Science.gov

Sample records for jacket type offshore

  1. Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Jacket Type Offshore Platforms through Incremental Dynamic Analysis considering Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Asgarian, Behrouz; Shokrgozar, Hamed R.; Talarposhti, Ali Shakeri

    2008-07-08

    Of great interest in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) is the accurate estimation of the seismic performance of structures. A performance prediction and evaluation procedure is based on nonlinear dynamics and reliability theory. In this method, a full integration over the three key stochastic models is as follow: ground motion hazard curve, nonlinear dynamic displacement demand, and displacement capacity. Further, both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties are evaluated and carried through the analysis.In this paper, jacket and soil-pile system have been modeled using Finite Element program (OpenSees) and the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) are performed to investigate nonlinear behavior of offshore platforms. The system demand is determined by performing time history response analyses of the jacket under a suite of FEMA/SAC uniform hazard ground motions. The system capacity in terms of the drift ratio against incipient collapse is generally difficult to predict since the structural response goes into nonlinear range before collapse. All the analyses are performed in two directions and the results are compared with each others. The confidence level of a jacket in each direction for a given hazard level is calculated using the procedure described.

  2. Repairing an offshore jacket structure proves cost effective

    SciTech Connect

    Still, J.R.; Blackwood, V.

    2000-05-01

    During inclement weather in the southern North Sea, an off-shore supply boat collided with a 25-year-old gas production platform. The impact occurred just over 2 m (5.56 ft) from the lowest annual tide and was sufficient to buckle, then shear, one end of a horizontal bracing from the jacket leg and to cause further damage at a node joint. Inspection personnel performed an initial examination of the damage to the eight-leg jacket structure using rope access techniques (abseiling), which offered substantial cost saving over erecting scaffolding. A structural analysis confirmed the jacket's integrity was not impaired and loss of the horizontal bracing would not significantly affect the structure. The analysis also confirmed repair of the node weld cracks and of the sheared area on the leg should be performed as soon as practical. In the end, the repair went smoothly. The repair area was above the waterline, and the weather cooperated perfectly. The repairs were done using rope access techniques, and using austenitic electrodes reduced the possibility of HAZ hydrogen cracking. Nondestructive examination confirmed no cracking had been experienced and no other defects existed. Indeed, this methodology is considered extremely practical, cost effective and ideal for use on offshore structures--with damage close to the waterline, and with the need to execute immediate repairs.

  3. Analyzing the safety of removal sequences for piles of an offshore jacket platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Zhao-De

    2009-12-01

    An inevitable consequence of the development of the offshore petroleum industry is the eventual obsolescence of large offshore structures. Proper methods for removal of decommissioned offshore platforms are becoming an important topic that the oil and gas industry must pay increasing attention to. While removing sections from a decommissioned jacket platform, the stability of the remaining parts is critical. The jacket danger indices D σ and D s defined in this paper are very useful for analyzing the safety of any procedure planned for disassembling a jacket platform. The safest piles cutting sequence can be determined easily by comparing every column of D σ and D s or simply analyzing the figures of every row of D σ and D s .

  4. A robust damage detection method developed for offshore jacket platforms using modified artificial immune system algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojtahedi, A.; Lotfollahi Yaghin, M. A.; Hassanzadeh, Y.; Abbasidoust, F.; Ettefagh, M. M.; Aminfar, M. H.

    2012-09-01

    Steel jacket-type platforms are the common kind of the offshore structures and health monitoring is an important issue in their safety assessment. In the present study, a new damage detection method is adopted for this kind of structures and inspected experimentally by use of a laboratory model. The method is investigated for developing the robust damage detection technique which is less sensitive to both measurement and analytical model uncertainties. For this purpose, incorporation of the artificial immune system with weighted attributes (AISWA) method into finite element (FE) model updating is proposed and compared with other methods for exploring its effectiveness in damage identification. Based on mimicking immune recognition, noise simulation and attributes weighting, the method offers important advantages and has high success rates. Therefore, it is proposed as a suitable method for the detection of the failures in the large civil engineering structures with complicated structural geometry, such as the considered case study.

  5. A comparison study of offshore wind support structures with monopiles and jackets for U.S. waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, R.; Dykes, K.; Scott, G.

    2016-09-01

    U.S. experience in offshore wind is limited, and high costs are expected unless innovations are introduced in one or multiple aspects of the project, from the installed technology to the balance of system (BOS). The substructure is the main single component responsible for the BOS capital expenditure (CapEx) and thus one that, if improved, could yield significant levelized cost of energy (LCOE) savings. For projects in U.S. waters, multimember lattice structures (also known as jackets) can render required stiffness for transitional water depths at potentially lower costs than monopiles (MPs). In this study, we used a systems engineering approach to evaluate the LCOE of prototypical wind power plants at six locations along the eastern seaboard and the Gulf of Mexico for both types of support structures. Using a reference wind turbine and actual metocean conditions for the selected sites, we calculated loads for a parked and an operational situation, and we optimized the MP- and jacket-based support structures to minimize their overall mass. Using a suite of cost models, we then computed their associated LCOE. For all water depths, the MP-based configurations were heavier than their jacket counterparts, but the overall costs for the MPs were less than they were for jackets up to depths of slightly less than 30m. When the associated manufacturing and installation costs were included, jackets resulted in lower LCOE for depths greater than 40m. These results can be used by U.S. stakeholders to understand the potential for different technologies at different sites, but the methodology illustrated in this study can be further employed to analyze the effects of innovations and design choices throughout wind power plant systems.

  6. Parametric study on the effects of pile inclination angle on the response of batter piles in offshore jacket platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminfar, Ali; Ahmadi, Hamid; Aminfar, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Offshore jacket-type platforms are attached to the seabed by long batter piles. In this paper, results from a finite element analysis, verified against experimental data, are used to study the effect of the pile's inclination angle, and its interaction with the geometrical properties of the pile and the geotechnical characteristics of the surrounding soil on the behavior of the inclined piles supporting the jacket platforms. Results show that the inclination angle is one of the main parameters affecting the behavior of an offshore pile. We investigated the effect of the inclination angle on the maximum von Mises stress, maximum von Mises elastic strain, maximum displacement vector sum, maximum displacement in the horizontal direction, and maximum displacement in the vertical direction. The pile seems to have an operationally optimal degree of inclination of approximately 5°. By exceeding this value, the instability in the surrounding soil under applied loads grows extensively in all the geotechnical properties considered. Cohesive soils tend to display poorer results compared to grained soils.

  7. Development of jacket platform tsunami risk rating system in waters offshore North Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. E.; Liew, M. S.; Mardi, N. H.; Na, K. L.; Toloue, Iraj; Wong, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    This work details the simulation of tsunami waves generated by seaquakes in the Manila Trench and their effect on fixed oil and gas jacket platforms in waters offshore North Borneo. For this study, a four-leg living quarter jacket platform located in a water depth of 63m is modelled in SACS v5.3. Malaysia has traditionally been perceived to be safe from the hazards of earthquakes and tsunamis. Local design practices tend to neglect tsunami waves and include no such provisions. In 2004, a 9.3M w seaquake occurred off the northwest coast of Aceh, which generated tsunami waves that caused destruction in Malaysia totalling US 25 million and 68 deaths. This event prompted an awareness of the need to study the reliability of fixed offshore platforms scattered throughout Malaysian waters. In this paper, we present a review of research on the seismicity of the Manila Trench, which is perceived to be high risk for Southeast Asia. From the tsunami numerical model TUNA-M2, we extract computer-simulated tsunami waves at prescribed grid points in the vicinity of the platforms in the region. Using wave heights as input, we simulate the tsunami using SACS v5.3 structural analysis software of offshore platforms, which is widely accepted by the industry. We employ the nonlinear solitary wave theory in our tsunami loading calculations for the platforms, and formulate a platform-specific risk quantification system. We then perform an intensive structural sensitivity analysis and derive a corresponding platform-specific risk rating model.

  8. Development of jacket platform tsunami risk rating system in waters offshore North Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. E.; Liew, M. S.; Mardi, N. H.; Na, K. L.; Toloue, Iraj; Wong, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    This work details the simulation of tsunami waves generated by seaquakes in the Manila Trench and their effect on fixed oil and gas jacket platforms in waters offshore North Borneo. For this study, a four-leg living quarter jacket platform located in a water depth of 63m is modelled in SACS v5.3. Malaysia has traditionally been perceived to be safe from the hazards of earthquakes and tsunamis. Local design practices tend to neglect tsunami waves and include no such provisions. In 2004, a 9.3 M w seaquake occurred off the northwest coast of Aceh, which generated tsunami waves that caused destruction in Malaysia totalling US 25 million and 68 deaths. This event prompted an awareness of the need to study the reliability of fixed offshore platforms scattered throughout Malaysian waters. In this paper, we present a review of research on the seismicity of the Manila Trench, which is perceived to be high risk for Southeast Asia. From the tsunami numerical model TUNA-M2, we extract computer-simulated tsunami waves at prescribed grid points in the vicinity of the platforms in the region. Using wave heights as input, we simulate the tsunami using SACS v5.3 structural analysis software of offshore platforms, which is widely accepted by the industry. We employ the nonlinear solitary wave theory in our tsunami loading calculations for the platforms, and formulate a platform-specific risk quantification system. We then perform an intensive structural sensitivity analysis and derive a corresponding platform-specific risk rating model.

  9. Differentiating between underwater construction noise of monopile and jacket foundations for offshore windmills: a case study from the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Norro, Alain Michel Jules; Rumes, Bob; Degraer, Steven Johan

    2013-01-01

    Steel monopiles, jackets requiring four steel pinpiles, and gravity-based foundations were applied in offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea. This paper compares the underwater noise generated during the piling activities of steel monopiles at the Belwind wind farm (Blighbank) with that of jacket pinpiles at the C-Power project (Thorntonbank). Underwater noise was measured at various distances from the pile driving location. The underwater noise was quantified by its zero to peak sound pressure level (L(z-p)), unweighted sound exposure level (SEL), cumulative SEL, and 1/3 octave spectra. No significant differences in L(z-p) could be demonstrated (monopile L(z-p): 179-194 dB  re 1  μPa, jacket L(z-p): 172-189 dB  re 1  μPa). SEL showed no statistical difference between monopile and jacket and varied between 145 and 168 dB  re 1  μPa(2)s. Furthermore, near identical spectra were measured for both types of piling. Piling of the jacket pinpiles took, however, about 2.5 times the time of the monopile. When standardised to megawatt installed per foundation both types of piling scored near equally. As an illustration, the radius of major behavioural disturbance (L(p-p) = 155 dB  re 1  μPa) in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena was estimated by a model at 16 km for monopiles and at 8 km for jacket.

  10. Differentiating between underwater construction noise of monopile and jacket foundations for offshore windmills: a case study from the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Norro, Alain Michel Jules; Rumes, Bob; Degraer, Steven Johan

    2013-01-01

    Steel monopiles, jackets requiring four steel pinpiles, and gravity-based foundations were applied in offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea. This paper compares the underwater noise generated during the piling activities of steel monopiles at the Belwind wind farm (Blighbank) with that of jacket pinpiles at the C-Power project (Thorntonbank). Underwater noise was measured at various distances from the pile driving location. The underwater noise was quantified by its zero to peak sound pressure level (L(z-p)), unweighted sound exposure level (SEL), cumulative SEL, and 1/3 octave spectra. No significant differences in L(z-p) could be demonstrated (monopile L(z-p): 179-194 dB  re 1  μPa, jacket L(z-p): 172-189 dB  re 1  μPa). SEL showed no statistical difference between monopile and jacket and varied between 145 and 168 dB  re 1  μPa(2)s. Furthermore, near identical spectra were measured for both types of piling. Piling of the jacket pinpiles took, however, about 2.5 times the time of the monopile. When standardised to megawatt installed per foundation both types of piling scored near equally. As an illustration, the radius of major behavioural disturbance (L(p-p) = 155 dB  re 1  μPa) in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena was estimated by a model at 16 km for monopiles and at 8 km for jacket. PMID:23576910

  11. Differentiating between Underwater Construction Noise of Monopile and Jacket Foundations for Offshore Windmills: A Case Study from the Belgian Part of the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Norro, Alain Michel Jules; Rumes, Bob; Degraer, Steven Johan

    2013-01-01

    Steel monopiles, jackets requiring four steel pinpiles, and gravity-based foundations were applied in offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea. This paper compares the underwater noise generated during the piling activities of steel monopiles at the Belwind wind farm (Blighbank) with that of jacket pinpiles at the C-Power project (Thorntonbank). Underwater noise was measured at various distances from the pile driving location. The underwater noise was quantified by its zero to peak sound pressure level (Lz−p), unweighted sound exposure level (SEL), cumulative SEL, and 1/3 octave spectra. No significant differences in Lz−p could be demonstrated (monopile Lz−p: 179–194 dB re 1 μPa, jacket Lz−p: 172–189 dB re 1 μPa). SEL showed no statistical difference between monopile and jacket and varied between 145 and 168 dB re 1 μPa2s. Furthermore, near identical spectra were measured for both types of piling. Piling of the jacket pinpiles took, however, about 2.5 times the time of the monopile. When standardised to megawatt installed per foundation both types of piling scored near equally. As an illustration, the radius of major behavioural disturbance (Lp−p = 155 dB re 1 μPa) in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena was estimated by a model at 16 km for monopiles and at 8 km for jacket. PMID:23576910

  12. CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY

    DOEpatents

    Brugmann, E.W.

    1958-08-26

    Reactor faul elements of the elongated cylindrical type which are jacketed in a corrosion resistant material are described. Each feel element is comprised of a plurality of jacketed cylinders of fissionable material in end to end abutting relationship, the jackets being welded together at their adjoining ends to retain the individual segments together and seat the interior of the jackets.

  13. Fire Protection Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NERAC, Inc., Tolland, CT, aided Paul Monroe Engineering, Orange, CA, in the development of their PC1200 Series Fire Protection Jacket that protects the oil conduit system on an offshore drilling platform from the intense hydrocarbon fires that cause buckling and could cause structural failure of the platform. The flame-proof jacketing, which can withstand temperatures of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours or more, was developed from a combination of ceramic cloth (similar to the ceramic in Space Shuttle tiles), and laminates used in space suits.

  14. CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY

    DOEpatents

    Brugmann, E.W.

    1958-08-26

    Jacketed metal bodies of the type used as fuel elements for nuclear reactors, which contain an internal elongated body of fissionable material jacketed in a corrosion resistant metal are described. The ends of the internal bodies are provided with screw threads having a tapered outer end. The jacket material overlaps the ends and extends into the tapered section of the screw threaded opening. Screw caps with a mating tapered section are screwed into the ends of the body to compress the jacket material in the tapered sections to provtde an effective seal against corrosive gases and liquids.

  15. JACKETING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.

    1959-07-14

    The bonding to uranium of sheathing of iron or cobalt, or nickel, or alloys thereof is described. The bonding is accomplished by electro-depositing both surfaces to be joined with a coating of silver and amalgamating or alloying the silver layer with mercury or indium. Then the silver alloy is homogenized by exerting pressure on an assembly of the uranium core and the metal jacket, reducing the area of assembly and heating the assembly to homogenize by diffusion.

  16. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  17. CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY

    DOEpatents

    Brugmann, E.W.

    1958-08-26

    S>Metal jacketed metallic bodies of the type used as feel elements fer nuclear reactors are presented. The fuel element is comprised of a plurality of jacketed cylindrical bodies joined in end to end abutting relationship. The abutting ends of the internal fissionable bodies are provided with a mating screw and thread means for joining the two together. The jacket material is of a corrosion resistant metal and overlaps the abutting ends of the internal bodies, thereby effectively sealing these bodies from contact with exteral reactive gases and liquids.

  18. The tension raft jacket concept

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, P.; Nygaard, C.; Greiner, W.; Johnson, B.; Datta, B.; Dove, P.G.S.; Souza, R.D.

    1995-05-01

    Concept level engineering has been performed for a promising new deepwater platform design. The tension raft jacket (TRJ) employs a fairly conventional fixed platform-type jacket and deck supported by a deeply submerged buoyant concrete raft. The raft is founded to the sea bottom by vertically tensioned tendons similar to conventional TLPs. Tensioned drilling and production risers are used. A TRJ design is discussed for a medium-size deck payload and a water depth of about 1,500 feet. Work to date includes preliminary sizing of the deck, jacket, raft and tendons; global response analysis; development of potential fabrication and installation methods; and development of preliminary schedules and costs. The TRJ concept is expected to compete with compliant tower platforms in shallow water depths and with large drilling TLPs in deep water. The primary benefits of the TRJ concept are simplicity of design, constructability with existing Gulf of Mexico (GOM) infrastructure, lower capital costs, and shorter development schedules.

  19. WELDED JACKETED URANIUM BODY

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.

    1958-08-26

    A fuel element is presented for a neutronic reactor and is comprised of a uranium body, a non-fissionable jacket surrounding sald body, thu jacket including a portion sealed by a weld, and an inclusion in said sealed jacket at said weld of a fiux having a low neutron capture cross-section. The flux is provided by combining chlorine gas and hydrogen in the intense heat of-the arc, in a "Heliarc" welding muthod, to form dry hydrochloric acid gas.

  20. JACKETED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1958-12-01

    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  1. Postexercise Cooling Rates in 2 Cooling Jackets

    PubMed Central

    Brade, Carly; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen; Polglaze, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Cooling jackets are a common method for removing stored heat accumulated during exercise. To date, the efficiency and practicality of different types of cooling jackets have received minimal investigation. Objective: To examine whether a cooling jacket containing a phase-change material (PC17) results in more rapid postexercise cooling than a gel cooling jacket and a no-jacket (control) condition. Design: Randomized, counterbalanced design with 3 experimental conditions. Setting: Participants exercised at 75% V̇o2max workload in a hot climate chamber (temperature  =  35.0 ± 1.4°C, relative humidity  =  52 ± 4%) for 30 minutes, followed by postexercise cooling for 30 minutes in cool laboratory conditions (ambient temperature  =  24.9 ± 1.8°C, relative humidity  =  39% ± 10%). Patients or Other Participants: Twelve physically active men (age  =  21.3 ± 1.1 years, height  =  182.7 ± 7.1 cm, body mass  =  76.2 ± 9.5 kg, sum of 6 skinfolds  =  50.5 ± 6.9 mm, body surface area  =  1.98 ± 0.14 m2, V̇o2max  =  49.0 ± 7.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated. Intervention(s): Three experimental conditions, consisting of a PC17 jacket, a gel jacket, and no jacket. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core temperature (TC), mean skin temperature (TSk), and TC cooling rate (°C/min). Results: Mean peak TC postexercise was 38.49 ± 0.42°C, 38.57 ± 0.41°C, and 38.55 ± 0.40°C for the PC17 jacket, gel jacket, and control conditions, respectively. No differences were observed in peak TC cooling rates among the PC17 jacket (0.038 ± 0.007°C/min), gel jacket (0.040 ± 0.009°C/min), and control (0.034 ± 0.010°C/min, P > .05) conditions. Between trials, no differences were calculated for mean TSk cooling. Conclusions: Similar cooling rates for all 3 conditions indicate that there is no benefit associated with wearing the PC17 or gel jacket. PMID:20210620

  2. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENTS FOR GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.; Wigner, E.P.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-05-12

    Fuel elements for a heterogeneous, fluid cooled, graphite moderated reactor are described. The fuel elements are comprised of a body of natural uranium hermetically sealed in a jacket of corrosion resistant material. The jacket, which may be aluminum or some other material which is non-fissionable and of a type having a low neutron capture cross-section, acts as a barrier between the fissioning isotope and the coolant or moderator or both. The jacket minimizes the tendency of the moderator and coolant to become radioactive and/or contaminated by fission fragments from the fissioning isotope.

  3. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  4. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A.; Malecha, Richard F.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  5. JACKETED URANIUM SLUG

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.; Cooper, C.M.

    1958-10-01

    Fuel elements for nuclear reactors are described. Eacb fuel element is comprised of a solid cylindrical slug containing fissionable material enclosed within a fluid tight jacket of neutron permeable material such as aluminum. The jacket is provided with a flexible end cap and with a sealing member having a substantially fluid-tight fit within the jacket in tight abutment with the end cap and the end of the slug. A fluid passage is provided between the end of the slug and the cap whereby leakage fiuid is principally directed to the end of the slug. In this manner, any reaction between the fissionable material and fiuid which may take place occurs more rapidly at the end of the slug than along the sides between the slug and the jacket, thereby causing longitudinal expansion of the fuel element prior to radial expansion. The longitudinal expansion can be readily detected and the fuel element removed from the coolant tube before radial expansion causes it to become jammed in the tube.

  6. Regeneratively Cooled Porous Media Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a porous media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and porous media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are porous media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.

  7. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  8. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  9. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  10. METHOD OF JACKETING A FISSIONABLE BODY

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1960-02-16

    A method for jacketing fuel elements is described. A fissionablc body ts fitted into a steel jacket, and a steel rimmed closure disk is inserted into the open end of the jacket. The jacket is then drawn through a die, aind the rim of the disk is welded to the jacket to form an impervious seal.

  11. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  12. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  13. Advanced offshore oil platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Ellers, F.S.

    1982-04-01

    Four innovative offshore platforms that are designed to withstand 100-foot waves in waters 600-feet deep are described. These platforms are: (1) Stratfjord B Concrete Gravity-Base Platform; (2) Magnus Steel-Template-Jacket Platform; (3) Hutton Tension-Leg Platform; and (4) Block 280 Guyed Tower. The Statfjord B platform, designed in Norway, rests on four massive concrete columns with storage tanks at the base. It depends solely on its own mass for stability. The Magnus platform, designed by the British, is the heaviest offshore platform yet fabricated, weighing 41,000 tons. Two of the platform's four legs will incorporate flotation chambers so that the structure can be floated to its site in the North Sea. The Hutton structure, also designed in England, will consist of a buoyant hull tethered to the sea floor by slender steel tubes at its four corners. The first platform of its type, the Hutton structure is also destined for the North Sea. The US designed Block 280 guyed tower is designed for service in the Gulf of Mexico in water 1000 feet deep. It will be pinned to the sea floor by a spokelike array of 20 steel cables, each one more than 3000 feet long. The tower and its guys will weigh 43,000 tons, slightly more than the Magnus steel-template jacket and more than four time as much as the Eiffel Tower. At a cost of approximately $2.6 billion, the Magnus is the most expensive offshore platform to date. The Statfjord B was put into production in 1982. The Magnus is scheduled for oil production in 1983. The Hutton and the Block 280 will both be producing in 1984. (JMT)

  14. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  15. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  16. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  17. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  18. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  19. Tympanic temperature and heart rate changes in firefighters during treadmill runs performed with different fireproof jackets.

    PubMed

    Ftaiti, F; Duflot, J C; Nicol, C; Grélot, L

    2001-04-15

    Six well-trained firefighters performed six treadmill runs at 70% of the velocity at VO2max (Maximal aerobic velocity MAV = 13.2+/-0.3 km h(-1)). A recovery time of 1 week was allowed between trials. The first session was performed by subjects wearing only shorts (i.e. no fire jacket, J0). A similar protocol was applied subsequently to test the physiological effects associated with the wearing of one of five different fire jackets: one leather (J1) and four textile-type jackets: VTN with membrane (J2), VTN without membrane (J3), Vidal with Kermel HTA (Haute Teneur en Aramide i.e. high density in Aramide) (J4); and Rolland with Kermel HTA (J5). All sessions were performed in a randomized order and in laboratory conditions. Exercise with the fireproof jackets resulted in higher tympanic temperature (Tty), heart rate (HR) and body mass loss (BML) changes compared to J0 (p<0.001). The magnitudes of these changes depended on the type of the jacket. Exercise in the leather jacket (J1) resulted in the highest Tty and HR, which differed significantly from values in all other conditions (p<0.001). The exercise-induced increases in Tty wearing jackets J3 and J5 were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those observed with jackets J2 and J4. In conclusion, textile jackets induced less HR and Tty stresses than the leather one. The magnitude of the physiological responses induced by textile jackets were correlated to jacket weight. J2 and J4 jackets were more effective in limiting hyperthermia and any potential detrimental effect on the exercise capacity.

  20. The Seismic Reliability of Offshore Structures Based on Nonlinear Time History Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, Mahmood; Karimiyani, Somayyeh; Ghafooripour, Amin; Jabbarzadeh, Mohammad Javad

    2008-07-08

    Regarding the past earthquakes damages to offshore structures, as vital structures in the oil and gas industries, it is important that their seismic design is performed by very high reliability. Accepting the Nonlinear Time History Analyses (NLTHA) as the most reliable seismic analysis method, in this paper an offshore platform of jacket type with the height of 304 feet, having a deck of 96 feet by 94 feet, and weighing 290 million pounds has been studied. At first, some Push-Over Analyses (POA) have been preformed to recognize the more critical members of the jacket, based on the range of their plastic deformations. Then NLTHA have been performed by using the 3-components accelerograms of 100 earthquakes, covering a wide range of frequency content, and normalized to three Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) levels of 0.3 g, 0.65 g, and 1.0 g. By using the results of NLTHA the damage and rupture probabilities of critical member have been studied to assess the reliability of the jacket structure. Regarding that different structural members of the jacket have different effects on the stability of the platform, an 'importance factor' has been considered for each critical member based on its location and orientation in the structure, and then the reliability of the whole structure has been obtained by combining the reliability of the critical members, each having its specific importance factor.

  1. METHOD OF JACKETING URANIUM BODIES

    DOEpatents

    Maloney, J.O.; Haines, E.B.; Tepe, J.B.

    1958-08-26

    An improved process is presented for providing uranium slugs with thin walled aluminum jackets. Since aluminum has a slightiy higher coefficient of thermal expansion than does uraaium, both uranium slugs and aluminum cans are heated to an elevated temperature of about 180 C, and the slug are inserted in the cans at that temperature. During the subsequent cooling of the assembly, the aluminum contracts more than does the uranium and a tight shrink fit is thus assured.

  2. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  3. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  4. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  5. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  6. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  7. METHOD OF JACKETING FISSIONABLE MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Foster, L.M.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement is presented in the jacketing of a metal body accomplished by electroplating upon that portion of the metal container to be protected from the bonding material a niatcrial such as Cr which is impermeable to the bonding material. After the bonding operation the electroplate is removed and the metal container surfuce, unimpaired, may be welded to a cap which effects a closure. Generally in such an operation the metal body is U, the metal container is Al and the bonding material is a Zn alloy.

  8. Restoration of maxillary anterior teeth using porcelain jacket crowns and porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Cutbirth, S T

    1992-01-01

    Combining different types of restorations when restoring maxillary anterior teeth poses a difficult esthetic problem. This article describes a method of restoring maxillary anterior teeth using a combination of porcelain jacket crowns and indirect porcelain laminate veneers.

  9. Results from large scale ultimate strength tests of K-braced jacket frame structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, H.M.

    1995-12-01

    Phase 2 of the JIP Frames Project included four large scale collapse tests of K-braced frames in which both gap and overlap K joints were the critical components. The results are presented in this paper. The local failure modes differed from typical isolated component tests, yet were representative of structural damage observed following Hurricane Andrew. The frame test results therefore provide important insight to the ultimate response of offshore jacket structures.

  10. Fatigue tests on the ITER PF jacket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jinggang; Weiss, Klaus-Peter; Wu, Yu; Wu, Zhixiong; Li, Laifeng; Liu, Sheng

    2012-10-01

    This paper focuses on fatigue tests on the ITER Poloidal Field (PF) jacket made of 316L stainless steel material. During manufacture, the conductor will be compacted and spooled after cable insertion. Therefore, sample jackets were prepared under compaction, bending and straightening in order to simulate the status of PF conductor during manufacturing and winding. The fatigue properties of materials were measured at T < 7 K, including S-N and fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR). The testing results show that the present Chinese PF jacket has good fatigue properties, which conclude that the results are accordant with the requirements of ITER.

  11. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... distributed throughout accommodation spaces. (1) Each stowage container for life jackets must not be capable... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets....

  12. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accommodation spaces. (1) Each stowage container for life jackets must not be capable of being locked. If... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise...

  13. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... distributed throughout accommodation spaces. (1) Each stowage container for life jackets must not be capable... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets....

  14. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accommodation spaces. (1) Each stowage container for life jackets must not be capable of being locked. If... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise...

  15. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient places distributed...

  16. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient places distributed...

  17. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient...

  18. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient places distributed...

  19. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient...

  20. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of being locked. If practicable, the container must be designed to allow the life jackets to float... provided and must be capable of operation by a person standing on the deck. (5) Each child size life jacket... child size life jackets are not mistaken for adult life jackets. (b) Additional personal...

  1. Spectral fatigue analysis of shallow water jacket platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, N.W.M.; Feng, Q.; Schofield, P.; Kirkwood, M.G.; Turner, T.

    1995-12-31

    The spectral analysis approach is a very elegant and computationally efficient method of analyzing the fatigue life of offshore jacket platforms. The primary limitation of the approach is that it assumes linearity of both the structural system and the wave loading mechanism. The approach is now widely used for the analysis of deepwater, dynamically responsive platforms where non-linearities are usually not serious. The new approach provides a better method for choosing the appropriate height of each so called base wave case. This paper presents the results obtained using this new approach, as well as comparative results obtained using the deterministic, spectral and time domain approaches applied with a representative sea state. The results show that the deterministic-spectral method has a considerable amount of potential, especially for new design work where weight savings and/or increased confidence levels may be achieved.

  2. Probabilistic seismic performance assessment of lap-spliced RC columns retrofitted by steel wrapping jackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Youn, Heejung; Cho, Baik-Soon

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the seismic fragility curves of two reinforced concrete (RC) columns that were lap-spliced at the bottom and retrofitted with steel wrapping jackets were generated. Their seismic performance was probabilistically assessed in comparison to that of lap-spliced or continuous reinforcement RC columns. This study used two types of steel wrapping jackets, a full jacket and a split jacket. Analytical models of the four types of columns were developed based on the experimental results of the columns using OpenSEES, which is effective in conducting nonlinear time history analyses. A suite of ten artificial ground motions, modified from recorded ground motions, was used to perform nonlinear time history analyses of the analytical models with scaling of the peak ground acceleration from 0.1 g to 1.0 g in increments of 0.1 g. The steel wrapping jackets did not increase the medians for yield (slight damage state) of the lap-spiced column and did not exceed the corresponding median of the continuous reinforcement column. However, the two steel jackets increased the medians for failure by 1.872 and 2.017 times, respectively, and exceeded the corresponding median of the continuous reinforcement column by 11.8% and 20.5%, respectively.

  3. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  4. OMAE 1995 -- Proceedings of the 14. international conference on offshore mechanics and arctic engineering. Volume 1, Part B: Offshore technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, S.K.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Sparks, C.; Morrison, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    This conference proceeding represents the second part of the volume of papers related to offshore technology as it relates to design of offshore structures, jacket and floating structures, tension leg platforms, mooring systems, risers, and cables. It also contains papers relating to structural and geotechnical mechanics. Separate abstracts were prepared for 48 papers in this report for inclusion in the information retrieval system.

  5. Proceedings of the 21st annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include: underwater wet welding of higher strength offshore steels; the proposed extended-reach drilling project; North Sea experience with aluminum drillpipe; and load transfer mechanism to offshore jackets during pile driving.

  6. Offshore medicine.

    PubMed

    Baker, D

    2001-03-01

    Offshore life can be refreshing for medics who are looking for a little change of pace; however, it is not for everyone. Working offshore can be the easiest or most boring job you'll ever have. It takes a specific type of medic to fit this mold. So, if you are considering a career in the offshore field, take all of the above into consideration. You are not just making a change in jobs, but a change in lifestyle. Once you become accustomed to this lifestyle, it will be hard to go back to the everyday hustle and bustle of the streets. For more information about working offshore, contact Acadian Contract Services at 800/259-333, or visit www.acadian.com.

  7. Offshore medicine.

    PubMed

    Baker, D

    2001-03-01

    Offshore life can be refreshing for medics who are looking for a little change of pace; however, it is not for everyone. Working offshore can be the easiest or most boring job you'll ever have. It takes a specific type of medic to fit this mold. So, if you are considering a career in the offshore field, take all of the above into consideration. You are not just making a change in jobs, but a change in lifestyle. Once you become accustomed to this lifestyle, it will be hard to go back to the everyday hustle and bustle of the streets. For more information about working offshore, contact Acadian Contract Services at 800/259-333, or visit www.acadian.com. PMID:11258303

  8. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  9. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  10. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  11. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  12. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  13. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  14. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  15. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  16. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  17. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  18. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  19. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  20. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each... light approved in accordance with § 161.012 in subchapter Q of this chapter, or other standard...

  1. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each... light approved in accordance with § 161.012 in subchapter Q of this chapter, or other standard...

  2. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each... light approved in accordance with § 161.012 in subchapter Q of this chapter, or other standard...

  3. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each... light approved in accordance with § 161.012 in subchapter Q of this chapter, or other standard...

  4. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each... light approved in accordance with § 161.012 in subchapter Q of this chapter, or other standard...

  5. 46 CFR 122.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 122.508 Section 122.508... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist, including, but not limited to:...

  6. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  7. 46 CFR 122.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 122.508 Section 122.508... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist, including, but not limited to:...

  8. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  9. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  10. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  11. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  12. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  13. 46 CFR 185.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 185.508 Section 185.508... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist,...

  14. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  15. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  16. 46 CFR 185.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 185.508 Section 185.508... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist,...

  17. HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE THE JACKET AND WEIGHTS. A PNEUMATIC SHOVEL PUSHES THE MORE RECENTLY POURED MOLD INTO THE COOLED MOLD, FORCING THE LATTER ONTO THE VIBRATING SHAKEOUT CONVEYOR AND LEAVING A SPACE UNDER THE RAISED JACKET AND WEIGHTS FOR A FRESHLY MADE UNPOURED MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  19. METHOD OF MAKING JACKETED FISSIONABLE SLUG

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1959-02-10

    BS>A method is described for fabricating a jacketed fissionable body or slug to provide an effective leak-proof seal between the jacket and the end closure. A housing for the fissionable slug is first formed and then tinned on the interior. The fissionable slug is coated on its exterior surface with the same material used to tin the interior of the housing. The coated slug is then inserted into the housing. A disc shaped end closure for the housing, coated with the tinning material, is inserted into the open end of the housing while the tinning material is still liquid. The end of the housing is then swaged into good contact with the periphery of the closure.

  20. Spectral fatigue analysis of shallow water jacket platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, N.W.M.; Feng, Q.; Schofield, P.; Kirkwood, M.G.; Turner, T.

    1996-08-01

    The spectral analysis approach is a very elegant and computationally efficient method of analyzing the fatigue life of offshore jacket platforms. The primary limitation of the approach is that it assumes linearity of both the structural system and the wave-loading mechanism. The approach is now widely used for the analysis of deepwater, dynamically responsive platforms where nonlinearities are usually not serious. There are also advantages associated with using the approach for shallow water platforms although nonlinearities then become significant, particularly the wave-loading mechanism. In order to verify the new approach, a time series analysis, including wave-loading nonlinearities, has been adopted to obtain a reference fatigue life. The sea surface elevation spectrum has been decomposed into a set of equivalent harmonic components. The water particle velocities and accelerations were then individually evaluated and the appropriate (Morison`s) wave loading was computed for each time step in the sea surface time history. The structural stress response time history was then calculated, from which a fatigue life estimate was obtained. This paper presents the results obtained using this new approach, as well as comparative results obtained using the deterministic, spectral, and time domain approaches applied with a representative sea state. The results show that the deterministic-spectral method has a considerable amount of potential, especially for new design work where weight savings and/or increased confidence levels may be achieved.

  1. Proceedings of the 22nd annual offshore technology conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 22nd annual offshore technology conference, Volume 3. Topics covered include: Innovation in concrete gravity platform substructures; the Ravensburn north platform and beyond; Development of the ROV - replaceable control valves; Structure-induced seafloor scour; Vessel impact design for steel jackets; and A new approach for finger storage slug catcher design.

  2. Protective riser-conductor for offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D. A.; Albers, G. P.

    1985-07-09

    A protective sleeve for fitting about the periphery of the leg of an offshore structure. The sleeve comprises means for carrying and enclosing a plurality of conductors. It further includes one or more inner rings; an outer jacket is fixedly spaced from the rings to define longitudinal passages within which the respective conductors are fixedly positioned. The sleeve is capable of deflecting packed ice and floating objects which represent possible sources of damage to the structure or to conductors.

  3. Thermal-leak analyzer for vacuum-jacketed lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisman, R. M.; Iceland, W. F.; Ruppe, E. P.

    1978-01-01

    Technique involves coating suspected area with water-soluble black paint that gives even, infrared emission. Painted area is warmed with heat gun; an infrared scanner is used to detect cooled spot on jacket exterior. Introduction of atmospheric pressure into jacket intensifies leak jet and improves test sensitivity.

  4. Ported jacket for use in deformation measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Leslie A.; Senseny, Paul E.; Mellegard, Kirby D.; Olsberg, Steven B.

    1990-01-01

    A device for allowing deformation measurement of a jacketed specimen when the specimen is loaded includes an elastomeric specimen container or jacket surrounding a specimen while the specimen is being loaded by a test apparatus. The specimen jacket wall is compressible, and the wall follows and allows deformation of the specimen. The jacket wall of compressible material is provided with at least one opening and a thin layer or shim of substantially non-compressible (metal) material covers and seals this opening. An extensometer is then positioned with its specimen engaging contact members engaging the substantially non-compressible material to measure the deformation of the specimen when the specimen is loaded, without compressibility effects of the jacket.

  5. BARRIERS TO LIFE JACKET USE AMONG ADULT RECREATIONAL BOATERS

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.; Bennett, Elizabeth E.; Mueller, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify barriers to life jacket use. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Nine public boat ramps in western Washington State, USA, August-November, 2008. Participants 675 adult boaters (>18 years) on motor boats <26 feet long. Main outcome Low or no life jacket use (0–50% of time) versus high life jacket use (51–100% of time). Results Low/no life jacket use (0%–50% of time) was associated with longer boat length (per foot, risk ratio [RR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.05), alcohol use (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01–1.20), perception of life jackets as “uncomfortable” (RR 1.29, 95%CI 1.09–1.52), perceived greater level of swimming ability (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03–1.53 for “expert swimmer”), and possibly with lack of confidence that a life jacket may save one from drowning (RR 1.13, 95%CI 0.96–1.32). Low life jacket use was less likely when a child was onboard (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79–0.99), or if the respondent had taken a boating safety class (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.87–1.01). Conclusions Life jacket use may increase with more comfortable devices, such as inflatable life jackets, and with increased awareness of their efficacy in preventing drowning. Boater education classes may be associated with increased life jacket use among adults. PMID:24686261

  6. A model for Quick Load Analysis for monopile-type offshore wind turbine substructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schløer, Signe; Garcia Castillo, Laura; Fejerskov, Morten; Stroescu, Emanuel; Bredmose, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    A model for Quick Load Analysis, QuLA, of an offshore wind turbine substructure is presented. The aerodynamic rotor loads and damping are precomputed for a load-based configuration. The dynamic structural response is represented by the first global fore-aft mode only and is computed in the frequency domain using the equation of motion. The model is compared against the state of the art aeroelastic code, Flex5, and both life time fatigue and extreme loads are considered in the comparison. In general there is good similarity between the two models. Some derivation for the sectional forces are explained in terms of the model simplifications. The difference in the sectional moments are found to be within 14% for the fatigue load case and 10% for the extreme load condition.

  7. Type 1 and Type 2 unconformity development in response to differential subsidence rates and eustatic sea level fluctuations, Pletmos basin, offshore South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Jollands, A. )

    1989-03-01

    The Pletmos basin, offshore South Africa, has had variable subsidence rates from mid-Valanginian to mid-Campanian times. During this period, third-, fourth-, and fifth-order sea level fluctuations occurred. The interplay of eustasy and differential subsidence rates caused 67 unconformities. Seventeen are major type 1 unconformities, 44 are minor type 1 unconformities, and 3 are type 2 unconformities. A further three exhibit type 2 characteristics and grade laterally into equivalent type 1 unconformities. Slow subsidence rates permitted fourth- and fifth-order eustatic variations to move sea level below the shelf edge and to erode minor type 1 unconformities. Periodically, when higher order cycles coincided with the trough of a third-order cycle, major type 1 unconformities occurred. Later periods of rapid subsidence precluded fourth- and fifth-order cycles being recorded in the stratigraphic section, and only third-order cycles were interpreted. When the rate of third-order eustatic falls were of the same order of magnitude as subsidence rates, relative sea level did not shift beyond the shelf edge, resulting in type 2 erosion. Deep-seated growth faulting established differential subsidence rates in the central Pletmos basin. In areas of slow subsidence the effects of eustatic variations were amplified relative to areas of rapid subsidence. This resulted in enhanced erosion associated with the former where major and minor type 1 unconformities coalesce and type 2 unconformities grade laterally into equivalent type 1 unconformities.

  8. Lightweight Vacuum Jacket for Cryogenic Insulation. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, D. L.; Bell, J. E.; Brogren, E. W.; Straayer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials was examined. Design and analytical studies were made on a full-scale, orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were made for the tank assembly, including an optimized vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation system. A half-scale LH2 test model was designed and fabricated, and a force/stiffness proof test was conducted on the vacuum jacket. A vacuum leak rate of .000001 atmosphere ml of helium per second was measured, approximately 1500 hours of vacuum pressure were sustained, and 29 vacuum-pressure cycles were experienced prior to failure.

  9. Dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine during normal state and emergency shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhi-qiang; Li, Liang; Wang, Jin; Hu, Qiu-hao; Shen, Ma-cheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses joint wind-wave induced dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) under normal states and fault event conditions. The analysis in this paper is conducted in time domain, using an aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation code-FAST. Owing to the unique viscous features of the reference system, the original viscous damping model implemented in FAST is replaced with a quadratic one to gain an accurate capture of viscous effects. Simulation cases involve free-decay motion in still water, steady motions in the presence of regular waves and wind as well as dynamic response in operational sea states with and without wind. Simulations also include the cases for transient responses induced by fast blade pitching after emergency shutdown. The features of platform motions, local structural loads and a typical mooring line tension force under a variety of excitations are obtained and investigated.

  10. "Punk" rock can be bad for you: a case of surgical emphysema from a "punk" rocker's leather jacket

    PubMed Central

    Lane, N; Graudins, A

    2006-01-01

    Stab wounds to the thorax are seen in the emergency department (ED) and can be caused by a variety of mechanisms. This case highlights an unusual cause of injury: a leather jacket with spikes on the back of it. This type of jacket is often worn by "punks" as a fashion statement. We report that falling onto such a jacket may result in accidental thoracic injury leading to subcutaneous emphysema. A thorough clinical assessment is mandatory to exclude underlying lung injury or pneumothorax. In patients with subcutaneous emphysema and an otherwise normal chest radiograph, an in hospital observation period of 24 hours to check for any delayed complications is adequate if the patient remains clinically stable. PMID:16714489

  11. "Punk" rock can be bad for you: a case of surgical emphysema from a "punk" rocker's leather jacket.

    PubMed

    Lane, N; Graudins, A

    2006-06-01

    Stab wounds to the thorax are seen in the emergency department (ED) and can be caused by a variety of mechanisms. This case highlights an unusual cause of injury: a leather jacket with spikes on the back of it. This type of jacket is often worn by "punks" as a fashion statement. We report that falling onto such a jacket may result in accidental thoracic injury leading to subcutaneous emphysema. A thorough clinical assessment is mandatory to exclude underlying lung injury or pneumothorax. In patients with subcutaneous emphysema and an otherwise normal chest radiograph, an in hospital observation period of 24 hours to check for any delayed complications is adequate if the patient remains clinically stable.

  12. Optical fiber magnetic field sensors with ceramic magnetostrictive jackets.

    PubMed

    Sedlar, M; Paulicka, I; Sayer, M

    1996-09-20

    Optical fibers coated by magnetostrictive ceramic films were tested with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in an open-loop mode. The sensors exhibited excellent linearity and good sensitivity. The response of ceramic-jacketed fibers was not affected by small dc fluctuations that are due to the linear behavior of tested ceramic coatings in low magnetic fields. Tested ceramic materials included magnetite, γ-Fe(2) O(3), nickel ferrite, and cobalt-doped nickel ferrite (NCF2) jackets. The latter showed the best performance. A minimum detectable field of 3.2 × 10(-3) A/m for optical fiber jacketed with 2-μm-thick and 1-m-long NCF2 material has been achieved. The capability of detecting magnetic fields as low as 2.6 × 10(-7) A/m with a 10-μm-thick cobalt-doped nickel ferrite jacket is proposed.

  13. Environmental effects on a structurally dense jacket platform model

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, S.K.; Gu, G.Z.

    1996-12-31

    The wave loading due to high storm waves is an important consideration in the re-qualification and upgrading of older Gulf of Mexico jackets. In particular, due to dense population of members in these jackets, blockage and shielding are important parameters. Experiments in regular waves and uniform current showed that the presence of current in waves substantially increases the blockage effect from these members. API-RP2A recommendation for blockage factor in current matches the test data well.

  14. Turbulator for a liner cooling jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, Kevin L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A turbulator for a liner cooling jacket includes a metal panel which is suitable to be coiled into a generally cylindrical shape so as to be placed in a relief area between an engine cylinder block and a cylinder liner. The relief area may be machined into either the block or the cylinder liner and the metal panel is formed with a pattern of protuberances shaped like corrugations. In one embodiment, the corrugations have a shape similar to a sine wave and are arranged in a plurality of generally parallel axial segments. The corrugation wave pattern of one segment may be the same as its adjacent segment or may be staggered by one corrugation which would mean one-half of a full wave cycle. The corrugation pattern in the turbulator panel may be created by any one of various stamping or forming operations and when placed between the cylinder liner and block, increases turbulence of the cooling liquid in order to enhance heat transfer.

  15. Use of the air-inflated jacket in football.

    PubMed

    Cain, T E; Donzis, B; Meins, J

    1981-01-01

    Injuries to the rib cage are common in football, but little has been done to protect this area. This paper discusses the effectiveness and usefulness of a protective jacket in football. The jacket is highly durable, constructed of urethane-coated nylon, and heat-sealed to take on the shape of several cylinders interconnected by fabric valves which constrict in response to a sudden blow. Its exterior is covered by a 1/8-inch thick Lexan (General Electric, Toledo, OH) shield. The jacket weighs 6.5 oz. It showed impressive results when tested. Testing was done by forcefully swinging a baseball bat against the rib cage protected by the jacket. By digitization of high speed movie filming at 500 frames/second, we were able to determine the speed, velocity, and area of contact. The amount of force deflection was calculated to be 587.6 psi. To inflict this force, a player would have to be traveling 60 miles/hour and strike his opponent with the heel. This lightweight, air-inflated, padded jacket has protected and prevented rib cage injuries in professional athletes. It is accepted well by players. This suggests that similar protective equipment for other areas would be useful and represents an advancement in preventing injury. PMID:7258463

  16. Use of the air-inflated jacket in football.

    PubMed

    Cain, T E; Donzis, B; Meins, J

    1981-01-01

    Injuries to the rib cage are common in football, but little has been done to protect this area. This paper discusses the effectiveness and usefulness of a protective jacket in football. The jacket is highly durable, constructed of urethane-coated nylon, and heat-sealed to take on the shape of several cylinders interconnected by fabric valves which constrict in response to a sudden blow. Its exterior is covered by a 1/8-inch thick Lexan (General Electric, Toledo, OH) shield. The jacket weighs 6.5 oz. It showed impressive results when tested. Testing was done by forcefully swinging a baseball bat against the rib cage protected by the jacket. By digitization of high speed movie filming at 500 frames/second, we were able to determine the speed, velocity, and area of contact. The amount of force deflection was calculated to be 587.6 psi. To inflict this force, a player would have to be traveling 60 miles/hour and strike his opponent with the heel. This lightweight, air-inflated, padded jacket has protected and prevented rib cage injuries in professional athletes. It is accepted well by players. This suggests that similar protective equipment for other areas would be useful and represents an advancement in preventing injury.

  17. Modeling the number of bids received on federal offshore hydrocarbon leases by poisson-type models

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtsheim, C.J.; Bruckner, L.A.

    1980-05-01

    Since 1954, the federal government has held over 40 hydrocarbon lease sales on the Outer Continental Shelf. A maximum of 18 sealed bonus bids was received for each of the tracts offered. A mixed Poisson-type model has been suggested for the relative frequencies of the number of bids received by an offered tract. Here we show that statistically this model may only be supportable for the number of solo bids received in sales after the Joint-Bidding Ban of 1975. A truncated model (excluding tracts receiving no bids) is proposed. While an improvement results from the use of this model, it appears that models of the mixed Poisson-type may not be generally applicable to the number of bids data.

  18. Discrimination of bullet types using analysis of lead isotopes deposited in gunshot entry wounds.

    PubMed

    Wunnapuk, Klintean; Minami, Takeshi; Durongkadech, Piya; Tohno, Setsuko; Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan; Moriwake, Yumi; Vichairat, Karnda; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Tohno, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    In order to discriminate bullet types used in firearms, of which the victims died, the authors investigated lead isotope ratios in gunshot entry wounds from nine lead (unjacketed) bullets, 15 semi-jacketed bullets, and 14 full-jacketed bullets by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. It was found that the lead isotope ratio of 207/206 in gunshot entry wounds was the highest with lead bullets, and it decreased in order from full-jacketed to semi-jacketed bullets. Lead isotope ratios of 208/206 or 208/207 to 207/206 at the gunshot entry wound were able to discriminate semi-jacketed bullets from lead and full-jacketed ones, but it was difficult to discriminate between lead and full-jacketed bullets. However, a combination of element and lead isotope ratio analyses in gunshot entry wounds enabled discrimination between lead, semi-jacketed, and full-jacketed bullets.

  19. An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sinpyo; Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Cheolmin; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Lim, Hee Chang

    2015-05-01

    An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine is presented. The effects of the Center of Gravity (COG), mooring line spring constant, and fair-lead location on the turbine's motion in response to regular waves are investigated. Experimental results show that for a typical mooring system of a SPAR buoy-type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT), the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of the turbine can be considered negligible. However, the pitch decreases notably as the COG increases. The COG and spring constant of the mooring line have a negligible effect on the fairlead displacement. Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis show that the wind turbine motion and its sensitivity to changes in the mooring system and COG are very large near resonant frequencies. The test results can be used to validate numerical simulation tools for FOWTs.

  20. An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sinpyo; Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Cheolmin; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Lim, Hee Chang

    2015-09-01

    An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine is presented. The effects of the Center of Gravity (COG), mooring line spring constant, and fair-lead location on the turbine's motion in response to regular waves are investigated. Experimental results show that for a typical mooring system of a SPAR buoy-type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT), the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of the turbine can be considered negligible. However, the pitch decreases notably as the COG increases. The COG and spring constant of the mooring line have a negligible effect on the fairlead displacement. Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis show that the wind turbine motion and its sensitivity to changes in the mooring system and COG are very large near resonant frequencies. The test results can be used to validate numerical simulation tools for FOWTs.

  1. Calibration and Validation of a Spar-Type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Model using the FAST Dynamic Simulation Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states.

  2. Red Jacket and the Decolonization of Republican Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganter, Granville

    2007-01-01

    History has not always been kind to Sagoyewatha, or, as he is more commonly known, Red Jacket. One of the most eloquent spokesmen for Native sovereignty in the early national period, Sagoyewatha was nonetheless accused by his peers of cowardice, alcoholism, and egotism. Fortunately, this picture is beginning to change. Christopher Densmore's…

  3. VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, IN THE FOREGROUND, SAND RETURN FROM THE SHAKEOUT ACTUATING A SIMPLE LEVER SYSTEM THAT ADDED FRESH WATER TO THE SAND IN PREPARATION FOR ITS REUSE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  4. An Empirical Analysis of Life Jacket Effectiveness in Recreational Boating.

    PubMed

    Viauroux, Christelle; Gungor, Ali

    2016-02-01

    This article gives a measure of life jacket (LJ) effectiveness in U.S. recreational boating. Using the U.S. Coast Guard's Boating Accident Report Database from 2008 to 2011, we find that LJ wear is one of the most important determinants influencing the number of recreational boating fatalities, together with the number of vessels involved, and the type and engine of the vessel(s). We estimate a decrease in the number of deceased per vessel of about 80% when the operator wears their LJs compared to when they do not. The odds of dying are 86% higher than average if the accident involves a canoe or kayak, but 80% lower than average when more than one vessel is involved in the accident and 34% lower than average when the operator involved in the accident has more than 100 hours of boating experience. Interestingly, we find that LJ effectiveness decreases significantly as the length of the boat increases and decreases slightly as water temperature increases. However, it increases slightly as the operator's age increases. We find that between 2008 and 2011, an LJ regulation that requires all operators to wear their LJs-representing a 20% increase in wear rate-would have saved 1,721 (out of 3,047) boaters or 1,234 out of 2,185 drowning victims. The same policy restricted to boats 16-30 feet in length would have saved approximately 778 victims. Finally, we find that such a policy would reduce the percentage of drowning victims compared to other causes of death.

  5. An Empirical Analysis of Life Jacket Effectiveness in Recreational Boating.

    PubMed

    Viauroux, Christelle; Gungor, Ali

    2016-02-01

    This article gives a measure of life jacket (LJ) effectiveness in U.S. recreational boating. Using the U.S. Coast Guard's Boating Accident Report Database from 2008 to 2011, we find that LJ wear is one of the most important determinants influencing the number of recreational boating fatalities, together with the number of vessels involved, and the type and engine of the vessel(s). We estimate a decrease in the number of deceased per vessel of about 80% when the operator wears their LJs compared to when they do not. The odds of dying are 86% higher than average if the accident involves a canoe or kayak, but 80% lower than average when more than one vessel is involved in the accident and 34% lower than average when the operator involved in the accident has more than 100 hours of boating experience. Interestingly, we find that LJ effectiveness decreases significantly as the length of the boat increases and decreases slightly as water temperature increases. However, it increases slightly as the operator's age increases. We find that between 2008 and 2011, an LJ regulation that requires all operators to wear their LJs-representing a 20% increase in wear rate-would have saved 1,721 (out of 3,047) boaters or 1,234 out of 2,185 drowning victims. The same policy restricted to boats 16-30 feet in length would have saved approximately 778 victims. Finally, we find that such a policy would reduce the percentage of drowning victims compared to other causes of death. PMID:26206494

  6. Development, analysis and design of a 292 ft tall self-erecting flare tower for offshore application

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, V.; Srinivasan, N.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development of a 292 ft tall flare tower applicable for large offshore production facilities. First of its kind in a flare tower design, an innovative but well proven self-erecting technique is used. The technique aimed eliminating the transportation and erection costs. The structural concept is known as Self-Erecting Flare Tower (SEFT). In SEFT concept, the tower is segmented into a number of small manageable sections. A jacket type bottom section is used to support telescoping the tower sections. The design erection procedure, technical and functional feasibility of SEFT concept are discussed. At the end of this paper, a cost comparison study with conventional flare tower is given.

  7. Method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple

    DOEpatents

    Thermos, Anthony Constantine; Rahal, Fadi Elias

    2002-01-01

    A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

  8. Offshore rectenna feasbility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W.; Hervey, D.; Glaser, P.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility and cost of an offshore rectenna to serve the upper metropolitan east coast was performed. A candidate site at which to build a 5 GW rectenna was selected on the basis of proximity to load centers, avoidance of shipping lanes, sea floor terrain, and relocated conditions. Several types of support structures were selected for study based initially on the reference system rectenna concept of a wire mesh ground screen and dipoles each with its own rectifier and filter circuits. Possible secondary uses of an offshore rectenna were examined and are evaluated.

  9. Towers for Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, V. J.; Narayanan, S. P.; Ganapathy, C.

    2010-06-01

    Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy from wind over the oceans and convert to electric energy. The advantages of offshore wind turbines as compared to land are that offshore winds flow at higher speed than onshore winds and the more available space. In some land based settings, for better efficiency, turbines are separated as much as 10 rotor diameters from each other. In offshore applications where only two wind directions are likely to predominate, the distances between the turbines arranged in a line can be shortened to as little as two or four rotor diameters. Today, more than a dozen offshore European wind facilities with turbine ratings of 450 kw to 3.6 MW exist offshore in very shallow waters of 5 to 12 m. Compared to onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines are bigger and the tower height in offshore are in the range of 60 to 80 m. The water depths in oceans where offshore turbines can be located are within 30 m. However as the distance from land increases, the costs of building and maintaining the turbines and transmitting the power back to shore also increase sharply. The objective of this paper is to review the parameters of design for the maximum efficiency of offshore wind turbines and to develop types offshore towers to support the wind turbines. The methodology of design of offshore towers to support the wind turbine would be given and the environmental loads for the design of the towers would be calculated for specific cases. The marine corrosion on the towers and the methods to control the corrosion also would be briefly presented. As the wind speeds tend to increase with distance from the shore, turbines build father

  10. Expression of yellow jacket and wasp venom Ag5 allergens in bacteria and in yeast.

    PubMed

    Monsalve, R I; Lu, G; King, T P

    1999-01-01

    Antigen 5 (Ag5), of unknown biological function, is one of the major venom allergens of vespids and fire ants. We have compared the expression of Ag5 in bacteria and in yeast. Recombinant Ag5 from bacteria formed an insoluble intracellular product, which was not properly folded, but that produced in Pichia pastoris was secreted to the extracellular medium. Immunochemical characterizations showed the secreted Ag5 to have the native structure of the natural protein. This is of interest since the B cell epitopes of Ag5 are mainly of the discontinuous type. These studies were made with Ag5s from yellow jacket (Vespula vulgaris) and paper wasp (Polistes annularis), and with hybrid Ag5 molecules that contained partial sequences of these two species. In vitro allergenicity studies with sera from yellow jacket-sensitive patients showed that some of these hybrid molecules had a greatly reduced allergenicity but retained the immunogenicity of the natural allergen. This could be of importance for immunotherapy of this type of allergy. PMID:11487873

  11. Changing life jacket wearing behavior: an evaluation of two approaches.

    PubMed

    Mangione, Thomas; Chow, Wendy

    2014-05-01

    In the United States during 1999-2012, about 4 per cent of adults wore life jackets while engaged in recreation on powerboats. Educational campaigns have promoted life jacket use. Mandatory use regulations target primarily children or boaters on personal watercrafts or water skiing. We describe findings from two interventions - 'Wear It California!', a targeted marketing campaign in the California Delta region and mandatory wear regulations at four US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) lakes in the state of Mississippi. Before the campaign in the Delta, adult wear was 8.5 per cent, increasing to 12.1 per cent during the first year, dipping to 9.4 per cent during the second year, and rising slightly to 10.5 per cent 3 plus years after the campaign. Before mandatory regulations at USACE lakes, adult wear was 13.7 per cent, increasing to 75.6 per cent during the first year, 70.1 per cent during the second year, and remaining high at 68.1 per cent in the third year. Policymakers should consider these findings when choosing how to increase life jacket use. PMID:24430805

  12. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, high-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.

  13. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    High-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.

  14. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, high-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale inmore » a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.« less

  15. Evidence for a jacketed nematic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardouin, F.; Mery, S.; Achard, M. F.; Noirez, L.; Keller, P.

    1991-05-01

    The evidence for a “jacketed” structure at the scale of the chain dimensions in the nematic phase of a “side-on fixed” liquid crystal polysiloxane is reported by using small angle neutron scattering. We relate this anisotropy of chain conformation to the first measurements of the rotational viscosity coefficient in this new type of liquid crystal side-chain polymer. Par des mesures de diffusion des neutrons aux petits angles nous montrons l'existence, pour un polysiloxane “ en haltère ”, d'une structure “ chemisée ” à l'échelle de l'organisation global d'une chaîne en phase nématique. On constate que cette anisotropie de forme du polymère a des conséquences sur l'évolution du coefficient de viscosité de torsion mesuré pour la première fois dans ce nouveau type de polymère à chaînes latérales.

  16. Smarter offshoring.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2006-06-01

    During the past 15 years, companies have flocked to a handful of cities in India and Eastern Europe for offshore service functions. As a result, the most popular sites are now overheating: Demand for young professionals is outstripping supply, wages and turnover are soaring, and overburdened infrastructure systems are struggling to serve the explosive growth. The happy news is that the tight labor markets in the well-known hot spots are the exceptions, not the rule. Many attractive alternatives are emerging around the world. According to a McKinsey Global Institute study, more than 90% of the vast and rapidly growing pool of university-educated people suitable for work in multinationals are located outside the current hot spot cities. For instance, Morocco is now home to offshore centers for French and Spanish companies requiring fluent speakers of their home languages. Neighboring Tunisia has used its modern infrastructure, business-friendly regulations, and stable, low-cost workforce to attract companies such as Siemens and Wanadoo. Vietnam offers university graduates who have strong mathematics skills; speak French, English, German, or Russian; and do not demand high wages. The problems facing the hot spots, coupled with the emergence of many more countries able and willing to provide offshore services, mean that picking a site has become more complicated. In choosing a location, companies will have to focus less on low wages and much more on other ways that candidate cities can fulfill their business needs. They will have to be much more rigorous in articulating precisely what they require from an offshore location. That means evaluating their unique needs on a range of dimensions and understanding how alternative locations can meet those needs for the foreseeable future.

  17. Low Life Jacket Use among Adult Recreational Boaters: A Qualitative Study of Risk Perception and Behavior Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Bennett, Elizabeth; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Life jackets may prevent one in two drowning deaths, however, 85% of recreational boating-related drowning victims in the United States in 2012 did not wear a life jacket. This study explored behavioral factors and strategies to encourage consistent life jacket use among adult recreational boaters. Methods We conducted a qualitative study among boat owners who boat regularly, and explored factors associated with life jacket use by adults and child or adolescent passengers. Sixteen boaters participated in four focus groups. Results Most boaters reported inconsistent use of life jackets, using them only when conditions were poor. Each described episodes of unpredictable boating risk which occurred despite favorable conditions. Most required younger child passengers to wear a life jacket, but reported resistance among older children. Barriers to consistent life jacket use included discomfort and the belief that life jacket use indicated inexperience or poor swimming ability. Participants stated that laws requiring life jacket use would change behavior especially for children. The only demonstrated behavior change among group members was associated with use of inflatable life jacket devices. Conclusions Boating risk is inherently unpredictable; therefore interventions should focus on strategies for increasing consistent use of life jackets. Passage and enforcement of life jacket legislation for older children and adults is likely a promising approach for behavior change. Designing more comfortable, better-fitting, more appealing life jackets will be paramount to encouraging consistent use. PMID:24211559

  18. Vacuum jacketed composite propulsion feedlines for cryogenic launch and space vehicles, volume 1. [development of glass fiber composite for strength and protection from handling damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spond, D. E.; Laintz, D. J.; Hall, C. A.; Dulaigh, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thin metallic liners that provide leak-free service in cryogenic propulsion systems are overwrapped with a glass-fiber composite that provides strength and protection from handling damage. The resultant tube is lightweight, strong, and has a low thermal flux. The inside commodity flow line and the outside vacuum jacket were fabricated using this method. Several types of vacuum jackets were fabricated and tested at operating temperatures from 294 to 21 K (+70 to minus 423 F) and operating pressure up to 69 N/cm2 (100 psi). The primary objective of the program was to develop vacuum jacket concepts, using previously developed concepts for the inner line. All major program objectives were met resulting in a design concept that is adaptable to a wide range of aerospace vehicle requirements. Major items of development included convolution of thin metallic sections up to 46 cm (18 in.) in diameter, design and fabrication of an extremely lightweight tension membrane concept for the vacuum jacket, and analytical tools that predict the failure mode and levels.

  19. Development of Jacketing Technologies for Iter CS and TF Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Matsui, K.; Kawano, K.; Takano, K.; Tsutsumi, F.; Okuno, K.; Teshima, O.; Soejima, K.

    2008-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed jacketing technologies for ITER Toroidal Field (TF) and Central Solenoid (CS) conductor. Full scale TF and CS conduits were fabricated using carbon-reduced SUS316LN and boron-added (˜40 ppm) high manganese stainless steel (0.025C -22Mn -13Cr -9Ni -0.12N: JK2LB), respectively. Welding condition was optimized so that back bead does not interfere a cable insertion. The weld joint samples were compacted by a compaction machine that was newly constructed and tested at 4.2 K. Mechanical characteristics at 4K of CS, TF conduits and CS welded joint satisfied ITER mechanical requirements. TF welded joint shows slightly lower value of 0.2% yield strength (885 MPa) than that of ITER requirement (900 MPa). The TF conduit contains nitrogen content of 0.14%, which is minimum value in ITER specification. The lower nitrogen content may be caused by the release of nitrogen from molten metal during non-filler welding resulting in a 4 K strength decrease. To satisfy the ITER requirements, minimum nitrogen contents of conduit should be increased from 0.14% to 0.15% at least. Therefore, JAEA successfully developed TF and CS conduits with welding technologies and finalized the procurement specification for ITER conductor jacketing.

  20. Tensile tests of ITER TF conductors jacket materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anashkin, O. P.; Kеilin, V. E.; Krivykh, A. V.; Diev, D. N.; Dinisilov, A. S.; Shcherbakov, V. I.; Tronza, V. I.

    2012-06-01

    The set of very tough requirements has been formulated for TF jacket materials with extremely high plasticity at liquid helium temperature. The stainless steel 316LN-IG is recommended to be used for TF jacket tubes. Samples of 316LN-IG tubes (whole tubes and sub-size samples) made of the material from the same electro slag remelt have been tested in different conditions - as received tubes and tubes after prescribed compaction, 2.5% deformation at room temperature and heat treatment at 650 0C, 200 hours. The tensile tests were carried out at room, liquid nitrogen and liquid helium temperatures down to 4.2 K, meeting corresponding ASME and ASTM requirements. The low temperature testing devices are described. The tests results for sub-size samples and whole tubes show that the latter tests are considerably more representative and important for butt weld qualification at LHe temperature. It was observed that the ferromagnetic properties of all samples and especially of butt welds increase with lowering the temperature and increasing the degree of deformation. At LHe temperature a non-uniform and highly localized serrated deformations were observed.

  1. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... this chapter— (1) No later than the month and year on its servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  2. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... this chapter— (1) No later than the month and year on its servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  3. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160.151-57(n), except that servicing may be delayed until the next... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a)...

  4. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... this chapter— (1) No later than the month and year on its servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  5. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160.151-57(n), except that servicing may be delayed until the next... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a)...

  6. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160.151-57(n), except that servicing may be delayed until the next... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a)...

  7. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approved life jackets required to be worn during drills and emergencies. (b) Wearable marine buoyant... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal...

  8. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approved life jackets required to be worn during drills and emergencies. (b) Wearable marine buoyant... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal...

  9. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approved life jackets required to be worn during drills and emergencies. (b) Wearable marine buoyant... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal...

  10. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approved life jackets required to be worn during drills and emergencies. (b) Wearable marine buoyant... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal...

  11. High-level GPU computing with jacket for MATLAB and C/C++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, Gallagher; Lucey, Brett; Maddipatla, Sandeep; McClanahan, Chris; Melonakos, John; Venugopalakrishnan, Vishwanath; Patel, Krunal; Yalamanchili, Pavan; Malcolm, James

    2011-06-01

    We describe a software platform for the rapid development of general purpose GPU (GPGPU) computing applications within the MATLAB computing environment, C, and C++: Jacket. Jacket provides thousands of GPU-tuned function syntaxes within MATLAB, C, and C++, including linear algebra, convolutions, reductions, and FFTs as well as signal, image, statistics, and graphics libraries. Additionally, Jacket includes a compiler that translates MATLAB and C++ code to CUDA PTX assembly and OpenGL shaders on demand at runtime. A facility is also included to compile a domain specific version of the MATLAB language to CUDA assembly at build time. Jacket includes the first parallel GPU FOR-loop construction and the first profiler for comparative analysis of CPU and GPU execution times. Jacket provides full GPU compute capability on CUDA hardware and limited, image processing focused compute on OpenGL/ES (2.0 and up) devices for mobile and embedded applications.

  12. Measurement of Fecal Corticosterone Metabolites as a Predictor of the Habituation of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to Jacketing

    PubMed Central

    Field, Amy E; Jones, Cynthia L; Kelly, Richard; Marko, Shannon T; Kern, Steven J; Rico, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Jacket use in NHP is a common practice and is often considered a form of refinement during experiments necessitating extended periods of catheterization. An important consideration when using jackets is the physiologic effects that jacketing has on NHP and its potential to confound research. Several studies have evaluated the stress response and habituation of NHP to various forms of restraint, but none have looked directly at the timeframe necessary for the habituation of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to jackets. We set out to determine whether 3 d was a sufficient timeframe for this species to become habituated to a jacket, with or without an undershirt, by evaluating 2 major physiologic parameters. After jacket placement, we measured food consumption and collected fecal samples to measure fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) daily for 2 wk. FCM measurements for NHP without undershirts were significantly increased for days 2 and 3 after jacketing before returning to baseline levels. FCM measurements for NHP with undershirts were significantly increased for only 1 d after jacketing, suggesting that the undershirt has a positive effect on jacket habituation. There were no measurable differences in food consumption during the jacket habituation period. Furthermore, no significant differences were noted between sexes. These findings suggest that FCM levels return to baseline 3 d after jacketing and could be a useful predictor of jacket habituation in rhesus macaques. PMID:25651092

  13. Measurement of fecal corticosterone metabolites as a predictor of the habituation of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to jacketing.

    PubMed

    Field, Amy E; Jones, Cynthia L; Kelly, Richard; Marko, Shannon T; Kern, Steven J; Rico, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Jacket use in NHP is a common practice and is often considered a form of refinement during experiments necessitating extended periods of catheterization. An important consideration when using jackets is the physiologic effects that jacketing has on NHP and its potential to confound research. Several studies have evaluated the stress response and habituation of NHP to various forms of restraint, but none have looked directly at the timeframe necessary for the habituation of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to jackets. We set out to determine whether 3 d was a sufficient timeframe for this species to become habituated to a jacket, with or without an undershirt, by evaluating 2 major physiologic parameters. After jacket placement, we measured food consumption and collected fecal samples to measure fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) daily for 2 wk. FCM measurements for NHP without undershirts were significantly increased for days 2 and 3 after jacketing before returning to baseline levels. FCM measurements for NHP with undershirts were significantly increased for only 1 d after jacketing, suggesting that the undershirt has a positive effect on jacket habituation. There were no measurable differences in food consumption during the jacket habituation period. Furthermore, no significant differences were noted between sexes. These findings suggest that FCM levels return to baseline 3 d after jacketing and could be a useful predictor of jacket habituation in rhesus macaques. PMID:25651092

  14. Protective jacket enabling decision support for workers in cold climate.

    PubMed

    Seeberg, Trine M; Vardoy, Astrid-Sofie B; Austad, Hanne O; Wiggen, Oystein; Stenersen, Henning S; Liverud, Anders E; Storholmen, Tore Christian B; Faerevik, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    The cold and harsh climate in the High North represents a threat to safety and work performance. The aim of this study was to show that sensors integrated in clothing can provide information that can improve decision support for workers in cold climate without disturbing the user. Here, a wireless demonstrator consisting of a working jacket with integrated temperature, humidity and activity sensors has been developed. Preliminary results indicate that the demonstrator can provide easy accessible information about the thermal conditions at the site of the worker and local cooling effects of extremities. The demonstrator has the ability to distinguish between activity and rest, and enables implementation of more sophisticated sensor fusion algorithms to assess work load and pre-defined activities. This information can be used in an enhanced safety perspective as an improved tool to advice outdoor work control for workers in cold climate.

  15. Protective jacket enabling decision support for workers in cold climate.

    PubMed

    Seeberg, Trine M; Vardoy, Astrid-Sofie B; Austad, Hanne O; Wiggen, Oystein; Stenersen, Henning S; Liverud, Anders E; Storholmen, Tore Christian B; Faerevik, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    The cold and harsh climate in the High North represents a threat to safety and work performance. The aim of this study was to show that sensors integrated in clothing can provide information that can improve decision support for workers in cold climate without disturbing the user. Here, a wireless demonstrator consisting of a working jacket with integrated temperature, humidity and activity sensors has been developed. Preliminary results indicate that the demonstrator can provide easy accessible information about the thermal conditions at the site of the worker and local cooling effects of extremities. The demonstrator has the ability to distinguish between activity and rest, and enables implementation of more sophisticated sensor fusion algorithms to assess work load and pre-defined activities. This information can be used in an enhanced safety perspective as an improved tool to advice outdoor work control for workers in cold climate. PMID:24111230

  16. U.S. Offshore Wind Port Readiness

    SciTech Connect

    C. Elkinton, A. Blatiak, H. Ameen

    2013-10-13

    This study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations.

  17. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

  18. Infrared detector Dewars - Increased LN2 hold time and vacuum jacket life spans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Boyd, W. J.; Blass, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    IR detector Dewars commonly suffer from shorter than desired LN2 hold times and insulation jacket vacuum corruption over relatively short time periods. In an attempt to solve this problem for a 9144 detector Dewar, small 1 liter/s appendage ion pumps were selected for continuous pumping of the vacuum jackets. This procedure extended LN2 hold times from 20 to 60 h and virtually eliminated vacuum jacket corruption. Thus the detector systems are usable continuously over periods of 6 months or more.

  19. Design, operations planning and experience from the marine operations for the Europipe jacket with bucket foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Rusaas, P.; Baerheim, M. [Statoil A Giske, S.R.; Barrett, G.; Christiansen, P.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Europipe 16/11-E riser platform was successfully installed in the Norwegian part of the North Sea last summer. Rather than having the traditional piled foundations, the platform has bucket foundations consisting of one inverted 12m diameter bucket in each of the four Jacket corners. After set down of the Jacket on the seabed and self weight penetration, the Jacket legs were waterfilled and the buckets thus gained further penetration. Finally suction within the buckets penetrated them to target penetration. This paper describes the preparatory work and the installation of the structure, discusses the main problem areas and experiences gained from the installation.

  20. Lightweight Vacuum Jacket for Cryogenic Insulation - Appendices to Final Report. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, D. L.; Bell, J. E.; Brogren, E. W.; Straayer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility is demonstrated of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials. Design and analytical studies were made on an orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were completed for the tank assembly which included an optimized vacuum jacket and multilayered insulation system. A half-scale LH2 test model was designed and fabricated and a force/stiffness proof test was conducted on the vacuum jacket. A vacuum leak rate of 0.00001 was measured, approximately 1500 hours of vacuum pressure was sustained, and 29 vacuum pressure cycles were experienced prior to failure. For vol. 1, see N75-26192.

  1. Buckling of offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.C.; Ellinas, C.P.; Supple, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    This new handbook gives detailed design guidance for a wide range of structural components and types of loading related to the buckling of offshore structures. It presents many hundreds of test results that have been examined and collated to give a common base of comparison, and its surveys all the relevant national and international design codes, comparing the relative accuracy of their predictions against the available test results. Contents are: unstiffened cord and bracing elements; ring-stiffened cylinders; stringer-stiffened and orthogonally-stiffened cylinders; flat panels; and end-closures and transition shells.

  2. Skin, bone and muscle collagen extraction from the trash fish, leather jacket (Odonus niger) and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Nagarajan; Jeya Shakila, Robinson; Sukumar, Durairaj; Jeyasekaran, G

    2013-12-01

    Acid soluble (ASC) and pepsin soluble (PSC) collagens were extracted from the skin, bone and muscle of a trash fish, leather jacket (Odonus niger) by three different extraction methods. Method I gave 46-50% yield for ASC, Method II gave 49-58% yield for both ASC and PSC and Method III gave 64-71% yield for PSC. The addition of pepsin had increased the yield by 30-45%. The yields of collagen from skin and bone were higher than muscle. SDS-PAGE pattern revealed that skin and bone collagen as Type I collagen with a typical (α1)2α2 chains and muscle collagen as Type V collagen with a typical α1α3α2 chains. Td values of bone and muscle collagen were high (30-32 °C) compared to skin collagen (27-28 °C). The higher imino acids (190 residues/1,000 residues) were found responsible for the higher Td values. The trash fish, leather jacket can therefore be exploited effectively for collagen as it has got good thermal properties for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

  3. A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Jacketed Cuvette for the Spectronic 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jonathan E.; Ting, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The construction of a simple and inexpensive water-jacketed cuvette for the Spectronic 20 is described. This cuvette is utilized to determine the activation energy of the reaction between crystal violet and hydroxide ion spectrophotomerically.

  4. Yellow jackets may be an underestimated component of an ant-seed mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bale, M.T.; Zettler, J.A.; Robinson, B.A.; Spira, T.P.; Allen, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Yellow jackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) are attracted to the typically ant-dispersed seeds of trilliums and will take seeds from ants in the genus Aphaenogaster. To determine if yellow jacket, Vespula maculifrons (Buysson), presence interferes with seed foraging by ants, we presented seeds of Trillium discolor Wray to three species (A. texana carolinensis Wheeler, Formica schaufussi Mayr, and Solenopsis invicta Buren) of seed-carrying ants in areas where vespids were present or excluded. We found that interspecific aggression between yellow jackets and ants is species specific. Vespid presence decreased average foraging time and increased foraging efficiency of two of the three ant species studied, a situation that might reflect competition for a limited food source. We also found that yellow jackets removed more seeds than ants, suggestive that vespids are important, albeit underestimated, components of ant-seed mutualisms.

  5. The effect on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garlock, E A; Ellis, Greer

    1933-01-01

    Tests made on a Curtiss D-12 engine in the Altitude Laboratory at the Bureau of Standards show the following effects on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature: 1) Friction at all altitudes is a linear function of the jacket-water temperature, decreasing with increasing temperature. 2) The brake horsepower below an altitude of about 9,000 feet decreases, and at higher altitudes increases, with jacket-water temperature. 3) The brake specific fuel consumption tends to decrease, at all altitudes, with increasing jacket-water temperature. 4) The percentage change in brake power output is roughly equal to the algebraic sum of the percentage change in volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency.

  6. Evaluation of sleeve-pile set models used in docking jacket operation simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cyranka, C.; Mourelle, M.M.; Ebecken, N.F.F.

    1995-12-31

    This work deals with the behavior of sleeve-pile set models used in the simulation of docking jacket operations. The adopted strategy involves the comparison of three-dimensional dynamic analysis with complete models, where docking pile and marine soil are considered. This dynamic analysis is performed in the time domain, including all the environmental loads and ship motions, using a substructure technique. The main discussion is focused in appropriate modeling the sleeve-pile set. Two propositions were examined: in the first one, the nonlinear docking spring takes into account the sleeve, pile and nonlinear soil contributions; in the second, the docking sleeve characteristics were added to the jacket model. To reach the objectives a real docking operation case was selected. A typical Campos Basin jacket was modeled with fine discretization of all details to access precisely the sleeve-pile set interaction. The obtained results can establish practical conclusions to docking jacket analysis.

  7. New Structural-Dynamics Module for Offshore Multimember Substructures within the Wind Turbine Computer-Aided Engineering Tool FAST: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H.; Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.

    2013-08-01

    FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is a computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool for aero-hydro-servo-elastic analysis of land-based and offshore wind turbines. This paper discusses recent upgrades made to FAST to enable loads simulations of offshore wind turbines with fixed-bottom, multimember support structures (e.g., jackets and tripods, which are commonly used in transitional-depth waters). The main theory and strategies for the implementation of the multimember substructure dynamics module (SubDyn) within the new FAST modularization framework are introduced. SubDyn relies on two main engineering schematizations: 1) a linear frame finite-element beam (LFEB) model and 2) a dynamics system reduction via Craig-Bampton's method. A jacket support structure and an offshore system consisting of a turbine atop a jacket substructure were simulated to test the SubDyn module and to preliminarily assess results against results from a commercial finite-element code.

  8. Underwater noise from three types of offshore wind turbines: estimation of impact zones for harbor porpoises and harbor seals.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Jakob; Henriksen, Oluf Damsgaard; Miller, Lee A

    2009-06-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from three different types of wind turbines in Denmark and Sweden (Middelgrunden, Vindeby, and Bockstigen-Valar) during normal operation. Wind turbine noise was only measurable above ambient noise at frequencies below 500 Hz. Total sound pressure level was in the range 109-127 dB re 1 microPa rms, measured at distances between 14 and 20 m from the foundations. The 1/3-octave noise levels were compared with audiograms of harbor seals and harbor porpoises. Maximum 1/3-octave levels were in the range 106-126 dB re 1 microPa rms. Maximum range of audibility was estimated under two extreme assumptions on transmission loss (3 and 9 dB per doubling of distance, respectively). Audibility was low for harbor porpoises extending 20-70 m from the foundation, whereas audibility for harbor seals ranged from less than 100 m to several kilometers. Behavioral reactions of porpoises to the noise appear unlikely except if they are very close to the foundations. However, behavioral reactions from seals cannot be excluded up to distances of a few hundred meters. It is unlikely that the noise reaches dangerous levels at any distance from the turbines and the noise is considered incapable of masking acoustic communication by seals and porpoises. PMID:19507958

  9. Underwater noise from three types of offshore wind turbines: estimation of impact zones for harbor porpoises and harbor seals.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Jakob; Henriksen, Oluf Damsgaard; Miller, Lee A

    2009-06-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from three different types of wind turbines in Denmark and Sweden (Middelgrunden, Vindeby, and Bockstigen-Valar) during normal operation. Wind turbine noise was only measurable above ambient noise at frequencies below 500 Hz. Total sound pressure level was in the range 109-127 dB re 1 microPa rms, measured at distances between 14 and 20 m from the foundations. The 1/3-octave noise levels were compared with audiograms of harbor seals and harbor porpoises. Maximum 1/3-octave levels were in the range 106-126 dB re 1 microPa rms. Maximum range of audibility was estimated under two extreme assumptions on transmission loss (3 and 9 dB per doubling of distance, respectively). Audibility was low for harbor porpoises extending 20-70 m from the foundation, whereas audibility for harbor seals ranged from less than 100 m to several kilometers. Behavioral reactions of porpoises to the noise appear unlikely except if they are very close to the foundations. However, behavioral reactions from seals cannot be excluded up to distances of a few hundred meters. It is unlikely that the noise reaches dangerous levels at any distance from the turbines and the noise is considered incapable of masking acoustic communication by seals and porpoises.

  10. Offshore Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training Officer, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Industrial trainers face a critical challenge--supplying qualified personnel for work both off and onshore to service and run Great Britain's infant oil industry in the North Sea. A review of the activities, types of employment involved, extraneous factors affecting the industry, and employment projections are discussed. (MW)

  11. Seismic retroftting of RC columns with RC jackets and wing walls with different structural details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shuenn-Yih; Chen, Ting-Wei; Tran, Ngoc-Cuong; Liao, Wen-I.

    2014-06-01

    An original reinforced concrete (RC) column and four strengthened specimens, two with RC jackets and two with wing walls, were tested in this study. The original column specimen was designed to comply with older (pre-1999) design standards so that the usual detailing deficiencies in existing school buildings in Taiwan could be simulated. Two different structural details were chosen to fabricate the full-scale specimens for each retrofitting technique. The study confirmed that either RC jacketing or the installation of wing walls with two different structural details can effectively improve the stiffness and strength of an existing column. RC jacketing shows a better improvement in energy dissipation and ductility when compared to the columns with wing walls installed. This is because the two RC jacketed columns experienced a flexural failure, while a shear failure was found in the two columns with the wing walls installed, and thus led to a drastic decrease of the maximum lateral strengths and ductility. Since many factors may affect the installation of a post-installed anchor, it is better to use standard hooks to replace post-installed anchors in some specific points when using RC jacketing or installing wing walls.

  12. Two models of high frequency chest compression therapy: interaction of jacket pressure and mouth airflow.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Wan; Lee, Jongwon; Warwick, Warren J

    2007-01-01

    High frequency chest compression (HFCC) therapy assists clearing the secretions in the lung. This paper presents two mathematical models: 1) HFCC jacket function model (JFM) and 2) respiratory function model (RFM). JFM predicts the variation of the jacket pressure (Pj) from the respiratory pattern of mouth airflow (Fm). RFM predicts the HFCC induced mouth airflow (Fm) from the HFCC pulse pressures at the jacket (Pj). Fm and Pj were measured from a healthy subject during HFCC therapy. JFM, which was implemented with 2nd order system using prediction error method, shows the existence of breathing pattern at Pj. RFM, which was implemented with amplitude modulation technique, shows how the HFCC pulses affects to the Fm. JFM calculations match 78% of the measured respiratory pattern of Pj>. RFM calculations match 90% of measured HFCC induced Fm. These models can be used to test new breathing patterns before designing studies on patients having chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.

  13. Classification of offshore mass movements

    SciTech Connect

    Mulder, T. |; Cochonat, P.

    1996-01-01

    More than 100 offshore mass-movement deposits have been studied in Holocene and Pleistocene sediments. The processes can be divided into three main types: slides/slumps, plastic flows, and turbidity currents, of which 13 main varieties have been recognized. The three types are differentiated mainly by motion, architecture, and shape of failure surface. For slides, the morphology of deposits can usually be linked to a process, but for plastic flows and turbidity currents, information about the motion is mainly provided by the sedimentary record. A static classification based on these features is given, and is related to a dynamic classification system to try to underline the morphological transformation of an offshore event from initiation to deposition.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE FAILURE OF A RADIOACTIVE WASTE TRANSFER LINE JACKET

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B; Alan03 Plummer, A; Karthik Subramanian, K; Charles Jenkins, C; William Hinz, W; A Fellinger, A

    2007-04-06

    Radioactive wastes are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste is transported between tanks primarily via an underground transfer piping system. Due to the hazardous nature of the waste, the inner core stainless steel pipe is typically surrounded by a carbon steel pipe jacket, which provides secondary containment. Recently several through-wall penetrations were discovered on a segment of one of the jackets. An evaluation was performed to verify the failure mechanism and to estimate the degree of damage that occurred to the pipe segment. Failure analysis of a section of the jacket confirmed that pitting corrosion on the exterior of the pipe led to the through-wall penetration. Ultrasonic measurements on sections of the pipe were utilized to determine the remaining wall thickness in adjacent areas of the pipe. Based on these measurements, the degree of pitting and general corrosion was determined. Pit growth rate models were then developed to estimate the life expectancy of sections of the pipe that had not been excavated. The calculations estimated that the occurrence of through-wall failures in this jacket will begin to increase substantially in 12 years. Given that this pipe segment will be utilized beyond this time, short-term and long-term solutions to this failure were proposed. The short-term solutions focused on the repair or replace decisions that must be made to return the jacket to service as soon as practical. The long-term solutions focused on a broader strategy to address jacket integrity issues in the entire tank farm facility. These solutions included the evaluation of innovative remote inspection and repair techniques.

  15. Heat-transfer phenomena in water-cooled zinc-fuming furnace jackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholey, K. E.; Richards, G. G.; Samarasekera, I. V.

    1991-04-01

    In the zinc slag-fuming process, zinc is removed from lead blast furnace slag by reduction with a coal-air mixture injected into the slag through submerged tuyeres. The furnace is constructed of water-cooled jackets which freeze a slag layer and contain the bath. This greatly reduces vessel wear caused by the violently agitated and corrosive bath. The jackets, however, fail due to the formation of cracks which grow from the slag face through the working face of the jacket to the water channel. In this study, in-plant measurements and mathematical modeling of heat transfer in the jackets have been combined to elucidate the mechanism of failure. The working face of a water jacket was instrumented with thermocouples and installed in a fuming furnace at the Trail smelter of Cominco Ltd., Trail, BC. Measurements revealed the presence of large thermal transients or temperature “spikes” in the panel in the region immediately above the tuyeres. These were generally observed during charging and tapping of the furnace and are likely associated with disturbances on the surface of the bath or gas injection effects when the liquid level is low. Temperatures at the midthickness were seen to rise by as much as 180 °C above the steady-state level. Under these conditions, low-cycle fatigue may lead to crack formation and propagation. A mathematical modeling analysis of the transient freezing phenomena indicates that the temperature spikes are associated with sudden slag falloff and direct contact of molten slag on the jacket. In order to reduce slag falloff, an increased number of anchoring fins should be used in critical areas.

  16. Textile artificial magnetic conductor jacket for transmission enhancement between antennas under bending and wetness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamardin, Kamilia; Rahim, Mohamad Kamal A.; Hall, Peter S.; Samsuri, Noor Asmawati; Latef, Tarik Abdul; Ullah, Mohammad Habib

    2016-04-01

    Textile artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) waveguide jacket for transmission enhancement between on-body antennas is proposed. Transmission characteristics between antennas with different orientations and placements are studied. Significant transmission enhancement is observed for all tested positions. Bending and wetness measurements are also conducted. Bending is found not to give significant effect to the antennas and AMC performance, while wetness yields severe performance distortion. However, the original performance is retrieved once the antennas and AMC dried. The proposed AMC jacket will act as a new approach for efficient wearable body-centric communications.

  17. Drag Measurements of a Protruding .50-caliber Machine Gun with Barrel Jacket Removed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luoma, Arvo A.

    1943-01-01

    Tests were made in 8-ft high-speed wind tunnel to determine the drag reduction possible by eliminating the barrel jacket of a protruding 50-caliber aircraft gun. It was found that the drag of a standard aircraft gun protruding into the air stream at right angles to the flow can be reduced by 23% by discarding the barrel jacket. At 300 mph and sea-level conditions, this amounts to a decrease in drag of from 83 to 64 pounds. A rough surface finish on the barrel was found to have no adverse effects on the drag of the barrel, the drag being actually less at high Mach Numbers.

  18. Damage detection in offshore platforms using vibration information

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrivar, F.; Bouwkamp, J.G.

    1986-06-01

    Damage detection based on changes in dynamic characteristics is considered for eight-legged k-braced steel offshore oil and gas production towers. Both experimental and analytical results are presented to improve damage detection capabilities. A 1/50th scale plastic model representing the structural system of a typical full-scale tower in 218 ft of water is used for the studies. Effects of severance of diagonal bracing members on selected vibration frequencies and mode shape parameters measurable at the deck are investigated. The effects of changes in deck mass, increase in jacket mass, and deck mass eccentricity on the selected parameters are also investigated and are shown to be different from the effects of damage.

  19. Wave loading on offshore structures: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Standing, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Man has worked close to the sea for many centuries, exploiting its resources and sailing his ships across it. In the process he has experienced, and gained respect for, the enormous forces exerted by sea waves during a violent storm or tsunami. Occasionally a coastal village is devastated; more often ships, harbours, lighthouses and coastal defences are wrecked. The long-term damage may be less dramatic, but no less destructive: sea waves can gradually erode a structure or its foundations, and cause cracking, ultimately leading to failure. Offshore engineering for the oil and gas industry started before World War II, and progress since then has been rapid. Early steel jacket structures were in water depths of 5-15m. By the early 1960s the water depth had reached 100m, and in 1978 the Cognac platform was completed in the Gulf of Mexico at a depth exceeding 300m. Rapidly increasing costs, however, have forced designers to examine radically new methods of production for deeper waters. A range of compliant structures, including tethered buoyant platforms and guyed towers, has been proposed.

  20. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 180.72 Section 180.72 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and...

  1. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 180.72 Section 180.72 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and...

  2. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 180.72 Section 180.72 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and...

  3. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 180.72 Section 180.72 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and...

  4. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  5. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  6. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  7. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  8. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 117.72 Section 117.72 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT...

  9. Viability of Bismuth as a Green Substitute for Lead in Jacketed .357 Magnum Revolver Bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Joel

    In seeking to develop environmentally friendly lead-free non-toxic bullets, the research ballistically evaluated the performance of copper-jacketed handgun bullets containing a pure bismuth core. The lead was first removed from 140 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM bullets of 38 caliber (.357 diameter) by melting. The empty jackets were then refilled with pure bismuth, including the forming of a correctly sized hollow-point cavity. Due to the lower density of bismuth as compared to lead, the bismuth-cored bullets consistently weighed 125 gains. Conveniently this allowed direct comparison to commercially available 125 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM lead-cored bullets of 38 caliber. Both bismuth-cored and lead-cored versions of the 125 grain bullets had identical nose dimensions and jacket material, the only dimensional difference being the bullet length below the cannelure. Shooting took place at an outdoor range using a 357 Magnum Ruger(TM) SP101RTM revolver with 3" barrel as the test weapon. FBI protocols were followed when firing through clothing, wallboard, plywood, steel plates and laminated glass. Wound paths and bullets were captured in ballistic gelatin, with data collected for velocity, penetration, expansion, and weight retention. Bismuth compared favorably with lead in all but the laminated glass test, where it under penetrated due to jacket separation.

  10. Servicing the offshore industry

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    What factors are leading operators to using boat-based services vs. those that are rig-based for offshore completions, stimulations and workovers? What trends are companies experiencing in completion practices for the unconsolidated formations in the Gulf of Mexico? What are companies` most important specifications for well service boats operating near their offshore platforms? To answer these and other questions, Petroleum Engineering International asked those who should know -- the producing companies active in offshore operations in the Gulf of Mexico and worldwide.

  11. Session: Offshore wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  12. An improved modal strain energy method for damage detection in offshore platform structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingchao; Wang, Shuqing; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    The development of robust damage detection methods for offshore structures is crucial to prevent catastrophes caused by structural failures. In this research, we developed an Improved Modal Strain Energy (IMSE) method for detecting damage in offshore platform structures based on a traditional modal strain energy method (the Stubbs index method). The most significant difference from the Stubbs index method was the application of modal frequencies. The goal was to improve the robustness of the traditional method. To demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed IMSE method, both numerical and experimental studies were conducted for different damage scenarios using a jacket platform structure. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the IMSE method in damage location when only limited, spatially incomplete, and noise-polluted modal data is available. Comparative studies showed that the IMSE index outperformed the Stubbs index and exhibited stronger robustness, confirming the superiority of the proposed approach.

  13. Application of two passive strategies on the load mitigation of large offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzadeh, Rasoul; Kühn, Martin

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the numerical results of two passive strategies to reduce the support structure loads of a large offshore wind turbine. In the first approach, an omnidirectional tuned mass damper is designed and implemented in the tower top to alleviate the structural vibrations. In the second approach, a viscous fluid damper model which is diagonally attached to the tower at two points is developed. Aeroelastic simulations are performed for the offshore 10MW INNWIND.EU reference wind turbine mounted on a jacket structure. Lifetime damage equivalent loads are evaluated at the tower base and compared with those for the reference wind turbine. The results show that the integrated design can extend the lifetime of the support structure.

  14. Management of offshore wastes in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    During the process of finding and producing oil and gas in the offshore environment operators generate a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Some of these wastes are directly related to exploration and production activities (e.g., drilling wastes, produced water, treatment workover, and completion fluids) while other types of wastes are associated with human occupation of the offshore platforms (e.g., sanitary and domestic wastes, trash). Still other types of wastes can be considered generic industrial wastes (e.g., scrap metal and wood, wastes paints and chemicals, sand blasting residues). Finally, the offshore platforms themselves can be considered waste materials when their useful life span has been reached. Generally, offshore wastes are managed in one of three ways--onsite discharge, injection, or transportation to shore. This paper describes the regulatory requirements imposed by the government and the approaches used by offshore operators to manage and dispose of wastes in the US.

  15. Low smoke, non-corrosive, fire retardant cable jackets based on HNBR and EVM

    SciTech Connect

    Meisenheimer, H.

    1991-06-01

    This article examines the properties of the polymers HNBR and EVM which make them good candidates for use in meeting the low smoke, non-corrosive, low toxicity and fire retardant requirements for electric safety cable jackets and electric insulation. Topics of the article include density, weight, and viscosity of each polymer, mechanical proprieties of each polymer, and other results of laboratory testing of these polymers.

  16. Systematic determination of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in outdoor jackets.

    PubMed

    Gremmel, Christoph; Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P

    2016-10-01

    Sixteen outdoor jackets were purchased in 2011/12 and analyzed for 23 different perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The jackets were selected based on their origin of production, price, market, and textile, such as polyester, nylon, polyamide, and content of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) membranes. Two robust analytical methods based on high pressure liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry, as well as two liquid extractions, were developed enabling the analysis of PFASs with widely different physico-chemical properties. The jackets were found to contain PFASs in a range between 0.03 and 719 μg/m(2). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was omnipresent (0.02-171 μg/m(2)), although at lower concentrations compared to the precursors of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), namely fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) (<0.001-698 μg/m(2)). Perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their putative precursors, in particular perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, were detected much less frequently at concentrations up to 5 μg/m(2). To determine the effect of the volatility of FTOHs, four selected jackets were stored in a sealed bag in the dark at room temperature and re-analyzed after 3.5 years. Only 10%-20% of the initial concentration of 8:2-FTOH and 20%-50% of 10:2-FTOH were found, whereas the concentrations of PFOA and perfluorodecanoic acid increased significantly. This supports the hypothesis that PFAS concentrations in textiles are also strongly dependent on age, and conditions of transport and storage. PMID:27376856

  17. Getting offshoring right.

    PubMed

    Aron, Ravi; Singh, Jitendra V

    2005-12-01

    The prospect of offshoring and outsourcing business processes has captured the imagination of CEOs everywhere. In the past five years, a rising number of companies in North America and Europe have experimented with this strategy, hoping to reduce costs and gain strategic advantage. But many businesses have had mixed results. According to several studies, half the organizations that have shifted processes offshore have failed to generate the expected financial benefits. What's more, many of them have faced employee resistance and consumer dissatisfaction. Clearly, companies have to rethink how they formulate their offshoring strategies. A three-part methodology can help. First, companies need to prioritize their processes, ranking each based on two criteria: the value it creates for customers and the degree to which the company can capture some of that value. Companies will want to keep their core (highest-priority) processes in-house and consider outsourcing their commodity (low-priority) processes; critical (moderate-priority) processes are up for debate and must be considered carefully. Second, businesses should analyze all the risks that accompany offshoring and look systematically at their critical and commodity processes in terms of operational risk (the risk that processes won't operate smoothly after being offshored) and structural risk (the risk that relationships with service providers may not work as expected). Finally, companies should determine possible locations for their offshore efforts, as well as the organizational forms--such as captive centers and joint ventures--that those efforts might take. They can do so by examining each process's operational and structural risks side by side. This article outlines the tools that will help companies choose the right processes to offshore. It also describes a new organizational structure called the extended organization, in which companies specify the quality of services they want and work alongside providers

  18. The Teaching Artist in New Jersey: Full Metaphor Jacket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how his friends do not understand the type of work that he does as a poetry teacher. His friends know him as someone who cheers on the Yankees voraciously with them and will roll his sleeves up and stuff three knockwurst sandwiches down his throat, trying to explain how Walt Whitman would approve of this, that…

  19. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Offshore rectennas are feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but the type of rectenna suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. A nonground plane design minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This perferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors or tagis supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane, winter storm, and icing conditions for a one time cost of $5.7 billion. Subsequent units would be about 1.3 less expensive. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in substantially lower costs. The major advantage of an offshore rectenna is the removal of microwave radiation from populated areas.

  20. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  1. Offshore wave energy experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, K.; Scholten, N.C.; Soerensen, K.A. |

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the second phase of the off-shore wave energy experiment, taking place in the Danish part of the North Sea near Hanstholm. The wave power converter is a scale model consisting of a float 2.5 meter in diameter connected by rope to a seabed mounted piston pump installed on 25 meter deep water 2,5 km offshore. The structure, installation procedure results and experience gained during the test period will be presented and compared to calculations based on a computer model.

  2. NREL Software Aids Offshore Wind Turbine Designs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    NREL researchers are supporting offshore wind power development with computer models that allow detailed analyses of both fixed and floating offshore wind turbines. While existing computer-aided engineering (CAE) models can simulate the conditions and stresses that a land-based wind turbine experiences over its lifetime, offshore turbines require the additional considerations of variations in water depth, soil type, and wind and wave severity, which also necessitate the use of a variety of support-structure types. NREL's core wind CAE tool, FAST, models the additional effects of incident waves, sea currents, and the foundation dynamics of the support structures.

  3. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, M.; Gilioli, A.; Manes, A.; Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.

    2012-08-01

    In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy) of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors). Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature) and new material data (with strain rate effect) obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass) with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  4. The state of offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this book, the author explains the factors behind state involvement in offshore petroleum activities. From his analysis of government workings in Great Britain and Norway, he concludes that state intervention is determined by complex interactions among government officials, economic interests, and environmental pressures.

  5. Offshore Wind Energy Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrove, P.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the possibility of installing offshore windmills to provide electricity and to save fuel for the United Kingdom. Favors their deployment in clusters to facilitate supervision and minimize cost. Discusses the power output and the cost involved and urges their quick development. (GA)

  6. Base deformation of full metal-jacketed rifle bullets as a measure of impact velocity and range of fire.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lucien C

    2015-03-01

    Full metal-jacketed rifle bullets with lead cores and open bases can experience deformation of their cylindrical shapes as they yaw during the penetration of soft tissues. The amount of deformation depends upon the strength of the bullet and the velocity in soft tissue when they go into yaw. The yaw behavior of a bullet in soft tissue depends upon its design (length, ogive shape, ogive length, center of gravity, and pre-impact stability) as it penetrates soft tissue. The yaw characteristics of common spitzer-type military rifle bullets are relatively well known and quite reproducible when fired into suitable soft tissue simulants. This, in turn, results in a relationship between the amount of deformation of the bullet's shank and impact velocity with soft tissue. The specific relationship between impact velocity and bullet deformation must be worked out through empirical testing, but this relationship can be of critical importance in determining impact velocity, which, in turn, relates to range of fire.

  7. Base deformation of full metal-jacketed rifle bullets as a measure of impact velocity and range of fire.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lucien C

    2015-03-01

    Full metal-jacketed rifle bullets with lead cores and open bases can experience deformation of their cylindrical shapes as they yaw during the penetration of soft tissues. The amount of deformation depends upon the strength of the bullet and the velocity in soft tissue when they go into yaw. The yaw behavior of a bullet in soft tissue depends upon its design (length, ogive shape, ogive length, center of gravity, and pre-impact stability) as it penetrates soft tissue. The yaw characteristics of common spitzer-type military rifle bullets are relatively well known and quite reproducible when fired into suitable soft tissue simulants. This, in turn, results in a relationship between the amount of deformation of the bullet's shank and impact velocity with soft tissue. The specific relationship between impact velocity and bullet deformation must be worked out through empirical testing, but this relationship can be of critical importance in determining impact velocity, which, in turn, relates to range of fire. PMID:25594572

  8. Offshore Wind Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This 2-page fact sheet describes NREL's offshore wind research and development efforts and capabilities. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is internationally recognized for offshore wind energy research and development (R&D). Its experience and capabilities cover a wide spectrum of wind energy disciplines. NREL's offshore wind R&D efforts focus on critical areas that address the long-term needs of the offshore wind energy industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). R&D efforts include: (1) Developing offshore design tools and methods; (2) Collaborating with international partners; (3) Testing offshore systems and developing standards; (4) Conducting economic analyses; (5) Characterizing offshore wind resources; and (6) Identifying and mitigating offshore wind grid integration challenges and barriers. NREL has developed and maintains a robust, open-source, modular computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool, known as FAST. FAST's state-of-the-art capabilities provide full dynamic system simulation for a range of offshore wind systems. It models the coupled aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, control system, and structural response of offshore wind systems to support the development of innovative wind technologies that are reliable and cost effective. FAST also provides dynamic models of wind turbines on offshore fixed-bottom systems for shallow and transitional depths and floating-platform systems in deep water, thus enabling design innovation and risk reduction and facilitating higher performance designs that will meet DOE's cost of energy, reliability, and deployment objectives.

  9. Offshore Space Center (offshore launch site)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit; an industrial area for HLLV maintenance; an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower; liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms; a power generation station, docks with an unloading area; two separate launch sites; and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

  10. Offshore Space Center (offshore launch site)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit; an industrial area for HLLV maintenance; an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower; liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms; a power generation station, docks with an unloading area; two separate launch sites; and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

  11. Offshore space center (offshore launch site)

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, D.G.

    1980-07-01

    Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit, an industrial area for HLLV maintenance, an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms, a power generation station, docks with an unloading area, two separate launch sites, and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

  12. An analytical study and systematic monitoring procedure developed for the load-out operation of the North Rankin Jacket 'A'

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, N.; Inokoshi, O.; Kitani, T.; Masuda, S.; Zarate, H.

    1983-05-01

    The loadout of the 22,000 tonnes North Rankin Jacket 'A' onto a floating barge was successfully accomplished in April, 1982. During the loadout the barge ballast was continually adjusted to compensate for both jacket weight transfer onto the barge and full tide variation. The preparation for the loadout and the operation itself was characterized by newly developed integrated techniques. The techniques included: the development of a barge, jacket and quayside three-dimensional computer model to check the validity of conventional and simple ballast system software. The model was also used to evaluate the control parameters of the operation in a series of analyses which determine the sensitivity of critical steps of the operation to human or equipment errors: the development and operation of an integrated control system for jacket load transfer that relates jacket position to barge level and ballast pump requirements; the development and operation of a tide-expectation computer programme and associated ballast pump time scheduling software to compensate for differences between actual water level and that determined from standard tide tables, and to minimize the effect of short-term, local tide variations that are not forecast; and the incorporation of fail-safe concepts and measures into the operation.

  13. Effect of wearing an ice cooling jacket on repeat sprint performance in warm/humid conditions

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, R; Dawson, B; Bishop, D; Fitzsimons, M; Lawrence, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of cooling the skin with an ice jacket before and between exercise bouts (to simulate quarter and half time breaks) on prolonged repeat sprint exercise performance in warm/humid conditions. Methods: After an initial familiarisation session, seven trained male hockey players performed two testing sessions (seven days apart), comprising an 80 minute intermittent, repeat sprint cycling exercise protocol inside a climate chamber set at 30°C and 60% relative humidity. On one occasion a skin cooling procedure was implemented (in random counterbalanced order), with subjects wearing an ice cooling jacket both before (for five minutes) and in the recovery periods (2 x 5 min and 1 x 10 min) during the test. Measures of performance (work done and power output on each sprint), heart rates, blood lactate concentrations, core (rectal) and skin temperatures, sweat loss, perceived exertion, and ratings of thirst, thermal discomfort, and fatigue were obtained in both trials. Results: In the cooling condition, chest (torso) skin temperature, thermal discomfort, and rating of thirst were all significantly lower (p<0.05), but no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between conditions for measures of work done, power output, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, core or mean skin temperature, perceived exertion, sweat loss, or ratings of fatigue. However, high effect sizes indicated trends to lowered lactate concentrations, sweat loss, and mean skin temperatures in the cooling condition. Conclusions: The intermittent use of an ice cooling jacket, both before and during a repeat sprint cycling protocol in warm/humid conditions, did not improve physical performance, although the perception of thermal load was reduced. Longer periods of cooling both before and during exercise (to lower mean skin temperature by a greater degree than observed here) may be necessary to produce such a change. PMID:12663361

  14. Evaluation of offshore penetration tests at El Palito refinery, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.I.; Simone, A.; Tichatscheck, C.; Boggess, R.

    1995-12-01

    Data from an offshore study in the western part of Venezuela are presented in terms of the penetration test data and liquefaction evaluation. Two types of penetration test were performed (SPT and DCPT) and the results of each are compared. This was made possible by the comparison testing performed at two different locations where the separation between boreholes with different penetration tests was small enough to allow direct comparison of the results. To the authors` knowledge, this is the first time that dynamic cone measurements have been made in an offshore environment. Comments in relation to the evaluation of liquefaction resistance based on the results of the offshore penetration testing are made.

  15. Arctic offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bhula, D.N.

    1984-01-24

    An offshore structure is disclosed for use in drilling and producing wells in arctic regions having a conical shaped lower portion that extends above the surface of the water and a cylindrical upper section. The conical portion is provided with a controlled stiffness outer surface for withstanding the loads produced by ice striking the structure. The stiffness properties of the outer shell and flexible members are designed to distribute the load and avoid high local loads on the inner parts of the structure.

  16. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  17. Offshore blowouts, data for risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Holand, P.

    1995-12-31

    Blowouts are, besides gas leakages, the major contributor to the total risk for offshore installations. Therefore, the blowout risk is always included in Quantitative Risk Analyses (QRAs) of offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea. SINTEF Offshore Blowout Database has existed since 1984 (until 1990 it was called Marintek`s blowout database). In 1990 the responsibility of the database was transferred to SINTEF Safety and Reliability. Throughout these years the database has been used for assessing blowout risk associated to development and operation of fields offshore Norway. Six oil companies and two consultants are presently sponsoring the database. These companies are using the database when performing risk analyses. During the past three years the database has been subjected to a thorough quality improvement, both with respect to the user interface, and most important, regarding the blowout data included in the database. What is unique with this database, besides the high quality of blowout descriptions, is first that the blowout causes are categorized related to loss of primary and secondary barriers. Secondly that the user interface makes it possible to establish searches to withdraw information regarding any blowout type subjected for specific searches.

  18. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  19. Model test of wave forces on a structurally dense jacket platform

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, G.Z.; Parsley, M.A.; Berek, E.P.; Calvo, J.J.; Johnson, R.C.; Petruska, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    In the Gulf of Mexico, there are a significant number of jacket platforms built in the 1950`s and 60`s which are still in operation. Typically, these platforms have a large number of closely spaced legs and densely arranged bracing members. Since most of these platforms are beyond their design lives but the reservoirs are still producing, their safety, serviceability and fitness-for-purpose must be re-assessed in order to continue producing from them. During Mobil`s in-house re-qualification effort, it was found that the predictions by structural analysis programs (such as SACS and KARMA) were inconsistent with the platform inspection results. The programs predicted a large number of joint can failures during design storms (such as hurricane Andrew), but underwater inspections indicated only few failures had actually occurred. It was apparent that the procedure used for the assessment was conservative--either the wave loads the platforms experienced during the hurricanes were overestimated and/or the structural resistances were underestimated. This paper addresses the wave load issue. To calibrate the force algorithms typically used in structural analysis programs, a model test of a typical aging jacket platform was conducted in the wave basin.

  20. Recent developments in reassessment of jacket structures under extreme storm cyclic loading. Part 1: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, O.I.; Skallerud, B.H.; Johansen, A.; Amdahl, J.

    1995-12-31

    An attractive approach to integrity assessment of jacket structures subjected to extreme storm cyclic loading is based on considerations of system strength rather than component strength. The system strength is determined by nonlinear pushover analyses. Nonlinear cyclic analyses are undertaken to determine if the system strength will be degraded due to repeated action of extreme waves. In the present series of papers, conditions for application and extension of such a procedure are addressed. Tubular members with D/t ratio in the range 35--80 were tested under extreme cyclic loading to investigate criteria for onset of local buckling and number of cycles to through thickness cracking. Tubular T-joints were tested under extreme cyclic loading to investigate degradation of cyclic capacity imposed by low cycle fatigue cracking. In part 1 of this series of papers, an overview of the developed methodology for integrity assessment of jacket structures is given. Conditions for application are addressed and illustrated by way of an example study.

  1. Experimental evaluation of energy efficiency in a gas-heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, V.; García, L.; Alfonso, J.

    2014-06-01

    Gas Technological Development Center (CDT de GAS) has developed a new gas-heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle as a solution for temperature-controlled cooking of pulp fruit in the Colombian traditional candy-making industry. This initiative seeks to contribute to the promotion of natural gas as a cleaner and more efficient alternative to traditional fuels such as wood and coal in the Andean countries. Prototype follows the operational and safety rules provided by international and local standards: ASTM-F1602, ASME (section VIII, division 1), and NTC-4082. This paper presents the methodology, experimental setup and results obtained during the performance tests for heating efficiency evaluation of the kettle, according to the ASTM-F1785 standard, and the estimation of measurement uncertainty according to GUM method. The heating efficiency rate for this new prototype is higher to the convectional and commercial models of gas heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle. The results showed a heating efficiency of 63.83% ± 1.66% (k=2), whereas the emission of CO and NOX in stack gases was under the regulate limits for natural gas equipment.

  2. Offshore gas liquefaction without offshore LNG plants

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, G.H.; Thompson, J.

    1980-02-18

    Constructors John Brown Ltd.'s Cold Box Shuttle liquefaction system offers an economical means of recovering offshore gas by eliminating the need for platform liquefaction facilities and by producing onshore the bulk of the cold for LNG refrigeration. Under the C.B.S. concept, a ship provided with heat-exchange equipment conveys liquid nitrogen from a shore terminal out to the platform, where the ship is attached to a single-point mooring (SPM). Heat exchange between the liquid nitrogen and the gas from the platform produces LNG for transport back to port in the same ship. At the port terminal, the cold in LNG can help generate the power needed in the liquid-nitrogen plant. The production efficiency of the C.B.S. system depends upon the gas production rate, the number and size of LNG vessels served by the shore terminal, the limiting wave heights for mooring and loading, the journey time, the mooring time, the planned maintenance of SPM, and the unplanned downtime of the SPM.

  3. Offshore abandonment heats up

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This paper reviews the new concerns regarding the decommissioning of offshore oil platforms which are rapidly coming of age. It reviews the history of past removal operations and the public outcry which is now causing a reevaluation of this abandonment policy. It reviews the number of platforms which are rapidly approaching maturity on a global basis. It then goes on to costs involved in such removal operations. Finally, it reviews the new platform designs which should allow a much more cost effective decommissioning process for these future rigs.

  4. Doing Research in a Professional Development School and Why I Feel like Houdini in a Straight Jacket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neapolitan, Jane

    2004-01-01

    When the author was a little girl, her father told her the story of how he once saw the great Harry Houdini escape from a straight jacket. In the early 1900s, Houdini fascinated thousands of people by performing feats of life-threatening daring and agility. Houdini was a professional in the traditional sense: he acted alone, kept his trade secrets…

  5. The cost effective use of pultruded composite mud-mats in offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Porcari, A.M.; Spessa, A.

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the development and application of pultruded fiber-reinforced plastic mud-mats used as primary load-bearing structural components in the construction of the offshore platform ``Garibaldi C``, recently installed by AGIP S.p.A. in the Adriatic sea. The pultruded composite elements were used as an alternative to traditional steel structures. The mechanical and functional performance of the composite mud-mats are the same. The cost advantages are coming from weight savings, from the necessity of a lower number of aluminum anodes, from the construction procedures used in the yard and from the installation of the jacket performed with a lifting vessel of a lower class. The solutions of particular problems connected with the design and construction of composite mud-mats, as well as cost advantages, are illustrated and discussed.

  6. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  7. Offshore outlook: the American Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jahns, M.O.

    1985-05-01

    Offshore areas in the American Arctic are highlighted and the development of the area is compared with other offshore areas where the required technology is more readily available. Principal areas are shown in which new concepts are being put to practice. Canada's east coast is examined. Several technological trends are reviewed to help operators accelerate the discovery and development of arctic petroleum reserves.

  8. Ultimate collapse of offshore structures exposed to fire

    SciTech Connect

    Amdahl, J.; Eberg, E.; Holmaas, T.; Landroe, H.; Ulfsnes, M.

    1995-12-31

    A systematic validation of the computer program for analysis of mechanical response USFOS is presented. It is based upon a nonlinear finite element formulation and is capable of predicting total collapse, taking systems effects including force redistribution caused by failing members into account. For acceptance of the method it is vital that component behavior is predicted reliably. For this purpose the element formulation used is calibrated such that buckling curves for fire exposed columns and beam-column behavior are reproduced accurately. As a part of the verification of the program a laboratory test with a three dimensional frame representative of the upper part of a four-legged jacket is carried out. The structure is exposed to a gas pool fire at sea level close to one leg until total collapse takes place. A description of the test is given along with numerically predicted structural response. Some preliminary results from the experiment are also presented. Finally, the use of the integrated fire analysis system is illustrated by application to an actual offshore structure.

  9. Airborne sound propagation over sea during offshore wind farm piling.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Dekoninck, L

    2014-02-01

    Offshore piling for wind farm construction has attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to the extremely high noise emission levels associated with such operations. While underwater noise levels were shown to be harmful for the marine biology, the propagation of airborne piling noise over sea has not been studied in detail before. In this study, detailed numerical calculations have been performed with the Green's Function Parabolic Equation (GFPE) method to estimate noise levels up to a distance of 10 km. Measured noise emission levels during piling of pinpiles for a jacket-foundation wind turbine were assessed and used together with combinations of the sea surface state and idealized vertical sound speed profiles (downwind sound propagation). Effective impedances were found and used to represent non-flat sea surfaces at low-wind sea states 2, 3, and 4. Calculations show that scattering by a rough sea surface, which decreases sound pressure levels, exceeds refractive effects, which increase sound pressure levels under downwind conditions. This suggests that the presence of wind, even when blowing downwind to potential receivers, is beneficial to increase the attenuation of piling sound over the sea. A fully flat sea surface therefore represents a worst-case scenario. PMID:25234870

  10. Pioneering offshore excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, R.P.; Grattan, L.

    1996-11-01

    Hibernia Management and Development Company Ltd. (HMDC) was formed in 1990 by a consortium of oil companies to develop their interests in the Hibernia and Avalon reservoirs offshore Newfoundland in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. The reservoirs are located 315km ESE of St. John`s in the North Atlantic. The water depth is about 80m. The entire Hibernia field is estimated to contain more than three billion barrels of oil in place and the owners development plan area is estimated to contain two billion barrels. Recoverable reserves are estimated to be approximately 615 million barrels. The Hibernia reservoir, the principle reservoir, is located at an average depth of 3,700m. HMDC is building a large concrete gravity based structure (GBS) that which will support the platform drilling and processing facilities and living quarters for 280 personnel. In 1997 the platform will be towed to the production site and production will commence late 1997. Oil will be exported by a 2 km long pipeline to an offshore loading system. Dynamically positioned tankers will then take the oil to market. Average daily production is expected to plateau between 125,000 and 135,000 BOPD. It will be the first major development on the east coast of Canada and is located in an area that is prone to pack ice and icebergs.

  11. Ionizing radiation effects on ISS ePTFE jacketed cable assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Golden, J. L.; Lorenz, M. J.; Pedley, M. D.

    2003-09-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), which is susceptible to embrittlement by ionizing radiation, is used as a primary material in the Mobile Transporter's (MT) Trailing Umbilical System (TUS) cable on the International Space Station (ISS). The TUS cable provides power and data service between the ISS truss and the MT. The TUS cable is normally stowed in an uptake reel and is fed out to follow the MT as it moves along rails on the ISS truss structure. For reliable electrical and mechanical performance, TUS cable polymeric materials must be capable of >3.5% elongation without cracking or breaking. The MT TUS cable operating temperature on ISS is expected to range between -100°C and +130°C. The on-orbit functional life requirement for the MT TUS cable is 10 years. Analysis and testing were performed to verify that the MT TUS cable would be able to meet full-life mechanical and electrical performance requirements, despite progressive embrittlement by the natural ionizing radiation environment. Energetic radiation belt electrons (trapped electrons) are the principal contributor to TUS cable radiation dose. TUS cable specimens were irradiated, in vacuum, with both energetic electrons and gamma rays. Electron beam energy was chosen to minimize charging effects on the non-conductive ePTFE (expanded PTFE) targets. Tensile testing was then performed, over the expected range of operating temperatures, as a function of radiation dose. When compared to the expected in-flight radiation dose/depth profile, atomic oxygen (AO) erosion of the radiation damaged TUS cable jacket surfaces is more rapid than the development of radiation induced embrittlement of the same surfaces. Additionally, the layered construction of the jacket prevents crack growth propagation, leaving the inner layer material compliant with the design elongation requirements. As a result, the TUS cable insulation design was verified to meet performance life requirements.

  12. On the instability of offshore foundations: theory and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, FuPing; Li, JinHui; Qi, WenGang; Hu, Cun

    2015-12-01

    As the offshore engineering moving from shallow to deep waters, the foundation types for fixed and floating platforms have been gradually evolving to minimize engineering costs and structural risks in the harsh offshore environments. Particular focus of this paper is on the foundation instability and its failure mechanisms as well as the relevant theory advances for the prevailing foundation types in both shallow and deep water depths. Piles, spudcans, gravity bases, suction caissons, and plate anchors are detailed in this paper. The failure phenomena and mechanisms for each type of foundations are identified and summarized, respectively. The theoretical approaches along with sophisticated empirical solutions for the bearing capacity problems are then presented. The major challenges are from flow-structure-soil coupling processes, rigorous constitutive modeling of cyclic behaviors of marine sediments, and the spatial variability of soil properties for large-spreading structures. Further researches are suggested to reveal the instability mechanisms for underpinning the evolution of offshore foundations.

  13. Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hamilton, Erin L.

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of offshore wind energy generation projects. The development of ERES for offshore wind is closely allied to a concurrent process undertaken to examine environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy generation, although specific risk-relevant attributes will differ between the MHK and offshore wind domains. During FY10, a conceptual design of ERES for offshore wind will be developed. The offshore wind ERES mockup described in this report will provide a preview of the functionality of a fully developed risk evaluation system that will use risk assessment techniques to determine priority stressors on aquatic organisms and environments from specific technology aspects, identify key uncertainties underlying high-risk issues, compile a wide-range of data types in an innovative and flexible data organizing scheme, and inform planning and decision processes with a transparent and technically robust decision-support tool. A fully functional version of ERES for offshore wind will be developed in a subsequent phase of the project.

  14. Bahrain's offshore banking center

    SciTech Connect

    Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

    1983-01-01

    The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  15. Mobile offshore drilling units for frontier areas

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.L.

    1983-04-01

    As response to the expanded Five-Year Offshore Leasing Plan a tremendous amount of construction and expansion has been underway in the offshore industry. This presentation is intended to provide a sampling of the mobile offshore drilling units which are expected to be used in frontier areas offshore Alaska.

  16. Ice interaction with offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cammaert, A.B.; Muggeridge, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.

  17. Offshore pipeline failures. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Woodson, R.D.

    1990-12-01

    An overview of current concerns in the regulation of offshore pipelines is presented along with tabulated summaries of pipeline failure causes, failure prevention techniques, and pipeline monitoring and early intervention techniques. A database of over 1000 offshore pipeline failures in the Gulf of Mexico Offshore waters has been compiled from combined records of the Department of Transportation Office of pipeline Safety, U.S. Coast Guard National Response Center, and the Department of Interior Minerals Management Service. The data has been analyzed to identify trends and initial recommendations for future data collection have been suggested.

  18. Offshore search continues despite disappointments

    SciTech Connect

    Cornitius, T.

    1985-05-01

    Exploration drilling activity in Australia broke records onshore in 1984, but offshore it was a different story. A total of 373 wells were drilled, onshore and offshore, with 266 labeled as wildcats and appraisals. Out of 80 wells drilled offshore last year, 43 were exploratory compared with 49 in 1983; 48 were oil wells, seven were gas, and 25 were dusters. Offshore discoveries included the Talisman 1 off the coast of Western Australia, which tested around 6000 b/d, and Challis 1 in the Timor Sea, which flowed at 5000 b/d. The failure to establish Jabiru in the Timor Sea as a major oil province like Bass Strait was a major disappointment. However, the Challis 1 was a relief since it indicated the presence of a commercial field adjacent to Jabiru.

  19. Stress-induced martensitic transformation during tensile test of full-size TF conductor jacket tube at 4.2 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. H.; Wu, Z. X.; Huang, C. J.; Huang, R. J.; Li, S. P.; Li, L. F.

    2014-01-01

    The toroidal-field (TF) conductor jacket of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is made of modified 316LN stainless steel, which is influenced by heat treatment at approximately 650 °C for 200 h to produce Nb3Sn superconducting materials at the final stage. Due to the high electromagnetic forces arising during magnet operation, higher mechanical properties of the jacket materials at cryogenic temperatures are required. In our work, mechanical properties of the full-size TF conductor jacket tube were investigated, which satisfied the ITER requirements. Stress-induced martensitic transformation mechanism during tensile test of the conductor jacket material at 4.2 K was characterized by means of in-situ temperature dependent XRD, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The tensile behavior related to the amount of stress-induced phase transformation at cryogenic temperature was also discussed.

  20. Stress-induced martensitic transformation during tensile test of full-size TF conductor jacket tube at 4.2 K

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H. H.; Li, S. P.; Wu, Z. X.; Huang, C. J.; Huang, R. J.; Li, L. F.

    2014-01-27

    The toroidal-field (TF) conductor jacket of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is made of modified 316LN stainless steel, which is influenced by heat treatment at approximately 650 °C for 200 h to produce Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting materials at the final stage. Due to the high electromagnetic forces arising during magnet operation, higher mechanical properties of the jacket materials at cryogenic temperatures are required. In our work, mechanical properties of the full-size TF conductor jacket tube were investigated, which satisfied the ITER requirements. Stress-induced martensitic transformation mechanism during tensile test of the conductor jacket material at 4.2 K was characterized by means of in-situ temperature dependent XRD, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The tensile behavior related to the amount of stress-induced phase transformation at cryogenic temperature was also discussed.

  1. Effect of Change of Aging Heat Treatment Pattern on the JK2LB Jacket for the ITER Central Solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, Hidemasa; Saito, Toru; Kawano, Katsumi; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Yamazaki, Toru; Isono, Takaaki

    Following the recent improvement of the heat treatment pattern for the ITER CS conductor from 250 hour at 650 °C to 250 hour at 570 °C and then 100 hour at 650 °C, the mechanical properties at 4K and the material structure of the conductor jacketmade of JK2LB after heat treatment including the 570 °C phasewere studied. The mechanical test results at 4K showed no noticeable difference with the jacket heat-treated only at 650 °C to the one additionally heat-treatedat 570 °C.Both satisfied the ITER requirement. The metallographic test results also did not show large difference. In conclusion the 570 °C step does not affect noticeably the JK2LB jacket and the improved heat treatment pattern is applicable.

  2. Offshore well support miniplatform

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, J.W.

    1987-07-14

    This patent describes a protective well support system installed on an offshore well having an upstanding conductor pipe extending above the seabed, the system comprising: (a) an upstanding conductor clamp (adapts to encircle the conductor pipe) formed by two upstanding facing members supported by a bottom engaging frame; (b) the frame including frame members joined together defining a substantially horizontal rectangular support frame for engaging the seabed; (c) angularly extending brace members secured at one end to the conductor clamp and at the other end to the frame; (d) the conductor clamp attaches to the frame and extending upright to enable the conductor clamp to fasten about the conductor pipe; (e) a boat landing mounts about the conductor pipe, the boat landing formed by at least two sectional components fixedly secured to semicircular clamp members adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for mounting the boat landing components; and (f) well platform means supported on bracket means adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for removably securing the well platform means.

  3. Reassessment of offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V.V.D.; Kuhn, J.M. )

    1993-05-01

    Data from Hurricane Andrew demonstrated that the systems and procedures in place for evacuating offshore workers and minimizing oil spills and environmental damage functioned as planned. While the vast majority of the platforms survived the storm with no damage, a few of the older platforms (installed prior to 1972) either collapsed or suffered severe damage. The collapsed platforms were designed with insufficient deck height to clear the storm waves. In recent years, the API RP 2A has introduced guidance for minimum air gap, minimum structures, platform inspection and platform reuse. These provisions, coupled with natural attribution of the older platforms, will significantly improve the performance of platforms in the future. The reliability of NDT techniques to detect major structural defects should be improved through continued research. While flooded member detection is used by several operators as a screening tool to detect major defects underwater, its reliability is not always good and further research is needed in this area. Another area of high priority research is related to the use of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) to perform underwater inspection of structures. 51 refs., 7 figs.

  4. OrthoJacket: an active FES-hybrid orthosis for the paralysed upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Schill, Oliver; Wiegand, Roland; Schmitz, Bastian; Matthies, Richard; Eck, Ute; Pylatiuk, Christian; Reischl, Markus; Schulz, Stefan; Rupp, Rüdiger

    2011-02-01

    The loss of the grasp function in cervical spinal cord injured (SCI) patients leads to life-long dependency on caregivers and to a tremendous decrease of the quality of life. This article introduces the novel non-invasive modular hybrid neuro-orthosis OrthoJacket for the restoration of the restricted or completely lost hand and arm functions in high tetraplegic SCI individuals. The primary goal of the wearable orthosis is to improve the paralysed upper extremity function and, thus, to enhance a patient's independence in activities of daily living. The system combines the advantage of orthotics in mechanically stabilising joints together with the possibilities of functional electrical stimulation for activation of paralysed muscles. In patients with limited capacity, for force generation, flexible fluidic actuators are used to support the movement. Thus, the system is not only intended for functional restoration but also for training. Several sensor systems together with an intelligent signal processing allow for automatic adaptation to the anatomical and neurological individualities of SCI patients. The integration of novel user interfaces based on residual muscle activities and detection of movement intentions by real-time data mining methods will enable the user to autonomously control the system in a natural and cooperative way.

  5. The enhancing effect of mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymer PBPCS on epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, C. P.; Li, X. J.; Zhu, Y.; Gao, Y. X.; Li, G. P.; Luo, Y. J.

    2015-12-01

    The mixtures of mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers (MJLCP) and epoxy resin (E-51) have been prepared in a certain proportion. The category of the MJLCP is poly{2, 5-bis[(4-butoxyphenyl) oxycarbonyl] styrenes} (PBPCS). Methyl tetrahydro phthalic anhydride (MeTHPA) is served as a curing agent, and N, N-dimethylbenzylamine plays the role of catalyst. Then, based on the curing process, the modified materials have been acquired by casting molding. The effect of PBPCS's improvement has been researched through the mechanical properties test, dynamic thermal mechanical test and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicated that PBPCS could apparently improve the mechanical properties of resin E-51. Compared with unmodified materials, the elongation at break and the tensile strength of PBPCS have been improved remarkably through modification. Both mechanical properties of the 4wt% PBPCS/E-51/MeTHPA were enhanced by 48% and 153% separately, and the characteristics of the 3wt% one were raised by 47% and 19% respectively. Also, the ductile fracture morphology of the resins was exhibited in SEM photograph clearly.

  6. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  7. Helical piles: an innovative foundation design option for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2015-02-28

    Offshore wind turbines play a key part in the renewable energy strategy in the UK and Europe as well as in other parts of the world (for example, China). The majority of current developments, certainly in UK waters, have taken place in relatively shallow water and close to shore. This limits the scale of the engineering to relatively simple structures, such as those using monopile foundations, and these have been the most common design to date, in UK waters. However, as larger turbines are designed, or they are placed in deeper water, it will be necessary to use multi-footing structures such as tripods or jackets. For these designs, the tension on the upwind footing becomes the critical design condition. Driven pile foundations could be used, as could suction-installed foundations. However, in this paper, we present another concept-the use of helical pile foundations. These foundations are routinely applied onshore where large tension capacities are required. However, for use offshore, a significant upscaling of the technology will be needed, particularly of the equipment required for installation of the piles. A clear understanding of the relevant geotechnical engineering will be needed if this upscaling is to be successful. PMID:25583860

  8. Incorporation of Multi-Member Substructure Capabilities in FAST for Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Sewell, D.

    2012-05-01

    FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is an aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool widely used for analyzing onshore and offshore wind turbines. This paper discusses recent modifications made to FAST to enable the examination of offshore wind turbines with fixed-bottom, multi-member support structures (which are commonly used in transitional-depth waters).; This paper addresses the methods used for incorporating the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loading on multi-member structures in FAST through its hydronamic loading module, HydroDyn. Modeling of the hydrodynamic loads was accomplished through the incorporation of Morison and buoyancy loads on the support structures. Issues addressed include how to model loads at the joints of intersecting members and on tapered and tilted members of the support structure. Three example structures are modeled to test and verify the solutions generated by the modifications to HydroDyn, including a monopile, tripod, and jacket structure. Verification is achieved through comparison of the results to a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-derived solution using the commercial software tool STAR-CCM+.

  9. Helical piles: an innovative foundation design option for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2015-02-28

    Offshore wind turbines play a key part in the renewable energy strategy in the UK and Europe as well as in other parts of the world (for example, China). The majority of current developments, certainly in UK waters, have taken place in relatively shallow water and close to shore. This limits the scale of the engineering to relatively simple structures, such as those using monopile foundations, and these have been the most common design to date, in UK waters. However, as larger turbines are designed, or they are placed in deeper water, it will be necessary to use multi-footing structures such as tripods or jackets. For these designs, the tension on the upwind footing becomes the critical design condition. Driven pile foundations could be used, as could suction-installed foundations. However, in this paper, we present another concept-the use of helical pile foundations. These foundations are routinely applied onshore where large tension capacities are required. However, for use offshore, a significant upscaling of the technology will be needed, particularly of the equipment required for installation of the piles. A clear understanding of the relevant geotechnical engineering will be needed if this upscaling is to be successful.

  10. Offshore Wind Resource Assessment Based on Mesoscale Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, M. J.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2008-12-01

    A methodology for assessing regional offshore wind energy development potential using mesoscale modeling for wind fields has been developed. Recommendations are made on selecting the best mesoscale modeling domain resolution, as well as choosing the best data for model initial and boundary conditions, based on a sensitivity study using the Penn State/NCAR MM5 mesoscale model near California coast validated with offshore buoy wind data and coastal meteorological stations. Annual wind speed averages are developed by modeling four seasonal months to reduce total computational time, as well as to allow study of the innterannual variability. Four seasonal months of 2005, 2006, and 2007 were compared to using a complete modeled year for 2007 to calculate how the overall energy answer changed. Results from summer 2006 MM5 simulations show the average 10 m wind speed to be calculated within one percent when using three months of data (Jun, Jul, Aug) versus using July alone. Siting restrictions were developed based on bathymetry depth limits for offshore turbine tower support structures with economic and structural limitations for monopiles, multi-leg, and future floating tower support types corresponding to 30, 70, and 200 m depth respectively. Other exclusionary entities such as shipping lanes and avarian flyways were also considered as exclusion zones inside of areas amenable for offshore wind energy farms. A method to validate the modeled wind fields though error calculations against offshore buoy wind data, as well as onshore coastal meteorological towers is presented.

  11. Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-04-12

    A report detailing the presentations and topics discussed at the Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop, an event designed to bring together offshore energy industry representatives to share information, best practices, and lessons learned.

  12. Offshore wind farm siting procedures applied offshore of Block Island, Rhode Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Christopher M.

    Since 2008, the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council (CRMC) has been leading a Rhode Island Ocean Area Management Plan (RIOSAMP) in partnership with the University of Rhode Island, resulting in an extensive multidisciplinary analysis of the Rhode Island offshore environment and its suitability for siting an offshore wind farm. As part of the RIOSAMP project, a standard siting optimization approach was first developed based on a siting index defined as the ratio of costs associated with the wind farm deployment to the available wind resource. This index, combined within a marine spatial planning approach to address ecological and societal constraints, provided an initial macro-siting tool (Spaulding et al., 2010). The multiple GIS layers required in this approach and the absence of theoretical support to optimize the resulting zoning, led to an extension of the initial optimization approach into a more comprehensive macro-siting optimization tool, integrating societal and ecological constraints into the siting tool, the Wind Farm Siting Index (WIFSI) (Grilli et al, 2012). The projects led to the definition of several favorable development areas including a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) off of Block Island, in State Waters. Deep Water Wind Inc. (DWW) plans to install and commission five 6 MW direct drive Siemens lattice jacket turbines in the REZ area, by 2014. In this thesis two major steps are accomplished to refine and expand the RIOSAMP macro-siting tool. First the macro-siting tool is expanded to include a model simulating the exclusionary zones defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations. Second a micro-siting model is developed, optimizing the relative position of each turbine within a wind farm area. The micro-siting objective is to minimize, (1) the loss in power due to the loss of wind resource in the wake of the turbines (wake "effect"), and (2) the cable costs that inter-connect the turbines and connecting the farm to the

  13. Offshore fares well in energy storm

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, E.R.

    1982-05-01

    The effects of the worldwide economic slowdown on the energy industry in general, and offshore petroleum production activity, in particular is discussed. The world crude oil supply is reviewed, and the effects of the petroleum glut are evaluated for onshore and offshore activity. Offshore drilling has fared better than most of the other energy industry sectors, primarily because major operators, worldwide, still view the offshore as the prime province for large oil discoveries, particularly in the United States. (JMT)

  14. FROM COAST TO OFFSHORE: SOME PROGRESS ON DEVELOPING MULTI-RESOURCE DESIGNS FOR GREAT LAKES MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the next generation of monitoring the condition of very large aquatic systems, we need to explore designs that integrate across multiple aquatic resource types, including coastal subsystems, nearshore, and offshore components, which together make up the total hydroscape. This ...

  15. Eighteenth annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    These sixty papers were given at a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include friction effects of driving piles into sea beds of various compositions, wave forces on offshore platforms, stability, materials testing of various components such as plates, legs, wellheads, pipe joints, and protection of offshore platforms against ice and collision with icebergs.

  16. Proceedings of Offshore Europe 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    All papers in this volume were presented at Offshore Europe held in Aberdeen, Scotland, September 3--6, 1991. Included are the following papers: Low-damage-fluid-loss control for well completions; Isolation techniques for subsea gas pipelines; New water injection technology.

  17. Foundations for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2003-12-15

    An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers. PMID:14667305

  18. Foundations for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2003-12-15

    An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers.

  19. Transfer terminal for offshore production

    SciTech Connect

    Arnaudeau, M.

    1983-02-01

    A mooring station and transfer terminal for offshore hydrocarbon production is provided, comprising a coaxial riser linking underwater production and safety manifolds to surface lines. An underwater connector and quick release means are provided to facilitate rapid connection and disconnection of the riser pipes.

  20. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Rice University, Brown and Root Development Inc., and Arthur D. Little Inc. have jointly conducted a feasibility study of an offshore rectenna serving the Boston/New York area. We found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. We began by engineering the reference system rectenna to the offshore location. When we estimated costs for the resulting system we found that the cost was prohibitively high. We then searched for modifications to the design which would allow significant cost reduction. The result is a non-ground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors or yagis supported on feed wires. We find that such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane, winter storm and icing conditions for a one time cost of $5.7 billion. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. It is important to note that the east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in substantially lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  1. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  2. X-ray diffraction study of residual stresses in metal-matrix composite-jacketed steel cylinders subjected to internal pressure. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.L.; Doxbeck, M.; Capsimalis, G.

    1992-03-01

    The study of aluminum/silicon carbide metal matrix composite (MMC)-jacketed steel structural components was made because of their light weight and high stiffness. Steel 'liner' cylinders were wrapped with MMC 'jackets' with an all-hoop layup and put through various degrees of hydraulic autofrettage and thermal soak. In this report, the results from our x-ray diffraction residual stress measurements on cylinders using a position-sensitive scintillation detection system are discussed. Our experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions from a model based on the elastic-plastic analysis of a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal pressure. Interpretation of the interference effect caused by the MMC jacket on the steel liner is also discussed.

  3. Fatigue handbook: Offshore steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Almarnaess, A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of Offshore Steel Structures; Loads on Ocean Structures; Fracture Mechanics As a Tool in Fatigue Analysis; Basic Fatigue Properties of Welded Joints; Significance of Defects; Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints; Effects of Marine Environment and Cathodic Protection on Fatigue of Structural Steels Fatigue of Tubular Joints; Unstable Fracture; Fatigue Life Calculations; and Fatigue in Building Codes Background and Applications.

  4. Pipelaying in artic offshore waters

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C. G.

    1985-11-19

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for constructing pipelines in Arctic offshore waters by a directional drilling technique, thereby minimizing exposure to ice gouging and eliminating the hazards associated with unstable permafrost. A special drilling-pipe-line construction vessel is also provided which has a conical shape with reinforced outer walls to resist ice forces, which vessel includes means to install deep underground pipeline segments and means to connect and protect the pipe ends.

  5. A primer of offshore operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book is written in simple language. It gives information about offshore oil and gas operations by not only describing the operations, but also telling why they are necessary. Techniques and equipment utilized the world over are covered in the colorfully illustrated text, and both English and metric measurements are used. The text includes chapters on exploration, drilling, production and workover, and oil and gas transportation.

  6. Two offshore Australian crudes assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-05-09

    Two light, sweet crudes from offshore Australia have been assayed. Gippsland crude, also called Bass Strait, is produced off the coast of Victoria, in southeastern Australia. The 47 API, 0.09% sulfur crude was analyzed in mid-1993. Skua, a 42 API, 0.06 wt % sulfur crude, is produced in the Timor Sea. Data are given on the whole crude and fractions for both deposits. Both chemical and physical properties are listed.

  7. Offshore platform structure for artic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Einstabland, T.

    1984-11-27

    An offshore platform structure of the gravity type intended to be installed on a sea bed in artic or corresponding waters. The platform structure comprises a substructure intended to be completely submerged and supported by the sea bed when in installed position, a superstructure extending up from the substructure and up above the sea bed and a deck superstructure supported by the superstructure above the sea level. A fender is provided intended to protect the superstructure against drifting ice and icebergs, the substructure being provided with a preferably horizontal top support slab supporting the fender, the fender being movably arranged on said support slab and comprising a preferably compartmented cylindrical ring-shaped body with a large weight resting preferably freely on the substructure, intended to be arranged apart from the superstructure when in normal position.

  8. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Sha, O. P.; Misra, S. C.

    2010-09-01

    Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor) or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  9. Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-05-01

    Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are determined to move forward. The depressed price of oil does not encourage development but recently gas prices in the US have increased, making offshore gas development more feasible. Perhaps most significant is development and application of new technology and more intense management to make sure it works. The offshore oil companies and support industries have made significant technological advances, expending over and above the dollars paid in taxes, lease fees, and royalties. The ocean industries harbor a great reservoir of high technology knowledge. They have demonstrated the ability to successfully meet a vast array of challenges in exploring for, drilling, and producing oil and gas in extreme conditions. These facts beg the question as to the rational basis of each and every regulation and the ban on drilling.

  10. Numerical experiments in ringing of offshore systems under viscous loads

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, K.R.; Kareem, A.

    1996-12-31

    A phenomenon which has recently received much attention in offshore engineering is the ringing response of structures. This high frequency transient type response has been observed in nature, particularly in tension leg platforms (TLPs). Given the implications of this behavior on the fatigue life of tendons, it is important that it be considered for response analysis. Significant progress has been made in recent years in identifying the nonlinear mechanisms that induce ringing in complex offshore structural systems. This introductory study-uses a simple model to numerically demonstrates several of the more salient features that are commonly cited in current literature, and shows that viscous loads may result in inducing ringing type response of members under certain conditions. Ringing response in pitch due to viscous loading is simulated on a column piercing the surface, and the significant contributing force mechanisms are identified. System characteristics are altered to ameliorate the performance of these systems.

  11. Vessel movement influences offshore communications system design

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, S.R.; Burger, S.D.

    1996-05-27

    Communications links for the Liuhua 11-1 oil production project, offshore China, required a system that would function with vessel movement under typhoon conditions of heavy rainfall and extreme wave action. The system includes a microwave path between two floating production facilities and a satellite connection between the offshore facilities and onshore China. The system provides multiple local-area-network (LAN) linkages, and voice with fax in English and Chinese. The satellite link has a geostabilized platform offshore and a China National Offshore Oil Corp. master earth station onshore. System operations started in mid-1995. This paper reviews the design and performance of this communications network.

  12. 1991 worldwide offshore contractors and equipment directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book is the information source-book for the international offshore oil industry. Within this single convenient reference you'll find addresses, phone numbers, telex, fax and cable listings for more than 3,500 companies and their key personnel in the drilling, workover, construction, service/supply/manufacturers, geophysical, diving and transportation segments of the offshore industry. Along with this vital contact information, the authors include such pertinent data as rig specifications, ownership, an equipment index, a company index and a current survey of offshore production systems from Offshore Incorporating the Oilman.

  13. What can wave energy learn from offshore oil and gas?

    PubMed

    Jefferys, E R

    2012-01-28

    This title may appear rather presumptuous in the light of the progress made by the leading wave energy devices. However, there may still be some useful lessons to be learnt from current 'offshore' practice, and there are certainly some awful warnings from the past. Wave energy devices and the marine structures used in oil and gas exploration as well as production share a common environment and both are subject to wave, wind and current loads, which may be evaluated with well-validated, albeit imperfect, tools. Both types of structure can be designed, analysed and fabricated using similar tools and technologies. They fulfil very different missions and are subject to different economic and performance requirements; hence 'offshore' design tools must be used appropriately in wave energy project and system design, and 'offshore' cost data should be adapted for 'wave' applications. This article reviews the similarities and differences between the fields and highlights the differing economic environments; offshore structures are typically a small to moderate component of field development cost, while wave power devices will dominate overall system cost. The typical 'offshore' design process is summarized and issues such as reliability-based design and design of not normally manned structures are addressed. Lessons learned from poor design in the past are discussed to highlight areas where care is needed, and wave energy-specific design areas are reviewed. Opportunities for innovation and optimization in wave energy project and device design are discussed; wave energy projects must ultimately compete on a level playing field with other routes to low CO₂ energy and/or energy efficiency. This article is a personal viewpoint and not an expression of a ConocoPhillips position.

  14. 78 FR 18618 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... offshore drilling; (c) One member representing companies, organizations, enterprises or similar entities... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: United States Coast... Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC). NOSAC advises the Secretary of the Department of...

  15. 76 FR 39410 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... specializing in offshore drilling; and, (e) One member representing companies engaged in production of... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee. This Committee advises the Secretary of Department of...

  16. 76 FR 11503 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... environmental interests; and, (e) One person representing enterprises specializing in offshore drilling. To be... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee. This Committee advises the Coast Guard on matters...

  17. Offshore drilling and production structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, R.K.; Palmer, H.E.; Stenning, D.G.

    1982-02-09

    The invention relates to an off-shore marine structure that provides an elevated support for a drilling and/or production platform. A structure comprised of three interlocking components is provided, the first component being a large foundation base installed on the sea bed; the second being a conical shaped support component which is engagable with the foundation base and which, releasably carries the third platform supporting component. In the preferred form, the platform supporting component comprises a centrally-disposed vertical column, means being provided to facilitate engagement of the column with the platform and the second component and to subsequently elevate the platform to an operating height above sea level.

  18. Ice island creation, drift, recurrences, mechanical properties, and interactions with arctic offshore oil production structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Li, Fucheng; Lu, Mingchi.

    1991-03-01

    Research and engineering studies on first-year sea ice for over two decades has resulted in the design, construction, and operation of jacket platforms, of artificial islands, and of massive gravity structures which routinely withstand moving sea ice of thickness up to 2 meters. However, the less-common interactions between such structures and moving multiyear ice ([ge]3 meters thick), and also moving ice islands (10 to 60 meters thick) remain as the unknown and potentially most serious hazard for Arctic offshore structures. In this study, research was addressed across the complete span of remaining questions regarding such features. Ice island components, thickness distributions, scenarios and models for the interactions of massive ice features with offshore structures, all were considered. Ice island morphology and calving studies were directed at the cluster of 19 ice islands produced in a calving from the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on Ellesmere Island in 1983, and also at a calving from the Milne Ice Shelf in 1988. The statistics of ice island dynamics, on both a short-term small-scale basis and also on a long-term basis, were studied. Typical wind velocities of 5 to 7.5 meters per second led to ice island speeds of about 0.014 of the wind speed, at an angle of 20[degrees] to the right of the wind direction. Ice island samples were tested for their stress/strain characteristics. Compressive strength values ranged from 1.64 MPa at a strain rate of 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] s[sup [minus]1] to 6.75 MPa at a strain rate of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] s[sup [minus]1]. Scenarios for ice island/structure interactions were developed, and protective countermeasures such as spray ice and ice rubble barriers were suggested. Additional computer modeling of structure/ice interactions for massive ice features is recommended.

  19. Aeroelastic Modeling of Offshore Turbines and Support Structures in Hurricane-Prone Regions (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, R.

    2014-03-01

    US offshore wind turbines (OWTs) will likely have to contend with hurricanes and the associated loading conditions. Current industry standards do not account for these design load cases (DLCs), thus a new approach is required to guarantee that the OWTs achieve an appropriate level of reliability. In this study, a sequentially coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic modeling technique was used to address two design approaches: 1.) The ABS (American Bureau of Shipping) approach; and 2.) The Hazard Curve or API (American Petroleum Institute) approach. The former employs IEC partial load factors (PSFs) and 100-yr return-period (RP) metocean events. The latter allows setting PSFs and RP to a prescribed level of system reliability. The 500-yr RP robustness check (appearing in [2] and [3] upcoming editions) is a good indicator of the target reliability for L2 structures. CAE tools such as NREL's FAST and Bentley's' SACS (offshore analysis and design software) can be efficiently coupled to simulate system loads under hurricane DLCs. For this task, we augmented the latest FAST version (v. 8) to include tower aerodynamic drag that cannot be ignored in hurricane DLCs. In this project, a 6 MW turbine was simulated on a typical 4-legged jacket for a mid-Atlantic site. FAST-calculated tower base loads were fed to SACS at the interface level (transition piece); SACS added hydrodynamic and wind loads on the exposed substructure, and calculated mudline overturning moments, and member and joint utilization. Results show that CAE tools can be effectively used to compare design approaches for the design of OWTs in hurricane regions and to achieve a well-balanced design, where reliability levels and costs are optimized.

  20. Simplified rotor load models and fatigue damage estimates for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Muskulus, M

    2015-02-28

    The aim of rotor load models is to characterize and generate the thrust loads acting on an offshore wind turbine. Ideally, the rotor simulation can be replaced by time series from a model with a few parameters and state variables only. Such models are used extensively in control system design and, as a potentially new application area, structural optimization of support structures. Different rotor load models are here evaluated for a jacket support structure in terms of fatigue lifetimes of relevant structural variables. All models were found to be lacking in accuracy, with differences of more than 20% in fatigue load estimates. The most accurate models were the use of an effective thrust coefficient determined from a regression analysis of dynamic thrust loads, and a novel stochastic model in state-space form. The stochastic model explicitly models the quasi-periodic components obtained from rotational sampling of turbulent fluctuations. Its state variables follow a mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Although promising, more work is needed on how to determine the parameters of the stochastic model and before accurate lifetime predictions can be obtained without comprehensive rotor simulations.

  1. Decommissioning of offshore oil and gas facilities: a comparative assessment of different scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Paul; Vanner, Robin; Firebrace, James

    2006-06-01

    A material and energy flow analysis, with corresponding financial flows, was carried out for different decommissioning scenarios for the different elements of an offshore oil and gas structure. A comparative assessment was made of the non-financial (especially environmental) outcomes of the different scenarios, with the reference scenario being to leave all structures in situ, while other scenarios envisaged leaving them on the seabed or removing them to shore for recycling and disposal. The costs of each scenario, when compared with the reference scenario, give an implicit valuation of the non-financial outcomes (e.g. environmental improvements), should that scenario be adopted by society. The paper concludes that it is not clear that the removal of the topsides and jackets of large steel structures to shore, as currently required by regulations, is environmentally justified; that concrete structures should certainly be left in place; and that leaving footings, cuttings and pipelines in place, with subsequent monitoring, would also be justified unless very large values were placed by society on a clear seabed and trawling access.

  2. Simplified rotor load models and fatigue damage estimates for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Muskulus, M

    2015-02-28

    The aim of rotor load models is to characterize and generate the thrust loads acting on an offshore wind turbine. Ideally, the rotor simulation can be replaced by time series from a model with a few parameters and state variables only. Such models are used extensively in control system design and, as a potentially new application area, structural optimization of support structures. Different rotor load models are here evaluated for a jacket support structure in terms of fatigue lifetimes of relevant structural variables. All models were found to be lacking in accuracy, with differences of more than 20% in fatigue load estimates. The most accurate models were the use of an effective thrust coefficient determined from a regression analysis of dynamic thrust loads, and a novel stochastic model in state-space form. The stochastic model explicitly models the quasi-periodic components obtained from rotational sampling of turbulent fluctuations. Its state variables follow a mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Although promising, more work is needed on how to determine the parameters of the stochastic model and before accurate lifetime predictions can be obtained without comprehensive rotor simulations. PMID:25583872

  3. [Offshore ecosystem health status assessment: a review].

    PubMed

    Dai, Ben-lin; Hua, Zu-lin; Mu, Fei-hu; Xu, Ning; He, Yu-long

    2013-04-01

    With the promotion of the concept of sustainable development, the issues of aquatic ecosystem health attract substantial attention, and considerable work has been carried out on the health assessment of waters, e. g. , rivers and lakes. However, the health assessment of offshore ecosystem is still at its exploratory stage. Based on the investigations on the related references at home and abroad, this paper analyzed the concepts of offshore ecosystem health assessment, summarized the main methods for the assessment, the principles for screening related indicators, and the research philosophy, and systematically listed the quantitative indices for the assessment. Aiming at the main existing issues in the researches of offshore ecosystem health, the future research directions about the offshore ecosystem health were suggested. It was considered that the concept and connotation analyses, the screening of assessment indicators, the choice of assessment scale, and the integration of assessment methods should be further strengthened to improve the assessment of offshore ecosystem health.

  4. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2014-08-27

    This report is the third annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market. It includes the following major sections: Section 1: key data on developments in the offshore wind technology sector and the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the United States; Section 2: analysis of policy developments at the federal and state levels that have been effective in advancing offshore wind deployment in the United States; Section 3: analysis of actual and projected economic impact, including regional development and job creation; Section 4: analysis of developments in relevant sectors of the economy with the potential to affect offshore wind deployment in the United States

  5. Underbalanced drilling benefits now available offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Vozniak, J.P.; Cuthbertson, B.; Nessa, D.O.

    1997-05-01

    Offshore underbalanced drilling (UBD) is a reality. Applications in older, partially depleted fields and new fields are being considered. However, low productivity reservoirs and fields with sub normal pressures causing drilling problems are currently the main targets for offshore UBD. With proper planning and the correct technique, both jointed pipe and coiled tubing UBD drilling operations have been carried out offshore with success. The main concerns for offshore UBD have been altered drilling practices and surface production system operation. These issues have been examined and equipment has been designed and tested to address them. Environmental, safety and health issues are paramount and have been studied carefully. Detailed well planning, engineering, and flow modeling have proven critical for successful offshore UBD operations. Examples are given from oil and gas fields.

  6. Structural features offshore northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yicheng Yang, Eason; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Chiu, Chien-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    The area offshore northern Taiwan is the place where East China Sea Shelf extends into the Southern Okinawa Trough, and where pre-Pleistocene arc-continental collision had occurred. Comparison between fault distribution in the area with previously published results suggests that the fault distribution and regional structural framework are still controversial. Using marine multichannel seismic reflection data collected in 3 marine geophysical survey cruises, we remapped the fault distribution in the northern offshore area of Taiwan. By analyzing all the seismic profiles using the KINGDOM suite (a seismic interpretation software), a new fault distribution map is presented, and a subsurface unconformity PRSB (Pliocene reflection sequence boundary) is identified. Six major NE-SW trending high-angle normal faults cut the PRSB can be traced to the fault systems on land northernmost Taiwan. These normal faults are located between the Southern Okinawa Trough and the East China Sea continental shelf basin, and have been suggested to be reactivated from pre-existing reverse faults. The offsets of fault ramps in PRSB increase toward southeast. The isopach map of the study area compiled shows that sediment strata overlying PRSB thin toward northwest.

  7. Verification of the New FAST v8 Capabilities for the Modeling of Fixed-Bottom Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barahona, B.; Jonkman, J.; Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Hayman, G.

    2014-12-01

    Coupled dynamic analysis has an important role in the design of offshore wind turbines because the systems are subject to complex operating conditions from the combined action of waves and wind. The aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool FAST v8 is framed in a novel modularization scheme that facilitates such analysis. Here, we present the verification of new capabilities of FAST v8 to model fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. We analyze a series of load cases with both wind and wave loads and compare the results against those from the previous international code comparison projects-the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 23 Subtask 2 Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) and the IEA Wind Task 30 OC3 Continued (OC4) projects. The verification is performed using the NREL 5-MW reference turbine supported by monopile, tripod, and jacket substructures. The substructure structural-dynamics models are built within the new SubDyn module of FAST v8, which uses a linear finite-element beam model with Craig-Bampton dynamic system reduction. This allows the modal properties of the substructure to be synthesized and coupled to hydrodynamic loads and tower dynamics. The hydrodynamic loads are calculated using a new strip theory approach for multimember substructures in the updated HydroDyn module of FAST v8. These modules are linked to the rest of FAST through the new coupling scheme involving mapping between module-independent spatial discretizations and a numerically rigorous implicit solver. The results show that the new structural dynamics, hydrodynamics, and coupled solutions compare well to the results from the previous code comparison projects.

  8. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Greene, H. Gary; Cochrane, Guy R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Watt, Janet T.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chin, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-12-03

    Potential marine benthic habitat types in the Offshore of Fort Ross map area include unconsolidated continental-shelf sediments, mixed continental-shelf substrate, and hard continental-shelf substrate. Rocky shelf outcrops and rubble are considered the primary habitat type for rockfish and lingcod, both of which are recreationally and commercially important species.

  9. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F.; Lackner, Matthew A.

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  10. Offshore Wind Plant Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Saur, G.; Maples, B.; Meadows, B.; Hand, M.; Musial, W.; Elkington, C.; Clayton, J.

    2012-09-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non-turbine costs associated with offshore turbine sizes ranging from 3 MW to 6 MW and offshore wind plant sizes ranging from 100 MW to 1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US offshore wind plants.

  11. Offshore drilling, construction: Fortunes tied to stable gas prices

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.; Marsh, T.

    1993-01-01

    Significantly improved US natural gas prices fueled an upswing in offshore drilling in the Gulf of Mexico in late 1992. Stabilized gas prices will be necessary to support both the off-shore drilling and construction markets in 1993 and beyond. The article discusses both these segments in detail: offshore drilling and offshore construction.

  12. Offshore drilling to increase in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A mid-year report presents a worldwide overview of offshore drilling operations. The Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea are posting substantial gains as companies rush to drill the millions of acres acquired in those sectors both last year and in previous offerings. The Middle East, Latin America and the Asia/Pacific offshore theaters will see only slight increases. The Mediterranean and African regions are expected to sustain declines. A region-by-region summary of the 1984 offshore forecast is presented showing exploration and appraisal activities, as well as development for all of these areas.

  13. Inconsistency in 9 mm bullets: correlation of jacket thickness to post-impact geometry measured with non-destructive X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Thornby, John; Landheer, Dirk; Williams, Tim; Barnes-Warden, Jane; Fenne, Paul; Norman, Daniel; Attridge, Alex; Williams, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental to any ballistic armour standard is the reference projectile to be defeated. Typically, for certification purposes, a consistent and symmetrical bullet geometry is assumed, however variations in bullet jacket dimensions can have far reaching consequences. Traditionally, characteristics and internal dimensions have been analysed by physically sectioning bullets--an approach which is of restricted scope and which precludes subsequent ballistic assessment. The use of a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) method has been demonstrated and validated (Kumar et al., 2011 [15]); the authors now apply this technique to correlate bullet impact response with jacket thickness variations. A set of 20 bullets (9 mm DM11) were selected for comparison and an image-based analysis method was employed to map jacket thickness and determine the centre of gravity of each specimen. Both intra- and inter-bullet variations were investigated, with thickness variations of the order of 200 μm commonly found along the length of all bullets and angular variations of up to 50 μm in some. The bullets were subsequently impacted against a rigid flat plate under controlled conditions (observed on a high-speed video camera) and the resulting deformed projectiles were re-analysed. The results of the experiments demonstrate a marked difference in ballistic performance between bullets from different manufacturers and an asymmetric thinning of the jacket is observed in regions of pre-impact weakness. The conclusions are relevant for future soft armour standards and provide important quantitative data for numerical model correlation and development. The implications of the findings of the work on the reliability and repeatability of the industry standard V50 ballistic test are also discussed.

  14. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  15. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs.

  16. Engineering Challenges for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Jonkman, J.; Sclavounos, P.

    2007-09-01

    The major objective of this paper is to survey the technical challenges that must be overcome to develop deepwater offshore wind energy technologies and to provide a framework from which the first-order economics can be assessed.

  17. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

  18. Psychosocial burden among offshore drilling platform employees.

    PubMed

    Leszczyńska, Irena; Jeżewska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Conditions of work on offshore drilling platforms are particularly hard due to extreme environmental situations created both by nature and technological processes. Oil drilling workers employed on the open sea are potentially exposed to permanently high stress. Apart from the obvious objective factors affecting drilling platform employees, a great role in the general work-related stress level is played by the working conditions and work-related psychosocial factors, defined according to Karask's concept as demands, control, and social support. A total of 184 drill platform workers were examined using objective and subjective research methods. The level of subjective stress among drilling platform workers is lower than the level of objective stress and the stress resulting from prognoses related with specificity of work in extremely hard conditions (audit). The examinations of drilling platform workers reveal a positive role of stress in psychological adaptation, being a special case of the "work ethos" and attachment to the firm. In such investigations of work-related stress on drilling platforms, which are very specific workplaces, a multi-aspect character, sociological and economic aspects, organizational culture conditions in the firm, and a tendency to conceal ailments and the stress experienced should be taken into account. It is important to apply measures referring to at least three different types of evidence (objective demands, subjective stress, health problems reported). Otherwise, the result reflecting work-related stress may not be objective and far from the truth.

  19. Psychosocial burden among offshore drilling platform employees.

    PubMed

    Leszczyńska, Irena; Jeżewska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Conditions of work on offshore drilling platforms are particularly hard due to extreme environmental situations created both by nature and technological processes. Oil drilling workers employed on the open sea are potentially exposed to permanently high stress. Apart from the obvious objective factors affecting drilling platform employees, a great role in the general work-related stress level is played by the working conditions and work-related psychosocial factors, defined according to Karask's concept as demands, control, and social support. A total of 184 drill platform workers were examined using objective and subjective research methods. The level of subjective stress among drilling platform workers is lower than the level of objective stress and the stress resulting from prognoses related with specificity of work in extremely hard conditions (audit). The examinations of drilling platform workers reveal a positive role of stress in psychological adaptation, being a special case of the "work ethos" and attachment to the firm. In such investigations of work-related stress on drilling platforms, which are very specific workplaces, a multi-aspect character, sociological and economic aspects, organizational culture conditions in the firm, and a tendency to conceal ailments and the stress experienced should be taken into account. It is important to apply measures referring to at least three different types of evidence (objective demands, subjective stress, health problems reported). Otherwise, the result reflecting work-related stress may not be objective and far from the truth. PMID:21154303

  20. Numerical Study Of The Effects Of Preloading, Axial Loading And Concrete Shrinkage On Reinforced Concrete Elements Strengthened By Concrete Layers And Jackets

    SciTech Connect

    Lampropoulos, A. P.; Dritsos, S. E.

    2008-07-08

    In this study, the technique of seismic strengthening existing reinforced concrete columns and beams using additional concrete layers and jackets is examined. The finite element method and the finite element program ATENA is used in this investigation. When a reinforced jacket or layer is being constructed around a column it is already preloaded due to existing service loads. This effect has been examined for different values of the axial load normalized to the strengthened column. The techniques of strengthening with a concrete jacket or a reinforced concrete layer on the compressive side of the column are examined. Another phenomenon that is examined in this study is the shrinkage of the new concrete of an additional layer used to strengthen an existing member. For this investigation, a simply supported beam with an additional reinforced concrete layer on the tensile side is examined. The results demonstrate that the effect of preloading is important when a reinforced concrete layer is being used with shear connectors between the old and the new reinforcement. It was also found that the shrinkage of the new concrete reduces the strength of the strengthened beam and induces an initial sliding between the old and the new concrete.

  1. 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce

    2014-08-25

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market.This 3rd annual report focuses on new developments that have occurred in 2014. The report provides stakeholders with a reliable and consistent data source addressing entry barriers and U.S. competitiveness in the offshore wind market. Available for download are both the full report and the report's underlying data.

  2. New perspectives in offshore wind energy.

    PubMed

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-02-28

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  3. New perspectives in offshore wind energy

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  4. New perspectives in offshore wind energy.

    PubMed

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-02-28

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies.

  5. Some Effects of Injection Advance Angle, Engine-Jacket Temperature, and Speed on Combustion in a Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1936-01-01

    An optical indicator and a high-speed motion-picture camera capable of operating at the rate of 2,000 frames per second were used to record simultaneously the pressure development and the flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. Tests were made at engine speeds of 570 and 1,500 r.p.m. The engine-jacket temperature was varied from 100 degrees to 300 degrees F. And the injection advance angle from 13 degrees after top center to 120 degrees before top center. The results show that the course of the combustion is largely controlled by the temperature and pressure of the air in the chamber from the time the fuel is injected until the time at which combustion starts and by the ignition lag. The conclusion is presented that in a compression-ignition engine with a quiescent combustion chamber the ignition lag should be the longest that can be used without excessive rates of pressure rise; any further shortening of the ignition lag decreased the effective combustion of the engine.

  6. Spacecraft attitude impacts on COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank thermal performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, Hugh

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot - Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) spacecraft will be launched into low earth orbit to perform fluid management experiments on the behavior of subcritical liquid hydrogen (LH2). For determining the optimum on-orbit attitude for the COLD-SAT satellite, a comparative analytical study was performed to determine the thermal impacts of spacecraft attitude on the performance of the COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank. Tank thermal performance was quantified by total conductive and radiative heat leakage into the pressure vessel due to the absorbed solar, earth albedo and infra-red on-orbit fluxes, and also by the uniformity of the variation of this leakage on the vessel surface area. Geometric and thermal analysis math models were developed for the spacecraft and the tank as part of this analysis, based on their individual thermal/structural designs. Two quasi-inertial spacecraft attitudes were investigated and their effects on the tank performance compared. The results are one of the criteria by which the spacecraft orientation in orbit was selected for the in-house NASA Lewis Research Center design.

  7. Spacecraft attitude impacts on COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank thermal performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, Hugh

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot - Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) spacecraft will be launched into low earth orbit to perform fluid management experiments on the behavior of subcritical liquid hydrogen (LH2). For determining the optimum on-orbit attitude for the COLD-SAT satellite, a comparative analytical study was performed to determine the thermal impacts of spacecraft attitude on the performance of the COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank. Tank thermal performance was quantitied by total conductive and radiative heat leakage into the pressure vessel due to the absorbed solar, earth albedo and infra-red on-orbit fluxes, and also by the uniformity of the variation of this leakage on the vessel surface area. Geometric and thermal analysis math models were developed for the spacecraft and the tank as part of this analysis, based on their individual thermal/structural designs. Two quasi-inertial spacecraft attitudes were investigated and their effects on the tank performance compared. The results are one of the criteria by which the spacecraft orientation in orbit was selected for the in-house NASA Lewis Research Center design.

  8. Sea Surface Wakes Observed by Spaceborne SAR in the Offshore Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoming; Lehner, Susanne; Jacobsen, Sven

    2014-11-01

    In the paper, we present some X-band spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images acquired at the offshore wind farms in the North Sea and the East China Sea. The high spatial resolution SAR images show different sea surface wake patterns downstream of the offshore wind turbines. The analysis suggests that there are major two types of wakes among the observed cases. The wind turbine wakes generated by movement of wind around wind turbines are the most often observed cases. In contrast, due to the strong local tidal currents in the near shore wind farm sites, the tidal current wakes induced by tidal current impinging on the wind turbine piles are also observed in the high spatial resolution TS-X images. The discrimination of the two types of wakes observed in the offshore wind farms is also described in the paper.

  9. Arctic and offshore research: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Technical Coordination in coordination with the Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology are performing the following activities in Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR): AOR Energy-Related Technology Data Base Development: AOR Seminars and Workshops; Arctic and Offshore Energy Research Coordination; and Arctic and Offshore Research. This research includes: analysis of ice island generation, and prediction of drift paths; field and laboratory determination of the engineering properties of multiyear ice, and the interaction of sea ice with offshore structures; investigation of the effects of ice accretion on offshore structures; measurements of seismic acceleration and velocity for analyzing vibration in and stability of offshore structures; analysis of ice gouging in deep water (150 to 210 feet) in the Artic Ocean, and numerical simulation modeling of the gouging process; analysis of the location and origin of the ice-ridging shear zone; analysis of sea-ice thickness using airborne-radar sensing techniques; and improvement of permafrost detection techniques, analysis of permafrost characteristics, and how temperature and salinity influence seabed freezing. DOE AOR was initiated in the fall of 1982. Current activities include developing the Arctic energy-related technology data base and initiating most of the research described above (except multiyear ice properties, pipeline research, and subice systems development). 12 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Arctic and offshore research. Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology are performing the following activities in Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR): (1) AOR Energy-Related Technology Data Base Development; (2) AOR seminars and workshops; (3) Arctic and Offshore Energy Research Coordination; (4) Arctic and Offshore Research which includes analysis of ice island generation, and prediction of drift paths; field and laboratory determination of (1) the engineering properties of multiyear ice, and (2) the interaction of multiyear ice with offshore structures; analysis of ice gouging in deep water (150 to 210 feet) in the Arctic Ocean, and numerical simulation modeling of the gouging process; analysis of the location and origin of the ice-ridging shear zone; analysis of sea-ice thickness using airborne radar sensing techniques; improvement of permafrost detection techniques, and analysis of permafrost characteristics; investigation of the effects of ice accretion and corrosion on offshore structures; measurements of seismic acceleration and velocity for analyzing vibration in and stability of off-shore structures; detection of oil spills that occur below the Arctic ice pack; analysis of the effects of frost heave and corrosion on pipelines; (5) Advanced Recovery Technologies; and (6) Subice Systems Development. Current activities include determining the Arctic bibliographic data base and initiating most of the research described above (except multiyear ice properties, pipeline research, and subice systems development). 10 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Old Issues in a New Jacket: Power and Validation in the Context of Mixture Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubke, Gitta

    2012-01-01

    Von Davier et al. (this issue) describe two analyses that aim at determining whether the constructs measured with a number of observed items are categorical or continuous in nature. The issue of types versus traits has a long history and is relevant in many areas of behavioral research, including personality research, as emphasized by von Davier…

  12. Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational stratigraphic database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International Stratigraphic Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.

  13. Offshore oil and the coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A radical, accelerated 5-year plan to offer 875 million acres (of which 20 million could actually be leased for oil and gas extraction purposes) on the outer continental shelf (OCS) could result in the release of large volumes of drilling wastes and spillage (Environ. Sci. Tech., Nov. 1981). The actual leasing, under the 5-year plan proposed by Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt, could amount to 4-5 million acres per year—about 10 times as much, on the average, as had been leased over the past 25 years. Regulations on the environmental effects may be less complicated yet more effective in that impact statements will cover large areas instead of the tract-by-tract statements now required. A number of the new offshore leasing areas, for example, the Alaska Coast (Cook Inlet, Beaufort Bay, Gulf of Alaska), the Blake Plateau and Baltimore Canyon, and the Georges Bank, are extremely valuable in terms of renewable resources and potentially fragile in terms of environmental conditions. Fishing interests in these areas have produced considerable controversy over the planned sale of petroleum rights.

  14. Problems unique to offshore measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    Most of us have arrived at this meeting in some kind of company provided transportation. This is supplied in order for us to do our assigned jobs. These may be trucks, or cars, or even helicopters, and maybe boats. All who are involved in the offshore industry know that transportation is the cost costly of all. The helicopter bill for our company is a bill which costs us somewhere in the 9 million dollar range. Since this costs us so much, we are constantly looking at ways to reduce this. The helicopters we use cost us $510.00 a flying hour plus $28,000.00 a month for lease. These helicopters fly in the neighborhood of 140 miles per hour. You can quickly see how fast the cost can climb. We have two technicians, along with a pilot, and approx. 400 lbs of test gear and spare parts. You have to carry all you think you will need for the day`s activities because it`s a long and costly trip to go pick up some gasket material or an orifice plate.

  15. Arctic & Offshore Technical Data System

    1990-07-01

    AORIS is a computerized information system to assist the technology and planning community in the development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In general, AORIS is geographically dependent and, where possible, site specific. The main topics are sea ice, geotechnology, oceanography, meteorology, and Arctic engineering, as they relate to such offshore oil and gas activities as exploration, production, storage, and transportation. AORIS consists of a directory component that identifies 85 Arctic energy-related databases and tellsmore » how to access them; a bibliographic/management information system or bibliographic component containing over 8,000 references and abstracts on Arctic energy-related research; and a scientific and engineering information system, or data component, containing over 800 data sets, in both tabular and graphical formats, on sea ice characteristics taken from the bibliographic citations. AORIS also contains much of the so-called grey literature, i.e., data and/or locations of Arctic data collected, but never published. The three components are linked so the user may easily move from one component to another. A generic information system is provided to allow users to create their own information systems. The generic programs have the same query and updating features as AORIS, except that there is no directory component.« less

  16. Assessment of Ports for Offshore Wind Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Elkinton, Chris; Blatiak, Alicia; Ameen, Hafsa

    2014-03-21

    As offshore wind energy develops in the United States, port facilities will become strategic hubs in the offshore wind farm supply chain because all plant and transport logistics must transit through these facilities. Therefore, these facilities must provide suitable infrastructure to meet the specific requirements of the offshore wind industry. As a result, it is crucial that federal and state policy-makers and port authorities take effective action to position ports in the offshore wind value chain to take best advantage of their economic potential. The U.S. Department of Energy tasked the independent consultancy GL Garrad Hassan (GL GH) with carrying out a review of the current capability of U.S. ports to support offshore wind project development and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities related to upgrading this capability to support the growth of as many as 54 gigawatts of offshore wind installed in U.S. waters by 2030. The GL GH report and the open-access web-based Ports Assessment Tool resulting from this study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations. The offshore wind industry in the United States is still in its infancy and this study finds that additional port facilities capable of supporting offshore wind projects are needed to meet the anticipated project build-out by 2030; however, no significant barriers exist to prevent the development of such facilities. Furthermore, significant port capabilities are in place today with purpose-build port infrastructure currently being built. While there are currently no offshore wind farms operating in the United States, much of the infrastructure critical to the success of such projects does exist, albeit in the service of other industries. This conclusion is based

  17. Submarine landslides hazard offshore Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Oded

    2016-04-01

    Submarine landslides pose significant natural hazards. They can damage seafloor infrastructure, such as that used to recover oil and gas or seafloor telecommunication cables, and even generate tsunamis. We recently mapped 447 submarine landslides across the east Mediterranean continental slope, offshore Israel (hereafter the studied area). The mapped landslides are found at water depths of 130 m to 1,000 m and their volume ranges 10-5 - 100 km3. Landslide scars are typically related to a critical slope angle of >4° . Landslides at the northern part of the studied area are spatially associated with fault scarps and are smaller than the ones on the southern part. In this work we evaluate the potential hazard to population and to on- and off- shore facilities posed by submarine landslides across the studied area. We integrate three independent probabilities: (1) the probability for a landslide event of a given volume, based on the size distribution of the mapped landslides; (2) the probability for a landslide event in a given time, based on the reoccurrence time of triggering earthquakes with M >7, and on a 50,000 years general time frame derived from submarine landslides identified across the Mediterranean Sea; (3) the probability for a landslide event in a given area, based on the distribution of slopes exceeding the critical angle. Overall, the fraction of potentially destructive landslides (size > 0.1 km3) is small, 0.05. Thus, considering typical planning time scales of less than 100 years, the calculated hazard is only moderate. The small fraction of landslides with tsunamogenic potential (size > 1 km3), suggests that the hazard for landslide-induced tsunamis along the open slope part of the studied area is small. Landslides in the southern part of the studied area are larger and thus present a somewhat bigger potential source of tsunami waves.

  18. Optimization program for offshore network

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, J.P.

    1983-08-01

    The Upper Zakum field, 50 km (31 miles) long and 30 km (19 miles) wide, is located offshore the United Arab Emirates, in latitude 25/sup 0/ North and in longitude 53/sup 0/30' East, approximately. The field facilities include one central production platform (central complex), three satellite platforms for primary separation, about 60 drilling or injection platforms, and one exporting terminal located on Zirku Island. Drilling and injection platforms are connected to the satellite platforms through 134 flowlines ranging from 4 to 12 in. in diameter. Connection between each satellite platform and the central complex is ensured through three special-purpose trunklines designed to convey crude oil and gas from satellites to a central complex, and injection water from the central complex to satellites. The trunklines are either 18 or 24 in. in diameter. Crude oil is dispatched from the central complex to Zirku Island through a 42-in. main oil line. This paper describes a program designed to optimize the pipelaying procedures. Since May 1980, the program has been run in the field office on a Hewlett Packard 9845 T computer. Once the yearly overall pipelaying schedule was determined, the program was run weekly to optimize the next 10 lines representing about 2 months of lay barge work. Such optimum monitoring and record keeping of the entire construction effort from the pipe mill to the riser installation would not have been possible without this management tool which certainly saved considerable barge transfer and stand-by times, resulting in an important reduction of the overall investment.

  19. Operational management of offshore energy assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolios, A. J.; Martinez Luengo, M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy assets and especially those deployed offshore are subject to a variety of harsh operational and environmental conditions which lead to deterioration of their performance and structural capacity over time. The aim of reduction of CAPEX in new installations shifts focus to operational management to monitor and assess performance of critical assets ensuring their fitness for service throughout their service life and also to provide appropriate and effective information towards requalification or other end of life scenarios, optimizing the OPEX. Over the last decades, the offshore oil & gas industry has developed and applied various approaches in operational management of assets through Structural Health and Condition Monitoring (SHM/CM) systems which can be, at a certain level, transferable to offshore renewable installations. This paper aims to highlight the key differences between offshore oil & gas and renewable energy assets from a structural integrity and reliability perspective, provide a comprehensive overview of different approaches that are available and applicable, and distinguish the benefits of such systems in the efficient operation of offshore energy assets.

  20. Offshore oil gas trends in ROVs tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.R. )

    1994-04-01

    The ROVs that operate in today's offshore environment bear little or no resemblance to those which first began supporting the oil and gas work requirements less than 15 years ago. In that short span of time, an explosion of subsea technology has occurred, rendering older equipment obsolete and expanding subsea remote intervention capabilities beyond the horizon of intervention tasks originally envisioned. Today's offshore work ROVs employ the latest in robotics, fiver optics, acoustics, video, and computer technologies, and routinely achieve better than 90 percent operational availability. Leading offshore ROV operations companies have demonstrated less than 1 percent down-time over thousands of hours of operation. As the offshore oil and gas market evolves, the ever-expanding capabilities of the work ROV plays a major role in shaping the operational concepts employed in subsea oil and gas field exploration, development, and production. This paper explores the capabilities of available ROV systems in use offshore today, the economic trends driving ROV technology development, and the new trends in the employment of ROVs and their associated sensors and tooling systems.

  1. A framework for offshore vendor capability development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf Wibisono, Yogi; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Irianto, Dradjad; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a common practice conducted by companies, especially in developed countries, by relocating one or more their business processes to other companies abroad, especially in developing countries. This practice grows rapidly owing to the ease of accessing qualified vendors with a lower cost. Vendors in developing countries compete more intensely to acquire offshore projects. Indonesia is still below India, China, Malaysia as main global offshore destinations. Vendor capability is among other factors that contribute to the inability of Indonesian vendor in competing with other companies in the global market. Therefore, it is essential to study how to increase the vendor's capability in Indonesia, in the context of global offshore outsourcing. Previous studies on the vendor's capability mainly focus on capabilities without considering the dynamic of capabilities due to the environmental changes. In order to be able to compete with competitors and maintain the competitive advantage, it is necessary for vendors to develop their capabilities continuously. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework that describes offshore vendor capability development along the client-vendor relationship stages. The framework consists of three main components, i.e. the stages of client-vendor relationship, the success of each stage, and the capabilities of vendor at each stage.

  2. The challenge and prevention of epidemics: experience from offshore petroleum installations and its extrapolation to ships.

    PubMed

    Ulven, Arne Johan

    2011-01-01

    The risk of epidemics represents an important challenge in offshore petroleum activities. All personnel are needed for regular operations, and the outbreak of an epidemic will soon affect the operations. The economical consequences can be vast. The risk of an epidemic is raised due to the closeness of living and catering offshore combined with frequent changes of personnel who travel offshore from many nations. The article is based on the experience gained by the author during 22 years as a senior medical officer in a Norwegian oil company. Some endemics and epidemics are described. None of these resulted in the shutdown of production, but they still represented a major challenge to the company and to the medical staff in particular. The transfer value from experience offshore to ships is obvious but there are differences. Risk analysis and quality assurance systems play an important part in the prevention and limitation of epidemics offshore. The infrastructure of the food supply chain as well as education and training of personnel are key elements. Campaigns on different hygiene topics that address all personnel are launched at regular intervals. Contingency plans must be established and be ready for use in case of a threatening epidemic. Identification of the type and source of the infection or food poisoning, isolation of the infected personnel, safe evacuation of patients, and the establishment of other necessary barriers for reduction of spread of infection are necessary to control an outbreak of an epidemic. PMID:22544502

  3. Trophic connections in Lake Superior Part I: the offshore fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, A.E.; Hrabik, T.R.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed diet linkages within the offshore (> 80 m bathymetric depth) food web of Lake Superior are currently not well identified. We used analyses of fish stomach contents to create an empirically based food web model of the Lake Superior offshore fish community. Stomachs were collected seasonally (spring, summer, and fall) from nine offshore locations in 2005, using bottom and midwater trawls. In total, 2643 stomachs representing 12 fish species were examined. The predominant fish species collected were deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii), siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet), kiyi (Coregonus kiyi), and cisco (Coregonus artedi). Mysis diluviana was the most common prey item, indicating that changes in Mysis abundance could have a profound impact on the entire offshore food web. Mysis was the primary diet item of deepwater sculpin (≥ 53% by mass) and kiyi (≥ 96% by mass) regardless of depth or season. The invasive Bythotrephes was an important diet component of the pelagic cisco in summer and fall. Deepwater sculpin were the primary diet item of siscowet (≥ 52% by mass), with coregonines appearing in the diet of larger (> 400 mm) siscowet. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant seasonal or site-specific differences in diets of deepwater sculpin, cisco, or kiyi. Site was the primary structuring factor in siscowet diets. Generally, in Lake Superior, the diet items of the dominant offshore species did not appear to be in danger from those types of major ecological shifts occurring in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes.

  4. Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

  5. Federal offshore statistics: leasing - exploration - production - revenue

    SciTech Connect

    Essertier, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Federal Offshore Statistics is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the Federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Statistics are presented under the following topics: (1) highlights, (2) leasing, (3) exploration and development, (4) production and revenue, (5) federal offshore production by ranking operator, 1983, (6) reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources, and (7) oil pollution in the world's oceans.

  6. Slimhole advancements allow economic offshore exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, E.

    1995-07-01

    Slimhole drilling technology is a proven method to reduce well cost in remote areas of the world. It also provides advantages in offshore drilling and production applications where smaller tubular sizes can make marginal fields economic. The technological accomplishments within the industry have provided a sound basis to apply slimhole technology offshore worldwide. And it is feasible to develop methods to apply this technology to more sever applications, including deeper wells, high-pressure wells and hole problem areas, such as troublesome shales. Such applications will require additional technology development to be adequately prepared for proper well designs and possible contingencies during drilling. From the experience to date with this technology, it is feasible to design wells to total drilled depths of 12,000 ft--15,000 ft onshore or offshore. For purposes of this article, a slimhole well is one with the diameter at TD less than 6-in.

  7. Ice island creation, drift, recurrences, mechanical properties, and interactions with arctic offshore oil production structures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Li, Fucheng; Lu, Mingchi

    1991-03-01

    Research and engineering studies on first-year sea ice for over two decades has resulted in the design, construction, and operation of jacket platforms, of artificial islands, and of massive gravity structures which routinely withstand moving sea ice of thickness up to 2 meters. However, the less-common interactions between such structures and moving multiyear ice ({ge}3 meters thick), and also moving ice islands (10 to 60 meters thick) remain as the unknown and potentially most serious hazard for Arctic offshore structures. In this study, research was addressed across the complete span of remaining questions regarding such features. Ice island components, thickness distributions, scenarios and models for the interactions of massive ice features with offshore structures, all were considered. Ice island morphology and calving studies were directed at the cluster of 19 ice islands produced in a calving from the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on Ellesmere Island in 1983, and also at a calving from the Milne Ice Shelf in 1988. The statistics of ice island dynamics, on both a short-term small-scale basis and also on a long-term basis, were studied. Typical wind velocities of 5 to 7.5 meters per second led to ice island speeds of about 0.014 of the wind speed, at an angle of 20{degrees} to the right of the wind direction. Ice island samples were tested for their stress/strain characteristics. Compressive strength values ranged from 1.64 MPa at a strain rate of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s{sup {minus}1} to 6.75 MPa at a strain rate of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}. Scenarios for ice island/structure interactions were developed, and protective countermeasures such as spray ice and ice rubble barriers were suggested. Additional computer modeling of structure/ice interactions for massive ice features is recommended.

  8. Strengthening America's Energy Security with Offshore Wind (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the current state of the offshore wind industry in the United States and the offshore wind research and development activities conducted the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program.

  9. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  10. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  11. Offshore windmills and the effects of electromagnetic fields on fish.

    PubMed

    Ohman, Marcus C; Sigray, Peter; Westerberg, Håkan

    2007-12-01

    With the large scale developments of offshore windpower the number of underwater electric cables is increasing with various technologies applied. A wind farm is associated with different types of cables used for intraturbine, array-to-transformer, and transformer-to-shore transmissions. As the electric currents in submarine cables induce electromagnetic fields there is a concern of how they may influence fishes. Studies have shown that there are fish species that are magneto-sensitive using geomagnetic field information for the purpose of orientation. This implies that if the geomagnetic field is locally altered it could influence spatial patterns in fish. There are also physiological aspects to consider, especially for species that are less inclined to move as the exposure could be persistent in a particular area. Even though studies have shown that magnetic fields could affect fish, there is at present limited evidence that fish are influenced by the electromagnetic fields that underwater cables from windmills generate. Studies on European eel in the Baltic Sea have indicated some minor effects. In this article we give an overview on the type of submarine cables that are used for electric transmissions in the sea. We also describe the character of the magnetic fields they induce. The effects of magnetic fields on fish are reviewed and how this may relate to the cables used for offshore wind power is discussed.

  12. Exploration potential of offshore northern California basins

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, S.B.; Crouch, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A series of exploratory wells was drilled in the northern California offshore basins in the 1960s following leasing of federal tracts off northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The drilling, although encountering numerous oil shows, was considered at the time to indicate low prospectivity in an area that extended as far south as the offshore Santa Maria basin. However, subsequent major discoveries in this decade in the offshore Santa Maria basin, such as the Point Arguello field, indicate that these offshore basins may be highly prospective exploration targets. Many of the key features of Monterey production in central and southern California are also present in the offshore basins of northern California. A new 5-year leasing plan has scheduled leasing in the northern California OCS starting in early 1989. The first basins on the schedule, the Point Arena and Eel River basins, differ in some respects. The Point Arena basin is more typical of a Monterey basin, with the potential for fractured chert reservoirs and organic-rich sections, deep burial of basinal sections to enhance the generation of higher gravity oils, and complex folding and faulting. The Eel River basin is more clastic-rich in its gas-producing, onshore extension. Key questions in the Eel River basin include whether the offshore, more distal stratigraphy will include Monterey-like biogenic sediments, and whether the basin has oil potential in addition to its proven gas potential. The Outer Santa Cruz basin shares a similar stratigraphy, structure, and hydrocarbon potential with the Point Arena basin. The Santa Cruz-Bodega basin, also with a similar stratigraphy, may have less exploration potential because erosion has thinned the Monterey section in parts of the basin.

  13. Fouling of offshore structures in China--a review.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tao; Yan, Wen Xia

    2003-04-01

    Biofouling on ships' hulls and other man-made structures is a major economic and technical problem around the world. In recent decades, the development and growth of the offshore oil and gas industry has led to increased interest in, and studies on marine fouling in offshore regions. This paper reviews the effects of marine fouling on offshore structures, the development of offshore fouling studies in China, and the characteristics of marine fouling in relevant areas. Future research strategies are also proposed.

  14. Regional method to assess offshore slope stability.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Edwards, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    The slope stability of some offshore environments can be evaluated by using only conventional acoustic profiling and short-core sampling, followed by laboratory consolidation and strength testing. The test results are synthesized by using normalized-parameter techniques. The normalized data are then used to calculate the critical earthquake acceleration factors or the wave heights needed to initiate failure. These process-related parameters provide a quantitative measure of the relative stability for locations from which short cores were obtained. The method is most applicable to offshore environments of gentle relief and simple subsurface structure and is not considered a substitute for subsequent site-specific analysis. -from ASCE Publications Information

  15. Offshore-platform decommissioning perceptions change

    SciTech Connect

    Twachtman, R.

    1997-12-08

    The oil and gas industry has seen a change in the perceptions about decommissioning offshore facilities. Now, decommissioning projects are being planned ahead of actual field development, and new concepts derived during decommissioning often are used to provide feedback for new development projects. The current trends and concepts applicable to decommissioning can be summarized as: advanced planning; engineered solutions; research and development; reuse; expanded use of offshore reefs; and deepwater disposal. Planning the platform decommissioning ahead of time (at least 2 years before production ceases) is key to a safe, environmentally conscious, and efficient decommissioning project. The paper discusses decommissioning projects, engineered solutions, research and development; reuse of platforms, and deepwater disposal.

  16. Effect of confining pressure due to external jacket of steel plate or shape memory alloy wire on bond behavior between concrete and steel reinforcing bars.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2014-12-01

    For external jackets of reinforced concrete columns, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are easy to install, and they provide active and passive confining pressure; steel plates, on the other hand, only provide passive confining pressure, and their installation on concrete is not convenient because of the requirement of a special device. To investigate how SMA wires distinctly impact bond behavior compared with steel plates, this study conducted push-out bond tests of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete confined by SMA wires or steel plates. For this purpose, concrete cylinders were prepared with dimensions of 100 mm x 200 mm, and D-22 reinforcing bars were embedded at the center of the concrete cylinders. External jackets of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thickness steel plates were used to wrap the concrete cylinders. Additionally, NiTiNb SMA wire with a diameter of 1.0 mm was wound around the concrete cylinders. Slip of the reinforcing bars due to pushing force was measured by using a displacement transducer, while the circumferential deformation of specimens was obtained by using an extensometer. The circumferential deformation was used to calculate the circumferential strains of the specimens. This study assessed the radial confining pressure due to the external jackets on the reinforcing bars at bond strength from bond stress-slip curves and bond stress-circumferential strain curves. Then, the effects of the radial confining pressure on the bond behavior of concrete are investigated, and an equation is suggested to estimate bond strength using the radial confining pressure. Finally, this study focused on how active confining pressure due to recovery stress of the SMA wires influences bond behavior.

  17. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations. 22.1037 Section 22.1037 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1037 Application requirements for offshore stations. Applications for...

  18. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  19. 78 FR 63233 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Equipment in Hazardous Areas on Foreign Flag Mobile Offshore Drilling Units. (4) Safety Impact of Liftboat... Equipment in Hazardous Areas on Foreign Flag Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs); (d) Safety Impact of... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS....

  20. 78 FR 18614 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Continental Shelf (OCS); (b) Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas on Foreign Flag Mobile Offshore Drilling... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: United States Coast Guard. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meetings. SUMMARY: The National Offshore...

  1. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in...

  2. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in...

  3. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in...

  4. 77 FR 17491 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: United States Coast Guard.... SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will meet on April 11 and 12, 2012, in... affecting the oil and gas offshore industry. These meetings are open to the public. DATES: NOSAC will...

  5. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  6. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  7. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in...

  8. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs). 15.520 Section... MANNING REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units... endorsement on an MMC as offshore installation manager (OIM), barge supervisor (BS), or ballast...

  9. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  10. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  11. Boundary Spanning in Offshored Information Systems Development Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnan, Poornima

    2010-01-01

    Recent growth in offshore outsourcing of information systems (IS) services is accompanied by managing the offshore projects successfully. Much of the project failures can be attributed to geographic and organizational boundaries which create differences in culture, language, work patterns, and decision making processes among the offshore project…

  12. 46 CFR 126.170 - Carriage of offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... workers authorized for carriage exceed 36, unless the vessel meets the applicability and construction... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carriage of offshore workers. 126.170 Section 126.170... CERTIFICATION General § 126.170 Carriage of offshore workers. (a) Offshore workers may be carried aboard an...

  13. International Offshore Students' Perceptions of Virtual Office Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wdowik, Steven; Michael, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this study is to gauge international offshore students' perceptions of virtual office hours (VOH) to consult with their offshore unit coordinators in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data was sourced from three offshore campuses over a 12-month period…

  14. U. S. -French Cooperative Research Program: U. S. test results for cable insulation and jacket materials at the completion of accelerated aging

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Eight different U.S. insulation and jacket products have been accelerated aged at Sandia. The experimental variables included: (1) sequential versus simultaneous accelerated aging exposures; (2) the order of the sequential exposures; and (3) ambient versus 70/sup 0/C irradiation temperatures during sequential aging exposures. We observed that the irradiation temperature (70/sup 0/C or ambient) was secondary in importance to the choice of sequence for thermal and radiation aging. For most materials studied (except TEFZEL) the irradiation then thermal aging sequence was as severe or more severe than the thermal then irradiation aging sequence.

  15. United States Offshore Wind Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-12-01

    The utilization of the offshore wind resource will be necessary if the United States is to meet the goal of having 20% of its electricity generated by wind power because many of the electrical load centers in the country are located along the coastlines. The United States Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has supported an ongoing project to assess the wind resource for the offshore regions of the contiguous United States including the Great Lakes. Final offshore maps with a horizontal resolution of 200 meters (m) have been completed for Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, northern New England, and the Great Lakes. The ocean wind resource maps extend from the coastline to 50 nautical miles (nm) offshore. The Great Lake maps show the resource for all of the individual lakes. These maps depict the wind resource at 50 m above the water as classes of wind power density. Class 1 represents the lowest available wind resource, while Class 7 is the highest resource. Areas with Class 5 and higher wind resource can be economical for offshore project development. As offshore wind turbine technology improves, areas with Class 4 and higher resource should become economically viable. The wind resource maps are generated using output from a modified numerical weather prediction model combined with a wind flow model. The preliminary modeling is performed by AWS Truewind under subcontract to NREL. The preliminary model estimates are sent to NREL to be validated. NREL validates the preliminary estimates by comparing 50 m model data to available measurements that are extrapolated to 50 m. The validation results are used to modify the preliminary map and produce the final resource map. The sources of offshore wind measurement data include buoys, automated stations, lighthouses, and satellite- derived ocean wind speed data. The wind electric potential is represented as Megawatts (MW) of potential installed capacity and is based on the square

  16. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Boezaart, Arnold; Edmonson, James; Standridge, Charles; Pervez, Nahid; Desai, Neel; Williams, Bruce; Clark, Aaron; Zeitler, David; Kendall, Scott; Biddanda, Bopi; Steinman, Alan; Klatt, Brian; Gehring, J. L.; Walter, K.; Nordman, Erik E.

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the

  17. Offshore Investments by Colleges Draw Scrutiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul; Wolverton, Brad

    2007-01-01

    Billions of dollars in untaxed, offshore investments by college endowments could be subject to taxation under a proposal being considered by the leaders of the U.S. Senate Finance Committee. The proposed change, which targets hedge funds, a popular investing strategy for many colleges, would affect the largest college endowments, including those…

  18. 31 CFR 593.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 593.406 Section 593.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  19. Accord near for offshore California oil shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-15

    There are faint glimmers of hope again for offshore California operators. After more than a decade of often bitter strife over offshore oil and gas development and transportation issues, state officials and oil producers may be moving toward compromise solutions. One such solution may be forthcoming on offshore development. But the real change came with the turnabout of the California Coastal Commission (CCC), which last month approved a permit for interim tankering of crude from Point Arguello oil field in the Santa Barbara Channel to Los Angeles. The dispute over how to ship offshore California crude to market has dragged on since before Point Arguelo development plans were unveiled. The project's status has become a flashpoint in the U.S. debate over resource use and environmental concerns. The controversy flared anew in the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez tanker spill off Alaska, when CCC voided a Santa Barbara County permit for interim tankering, a move project operator Chevron Corp. linked to the Exxon Valdez accident. Faced with litigation, the state's economic devastation, and acrimonious debate over transporting California crude, Gov. Pete Wilson and other agencies approved the CCC permit. But there's a catch: A permanent pipeline must be built to handle full production within 3 years. The paper discusses permit concerns, the turnaround decision, the anger of environmental groups, and pipeline proposals.

  20. 31 CFR 537.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 537.406 Section 537.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  1. Human Rights, Academic Freedom, and Offshore Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Despite the carnage wrought on higher education by the Great Recession, evidence persists that the sector is still host to a speculator psychology. One example is the unabated stampede to set up branches and programs overseas. Colleges have many reasons to go offshore: (1) to reduce costs; (2) to build their "brands" in "emerging markets"; and (3)…

  2. Planning and evaluation parameters for offshore complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    Issues are presented for consideration in the planning and design of offshore artificial complexes. The construction of such complexes, their social, economic, and ecological impacts, and the legal-political-institutional environments within which their development could occur, are discussed. Planning, design, and construction of near-shore complexes located off the Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States is emphasized.

  3. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  4. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  5. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  6. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  8. Analysis techniques for offshore platform tieback systems

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    The development of offshore fields using subsea drilling templates and tie-back equipment has become an accepted method of achieving early production. This technical paper gives an introduction to tie-back systems, presents a method of analyzing them, discusses the loading conditions that affect tie-back systems, and describes a method of accounting for loading conditions during analysis.

  9. Cut drydocking costs for offshore rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E.K.

    1985-07-01

    Heavy-lift transport vessels (HLVs) can provide an economic alternative to the conventional shipyard approach of drydocking mobile offshore rigs for regulatory body inspections and/or repairs. Contractors now can drydock rigs in areas of the world where conventional drydocks are unavailable. This article discusses pros and cons of conventional shipyard drydocking and the HLV approach.

  10. 31 CFR 594.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 594.407 Section 594.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  11. 31 CFR 544.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 544.406 Section 544.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION...

  12. Efficient high-permeability fracturing offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Phillipi, M.; Farabee, M.

    1996-12-31

    Offshore operators can more efficiently and effectively perform high-permeability and conventional hydraulic fracture treatments by blending treatment slurries under microprocessor control, adding undiluted acid on-the-fly, and altering sand concentrations and other slurry properties instantaneously. A two-skid system has been designed with these considerations in mind. The system, which can be shipped efficiently in ISO containers, has been tested on fluids up to 210-cp viscosity and can step or ramp sand concentrations up to a maximum of 20 lb/gal. All additives, including acid treatments, are added on-the-fly; leftover additives and acids may be stored for future jobs. The system may be applied in most conditions, including offshore wells requiring conventional or high-permeability fracture treatments and certain land-based wells in remote areas where a compact skid is needed. Three significant benefits have resulted from using the compact-skid system: offshore operators have been able to ship the skid system at 20% of shipping costs of non-ISO equipment; on-the-fly mixing has prevented material waste associated with batch-mixing; and volumes pumped on actual jobs have closely matched job designs. Data have been collected from several Gulf of Mexico jobs run with the two-part skid system that has been designed for conducting hydraulic fracture treatments from offshore rigs.

  13. 31 CFR 576.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 576.407 Section 576.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 576.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 576.407 Section 576.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 576.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 576.407 Section 576.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 576.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 576.407 Section 576.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS...

  17. Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Gareth; Trinder, Mark; Furness, Bob; Banks, Alex N.; Caldow, Richard W. G.; Hume, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool), to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979–2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species’ ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented. PMID:25210739

  18. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Gareth; Trinder, Mark; Furness, Bob; Banks, Alex N; Caldow, Richard W G; Hume, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool), to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented. PMID:25210739

  19. Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Hao; Hamilton, Mark F.; Bhalla, Rajan; Brown, Walter E.; Hay, Todd A.; Whitelonis, Nicholas J.; Yang, Shang-Te; Naqvi, Aale R.

    2013-09-30

    Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

  20. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-02-01

    These fuel elements are comprised of a homogeneous metallic uranium body completely enclosed and sealed in an aluminum cover. The uranium body and aluminum cover are bonded together by a layer of zinc located between them. The bonding layer serves to improve transfer of heat, provides an additional protection against corrosion of the uranium by the coolant, and also localizes any possible corrosion by preventing travel of corrosive material along the surface of the fuel element.

  1. Offshore Hydrokinetic Energy Conversion for Onshore Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Design comparisons have been performed for a number of different tidal energy systems, including a fully submerged, horizontal-axis electro-turbine system, similar to Verdant Tidal Turbines in New York's East River, a platform-based Marine Current Turbine, now operating in Northern Ireland's Strangford Narrows, and the Rotech Lunar Energy system, to be installed off the South Korean Coast. A fourth type of tidal energy system studied is a novel JPL/Caltech hydraulic energy transfer system that uses submerged turbine blades which are mechanically attached to adjacent high-pressure pumps, instead of to adjacent electrical turbines. The generated highpressure water streams are combined and transferred to an onshore hydroelectric plant by means of a closed-cycle pipeline. The hydraulic energy transfer system was found to be cost competitive, and it allows all electronics to be placed onshore, thus greatly reducing maintenance costs and corrosion problems. It also eliminates the expenses of conditioning and transferring multiple offshore power lines and of building offshore platforms embedded in the sea floor.

  2. U. K. pressing campaign to improve offshore safety

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1994-02-14

    The U.K. government is making progress in its campaign to improve the safety of personnel working offshore. The government's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) plans to assess and pass judgment on at lease one safety plan, called a safety case, from each U.K. North Sea operator as soon as possible. HSE has agreed with the industry on a list of 61 priority safety cases, known as exemplars. Feedback from exemplar assessment will help operators review safety management and assist in preparation or revision of future safety cases. It also will give HSE practice in assessing a range of case types. The requirement for a safety program is part of new U.K. offshore legislation designed to prevent another accident similar to the Piper Alpha platform fire and explosion of 1988. After the transition period it will be against the law to operate an oil and gas installation in British waters without an accepted safety case. Besides existing installations, safety cases are also required for new installations reaching design stage by May 31, 1993, the date safety case regulations went into force. The paper describes the Cullen report, companies' experiences with the new law, and the safety assessment progress so far.

  3. Mechanical properties at high strain-rate of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.; Fichera, C.; Manes, A.; Giglio, M.

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations are now an actual option in order to try to reproduce and understand the mechanical response in components subjected to extreme loading conditions, like in a ballistic impact. A correct materials calibration is therefore necessary in order to extract the materials parameters. In this work the simple and widely used Johnson-Cook model was used to analyse the experimental data obtained for the characterization of the bullet materials. The bullet under investigation is a full metal jacket ball, with a lead-antimony alloy core and a brass jacket. The experimental tests cover a wide range in strain-rate, starting from quasi-static tests up to high dynamic tests performed on a standard Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar setup. In general, there is a great lack in strain-rate sensitivity and failure data. Pure lead is very soft and ductile, so antimony is used to give greater hardness and strength. The results of this study show a significant strain-rate influence for this alloy that can be associated with the presence of the lead-antimony phases and their structures. Also in case of the brass the results showed significant strain-rate sensitivity in the material response.

  4. Wind/Wave Misalignment in the Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barj, L.; Stewart, S.; Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-02-01

    Wind resources far from the shore and in deeper seas have encouraged the offshore wind industry to look into floating platforms. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is developing a new technical specification for the design of floating offshore wind turbines that extends existing design standards for land-based and fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. The work summarized in this paper supports the development of best practices and simulation requirements in the loads analysis of floating offshore wind turbines by examining the impact of wind/wave misalignment on the system loads under normal operation. Simulations of the OC3-Hywind floating offshore wind turbine system under a wide range of wind speeds, significant wave heights, peak-spectral periods and wind/wave misalignments have been carried out with the aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool FAST [4]. The extreme and fatigue loads have been calculated for all the simulations. The extreme and fatigue loading as a function of wind/wave misalignment have been represented as load roses and a directional binning sensitivity study has been carried out. This study focused on identifying the number and type of wind/wave misalignment simulations needed to accurately capture the extreme and fatigue loads of the system in all possible metocean conditions considered, and for a down-selected set identified as the generic US East Coast site. For this axisymmetric platform, perpendicular wind and waves play an important role in the support structure and including these cases in the design loads analysis can improve the estimation of extreme and fatigue loads. However, most structural locations see their highest extreme and fatigue loads with aligned wind and waves. These results are specific to the spar type platform, but it is expected that the results presented here will be similar to other floating platforms.

  5. Analysis of offshore atmospheric diffusion characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraga, Kunio; Omoto, Akira; Takahashi, Keiichi; Momoi, Kazuyoshi

    1994-12-31

    Although almost all of the thermal and nuclear power stations in Japan are located on the coastline to take advantage of seawater available to condense steam, offshore siting is one of the candidates for the future plant sitting. Figures developed by Pasquill-Gifford model has been conventionally utilized in analyzing atmospheric diffusion of gaseous effluent from power plants. However, there are limitations to apply this to offshore plants because these figures are based on inland diffusion experiments and this model does not specifically take into consideration the effects of thermal capacity of seawater, its surface roughness and so on. Even in the case of coastline sitting, atmospheric diffusion of gaseous effluent might be affected by atmospheric diffusion characteristics above seawater. With this background gaseous, diffusion experiments were conducted at one of TEPCo`s (Tokyo Electric Power Company) coastline power station and empirical formula to model atmospheric diffusion above seawater has been developed.

  6. Industry approach to aging offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wisch, D.J. )

    1993-05-01

    The US offshore oil industry started in the late 1940's in the Gulf of Mexico. At the beginning of 1992, there were over 4,000 platforms in US coastal waters with the oldest being 44 years old. Since platforms in the Gulf of Mexico are demanned and shut-in prior to the passage of a hurricane, the life and environmental safety records have been excellent with these mitagation procedures inplace. However, as the facilities continue to age and new technology is developed that allows for additional oil recovery, the desire to extend service life is becoming more frequent. In efforts to manage both the safety and economic aspects of the facilities, many operators have established inhouse programs for inspection and evaluation of their platform inventories. The industry is currently involved in collaborating in efforts to develop general guidelines for all facilities for establishing Recommended Practice for the continued safe and economical use of offshore platforms. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Offshore technology has a tremendous future

    SciTech Connect

    Brundage, H.T.

    1984-05-01

    Proven offshore technology has the capability to produce oil and gas through the world's continental shelves, on the continental slopes, and toward the abyssal plains. As with all other economic endeavors, there will eventually be a point of diminishing returns in producing offshore hydrocarbons. But just where or when this point will be reached is not now known, nor is it likely to be known soon. A basic fact of oceanographic research is that oil shows have been found in deep ocean basins, such as at Challenger Knoll in the Sigsbee Deep in the central Gulf of Mexico, and elsewhere. At least 240 billion barrels of recoverable oil are considered to exist in the world's continental shelves. Exploratory drilling combined with engineering and oceanographic research, continually broaden horizons and potential in this respect.

  8. Drilling tools for continuous offshore operations

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfgat, M.Y.; Surkov, D.V.; Buyanovsky, I.N.

    1995-12-31

    Offshore drilling tools are still the object of improvement aimed in achieving maximum production or scientific effect of minimum costs. One of perspective ways of improving offshore scientific drilling indices is utilization of drilling systems which provide continuous hole penetration without pulling out the drill string aboard of drill vessel for bit replacement. The report presents specific features of the drilling tools supplying Complete Coring System (CCS) operations. CCS can provide continuous coring and drilling as well as logging in any geological profiles from the soft to very hard formations. One of the basic principles in coring is slimhole pilot drilling, thus giving many advantages. Development of drilling tools for CCS is based upon vast experience in designing drilling tools, including the retractable bits. In perspective CCS can be applied in stratigraphic and scientific drilling in deep water, especially in complicated geological conditions.

  9. The Offshore East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Klimke, J.; Jokat, W.; Stollhofen, H.; Mahanjane, S.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have addressed various aspects of the East African Rift system but surprisingly few on the offshore continuation of the south-eastern branch of the rift into the Mozambique Channel. The most prominent article has been published almost 30 years ago by Mougenot et al. (1986) and is based on vintage seismic data. Several studies investigating earthquakes and plate motions from GPS measurements reveal recent deformation along the offshore branch of the East African Rift system. Slip vectors from earthquakes data in Mozambique's offshore basins show a consistent NE direction. Fault plane solutions reveal ~ E-W extensional failure with focal depth clustering around 19 km and 40 km, respectively. Here, we present new evidence for neotectonic deformation derived from modern seismic reflection data and supported by additional geophysical data. The modern rift system obviously reactivates structures from the disintegration of eastern Gondwana. During the Jurassic/Cretaceous opening of the Somali and Mozambique Basins, Madagascar moved southwards along a major shear zone, to its present position. Since the Miocene, parts of the shear zone became reactivated and structurally overprinted by the East African rift system. The Kerimbas Graben offshore northern Mozambique is the most prominent manifestation of recent extensional deformation. Bathymetry data shows that it deepens northwards, with approximately 700 m downthrown on the eastern shoulder. The graben can be subdivided into four subbasins by crosscutting structural lineaments with a NW-SE trend. Together with the N-S striking graben-bounding faults, this resembles a conjugate fault system. In seismic reflection data normal faulting is distinct not only at the earthquake epicenters. The faults cut through the sedimentary successions and typically reach the seafloor, indicating ongoing recent deformation. Reference: Mougenot, D., Recq, M., Virlogeux, P., and Lepvrier, C., 1986, Seaward extension of the East

  10. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft, unconsolidated sediment interspersed with isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Refugio Beach map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats, which lie primarily within the Shelf (continental shelf) but also partly within the Flank (basin flank or continental slope) megahabitats, primarily are composed of soft sediment interrupted by a few carbonate mounds. This homogeneous seafloor of sediment and low-relief bedrock provides promising habitat for groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms.

  11. Development of a 5 MW reference gearbox for offshore wind turbines: 5 MW reference gearbox

    SciTech Connect

    Nejad, Amir Rasekhi; Guo, Yi; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2015-07-27

    This paper presents detailed descriptions, modeling parameters and technical data of a 5MW high-speed gearbox developed for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory offshore 5MW baseline wind turbine. The main aim of this paper is to support the concept studies and research for large offshore wind turbines by providing a baseline gearbox model with detailed modeling parameters. This baseline gearbox follows the most conventional design types of those used in wind turbines. It is based on the four-point supports: two main bearings and two torque arms. The gearbox consists of three stages: two planetary and one parallel stage gears. The gear ratios among the stages are calculated in a way to obtain the minimum gearbox weight. The gearbox components are designed and selected based on the offshore wind turbine design codes and validated by comparison to the data available from large offshore wind turbine prototypes. All parameters required to establish the dynamic model of the gearbox are then provided. Moreover, a maintenance map indicating components with high to low probability of failure is shown. The 5 MW reference gearbox can be used as a baseline for research on wind turbine gearboxes and comparison studies. It can also be employed in global analysis tools to represent a more realistic model of a gearbox in a coupled analysis.

  12. Caisson shield for arctic offshore production platform

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, J. D.; Reusswig, G. H.

    1985-03-12

    A caisson shield for the protection of an offshore production platform and, more particularly, a caisson shield for use in an arctic environment for the protection of the offshore structure in iceberg-infested waters which is capable of absorbing the destructive forces of an impact produced by a large iceberg. The caisson shield consists of an essentially annular concrete structure encircling at least the submerged support section of the offshore production platform including vertically upstanding concentrically spaced, annular side walls, a horizontal slab base resting on the marine bottom on which the side walls are supported, and a slab top supported on the side walls, and including annularly spaced internal radial partition walls whereby the entire overall caisson shield structure provides a generally toroidal configuration incorporating a plurality of closed compartments. In one embodiment of the invention, located along the outer annular wall is a plurality of arcuate wall sections forming a series of arches and enclosed compartments between each arcuate wall section and the outer annular wall, which impart a ''scallop-like'' configuration to the outer circumference of the caisson shield. The ''scallop-like'' outer walls are capable of resisting and absorbing extremely high ice loads by being adapted to progressively crush the leading edge of an impacting iceberg and to thereby minimize the crush of the iceberg against the caisson shield before coming to rest against the shield.

  13. Offshore Essaouira basin: Geology and hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Ait Salem, A. )

    1991-03-01

    The study area lies in the offshore extension of the onshore Essaouria basin. The Mesozoic development of the Essaouira margin was largely controlled by Late Triassic to Mid-Jurassic rifting and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, continental margin. Diapiric salt structure recognized on seismic defines a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic salt basin in the offshore area initiated during early rifting. Subsidence and sea-level rise during Jurassic resulted in carbonate platform development. This was followed during Cretaceous and Tertiary time by the deposition of a prograding siliciclastic system. Only three wells have been drilled in this basin. Although drilled on poorly defined prospects, these wells encountered gas and oil shows. Fairly extensive seismic coverage of good quality data is now available. A study based on an integrated approach involving seismic facies definition and mapping, correlation with well data, identification of the principal control on sedimentation, and basin modeling in conjunction with source rock prediction and maturity modeling has been carried out. Results have shown that hydrocarbon potential in the offshore Essaouira basin has not yet been substantiated by drilling. Attractive structural and stratigraphic prospects exist in the shelf, shelf edge, and the slope, and await confirmation by drilling.

  14. Sequence stratigraphy of the Orange basin, western offshore South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Muntingh, A. )

    1991-03-01

    A seismic/sequence-stratigraphic framework for the siliciclastic fluvial to deepwater Cretaceous strata of the Orange basin has been constructed. Sequence-stratigraphic concepts developed by Exxon were used to interpret 10,000 km of seismic data and logs from 31 exploration boreholes within an area of 90,000 km{sup 2}. The sequence stratigraphy of the western margin exhibits 34 cyclical depositional sequences interpreted to document the response of the passive margin to cyclical changes in relative sea-level from Mid-Aptian to Late Maastrichtian times. All but one of the sequence boundaries are type 1 unconformities displaying intense erosion on the shelf and interpreted to develop during periods of rapid fall in relative sea-level. Basin-wide sequence boundaries (type 1 and 2 unconformities) were correlated with the third-order cycles of Exxon's global cycle chart utilizing SOEKOR's paleontological dating of a limited number of marine condensed sections. Higher-order cycles are recognized and best developed along the flanks of the structural arches where lower subsidence rates permitted impact of higher frequency cycles. Component depositional systems tracts inferred to have resulted from changes in relative sea level were interpreted and paleogeographic maps were constructed outlining incised valley systems on the shelf, shelf edge canyons, prograding wedges, basin floor fan, and slope fan systems. Distal marine shales and marine condensed sections provide both seal and hydrocarbon source. The chronostratigraphic and depositional framework being used to predict prospective play areas for hydrocarbon exploration on the western offshore of South Africa is also applicable to the Namibian offshore.

  15. Operating requirements for and historical operations of Arctic offshore drilling systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Regg, J.; Breitmeier, J.; Walker, J.

    1995-12-31

    Many of the floating and bottom-founded drilling structures used for oil and gas exploration in the US Arctic have recently been proposed for use in the Russian Arctic offshore. This paper describes the US Arctic environmental conditions in terms of operation capabilities for the various types of drilling systems. A brief description of the various types of drilling systems used to date in the US Arctic is provided as background information. Also presented are the special regulatory requirements and contingency plans which have been developed for offshore Arctic drilling-system operations. The paper will summarize information on the operating experiences of the various drilling systems used in the US Arctic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) to date.

  16. Offshore oil & gas markets heating up: Gulf of Mexico rising from `Dead Sea` image; healthy Gulf, North Sea markets combine for big impact

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    Only three years ago, Gulf of Mexico drilling activity was so moribund that it was termed the Dead Sea. But the market has changed so there is now effectively 100 percent utilization in several important categories of offshore rigs, and almost every type of offshore rig is now getting higher use and better rates. What makes these changes so profound is that few industry participants saw this tightness developing, and almost no one predicted that it would occur so soon. Even the largest offshore contractors were pleasantly surprised as they watched their key drilling markets tighten so uickly after many years of vast oversupply. Today, while neither the Gulf of Mexico nor the North Sea could be described as booming, they are not falling apart either. The combination of both markets merely being normal at the same time has made a big impact on the worldwide supply and demand for offshore drilling. The need for steady and increasing offshore oil and gas production has never been so high. The technology now in place is allowing the development of offshore areas deemed almost impossible less than a decade ago. Also, the vast excess supply of offshore equipment is gone for many forms of drilling, and the need for steadily higher dayrates is real and will merely increase over time.

  17. 26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference represents the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest with this volume containing papers relative to design of offshore platforms and marine riser systems. Papers deal with design, installation, fabrication, transport systems, mooring devices, repair methods, and development of satellite production facilities. Case histories on various offshore oil and gas fills are discussed along with economics of some applications and designs.

  18. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) for IEA Wind Task 23 Offshore Wind Technology and Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2010-12-01

    This final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports, Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). Subtask 1 discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. Subtask 2 included here, is the larger of the two volumes and contains five chapters that cover background information and objectives of Subtask 2 and results from each of the four phases of the project.

  19. Operational Impacts of Large Deployments of Offshore Wind (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Heaney, M.

    2014-10-01

    The potential operational impact of deploying 54 GW of offshore wind in the United States was examined. The capacity was not evenly distributed; instead, it was concentrated in regions with better wind quality and close to load centers (Table 1). A statistical analysis of offshore wind power time series was used to assess the effect on the power system. The behavior of offshore wind resembled that of onshore wind, despite the former presenting higher capacity factors, more consistent power output across seasons, and higher variability levels. Thus, methods developed to manage onshore wind variability can be extended and applied to offshore wind.

  20. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Carpinteria, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    area probably are remobilized on an annual basis. The shelf is underlain by variable amounts of upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments that thicken to the south. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft sediment and isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Carpinteria map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats lie within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, dominated by a flat seafloor and substrates formed from deposition of fluvial and marine sediment during sea-level rise. This fairly homogeneous seafloor provides promising habitat for groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms. The only significant interruptions to this homogeneous habitat type are the exposures of hard, irregular, and hummocky sedimentary bedrock and coarse-grained sediment where potential habitats for rockfish and related species exist.

  1. The spatiotemporal characteristics of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingmin

    2016-09-15

    Marine ecosystems are home to a host of numerous species ranging from tiny planktonic organisms, fishes, and birds, to large mammals such as the whales, manatees, and seals. However, human activities such as offshore oil and gas operations increasingly threaten marine and coastal ecosystems, for which there has been little exploration into the spatial and temporal risks of offshore oil operations. Using the Gulf of Mexico, one of the world's hottest spots of offshore oil and gas mining, as the study area, we propose a spatiotemporal approach that integrates spatial statistics and geostatistics in a geographic information system environment to provide insight to environmental management and decision making for oil and gas operators, coastal communities, local governments, and the federal government. We use the records from 1995 to 2015 of twelve types of hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations, and analyze them spatially over a five year period. The spatial clusters of these hazards are analyzed and mapped using Getis-Ord Gi and local Moran's I statistics. We then design a spatial correlation coefficient matrix for multivariate spatial correlation, which is the ratio of the cross variogram of two types of hazards to the product of the variograms of the two hazards, showing a primary understanding of the degrees of spatial correlation among the twelve types hazards. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first application of spatiotemporal analysis methods to environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations; the proposed methods can be applied to other regions for the management and monitoring of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil operations. PMID:27213845

  2. The spatiotemporal characteristics of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingmin

    2016-09-15

    Marine ecosystems are home to a host of numerous species ranging from tiny planktonic organisms, fishes, and birds, to large mammals such as the whales, manatees, and seals. However, human activities such as offshore oil and gas operations increasingly threaten marine and coastal ecosystems, for which there has been little exploration into the spatial and temporal risks of offshore oil operations. Using the Gulf of Mexico, one of the world's hottest spots of offshore oil and gas mining, as the study area, we propose a spatiotemporal approach that integrates spatial statistics and geostatistics in a geographic information system environment to provide insight to environmental management and decision making for oil and gas operators, coastal communities, local governments, and the federal government. We use the records from 1995 to 2015 of twelve types of hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations, and analyze them spatially over a five year period. The spatial clusters of these hazards are analyzed and mapped using Getis-Ord Gi and local Moran's I statistics. We then design a spatial correlation coefficient matrix for multivariate spatial correlation, which is the ratio of the cross variogram of two types of hazards to the product of the variograms of the two hazards, showing a primary understanding of the degrees of spatial correlation among the twelve types hazards. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first application of spatiotemporal analysis methods to environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations; the proposed methods can be applied to other regions for the management and monitoring of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil operations.

  3. Venezuela offshore oil and gas production development: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Perez La Salvia, H.; Schwartz, E.; Contreras, M.; Rodriguez, J.I.; Febres, G.; Gajardo, E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a short history of offshore oil and gas production in Venezuela starting in Lake Maracaibo in 1923. The main emphasis has been the results of the recent R and D and the exploratory offshore programs in areas like Orinoco Delta located in the Atlantic Ocean, Northeast and Northwest Venezuela in the Caribbean sea. In the R and D offshore program the main objectives were: (1) To establish the local environmental, oceanographical, geotechnical and seismicity conditions for the Venezuelan Continental Platform. (2) To give a technical support to the PDVSA Operating Affiliates during the exploratory programs including: (a) to develop accurate drilling vessel positioning systems; (b) evaluation of sea bottom geotechnical conditions for safely operating the jack-ups and drilling vessels involved in the exploratory wells and (c) to identify those areas which because of their special nature require further investigation to establish preliminary type of platforms required for the areas to be developed or to evaluate other solutions proposed by Foreign Consultant Engineering Companies to the PDVSA Operating Affiliated Companies. The main objective of PDVSA for the coming future will be to develop the North of Paria Gas Field through the initially named Christopher Columbus Project now Sucre Gas, S.A., a consortium conformed by LaGoven, S.A. Shell, Exxon and Mitsubishi. objective of this paper is to give an idea of the history of the Venezuelan Oil and Gas Offshore development giving emphasis to the results of the INTEVEP S.A. Red offshore program and to show some results of the particular characteristics of oceanographical, environmental, geotechnical and seismic conditions in the main areas evaluated during the exploratory program: Orinoco Delta, Gulf of Paria and North of Paria.

  4. Offshore Wind Turbines - Estimated Noise from Offshore Wind Turbine, Monhegan Island, Maine: Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, Pamela M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-23

    Deep C Wind, a consortium headed by the University of Maine will test the first U.S. offshore wind platforms in 2012. In advance of final siting and permitting of the test turbines off Monhegan Island, residents of the island off Maine require reassurance that the noise levels from the test turbines will not disturb them. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, at the request of the University of Maine, and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program, modeled the acoustic output of the planned test turbines.

  5. 77 FR 62247 - Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... recommended interim voluntary guidance titled ``Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Dynamic Positioning Guidance''. The notice recommended owners and operators of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) follow Marine....'' The recommended interim voluntary guidance titled ``Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU)...

  6. Nearshore substrate and morphology offshore of the Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Sagy, Y.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2008-01-01

    The planned removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington, will likely increase river sediment flux to the coast, which may alter coastal habitats through sedimentation and turbidity. It is therefore important to characterize the current habitat conditions near the river mouth, so that future changes can be identified. Here we provide combined sonar and video mapping results of approximately 20 km2 of seafloor offshore of the Elwha River collected with the purpose to characterize nearshore substrate type and distribution prior to dam removal. These combined data suggest that the nearshore of the western delta and Freshwater Bay are dominated by coarse sediment (sand, gravel, cobble, and boulders) and bedrock outcrops; no fine-grained sediment (mud or silt) was identified within the survey limits. The substrate is generally coarser in Freshwater Bay and on the western flank of the delta, where boulders and bedrock outcrops occur, than directly offshore and east of the river mouth. High variation in substrate was observed within much of the study area, however, and distinct boulder fields, gravel beds and sand waves were observed with spatial scales of 10-100 m. Gravel beds and sand waves suggest that sediment transport is active in the study area, presumably in response to tidal currents and waves. Both historic (1912) and recent (1989-2004) distributions of Bull Kelp (Nereocystis sp.) beds were preferentially located along the boulder and bedrock substrates of Freshwater Bay. Although kelp has also been mapped in areas dominated by gravel and sand substrate, it typically has smaller canopy areas and lower temporal persistence in these regions.

  7. Arctic and offshore research. Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The DOE Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR) effort is designed to meet the needs for a centralized, high-quality, Arctic energy-related data base and for long-term, high-risk research. The ultimate purpose of the DOE effort is to promote extensive private use of the evolving AOR technology data base in order to accelerate development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In assessing the Arctic energy-related research needs as delineated in this report, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), with the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology, developed the following activities: AOR Energy-Related Technology Data Base Development; AOR Seminars and Workshops; Arctic and Offshore Energy Research Coordination; Sea Ice Research; Seafloor/Soils Research; and Subice Systems Development. The DOE AOR effort was initiated in FY 1983, the early development activities were performed in January and February 1983, and the effort evolved to its present form by the conclusion of FY 1984. The current activities have included determining the Arctic bibliographic data base and initiating most pieces of the research described above (except multiyear ice properties and pipeline research). Some of the FY 1984 major accomplishments are: four to five ice islands 1 to 2 miles in length drifting off the Ellesmere ice shelves north of Ellesmere Island were aerially surveyed. A report was completed on the location of the ice shelf edge, breakup, and regrowth of the Ellesmere ice shelves over the past two decades. Ice-ridging shear zone studies have shown that the 6- to 10-feet high shoals usually under the shear zone are not totally destroyed from ice gouging from one year to the next, but that the ice gouging may be instrumental in initiating and maintaining the shoals, which may protect Arctic offshore structures. Airborne radar sensing techniques were used to determine the electromagnetic properties of sea ice and physical properties.

  8. Offshore Benin, a classic passive margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mathalone, J.M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    Offshore Benin comprises a narrow east-west continental shelf, some 30 km wide. A sharp shelf break running parallel to the coast borders the shelf, whereupon water depths rapidly increase to over 7000 ft. The area lies within the Dahomey Embayment, one of a series of Cretaceous and younger basins lining the coast of Africa that owe their inception to the Late Mesozoic break-up of the Gondwanaland Continent. The basin extends some 100 km inland, but sedimentary section is thin onshore compared to a maximum of 20,000 ft of sediment offshore. Initial sedimentation in this basin was of Neocomian alluvial and lacustrine clastics. These were deposited in east-west-trending narrow half-grabens associated with the initial break up of the South American and African continents. They are covered unconformably by more extensive Albian and Cenomanian transgressive clastics and shallow marine Turonian sandstones which are the main reservoir at Seme, Benin's only oilfield. The Senonian section offshore comprises passive margin deep sea clastic sediments prograding southwards. Very large proximal deep sea channels up to 2500 ft thick are developed in this interval. These channels are associated with excellent petroleum source rocks, averaging 4-5% oil-prone organic carbon, and form the main exploration target in the area when configured in a trap morphology. Seismic data quality is excellent in the region allowing detailed examination of the relationships between the rifted section and later units. In addition, these data illustrate clearly both internal and external morphology of the Senonian proximal deep sea channels.

  9. Shelf response to intense offshore wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, Manel; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Espino, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Cross and along-shelf winds drive cross-shelf transport that promotes the exchange of tracers and nutrients to the open sea. The shelf response to cross-shelf winds is studied in the north shelf of the Ebro Delta (Mediterranean Sea), where those winds are prevalent and intense. Offshore winds in the region exhibit strong intensities (wind stress larger than 0.8 Pa) during winter and fall. The monthly average flow observed in a 1 year current meter record at 43.5 m was polarized following the isobaths with the along-shelf variability being larger than the cross-shelf. Prevalent southwestward along-shelf flow was induced by the three-dimensional regional response to cross-shelf winds and the coastal constraint. Seaward near-surface velocities occurred predominantly during offshore wind events. During intense wind periods, the surface cross-shelf water transport exceeded the net along-shelf transport. During typically stratified seasons, the intense cross-shelf winds resulted in a well-defined two-layer flow and were more effective at driving offshore transport than during unstratified conditions. While transfer coefficients between wind and currents were generally around 1%, higher cross-shelf transfer coefficients were observed in the near-inertial band. The regional extent of the resulting surface cold water during energetic cross-shelf winds events was concentrated around the region of the wind jet. Cross-shelf transport due to along-shelf winds was only effective during northeast wind events. During along-shelf wind conditions, the transport was estimated to be between 10 and 50% of the theoretical Ekman transport.

  10. 46 CFR 174.080 - Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.080 Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. (a) On a surface type unit...

  11. 46 CFR 174.080 - Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.080 Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. (a) On a surface type unit...

  12. Platform evaluation of an offshore field

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.L.; Saleri, N.G.; Al-Khowaiter, A.O.

    1995-10-01

    A numerical study of an offshore field was performed to evaluate the relative performance of horizontal versus conventional wells, and various well completion/placement/production scenarios for a six-well platform. The results presented in this paper are found to be counterintuitive. While horizontal/high slant wells showed delayed gas and/or water breakthroughs, the overall platform performance remained largely insensitive to well configuration (horizontal versus conventional). Well placement, completion interval, and production strategy after breakthrough were identified to be the critical parameters in determining the performance of the platform. The study results favor conventional completions for this particular six-well platform.

  13. Offshore installation and maintenance of submersible pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Verdina, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Pertamina/IIAPCO operates a large offshore production complex in the Southeast Sumatra Contract Area of Indonesia. The use of submersible centrifugal electric pumps both for artificial lift and for pipeline transfer of produced fluids has played an important role in the success enjoyed by this contract area during its 10-year producing life. This paper describes the conditions and considerations contributing to the initial selection and eventual standardized use of these pumps by the company. Also included are a discussion of operational experience gained and a summary of the submersible pumps' performance record.

  14. Protection of offshore structures against corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, M.F.; Smith, H.M.; Bowley, C.V. Ltd., Denso House, Chapel Road, London SE27 OTR )

    1989-09-01

    Maintaining protection of metal structures against corrosion in marine environments presents problems of surface preparation, accessibility and the limitations of various coating systems. Cathodic protection may be utilized underwater but its effectiveness is severely limited in the splash zone. Hence, reliable coatings are required. Petrolatum tapes have special virtues under these conditions. Following years of experience of the use of petrolatum tapes in difficult environments a comprehensive corrosion protection system was developed for piles, offshore platforms, risers etc. The paper covers both laboratory and field experience leading to commercially viable coatings.

  15. Aluminium alloys for offshore drilling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, G.M.; Basovich, V.S.; Pisarnitsky, A.D.; Jemetz, B.V.; Mazurova, L.D.; Gelfgat, M.Ya.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the experience gained in the USSR (now CIS) over many years in the use of Aluminum Drill Pipe (ADP). The main advantages of aluminum over steel for drill pipe applications are discussed. Methods of fabricating aluminum pipes with steel tool joints are explained. The problems of abrasion and corrosion resistance are presented. Recent experience testing ADP after exposure to the offshore environment have shown negligible reduction in fatigue life. It is now considered possible to design a slimline riser in aluminum for water depths of 3--4 kilometers.

  16. 75 FR 23582 - Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... published the proposed rule Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells (74 FR 38147). The comment... the published proposed rule 1010-AD47 Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells (74 FR... Minerals Management Service 30 CFR Part 250 RIN 1010-AD47 Annular Casing Pressure Management for...

  17. Flying in, Flying out: Offshore Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Edwards, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of university education faculties offering offshore education. The analogy, "flying in, flying out" captures the intensity of such offshore experiences for visiting academics, and contrasts their professional experiences against expatriate academics. This paper reports on case studies of two…

  18. 75 FR 47311 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will meet by teleconference to discuss items related to safety of operations and other matters affecting...

  19. 75 FR 65025 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will meet to discuss items related to safety of operations and other matters affecting the oil and gas offshore industry. The purpose of this meeting is to review and discuss reports and recommendations received from the various NOSAC subcommittees. The Committee will then use this information to formulate recommendations to the agency.......

  20. Wind Resource Mapping for United States Offshore Areas: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is producing validated wind resource maps for priority offshore regions of the United States. This report describes the methodology used to validate the maps and to build a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) database to classify the offshore wind resource by state, water depth, distance from shore, and administrative unit.

  1. 2014-2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Aaron

    2015-11-18

    This presentation provides an overview of progress toward offshore wind cost reduction in Europe and implications for the U.S. market. The presentation covers an overview of offshore wind developments, economic and performance trends, empirical evidence of LCOE reduction, and challenges and opportunities in the U.S. market.

  2. 26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. This conference is divided into four volumes with this volume containing conference papers relative to offshore drilling and well completion information. Papers also deal with construction specifications for marine risers and pipelines, along with any relevant installation and performance information.

  3. Offshore Oil: Environmental Impacts on Land and Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Pamela L.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a counter position to that provided in SE 512 127 in which the author emphasizes that there are too many problems yet to be solved (related to offshore oil development) to proceed with full-scale development of offshore oil drilling. (PEB)

  4. International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy Under IEA Annex XXIII

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Lemming, J.

    2005-11-01

    This paper defines the purpose of IEA Annex XXIII, the International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy. This international collaboration through the International Energy Agency (IEA) is an efficient forum from which to advance the technical and environmental experiences collected from existing offshore wind energy projects, as well as the research necessary to advance future technology for deep-water wind energy technology.

  5. Ghana seeks to resume offshore production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-17

    Ghana National Petroleum Corp. (GNPC) plans a two well offshore drilling program it hopes will lead to a resumption of hydrocarbon production in the West African state. The wells will be drilled in South Tano field in the extreme western sector of Ghana's offshore area, near the boundary with Ivory Coast. If the program is successful, the state company will develop a novel floating production system to handle and export oil. Gas will provide fuel for an electrical power generating unit integrated into a floating production system. Power will move ashore through a submarine cable. North and south Tano fields were discovered by Phillips Petroleum Corp., which relinquished the acreage in 1982. The South Tano discovery well flowed 1,614 b/d of oil and 8.2 MMCfd of gas. Studies by a unit of ARCO, when it was a partner in a group that later acquired the Tano block, pegged North Tano hydrocarbons in place at 53.6 million bbl of oil and 102 bcf of gas. Braspetro, under contract with GNPC, estimated South Tano hydrocarbons in place at 82 million bbl of oil and 100 bcf of gas. GNPC is evaluating the possibility of rehabilitating Saltpond oil field about 150 miles east-northeast of North and South Tano. Saltpond has been shut in since 1985.

  6. Predicting deep reservoir quality, offshore Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, J.E. )

    1996-01-01

    Reducing risk by predicting deep reservoir potential has long been the goal of the explorationist. To successfully evaluate deep reservoir potential requires the integration of information on depositional setting, mineralogy, texture (i.e. grain size and sorting), burial history, temperature, porosity, and permeability. In 1991, prior to the 14th Round, exploration potential on the Halten Terrace (Offshore Norway) was limited by reservoir predictions (based on generalized mineralogy trends) which suggested economic basement was 4000m. However, an integrated reservoir study conducted between 1991-1993 concluded that in certain Jurassic facies, significant deep reservoir potential existed. The study predicted that coarser-grained, quartz-rich braided stream, delta front, and offshore shelf sandbodies would have good porosity and permeability below 4000m, particularly there early chlorite grain coatings were present to inhibit silica cement. In the spring of 1995, the discovery of significant hydrocarbon reserves below 4000m on Block 6406/2 confirmed these predictions and proved that integrated reservoir characterization can lead to accurate deep reservoir quality predictions. The integrated methodology used will be discussed.

  7. Thermometric well testing on the Vietnam offshore

    SciTech Connect

    San, T.N.; Shtyrlin, V.F.; Vakhitov, G.G.; Loi, L.M.; Listengarten, L.; Hien, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    It is impossible to control and adjust an oil and gas field development without determining the flow intervals of production wells. For that it is preferable to get production profiles by using the downhole flowmeter. There are, however, some main restrictions for wide-spread application of them on the offshore of Vietnam as follows: the flowmeter spinner velocity cannot indicate correctly in the open hole wells having a nonuniform diameter; it is unable to carry out in the case when the tubing shoe is lower than top formation on 300--500m. In this paper, the authors present a summary of temperature profile method to determine the flowing and intaking intervals of wells drilled in basement of the White Tiger Field on Vietnam offshore. For the last 2 years more than 30 wells were surveyed by this method in the above mentioned conditions. This paper presents the theory and practice of well temperature profile surveys, the concrete examples of data interpretation using the software Oiltest.

  8. Optimization of monopiles for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Kallehave, Dan; Byrne, Byron W; LeBlanc Thilsted, Christian; Mikkelsen, Kristian Kousgaard

    2015-02-28

    The offshore wind industry currently relies on subsidy schemes to be competitive with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. For the wind industry to survive, it is vital that costs are significantly reduced for future projects. This can be partly achieved by introducing new technologies and partly through optimization of existing technologies and design methods. One of the areas where costs can be reduced is in the support structure, where better designs, cheaper fabrication and quicker installation might all be possible. The prevailing support structure design is the monopile structure, where the simple design is well suited to mass-fabrication, and the installation approach, based on conventional impact driving, is relatively low-risk and robust for most soil conditions. The range of application of the monopile for future wind farms can be extended by using more accurate engineering design methods, specifically tailored to offshore wind industry design. This paper describes how state-of-the-art optimization approaches are applied to the design of current wind farms and monopile support structures and identifies the main drivers where more accurate engineering methods could impact on a next generation of highly optimized monopiles. PMID:25583868

  9. Optimization of monopiles for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Kallehave, Dan; Byrne, Byron W; LeBlanc Thilsted, Christian; Mikkelsen, Kristian Kousgaard

    2015-02-28

    The offshore wind industry currently relies on subsidy schemes to be competitive with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. For the wind industry to survive, it is vital that costs are significantly reduced for future projects. This can be partly achieved by introducing new technologies and partly through optimization of existing technologies and design methods. One of the areas where costs can be reduced is in the support structure, where better designs, cheaper fabrication and quicker installation might all be possible. The prevailing support structure design is the monopile structure, where the simple design is well suited to mass-fabrication, and the installation approach, based on conventional impact driving, is relatively low-risk and robust for most soil conditions. The range of application of the monopile for future wind farms can be extended by using more accurate engineering design methods, specifically tailored to offshore wind industry design. This paper describes how state-of-the-art optimization approaches are applied to the design of current wind farms and monopile support structures and identifies the main drivers where more accurate engineering methods could impact on a next generation of highly optimized monopiles.

  10. Offshore winds using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Courtney, Michael; Antoniou, Ioannis; Mikkelsen, Torben; Sørensen, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Ground-based remote sensing instruments can observe winds at different levels in the atmosphere where the wind characteristics change with height: the range of heights where modern turbine rotors are operating. A six-month wind assessment campaign has been made with a LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and a SoDAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) on the transformer/platform of the world's largest offshore wind farm located at the West coast of Denmark to evaluate their ability to observe offshore winds. The high homogeneity and low turbulence levels registered allow the comparison of LiDAR and SoDAR with measurements from cups on masts surrounding the wind farm showing good agreement for both the mean wind speed and the longitudinal component of turbulence. An extension of mean wind speed profiles from cup measurements on masts with LiDAR observations results in a good match for the free sectors at different wind speeds. The log-linear profile is fitted to the extended profiles (averaged over all stabilities and roughness lengths) and the deviations are small. Extended profiles of turbulence intensity are also shown for different wind speeds up to 161 m. Friction velocities and roughness lengths calculated from the fitted log-linear profile are compared with the Charnock model which seems to overestimate the sea roughness for the free sectors.

  11. Job stress, mental health, and accidents among offshore workers in the oil and gas extraction industries.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C L; Sutherland, V J

    1987-02-01

    Psychosocial and occupational stressors among 194 male employees on drilling rig and production platform installations in the United Kingdom and Dutch sectors of the North Sea were studied. Mental well-being and job satisfaction were also assessed, with attention to the incidence of accidents offshore. This occupational group were found to be much less satisfied with their jobs than their onshore counterparts. Although overall mental well-being compared favorably with that of the general population, levels of anxiety were significantly higher. Multivariate analysis showed "relationships at work and at home" to be a strong predictor of both job dissatisfaction and mental ill-health. Type A coronary-prone behavior was also found to be a significant predictor of reduced mental well-being and increased accident rates offshore.

  12. Three years' experience with the offshore self-boring pressuremeter ''PAM''

    SciTech Connect

    Brucy, F.; Fay, J.B.; LeTirant, P.

    1984-05-01

    The Offshore Self-Boring Pressuremeter (PAM) has been developed by the Institut Francais du Petrole for geotechnical investigations in water depths up to 1000 meters. The PAM was first presented at the 1981 OTC. It mainly consists of a seabed frame from which a self-boring pressuremeter probe is operated. To date, the PAM has totaled nearly 450 meters of borehole depth and more than 200 pressuremeter tests. Investigations have been performed in a wide variety of soil types. The latest deepwater campaign was carried out successfully in the Mediterranean at a water depth of 625 meters. Extensive geotechnical information is obtained from a PAM boring operation. The use of the pressuremeter method for offshore investigations and foundation designing should open up very interesting prospects.

  13. Integrated reservoir study - M/T structure offshore Abu Dhabi

    SciTech Connect

    Cartier, G.; Combes, J.T. des; Hassan, T.H.

    1995-08-01

    A multidisciplinary approach involving geology, geophysics, petrophysics and reservoir engineering is used to assess the oil-bearing Thamama reservoirs in the Offshore Abu Dhabi M/T Structure. The structural definition is hampered by subtle variations of the seismic velocities created by shallow high velocity channel fills. Improved time to depth conversion was achieved through detailed velocity studies and layer caking. As currently defined at the Thamama level, the M/T structure is a gentle low relief feature with closure of about 125 feet. The Lower Cretaceous Thamama Group comprises the producing zones and consists of a succession which was deposited over an extensive carbonate ramp platform. Seven depositional environments and fifteen associated lithofacies range from slope or basin edge, gradually passing to fore shoal, algal shoal, and rudistid backshoal of the inner ramp. Three third order sequences, their associated systems tracts, sequence boundaries and shallowing upwards parasequences are recognised. Based on geological and petrophysical data, a rock type scheme was developed as a basis for detailed reservoir layering and simulation studies. The main diagenetic processes which adversely affect porosity are circumgranular, ferroan and non-ferroan calcite and saddle dolomite cementation, while leaching is the primary porosity-enhancing process. Conventional and special core analyses indicate that specific poroperm, petrophysical and engineering parameters can be assigned to various rock types. The integration of all disciplines will optimise future appraisal drilling and lead to a more efficient development strategy of this field.

  14. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Administrative and political boundaries and offshore sand resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics Geopdf of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, military areas, marine protected areas, cultural resources, locations of submerged cables, and shipping routes. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in the administrative and political boundaries of Florida's coastal and offshore region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will find that they have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers.

  15. Multiple indices method for real-time tsunami inundation forecast using a dense offshore observation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, N.; Aoi, S.; Hirata, K.; Suzuki, W.; Kunugi, T.; Nakamura, H.

    2015-12-01

    We started to develop a new methodology for real-time tsunami inundation forecast system (Aoi et al., 2015, this meeting) using densely offshore tsunami observations of the Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (S-net), which is under construction along the Japan Trench (Kanazawa et al., 2012, JpGU; Uehira et al., 2015, IUGG). In our method, the most important concept is involving any type and/or form uncertainties in the tsunami forecast, which cannot be dealt with any of standard linear/nonlinear least square approaches. We first prepare a Tsunami Scenario Bank (TSB), which contains offshore tsunami waveforms at the S-net stations and tsunami inundation information calculated from any possible tsunami source. We then quickly select several acceptable tsunami scenarios that can explain offshore observations by using multiple indices and appropriate thresholds, after a tsunami occurrence. At that time, possible tsunami inundations coupled with selected scenarios are forecasted (Yamamoto et al., 2014, AGU). Currently, we define three indices: correlation coefficient and two variance reductions, whose L2-norm part is normalized either by observations or calculations (Suzuki et al., 2015, JpGU; Yamamoto et al., 2015, IUGG). In this study, we construct the TSB, which contains various tsunami source models prepared for the probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment in the Japan Trench region (Hirata et al., 2014, AGU). To evaluate the propriety of our method, we adopt the fault model based on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake as a pseudo "observation". We also calculate three indices using coastal maximum tsunami height distributions between observation and calculation. We then obtain the correlation between coastal and offshore indices. We notice that the index value of coastal maximum tsunami heights is closer to 1 than the index value of offshore waveforms, i.e., the coastal maximum tsunami height may be predictable within appropriate thresholds defined for

  16. Quantifying the hurricane catastrophe risk to offshore wind power.

    PubMed

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Apt, Jay

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that over 50 GW of offshore wind power will be required for the United States to generate 20% of its electricity from wind. Developers are actively planning offshore wind farms along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts and several leases have been signed for offshore sites. These planned projects are in areas that are sometimes struck by hurricanes. We present a method to estimate the catastrophe risk to offshore wind power using simulated hurricanes. Using this method, we estimate the fraction of offshore wind power simultaneously offline and the cumulative damage in a region. In Texas, the most vulnerable region we studied, 10% of offshore wind power could be offline simultaneously because of hurricane damage with a 100-year return period and 6% could be destroyed in any 10-year period. We also estimate the risks to single wind farms in four representative locations; we find the risks are significant but lower than those estimated in previously published results. Much of the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines can be mitigated by designing turbines for higher maximum wind speeds, ensuring that turbine nacelles can turn quickly to track the wind direction even when grid power is lost, and building in areas with lower risk.

  17. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Love, David C.; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production. PMID:25415208

  18. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  19. On the Offshore Advection of Boundary-Layer Structures and the Influence on Offshore Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörenkämper, Martin; Optis, Michael; Monahan, Adam; Steinfeld, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    The coastal discontinuity imposes strong signals to the atmospheric conditions over the sea that are important for wind-energy potential. Here, we provide a comprehensive investigation of the influence of the land-sea transition on wind conditions in the Baltic Sea using data from an offshore meteorological tower, data from a wind farm, and mesoscale model simulations. Results show a strong induced stable stratification when warm inland air flows over a colder sea. This stratification demonstrates a strong diurnal pattern and is most pronounced in spring when the land-sea temperature difference is greatest. The strength of the induced stratification is proportional to this parameter and inversely proportional to fetch. Extended periods of stable stratification lead to increased influence of inertial oscillations and increased frequency of low-level jets. Furthermore, heterogeneity in land-surface roughness along the coastline is found to produce pronounced horizontal streaks of reduced wind speeds that under stable stratification are advected several tens of kilometres over the sea. The intensity and length of the streaks dampen as atmospheric stability decreases. Increasing sea surface roughness leads to a deformation of these streaks with increasing fetch. Slight changes in wind direction shift the path of these advective streaks, which when passing through an offshore wind farm are found to produce large fluctuations in wind power. Implications of these coastline effects on the accurate modelling and forecasting of offshore wind conditions, as well as damage risk to the turbine, are discussed.

  20. Greenland unveils terms for offshore licenses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-20

    This paper reports that Greenland has spelled out terms for its first round of offshore licensing. The action off western Greenland could lead to the first oil and gas exploration there since an unsuccessful campaign in the 1970s. The Mineral Resources Administration (MRA) for Greenland pegged exploration license terms on 133 blocks, all south of the 66th parallel, at 10 years with options for 2 year extensions to a maximum of 6 more years. The license can cover as many as six blocks. In the first 3 year period companies will have only a seismic obligation of 1,588 km per six blocks. For the second 3 year period there will be a one well obligation and one well in each subsequent 2 year periods.

  1. Offshore structure and method of sinking same

    SciTech Connect

    Fern, D. T.

    1985-02-05

    An offshore structure and a method of skinking it to the sea bed. In accordance with one aspect of this invention, the structure is sunk asymmetrically by first sinking a first end portion thereof and then sinking the other end portion. The first end portion is sunk by ballasting it while the other end portion is closed to ballast. The structure is provided with sufficient water plane area while sinking each end portion to maintain stability during the sinking process. In accordance with another aspect of this invention, at least two spaced-apart piles are provided at the end corresponding to the first end portion to absorb the force of impact with the sea bed and to maintain a skirt on the structure out of contact with the sea bed until both ends of the structure have been sunk to the sea bed.

  2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN THE OFFSHORE ENVIRONMENT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Robert A.; Basham, Peter W.

    1985-01-01

    This report discusses earthquake effects and potential hazards in the marine environment, describes and illustrates methods for the evaluation of earthquake hazards, and briefly reviews strategies for mitigating hazards. The report is broadly directed toward engineers, scientists, and others engaged in developing offshore resources. The continental shelves have become a major frontier in the search for new petroleum resources. Much of the current exploration is in areas of moderate to high earthquake activity. If the resources in these areas are to be developed economically and safely, potential earthquake hazards must be identified and mitigated both in planning and regulating activities and in designing, constructing, and operating facilities. Geologic earthquake effects that can be hazardous to marine facilities and operations include surface faulting, tectonic uplift and subsidence, seismic shaking, sea-floor failures, turbidity currents, and tsunamis.

  3. Troll, Haltenpipe showcase offshore pipelay advances

    SciTech Connect

    Blaker, F.; Gjertveit, E.; Breivik, J.

    1996-07-29

    Pipelines installed on the Norwegian continental shelf represent current offshore pipeline installation technology for pipe size (up to 40 in.), water depth (to 540 m) distance between pigging stations (up to 800 km), and complex seabed intervention and landfall construction. Furthermore, the number of deepwater pipelines worldwide has triggered significant advances in the development of pipeline repair. The Troll oil pipeline and Haltenpipe projects faced technical challenges: irregular seabed, conditions requiring highly accurate mapping, careful routing, free-span design, seabed preparation works, and special low-tension lay techniques. The two projects, therefore, have in many ways benefited from each other and been run practically as one large integrated project. The paper describes the design, route preparation, and installation for both pipelines.

  4. Recent advances in offshore pipeline technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, R.; Vitali, L.

    1994-12-31

    Since the pioneering construction of the TRANSMED pipeline system across the Sicily Channel in the early 80`s, offshore pipeline technology has been progressing towards more and more difficult environments. Now the projects envisaged for the 90`s are venturing far beyond the challenges of the recent past. The scope of this paper is to present the recent research efforts aimed at tackling the main design aspects of the new challenges. Particular attention will be given to the experiences and achievements on the last few years in transmission pipelines across the European Continental Shelf, e.g. in the Central and Southern North Sea and across the Mediterranean Sea. Technologies, tools and purpose developed criteria will be discussed. The performance of current operating pipeline systems will be reviewed and incentives to rationalize design criteria and guidelines will be illustrated.

  5. Personnel evacuation apparatus for an offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, A.F.

    1987-04-28

    An apparatus is described for evacuating personnel from an offshore platform in all weather conditions to a position on the ocean surface a safe distance from the platform the apparatus comprising: a boat launching ramp; flotation means; boat means adapted to be supported and launched by the ramp; means for releasably securing the boat means within the ramp means adjacent the entry end; means for releasing the latch means to permit the flotation means to move the launching ramp from its stowed position to a deployed position; and means for releasing the boat securing means, thereby permitting the boat means to slide down the ramp and be launched from the exit end of the ramp onto the surface of the ocean a safe distance from the platform.

  6. Offshore wind farm electrical cable layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, A. C.; Chick, J.; Johanning, L.; Khorasanchi, M.; de Laleu, V.

    2015-12-01

    This article explores an automated approach for the efficient placement of substations and the design of an inter-array electrical collection network for an offshore wind farm through the minimization of the cost. To accomplish this, the problem is represented as a number of sub-problems that are solved in series using a combination of heuristic algorithms. The overall problem is first solved by clustering the turbines to generate valid substation positions. From this, a navigational mesh pathfinding algorithm based on Delaunay triangulation is applied to identify valid cable paths, which are then used in a mixed-integer linear programming problem to solve for a constrained capacitated minimum spanning tree considering all realistic constraints. The final tree that is produced represents the solution to the inter-array cable problem. This method is applied to a planned wind farm to illustrate the suitability of the approach and the resulting layout that is generated.

  7. 75 FR 4579 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel INGRID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel INGRID AGENCY... Compliance was issued for the offshore ] supply vessel INGRID, as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81... INFORMATION: Background and Purpose The offshore supply vessel INGRID will be used for offshore...

  8. Proceedings of the fifth international offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering (OMAE) symposium. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, V.J.; Wang, Y.S.; Ayorinde, O.A.; Sodhi, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the symposium included climates, Arctic regions, hydrate formation, the buckling of heated oil pipelines in frozen ground, icebergs, concretes, air cushion vehicles, mobile offshore drilling units, tanker ships, ice-induced dynamic loads, adfreeze forces on offshore platforms, and multiyear ice floe collision with a massive offshore structure.

  9. 75 FR 82055 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Massachusetts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ..._Options_Offshore_Wind_12-01-09.pdf . In January 2010, the Executive Office of Energy and Environmental... potential development of offshore wind energy in an ``area of mutual interest'' (AMI) on the OCS offshore... area on the OCS for wind energy projects offshore of Massachusetts will be the evaluation...

  10. Beyond offshoring: assess your company's global potential.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2004-12-01

    In the past few years, companies have become aware that they can slash costs by offshoring: moving jobs to lower-wage locations. But this practice is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of how globalization can transform industries, according to research by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI). The institute's yearlong study suggests that by streamlining their production processes and supply chains globally, rather than just nationally or regionally, companies can lower their costs-as we've seen in the consumer-electronics and PC industries. Companies can save as much as 70% of their total costs through globalization--50% from offshoring, 5% from training and business-task redesign, and 15% from process improvements. But they don't have to stop there. The cost reductions make it possible to lower prices and expand into new markets, attracting whole new classes of customers. To date, however, few businesses have recognized the full scope of performance improvements that globalization makes possible, much less developed sound strategies for capturing those opportunities. In this article, Diana Farrell, director of MGI, offers a step-by-step approach to doing both things. Among her suggestions: Assess where your industry falls along the globalization spectrum, because not all sectors of the economy face the same challenges and opportunities at the same time. Also, pay attention to production, regulatory, and organizational barriers to globalization. If any of these can be changed, size up the cost-saving (and revenue-generating) opportunities that will emerge for your company as a result of those changes. Farrell also defines the five stages of globalization-market entry, product specialization, value chain disaggregation, value chain reengineering, and the creation of new markets-and notes the different levers for cutting costs and creating value that companies can use in each phase. PMID:15605568

  11. Modelling the hydrodynamics of offshore sandbanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, S.; MacDonald, N.; Williams, J.; O'Connor, B. A.; Nicholson, J.; Davies, A. M.

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes the details of a quasi-three-dimensional model (3DBANK), which has been developed to investigate medium and long-term morphological evolution and development of offshore sandbanks. The model is based on a three-dimensional tidal module using the Galerkin-eigenfunction method, but also includes four sub-modules to compute: the instantaneous bedform characteristics from which the temporal and spatial variations of the shear stresses at the sea bed can be derived; the suspended sediment concentration through the water column; the bed-load and suspended sediment fluxes at a point-in-plan; and the resulting morphological changes, respectively. The model also includes the effects of the wind and waves at the sea surface, as well as the wave-current interaction (WCI), and operates with full hydrodynamic and morphodynamic interaction. The components of the model were tested against laboratory and field data, and the complete model was then applied to Middlekerke Bank off the Flemish coast where extensive field measurements were taken during the European Community (EC) funded Circulation and Sediment Transport Around Banks (CSTAB) Project using various advanced instrumentation including STABLE and HF OSCR. Comparisons of the model results with the field measurements and observations show that the model is capable of reproducing the current and wave-induced bedforms, bed roughness, tidal currents and tidal residuals around the sandbank satisfactorily, and can be used to study the long-term sandbank evolution under various offshore conditions. This paper, however, focuses on the hydrodynamic aspects of the model, while the details of the morphological components will be given in a companion paper.

  12. Offshore Deformation Front in Miaoli Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, P.; Gwo-shyn, S.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is located at the junction of the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. It's because arc-continent collision occurs in the western Taiwan, resulting in the orogeny has formed a fold-and-thrust belt, developing a series of thrusts aligned in north-south direction. The thrust faults, locating in the central island, are the oldest and have almost inactive. Westward to the island, the faults become younger, dipping angles are smaller, and motions were stronger. On the west side, the foot of the Taiwan Western Foothill is considered the youngest thrust faults located along west Taiwan. Scholars recognized them as so-called the deformation front, and they also believed that the deformation front is located in between the compressive terrain uplifted area and the extensional subsidence area. Therefore, this front line is on the boundary of two different tectonic zones. This study investigates the trace of the deformation front in Miaoli area. Previous studies suggested that the west side of Miaoli collision zone should be fault-bounded, and is located in the seabed. However, in the geological map, there is no geologic evidence that appears on land and so-called active faults related with this deformation front. In the near coast seafloor, according to the reflection earthquakes data from the Institute of Oceanography of NTU, we can only see the offshore strata have been uplifted, and the data also shows that seabed is only covered by thin layer of sediments. This study indicates that in offshore place within three kilometers, shallow formations show a special layer of slime which was extruded to be corrugated transversely. Accordingly, we believe that this slime layer should be pressurized and filled with muddy water. Such features should be further investigated with other geological and geophysical survey data to check if they belong to the structural product of the deformation front.

  13. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Circulation over the continental shelf in the Offshore of San Francisco map area is dominated by the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific Gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint offshore of central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface waters southeastward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. Ocean temperatures offshore of central California have increased over the past 50 years, driving an ecosystem shift from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment.

  14. Offshore asphaltene and wax deposition: Problems/solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Leontaritis, K.J. |

    1996-05-01

    Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Such problems seriously threaten economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore facilities are especially susceptible to such deposition for a number of reasons. This article presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the problems, the field has been produced for more than 14 years with minimum environmental impact. Principal conclusions developed are discussed in this paper.

  15. 26th annual offshore technology conference, 1994 proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four Proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest, with relative sessions included in each volume. This Volume 3 contains information relative to offshore platforms and marine system designs. It describes both the installation and decommissioning of offshore platforms, retrofitting platforms to meet current safety standards, and technology assessments for both drilling and platform designs. Papers are also provided which describe maintenance and repair technologies for damages to platform.

  16. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  17. Evaluation of the vapor-protection capabilities of the jacket/trouser interface on the regulation ground-crew chemical defense ensemble. Interim report, 15 Nov-15 Dec 88

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.R.; Pointer, B.W.

    1990-12-01

    The ground-crew chemical defense ensemble (CDE) has deficiencies in its ability to prevent chemical warfare (CW) simulant vapors from leaking past the outer charcoal layer in the abdominal region when personnel wearing this CDE perform exercise in a simulant CW agent vapor. The purpose of this study was to determine the site and amount of vapor penetration. A charcoal-fabric cummerbund was used as an experimental tool to prevent vapor from leaking through the jacket/trouser interface. Test subjects, wearing the ground-crew CDE with and without cummerbund, performed exercises in a CW simulant vapor (methyl salicylate). While subjects were exposed to the simulant vapor, vapor concentrations were measured under the CDE jacket in the abdominal region. After removing the CDE in a vapor-free area, subjects entered sealed offgassing booths where simulant vapor levels were continuously measured. Subjects wearing a cummerbund had 80% lower abdominal vapor concentrations and 33% lower maximum offgassing booth concentrations than subjects that did not wear a cummerbund. The source of the vapor penetration is along the jacket/ trouser interface of the ground crew CDE.

  18. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Ventura, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft sediment and isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Ventura map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats lie within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, dominated by a flat seafloor and substrates formed from deposition of fluvial and marine sediment during sea-level rise. This flat, fairly homogeneous seafloor, composed primarily of unconsolidated sand and mud and local deposits of gravel, cobbles, and pebbles, provides promising habitat for groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms. The only significant interruptions to this homogeneous habitat type are exposures of hard, irregular sedimentary bedrock and coarse-grained sediment where potential habitats for rockfish and related species exist.

  19. Analysis of Acoustic Wave and Current Data Offshore of Mytle Beach, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, K. A.; Wren, A.

    2008-12-01

    Two bottom boundary layer (BBL) instrument frames have been deployed on the shoreface and inner-shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina offshore of Myrtle Beach as part of a South Carolina Sea Grant funded project to measure sediment transport over two hardbottom habitats. The inshore instrument frame is located on an extensive hardbottom surface 850 meters offshore. The second instrumented frame is secured to a hardbottom surface on the inner-shelf at a distance of approximately 2.5 km offshore. The nearshore BBL observing system is composed of a downward-looking RDI/ Teledyne 1200 kHz Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, an upward-looking Nortek Acoustic Wave and Current Profiler (AWAC), and an Aquatec Acoustic Backscatter Sensor. As part of this larger study, the wave and current data from the AWAC have been analyzed. Long-term continuous time series data include wave height, wave period, directional wave spectra, and the magnitude and direction of currents in the water column. Within the data set are several wave events, including several frontal passages and Tropical Storm Hanna which hit the Myrtle Beach area in early September. Wave data have been correlated with meteorological data, and a comparison of shoreface wave characteristics during each type of event are presented.

  20. ASME Section VIII Recertification of a 33,000 Gallon Vacuum-jacketed LH2 Storage Vessel for Densified Hydrogen Testing at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, Adam M.; Notardonato, William U.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) has been developed at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. GODU-LH2 has three main objectives: zero-loss storage and transfer, liquefaction, and densification of liquid hydrogen. A cryogenic refrigerator has been integrated into an existing, previously certified, 33,000 gallon vacuum-jacketed storage vessel built by Minnesota Valley Engineering in 1991 for the Titan program. The dewar has an inner diameter of 9.5 and a length of 71.5; original design temperature and pressure ranges are -423 F to 100 F and 0 to 95 psig respectively. During densification operations the liquid temperature will be decreased below the normal boiling point by the refrigerator, and consequently the pressure inside the inner vessel will be sub-atmospheric. These new operational conditions rendered the original certification invalid, so an effort was undertaken to recertify the tank to the new pressure and temperature requirements (-12.7 to 95 psig and -433 F to 100 F respectively) per ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. This paper will discuss the unique design, analysis and implementation issues encountered during the vessel recertification process.

  1. Overlap in offshore habitat use by double-crested cormorants and boaters in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Bur, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and boats of 2 length classes (≤ 8 m and > 8 m) were counted from a boat along 31 established strip transects in western Lake Erie from 24 April to 1 September 2000. Each transect included only one of the following habitats: (1) offshore of a breeding island or roosting/loafing area for cormorants (“refuge”), (2) reefs or shoals, (3) open water, or (4) offshore of an island shoreline that had evidence of development by humans. Foraging cormorants were recorded most often offshore of refuges and least often on open water. There was no difference between the numbers of foraging cormorants/km2 recorded offshore of developed shorelines and on reefs and shoals. More than half of all boats recorded were on transects that were within 1 km of developed shorelines. Among those transects > 1 km from developed shorelines, there were no differences among the habitats for the number of boats of either length class. The respective ranks of the 31 transect means of the numbers of cormorants/km2 and the numbers of boats/km2 in either length class were uncorrelated. The results suggest that (1) cormorants select foraging habitats based mainly on shoreline type, distance from shoreline, and depth, and (2) the amount of boat traffic is influenced by proximity to port and trip objectives, including sport angling and recreational boating. Although there is overlap in habitat use by cormorants and humans, this overlap is not complete. The perception of cormorants as a threat to fish populations may in part be due to this overlap.

  2. Variable Frequency Operations of an Offshore Wind Power Plant with HVDC-VSC: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated. Based on DOE study, wind power generation may reach 330 GW by 2030 at the level of penetration of 20% of the total energy production. From this amount of wind power, 54 GW of wind power will be generated at offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore wind power plants requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cable, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission. Otherwise, if the power is transmitted via alternating current, the reactive power generated by the cable capacitance may cause an excessive over voltage in the middle of the transmission distance which requires unnecessary oversized cable voltage breakdown capability. The use of HVDC is usually required for transmission distance longer than 50 kilometers of submarine cables to be economical. The use of HVDC brings another advantage; it is capable of operating at variable frequency. The inland substation will be operated to 60 Hz synched with the grid, the offshore substation can be operated at variable frequency, thus allowing the wind power plant to be operated at constant Volt/Hz. In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated.

  3. Understanding Potential Climate Variability Impacts on the Offshore Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stear, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability may have important implications for the offshore energy industry. Scenarios of increased storm activity and changes in sea level could require the retrofit of existing offshore platforms and coastal infrastructure, the decommissioning of facilities for which upgrade or relocation is not economically viable, and the development of new methods and equipment which are removed from or less sensitive to environmental loads. Over the past years the energy industry has been actively involved in collaborative research efforts with government and academia to identify the potential changes in the offshore operating environment, and corresponding risk implications. This presentation will review several of these efforts, and for several of the hypothetical climate variation scenarios, review the potential impacts on and possible mitigations for offshore and coastal energy infrastructure and operations.

  4. Use of a mobile diving support vessel, Offshore California

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.P.

    1983-03-01

    The Blue Dolphin is a converted workboat with a one-atmosphere manipulator bell diving system. It provides diving support for Chevron's offshore drilling program. This support includes underwater inspection, repair and salvage.

  5. OUTSHORE Maturity Model: Assistance for Software Offshore Outsourcing Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkiö, Juho; Betz, Stafanie; Oberweis, Andreas

    Offshore outsourcing software development (OOSD) is increasingly being used by the Software Industry. OOSD is a specific variant of Geographically Distributed Software Developmentdistributed software development (GDSD). Compared to the traditional mode of software development (i.e., in-house) GDSD is more edgy and puts at risk the attainment of the expected results. Although the failure of an offshore outsourcing software project may be caused by a variety of factors, one major complication is geographical distance. Consequently we argue that risk avoidance in outshore software development should be undertaken well in advance of the development launch. This could be done by testing the offshore outsourcing relevance of each software project and then the offshore outsourcing company involved. With this in mind we have developed the OUTSHORE Maturity Modeloutshore maturity model - OMM.

  6. “Open Hatch” Tour of Offshore Wind Buoy

    SciTech Connect

    Zayas, Jose

    2015-09-18

    Wind and Water Power Technologies Office Director, Jose Zayas gives a behind the scenes tour of the AXYS WindSentinel research buoy, which uses high-tech instruments to measure conditions for potential offshore wind energy development.

  7. Offshore oil & gas: Deep waters dominate in 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Deep water exploration and field development dominate the energy market as 1997 begins. All indicators point that a turnaround in the oil and gas industry is in full swing. Strong market fundamentals are in place: the worldwide offshore mobile rig fleet is approaching full utilization of marketed rigs, which has tightened the supply/demand balance and boosted day rates for all types of drilling units. The exploration and production niche is in its healthiest shape in more than 15 years with a growth spurt in progress. The excess rig supply has disappeared and some market observers believe the present supply of deep water rigs needs to triple just to meet demand in the Gulf of Mexico market alone. There is evidence that some energy companies are delaying drilling programs because suitable rigs simply are not available. Floating rigs generally are working longer-term contracts with some units under contract until late in the decade. Analysts forecast a heated market over the next 12 to 18 months. Gas prices are expected to remain strong through 1997 and crude prices should hold steady.

  8. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    and northwest by Point Conception and from the south and southwest by offshore islands and banks. The shelf is underlain by variable amounts of upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated in the late Pleistocene. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft sediment and isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats, which lie within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, range from soft, unconsolidated sediment to hard sedimentary bedrock. This heterogeneous seafloor provides promising habitat for rockfish, groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms.

  9. Evaluation of offshore stocking of Lake Trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.; Strang, T.G.; Lantry, J.R.; Connerton, M.J.; Schanger, T.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush has occurred in Lake Ontario since 1973. In U.S. waters, fish stocked through 1990 survived well and built a large adult population. Survival of yearlings stocked from shore declined during 1990–1995, and adult numbers fell during 1998–2005. Offshore stocking of lake trout was initiated in the late 1990s in response to its successful mitigation of predation losses to double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and the results of earlier studies that suggested it would enhance survival in some cases. The current study was designed to test the relative effectiveness of three stocking methods at a time when poststocking survival for lake trout was quite low and losses due to fish predators was a suspected factor. The stocking methods tested during 2000–2002 included May offshore, May onshore, and June onshore. Visual observations during nearshore stockings and hydroacoustic observations of offshore stockings indicated that release methods were not a direct cause of fish mortality. Experimental stockings were replicated for 3 years at one site in the southwest and for 2 years at one site in the southeast. Offshore releases used a landing craft to transport hatchery trucks from 3 to 6 km offshore out to 55–60-m-deep water. For the southwest site, offshore stocking significantly enhanced poststocking survival. Among the three methods, survival ratios were 1.74 : 1.00 : 1.02 (May offshore : May onshore : June onshore). Although not statistically significant owing to the small samples, the trends were similar for the southeast site, with survival ratios of 1.67 : 1.00 : 0.72. Consistent trends across years and sites indicated that offshore stocking of yearling lake trout during 2000–2002 provided nearly a twofold enhancement in survival; however, this increase does not appear to be great enough to achieve the 12-fold enhancement necessary to return population abundance to restoration

  10. Offshore Wind Balance-of-System Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, Michael; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Mone, Christopher

    2015-09-29

    Offshore wind balance-of-system (BOS) costs contribute up to 70% of installed capital costs. Thus, it is imperative to understand the impact of these costs on project economics as well as potential cost trends for new offshore wind technology developments. As a result, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and recently updated a BOS techno-economic model using project cost estimates created from wind energy industry sources.

  11. Offshore data base shows decline in rig accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, A.; Escoffier, L. )

    1991-09-16

    Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) has compiled statistical figures on offshore accidents for risk, safety, and reliability studies. IFP calls this data base Platform. It provides a body of essential data for accidents concerning both mobile and stationary offshore drilling rigs. Historical accident data bases are a basic implement for risk assessment of safety and reliability. IFP has built this data base with all available information from 950 actual listings.

  12. 2014–2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Aaron; Stehly, Tyler; Musial, Walter

    2015-09-30

    This report provides data and analysis to assess the status of the U.S. offshore wind industry through June 30, 2015. It builds on the foundation laid by the Navigant Consortium, which produced three market reports between 2012 and 2014. The report summarizes domestic and global market developments, technology trends, and economic data to help U.S. offshore wind industry stakeholders, including policymakers, regulators, developers, financiers, and supply chain participants, to identify barriers and opportunities.

  13. Database Design for the Evaluation of On-shore and Off-Shore Storm Characteristics over East Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Amy A.; Wilson, Jennifer G.; Brown, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from multiple sources is needed to investigate lightning characteristics over differing terrain (on-shore vs. off-shore) by comparing natural cloud-to-ground lightning behavior differences depending on the characteristics of attachment mediums. The KSC Lightning Research Database (KLRD) was created to reduce manual data entry time and aid research by combining information from various data sources into a single record for each unique lightning event of interest. The KLRD uses automatic data handling functions to import data from a lightning detection network and identify and record lighting events of interest. Additional automatic functions import data from the NASA Buoy 41009 (located approximately 20 miles off the coast) and the KSC Electric Field Mill network, then match these electric field mill values to the corresponding lightning events. The KLRD calculates distances between each lightning event and the various electric field mills, aids in identifying the location type for each stroke (i.e., on-shore vs. off-shore, etc.), provides statistics on the number of strokes per flash, and produces customizable reports for quick retrieval and logical display of data. Data from February 2014 to date covers 48 unique storm dates with 2295 flashes containing 5700 strokes, of which 2612 are off-shore and 1003 are on-shore. The number of strokes per flash ranges from 1 to 22. The ratio of single to subsequent stroke flashes is 1.29 for off-shore strokes and 2.19 for on-shore strokes.

  14. Massive sediment bypassing on the lower shoreface offshore of a wide tidal inlet - Cat Island Pass, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, B.E.; List, J.H.; Sallenger, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric and shoreline surveys along the Louisiana coast west of the Mississippi River mouth detected a large area of deposition in water depths of 2.0-8.5 m offshore of a 9-km- wide tidal inlet, the Cat Island Pass/Wine Island Pass system. A 59.9 ?? 106 m3 sandy deposit formed from the 1930s-1980s, spanning 27 km in the alongshore direction, delineating the transport pathway for sediment bypassing offshore of the inlet on the shoreface. Bypassing connected the shorefaces of two barrier island systems, the Isles Dernieres and the Bayou Lafourche. The processes responsible for formation of this deposit are not well understood, but sediment-transport modeling suggests that sediment is transported primarily by wind-driven coastal currents during large storms and hurricanes. Deposition appears to be related to changes in shoreline orientation, closing of transport pathways into a large bay to the east and the presence of tidal inlets. This newly documented type of bypassing, an offshore bypassing of the inlet system, naturally nourished the immediate downdrift area, the eastern Isles Dernieres, where shoreface and shoreline erosion rates are about half of pre-bypassing rates. Erosion rates remained the same farther downdrift, where bypassing has not yet reached. As this offshore bypassing continues, the destruction of the Isles Dernieres will be slowed.

  15. Oblique Collision of the Leeward Antilles, Offshore Venezuela: Linking Onshore and Offshore Data from BOLIVAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, A. G.; Avé Lallemant, H. G.; Levander, A.; Clark, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    The kinematic history of the Leeward Antilles (offshore Venezuela) can be characterized with the integration of onshore outcrop data and offshore seismic reflection data. Deformation structures and seismic interpretation show that oblique convergence and wrench tectonics have controlled the diachronous deformation identified along the Caribbean - South America plate boundary. Field studies of structural features in outcrop indicate one generation of ductile deformation (D1) structures and three generations of brittle deformation (F1 - F3) structures. The earliest deformation (D1/F1) began ~ 110 Ma with oblique convergence between the Caribbean plate and South American plate. The second generation of deformation (F2) structures initiated in the Eocene with the extensive development of strike-slip fault systems along the diffuse plate boundary and the onset of wrench tectonics within a large-scale releasing bend. The most recent deformation (F3) has been observed in the west since the Miocene where continued dextral strike-slip motion has led to the development of a major restraining bend between the Caribbean plate transform fault and the Oca - San Sebastian - El Pilar fault system. Deformation since the late Cretaceous has been accompanied by a total of 135° clockwise rotation. Interpretation of 2D marine reflection data indicates similar onshore and offshore deformation trends. Seismic lines that approximately parallel the coastline (NW-SE striking) show syndepositional normal faulting during F1/F2 and thrust faulting associated with F3. On seismic lines striking NNE-SSW, we interpret inversion of F2 normal faults with recent F3 deformation. We also observe both normal and thrust faults related to F3. The thick sequence of recent basin sedimentation (Miocene - Recent), interpreted from the seismic data, supports the ongoing uplift and erosion of the islands; as suggested by fluid inclusion analysis. Overall, there appears to be a strong correlation between

  16. The significance of gas for offshore operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, G. C.; Wheeler, S. J.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the physical behaviour of a seabed containing undissolved gas in the light of laboratory simulations undertaken at Oxford, Belfast and Sheffield Universities. This physical behaviour is significant for offshore operations in several ways. Gas may exist in high pressure pockets, trapped beneath low permeability clays, which form a blow out hazard during drilling. In fine-grained soils, it exists in voids distributed through the soil, at pressures only a little greater than te ambient water pressure. In this condition, it is unlikely to induced casastrophic failure, but will affect the foundation behaviour through changes in compressibility and strength. In sands, gas may be present in pores between particles, replacing water but not affecting the soil structure. There are common features in all these cases, in that the gas-water interaction occurs through surface tension, acting in menisci whose curvature is affected by the soil particle sizes, shapes and packing. These menisci determine the differences between gas and water pressure that may exist in the soil. Results are presented to show that the compressibility and undrained shear strength of a fine-grained soil are reduced by the presence of gas in a predictable manner, with a similar conclusion for the undrained strength of a gassy sand.

  17. Ubarana Oil Field, offshore Brazil: case history

    SciTech Connect

    Chagas, L.S.; Stringhini, A.V.; Gontijo, J.E.

    1981-05-01

    Ubarana is the first commercial oil field on the northern continental shelf of Brazil. Discovery well No. 1-RNS-3, drilled in 1973, was located on a seismic structural high in the offshore extension of the Potiguar Basin, about 13 km from the coast and 160 km northwest of Natal. The well penetrated oil-bearing, fluvio-deltaic sandstones of the Cretaceous acu formation. Five outpost wells, also located on the mapping of seismic horizons adjacent to the producing interval, helped to extend the limits of the accumulation. A total of 1.4 million cu m of oil has been produced between 1976 and Oct. 1980. The surface area of Ubarana Field is approximately 35 sq km with oil-bearing reservoirs at an average depth of approximately 2400 m. Permeability and porosity of the sandstones generally are poor. Pressure is normal and the main production mechanism is solution gas drive. The volume of oil in place is approximately 37 million cu m; estimated recovery factor is 29%. There are presently 4 platforms in the Ubarana Field active in drilling and production with 32 producing wells, and 14 locations to be drilled.

  18. Gas lift systems make ideal offshore workers

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    With a low initial installation cost and small footprint, gas lift systems are well suited for offshore installations where compressed gas is usually already available. These systems are used on multiple and slimhole completions and handle sandy conditions well. They are also used to kick off wells that will flow naturally once the heavier completion fluids leave the production string. Gas lift itself is a mature workaday technology. Measurement and control of gas flow is an area of intense development in gas lift technology. One new control method involves production of multiple completions through a single wellbore. Typically, gas lift valves are opened and closed through tubing pressure. But downhole measurement technology does not yet yield information good enough for stable gas lift control of multiple completions. Gas lift is proving to be a useful AL technique in conjunction with electric submersible pumps (ESP). Located above the ESP pump, the gas lift can reduce the head and allow greater flow. This is helpful when small casing restricts the size of the downhole ESP pump. Wells can usually be produced by the gas lift alone in case of ESP failure, or by replacing the ESP where schedules, high repair costs or low prices rule out repair.

  19. Data warehouse manages offshore project information

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-04

    A data warehouse adopted from the POSC/Caesar data model will manage the life-cycle information for the offshore Norway Aasgard project. The Aasgard project comprises the Midgard, Smorbukk, and Smorbukk South fields, which lie in 780--985 ft of water. A semisubmersible production facility will handle gas exports, scheduled to begin in 2000. Statoil estimates that recoverable reserves in the fields are 7.5 tcf of gas and 780 million bbl of oil. Notia software components include: the Intergraph asset and information management (AIM) product; the P/C PDM and P/C RDL models; a data mapping, translation, and import toolkit; the application programming interface (API); and query and browser clients. Intergraph describes AIM, with its object management framework (OMF) from metaphase technology, as the engine upon which Notia is based. The P/C PDM defines the data terminology and structure. A dictionary of standard petrochemical data items, the P/C RDL, defines the various activities, materials, components, and relationships among these items. The API allows users to develop additional functionality, and the toolkit provides resources for translating and mapping data from existing sources into a neutral format so that administrators can prepopulate the data warehouse. A worldwide web browser client allows users to query the data warehouse and display results in a variety of configurable formats, including virtual data sheets.

  20. Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.M. )

    1996-01-01

    In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro's efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Long Basin. This now produces [approximately]130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins' blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco's gas discoveries. Mitsubishi's and Petronas' oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro's acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.

  1. Analyzing, solving offshore seawater injection problems

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Rubale, J.S.; Muhsin, A.A.; Shaker, H.A.; Washash, I.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in seawater treatment, necessary cleaning of injection lines, and modifying well completion practices have reduced injection well plugging on pressure maintenance projects operated by Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co., (Adma-Opco) in Zakum and Umm Shaif fields, offshore Abu Dhabi, in the Arabian Gulf. Plugging was caused primarily by iron sulfide and corrosion products that were displaced down hole after being formed in the water distribution system. These materials, in turn, resulted from O/sub 2/ inadvertently entering the injection system where it combined with corrosive H/sub 2/S generated by sulfate-reducing bacteria. The problem was further compounded by debris peeling from the interior of well tubulars, a high solids content of brine used to complete injectors, and slime formation in injection pipe lines. Acidizing wells proved a quick method for partially restoring injectivity, but a continuing concerted effort is being made to achieve more permanent results by eliminating the O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S, which are at the root of the difficulty.

  2. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development

  3. Geological characterization of selected offshore sand resources on the OCS, offshore Alabama, for beach nourishment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, David J.; Parker, Steven J.; Smith, W. Everett

    1993-01-01

    Most Alabama Gulf and estuarine shoreline is undergoing long-term erosion; threatened shorelines will need programs of replenishment and maintenance if they are to be even temporarily stabilized. Highest priority beach replenishment areas include eastern Dauphin Island; west of Perdido Pass; and west of the inlet at Little Lagoon. There are no appropriate local onshore sand sources available for any such large scale program. Sediments in the Federal waters of the EEZ were evaluated for possible sources of sand for beach nourishment. Six lithofacies were delineated based on sediment characterization, spatial framework, and environment of deposition; of these, two (Clean Sands and Graded Shelly Sands) were deemed to have highest potential as beach nourishment sources. Five offshore target areas were delineated as potential sand sources. Criteria included sand aesthetics, estimated sand volume, and sand distributions. Preliminary environmental analyses included impacts of offshore sand dredging on shelf circulation; on economic activities; and on local benthic biota. Dredging may not significantly alter background wave regimes; however, data are insufficient to model effects of major storms on a modified shelf morphology. Dredging would avoid areas of current economic activity. There would like be little long-term impact on benthic biota in the target areas. Additional work will be required to confirm or refute these preliminary findings.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Offshore Wind Cost of Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Damiami, R.; Hand, M.; Meadows, R.; Musial, W.; Moriarty, P.; Veers, P.

    2012-10-01

    No matter the source, offshore wind energy plant cost estimates are significantly higher than for land-based projects. For instance, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) review on the 2010 cost of wind energy found baseline cost estimates for onshore wind energy systems to be 71 dollars per megawatt-hour ($/MWh), versus 225 $/MWh for offshore systems. There are many ways that innovation can be used to reduce the high costs of offshore wind energy. However, the use of such innovation impacts the cost of energy because of the highly coupled nature of the system. For example, the deployment of multimegawatt turbines can reduce the number of turbines, thereby reducing the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with vessel acquisition and use. On the other hand, larger turbines may require more specialized vessels and infrastructure to perform the same operations, which could result in higher costs. To better understand the full impact of a design decision on offshore wind energy system performance and cost, a system analysis approach is needed. In 2011-2012, NREL began development of a wind energy systems engineering software tool to support offshore wind energy system analysis. The tool combines engineering and cost models to represent an entire offshore wind energy plant and to perform system cost sensitivity analysis and optimization. Initial results were collected by applying the tool to conduct a sensitivity analysis on a baseline offshore wind energy system using 5-MW and 6-MW NREL reference turbines. Results included information on rotor diameter, hub height, power rating, and maximum allowable tip speeds.

  5. Study of VLCC tanker ship damage stability during off-shore operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzu-Pazara, R.; Arsenie, P.; Duse, A.; Varsami, C.

    2016-08-01

    Today, for the carriage of crude oil on sea are used larger tanker ships, especially from VLCC class. The operation of this type of ships requires in many cases special conditions, mainly related to water depth in the terminal area and enough maneuvering space for entrance and departure. Because, many ports from all over the world don't have capacity to operate this type of ships inside, in designed oil terminal, have chosen for development of outside terminals, off-shore oil terminals. In case of this type of terminals, the problems of water depth and manoeuvring space are fixed, but other kind of situations appears, regarding the safety in operation and environment factors impact on ship during mooring at oil transfer buoy. In the present paper we intend to show a study made using simulation techniques about VLCC class tanker ship in case of a damage condition resulted after a possible collision with another ship during loading operation at an off-shore terminal. From the beginning, we take in consideration that the ship intact stability, during all loading possible situations, has to be high enough, so that in case of some damage with flooding of different compartments due to hypothetical dimension water hole, the ship stability in the final stage of flooding to correspond to the requirements for damage stability and, also, to complementary requirements for damage ship stability.

  6. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine

  7. Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.M.

    1996-12-31

    In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro`s efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Long Basin. This now produces {approximately}130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins` blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco`s gas discoveries. Mitsubishi`s and Petronas` oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro`s acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.

  8. Resources assessment of methane hydrates offshore Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.

    2015-12-01

    JOGMEC, as a member of research group for resources assessment of Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21), is conducting resources assessment of methane hydrates (MHs) offshore surrounding Japan. The interpretation of 3-D seismic data acquired by geophysical vessel 'Shigen', which is owned by Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, are carried out. And MH concentrated zones are being extracted. This study is an introduction for the case example of interpretation of 3-D seismic data in the area which have not been drilled. The characteristic of 3-D seismic data in this study area shows fold structure, which undulates severalfold. In addition, some faults are interpreted, which does not show the large displacement, are seen. Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR) is very visible continuously. Clear velocity contrast in the boundary between above and below of BSR and the high velocity anomaly above BSR are confirmed in the high density velocity analysis profile. MHs are assumed to exist in sand heterogeneously because the velocity distribution in the extracted zones is inhomogeneous. In the results of geomorphological analysis, channel deposits and mid submarine fan deposits, which are located above BSR, are presumed the sediments which bear sand. Thus the extracted zones are estimated MH concentrated zones. As above, even the area has not been drilled, the extraction of MH concentrated zones can be estimated by the interpretation of the seismic data, the result of the high density velocity analysis, and the distribution of sand by geomorphological analysis. These results will be useful for the plan of the future drilling programme. This introduction is the example of 3-D seismic survey area. It will become a useful information for 3-D seismic survey plan by performing similar interpretation in 2-D seismic survey lines.

  9. Large Crater Structures Offshore Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, C.; Milstein, R.; Legg, M. R.; Goldfinger, C.; Kamerling, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    Digital mosaics of swath and conventional bathymetry data reveal large, distinct near-circular crater structures in the inner California Continental Borderland offshore of southern California. Two have maximum crater diameters that exceed 30 km, and a third has a crater diameter of about 12.5 km. One of these, Catalina Crater, exhibits a well-defined crater morphology -- raised outer rim, ring moat, and elevated central peak -- that resembles an impact site. The others have a similar morphology but more disrupted by later tectonic or volcanic activity. Preliminary analyses of available seismic, gravity and magnetic data over Catalina Crater reveal similarities and differences in geometry, structure, and geophysical signature to known impacts. All three crater structures occur within the Catalina terrane, a highly extended volcanic and metamorphic province floored by Catalina Schist basement. An alternative origin may thus involve explosive volcanism, caldera collapse and resurgent magmatism, and/or possibly schist remobilization, associated with the Catalina terrane. Timing of crater formation postdates the initial rifting and rotation of the western Transverse Ranges, and predates major right-slip along the San Clemente and San Diego Trough fault systems -- or about 18 to 16 Ma. No single model for impact, caldera, or other crater forming mechanism fully accounts for all of the present observations and data regarding the morphology, internal structure, and known lithology of these near-circular features. Regardless of their origin, these complex craters represent some of the largest structures of their kind in western North America and provide a unique opportunity to better understand crater forming processes in a submarine environment.

  10. Large enigmatic crater structures offshore southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, Mark R.; Nicholson, Craig; Goldfinger, Chris; Milstein, Randall; Kamerling, Marc J.

    2004-11-01

    Digital mosaics of swath and conventional bathymetry data reveal large, distinct near-circular crater structures in the Inner Continental Borderland offshore southern California. Two have maximum crater diameters that exceed 30 km and a third has a crater diameter of approximately 12 km. All three features exhibit the morphology of large complex craters (raised outer rim, ring moat and central uplift) yet their exact origin remains a mystery. Preliminary analyses of available seismic, gravity and magnetic data over these structures reveal both similarities and distinct differences in geometry, structure and geophysical signature to known impact sites. All three crater structures, however, occur within the Catalina terrane, a highly extended volcanic and metamorphic province floored by Catalina schist basement. A likely alternative origin may thus involve explosive volcanism, caldera collapse and resurgent magmatism, and/or possibly plutonism and schist remobilization associated with the Catalina terrane. No single model for crater formation, whether impact, caldera or pluton, fully accounts for all of the present observations regarding the morphology, internal structure and known geology of these near-circular features. Timing of crater formation post-dates the initial rifting and rotation of the western Transverse Ranges, and appears to predate major right slip along the San Clemente and San Diego Trough fault systems-or approximately 18 to 16 Ma. Regardless of their origin, these complex craters represent some of the largest structures of their kind in western North America and provide a unique opportunity to better understand the development of unusual crater structures in a submarine environment.

  11. Comparing offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite SAR and wake model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay Hasager, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    are modeled by various types of wake models. In the EERA DTOC project the model suite consists of engineering models (Ainslie, DWM, GLC, PARK, WASP/NOJ), simplified CFD models (FUGA, FarmFlow), full CFD models (CRES-flowNS, RANS), mesoscale model (SKIRON, WRF) and coupled meso-scale and microscale models. The comparison analysis between the satellite wind wake and model results will be presented and discussed. It is first time a comprehensive analysis is performed on this subject. The topic gains increasing importance because there is a growing need to precisely model also mid- and far-field wind farms wakes for development and planning of offshore wind farm clusters.

  12. Detection of wind wakes offshore from satellite SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, M. B.; Hasager, C. B.

    A study is presented on the mapping of ocean wind fields for detection of wind wakes downstream of an offshore wind farm. The study is based on ERS-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) scenes obtained in 2003 over Horns Reef in the North Sea. A large offshore wind farm (80 wind turbines) is located 14-20 km offshore of Denmark on this submerged reef. Meteorological observations are available from an offshore mast; wind speed is measured at four heights up to 62 m and wind direction is measured at 60 m. Maps of wind speed are generated from geophysical model functions (CMOD-4, CMOD-IFR2) with a resolution of 400 m by 400 m using wind direction obtained from in-situ measurements as model input. The wind maps display zones of reduced mean wind speed downstream of the wind farm compared to upwind conditions. The reduction is approximately 10 % immediately behind the wind farm and the wake effect is vanishing over distances in the order of 10 km downstream. This is consistent with wake model predictions. Satellite SAR provides a good estimate of the propagation of wind wakes. Information on how structures affect the local wind climate is useful for wind energy purposes, particularly for siting of future offshore wind farms.

  13. Comparison of potential power production at on- and offshore sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, S. C.; Barthelmie, R. J.

    2001-10-01

    This article presents analyses of the potential power production from turbines located in the near-shore and offshore environment relative to an onshore location, using half-hourly average wind speed data from four sites in the Danish wind monitoring network. These measurement sites are located in a relatively high wind speed environment, and data from these sites indicate a high degree of spatial coherence. For these sites and representative turbine specifications (rated power 1.3-2 W) the fraction of time with power output in excess of 500 kW is twice as high for the offshore location as for the land site. Also, the fraction of time with negligible power production (defined as <100 kW output from the turbines described herein) is less than 20% for the offshore site and twice as high at the land-based location. Capacity factors are higher for coastal sites than for the land site, and the annual capacity factor for the offshore location is twice that of the land site. Potential power output at the offshore site exhibits approximately the same seasonal variation as at the land site but little diurnal variation.

  14. Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

    2001-12-01

    The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers.

  15. Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J.; Grossmann, Iris; Apt, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that if the United States is to generate 20% of its electricity from wind, over 50 GW will be required from shallow offshore turbines. Hurricanes are a potential risk to these turbines. Turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built in the United States. We present a probabilistic model to estimate the number of turbines that would be destroyed by hurricanes in an offshore wind farm. We apply this model to estimate the risk to offshore wind farms in four representative locations in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal waters of the United States. In the most vulnerable areas now being actively considered by developers, nearly half the turbines in a farm are likely to be destroyed in a 20-y period. Reasonable mitigation measures—increasing the design reference wind load, ensuring that the nacelle can be turned into rapidly changing winds, and building most wind plants in the areas with lower risk—can greatly enhance the probability that offshore wind can help to meet the United States’ electricity needs. PMID:22331894

  16. Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Grossmann, Iris; Apt, Jay

    2012-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that if the United States is to generate 20% of its electricity from wind, over 50 GW will be required from shallow offshore turbines. Hurricanes are a potential risk to these turbines. Turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built in the United States. We present a probabilistic model to estimate the number of turbines that would be destroyed by hurricanes in an offshore wind farm. We apply this model to estimate the risk to offshore wind farms in four representative locations in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal waters of the United States. In the most vulnerable areas now being actively considered by developers, nearly half the turbines in a farm are likely to be destroyed in a 20-y period. Reasonable mitigation measures--increasing the design reference wind load, ensuring that the nacelle can be turned into rapidly changing winds, and building most wind plants in the areas with lower risk--can greatly enhance the probability that offshore wind can help to meet the United States' electricity needs. PMID:22331894

  17. The application of PLC distributed input/output technology offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Glendening, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    The Programmable Logic Controller is becoming a familiar part of the Process Controls on Offshore Facilities. The current evolution of this expanding technology is Distributed I/O Blocks, and this paper is concerned with the benefits and applications this new technology brings to the Offshore Industry. The advent of the Programmable Logic Controller to the Gulf of Mexico brought greater process control flexibility to Offshore facilities. The offshore control philosophy went from independent pneumatic control of each skid unit to PLC distributed control with field panels that contained the local controls for several skid units and interfaced with control room based PLC visual display stations. The Distributed I/O Block concept allows offshore control systems to eliminate the large field interface panel, along with the associated wiring and hardware cost. This is accomplished by installing Distributed 1/0 Blocks inside the individual skid control panels and then communicating back to the control room based PLC via redundant communication cables. The control wiring between each skid control panel and the control room is now reduced to one power cable and redundant communication cables.

  18. Future for Offshore Wind Energy in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.

    2004-06-01

    Until recently, the offshore wind energy potential in the United States was ignored because vast onshore wind resources have the potential to fulfill the electrical energy needs for the entire country. However, the challenge of transmitting the electricity to the large load centers may limit wind grid penetration for land-based turbines. Offshore wind turbines can generate power much closer to higher value coastal load centers. Reduced transmission constraints, steadier and more energetic winds, and recent European success, have made offshore wind energy more attractive for the United States. However, U.S. waters are generally deeper than those on the European coast, and will require new technology. This paper presents an overview of U.S. coastal resources, explores promising deepwater wind technology, and predicts long-term cost-of-energy (COE) trends. COE estimates are based on generic 5-MW wind turbines in a hypothetical 500-MW wind power plant. Technology improvements and volume production are expected to lower costs to meet the U.S. Department of Energy target range of $0.06/kWh for deployment of deepwater offshore wind turbines by 2015, and $0.05/kWh by 2012 for shallow water. Offshore wind systems can diversify the U.S. electric energy supply and provide a new market for wind energy that is complementary to onshore development.

  19. Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Grossmann, Iris; Apt, Jay

    2012-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that if the United States is to generate 20% of its electricity from wind, over 50 GW will be required from shallow offshore turbines. Hurricanes are a potential risk to these turbines. Turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built in the United States. We present a probabilistic model to estimate the number of turbines that would be destroyed by hurricanes in an offshore wind farm. We apply this model to estimate the risk to offshore wind farms in four representative locations in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal waters of the United States. In the most vulnerable areas now being actively considered by developers, nearly half the turbines in a farm are likely to be destroyed in a 20-y period. Reasonable mitigation measures--increasing the design reference wind load, ensuring that the nacelle can be turned into rapidly changing winds, and building most wind plants in the areas with lower risk--can greatly enhance the probability that offshore wind can help to meet the United States' electricity needs.

  20. Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

    2001-12-01

    The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877