as soon as possible. HSE has agreed with the industry on a list of 61 priority safety cases, known as exemplars. Feedback from exemplar assessment will help operators review safety management and assist in preparation or revision of future safety cases. It also will give HSE practice in assessing a range of case types. The requirement for a safety program is part of new U.K. offshore legislation designed to prevent another accident similar to the Piper Alpha platform fire and explosion of 1988. After the transition period it will be against the law to operate an oil and gas installation in British waters without an accepted safety case. Besides existing installations, safety cases are also required for new installations reaching design stage by May 31, 1993, the date safety case regulations went into force. The paper describes the Cullen report, companies' experiences with the new law, and the safety assessment progress so far.

  6. Numerical Study Of The Effects Of Preloading, Axial Loading And Concrete Shrinkage On Reinforced Concrete Elements Strengthened By Concrete Layers And Jackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampropoulos, A. P.; Dritsos, S. E.

    2008-07-01

    In this study, the technique of seismic strengthening existing reinforced concrete columns and beams using additional concrete layers and jackets is examined. The finite element method and the finite element program ATENA is used in this investigation. When a reinforced jacket or layer is being constructed around a column it is already preloaded due to existing service loads. This effect has been examined for different values of the axial load normalized to the strengthened column. The techniques of strengthening with a concrete jacket or a reinforced concrete layer on the compressive side of the column are examined. Another phenomenon that is examined in this study is the shrinkage of the new concrete of an additional layer used to strengthen an existing member. For this investigation, a simply supported beam with an additional reinforced concrete layer on the tensile side is examined. The results demonstrate that the effect of preloading is important when a reinforced concrete layer is being used with shear connectors between the old and the new reinforcement. It was also found that the shrinkage of the new concrete reduces the strength of the strengthened beam and induces an initial sliding between the old and the new concrete.

  7. Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Hao; Hamilton, Mark F.; Bhalla, Rajan; Brown, Walter E.; Hay, Todd A.; Whitelonis, Nicholas J.; Yang, Shang-Te; Naqvi, Aale R.

    2013-09-30

    Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

  8. Some Effects of Injection Advance Angle, Engine-Jacket Temperature, and Speed on Combustion in a Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1936-01-01

    An optical indicator and a high-speed motion-picture camera capable of operating at the rate of 2,000 frames per second were used to record simultaneously the pressure development and the flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. Tests were made at engine speeds of 570 and 1,500 r.p.m. The engine-jacket temperature was varied from 100 degrees to 300 degrees F. And the injection advance angle from 13 degrees after top center to 120 degrees before top center. The results show that the course of the combustion is largely controlled by the temperature and pressure of the air in the chamber from the time the fuel is injected until the time at which combustion starts and by the ignition lag. The conclusion is presented that in a compression-ignition engine with a quiescent combustion chamber the ignition lag should be the longest that can be used without excessive rates of pressure rise; any further shortening of the ignition lag decreased the effective combustion of the engine.

  9. Spacecraft attitude impacts on COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank thermal performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, Hugh

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot - Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) spacecraft will be launched into low earth orbit to perform fluid management experiments on the behavior of subcritical liquid hydrogen (LH2). For determining the optimum on-orbit attitude for the COLD-SAT satellite, a comparative analytical study was performed to determine the thermal impacts of spacecraft attitude on the performance of the COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank. Tank thermal performance was quantified by total conductive and radiative heat leakage into the pressure vessel due to the absorbed solar, earth albedo and infra-red on-orbit fluxes, and also by the uniformity of the variation of this leakage on the vessel surface area. Geometric and thermal analysis math models were developed for the spacecraft and the tank as part of this analysis, based on their individual thermal/structural designs. Two quasi-inertial spacecraft attitudes were investigated and their effects on the tank performance compared. The results are one of the criteria by which the spacecraft orientation in orbit was selected for the in-house NASA Lewis Research Center design.

  10. Old Issues in a New Jacket: Power and Validation in the Context of Mixture Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubke, Gitta

    2012-01-01

    Von Davier et al. (this issue) describe two analyses that aim at determining whether the constructs measured with a number of observed items are categorical or continuous in nature. The issue of types versus traits has a long history and is relevant in many areas of behavioral research, including personality research, as emphasized by von Davier…

  11. New technology emphasizes international offshore effort

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    While the offshore industry is focusing its major development efforts on the deeper waters of the US Gulf, West Africa and Brazil, technology has not stood still in the world`s many other established and frontier offshore development areas. These selected items drawn from contributions by UK companies and a major joint-venture development in Eastern Canada emphasize this effort. Included here are: (1) announcement of a major six-field, 3 Tcf gas development off Nova Scotia`s Sable Island and award of two drilling contracts; (2) a comprehensive study of mobile production units in the UK by Smith Rea Energy Analysts; (3) four applications of an option to high-pressure swivels on an FPSO with multiple subsea inlet lines; (4) a contract to supply a DC bus drive for 17 ESPs on Texaco`s Captain field; and (5) review of an environmental study of the Falkland Islands in preparation for exploration activity.

  12. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armani, F. B.; Paltrinieri, D.

    2013-06-01

    Italy is the first European and world's fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  13. Locating Microseism Sources in Offshore Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Clayton, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    We use the broadband stations from the S. California network to locate the apparent origin of secondary microseisms energy (5-8 Hz band). The procedure is to grid the offshore region and using each grid point as the source point, predict the response of a Rayleigh wave at each station. These predicted waveforms are then correlated with the data over a time window that is typically a 1/2 hour in length and composited at the grid point. The length of the time window controls a tradeoff between the spatial-temporal resolution of the sources and the robustness on the image. The procedure is valid for multiple sources. This results show that during periods of high microseism activity the sources are distinct at several locations in a region approximately 50-100 km offshore. For an 11/09/2002 Southern Ocean storm, for example, two zones parallel to each other and perpendicular to the coast are imaged.

  14. On the Use of Coupled Wind, Wave, and Current Fields in the Simulation of Loads on Bottom-Supported Offshore Wind Turbines during Hurricanes: March 2012 - September 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eungsoo; Manuel, Lance; Curcic, Milan; Chen, Shuyi S.; Phillips, Caleb; Veers, Paul

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, potential offshore wind plant sites have been identified along the Atlantic seaboard and in the Gulf of Mexico. It is imperative that we define external conditions associated with hurricanes and severe winter storms and consider load cases for which wind turbines may need to be designed. We selected two hurricanes, Ike (2008) and Sandy (2012), and investigated the effect these tropical storms would have on bottom-supported offshore wind turbines that were hypothetically in or close to their path as they made landfall. For realistic turbine loads assessment, it is important that the coupled influences of the changing wind, wave, and current fields are simulated throughout the evolution of the hurricanes. We employed a coupled model--specifically, the University of Miami Coupled Model (UMCM)--that integrates atmospheric, wave, and ocean components to produce needed wind, wave, and current data. The wind data are used to generate appropriate vertical wind profiles and full wind velocity fields including turbulence; the current field over the water column is obtained by interpolated discrete output current data; and short-crested irregular second-order waves are simulated using output directional wave spectra from the coupled model. We studied two monopile-supported offshore wind turbines sited in 20 meters of water in the Gulf of Mexico to estimate loads during Hurricane Ike, and a jacket space-frame platform-supported offshore wind turbine sited in 50 meters of water in the mid-Atlantic region to estimate loads during Hurricane Sandy. In this report we discuss in detail how the simulated hurricane wind, wave, and current output data are used in turbine loads studies. In addition, important characteristics of the external conditions are studied, including the relative importance of swell versus wind seas, aerodynamic versus hydrodynamic forces, current velocity effects, yaw control options for the turbine, hydrodynamic drag versus inertia forces

  15. Mobile offshore structure for arctic exploratory drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D. R.; Orndorff Jr., J. A.; Owen, W. A.

    1985-04-23

    An offshore exploratory drilling floatable structure ballastable to rest on a sea floor but to extend above water level when so supported and adapted to withstand arctic ice loads, comprising a substantially vertical wall capable of withstanding arctic ice loads; a structural load bearing bottom rigidly connected to a lower portion of the wall; and a floatable vertically displaceable load bearing structural deck inside the wall.

  16. Arctic and offshore research: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the state of technology relative to the production of oil and gas in the Arctic. It discusses the technical issues that warrant investigation, and focuses on the current Department of Energy supported activities. Major accomplishments during the last year include the following: The Arctic and Offshore Research Information System (AORIS) was planned with industry survey recommendations incorporated. It contains a directory of 85 Arctic databases, a bibliographic component of over 7,000 citations, and a data component of about 300 data sets on sea ice characteristics. Seven position, pressure, and temperature buoys were deployed on ice islands (up to 3 by 6 miles in size) drifting off Ellesmere Island. Ice island movement, as much as 340 miles southwest of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf during the last 4 years, represents a potential hazard to Arctic offshore structures in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. The redesigned Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System (SEMS II) was deployed near Shell's Ellen-Elly platforms, about 10 miles offshore of Long Beach, California. The SEMS monitored the July 1986 southern California earthquakes. This was the first time earthquakes were simultaneouslly monitored by sensors located on land, aboard offshore platforms, and beneath the seafloor. Sea spray ice bond shear strength to various structural and protective coatings has been determined. The polyethylene coating demonstrated the most potential for rapid shedding of spray ice by gravity loading. Measurements of temperatures and salinities were completed as part of a pilot test to (1) detect seasonal conditions at the water-seabed interface, and (2) determine how they influence permafrost growth in the coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea. The temperatures and computed freezing point data suggest that seasonal seabed freezing can occur most of the winter. 13 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Automatic welding comes of age. [Offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.L. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Automatic pipe welding systems today fall into three main categories: gas metal arc welding, gas-tungsten arc welding, and flash-butt welding. The first automatic welding devices used offshore were the CRC and H.C. Price systems. Both use gas metal arc welding with a consumable steel filler wire. The recently developed McDermott flash-butt welding system is described. (DLC)

  18. Department of Defense Offshore Military Activities Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-16

    joint use of offshore areas for military and mineral exploration or developmental purposes. (See enclosure 2.) In carrying out negotiations with elements...that from time to time and from place to place the requirements for mineral exploration /development and defense related activities may conflict. In...area, certain defense- related activities on the OCS may be irreconcilable with mineral exploration / development and will, under the procedures

  19. Caisson shield for arctic offshore production platform

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, J. D.; Reusswig, G. H.

    1985-03-12

    A caisson shield for the protection of an offshore production platform and, more particularly, a caisson shield for use in an arctic environment for the protection of the offshore structure in iceberg-infested waters which is capable of absorbing the destructive forces of an impact produced by a large iceberg. The caisson shield consists of an essentially annular concrete structure encircling at least the submerged support section of the offshore production platform including vertically upstanding concentrically spaced, annular side walls, a horizontal slab base resting on the marine bottom on which the side walls are supported, and a slab top supported on the side walls, and including annularly spaced internal radial partition walls whereby the entire overall caisson shield structure provides a generally toroidal configuration incorporating a plurality of closed compartments. In one embodiment of the invention, located along the outer annular wall is a plurality of arcuate wall sections forming a series of arches and enclosed compartments between each arcuate wall section and the outer annular wall, which impart a ''scallop-like'' configuration to the outer circumference of the caisson shield. The ''scallop-like'' outer walls are capable of resisting and absorbing extremely high ice loads by being adapted to progressively crush the leading edge of an impacting iceberg and to thereby minimize the crush of the iceberg against the caisson shield before coming to rest against the shield.

  20. Designing Australia's North West Shelf offshore pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, E.V.; Craze, D.J.; Ruinen, W.

    1984-05-07

    Design studies for the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project in Australia commenced in the early 1970s. The trunkline from the North Rankin A platform to shore has recently been completed as the first part of the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project. This pipeline originates from the platform in a water depth of 125 m (410 ft), enters the mouth of Mermaid Sound, and terminates just south of Withnell Bay on the Burrup Peninsula, on the North West coastline of Western Australia. The pipeline is 1,016 mm (40 in.) in diameter and 134.2 km (83.4 miles) long. It will operate in two-phase flow, bringing both gas and condensate to an onshore plant near its landfall. A slugcatcher has been constructed within the plant to receive liquidhydrocarbon slugs from the pipeline. The trunkline to shore will initially serve only the one offshore platform and operate at about 25% of its capacity to supply the Western Australian domestic gas market. The domestic gas plant on the Burrup Peninsula is being constructed by Woodside to produce pipeline-quality gas for delivery to the State Energy Commission and condensate for shipment by coastal tankers.

  1. Innovative Offshore Wind Plant Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, William L.; Nordstrom, Charles J.; Morrison, Brent J.

    2013-12-18

    Technological advancements in the Glosten PelaStar floating wind turbine system have led to projected cost of energy (COE) reductions from today’s best-in-class offshore wind systems. The PelaStar system is projected to deliver a COE that is 35% lower than that delivered by the current offshore wind plants. Several technology developments have been achieved that directly target significant cost of energy reductions. These include: Application of state-of-the-art steel construction materials and methods, including fatigue-resistant welding techniques and technologies, to reduce hull steel weight; Advancements in synthetic fiber tendon design for the mooring system, which are made possible by laboratory analysis of full-scale sub-rope specimens; Investigations into selected anchor technologies to improve anchor installation methods; Refinement of the installation method, specifically through development of the PelaStar Support Barge design. Together, these technology developments drive down the capital cost and operating cost of offshore wind plants and enable access to superb wind resources in deep water locations. These technology developments also reduce the uncertainty of the PelaStar system costs, which increases confidence in the projected COE reductions.

  2. Offshore Essaouira basin: Geology and hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Ait Salem, A. )

    1991-03-01

    The study area lies in the offshore extension of the onshore Essaouria basin. The Mesozoic development of the Essaouira margin was largely controlled by Late Triassic to Mid-Jurassic rifting and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, continental margin. Diapiric salt structure recognized on seismic defines a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic salt basin in the offshore area initiated during early rifting. Subsidence and sea-level rise during Jurassic resulted in carbonate platform development. This was followed during Cretaceous and Tertiary time by the deposition of a prograding siliciclastic system. Only three wells have been drilled in this basin. Although drilled on poorly defined prospects, these wells encountered gas and oil shows. Fairly extensive seismic coverage of good quality data is now available. A study based on an integrated approach involving seismic facies definition and mapping, correlation with well data, identification of the principal control on sedimentation, and basin modeling in conjunction with source rock prediction and maturity modeling has been carried out. Results have shown that hydrocarbon potential in the offshore Essaouira basin has not yet been substantiated by drilling. Attractive structural and stratigraphic prospects exist in the shelf, shelf edge, and the slope, and await confirmation by drilling.

  3. Wind/Wave Misalignment in the Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barj, L.; Stewart, S.; Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-02-01

    Wind resources far from the shore and in deeper seas have encouraged the offshore wind industry to look into floating platforms. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is developing a new technical specification for the design of floating offshore wind turbines that extends existing design standards for land-based and fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. The work summarized in this paper supports the development of best practices and simulation requirements in the loads analysis of floating offshore wind turbines by examining the impact of wind/wave misalignment on the system loads under normal operation. Simulations of the OC3-Hywind floating offshore wind turbine system under a wide range of wind speeds, significant wave heights, peak-spectral periods and wind/wave misalignments have been carried out with the aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool FAST [4]. The extreme and fatigue loads have been calculated for all the simulations. The extreme and fatigue loading as a function of wind/wave misalignment have been represented as load roses and a directional binning sensitivity study has been carried out. This study focused on identifying the number and type of wind/wave misalignment simulations needed to accurately capture the extreme and fatigue loads of the system in all possible metocean conditions considered, and for a down-selected set identified as the generic US East Coast site. For this axisymmetric platform, perpendicular wind and waves play an important role in the support structure and including these cases in the design loads analysis can improve the estimation of extreme and fatigue loads. However, most structural locations see their highest extreme and fatigue loads with aligned wind and waves. These results are specific to the spar type platform, but it is expected that the results presented here will be similar to other floating platforms.

  4. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft, unconsolidated sediment interspersed with isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Refugio Beach map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats, which lie primarily within the Shelf (continental shelf) but also partly within the Flank (basin flank or continental slope) megahabitats, primarily are composed of soft sediment interrupted by a few carbonate mounds. This homogeneous seafloor of sediment and low-relief bedrock provides promising habitat for groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms.

  5. Development of a 5 MW reference gearbox for offshore wind turbines: 5 MW reference gearbox

    SciTech Connect

    Nejad, Amir Rasekhi; Guo, Yi; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2015-07-27

    This paper presents detailed descriptions, modeling parameters and technical data of a 5MW high-speed gearbox developed for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory offshore 5MW baseline wind turbine. The main aim of this paper is to support the concept studies and research for large offshore wind turbines by providing a baseline gearbox model with detailed modeling parameters. This baseline gearbox follows the most conventional design types of those used in wind turbines. It is based on the four-point supports: two main bearings and two torque arms. The gearbox consists of three stages: two planetary and one parallel stage gears. The gear ratios among the stages are calculated in a way to obtain the minimum gearbox weight. The gearbox components are designed and selected based on the offshore wind turbine design codes and validated by comparison to the data available from large offshore wind turbine prototypes. All parameters required to establish the dynamic model of the gearbox are then provided. Moreover, a maintenance map indicating components with high to low probability of failure is shown. The 5 MW reference gearbox can be used as a baseline for research on wind turbine gearboxes and comparison studies. It can also be employed in global analysis tools to represent a more realistic model of a gearbox in a coupled analysis.

  6. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) for IEA Wind Task 23 Offshore Wind Technology and Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2010-12-01

    This final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports, Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). Subtask 1 discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. Subtask 2 included here, is the larger of the two volumes and contains five chapters that cover background information and objectives of Subtask 2 and results from each of the four phases of the project.

  7. 26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference represents the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest with this volume containing papers relative to design of offshore platforms and marine riser systems. Papers deal with design, installation, fabrication, transport systems, mooring devices, repair methods, and development of satellite production facilities. Case histories on various offshore oil and gas fills are discussed along with economics of some applications and designs.

  8. Polytetrafluoroethylene-jacketed stirrer modified with graphene oxide and polydopamine for the efficient extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zinxin; Mwadini, Mwadini Ahmada; Chen, Zilin

    2016-10-01

    Steel stirrers jacketed with polytetrafluoroethylene can be regarded as an ideal substrate for stirrer bar sorptive extraction. However, it is still a great challenge to immobilize graphene onto a polytetrafluoroethylene stirrer due to the high chemical resistance of the surface of a polytetrafluoroethylene stirrer. We describe here a method to modify the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene stirrers with graphene. In this work, graphene was used as the sorbent due to its excellent adsorption capability for aromatic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic compounds. Graphene was successfully immobilized onto polytetrafluoroethylene-stirrer by a bio-inspired polydopamine functionalization method. The graphene-modified polytetrafluoroethylene-stirrer shows good stability and tolerance to stirring, ultrasonication, strong acidic and basic solutions, and to organic solvents. The multilayer coating was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. After the optimization of some experimental conditions, the graphene-modified polytetrafluoroethylene stirrer was used for the stirrer bar sorptive extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in which the binding between the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the graphene layer was mainly based on π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions. The graphene-modified polytetrafluoroethylene-stirrer-based stirrer bar sorptive extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with great extraction efficiency, with enrichment factors from 18 to 62. The method has low limits of detection of 1-5 pg/mL, wide linear range (5-100 and 10-200 pg/mL), good linearity (R ≥ 0.9957) and good reproducibility (RSD ≤ 6.45%). The proposed method has been applied to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in real dust samples. Good recoveries were obtained, ranging from 88.53 to 109.43%.

  9. Operational Impacts of Large Deployments of Offshore Wind (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Heaney, M.

    2014-10-01

    The potential operational impact of deploying 54 GW of offshore wind in the United States was examined. The capacity was not evenly distributed; instead, it was concentrated in regions with better wind quality and close to load centers (Table 1). A statistical analysis of offshore wind power time series was used to assess the effect on the power system. The behavior of offshore wind resembled that of onshore wind, despite the former presenting higher capacity factors, more consistent power output across seasons, and higher variability levels. Thus, methods developed to manage onshore wind variability can be extended and applied to offshore wind.

  10. Offshore Wind Turbines - Estimated Noise from Offshore Wind Turbine, Monhegan Island, Maine: Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, Pamela M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-23

    Deep C Wind, a consortium headed by the University of Maine will test the first U.S. offshore wind platforms in 2012. In advance of final siting and permitting of the test turbines off Monhegan Island, residents of the island off Maine require reassurance that the noise levels from the test turbines will not disturb them. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, at the request of the University of Maine, and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program, modeled the acoustic output of the planned test turbines.

  11. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Carpinteria, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    area probably are remobilized on an annual basis. The shelf is underlain by variable amounts of upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments that thicken to the south. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft sediment and isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Carpinteria map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats lie within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, dominated by a flat seafloor and substrates formed from deposition of fluvial and marine sediment during sea-level rise. This fairly homogeneous seafloor provides promising habitat for groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms. The only significant interruptions to this homogeneous habitat type are the exposures of hard, irregular, and hummocky sedimentary bedrock and coarse-grained sediment where potential habitats for rockfish and related species exist.

  12. Operating requirements for and historical operations of Arctic offshore drilling systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Regg, J.; Breitmeier, J.; Walker, J.

    1995-12-31

    Many of the floating and bottom-founded drilling structures used for oil and gas exploration in the US Arctic have recently been proposed for use in the Russian Arctic offshore. This paper describes the US Arctic environmental conditions in terms of operation capabilities for the various types of drilling systems. A brief description of the various types of drilling systems used to date in the US Arctic is provided as background information. Also presented are the special regulatory requirements and contingency plans which have been developed for offshore Arctic drilling-system operations. The paper will summarize information on the operating experiences of the various drilling systems used in the US Arctic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) to date.

  13. Venezuela offshore oil and gas production development: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Perez La Salvia, H.; Schwartz, E.; Contreras, M.; Rodriguez, J.I.; Febres, G.; Gajardo, E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a short history of offshore oil and gas production in Venezuela starting in Lake Maracaibo in 1923. The main emphasis has been the results of the recent R and D and the exploratory offshore programs in areas like Orinoco Delta located in the Atlantic Ocean, Northeast and Northwest Venezuela in the Caribbean sea. In the R and D offshore program the main objectives were: (1) To establish the local environmental, oceanographical, geotechnical and seismicity conditions for the Venezuelan Continental Platform. (2) To give a technical support to the PDVSA Operating Affiliates during the exploratory programs including: (a) to develop accurate drilling vessel positioning systems; (b) evaluation of sea bottom geotechnical conditions for safely operating the jack-ups and drilling vessels involved in the exploratory wells and (c) to identify those areas which because of their special nature require further investigation to establish preliminary type of platforms required for the areas to be developed or to evaluate other solutions proposed by Foreign Consultant Engineering Companies to the PDVSA Operating Affiliated Companies. The main objective of PDVSA for the coming future will be to develop the North of Paria Gas Field through the initially named Christopher Columbus Project now Sucre Gas, S.A., a consortium conformed by LaGoven, S.A. Shell, Exxon and Mitsubishi. objective of this paper is to give an idea of the history of the Venezuelan Oil and Gas Offshore development giving emphasis to the results of the INTEVEP S.A. Red offshore program and to show some results of the particular characteristics of oceanographical, environmental, geotechnical and seismic conditions in the main areas evaluated during the exploratory program: Orinoco Delta, Gulf of Paria and North of Paria.

  14. National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Gilman; Maurer, Ben; Feinberg, Luke; Duerr, Alana; Peterson, Lauren; Musial, Walt; Beiter, Phillipp; Golladay, Jennifer; Stromberg, Jessica; Johnson, Isis; Boren, Doug; Moore, Annette

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Wind Energy Technologies Office, and U.S. Department of the Interior, through its Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, have jointly produced this updated national strategy to facilitate the responsible development of offshore wind energy in the United States.

  15. Offshore Benin, a classic passive margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mathalone, J.M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    Offshore Benin comprises a narrow east-west continental shelf, some 30 km wide. A sharp shelf break running parallel to the coast borders the shelf, whereupon water depths rapidly increase to over 7000 ft. The area lies within the Dahomey Embayment, one of a series of Cretaceous and younger basins lining the coast of Africa that owe their inception to the Late Mesozoic break-up of the Gondwanaland Continent. The basin extends some 100 km inland, but sedimentary section is thin onshore compared to a maximum of 20,000 ft of sediment offshore. Initial sedimentation in this basin was of Neocomian alluvial and lacustrine clastics. These were deposited in east-west-trending narrow half-grabens associated with the initial break up of the South American and African continents. They are covered unconformably by more extensive Albian and Cenomanian transgressive clastics and shallow marine Turonian sandstones which are the main reservoir at Seme, Benin's only oilfield. The Senonian section offshore comprises passive margin deep sea clastic sediments prograding southwards. Very large proximal deep sea channels up to 2500 ft thick are developed in this interval. These channels are associated with excellent petroleum source rocks, averaging 4-5% oil-prone organic carbon, and form the main exploration target in the area when configured in a trap morphology. Seismic data quality is excellent in the region allowing detailed examination of the relationships between the rifted section and later units. In addition, these data illustrate clearly both internal and external morphology of the Senonian proximal deep sea channels.

  16. The spatiotemporal characteristics of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingmin

    2016-09-15

    Marine ecosystems are home to a host of numerous species ranging from tiny planktonic organisms, fishes, and birds, to large mammals such as the whales, manatees, and seals. However, human activities such as offshore oil and gas operations increasingly threaten marine and coastal ecosystems, for which there has been little exploration into the spatial and temporal risks of offshore oil operations. Using the Gulf of Mexico, one of the world's hottest spots of offshore oil and gas mining, as the study area, we propose a spatiotemporal approach that integrates spatial statistics and geostatistics in a geographic information system environment to provide insight to environmental management and decision making for oil and gas operators, coastal communities, local governments, and the federal government. We use the records from 1995 to 2015 of twelve types of hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations, and analyze them spatially over a five year period. The spatial clusters of these hazards are analyzed and mapped using Getis-Ord Gi and local Moran's I statistics. We then design a spatial correlation coefficient matrix for multivariate spatial correlation, which is the ratio of the cross variogram of two types of hazards to the product of the variograms of the two hazards, showing a primary understanding of the degrees of spatial correlation among the twelve types hazards. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first application of spatiotemporal analysis methods to environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations; the proposed methods can be applied to other regions for the management and monitoring of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil operations.

  17. Effect of confining pressure due to external jacket of steel plate or shape memory alloy wire on bond behavior between concrete and steel reinforcing bars.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2014-12-01

    For external jackets of reinforced concrete columns, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are easy to install, and they provide active and passive confining pressure; steel plates, on the other hand, only provide passive confining pressure, and their installation on concrete is not convenient because of the requirement of a special device. To investigate how SMA wires distinctly impact bond behavior compared with steel plates, this study conducted push-out bond tests of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete confined by SMA wires or steel plates. For this purpose, concrete cylinders were prepared with dimensions of 100 mm x 200 mm, and D-22 reinforcing bars were embedded at the center of the concrete cylinders. External jackets of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thickness steel plates were used to wrap the concrete cylinders. Additionally, NiTiNb SMA wire with a diameter of 1.0 mm was wound around the concrete cylinders. Slip of the reinforcing bars due to pushing force was measured by using a displacement transducer, while the circumferential deformation of specimens was obtained by using an extensometer. The circumferential deformation was used to calculate the circumferential strains of the specimens. This study assessed the radial confining pressure due to the external jackets on the reinforcing bars at bond strength from bond stress-slip curves and bond stress-circumferential strain curves. Then, the effects of the radial confining pressure on the bond behavior of concrete are investigated, and an equation is suggested to estimate bond strength using the radial confining pressure. Finally, this study focused on how active confining pressure due to recovery stress of the SMA wires influences bond behavior.

  18. Cathodic protection retrofit of an offshore pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, R.H.; Holk, A.C.

    1997-09-01

    The cathodic protection anodes and corrosion coating on two 8-inch (203.2 mm) outside diameter (O.D.) offshore pipelines were damaged during deep water ({minus}380 feet, {minus}116 m) installation. In-situ methods for deep water inspection and repair of the pipelines` cathodic protection and coating systems were developed and performed. Methods are described in which underwater anode retrofits were performed and friction welding technology was used to re-attach anode leads. Standard procedures for underwater pipeline coating repair and remediation of damaged line pipe are provided.

  19. EPA moves to control offshore emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-09

    This paper reports that except for most of the Gulf Coast, the Environmental Protection Agency proposes to hold all U.S. offshore rigs and platforms within about 28 miles from shore to the same standards as onshore facilities. EPA estimated compliance will cost the oil industry $2.2 million/year for all sources on the Outer Continental Shelf. The rule, the first EPA has proposed to control air pollution from OCS operations, covers drilling and production off Alaska, the Pacific coast states, the Atlantic coast states, and the Florida Gulf Coast. It does not affect OCS areas off Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.

  20. Calculator program helps set offshore design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, V.B.

    1983-01-10

    Describes a new program for the Hewlett-Packard HP 41C (or HP-41C) hand-held programmable calculator which predicts the design criteria for building offshore facilities. Points out that the ''wind and wave'' (WIWA) program can quickly provide the calculations necessary for proper design involving wind forces, wave forces, and stress acting on the hydrostatic pressure case of a submerged system. Presents a flow diagram of the program and the program listing. Explains the equations used as the basis of the program.

  1. Nearshore substrate and morphology offshore of the Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Sagy, Y.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2008-01-01

    The planned removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington, will likely increase river sediment flux to the coast, which may alter coastal habitats through sedimentation and turbidity. It is therefore important to characterize the current habitat conditions near the river mouth, so that future changes can be identified. Here we provide combined sonar and video mapping results of approximately 20 km2 of seafloor offshore of the Elwha River collected with the purpose to characterize nearshore substrate type and distribution prior to dam removal. These combined data suggest that the nearshore of the western delta and Freshwater Bay are dominated by coarse sediment (sand, gravel, cobble, and boulders) and bedrock outcrops; no fine-grained sediment (mud or silt) was identified within the survey limits. The substrate is generally coarser in Freshwater Bay and on the western flank of the delta, where boulders and bedrock outcrops occur, than directly offshore and east of the river mouth. High variation in substrate was observed within much of the study area, however, and distinct boulder fields, gravel beds and sand waves were observed with spatial scales of 10-100 m. Gravel beds and sand waves suggest that sediment transport is active in the study area, presumably in response to tidal currents and waves. Both historic (1912) and recent (1989-2004) distributions of Bull Kelp (Nereocystis sp.) beds were preferentially located along the boulder and bedrock substrates of Freshwater Bay. Although kelp has also been mapped in areas dominated by gravel and sand substrate, it typically has smaller canopy areas and lower temporal persistence in these regions.

  2. U. S. -French Cooperative Research Program: U. S. test results for cable insulation and jacket materials at the completion of accelerated aging

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Eight different U.S. insulation and jacket products have been accelerated aged at Sandia. The experimental variables included: (1) sequential versus simultaneous accelerated aging exposures; (2) the order of the sequential exposures; and (3) ambient versus 70/sup 0/C irradiation temperatures during sequential aging exposures. We observed that the irradiation temperature (70/sup 0/C or ambient) was secondary in importance to the choice of sequence for thermal and radiation aging. For most materials studied (except TEFZEL) the irradiation then thermal aging sequence was as severe or more severe than the thermal then irradiation aging sequence.

  3. 75 FR 47311 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will meet by teleconference to discuss items related to safety of operations and other matters affecting...

  4. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs). 15.520 Section 15.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling...

  5. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, Walt; Heimiller, Donna; Beiter, Philipp; Scott, George; Draxl, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  6. International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy Under IEA Annex XXIII

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Lemming, J.

    2005-11-01

    This paper defines the purpose of IEA Annex XXIII, the International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy. This international collaboration through the International Energy Agency (IEA) is an efficient forum from which to advance the technical and environmental experiences collected from existing offshore wind energy projects, as well as the research necessary to advance future technology for deep-water wind energy technology.

  7. Offshore Oil: Environmental Impacts on Land and Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Pamela L.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a counter position to that provided in SE 512 127 in which the author emphasizes that there are too many problems yet to be solved (related to offshore oil development) to proceed with full-scale development of offshore oil drilling. (PEB)

  8. 2014-2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Aaron

    2015-11-18

    This presentation provides an overview of progress toward offshore wind cost reduction in Europe and implications for the U.S. market. The presentation covers an overview of offshore wind developments, economic and performance trends, empirical evidence of LCOE reduction, and challenges and opportunities in the U.S. market.

  9. Wind Resource Mapping for United States Offshore Areas: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is producing validated wind resource maps for priority offshore regions of the United States. This report describes the methodology used to validate the maps and to build a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) database to classify the offshore wind resource by state, water depth, distance from shore, and administrative unit.

  10. 76 FR 77223 - Enbridge Offshore Pipelines (UTOS); Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Offshore Pipelines (UTOS); Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 30, 2011, Enbridge Offshore Pipelines (UTOS) submitted a request for a waiver of the...

  11. 26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. This conference is divided into four volumes with this volume containing conference papers relative to offshore drilling and well completion information. Papers also deal with construction specifications for marine risers and pipelines, along with any relevant installation and performance information.

  12. Flying in, Flying out: Offshore Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Edwards, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of university education faculties offering offshore education. The analogy, "flying in, flying out" captures the intensity of such offshore experiences for visiting academics, and contrasts their professional experiences against expatriate academics. This paper reports on case studies of…

  13. Semi-submerged modular offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.T.

    1994-12-31

    A modular offshore platform which can be used in a deep sea oil exploration is introduced here. A hybrid of guyed tower and tension leg platforms will be studied. A double-layer dodecahedrous float will be stabilized by a series of guyed cables and clump weights that are anchored to the ocean floor. The platform is built on a dodecahedrous float, which can be fabricated onshore and transported to the job site by direct towing. Buoyancy of the dodecahedrous float will counteract the tremendous weight exerted on this offshore structure. With the help of the guy cables and clump weights anchored to the ocean floor, the structure can be column stabilized to a designated location ready for needed drilling operation. Dodecahedron is one of the natural crystal forms which can be built up by modular space components. It is an ideal structure for easy assembly in a hostile, physically restrictive sea environment. In this article only the major factors affecting the analysis is considered. Much more detailed considerations will be required in the final design, reflecting environmental forces in action, stresses during erection, and the fabrication details.

  14. The sea bottom temperature offshore southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, H.; Shyu, C.; Peng, Y.; Chang, H.; Chen, S.; Chung, S.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The sea bottom temperature (SBT) is important to apply to the heat flow estimation by BSR. Also the SBT may response the fluid migration near subsurface. Here we present 150 measurements of SBT offshore southwestern Taiwan where abundant gas hydrates has been evaluated. The SBT data were acquired by the heat probe with high resolution up to 0.0001°C. Thermal gradients were determined from several temperature sensors installed in different depth in the heat probe and then the SBT could be calculated by extrapolation. The results show that the SBT are between 2.23 and 10.14°C in water depth within the range of 409 to 3248 meters. Basically, the SBT is inversely hyperbolic proportional to the water depth for those 132 measurements the water depth are shallower than 2650 meters. The product of SBT and water depth has an average of 4419 m-°C and a standard deviation of 402 m-°C. However the SBT of others 18 measurements in the deep water region are scattered without any significant trend. Some measurements near mud diapirs in the shallow water have high anomaly SBT. It is suggested that the fluid from deep underground may migrate along the fractures or faults related to the movements of the mud volume.; The sea bottom temperature offshore southwestern Taiwan

  15. Gladden Pull-Apart Basin, offshore Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Morrice, S. )

    1993-02-01

    The junction of the American and Caribbean plates in Belize has created a complex structural setting for oil and gas exploration. Recent seismic offshore Belize has been used to identify three structural provinces, from west to east: a shallow thrust zone, a narrow upthrown wrench faulted zone and a deeper extensional basin, named the Gladden Pull-Apart Basin. Hydrocarbon leakage from recent fault movement appears to have depleted the shallow structures to the west, but the pull-apart basin has a thick sequence of low-frequency clay-dominated sealing rocks with the potential to preserve hydrocarbon accumulations in Cretaceous carbonate banks. These buried carbonate are of the same age and depositional environment of Mexico's Golden Lane/Tabasco Reforma carbonate banks which are world class giant fields. The Belize and Mexican carbonate banks are within the same Cretaceous depositional basin, the Peten Basin. Seismic interpretations in offshore Belize have been integrated with gravity and magnetic surveys. This provides additional support for the deep extensional basin. The location of the thick Cretaceous carbonate banks is better interpreted with the integration of these three geophysical tools. Airborne geochemical surveys were used to detect the presence of oil seeps on the east and west basin margins.

  16. Optimization of monopiles for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Kallehave, Dan; Byrne, Byron W; LeBlanc Thilsted, Christian; Mikkelsen, Kristian Kousgaard

    2015-02-28

    The offshore wind industry currently relies on subsidy schemes to be competitive with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. For the wind industry to survive, it is vital that costs are significantly reduced for future projects. This can be partly achieved by introducing new technologies and partly through optimization of existing technologies and design methods. One of the areas where costs can be reduced is in the support structure, where better designs, cheaper fabrication and quicker installation might all be possible. The prevailing support structure design is the monopile structure, where the simple design is well suited to mass-fabrication, and the installation approach, based on conventional impact driving, is relatively low-risk and robust for most soil conditions. The range of application of the monopile for future wind farms can be extended by using more accurate engineering design methods, specifically tailored to offshore wind industry design. This paper describes how state-of-the-art optimization approaches are applied to the design of current wind farms and monopile support structures and identifies the main drivers where more accurate engineering methods could impact on a next generation of highly optimized monopiles.

  17. Offshore winds using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Courtney, Michael; Antoniou, Ioannis; Mikkelsen, Torben; Sørensen, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Ground-based remote sensing instruments can observe winds at different levels in the atmosphere where the wind characteristics change with height: the range of heights where modern turbine rotors are operating. A six-month wind assessment campaign has been made with a LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and a SoDAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) on the transformer/platform of the world's largest offshore wind farm located at the West coast of Denmark to evaluate their ability to observe offshore winds. The high homogeneity and low turbulence levels registered allow the comparison of LiDAR and SoDAR with measurements from cups on masts surrounding the wind farm showing good agreement for both the mean wind speed and the longitudinal component of turbulence. An extension of mean wind speed profiles from cup measurements on masts with LiDAR observations results in a good match for the free sectors at different wind speeds. The log-linear profile is fitted to the extended profiles (averaged over all stabilities and roughness lengths) and the deviations are small. Extended profiles of turbulence intensity are also shown for different wind speeds up to 161 m. Friction velocities and roughness lengths calculated from the fitted log-linear profile are compared with the Charnock model which seems to overestimate the sea roughness for the free sectors.

  18. Thermometric well testing on the Vietnam offshore

    SciTech Connect

    San, T.N.; Shtyrlin, V.F.; Vakhitov, G.G.; Loi, L.M.; Listengarten, L.; Hien, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    It is impossible to control and adjust an oil and gas field development without determining the flow intervals of production wells. For that it is preferable to get production profiles by using the downhole flowmeter. There are, however, some main restrictions for wide-spread application of them on the offshore of Vietnam as follows: the flowmeter spinner velocity cannot indicate correctly in the open hole wells having a nonuniform diameter; it is unable to carry out in the case when the tubing shoe is lower than top formation on 300--500m. In this paper, the authors present a summary of temperature profile method to determine the flowing and intaking intervals of wells drilled in basement of the White Tiger Field on Vietnam offshore. For the last 2 years more than 30 wells were surveyed by this method in the above mentioned conditions. This paper presents the theory and practice of well temperature profile surveys, the concrete examples of data interpretation using the software Oiltest.

  19. Proceedings of the 15. international conference on offshore mechanics and arctic engineering -- OMAE 1996. Volume 1, Part B: Offshore technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, S.K.; Pontes, M.T.; Maeda, Hisaaki; Falzarano, J.; Schofield, P.; Morrison, D.

    1996-12-31

    The 49 papers contained in Part B of Volume 1 are arranged under the following topical sections: Computational hydrodynamics; Floating and moored systems; Ocean energy technology; Hydrodynamic design of offshore structures; Design and operation of offshore structures; and Risers and cables. Most of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Job stress, mental health, and accidents among offshore workers in the oil and gas extraction industries.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C L; Sutherland, V J

    1987-02-01

    Psychosocial and occupational stressors among 194 male employees on drilling rig and production platform installations in the United Kingdom and Dutch sectors of the North Sea were studied. Mental well-being and job satisfaction were also assessed, with attention to the incidence of accidents offshore. This occupational group were found to be much less satisfied with their jobs than their onshore counterparts. Although overall mental well-being compared favorably with that of the general population, levels of anxiety were significantly higher. Multivariate analysis showed "relationships at work and at home" to be a strong predictor of both job dissatisfaction and mental ill-health. Type A coronary-prone behavior was also found to be a significant predictor of reduced mental well-being and increased accident rates offshore.

  1. Mechanical properties at high strain-rate of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.; Fichera, C.; Manes, A.; Giglio, M.

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations are now an actual option in order to try to reproduce and understand the mechanical response in components subjected to extreme loading conditions, like in a ballistic impact. A correct materials calibration is therefore necessary in order to extract the materials parameters. In this work the simple and widely used Johnson-Cook model was used to analyse the experimental data obtained for the characterization of the bullet materials. The bullet under investigation is a full metal jacket ball, with a lead-antimony alloy core and a brass jacket. The experimental tests cover a wide range in strain-rate, starting from quasi-static tests up to high dynamic tests performed on a standard Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar setup. In general, there is a great lack in strain-rate sensitivity and failure data. Pure lead is very soft and ductile, so antimony is used to give greater hardness and strength. The results of this study show a significant strain-rate influence for this alloy that can be associated with the presence of the lead-antimony phases and their structures. Also in case of the brass the results showed significant strain-rate sensitivity in the material response.

  2. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-02-01

    These fuel elements are comprised of a homogeneous metallic uranium body completely enclosed and sealed in an aluminum cover. The uranium body and aluminum cover are bonded together by a layer of zinc located between them. The bonding layer serves to improve transfer of heat, provides an additional protection against corrosion of the uranium by the coolant, and also localizes any possible corrosion by preventing travel of corrosive material along the surface of the fuel element.

  3. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Administrative and political boundaries and offshore sand resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics Geopdf of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, military areas, marine protected areas, cultural resources, locations of submerged cables, and shipping routes. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in the administrative and political boundaries of Florida's coastal and offshore region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will find that they have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers.

  4. BM platform, B Field, Offshore Northwest Java: A case history of multi-disciplinary integration including 3D seismic, reservoir simulation and horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, D.; Aziz, A.; Baldauff, J.; Diswarin, N.

    1996-12-31

    This case history describes how a multidisciplinary team used a 3D survey and reservoir simulation to review and revise the development plans for the BM platform, located in the B Field, Offshore Northwest Java, Indonesia. The case history starts with the collection of necessary parophysical, geologic and production data. These data are input to a reservoir simulation which shows there should be no problems with the new platform. However, this initial simulation has known problems with contradicting input structure maps and fluid contacts. Hopefully, these problems can be addressed with a new 3D seismic survey - if the seismic data can be acquired, processed, interpreted and input to the simulation before drilling starts at the BM platform. The seismic acquisition could not be done with the traditional towed seismic streamer cables - instead stationary ocean bottom cables with dual geophone-hydrophone sensors were used. Processing of the seismic data was done in a way that allowed interpretation of the critical area even before acquisition of the entire survey was finished. The new 3D structure maps changed the MDT`s opinion of what reservoir and what areas contained the bulk of the oil reserves. Unfortunately, the new maps were not available until after the jacket was set but before the wells drilled. The NMT updated the simulation with the new 3D data, which led to changes in development well bottom hole locations and an ambitious horizontal well.

  5. On the Offshore Advection of Boundary-Layer Structures and the Influence on Offshore Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörenkämper, Martin; Optis, Michael; Monahan, Adam; Steinfeld, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    The coastal discontinuity imposes strong signals to the atmospheric conditions over the sea that are important for wind-energy potential. Here, we provide a comprehensive investigation of the influence of the land-sea transition on wind conditions in the Baltic Sea using data from an offshore meteorological tower, data from a wind farm, and mesoscale model simulations. Results show a strong induced stable stratification when warm inland air flows over a colder sea. This stratification demonstrates a strong diurnal pattern and is most pronounced in spring when the land-sea temperature difference is greatest. The strength of the induced stratification is proportional to this parameter and inversely proportional to fetch. Extended periods of stable stratification lead to increased influence of inertial oscillations and increased frequency of low-level jets. Furthermore, heterogeneity in land-surface roughness along the coastline is found to produce pronounced horizontal streaks of reduced wind speeds that under stable stratification are advected several tens of kilometres over the sea. The intensity and length of the streaks dampen as atmospheric stability decreases. Increasing sea surface roughness leads to a deformation of these streaks with increasing fetch. Slight changes in wind direction shift the path of these advective streaks, which when passing through an offshore wind farm are found to produce large fluctuations in wind power. Implications of these coastline effects on the accurate modelling and forecasting of offshore wind conditions, as well as damage risk to the turbine, are discussed.

  6. Underwater wet welding consumables for offshore applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Osio, A.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.; Ibarra, S.

    1993-12-31

    The use of underwater wet welding for offshore repairs has been limited mainly because of porosity in the resulting welds. With appropriate consumable design, however, it is possible to enhance weld metal toughness through microstructural refinement and to reduce porosity. New titanium and boron based consumables have been developed with which high toughness acicular ferrite can be produced in underwater wet welds. Titanium, by means of oxide formation, promoted an increase in weld metal acicular ferrite, while boron additions decreased the amount of grain boundary ferrite, further improving the microstructure. Porosity reduction was possible through the addition of calcium carbonate at approximately 13 wt. % in the coating. However, weld metal decarburization also resulted with the addition.

  7. Offshore wind farm electrical cable layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, A. C.; Chick, J.; Johanning, L.; Khorasanchi, M.; de Laleu, V.

    2015-12-01

    This article explores an automated approach for the efficient placement of substations and the design of an inter-array electrical collection network for an offshore wind farm through the minimization of the cost. To accomplish this, the problem is represented as a number of sub-problems that are solved in series using a combination of heuristic algorithms. The overall problem is first solved by clustering the turbines to generate valid substation positions. From this, a navigational mesh pathfinding algorithm based on Delaunay triangulation is applied to identify valid cable paths, which are then used in a mixed-integer linear programming problem to solve for a constrained capacitated minimum spanning tree considering all realistic constraints. The final tree that is produced represents the solution to the inter-array cable problem. This method is applied to a planned wind farm to illustrate the suitability of the approach and the resulting layout that is generated.

  8. Personnel evacuation apparatus for an offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, A.F.

    1987-04-28

    An apparatus is described for evacuating personnel from an offshore platform in all weather conditions to a position on the ocean surface a safe distance from the platform the apparatus comprising: a boat launching ramp; flotation means; boat means adapted to be supported and launched by the ramp; means for releasably securing the boat means within the ramp means adjacent the entry end; means for releasing the latch means to permit the flotation means to move the launching ramp from its stowed position to a deployed position; and means for releasing the boat securing means, thereby permitting the boat means to slide down the ramp and be launched from the exit end of the ramp onto the surface of the ocean a safe distance from the platform.

  9. Recent advances in offshore pipeline technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, R.; Vitali, L.

    1994-12-31

    Since the pioneering construction of the TRANSMED pipeline system across the Sicily Channel in the early 80`s, offshore pipeline technology has been progressing towards more and more difficult environments. Now the projects envisaged for the 90`s are venturing far beyond the challenges of the recent past. The scope of this paper is to present the recent research efforts aimed at tackling the main design aspects of the new challenges. Particular attention will be given to the experiences and achievements on the last few years in transmission pipelines across the European Continental Shelf, e.g. in the Central and Southern North Sea and across the Mediterranean Sea. Technologies, tools and purpose developed criteria will be discussed. The performance of current operating pipeline systems will be reviewed and incentives to rationalize design criteria and guidelines will be illustrated.

  10. Troll, Haltenpipe showcase offshore pipelay advances

    SciTech Connect

    Blaker, F.; Gjertveit, E.; Breivik, J.

    1996-07-29

    Pipelines installed on the Norwegian continental shelf represent current offshore pipeline installation technology for pipe size (up to 40 in.), water depth (to 540 m) distance between pigging stations (up to 800 km), and complex seabed intervention and landfall construction. Furthermore, the number of deepwater pipelines worldwide has triggered significant advances in the development of pipeline repair. The Troll oil pipeline and Haltenpipe projects faced technical challenges: irregular seabed, conditions requiring highly accurate mapping, careful routing, free-span design, seabed preparation works, and special low-tension lay techniques. The two projects, therefore, have in many ways benefited from each other and been run practically as one large integrated project. The paper describes the design, route preparation, and installation for both pipelines.

  11. Storage of carbon dioxide in offshore sediments.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Daniel P

    2009-09-25

    The battle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prevent the most dangerous consequences of climate change will be waged across multiple fronts, including efforts to increase energy efficiency; efforts to deploy nonfossil fuel sources, including renewable and nuclear energy; and investment in adaptation to reduce the impacts of the climate change that will occur regardless of the actions we take. But with more than 80% of the world's energy coming from fossil fuel, winning the battle also requires capturing CO2 from large stationary sources and storing that CO2 in geologic repositories. Offshore geological repositories have received relatively little attention as potential CO2 storage sites, despite their having a number of important advantages over onshore sites, and should be considered more closely.

  12. Offshore structure and method of sinking same

    SciTech Connect

    Fern, D. T.

    1985-02-05

    An offshore structure and a method of skinking it to the sea bed. In accordance with one aspect of this invention, the structure is sunk asymmetrically by first sinking a first end portion thereof and then sinking the other end portion. The first end portion is sunk by ballasting it while the other end portion is closed to ballast. The structure is provided with sufficient water plane area while sinking each end portion to maintain stability during the sinking process. In accordance with another aspect of this invention, at least two spaced-apart piles are provided at the end corresponding to the first end portion to absorb the force of impact with the sea bed and to maintain a skirt on the structure out of contact with the sea bed until both ends of the structure have been sunk to the sea bed.

  13. Quantifying the hurricane catastrophe risk to offshore wind power.

    PubMed

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Apt, Jay

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that over 50 GW of offshore wind power will be required for the United States to generate 20% of its electricity from wind. Developers are actively planning offshore wind farms along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts and several leases have been signed for offshore sites. These planned projects are in areas that are sometimes struck by hurricanes. We present a method to estimate the catastrophe risk to offshore wind power using simulated hurricanes. Using this method, we estimate the fraction of offshore wind power simultaneously offline and the cumulative damage in a region. In Texas, the most vulnerable region we studied, 10% of offshore wind power could be offline simultaneously because of hurricane damage with a 100-year return period and 6% could be destroyed in any 10-year period. We also estimate the risks to single wind farms in four representative locations; we find the risks are significant but lower than those estimated in previously published results. Much of the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines can be mitigated by designing turbines for higher maximum wind speeds, ensuring that turbine nacelles can turn quickly to track the wind direction even when grid power is lost, and building in areas with lower risk.

  14. Time Dependent Fluid Occurrence Offshore Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.

    2010-12-01

    Time Dependent Fluid Occurrence Offshore Taiwan Liwen Chenab, Wu-Cheng Chia, Char-Shine Liuc (mma@earth.sinica.edu.tw)(wchi@gate.sinica.edu.tw) ; aInstitute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan bInstitute of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan ; cInstitute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Earthquake-induced groundwater flows have been observed recently. Such fluid flow might temporarily change the temperature field in the crust. Here we used seismically detected gas hydrate under seafloor to study the temperature fields at a few hundred meters subbottom depth before, and after the 2006 Henchuan earthquake (Mw7.0). We used the hydrate-related bottom-simulating-reflector (BSR) in seismic profiles to study the effects of gas/fluid migration on the BSR attributes. We have conducted two seismic experiments before and after the earthquake across the same transects near the hypocenter of the earthquake using similar air gun arrays and streamers. By analyzing this unique dataset, we found enhanced BSR reflectivity in average after the earthquake (~0.03), but the Sea-floor reflectivity is very similar (~0.5). We also found changed amplitudes versus offset (AVO) in the dataset (the gradient of reflection coefficient versus the angles was ~-0.34). We interpret these results as a consequence of earthquake-induced gas and fluid migration, bringing the gases underneath the BSR, thus the enhanced reflection coefficients. Next we will explore new methods to use the BSR as a flow meter. Using time-dependent seismic attribute analyses across transects before and after a large earthquake, we found strong evidences of earthquake-related fluid migrations and possibly associated temperature perturbations. This is among the first studies to document such feature in the offshore region.

  15. Beyond offshoring: assess your company's global potential.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2004-12-01

    In the past few years, companies have become aware that they can slash costs by offshoring: moving jobs to lower-wage locations. But this practice is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of how globalization can transform industries, according to research by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI). The institute's yearlong study suggests that by streamlining their production processes and supply chains globally, rather than just nationally or regionally, companies can lower their costs-as we've seen in the consumer-electronics and PC industries. Companies can save as much as 70% of their total costs through globalization--50% from offshoring, 5% from training and business-task redesign, and 15% from process improvements. But they don't have to stop there. The cost reductions make it possible to lower prices and expand into new markets, attracting whole new classes of customers. To date, however, few businesses have recognized the full scope of performance improvements that globalization makes possible, much less developed sound strategies for capturing those opportunities. In this article, Diana Farrell, director of MGI, offers a step-by-step approach to doing both things. Among her suggestions: Assess where your industry falls along the globalization spectrum, because not all sectors of the economy face the same challenges and opportunities at the same time. Also, pay attention to production, regulatory, and organizational barriers to globalization. If any of these can be changed, size up the cost-saving (and revenue-generating) opportunities that will emerge for your company as a result of those changes. Farrell also defines the five stages of globalization-market entry, product specialization, value chain disaggregation, value chain reengineering, and the creation of new markets-and notes the different levers for cutting costs and creating value that companies can use in each phase.

  16. Offshore Deformation Front in Miaoli Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, P.; Gwo-shyn, S.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is located at the junction of the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. It's because arc-continent collision occurs in the western Taiwan, resulting in the orogeny has formed a fold-and-thrust belt, developing a series of thrusts aligned in north-south direction. The thrust faults, locating in the central island, are the oldest and have almost inactive. Westward to the island, the faults become younger, dipping angles are smaller, and motions were stronger. On the west side, the foot of the Taiwan Western Foothill is considered the youngest thrust faults located along west Taiwan. Scholars recognized them as so-called the deformation front, and they also believed that the deformation front is located in between the compressive terrain uplifted area and the extensional subsidence area. Therefore, this front line is on the boundary of two different tectonic zones. This study investigates the trace of the deformation front in Miaoli area. Previous studies suggested that the west side of Miaoli collision zone should be fault-bounded, and is located in the seabed. However, in the geological map, there is no geologic evidence that appears on land and so-called active faults related with this deformation front. In the near coast seafloor, according to the reflection earthquakes data from the Institute of Oceanography of NTU, we can only see the offshore strata have been uplifted, and the data also shows that seabed is only covered by thin layer of sediments. This study indicates that in offshore place within three kilometers, shallow formations show a special layer of slime which was extruded to be corrugated transversely. Accordingly, we believe that this slime layer should be pressurized and filled with muddy water. Such features should be further investigated with other geological and geophysical survey data to check if they belong to the structural product of the deformation front.

  17. Optimized Generator Designs for the DTU 10-MW Offshore Wind Turbine using GeneratorSE: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sethuraman, Latha; Maness, Michael; Dykes, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Compared to land-based applications, offshore wind imposes challenges for the development of next generation wind turbine generator technology. Direct-drive generators are believed to offer high availability, efficiency, and reduced operation and maintenance requirements; however, previous research suggests difficulties in scaling to several megawatts or more in size. The resulting designs are excessively large and/or massive, which are major impediments to transportation logistics, especially for offshore applications. At the same time, geared wind turbines continue to sustain offshore market growth through relatively cheaper and lightweight generators. However, reliability issues associated with mechanical components in a geared system create significant operation and maintenance costs, and these costs make up a large portion of overall system costs offshore. Thus, direct-drive turbines are likely to outnumber their gear-driven counterparts for this market, and there is a need to review the costs or opportunities of building machines with different types of generators and examining their competitiveness at the sizes necessary for the next generation of offshore wind turbines. In this paper, we use GeneratorSE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's newly developed systems engineering generator sizing tool to estimate mass, efficiency, and the costs of different generator technologies satisfying the electromagnetic, structural, and basic thermal design requirements for application in a very large-scale offshore wind turbine such as the Technical University of Denmark's (DTU) 10-MW reference wind turbine. For the DTU reference wind turbine, we use the previously mentioned criteria to optimize a direct-drive, radial flux, permanent-magnet synchronous generator; a direct-drive electrically excited synchronous generator; a medium-speed permanent-magnet generator; and a high-speed, doubly-fed induction generator. Preliminary analysis of leveled costs of energy

  18. Multiple indices method for real-time tsunami inundation forecast using a dense offshore observation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, N.; Aoi, S.; Hirata, K.; Suzuki, W.; Kunugi, T.; Nakamura, H.

    2015-12-01

    We started to develop a new methodology for real-time tsunami inundation forecast system (Aoi et al., 2015, this meeting) using densely offshore tsunami observations of the Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (S-net), which is under construction along the Japan Trench (Kanazawa et al., 2012, JpGU; Uehira et al., 2015, IUGG). In our method, the most important concept is involving any type and/or form uncertainties in the tsunami forecast, which cannot be dealt with any of standard linear/nonlinear least square approaches. We first prepare a Tsunami Scenario Bank (TSB), which contains offshore tsunami waveforms at the S-net stations and tsunami inundation information calculated from any possible tsunami source. We then quickly select several acceptable tsunami scenarios that can explain offshore observations by using multiple indices and appropriate thresholds, after a tsunami occurrence. At that time, possible tsunami inundations coupled with selected scenarios are forecasted (Yamamoto et al., 2014, AGU). Currently, we define three indices: correlation coefficient and two variance reductions, whose L2-norm part is normalized either by observations or calculations (Suzuki et al., 2015, JpGU; Yamamoto et al., 2015, IUGG). In this study, we construct the TSB, which contains various tsunami source models prepared for the probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment in the Japan Trench region (Hirata et al., 2014, AGU). To evaluate the propriety of our method, we adopt the fault model based on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake as a pseudo "observation". We also calculate three indices using coastal maximum tsunami height distributions between observation and calculation. We then obtain the correlation between coastal and offshore indices. We notice that the index value of coastal maximum tsunami heights is closer to 1 than the index value of offshore waveforms, i.e., the coastal maximum tsunami height may be predictable within appropriate thresholds defined for

  19. Evolution of the central Walvis Basin / offshore NW Namibia - balancing onshore erosion and offshore sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henk, A.; Kukulus, M.; Junker, R.

    2003-04-01

    Rifting and break-up of Gondwana in the Late Jurassic / Early Cretaceous led to formation of the South Atlantic. One of the associated passive margins, the Walvis Basin in NW Namibia, is used as a case study to investigate the mass and process balances which link uplift and erosion onshore to contemporaneous subsidence and sedimentation offshore. One of the main objectives of the project is to gain quantitative insights into the feedback mechanisms between surface processes and lithospheric processes during passive margin evolution. Modeling concentrates on a traverse across the central Walvis Basin and adjacent onshore areas. Mass balancing requires a reconstruction of the denudation history and the volumes eroded onshore as well as a quantification of the contemporaneous sedimentary record preserved offshore. In the offshore parts of the study area, seismic sections and well data are available to constrain the post-rift evolution of the Walvis basin. However, as none of the exploration wells has yet reached syn-rift deposits, the early margin evolution has to remain speculative. In the onshore part of the traverse, field evidence and published apatite fission track data are used to reconstruct the erosion history. Comparison of the eroded and deposited volumes and masses, respectively, reveals a misfit of about 50 %, i.e. only half of the sediments observed offshore can be attributed to nearby source areas onshore. This result is supported by provenance analysis on cuttings from an offshore well which indicate that a substantial part of the detritus was derived from sources to the south and transported to the central Walvis Basin by coast-parallel currents. Sediment supply rates derived from reconstruction of the onshore erosion history and subsidence rates based on lithospheric cooling models together with global sea level changes are then used to model quantitatively deposition and stratigraphic architectures of the post-rift succession in the central Walvis

  20. Offshore asphaltene and wax deposition: Problems/solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Leontaritis, K.J. |

    1996-05-01

    Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Such problems seriously threaten economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore facilities are especially susceptible to such deposition for a number of reasons. This article presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the problems, the field has been produced for more than 14 years with minimum environmental impact. Principal conclusions developed are discussed in this paper.

  1. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  2. 26th annual offshore technology conference, 1994 proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four Proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest, with relative sessions included in each volume. This Volume 3 contains information relative to offshore platforms and marine system designs. It describes both the installation and decommissioning of offshore platforms, retrofitting platforms to meet current safety standards, and technology assessments for both drilling and platform designs. Papers are also provided which describe maintenance and repair technologies for damages to platform.

  3. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Circulation over the continental shelf in the Offshore of San Francisco map area is dominated by the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific Gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint offshore of central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface waters southeastward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. Ocean temperatures offshore of central California have increased over the past 50 years, driving an ecosystem shift from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment.

  4. Proceedings of the fifth international offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering (OMAE) symposium. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, V.J.; Wang, Y.S.; Ayorinde, O.A.; Sodhi, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the symposium included climates, Arctic regions, hydrate formation, the buckling of heated oil pipelines in frozen ground, icebergs, concretes, air cushion vehicles, mobile offshore drilling units, tanker ships, ice-induced dynamic loads, adfreeze forces on offshore platforms, and multiyear ice floe collision with a massive offshore structure.

  5. 46 CFR 174.080 - Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.080 Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. (a) On a surface type unit...

  6. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Ventura, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft sediment and isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Ventura map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats lie within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, dominated by a flat seafloor and substrates formed from deposition of fluvial and marine sediment during sea-level rise. This flat, fairly homogeneous seafloor, composed primarily of unconsolidated sand and mud and local deposits of gravel, cobbles, and pebbles, provides promising habitat for groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms. The only significant interruptions to this homogeneous habitat type are exposures of hard, irregular sedimentary bedrock and coarse-grained sediment where potential habitats for rockfish and related species exist.

  7. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  8. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Love, David C.; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production. PMID:25415208

  9. Motion performance and mooring system of a floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Haitao

    2012-09-01

    The development of offshore wind farms was originally carried out in shallow water areas with fixed (seabed mounted) structures. However, countries with limited shallow water areas require innovative floating platforms to deploy wind turbines offshore in order to harness wind energy to generate electricity in deep seas. The performances of motion and mooring system dynamics are vital to designing a cost effective and durable floating platform. This paper describes a numerical model to simulate dynamic behavior of a new semi-submersible type floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) system. The wind turbine was modeled as a wind block with a certain thrust coefficient, and the hydrodynamics and mooring system dynamics of the platform were calculated by SESAM software. The effect of change in environmental conditions on the dynamic response of the system under wave and wind loading was examined. The results indicate that the semi-submersible concept has excellent performance and SESAM could be an effective tool for floating wind turbine design and analysis.

  10. Analysis of Acoustic Wave and Current Data Offshore of Mytle Beach, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, K. A.; Wren, A.

    2008-12-01

    Two bottom boundary layer (BBL) instrument frames have been deployed on the shoreface and inner-shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina offshore of Myrtle Beach as part of a South Carolina Sea Grant funded project to measure sediment transport over two hardbottom habitats. The inshore instrument frame is located on an extensive hardbottom surface 850 meters offshore. The second instrumented frame is secured to a hardbottom surface on the inner-shelf at a distance of approximately 2.5 km offshore. The nearshore BBL observing system is composed of a downward-looking RDI/ Teledyne 1200 kHz Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, an upward-looking Nortek Acoustic Wave and Current Profiler (AWAC), and an Aquatec Acoustic Backscatter Sensor. As part of this larger study, the wave and current data from the AWAC have been analyzed. Long-term continuous time series data include wave height, wave period, directional wave spectra, and the magnitude and direction of currents in the water column. Within the data set are several wave events, including several frontal passages and Tropical Storm Hanna which hit the Myrtle Beach area in early September. Wave data have been correlated with meteorological data, and a comparison of shoreface wave characteristics during each type of event are presented.

  11. Overlap in offshore habitat use by double-crested cormorants and boaters in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Bur, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and boats of 2 length classes (≤ 8 m and > 8 m) were counted from a boat along 31 established strip transects in western Lake Erie from 24 April to 1 September 2000. Each transect included only one of the following habitats: (1) offshore of a breeding island or roosting/loafing area for cormorants (“refuge”), (2) reefs or shoals, (3) open water, or (4) offshore of an island shoreline that had evidence of development by humans. Foraging cormorants were recorded most often offshore of refuges and least often on open water. There was no difference between the numbers of foraging cormorants/km2 recorded offshore of developed shorelines and on reefs and shoals. More than half of all boats recorded were on transects that were within 1 km of developed shorelines. Among those transects > 1 km from developed shorelines, there were no differences among the habitats for the number of boats of either length class. The respective ranks of the 31 transect means of the numbers of cormorants/km2 and the numbers of boats/km2 in either length class were uncorrelated. The results suggest that (1) cormorants select foraging habitats based mainly on shoreline type, distance from shoreline, and depth, and (2) the amount of boat traffic is influenced by proximity to port and trip objectives, including sport angling and recreational boating. Although there is overlap in habitat use by cormorants and humans, this overlap is not complete. The perception of cormorants as a threat to fish populations may in part be due to this overlap.

  12. Advanced Technologies For Turbomachinery to Utilize Effectively Renewable Energies at Offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemoto, Toshiaki

    2010-06-01

    For the next leap in the sustainable energy exploitations, we are under obligations not only to cope with the warming global environment but also to conserve natural ecosystems and to coexist with natures. This paper introduces the following advanced technologies in Kyushu Institute of Technology, to utilize effectively the promising ocean and wind resources at the offshore. (1) Counter-Rotating Type Reversible Hydroelectric Unit, which is composed of the tandem runners and the peculiar generator with the double rotational armatures, is applicable to both rising and falling tides at the power station with the embankment, in place of the traditional bulb type turbines. (2) Gyro-Type Reversible Hydraulic Turbine, which is composed of some blades with the high aspect ratio, is effective to utilize the tide power even at the shallow and/or the very low range of the tide. (3) Submerged Ocean Wave Power Unit, where a pair of floats is lined up at the interval of one wave pitch and supports the vertical type hydroelectric unit submerged at the middle position, can get velocity energy eight times higher than the traditional unit. (4) Intelligent Wind Power Unit, which is composed of the tandem wind rotors and the double rotational armature type generator, is suitable for the offshore wind farm.

  13. 12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER AND 2ND TEE (CENTER), REFUGE BAY (RIGHT) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. 14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFTRIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, TACKLE BOX, RESTROOMS ON 3RD TEE - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. The offshore drilling contract--operator and contractor perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, M.D.; Richardson, D.R.

    1983-02-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey conducted as a means of accessing the factors which most often constitute points of conflict between operators and drilling contractors during offshore drilling contract negotiations.

  16. 46 CFR 131.320 - Safety orientation for offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... informing each offshore worker of— (1) In general terms, emergency and evacuation procedures; (2) Locations of emergency exits and of embarkation areas for survival craft; (3) Locations of stowage...

  17. A wind chart to characterize potential offshore wind energy sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Jesus, F.; Menéndez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I. J.

    2014-10-01

    Offshore wind industry needs to improve wind assessment in order to decrease the uncertainty associated to wind resource and its influence on financial requirements. Here, several features related to offshore wind resource assessment are discussed, such as input wind data, estimation of long-term and extreme wind statistics, the wind profile and climate variations. This work proposes an analytical method to characterize wind resource. Final product is a wind chart containing useful wind information that can be applied to any offshore sites. Using long-term time series of meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed and direction at different heights), the methodology is applied to five pilot sites in different countries along European Atlantic corridor and it is used to describe and compare offshore wind behavior.

  18. Use of a mobile diving support vessel, Offshore California

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.P.

    1983-03-01

    The Blue Dolphin is a converted workboat with a one-atmosphere manipulator bell diving system. It provides diving support for Chevron's offshore drilling program. This support includes underwater inspection, repair and salvage.

  19. Understanding Potential Climate Variability Impacts on the Offshore Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stear, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability may have important implications for the offshore energy industry. Scenarios of increased storm activity and changes in sea level could require the retrofit of existing offshore platforms and coastal infrastructure, the decommissioning of facilities for which upgrade or relocation is not economically viable, and the development of new methods and equipment which are removed from or less sensitive to environmental loads. Over the past years the energy industry has been actively involved in collaborative research efforts with government and academia to identify the potential changes in the offshore operating environment, and corresponding risk implications. This presentation will review several of these efforts, and for several of the hypothetical climate variation scenarios, review the potential impacts on and possible mitigations for offshore and coastal energy infrastructure and operations.

  20. “Open Hatch” Tour of Offshore Wind Buoy

    SciTech Connect

    Zayas, Jose

    2015-09-18

    Wind and Water Power Technologies Office Director, Jose Zayas gives a behind the scenes tour of the AXYS WindSentinel research buoy, which uses high-tech instruments to measure conditions for potential offshore wind energy development.

  1. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    and northwest by Point Conception and from the south and southwest by offshore islands and banks. The shelf is underlain by variable amounts of upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated in the late Pleistocene. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft sediment and isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats, which lie within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, range from soft, unconsolidated sediment to hard sedimentary bedrock. This heterogeneous seafloor provides promising habitat for rockfish, groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms.

  2. Offshore Renewable Energy Installations: Impact on Navigation and Marine Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    To reduce our dependence on foreign energy supplies, alternative or renewable energy sources are being pursued. These sources exploit a wide range of...technologies: solar photovoltaics or power plants; hydroelectricity (dams); ocean thermal energy conversion facilities; and offshore renewable energy installations...to affect marine navigation and safety, and although no offshore renewable energy installations presently exist in U.S. waters, several are

  3. Offshore Wind Balance-of-System Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, Michael; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Mone, Christopher

    2015-09-29

    Offshore wind balance-of-system (BOS) costs contribute up to 70% of installed capital costs. Thus, it is imperative to understand the impact of these costs on project economics as well as potential cost trends for new offshore wind technology developments. As a result, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and recently updated a BOS techno-economic model using project cost estimates created from wind energy industry sources.

  4. Evaluation of offshore stocking of Lake Trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.; Strang, T.G.; Lantry, J.R.; Connerton, M.J.; Schanger, T.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush has occurred in Lake Ontario since 1973. In U.S. waters, fish stocked through 1990 survived well and built a large adult population. Survival of yearlings stocked from shore declined during 1990–1995, and adult numbers fell during 1998–2005. Offshore stocking of lake trout was initiated in the late 1990s in response to its successful mitigation of predation losses to double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and the results of earlier studies that suggested it would enhance survival in some cases. The current study was designed to test the relative effectiveness of three stocking methods at a time when poststocking survival for lake trout was quite low and losses due to fish predators was a suspected factor. The stocking methods tested during 2000–2002 included May offshore, May onshore, and June onshore. Visual observations during nearshore stockings and hydroacoustic observations of offshore stockings indicated that release methods were not a direct cause of fish mortality. Experimental stockings were replicated for 3 years at one site in the southwest and for 2 years at one site in the southeast. Offshore releases used a landing craft to transport hatchery trucks from 3 to 6 km offshore out to 55–60-m-deep water. For the southwest site, offshore stocking significantly enhanced poststocking survival. Among the three methods, survival ratios were 1.74 : 1.00 : 1.02 (May offshore : May onshore : June onshore). Although not statistically significant owing to the small samples, the trends were similar for the southeast site, with survival ratios of 1.67 : 1.00 : 0.72. Consistent trends across years and sites indicated that offshore stocking of yearling lake trout during 2000–2002 provided nearly a twofold enhancement in survival; however, this increase does not appear to be great enough to achieve the 12-fold enhancement necessary to return population abundance to restoration

  5. 2014–2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Aaron; Stehly, Tyler; Musial, Walter

    2015-09-30

    This report provides data and analysis to assess the status of the U.S. offshore wind industry through June 30, 2015. It builds on the foundation laid by the Navigant Consortium, which produced three market reports between 2012 and 2014. The report summarizes domestic and global market developments, technology trends, and economic data to help U.S. offshore wind industry stakeholders, including policymakers, regulators, developers, financiers, and supply chain participants, to identify barriers and opportunities.

  6. Variable Frequency Operations of an Offshore Wind Power Plant with HVDC-VSC: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated. Based on DOE study, wind power generation may reach 330 GW by 2030 at the level of penetration of 20% of the total energy production. From this amount of wind power, 54 GW of wind power will be generated at offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore wind power plants requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cable, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission. Otherwise, if the power is transmitted via alternating current, the reactive power generated by the cable capacitance may cause an excessive over voltage in the middle of the transmission distance which requires unnecessary oversized cable voltage breakdown capability. The use of HVDC is usually required for transmission distance longer than 50 kilometers of submarine cables to be economical. The use of HVDC brings another advantage; it is capable of operating at variable frequency. The inland substation will be operated to 60 Hz synched with the grid, the offshore substation can be operated at variable frequency, thus allowing the wind power plant to be operated at constant Volt/Hz. In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated.

  7. Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ysaccis B., Raul

    1998-12-01

    On the northeastern offshore Venezuela, the pre-Tertiary basement consists of a deeply subducted accretionary complex of a Cretaceous island arc system that formed far to the west of its present location. The internal structure of this basement consists of metamorphic nappes that involve passive margin sequences, as well as oceanic (ophiolitic) elements. The Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore is dominated by Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Oligocene) extension and Neogene transtension, interrupted by Oligocene to Middle Miocene inversions. The Paleogene extension is mainly an arc-normal extension associated with a retreating subduction boundary. It is limited to the La Tortuga and the La Blanquilla Basins and the southeastern Margarita and Caracolito subbasins. All of these basins are farther north of and not directly tied to the El Pilar fault system. On a reconstruction, these Paleogene extensional systems were located to the north of the present day Maracaibo Basin. By early Miocene the leading edge of the now overall transpressional system had migrated to a position to the north of the Ensenada de Barcelona. This relative to South America eastward migration is responsible for the Margarita strike-slip fault and the major inversions that began during the Oligocene and lasted into the Middle Miocene. The Bocono-El Pilar-Casanay-Warm Springs and the La Tortuga-Coche-North Coast fault systems are exclusively Neogene with major transtension occurring during the Late Miocene to Recent and act independently from the earlier Paleogene extensional system. They are responsible for the large Neogene transtensional basins of the area: the Cariaco trough, the Northern Tuy-Cariaco and the Paria sub-basins, and the Gulf of Paria Basin. This latest phase is characterized by strain-partitioning into strike slip faults, a transtensional northern domain and a transpressional southern domain that is responsible for the decollement tectonics and/or inversions of the

  8. Integrated fire analysis: Application to offshore cases

    SciTech Connect

    Saubestre, V.; Khalfi, J.P.; Paygnard, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Evaluating thermal loads from different fire scenarios and then response of the structure to these loads covers several fields. It is also difficult and time consuming to implement. Interfaces are necessary between the heat calculation, transient propagation and structural analysis software packages. Nevertheless, it is necessary to design structures to accommodate heat loads in order to meet safety requirements or functional specification. Elf, along with several operators and organizations, have sponsored a research project on this topic. The project, managed by SINTEF NBL (Norwegian Fire Research Laboratory), has delivered an integrated fire analysis software package which can be used to address design-to-fire-related issues in various contexts. The core modules of the integrated package are robust, well validated analysis tools. This paper describes some benefits (technical or cost related) of using an integrated approach to assess the response of a structure to thermal loads. Three examples are described: consequence of an accidental scenario on the living quarters in an offshore complex, necessity for the reinforcement of a flareboom following a change in process, evaluation of the amount of insulation needed for a topside process primary structure. The paper focuses on the importance for the operator to have a practical tool which can lead to substantial cost saving while reducing the uncertainty linked to safety issues.

  9. AORIS. Arctic & Offshore Technical Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Pastoria, G.A.

    1990-05-01

    AORIS is a computerized information system to assist the technology and planning community in the development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In general, AORIS is geographically dependent and, where possible, site specific. The main topics are sea ice, geotechnology, oceanography, meteorology, and Arctic engineering, as they relate to such offshore oil and gas activities as exploration, production, storage, and transportation. AORIS consists of a directory component that identifies 85 Arctic energy-related databases and tells how to access them; a bibliographic/management information system or bibliographic component containing over 8,000 references and abstracts on Arctic energy-related research; and a scientific and engineering information system, or data component, containing over 800 data sets, in both tabular and graphical formats, on sea ice characteristics taken from the bibliographic citations. AORIS also contains much of the so-called grey literature, i.e., data and/or locations of Arctic data collected, but never published. The three components are linked so the user may easily move from one component to another. A generic information system is provided to allow users to create their own information systems. The generic programs have the same query and updating features as AORIS, except that there is no directory component.

  10. Data warehouse manages offshore project information

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-04

    A data warehouse adopted from the POSC/Caesar data model will manage the life-cycle information for the offshore Norway Aasgard project. The Aasgard project comprises the Midgard, Smorbukk, and Smorbukk South fields, which lie in 780--985 ft of water. A semisubmersible production facility will handle gas exports, scheduled to begin in 2000. Statoil estimates that recoverable reserves in the fields are 7.5 tcf of gas and 780 million bbl of oil. Notia software components include: the Intergraph asset and information management (AIM) product; the P/C PDM and P/C RDL models; a data mapping, translation, and import toolkit; the application programming interface (API); and query and browser clients. Intergraph describes AIM, with its object management framework (OMF) from metaphase technology, as the engine upon which Notia is based. The P/C PDM defines the data terminology and structure. A dictionary of standard petrochemical data items, the P/C RDL, defines the various activities, materials, components, and relationships among these items. The API allows users to develop additional functionality, and the toolkit provides resources for translating and mapping data from existing sources into a neutral format so that administrators can prepopulate the data warehouse. A worldwide web browser client allows users to query the data warehouse and display results in a variety of configurable formats, including virtual data sheets.

  11. The significance of gas for offshore operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, G. C.; Wheeler, S. J.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the physical behaviour of a seabed containing undissolved gas in the light of laboratory simulations undertaken at Oxford, Belfast and Sheffield Universities. This physical behaviour is significant for offshore operations in several ways. Gas may exist in high pressure pockets, trapped beneath low permeability clays, which form a blow out hazard during drilling. In fine-grained soils, it exists in voids distributed through the soil, at pressures only a little greater than te ambient water pressure. In this condition, it is unlikely to induced casastrophic failure, but will affect the foundation behaviour through changes in compressibility and strength. In sands, gas may be present in pores between particles, replacing water but not affecting the soil structure. There are common features in all these cases, in that the gas-water interaction occurs through surface tension, acting in menisci whose curvature is affected by the soil particle sizes, shapes and packing. These menisci determine the differences between gas and water pressure that may exist in the soil. Results are presented to show that the compressibility and undrained shear strength of a fine-grained soil are reduced by the presence of gas in a predictable manner, with a similar conclusion for the undrained strength of a gassy sand.

  12. Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.M. )

    1996-01-01

    In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro's efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Long Basin. This now produces [approximately]130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins' blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco's gas discoveries. Mitsubishi's and Petronas' oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro's acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.

  13. Dynamically coupled 3D pollutant dispersion model for assessing produced water discharges in the Canadian offshore area.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhi; Lee, Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    Produced water is the contaminated water that is brought to the surface in the process of recovering oil and gas. On the basis of discharge volume, this type of contaminated water is the largest contributor to the offshore waste stream. Modeling studies of large amounts of wastewater discharge into offshore areas have helped in the understanding of pollutant dispersion behaviors in marine environments and in further evaluating the potential environmental effects resulting from produced water discharges. This study presents an integrated three-dimensional (3D) approach for the simulation of produced water discharges in offshore areas. Specifically, an explicit second-order finite difference method was used to model the far-field pollutant dispersion behavior, and this method was coupled with the jet-plume model JETLAG with an extension of the 3D cross-flow conditions to simulate the near-field mixing processes. A dynamic coupling technique with full consideration of the interaction between the discharged fluids and receiving waters was employed in the model. A case study was conducted on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada. The field validation of the modeling results was conducted for both the near-field and far-field dispersion processes, and the modeling results were in good agreement with the field observations. This study provides an integrated system tool for the simulation of complex transport processes in offshore areas, and the results from such modeling systems can be further used for the risk assessment analysis of the surface water environment.

  14. Database Design for the Evaluation of On-shore and Off-Shore Storm Characteristics over East Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Amy A.; Wilson, Jennifer G.; Brown, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from multiple sources is needed to investigate lightning characteristics over differing terrain (on-shore vs. off-shore) by comparing natural cloud-to-ground lightning behavior differences depending on the characteristics of attachment mediums. The KSC Lightning Research Database (KLRD) was created to reduce manual data entry time and aid research by combining information from various data sources into a single record for each unique lightning event of interest. The KLRD uses automatic data handling functions to import data from a lightning detection network and identify and record lighting events of interest. Additional automatic functions import data from the NASA Buoy 41009 (located approximately 20 miles off the coast) and the KSC Electric Field Mill network, then match these electric field mill values to the corresponding lightning events. The KLRD calculates distances between each lightning event and the various electric field mills, aids in identifying the location type for each stroke (i.e., on-shore vs. off-shore, etc.), provides statistics on the number of strokes per flash, and produces customizable reports for quick retrieval and logical display of data. Data from February 2014 to date covers 48 unique storm dates with 2295 flashes containing 5700 strokes, of which 2612 are off-shore and 1003 are on-shore. The number of strokes per flash ranges from 1 to 22. The ratio of single to subsequent stroke flashes is 1.29 for off-shore strokes and 2.19 for on-shore strokes.

  15. Massive sediment bypassing on the lower shoreface offshore of a wide tidal inlet - Cat Island Pass, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, B.E.; List, J.H.; Sallenger, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric and shoreline surveys along the Louisiana coast west of the Mississippi River mouth detected a large area of deposition in water depths of 2.0-8.5 m offshore of a 9-km- wide tidal inlet, the Cat Island Pass/Wine Island Pass system. A 59.9 ?? 106 m3 sandy deposit formed from the 1930s-1980s, spanning 27 km in the alongshore direction, delineating the transport pathway for sediment bypassing offshore of the inlet on the shoreface. Bypassing connected the shorefaces of two barrier island systems, the Isles Dernieres and the Bayou Lafourche. The processes responsible for formation of this deposit are not well understood, but sediment-transport modeling suggests that sediment is transported primarily by wind-driven coastal currents during large storms and hurricanes. Deposition appears to be related to changes in shoreline orientation, closing of transport pathways into a large bay to the east and the presence of tidal inlets. This newly documented type of bypassing, an offshore bypassing of the inlet system, naturally nourished the immediate downdrift area, the eastern Isles Dernieres, where shoreface and shoreline erosion rates are about half of pre-bypassing rates. Erosion rates remained the same farther downdrift, where bypassing has not yet reached. As this offshore bypassing continues, the destruction of the Isles Dernieres will be slowed.

  16. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development

  17. Geological characterization of selected offshore sand resources on the OCS, offshore Alabama, for beach nourishment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, David J.; Parker, Steven J.; Smith, W. Everett

    1993-01-01

    Most Alabama Gulf and estuarine shoreline is undergoing long-term erosion; threatened shorelines will need programs of replenishment and maintenance if they are to be even temporarily stabilized. Highest priority beach replenishment areas include eastern Dauphin Island; west of Perdido Pass; and west of the inlet at Little Lagoon. There are no appropriate local onshore sand sources available for any such large scale program. Sediments in the Federal waters of the EEZ were evaluated for possible sources of sand for beach nourishment. Six lithofacies were delineated based on sediment characterization, spatial framework, and environment of deposition; of these, two (Clean Sands and Graded Shelly Sands) were deemed to have highest potential as beach nourishment sources. Five offshore target areas were delineated as potential sand sources. Criteria included sand aesthetics, estimated sand volume, and sand distributions. Preliminary environmental analyses included impacts of offshore sand dredging on shelf circulation; on economic activities; and on local benthic biota. Dredging may not significantly alter background wave regimes; however, data are insufficient to model effects of major storms on a modified shelf morphology. Dredging would avoid areas of current economic activity. There would like be little long-term impact on benthic biota in the target areas. Additional work will be required to confirm or refute these preliminary findings.

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of Offshore Wind Cost of Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Damiami, R.; Hand, M.; Meadows, R.; Musial, W.; Moriarty, P.; Veers, P.

    2012-10-01

    No matter the source, offshore wind energy plant cost estimates are significantly higher than for land-based projects. For instance, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) review on the 2010 cost of wind energy found baseline cost estimates for onshore wind energy systems to be 71 dollars per megawatt-hour ($/MWh), versus 225 $/MWh for offshore systems. There are many ways that innovation can be used to reduce the high costs of offshore wind energy. However, the use of such innovation impacts the cost of energy because of the highly coupled nature of the system. For example, the deployment of multimegawatt turbines can reduce the number of turbines, thereby reducing the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with vessel acquisition and use. On the other hand, larger turbines may require more specialized vessels and infrastructure to perform the same operations, which could result in higher costs. To better understand the full impact of a design decision on offshore wind energy system performance and cost, a system analysis approach is needed. In 2011-2012, NREL began development of a wind energy systems engineering software tool to support offshore wind energy system analysis. The tool combines engineering and cost models to represent an entire offshore wind energy plant and to perform system cost sensitivity analysis and optimization. Initial results were collected by applying the tool to conduct a sensitivity analysis on a baseline offshore wind energy system using 5-MW and 6-MW NREL reference turbines. Results included information on rotor diameter, hub height, power rating, and maximum allowable tip speeds.

  19. Terminology Guideline for Classifying Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Beiter, Philipp; Musial, Walt

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to establish a clear and consistent vocabulary for conveying offshore wind resource potential and to interpret this vocabulary in terms that are familiar to the oil and gas (O&G) industry. This involves clarifying and refining existing definitions of offshore wind energy resource classes. The terminology developed in this guideline represents one of several possible sets of vocabulary that may differ with respect to their purpose, data availability, and comprehensiveness. It was customized to correspond with established offshore wind practices and existing renewable energy industry terminology (e.g. DOE 2013, Brown et al. 2015) while conforming to established fossil resource classification as best as possible. The developers of the guideline recognize the fundamental differences that exist between fossil and renewable energy resources with respect to availability, accessibility, lifetime, and quality. Any quantitative comparison between fossil and renewable energy resources, including offshore wind, is therefore limited. For instance, O&G resources are finite and there may be significant uncertainty associated with the amount of the resource. In contrast, aboveground renewable resources, such as offshore wind, do not generally deplete over time but can vary significantly subhourly, daily, seasonally, and annually. The intent of this guideline is to make these differences transparent and develop an offshore wind resource classification that conforms to established fossil resource classifications where possible. This guideline also provides methods to quantitatively compare certain offshore wind energy resources to O&G resource classes for specific applications. Finally, this guideline identifies areas where analogies to established O&G terminology may be inappropriate or subject to misinterpretation.

  20. Sanaga Sud field - Offshore Cameroon, west Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Pauken, R.J. )

    1990-09-01

    The Sanaga Sud field, offshore Cameroon, is located just northwest of the coastal town of Kribi in the northern part of the Douala basin. The discovery well, Sanaga Sud A-1, was drilled in 1979 to test an apparent horst block that contained a prominent horizontal seismic amplitude. The Douala basin is one of a series of passive margin basins located along the coastline of central and southern Africa, and formed during the rifting of Africa and South America during the Early Cretaceous. Drilling results showed that the amplitude was a gas/water contact. Two appraisal wells, SSA-2 and SSA-3, were drilled in 1981. All three wells tested gas and condensate. Total recoverable hydrocarbons for the field are estimated to be approximately 1 tcf of gas. The trap in this field is composed of tilted and rotated fault blocks composed of interbedded Aptian to Albian sandstones, siltstones, and shales. The fault blocks were truncated by erosion (breakup unconformity) and later buried by a considerable thickness of onlapping Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary shale. The late Albian erosional unconformity forms the top of the trap over most of the field. Geochemical studies indicate a Lower Cretaceous source for the hydrocarbons. The gross pay thickness averages 250 m with an average porosity of 23% and an average permeability of 142 md. Reservoir lithologies range from well-sorted, massive sandstones to poorly sorted fine sandstones and siltstones containing shaly laminations that are carbonaceous and micaceous. The field is located predominantly in Block PH-38, but part of the field is in the Londji concession. Mobil Producing Cameroon, Inc., is the operator of PH-38 and Total Exploration and Production Cameroon is the operator of the Londji concession.