Science.gov

Sample records for jacobi-davidson type methods

  1. A hybrid Jacobi-Davidson method for interior cluster eigenvalues with large null-space in three dimensional lossless Drude dispersive metallic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tsung-Ming; Lin, Wen-Wei; Wang, Weichung

    2016-10-01

    We study how to efficiently solve the eigenvalue problems in computing band structure of three-dimensional dispersive metallic photonic crystals with face-centered cubic lattices based on the lossless Drude model. The discretized Maxwell equations result in large-scale standard eigenvalue problems whose spectrum contains many zero and cluster eigenvalues, both prevent existed eigenvalue solver from being efficient. To tackle this computational difficulties, we propose a hybrid Jacobi-Davidson method (hHybrid) that integrates harmonic Rayleigh-Ritz extraction, a new and hybrid way to compute the correction vectors, and a FFT-based preconditioner. Intensive numerical experiments show that the hHybrid outperforms existed eigenvalue solvers in terms of timing and convergence behaviors.

  2. Software for computing eigenvalue bounds for iterative subspace matrix methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, Ron; Minkoff, Michael; Zhou, Yunkai

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes software for computing eigenvalue bounds to the standard and generalized hermitian eigenvalue problem as described in [Y. Zhou, R. Shepard, M. Minkoff, Computing eigenvalue bounds for iterative subspace matrix methods, Comput. Phys. Comm. 167 (2005) 90-102]. The software discussed in this manuscript applies to any subspace method, including Lanczos, Davidson, SPAM, Generalized Davidson Inverse Iteration, Jacobi-Davidson, and the Generalized Jacobi-Davidson methods, and it is applicable to either outer or inner eigenvalues. This software can be applied during the subspace iterations in order to truncate the iterative process and to avoid unnecessary effort when converging specific eigenvalues to a required target accuracy, and it can be applied to the final set of Ritz values to assess the accuracy of the converged results. Program summaryTitle of program: SUBROUTINE BOUNDS_OPT Catalogue identifier: ADVE Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVE Computers: any computer that supports a Fortran 90 compiler Operating systems: any computer that supports a Fortran 90 compiler Programming language: Standard Fortran 90 High speed storage required:5m+5 working-precision and 2m+7 integer for m Ritz values No. of bits in a word: The floating point working precision is parameterized with the symbolic constant WP No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2452 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 281 543 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: The computational solution of eigenvalue problems using iterative subspace methods has widespread applications in the physical sciences and engineering as well as other areas of mathematical modeling (economics, social sciences, etc.). The accuracy of the solution of such problems and the utility of those errors is a fundamental problem that is of

  3. A new efficient method for the calculation of interior eigenpairs and its application to vibrational structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, Taras; Rauhut, Guntram

    2017-03-01

    Vibrational configuration interaction theory is a common method for calculating vibrational levels and associated IR and Raman spectra of small and medium-sized molecules. When combined with appropriate configuration selection procedures, the method allows the treatment of configuration spaces with up to 1010 configurations. In general, this approach pursues the construction of the eigenstates with significant contributions of physically relevant configurations. The corresponding eigenfunctions are evaluated in the subspace of selected configurations. However, it can easily reach the dimension which is not tractable for conventional eigenvalue solvers. Although Davidson and Lanczos methods are the methods of choice for calculating exterior eigenvalues, they usually fall into stagnation when applied to interior states. The latter are commonly treated by the Jacobi-Davidson method. This approach in conjunction with matrix factorization for solving the correction equation (CE) is prohibitive for larger problems, and it has limited efficiency if the solution of the CE is based on Krylov's subspace algorithms. We propose an iterative subspace method that targets the eigenvectors with significant contributions to a given reference vector and is based on the optimality condition for the residual norm corresponding to the error in the solution vector. The subspace extraction and expansion are modified according to these principles which allow very efficient calculation of interior vibrational states with a strong multireference character in different vibrational structure problems. The convergence behavior of the method and its performance in comparison with the aforementioned algorithms are investigated in a set of benchmark calculations.

  4. Hybrid Lanczos-type product methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ressel, K.J.

    1996-12-31

    A general framework is proposed to construct hybrid iterative methods for the solution of large nonsymmetric systems of linear equations. This framework is based on Lanczos-type product methods, whose iteration polynomial consists of the Lanczos polynomial multiplied by some other arbitrary, {open_quotes}shadow{close_quotes} polynomial. By using for the shadow polynomial Chebyshev (more general Faber) polynomials or L{sup 2}-optimal polynomials, hybrid (Chebyshev-like) methods are incorporated into Lanczos-type product methods. In addition, to acquire spectral information on the system matrix, which is required for such a choice of shadow polynomials, the Lanczos-process can be employed either directly or in an QMR-like approach. The QMR like approach allows the cheap computation of the roots of the B-orthogonal polynomials and the residual polynomials associated with the QMR iteration. These roots can be used as a good approximation for the spectrum of the system matrix. Different choices for the shadow polynomials and their construction are analyzed. The resulting hybrid methods are compared with standard Lanczos-type product methods, like BiOStab, BiOStab({ell}) and BiOS.

  5. Projection preconditioning for Lanczos-type methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bielawski, S.S.; Mulyarchik, S.G.; Popov, A.V.

    1996-12-31

    We show how auxiliary subspaces and related projectors may be used for preconditioning nonsymmetric system of linear equations. It is shown that preconditioned in such a way (or projected) system is better conditioned than original system (at least if the coefficient matrix of the system to be solved is symmetrizable). Two approaches for solving projected system are outlined. The first one implies straightforward computation of the projected matrix and consequent using some direct or iterative method. The second approach is the projection preconditioning of conjugate gradient-type solver. The latter approach is developed here in context with biconjugate gradient iteration and some related Lanczos-type algorithms. Some possible particular choices of auxiliary subspaces are discussed. It is shown that one of them is equivalent to using colorings. Some results of numerical experiments are reported.

  6. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to compare typing methods, individually and combined, to use in the routine surveillance of Campylobacter in broiler carcasses. C. jejuni (n=94) and C. coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler carcasses were characterized using different typing methods: multilocus sequen...

  7. Molecular methods for strain typing of Candida albicans: a review.

    PubMed

    Saghrouni, F; Ben Abdeljelil, J; Boukadida, J; Ben Said, M

    2013-06-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most medically important fungi because of its high frequency as a commensal and pathogenic microorganism causing superficial as well as invasive infections. Strain typing and delineation of the species are essential for understanding its biology, epidemiology and population structure. A wide range of molecular techniques have been used for this purpose including non-DNA-based methods (multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis), conventional DNA-based methods (electrophoretic karyotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism, restriction enzyme analysis with and without hybridization, rep-PCR) and DNA-based methods called exact typing methods because they generate unambiguous and highly reproducible typing data (including microsatellite length polymorphism and multi-locus sequence typing). In this review, the main molecular methods used for C. albicans strain typing are summarized, and their advantages and limitations are discussed with regard to their discriminatory power, reproducibility, cost and ease of performance.

  8. n-Type diamond and method for producing same

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    A new n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed, which is doped with n-type dopant atoms. Such diamond is advantageously formed by chemical vapor deposition from a source gas mixture comprising a carbon source compound for the diamond, and a volatile hot wire filament for the n-type impurity species, so that the n-type impurity atoms are doped in the diamond during its formation. A corresponding chemical vapor deposition method of forming the n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed. The n-type semiconducting diamond of the invention may be usefully employed in the formation of diamond-based transistor devices comprising pn diamond junctions, and in other microelectronic device applications.

  9. Method for identifying type I diabetes mellitus in humans

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Thomas O [Kennewick, WA; Qian, Weijun [Richland, WA; Jacobs, Jon M [Pasco, WA

    2011-04-12

    A method and system for classifying subject populations utilizing predictive and diagnostic biomarkers for type I diabetes mellitus. The method including determining the levels of a variety of markers within the serum or plasma of a target organism and correlating this level to general populations as a screen for predisposition or progressive monitoring of disease presence or predisposition.

  10. PCR M Typing: a New Method for Rapid Typing of Group A Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, Luca A.; Zampaloni, Claudia; Prenna, Manuela; Ripa, Sandro

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for the M-typing of Streptococcus pyogenes is reported. Oligonucleotide primers were used in a PCR to amplify the N-terminal region of the emm gene. The presence of the PCR amplification product is associated with the corresponding M serotype. This technique offers potential advantages over other molecular typing methods. PMID:11825995

  11. PCR m typing: a new method for rapid typing of group a streptococci.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Luca A; Zampaloni, Claudia; Prenna, Manuela; Ripa, Sandro

    2002-02-01

    A new approach for the M-typing of Streptococcus pyogenes is reported. Oligonucleotide primers were used in a PCR to amplify the N-terminal region of the emm gene. The presence of the PCR amplification product is associated with the corresponding M serotype. This technique offers potential advantages over other molecular typing methods.

  12. Comparison of fingerprinting methods for typing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 398.

    PubMed

    Rasschaert, G; Vanderhaeghen, W; Dewaele, I; Janez, N; Huijsdens, X; Butaye, P; Heyndrickx, M

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluates the multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat assay (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) when using restriction enzymes BstZI, SacII, and ApaI to fingerprint a diverse collection of methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 398 (ST398) isolates. These isolates had been characterized previously by multilocus sequence typing, spa typing, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. Typeability and discriminatory power were analyzed, and the concordance between the various methods was determined. All MRSA ST398 isolates were typeable by the MLVA and PFGE using BstZI, SacII, and ApaI. With each method, the MRSA ST398 isolates formed a separate group from the two non-ST398 MRSA strains. PFGE, performed with any of the three restriction enzymes, had the most discriminatory power, followed by MLVA, spa typing, and SCCmec typing. The MLVA showed the highest concordance with PFGE using ApaI and spa typing. As further expressed by the Wallace coefficient, the MLVA type was poorly predicted by spa typing, whereas the spa type was well predicted by MLVA. PFGE, using a combination of all three restriction enzymes, had the highest concordance with the MLVA but had a low probability of being predicted by MLVA. PFGE, using a combination of all three restriction enzymes, was able to predict SCCmec type and MLVA type completely and had a high probability of predicting spa type. Both the MLVA and PFGE could be used to discriminate among the MRSA ST398 isolates. Although the MLVA is a faster technique, PFGE had more discriminatory power than the MLVA, especially when a combination of restriction enzymes was used.

  13. Inferring cell type innovations by phylogenetic methods-concepts, methods, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Kin, Koryu

    2015-12-01

    Multicellular organisms are composed of distinct cell types that have specific roles in the body. Each cell type is a product of two kinds of historical processes-development and evolution. Although the concept of a cell type is difficult to define, the cell type concept based on the idea of the core regulatory network (CRN), a gene regulatory network that determines the identity of a cell type, illustrates the essential aspects of the cell type concept. The first step toward elucidating cell type evolution is to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of cell types, or the cell type tree. The sister cell type model assumes that a new cell type evolves through divergence from a multifunctional ancestral cell type, creating tree-like evolutionary relationships between cell types. The process of generating a cell type tree can also be understood as the sequential addition of a new branching point on an ancestral cell differentiation hierarchy in evolution. A cell type tree thus represents an intertwined history of cell type evolution and development. Cell type trees can be reconstructed from high-throughput sequencing data, and the reconstruction of a cell type tree leads to the discovery of genes that are functionally important for a cell type. Although many issues including the lack of cross-species comparisons and the lack of a proper model for cell type evolution remain, the study of the origin of a new cell type using phylogenetic methods offers a promising new research avenue in developmental evolution. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 653-661, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Analytical methods applied to diverse types of Brazilian propolis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product, composed mainly of plant resins and beeswax, therefore its chemical composition varies due to the geographic and plant origins of these resins, as well as the species of bee. Brazil is an important supplier of propolis on the world market and, although green colored propolis from the southeast is the most known and studied, several other types of propolis from Apis mellifera and native stingless bees (also called cerumen) can be found. Propolis is usually consumed as an extract, so the type of solvent and extractive procedures employed further affect its composition. Methods used for the extraction; analysis the percentage of resins, wax and insoluble material in crude propolis; determination of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and heavy metal contents are reviewed herein. Different chromatographic methods applied to the separation, identification and quantification of Brazilian propolis components and their relative strengths are discussed; as well as direct insertion mass spectrometry fingerprinting. Propolis has been used as a popular remedy for several centuries for a wide array of ailments. Its antimicrobial properties, present in propolis from different origins, have been extensively studied. But, more recently, anti-parasitic, anti-viral/immune stimulating, healing, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activities of diverse types of Brazilian propolis have been evaluated. The most common methods employed and overviews of their relative results are presented. PMID:21631940

  15. Weighted Wilcoxon-type Smoothly Clipped Absolute Deviation Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    Summary Shrinkage-type variable selection procedures have recently seen increasing applications in biomedical research. However, their performance can be adversely influenced by outliers in either the response or the covariate space. This paper proposes a weighted Wilcoxon-type smoothly clipped absolute deviation (WW-SCAD) method, which deals with robust variable selection and robust estimation simultaneously. The new procedure can be conveniently implemented with the statistical software R. We establish that the WW-SCAD correctly identifies the set of zero coefficients with probability approaching one and estimates the nonzero coefficients with the rate n−1/2. Moreover, with appropriately chosen weights the WW-SCAD is robust with respect to outliers in both the x and y directions. The important special case with constant weights yields an oracle-type estimator with high efficiency at the presence of heavier-tailed random errors. The robustness of the WW-SCAD is partly justified by its asymptotic performance under local shrinking contamination. We propose a BIC-type tuning parameter selector for the WW-SCAD. The performance of the WW-SCAD is demonstrated via simulations and by an application to a study that investigates the effects of personal characteristics and dietary factors on plasma beta-carotene level. PMID:18647294

  16. A Method of Microarray Data Storage Using Array Data Type

    PubMed Central

    Tsoi, Lam C.; Zheng, W. Jim

    2009-01-01

    A well-designed microarray database can provide valuable information on gene expression levels. However, designing an efficient microarray database with minimum space usage is not an easy task since designers need to integrate the microarray data with the information of genes, probe annotation, and the descriptions of each microarray experiment. Developing better methods to store microarray data can greatly improve the efficiency and usefulness of such data. A new schema is proposed to store microarray data by using array data type in an object-relational database management system – PostgreSQL. The implemented database can store all the microarray data from the same chip in an array data structure. The variable length array data type in PostgreSQL can store microarray data from same chip. The implementation of our schema can help to increase the data retrieval and space efficiency. PMID:17392028

  17. Comparison of four molecular methods to type Salmonella Enteritidis strains.

    PubMed

    Campioni, Fábio; Pitondo-Silva, André; Bergamini, Alzira M M; Falcão, Juliana P

    2015-05-01

    This study compared the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR), multilocus variable-number of tanden-repeat analysis (MLVA), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods for typing 188 Salmonella Enteritidis strains from different sources isolated over a 24-year period in Brazil. PFGE and ERIC-PCR were more efficient than MLVA for subtyping the strains. However, MLVA provided additional epidemiological information for those strains. In addition, MLST showed the Brazilian strains as belonging to the main clonal complex of S. Enteritidis, CC11, and provided the first report of two new STs in the S. enterica database but could not properly subtype the strains. Our results showed that the use of PFGE or ERIC-PCR together with MLVA is suitable to efficiently subtype S. Enteritidis strains and provide important epidemiological information.

  18. An experimental method of modeling ;Line-Type; and ;Area-Type; connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mian; Zheng, Gangtie

    2017-07-01

    A method for experimentally modeling complex connections, such as ;Line-Type; connection (LTC) and ;Area-Type; connection (ATC), is proposed in this paper. Unlike traditional methods, instead of treating the junction forces as presumed approximate functions, a new strategy proposed in the present paper is to estimate them from experimentally measured accelerations. Along with them, the junction motion information is also estimated from the measured data. Based on this estimated information, the connection's model is built. In this way, two potential disadvantages of traditional methods in modeling complex connections, i.e. the difficulty in finding appropriate functions for complex connections and the computation burden in identifying too many parameters through optimization process, can be avoided. In the proposed method, the LTC is modeled as a series of independent junction node pairs, and the ATC is modeled as a combination of a presumed Virtual Structure and a series of independent Virtual Node Pairs. Numerical and experimental results with the constructed example have verified the effectiveness of the proposed method in modeling both LTC and ATC.

  19. Prototyping method for Bragg-type atom interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, Brandon; Krygier, Michael; Heward, Jeffrey; Edwards, Mark; Clark, Charles W.

    2011-10-15

    We present a method for rapid modeling of new Bragg ultracold atom-interferometer (AI) designs useful for assessing the performance of such interferometers. The method simulates the overall effect on the condensate wave function in a given AI design using two separate elements. These are (1) modeling the effect of a Bragg pulse on the wave function and (2) approximating the evolution of the wave function during the intervals between the pulses. The actual sequence of these pulses and intervals is then followed to determine the approximate final wave function from which the interference pattern can be calculated. The exact evolution between pulses is assumed to be governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation whose solution is approximated using a Lagrangian variational method to facilitate rapid estimation of performance. The method presented here is an extension of an earlier one that was used to analyze the results of an experiment [J. E. Simsarian et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2040 (2000)], where the phase of a Bose-Einstein condensate was measured using a Mach-Zehnder-type Bragg AI. We have developed both 1D and 3D versions of this method and we have determined their validity by comparing their predicted interference patterns with those obtained by numerical integration of the 1D GP equation and with the results of the above experiment. We find excellent agreement between the 1D interference patterns predicted by this method and those found by the GP equation. We show that we can reproduce all of the results of that experiment without recourse to an ad hoc velocity-kick correction needed by the earlier method, including some experimental results that the earlier model did not predict. We also found that this method provides estimates of 1D interference patterns at least four orders-of-magnitude faster than direct numerical solution of the 1D GP equation.

  20. Method of producing a plug-type heat flux gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H. (Inventor); Koch, John, Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method of making a plug-type heat flux gauge in a material specimen in which a thermoplug is integrally formed in the specimen is disclosed. The thermoplug and concentric annulus are formed in the material specimen by electrical discharge machining and trepanning procedures. The thermoplug is surrounded by a concentric annulus through which thermocouple wires are routed. The end of each thermocouple wire is welded to the thermoplug, with each thermocouple wire welded at a different location along the length of the thermoplug.

  1. Probe hybridization array typing: a binary typing method for Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, U; Zhang, L; France, A M; Ghosh, D; Shalaby, W; Xie, J; Marrs, C F; Foxman, B

    2007-01-01

    The ability to distinguish between Escherichia coli strains is critical for outbreak investigations. Binary typing, based on the presence or absence of genetic material, provides a high-throughput alternative to gel- and PCR-based typing techniques that generate complex banding patterns and lack uniform interpretation criteria. We developed, validated, and determined the discriminatory power of an E. coli binary typing method, probe hybridization array typing (PHAT). In PHAT, the absence or presence of genetic material is identified by using DNA hybridization to produce a reproducible and portable fingerprint for each genome. PHAT probes were generated from genome subtractive hybridization experiments. We PHAT typed the ECOR collection of strains from a variety of geographical locations, and 33 rectal E. coli strains selected from college-aged women with urinary tract infection. In the set of 33 human rectal strains, the discriminatory power of PHAT (98%) equaled that of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, for ECOR strains, which include nonhuman strains, the current set of PHAT probes was less discriminating than MLST, ribotyping, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (80% versus 97, 92, and 97%, respectively). When we limited the analysis to ECOR strains of B2 and D lineage, which are associated with human infection, current PHAT probes were highly discriminatory (94%). PHAT can be applied in a high-throughput format (i.e., "library on a slide"), the discriminatory ability can be varied based on the probe set, and PHAT is readily adapted to other bacterial species with high variation in genetic content.

  2. Comparison of molecular typing methods for Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Magee, P T; Bowdin, L; Staudinger, J

    1992-01-01

    Four molecular approaches to determining the types of Candida albicans strains were compared. The strains used were those whose repeated DNA (ribosomal and mitochondrial) EcoRI restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) were determined by Stevens et al. (D. A. Stevens, F. C. Odds, and S. Scherer, Rev. Infect. Dis. 12:258-266, 1990). Scherer and Stevens (S. Scherer and D. A. Stevens, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:1452-1456, 1988) used the same strains to examine the Southern blots of genomic EcoRI digests probed with the repeated sequence 27A. The results of these investigators were compared with determinations of RFLPs generated from repeated DNA by the enzyme HinfI and examination of the karyotypes of strains under two sets of conditions, one for the smaller chromosomes and one for the larger ones. Analysis of RFLPs of repeated DNA is most convenient but shows the lowest degree of resolution. Use of the repeated sequence and use of karyotype have very high resolution, but the former method is more convenient than the latter. HinfI digestion is more sensitive than EcoRI digestion but equally convenient. By using all four methods, separate types were identified for 18 of the 20 strains examined. Images PMID:1356999

  3. The Movable Type Method Applied to Protein-Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Ucisik, Melek N.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Accurately computing the free energy for biological processes like protein folding or protein-ligand association remains a challenging problem. Both describing the complex intermolecular forces involved and sampling the requisite configuration space make understanding these processes innately difficult. Herein, we address the sampling problem using a novel methodology we term “movable type”. Conceptually it can be understood by analogy with the evolution of printing and, hence, the name movable type. For example, a common approach to the study of protein-ligand complexation involves taking a database of intact drug-like molecules and exhaustively docking them into a binding pocket. This is reminiscent of early woodblock printing where each page had to be laboriously created prior to printing a book. However, printing evolved to an approach where a database of symbols (letters, numerals, etc.) was created and then assembled using a movable type system, which allowed for the creation of all possible combinations of symbols on a given page, thereby, revolutionizing the dissemination of knowledge. Our movable type (MT) method involves the identification of all atom pairs seen in protein-ligand complexes and then creating two databases: one with their associated pairwise distant dependent energies and another associated with the probability of how these pairs can combine in terms of bonds, angles, dihedrals and non-bonded interactions. Combining these two databases coupled with the principles of statistical mechanics allows us to accurately estimate binding free energies as well as the pose of a ligand in a receptor. This method, by its mathematical construction, samples all of configuration space of a selected region (the protein active site here) in one shot without resorting to brute force sampling schemes involving Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms or molecular dynamics simulations making the methodology extremely efficient. Importantly, this method explores the

  4. An Object-Based Method for Chinese Landform Types Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hu; Tao, Fei; Zhao, Wufan; Na, Jiaming; Tang, Guo'an

    2016-06-01

    Landform classification is a necessary task for various fields of landscape and regional planning, for example for landscape evaluation, erosion studies, hazard prediction, et al. This study proposes an improved object-based classification for Chinese landform types using the factor importance analysis of random forest and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). In this research, based on 1km DEM of China, the combination of the terrain factors extracted from DEM are selected by correlation analysis and Sheffield's entropy method. Random forest classification tree is applied to evaluate the importance of the terrain factors, which are used as multi-scale segmentation thresholds. Then the GLCM is conducted for the knowledge base of classification. The classification result was checked by using the 1:4,000,000 Chinese Geomorphological Map as reference. And the overall classification accuracy of the proposed method is 5.7% higher than ISODATA unsupervised classification, and 15.7% higher than the traditional object-based classification method.

  5. Design method for four-reflector type beam waveguide systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betsudan, S.; Katagi, T.; Urasaki, S.

    1986-01-01

    Discussed is a method for the design of four reflector type beam waveguide feed systems, comprised of a conical horn and 4 focused reflectors, which are used widely as the primary reflector systems for communications satellite Earth station antennas. The design parameters for these systems are clarified, the relations between each parameter are brought out based on the beam mode development, and the independent design parameters are specified. The characteristics of these systems, namely spillover loss, crosspolarization components, and frequency characteristics, and their relation to the design parameters, are also shown. It is also indicated that design parameters which decide the dimensions of the conical horn or the shape of the focused reflectors can be unerringly established once the design standard for the system has been selected as either: (1) minimizing the crosspolarization component by keeping the spillover loss to within acceptable limits, or (2) minimizing the spillover loss by maintaining the crossover components below an acceptable level and the independent design parameters, such as the respective sizes of the focused reflectors and the distances between the focussed reflectors, etc., have been established according to mechanical restrictions. A sample design is also shown. In addition to being able to clarify the effects of each of the design parameters on the system and improving insight into these systems, the efficiency of these systems will also be increased with this design method.

  6. Module Based Differential Coexpression Analysis Method for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lin; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Xia, Jun-Feng; Huang, De-Shuang

    2015-01-01

    More and more studies have shown that many complex diseases are contributed jointly by alterations of numerous genes. Genes often coordinate together as a functional biological pathway or network and are highly correlated. Differential coexpression analysis, as a more comprehensive technique to the differential expression analysis, was raised to research gene regulatory networks and biological pathways of phenotypic changes through measuring gene correlation changes between disease and normal conditions. In this paper, we propose a gene differential coexpression analysis algorithm in the level of gene sets and apply the algorithm to a publicly available type 2 diabetes (T2D) expression dataset. Firstly, we calculate coexpression biweight midcorrelation coefficients between all gene pairs. Then, we select informative correlation pairs using the “differential coexpression threshold” strategy. Finally, we identify the differential coexpression gene modules using maximum clique concept and k-clique algorithm. We apply the proposed differential coexpression analysis method on simulated data and T2D data. Two differential coexpression gene modules about T2D were detected, which should be useful for exploring the biological function of the related genes. PMID:26339648

  7. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigan, D.L.; Shriner, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on /sup 32/P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of /sup 32/P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble (/sup 32/P)phosphate.

  8. High Molecular Weight Typing with MALDI-TOF MS - A Novel Method for Rapid Typing of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Rizzardi, Kristina; Åkerlund, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile strains were typed by a newly developed MALDI-TOF method, high molecular weight typing, and compared to PCR ribotyping. Among 500 isolates representing 59 PCR ribotypes a total of 35 high molecular weight types could be resolved. Although less discriminatory than PCR ribotyping, the method is extremely fast and simple, and supports for cost-effective screening of isolates during outbreak situations.

  9. Methods for Differentiating Prion Types in Food-Producing Animals

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Kevin C.; Rees, Helen C.; Ives, Sarah E.; Maddison, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Prions are an enigma amongst infectious disease agents as they lack a genome yet confer specific pathologies thought to be dictated mainly, if not solely, by the conformation of the disease form of the prion protein (PrPSc). Prion diseases affect humans and animals, the latter including the food-producing ruminant species cattle, sheep, goats and deer. Importantly, it has been shown that the disease agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. Current diagnostic tests can distinguish different prion types and in food-producing animals these focus on the differentiation of BSE from the non-zoonotic agents. Whilst BSE cases are now rare, atypical forms of both scrapie and BSE have been reported, as well as two types of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Typing of animal prion isolates remains an important aspect of prion diagnosis and is now becoming more focused on identifying the range of prion types that are present in food-producing animals and also developing tests that can screen for emerging, novel prion diseases. Here, we review prion typing methodologies in light of current and emerging prion types in food-producing animals. PMID:26580664

  10. Approximate Newton-type methods via theory of control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Chui Ying; Leong, Wah June

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possible use of control theory, particularly theory on optimal control to derive some numerical methods for unconstrained optimization problems. Based upon this control theory, we derive a Levenberg-Marquardt-like method that guarantees greatest descent in a particular search region. The implementation of this method in its original form requires inversion of a non-sparse matrix or equivalently solving a linear system in every iteration. Thus, an approximation of the proposed method via quasi-Newton update is constructed. Numerical results indicate that the new method is more effective and practical.

  11. A novel method for blood-typing using nitrocellulose.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Parastoo; Abolfathi, Nabiollah

    2016-12-07

    Blood wicking in its steady-state form, i.e. the uniform distribution of blood cells in plasma, is completely different from that in its coagulated form on a porous surface like paper. The hydrophilic property of the cellulose leads to a significant wicking of the blood cells on paper fibers after rinsing with isotonic solution. The difference in the wicking length of the blood cells in steady state and that in the coagulated form could be considered as a criterion to recognize the blood type in a paper-based kit. However, owing to the molecular structure of the nitrocellulose, a better process occurs while separating the coagulated blood from the steady-state form of cells. Therefore, it is possible to use the nitrocellulose for the blood-typing kit which leads to a simpler way to diagnose a blood type. Two series of experiments were performed on nitrocellulose membrane. First, antibody solutions and blood samples were sequentially absorbed on nitrocellulose strips, allowed to interact, rinsed with an isotonic solution and distilled water, and image processing performed on a digital picture of the remaining blood cells. The efficiency of the agglutinated blood cell fixation was quantified by red color intensity. Then, it was demonstrated that there is no considerable difference in fixation of agglutinated blood cells with rinsing using isotonic and nonisotonic solutions. This fact can be a considerable advantage over paper since it can eliminate the probable mistake from using unisotonic solution for rinsing. Second, owing to the nonwicking property of the blood cells on the hydrophobic nitrocellulose fibers, we employed another diagnostic criterion and investigated nitrocellulose blood-typing prototypes. The nitrocellulose blood-typing kit provides more simple, sensitive and trustworthy assay for rapid blood typing in situations with no access to laboratory facilities.

  12. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Defense (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics) (USD(AT&L)) of an intent not to exercise a fixed-price... award a fixed-price type contract for a development program effort unless— (1) The level of program risk... allocation of program risk between the Government and the contractor; and (3) A written determination...

  13. Interactions between Personality Type and the Experimental Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; Taylor, Beck A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors bring together two research streams in the literature that examine separately the effectiveness of using experiments in the principles classroom and the relationship between different personality types and student achievement. Using a sample of 255 principles of microeconomics students, 48 of whom were enrolled in sections that relied…

  14. Assay method for MTR-type fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, R.; Shea, P.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a calculation procedure that can be used by IAEA inspectors to verify unirradiated MTR-type fuel elements. The procedure is programmable on a small programmable calculator (HP-97). The accuracy of the calculation enables the inspector to determine whether the element contains the correct number of fuel plates of the stated design. 2 refs.

  15. Preference for Instructional Methods and MBTI Personality Types in Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Carol Fowler

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personality type and preference for instructional methodologies (lecture, online and simulation). The sample consisted of 94 practicing gerontology nurses (RNs and LPNs) who attended a continuing education workshop on the care of the acutely ill elder at a public university in the…

  16. Suicide Methods in Singapore (2000-2004): Types and Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Franzco, Audrey Chia; Ng, Wai-Yee; Tai, Bee-Choo

    2011-01-01

    The choice of suicide methods varies between countries. Common methods used in Singapore between 2000 and 2004 were jumping (72.4%), hanging (16.6%), and poisoning (5.9%). Those who jumped were more likely to be young, single, female, and to have had a major mental illness. By comparison, those who hung themselves were more likely to be older (OR…

  17. A micro-rheological method for determination of blood type.

    PubMed

    Makulska, Sylwia; Jakiela, Slawomir; Garstecki, Piotr

    2013-07-21

    The measurement of time and distance can be used for determining agglutination in small (nL) samples of liquid. We demonstrate the use of this new scheme of detection in typing and subtyping blood in a simple microfluidic system that monitors the speed of flow of microdroplets. The system (i) accepts small samples of liquids deposited directly onto the chip, (ii) forms droplets on demand from these samples, (iii) merges the droplets, and (iv) measures their speed in a microchannel. A sequence of measurements on different combinations of blood and antibodies can thus be used to determine blood type with the estimated probability of mistyping being less than 1 in a million tests. In addition, in the agglutinated samples, red blood cells concentrate at the rear of the droplets yielding an additional vista for detection and suggesting a possible mechanism for separations.

  18. Residual power series method for fractional Burger types equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Sunil

    2016-12-01

    We present an analytic algorithm to solve the generalized Berger-Fisher (B-F) equation, B-F equation, generalized Fisher equation and Fisher equation by using residual power series method (RPSM), which is based on the generalized Taylor's series formula together with the residual error function. In all the cases obtained results are verified through the different graphical representation. Comparison of the results obtained by the present method with exact solution reveals that the accuracy and fast convergence of the proposed method.

  19. Contraceptive method continuation according to type of provider.

    PubMed Central

    Einhorn, R F; Sear, A M; Perez, E; Cabrera, E

    1977-01-01

    A study was undertaken at the main PROFAMILIA clinic in Bogota, Colombia to compare the effectiveness of nurses and physicians in the delivery of family planning services. Contraceptive method continuation was the major outcome variable in this analysis. Clients were randomly assigned to physicians or nurses on their first visit and for the duration of care. On all revisits, data were collected pertaining to method prescribed, side effects, pregnancy, and method changes. There was a field survey at eight months to locate clinic drop-outs and determine their contraceptive use status. There were no significant differences in method continuation between clients who received services from physicians and those who received services from nurses. At nine months, the overall continuation of the first method prescribed was 79.1 per cent in the physicians' group and 75.8 per cent in the nurses' group (t = 1.057, p greater than .20). When controlling for first method used, the IUD users in the physicians' group had a continuation rate of 86.1 per cent and in the nurses' group 84.0 per cent (t = 0.556, p greater than .50). Of the pill users who received services from physicians, 78.1 per cent were continuing at nine months and 74.3 per cent of the pill clients in the nurses' group were continuing at nine months (t = 0.573, p greater than .50). There were no differences in pregnancy rates, side effects rates, and method change rates between the two groups. It may be concluded that these nurses were as effective as physicians in the delivery of family planning services. PMID:596499

  20. Synoptic typing: interdisciplinary application methods with three practical hydroclimatological examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, C. M.; Leathers, D. J.; Levia, D. F.

    2016-01-01

    Synoptic classification is a methodology that represents diverse atmospheric variables and allows researchers to relate large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns to regional- and small-scale terrestrial processes. Synoptic classification has often been applied to questions concerning the surface environment. However, full applicability has been under-utilized to date, especially in disciplines such as hydroclimatology, which are intimately linked to atmospheric inputs. This paper aims to (1) outline the development of a daily synoptic calendar for the Mid-Atlantic (USA), (2) define seasonal synoptic patterns occurring in the region, and (3) provide hydroclimatological examples whereby the cascading response of precipitation characteristics, soil moisture, and streamflow are explained by synoptic classification. Together, achievement of these objectives serves as a guide for development and use of a synoptic calendar for hydroclimatological studies. In total 22 unique synoptic types were identified, derived from a combination of 12 types occurring in the winter (DJF), 13 in spring (MAM), 9 in summer (JJA), and 11 in autumn (SON). This includes six low pressure systems, four high pressure systems, one cold front, three north/northwest flow regimes, three south/southwest flow regimes, and five weakly defined regimes. Pairwise comparisons indicated that 84.3 % had significantly different rainfall magnitudes, 86.4 % had different rainfall durations, and 84.7 % had different rainfall intensities. The largest precipitation-producing classifications were not restricted to low pressure systems, but rather to patterns with access to moisture sources from the Atlantic Ocean and easterly (on-shore) winds, which transport moisture inland. These same classifications resulted in comparable rates of soil moisture recharge and streamflow discharge, illustrating the applicability of synoptic classification for a range of hydroclimatological research objectives.

  1. Matrix-valued polynomials in Lanczos type methods

    SciTech Connect

    Simoncini, V.; Gallopoulos, E.

    1994-12-31

    It is well known that convergence properties of iterative methods can be derived by studying the behavior of the residual polynomial over a suitable domain of the complex plane. Block Krylov subspace methods for the solution of linear systems A[x{sub 1},{hor_ellipsis}, x{sub s}] = [b{sub 1},{hor_ellipsis}, b{sub s}] lead to the generation of residual polynomials {phi}{sub m} {element_of} {bar P}{sub m,s} where {bar P}{sub m,s} is the subset of matrix-valued polynomials of maximum degree m and size s such that {phi}{sub m}(0) = I{sub s}, R{sub m} := B - AX{sub m} = {phi}{sub m}(A) {circ} R{sub 0}, where {phi}{sub m}(A) {circ} R{sub 0} := R{sub 0} - A{summation}{sub j=0}{sup m-1} A{sup j}R{sub 0}{xi}{sub j}, {xi}{sub j} {element_of} R{sup sxs}. An effective method has to balance adequate approximation with economical computation of iterates defined by the polynomial. Matrix valued polynomials can be used to improve the performance of block methods. Another approach is to solve for a single right-hand side at a time and use the generated information in order to update the approximations of the remaining systems. In light of this, a more general scheme is as follows: A subset of residuals (seeds) is selected and a block short term recurrence method is used to compute approximate solutions for the corresponding systems. At the same time the generated matrix valued polynomial is implicitly applied to the remaining residuals. Subsequently a new set of seeds is selected and the process is continued as above, till convergence of all right-hand sides. The use of a quasi-minimization technique ensures a smooth convergence behavior for all systems. In this talk the authors discuss the implementation of this class of algorithms and formulate strategies for the selection of parameters involved in the computation. Experiments and comparisons with other methods will be presented.

  2. Advances in Laboratory Methods for Detection and Typing of Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis across all age groups. Although the disease is usually self-limiting, in the United States norovirus gastroenteritis causes an estimated 56,000 to 71,000 hospitalizations and 570 to 800 deaths each year. This minireview describes the latest data on laboratory methods (molecular, immunological) for norovirus detection, including real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and commercially available immunological assays as well as the latest FDA-cleared multi-gastrointestinal-pathogen platforms. In addition, an overview is provided on the latest nomenclature and molecular epidemiology of human noroviruses. PMID:24989606

  3. A method to find N = 1 AdS4 vacua in type IIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solard, Gautier

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we are looking for N = 1, AdS4 sourceless vacua in type IIB. While several examples exist in type IIA, there exists only one example of such vacua in type IIB. Thanks to the framework of generalized geometry we were able to devise a semi-algorithmical method to look for sourceless vacua. We present this method, which can easily be generalized to more complex cases, and give two new vacua in type IIB.

  4. Versatile method to generate multiple types of micropatterns.

    PubMed

    Segerer, Felix Jakob; Röttgermann, Peter Johan Friedrich; Schuster, Simon; Piera Alberola, Alicia; Zahler, Stefan; Rädler, Joachim Oskar

    2016-03-22

    Micropatterning techniques have become an important tool for the study of cell behavior in controlled microenvironments. As a consequence, several approaches for the creation of micropatterns have been developed in recent years. However, the diversity of substrates, coatings, and complex patterns used in cell science is so great that no single existing technique is capable of fabricating designs suitable for all experimental conditions. Hence, there is a need for patterning protocols that are flexible with regard to the materials used and compatible with different patterning strategies to create more elaborate setups. In this work, the authors present a versatile approach to micropatterning. The protocol is based on plasma treatment, protein coating, and a poly(L-lysine)-grafted-poly(ethylene glycol) backfill step, and produces homogeneous patterns on a variety of substrates. Protein density within the patterns can be controlled, and density gradients of surface-bound protein can be formed. Moreover, by combining the method with microcontact printing, it is possible to generate patterns composed of three different components within one iteration of the protocol. The technique is simple to implement and should enable cell science labs to create a broad range of complex and highly specialized microenvironments.

  5. Discriminatory power and reproducibility of novel DNA typing methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Kristin; Arnold, Catherine; Cataldi, Angel; Gutiérrez, M Cristina; Haas, Walter H; Panaiotov, Stefan; Skuce, Robin A; Supply, Philip; van der Zanden, Adri G M; van Soolingen, Dick

    2005-11-01

    In recent years various novel DNA typing methods have been developed which are faster and easier to perform than the current internationally standardized IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing method. However, there has been no overview of the utility of these novel typing methods, and it is largely unknown how they compare to previously published methods. In this study, the discriminative power and reproducibility of nine recently described PCR-based typing methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were investigated using the strain collection of the interlaboratory study of Kremer et al. This strain collection contains 90 M. tuberculosis complex and 10 non-M. tuberculosis complex mycobacterial strains, as well as 31 duplicated DNA samples to assess reproducibility. The highest reproducibility was found with variable numbers of tandem repeat typing using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU VNTR) and fast ligation-mediated PCR (FLiP), followed by second-generation spoligotyping, ligation-mediated PCR (LM-PCR), VNTR typing using five repeat loci identified at the Queens University of Belfast (QUB VNTR), and the Amadio speciation PCR. Poor reproducibility was associated with fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism typing, which was performed in three different laboratories. The methods were ordered from highest discrimination to lowest by the Hunter-Gaston discriminative index as follows: QUB VNTR typing, MIRU VNTR typing, FLiP, LM-PCR, and spoligotyping. We conclude that both VNTR typing methods and FLiP typing are rapid, highly reliable, and discriminative epidemiological typing methods for M. tuberculosis and that VNTR typing is the epidemiological typing method of choice for the near future.

  6. Comparison of Methods for Determining ABO Blood Type in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae M; Park, Hyojun; Cho, Kahee; Kim, Jong S; Park, Mi K; Choi, Ju Y; Park, Jae B; Park, Wan J; Kim, Sung J

    2015-05-01

    Thorough examination of ABO blood type in cynomolgus monkeys is an essential experimental step to prevent humoral rejection during transplantation research. In the present study, we evaluated current methods of ABO blood-antigen typing in cynomolgus monkeys by comparing the outcomes obtained by reverse hemagglutination, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, and buccal mucosal immunohistochemistry. Among 21 animals, 5 were type A regardless of the method. However, of 8 serologically type B animals, 3 had a heterozygous type AB SNP profile, among which 2 failed to express A antigen, as shown by immunohistochemical analysis. Among 8 serologically type AB animals, 2 appeared to be type A by SNP analysis and immunohistochemistry. None of the methods identified any type O subjects. We conclude that the expression of ABO blood-group antigens is regulated by an incompletely understood process and that using both SNP and immunohistochemistry might minimize the risk of incorrect results obtained from the conventional hemagglutination assay.

  7. S-type and P-type Habitability in Stellar Binary Systems: A Comprehensive Approach. I. Method and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive approach is provided for the study of both S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems, which in principle can also be expanded to systems of higher order. P-type orbits occur when the planet orbits both binary components, whereas in the case of S-type orbits, the planet orbits only one of the binary components with the second component considered a perturbator. The selected approach encapsulates a variety of different aspects, which include: (1) the consideration of a joint constraint, including orbital stability and a habitable region for a putative system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes ("radiative habitable zone"; RHZ), needs to be met; (2) the treatment of conservative, general, and extended zones of habitability for the various systems as defined for the solar system and beyond; (3) the provision of a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are presented for the kind of system in which S-type and P-type habitability is realized; (4) applications of the attained theoretical approach to standard (theoretical) main-sequence stars. In principle, five different cases of habitability are identified, which are S-type and P-type habitability provided by the full extent of the RHZs; habitability, where the RHZs are truncated by the additional constraint of planetary orbital stability (referred to as ST- and PT-type, respectively); and cases of no habitability at all. Regarding the treatment of planetary orbital stability, we utilize the formulae of Holman & Wiegert as also used in previous studies. In this work, we focus on binary systems in circular orbits. Future applications will also consider binary systems in elliptical orbits and provide thorough comparisons to other methods and results given in the literature.

  8. S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems: A comprehensive approach. I. Method and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cuntz, M.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive approach is provided for the study of both S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems, which in principle can also be expanded to systems of higher order. P-type orbits occur when the planet orbits both binary components, whereas in the case of S-type orbits, the planet orbits only one of the binary components with the second component considered a perturbator. The selected approach encapsulates a variety of different aspects, which include: (1) the consideration of a joint constraint, including orbital stability and a habitable region for a putative system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes ({sup r}adiative habitable zone{sup ;} RHZ), needs to be met; (2) the treatment of conservative, general, and extended zones of habitability for the various systems as defined for the solar system and beyond; (3) the provision of a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are presented for the kind of system in which S-type and P-type habitability is realized; (4) applications of the attained theoretical approach to standard (theoretical) main-sequence stars. In principle, five different cases of habitability are identified, which are S-type and P-type habitability provided by the full extent of the RHZs; habitability, where the RHZs are truncated by the additional constraint of planetary orbital stability (referred to as ST- and PT-type, respectively); and cases of no habitability at all. Regarding the treatment of planetary orbital stability, we utilize the formulae of Holman and Wiegert as also used in previous studies. In this work, we focus on binary systems in circular orbits. Future applications will also consider binary systems in elliptical orbits and provide thorough comparisons to other methods and results given in the literature.

  9. Discriminatory Indices of Typing Methods for Epidemiologic Analysis of Contemporary Staphylococcus aureus Strains.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Marcela; Hogan, Patrick G; Satola, Sarah W; Crispell, Emily; Wylie, Todd; Gao, Hongyu; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Fritz, Stephanie A

    2015-09-01

    Historically, a number of typing methods have been evaluated for Staphylococcus aureus strain characterization. The emergence of contemporary strains of community-associated S. aureus, and the ensuing epidemic with a predominant strain type (USA300), necessitates re-evaluation of the discriminatory power of these typing methods for discerning molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics, essential to investigations of hospital and community outbreaks. We compared the discriminatory index of 5 typing methods for contemporary S. aureus strain characterization. Children presenting to St. Louis Children's Hospital and community pediatric practices in St. Louis, Missouri (MO), with community-associated S. aureus infections were enrolled. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (repPCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A (spa), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing were performed on 200 S. aureus isolates. The discriminatory index of each method was calculated using the standard formula for this metric, where a value of 1 is highly discriminatory and a value of 0 is not discriminatory. Overall, we identified 26 distinct strain types by repPCR, 17 strain types by PFGE, 30 strain types by MLST, 68 strain types by spa typing, and 5 strain types by SCCmec typing. RepPCR had the highest discriminatory index (D) of all methods (D = 0.88), followed by spa typing (D = 0.87), MLST (D = 0.84), PFGE (D = 0.76), and SCCmec typing (D = 0.60). The method with the highest D among MRSA isolates was repPCR (D = 0.64) followed by spa typing (D = 0.45) and MLST (D = 0.44). The method with the highest D among MSSA isolates was spa typing (D = 0.98), followed by MLST (D = 0.93), repPCR (D = 0.92), and PFGE (D = 0.89). Among isolates designated USA300 by PFGE, repPCR was most discriminatory, with 10 distinct strain types identified (D = 0.63). We identified 45

  10. Discriminatory Indices of Typing Methods for Epidemiologic Analysis of Contemporary Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Marcela; Hogan, Patrick G.; Satola, Sarah W.; Crispell, Emily; Wylie, Todd; Gao, Hongyu; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Fritz, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Historically, a number of typing methods have been evaluated for Staphylococcus aureus strain characterization. The emergence of contemporary strains of community-associated S. aureus, and the ensuing epidemic with a predominant strain type (USA300), necessitates re-evaluation of the discriminatory power of these typing methods for discerning molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics, essential to investigations of hospital and community outbreaks. We compared the discriminatory index of 5 typing methods for contemporary S. aureus strain characterization. Children presenting to St. Louis Children's Hospital and community pediatric practices in St. Louis, Missouri (MO), with community-associated S. aureus infections were enrolled. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (repPCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A (spa), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing were performed on 200 S. aureus isolates. The discriminatory index of each method was calculated using the standard formula for this metric, where a value of 1 is highly discriminatory and a value of 0 is not discriminatory. Overall, we identified 26 distinct strain types by repPCR, 17 strain types by PFGE, 30 strain types by MLST, 68 strain types by spa typing, and 5 strain types by SCCmec typing. RepPCR had the highest discriminatory index (D) of all methods (D = 0.88), followed by spa typing (D = 0.87), MLST (D = 0.84), PFGE (D = 0.76), and SCCmec typing (D = 0.60). The method with the highest D among MRSA isolates was repPCR (D = 0.64) followed by spa typing (D = 0.45) and MLST (D = 0.44). The method with the highest D among MSSA isolates was spa typing (D = 0.98), followed by MLST (D = 0.93), repPCR (D = 0.92), and PFGE (D = 0.89). Among isolates designated USA300 by PFGE, repPCR was most discriminatory, with 10 distinct strain types identified (D = 0.63). We

  11. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  14. A multispectral cloud type identification method using Nimbus 3 MRIR measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, W. E.; Holub, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Using Nimbus 3 medium resolution infrared radiometer measurements, a multispectral cloud type identification method is developed. This method includes a fourth spectral region (20-23 microns), the use of radiative transfer theory, and a semiquantitative evaluation of satellite cloud type estimates with concurrent high resolution photography from aircraft flights.

  15. A Type of Method Used To Study Antiballistic Weapons System Precision,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This article presents one type of method for studying precision--the Montecarlo method. It discusses in detail several keys to utilizing Montecarlo ...methods--the production of initial state sets, the introduction of error, the selection of statistical sets. Finally, it gives two examples of the use of Montecarlo methods.

  16. Designing multiplex PCR system of Campylobacter jejuni for efficient typing by improving monoplex PCR binary typing method.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazuhiro; Ibata, Ami; Suzuki, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Masakado; Yamashita, Teruo; Minagawa, Hiroko; Kurane, Ryuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for the majority of Campylobacter infections. As the molecular epidemiological study of outbreaks, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is performed in general. But PFGE has several problems. PCR binary typing (P-BIT) method is a typing method for Campylobacter spp. that was recently developed, and was reported to have a similar discriminatory power and stability to those of PFGE. We modified the P-BIT method from 18 monoplex PCRs to two multiplex PCR systems (mP-BIT). The same results were obtained from monoplex PCRs using original primers and multiplex PCR in the representative isolates. The mP-BIT can analyze 48 strains at a time by using 96-well PCR systems and can identify C. jejuni because mP-BIT includes C. jejuni marker. The typing of the isolates by the mP-BIT and PFGE demonstrated generally concordant results and the mP-BIT method (D = 0.980) has a similar discriminatory power to that of PFGE with SmaI digest (D = 0.975) or KpnI digest (D = 0.987) as with original article. The mP-BIT method is quick, simple and easy, and comes to be able to perform it at low cost by having become a multiplex PCR system. Therefore, the mP-BIT method with two multiplex PCR systems has high potential for a rapid first-line surveillance typing assay of C. jejuni and can be used for routine surveillance and outbreak investigations of C. jejuni in the future.

  17. High performance p-type thermoelectric materials and methods of preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alexander (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in high performance p-type thermoelectric materials having enhanced thermoelectric properties and the methods of preparing such materials. In one aspect of the invention, p-type semiconductors of formula Zn4-xAxSb3-yBy wherein 0?x?4, A is a transition metal, B is a pnicogen, and 0?y?3 are formed for use in manufacturing thermoelectric devices with substantially enhanced operating characteristics and improved efficiency. Two methods of preparing p-type Zn4Sb3 and related alloys of the present invention include a crystal growth method and a powder metallurgy method.

  18. A qPCR method to characterize the sex type of the cell strains from rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Junbei; Li, Zhilin; Wan, Qian; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Mianxue; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xie, Linfeng

    2016-10-01

    A simple and fast method was established to identify the sex types of the rat-derived cell strains. The single copy X-chromosome-linked gene AR and the single copy Y-chromosome-linked gene Sry were both detected with qPCR for the rat genomic DNA sample and the AR/Sry ratio was calculated. According to the law of the AR/Sry ratio, a new method to identify the sex types of the rat-derived cell strains was developed. The new assay was proved effective. The new assay showed advantages over the traditional sex type identification PCR methods, which detected only the Sry gene. Moreover, the new method was used to identify the sex types of two rat-derived cell strains unknown for the sex types and the results were confirmed with the in situ hybridization. Finally, the problem of the cross contamination between the female and the male samples was addressed and discussed extensively.

  19. A rapid typing method for Listeria monocytogenes based on high-throughput multilocus sequence typing (Hi-MLST).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hajime; Iwakawa, Ai; Ohshima, Chihiro; Kyoui, Daisuke; Kumano, Shiori; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2017-02-21

    Listeria monocytogenes infects humans via food products, causing listeriosis. Consequently, food companies pay meticulous attention to the risk of contamination of their products by this bacterium. While fragment analysis methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are used to trace the sources of contamination for this bacterium, some drawbacks have been identified, namely the complexity of the methods and the difficulty of making data comparisons. As an alternative, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is now seeing widespread use; however, owing to its cost, time, and labor requirements, its diffusion into the food industry has been slow. Thus, in the present study, a High-throughput MLST (Hi-MLST) method, which can rapidly, simply, and cheaply perform MLST analyses using a next-generation sequencer (NGS) that can analyze a large volume of base sequences at once was developed. Firstly, a multiplex PCR method designed to amplify seven genes for use in MLST was developed. The discriminatory potential of the developed method was confirmed in silico, and was verified that it has the same discriminatory potential as conventional methods. Next, MLST analysis using multiplex PCR and NGS was performed for 48 strains of L. monocytogenes. The sequences obtained from this analysis have sufficiently reliable quality for all of the genes from of all the strains. Thus, this method could classify the 48 strains into 39 sequence types (ST) with a Diversity index (DI) of 0.989. In summary, using the Hi-MLST method developed in the present study, which combined multiplex PCR and NGS, cut the costs to 1/6th and the time to 1/20th that of conventional MLST methods.

  20. Comparison of five blood-typing methods for the feline AB blood group system.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mayank; Jackson, Karen V; Giger, Urs

    2011-02-01

    Objective-To compare the ease of use and accuracy of 5 feline AB blood-typing methods: card agglutination (CARD), immunochromatographic cartridge (CHROM), gel-based (GEL), and conventional slide (SLIDE) and tube (TUBE) agglutination assays. Sample Population-490 anticoagulated blood samples from sick and healthy cats submitted to the Transfusion or Clinical Laboratory at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Procedures-Sample selection was purposely biased toward those from anemic, type B, or type AB cats or those with autoagglutination. All blood samples were tested by use of GEL, SLIDE, and TUBE methods. Fifty-eight samples were also tested by use of CARD and CHROM methods. The presence of alloantibodies in all cats expressing the B antigen as detected by use of any method was also assessed. Results-Compared with the historical gold-standard TUBE method, good to excellent agreement was achieved with the other typing tests: CARD, 53 of 58 (91% agreement); CHROM, 55 of 58 (95%); GEL, 487 of 490 (99%); and SLIDE, 482 of 487 (99%; 3 samples were excluded because of autoagglutination). Four of the samples with discordant test results originated from cats with FeLV-related anemia. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Current laboratory and in-clinic methods provide simple and accurate typing for the feline AB blood group system with few discrepancies. Retyping after in-clinic typing with the GEL or TUBE laboratory methods is recommended to confirm any type B or AB cats.

  1. Boundary Value Technique for Initial Value Problems Based on Adams-Type Second Derivative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jator, S. N.; Sahi, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we propose a family of second derivative Adams-type methods (SDAMs) of order up to 2k + 2 ("k" is the step number) for initial value problems. The methods are constructed through a continuous approximation of the SDAM which is obtained by multistep collocation. The continuous approximation is used to obtain initial value methods,…

  2. What's in a Name? A Comparison of Methods for Classifying Predominant Type of Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, A.S.; Leeb, R.T.; English, D.; Graham, J.C.; Briggs, E.C.; Brody, K.E.; Marshall, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The primary aim of the study was to identify a classification scheme, for determining the predominant type of maltreatment in a child's history that best predicts differences in developmental outcomes. Method:: Three different predominant type classification schemes were examined in a sample of 519 children with a history of alleged…

  3. Expanding the elution by characteristic point method for determination of various types of adsorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Jörgen; Undin, Torgny; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2011-06-17

    Important improvements have recently been made on the elution by characteristic point (ECP) method to increase the accuracy of the determined adsorption isotherms. However, the method has so far been limited/used for only type I adsorption isotherms (e.g. Langmuir, Tóth, bi-Langmuir). In this study, general strategies are developed to expand the ECP method for the determination of more complex adsorption isotherms including such containing inflection points. We will exemplify the methodology with type II, type III and type V isotherms. Guidelines are given for how to determine such isotherms using the ECP method and for the experimental considerations that must be taken into account or that may be eliminated in the particular case.

  4. The multisection method for triple products and identities of Rogers-Ramanujan type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wenchang; Wang, Chenying

    2008-03-01

    By applying the bisection and trisection method to Jacobi's triple product identity, we establish several identities factorizing sum and difference of infinite products, which lead, in turn, to new and elementary proofs for twenty identities of Rogers-Ramanujan type.

  5. Total nitrogen determination of various sample types: a comparison of the Hach, Kjeltec, and Kjeldahl methods.

    PubMed

    Watkins, K L; Veum, T L; Krause, G F

    1987-01-01

    Conventional Kjeldahl analysis with modifications, Kjeltec analysis with block digestion and semiautomated distillation, and the Hach method for determining nitrogen (N) were compared using a wide range of samples. Twenty different sample types were ground and mixed. Each sample type was divided into 5 subsamples which were analyzed for N by each of the 3 methods. In each sample type, differences (P less than 0.05) were detected among the 3 N determination methods in 5 of the 20 N sources analyzed. The mean N content over all 20 samples was higher with Kjeldahl analysis (P less than 0.05) than with Kjeltec, while Hach analysis produced intermediate results. Results also indicated that the Hach procedure had the greatest ability to detect differences in N content among sample types, being more sensitive than either other method (P less than 0.05).

  6. Twostep-by-twostep PIRK-type PC methods with continuous output formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Nguyen Huu; Xuan, Le Ngoc

    2008-11-01

    This paper deals with parallel predictor-corrector (PC) iteration methods based on collocation Runge-Kutta (RK) corrector methods with continuous output formulas for solving nonstiff initial-value problems (IVPs) for systems of first-order differential equations. At nth step, the continuous output formulas are used not only for predicting the stage values in the PC iteration methods but also for calculating the step values at (n+2)th step. In this case, the integration processes can be proceeded twostep-by-twostep. The resulting twostep-by-twostep (TBT) parallel-iterated RK-type (PIRK-type) methods with continuous output formulas (twostep-by-twostep PIRKC methods or TBTPIRKC methods) give us a faster integration process. Fixed stepsize applications of these TBTPIRKC methods to a few widely-used test problems reveal that the new PC methods are much more efficient when compared with the well-known parallel-iterated RK methods (PIRK methods), parallel-iterated RK-type PC methods with continuous output formulas (PIRKC methods) and sequential explicit RK codes DOPRI5 and DOP853 available from the literature.

  7. Methods for improving n-type photoconductivity of electrodeposited Cu2O thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalubowila, K. D. R. N.; Gunawardhana, L. K. A. D. D. S.; Wijesundera, R. P.; Siripala, W.

    2014-07-01

    Electrodeposition technique is very useful for depositing n-type Cu2O thin films on various substrates. However, most of the reported n-type Cu2O thin film electrodes exhibit not only n-type photoactivity but also p-type photoactivity in photoelectrochemical cells. In this study, current-voltage characteristics and zero bias spectral response measurements were employed to investigate the possibilities to remove/minimize this unwanted p-type behaviour of n-type Cu2O thin films electrodeposited on Ti substrate. For this, prior deposition of Cu thin films on Ti substrate, low temperature annealing of Cu2O films in air and optimization of deposition bath pH were investigated. Growth of a very thin Cu film improved the n-type photosignal significantly and reduced the p-type photoresponse of the films. Films electrodeposited using an acetate bath of pH 6.1 produced only the n-type photoresponse. Low temperature annealing of Cu2O films in air improved the n-type photoresponse and it was found that annealing at 100 °C for 24 h produces the best result. These methods will be very useful to obtain electrodeposited Cu2O thin film with improved n-type photoactivity suitable for applications in thin film solar cells and other devices.

  8. New method for automatic identification identification and typing of single and multiple superimposed human papillomavirus sequences.

    PubMed

    Feoli-Fonseca, J C; Oligny, L L; Yotov, W V

    1999-12-01

    This study of specimens of human papillomaviruses (HPV) through HPV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by direct sequencing, resulted in 11% (38/354) superimposed HPV sequences, signifying coinfection with more than one HPV type. To address the diagnostic problem that these superimposed ("degenerated," overlapping) sequences pose, the authors created a papillomavirus database in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, U.S.A.) and Corel Quattro Pro 9 (Corel Corporation, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) formats, retrievable from http://www2.crosswinds.net/ -crosswindswatson/index.html. This sequence database is simultaneously a search and comparison tool for quick (several seconds) typing of HPV from regular and "degenerated" sequencing results. Some of the advantages of the method are as follows: (1) superimposed HPV sequences that differ in length could be readily identified from a single input; (2) the search is restricted to the currently known 127 PV types, which speeds up the typing; (3) the most common HPV sequencing artifacts are included for quick detection; (4) there is no proprietary code and the database could be easily improved; (5) HPV sequence identification does not require internet connection; and (6) new HPV types could be easily detected. This method allowed resolution of all but 1 of 354 HPV-positive specimens. From 38 superimposed HPV sequences, this method identified one known HPV type (3 specimens), two HPV types (30 specimens) and three HPV types (4 specimens).

  9. Effects of input methods on inter-key press intervals during continuous typing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huey-Wen; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Chang, Fu-Han

    2009-09-01

    Two popular input methods for Chinese typing, Microsoft New Phonetic and Boshiamy, were compared in terms of hand and finger loading, key-pressing speed and typing efficiency. Sixteen subjects typed an English and a Chinese text for 30 min each during two test sessions and all keystrokes and their inter-key press intervals were recorded by electronic activity monitoring software. Typing with Microsoft New Phonetic and with Boshiamy was found to have equal hand loadings, but typing with Microsoft New Phonetic was associated with a higher proportion of keystrokes at the number row. The subjects who used Boshiamy typed significantly more words per min than those who used Microsoft New Phonetic, though both groups had similar English typing speeds. The features of requiring fewer keystrokes to build a character and no need to choose matched words among homophones made Boshiamy a more efficient tool, but the risk of musculoskeletal disorders should be studied further. This study examined two input methods for typing Chinese and showed that typing with Boshiamy had a higher efficiency, including a higher proportion of key presses on the home row, required fewer key presses to build characters and resulted in a faster speed than with Microsoft New Phonetic. However, the potential risk of development of upper limb symptoms warrants further study.

  10. Comparison of molecular typing methods for characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis: proposal for clone definition.

    PubMed

    Miragaia, M; Carriço, J A; Thomas, J C; Couto, I; Enright, M C; de Lencastre, H

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we give some direction on the selection of the most appropriate typing method(s) to be used for the characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis, in view of the most recent findings on the evolution, population structure, and epidemiology of this species. In order to achieve this aim, quantitative assessment of the correlation of the results of three typing methods--pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, which target different regions of the chromosome that evolve at different rates--was performed. In order to evaluate the discriminatory ability and the strength and direction of the correlation of the different typing methods, Simpson's index of diversity (SID), the adjusted Rand coefficient (AR), and the Wallace coefficient (W) were calculated. PFGE was the most discriminatory method (SID = 99%), followed by MLST (SID = 90%) and SCCmec typing (SID = 75%). The values of AR and W (0.10 < AR < 0.30; 0.50 < W < 0.75) indicated that the partition of the same isolate collection by PFGE, MLST, and SCCmec typing provided results that had only a poor correlation with each other. However, the information provided by the combination of PFGE and SCCmec enabled the prediction of the results obtained by MLST at the level of the clonal complex with a high degree of precision (W > 0.90). We propose that clones of S. epidermidis be defined by the combination of the PFGE type followed by the SCCmec type, which provides reliable information on the short-term epidemiology and the ability to predict with consistency long-term clonal evolution.

  11. A new Liu-Storey type nonlinear conjugate gradient method for unconstrained optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li

    2009-03-01

    Although the Liu-Storey (LS) nonlinear conjugate gradient method has a similar structure as the well-known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) and Hestenes-Stiefel (HS) methods, research about this method is very rare. In this paper, based on the memoryless BFGS quasi-Newton method, we propose a new LS type method, which converges globally for general functions with the Grippo-Lucidi line search. Moreover, we modify this new LS method such that the modified scheme is globally convergent for nonconvex minimization if the strong Wolfe line search is used. Numerical results are also reported.

  12. Lattice Boltzmann Method of Different BGA Orientations on I-Type Dispensing Method.

    PubMed

    Abas, Aizat; Gan, Z L; Ishak, M H H; Abdullah, M Z; Khor, Soon Fuat

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the three dimensional (3D) simulation of fluid flows through the ball grid array (BGA) to replicate the real underfill encapsulation process. The effect of different solder bump arrangements of BGA on the flow front, pressure and velocity of the fluid is investigated. The flow front, pressure and velocity for different time intervals are determined and analyzed for potential problems relating to solder bump damage. The simulation results from Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) code will be validated with experimental findings as well as the conventional Finite Volume Method (FVM) code to ensure highly accurate simulation setup. Based on the findings, good agreement can be seen between LBM and FVM simulations as well as the experimental observations. It was shown that only LBM is capable of capturing the micro-voids formation. This study also shows an increasing trend in fluid filling time for BGA with perimeter, middle empty and full orientations. The perimeter orientation has a higher pressure fluid at the middle region of BGA surface compared to middle empty and full orientation. This research would shed new light for a highly accurate simulation of encapsulation process using LBM and help to further increase the reliability of the package produced.

  13. Lattice Boltzmann Method of Different BGA Orientations on I-Type Dispensing Method

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Z. L.; Ishak, M. H. H.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Khor, Soon Fuat

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the three dimensional (3D) simulation of fluid flows through the ball grid array (BGA) to replicate the real underfill encapsulation process. The effect of different solder bump arrangements of BGA on the flow front, pressure and velocity of the fluid is investigated. The flow front, pressure and velocity for different time intervals are determined and analyzed for potential problems relating to solder bump damage. The simulation results from Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) code will be validated with experimental findings as well as the conventional Finite Volume Method (FVM) code to ensure highly accurate simulation setup. Based on the findings, good agreement can be seen between LBM and FVM simulations as well as the experimental observations. It was shown that only LBM is capable of capturing the micro-voids formation. This study also shows an increasing trend in fluid filling time for BGA with perimeter, middle empty and full orientations. The perimeter orientation has a higher pressure fluid at the middle region of BGA surface compared to middle empty and full orientation. This research would shed new light for a highly accurate simulation of encapsulation process using LBM and help to further increase the reliability of the package produced. PMID:27454872

  14. Material Characterization methods in InAs/InAsSb Type-II superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kadlec, Emil Andrew

    2016-12-01

    This document presents a thesis proposal with three topics. It describes an in-depth comparison of lifetime measurement methods for material characterization of InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices; develops a characterization method based on the 2nd harmonic of a modulated carrier density; and relates lifetime measurements to device performance.

  15. A description of Lax type integrable dynamical systems via the Marsden-Weinstein reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prykarpatsky, Yarema A.

    2013-09-01

    A Lie-algebraic approach to constructing nonlinear Lax type integrable dynamical systems of modern mathematical and theoretical physics, based on the Marsden-Weinstein reduction method on canonically symplectic manifolds with group symmetry, is proposed. Its natural relationship with the well known Adler-Kostant-Souriau-Berezin-Kirillov method and the associated R-matrix approach is analyzed.

  16. High performance P-type thermoelectric materials and methods of preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alexander (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in high performance p-type thermoelectric materials having enhanced thermoelectric properties and the methods of preparing such materials. In one aspect of the invention, p-type semiconductors of formula Zn.sub.4-x A.sub.x Sb.sub.3-y B.sub.y wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4, A is a transition metal, B is a pnicogen, and 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.3 are formed for use in manufacturing thermoelectric devices with substantially enhanced operating characteristics and improved efficiency. Two methods of preparing p-type Zn.sub.4 Sb.sub.3 and related alloys of the present invention include a crystal growth method and a powder metallurgy method.

  17. Solving evolutionary-type differential equations and physical problems using the operator method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovsky, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    We present a general operator method based on the advanced technique of the inverse derivative operator for solving a wide range of problems described by some classes of differential equations. We construct and use inverse differential operators to solve several differential equations. We obtain operator identities involving an inverse derivative operator, integral transformations, and generalized forms of orthogonal polynomials and special functions. We present examples of using the operator method to construct solutions of equations containing linear and quadratic forms of a pair of operators satisfying Heisenberg-type relations and solutions of various modifications of partial differential equations of the Fourier heat conduction type, Fokker-Planck type, Black-Scholes type, etc. We demonstrate using the operator technique to solve several physical problems related to the charge motion in quantum mechanics, heat propagation, and the dynamics of the beams in accelerators.

  18. Meselect – A Rapid and Effective Method for the Separation of the Main Leaf Tissue Types

    PubMed Central

    Svozil, Julia; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baerenfaller, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Individual tissues of complex eukaryotic organisms have specific gene expression programs that control their functions. Therefore, tissue-specific molecular information is required to increase our understanding of tissue-specific processes. Established methods in plants to obtain specific tissues or cell types from their organ or tissue context typically require the enzymatic degradation of cell walls followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using plants engineered for localized expression of green fluorescent protein. This has facilitated the acquisition of valuable data, mainly on root cell type-specific transcript and protein expression. However, FACS of different leaf cell types is difficult because of chlorophyll autofluorescence that interferes with the sorting process. Furthermore, the cell wall composition is different in each cell type. This results in long incubation times for refractory cell types, and cell sorting itself can take several hours. To overcome these limitations, we developed Meselect (mechanical separation of leaf compound tissues), a rapid and effective method for the separation of leaf epidermal, vascular and mesophyll tissues. Meselect is a novel combination of mechanical separation and rapid protoplasting, which benefits from the unique cell wall composition of the different tissue types. Meselect has several advantages over cell sorting: it does not require expensive equipment such as a cell sorter and does not depend on specific fluorescent reporter lines, the use of blenders as well as the inherent mixing of different cell types and of intact and damaged cells can be avoided, and the time between wounding of the leaf and freezing of the sample is short. The efficacy and specificity of the method to enrich the different leaf tissue types has been confirmed using Arabidopsis leaves, but it has also been successfully used for leaves of other plants such as tomato or cassava. The method is therefore useful for plant

  19. Meselect - A Rapid and Effective Method for the Separation of the Main Leaf Tissue Types.

    PubMed

    Svozil, Julia; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baerenfaller, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Individual tissues of complex eukaryotic organisms have specific gene expression programs that control their functions. Therefore, tissue-specific molecular information is required to increase our understanding of tissue-specific processes. Established methods in plants to obtain specific tissues or cell types from their organ or tissue context typically require the enzymatic degradation of cell walls followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using plants engineered for localized expression of green fluorescent protein. This has facilitated the acquisition of valuable data, mainly on root cell type-specific transcript and protein expression. However, FACS of different leaf cell types is difficult because of chlorophyll autofluorescence that interferes with the sorting process. Furthermore, the cell wall composition is different in each cell type. This results in long incubation times for refractory cell types, and cell sorting itself can take several hours. To overcome these limitations, we developed Meselect (mechanical separation of leaf compound tissues), a rapid and effective method for the separation of leaf epidermal, vascular and mesophyll tissues. Meselect is a novel combination of mechanical separation and rapid protoplasting, which benefits from the unique cell wall composition of the different tissue types. Meselect has several advantages over cell sorting: it does not require expensive equipment such as a cell sorter and does not depend on specific fluorescent reporter lines, the use of blenders as well as the inherent mixing of different cell types and of intact and damaged cells can be avoided, and the time between wounding of the leaf and freezing of the sample is short. The efficacy and specificity of the method to enrich the different leaf tissue types has been confirmed using Arabidopsis leaves, but it has also been successfully used for leaves of other plants such as tomato or cassava. The method is therefore useful for plant

  20. Fingerprinting of poultry isolates of Enterococcus cecorum using three molecular typing methods.

    PubMed

    Wijetunge, Dona Saumya; Dunn, Patricia; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Lintner, Valerie; Lu, Huaguang; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2012-11-01

    Enterococcus cecorum is an emerging challenge to the broiler industry. The organism has been implicated in septicemia, spondylitis, arthritis, and osteomyelitis in commercial broilers and broiler breeders, which lead to economic losses attributed to increased mortality and culling rates, decreased average processing weights, and increased feed conversion ratios. The current study evaluated the genetic variability of 30 clinical isolates of E. cecorum from outbreaks in Pennsylvania, using 3 molecular typing methods, namely, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (polymerase chain reaction), in order to understand their genetic relatedness and to identify possible pathogenic clones. The study revealed the existence of genotypic polymorphism among E. cecorum associated with clinical disease. Of the 3 typing methods used, PFGE analysis demonstrated higher genetic variability of E. cecorum isolates compared to PCR-based methods. Also, each molecular typing method was evaluated in terms of typeability, discriminatory power, and reproducibility for application of these typing methods in fingerprinting of E. cecorum in future reference. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis provided the most reliable results with greater discriminatory power and higher reproducibility compared to the 2 PCR-based methods.

  1. Comparative analysis of codeword representation by clustering methods for the classification of histological tissue types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygili, Ahmet; Uysal, Gunalp; Bilgin, Gokhan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the classification of several histological tissue types, i.e., muscles, nerves, connective and epithelial tissue cells, is studied in high resolutional histological images. In the feature extraction step, bag of features method is utilized to reveal distinguishing features of each tissue cell types. Local small blocks of sub-images/patches are extracted to find discriminative patterns for followed strategy. For detecting points of interest in local patches, Harris corner detection method is applied. Afterwards, discriminative features are extracted using the scale invariant feature transform method using these points of interests. Several code word representations are obtained by clustering approach (using k-means fuzzy c-means, expectation maximization method, Gaussian mixture models) and evaluated in comparative manner. In the last step, the classification of the tissue cells data are performed using k-nearest neighbor and support vector machines methods.

  2. CFD-based method of determining form factor k for different ship types and different drafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinbao; Yu, Hai; Zhang, Yuefeng; Xiong, Xiaoqing

    2016-09-01

    The value of form factor k at different drafts is important in predicting full-scale total resistance and speed for different types of ships. In the ITTC community, most organizations predict form factor k using a low-speed model test. However, this method is problematic for ships with bulbous bows and transom. In this article, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based method is introduced to obtain k for different type of ships at different drafts, and a comparison is made between the CFD method and the model test. The results show that the CFD method produces reasonable k values. A grid generating method and turbulence model are briefly discussed in the context of obtaining a consistent k using CFD.

  3. Constrained optimization using a multipoint type chaotic Lagrangian method with a coupling structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Takashi; Hirata, Hironori

    2013-03-01

    This article proposes a new constrained optimization method using a multipoint type chaotic Lagrangian method that utilizes chaotic search trajectories generated by Lagrangian gradient dynamics with a coupling structure. In the proposed method, multiple search points autonomously implement global search using the chaotic search trajectory generated by the coupled Lagrangian gradient dynamics. These points are advected to elite points (which are chosen by considering their objective function values and their feasibility) by the coupling in order to explore promising regions intensively. In this way, the proposed method successfully provides diversification and intensification for constrained optimization problems. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed through application to various types of benchmark problem, including the coil spring design problem, the benchmark problems used in the special session on constrained real parameter optimization in CEC2006, and a high-dimensional and multi-peaked constrained optimization problem.

  4. Strain typing of acetic acid bacteria responsible for vinegar production by the submerged elaboration method.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; Torres, Carmen; Sanz, Susana; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2010-12-01

    Strain typing of 103 acetic acid bacteria isolates from vinegars elaborated by the submerged method from ciders, wines and spirit ethanol, was carried on in this study. Two different molecular methods were utilised: pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of total DNA digests with a number of restriction enzymes, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) - PCR analysis. The comparative study of both methods showed that restriction fragment PFGE of SpeI digests of total DNA was a suitable method for strain typing and for determining which strains were present in vinegar fermentations. Results showed that strains of the species Gluconacetobacter europaeus were the most frequent leader strains of fermentations by the submerged method in the studied vinegars, and among them strain R1 was the predominant one. Results showed as well that mixed populations (at least two different strains) occurred in vinegars from cider and wine, whereas unique strains were found in spirit vinegars, which offered the most stressing conditions for bacterial growth.

  5. [A wavelet-transform-based method for the automatic detection of late-type stars].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-tian; Zhao, Rrui-zhen; Zhao, Yong-heng; Wu, Fu-chao

    2005-07-01

    The LAMOST project, the world largest sky survey project, urgently needs an automatic late-type stars detection system. However, to our knowledge, no effective methods for automatic late-type stars detection have been reported in the literature up to now. The present study work is intended to explore possible ways to deal with this issue. Here, by "late-type stars" we mean those stars with strong molecule absorption bands, including oxygen-rich M, L and T type stars and carbon-rich C stars. Based on experimental results, the authors find that after a wavelet transform with 5 scales on the late-type stars spectra, their frequency spectrum of the transformed coefficient on the 5th scale consistently manifests a unimodal distribution, and the energy of frequency spectrum is largely concentrated on a small neighborhood centered around the unique peak. However, for the spectra of other celestial bodies, the corresponding frequency spectrum is of multimodal and the energy of frequency spectrum is dispersible. Based on such a finding, the authors presented a wavelet-transform-based automatic late-type stars detection method. The proposed method is shown by extensive experiments to be practical and of good robustness.

  6. Analysis of Swedish Bordetella pertussis isolates with three typing methods: characterization of an epidemic lineage.

    PubMed

    Advani, A; Van der Heide, H G J; Hallander, H O; Mooi, F R

    2009-09-01

    Three Bordetella pertussis typing methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were compared using a collection of Swedish strains. Of the three typing methods used, PFGE was found to be the most discriminatory. MLVA and MLST were less discriminatory, but may be valuable for strain discrimination when culture is not possible as they are based on PCR. The combination of MLVA/MLST was found to be equally discriminatory as PFGE and should therefore also be considered. The relationship between predominant lineages in Sweden and The Netherlands, characterized by the PFGE type BpSR11 and the allele for the pertussis toxin promoter ptxP3, respectively, was investigated. Linkage was found between the PFGE type BpSR11 and ptxP3 in that all BpSR11 strains carried ptxP3. On the other hand ptxP3 was found in several other PFGE-types. The presence of the ptxP3 allele in different genetic backgrounds may indicate horizontal gene transfer within B. pertussis or homoplasy. Alternatively, this observation may be due to convergence of PFGE types.

  7. Evaluation of molecular typing methods for identification of outbreak-associated Neisseria meningitidis isolates.

    PubMed

    Törös, Bianca; Hedberg, Sara T; Jacobsson, Susanne; Fredlund, Hans; Olcén, Per; Mölling, Paula

    2013-06-01

    It is essential in an outbreak investigation that strain characterization of Neisseria meningitidis is performed in a rapid and accurate manner. This study evaluated two new molecular typing methods, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) (DiversiLab; bioMérieux) and compared them with current recommended methodologies. This retrospective study included 36 invasive N. meningitidis serogroup C isolates collected in Sweden 2001 through 2009 and previously subjected to outbreak investigation. All strains were typed with highly variable-MLVA (HV-MLVA) and rep-PCR. The isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequencing of the fetA, fHbp, penA, porA and porB genes. The results showed that HV-MLVA had the highest index of diversity (0.99) and rep-PCR had the highest congruence (40%) with the currently recommended typing methods. The HV-MLVA correlated best to the spatiotemporal connections and had the overall highest Adjusted Wallace coefficients, suggesting that HV-MLVA can predict the results of the other typing methods in the study. We therefore suggest that after initial confirmation of species, serogroup and genosubtype, HV-MLVA should be used as the most discriminatory method for first hand investigation of N. meningitidis serogroup C isolates.

  8. A New Method for the Quick Determination of S-Type and P-Type Habitable Zones in Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaopeng; Cuntz, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    More than 3500 exoplanets have been confirmed nowadays, including a very large number of planets discovered by the Kepler mission. Additional exoplanets are expected to be found by ongoing missions as, e.g., K2 as well as future missions such as TESS. Exoplanets, especially terrestrial planets, located in stellar habitable zones are drawing great attention from the community and the public at large due to their potential for hosting alien life - a prospect that makes the adequate determination of stellar habitable zones an important goal of exoplanetary research. In the local Galactic neighborhood, binary systems occur relatively frequently. Thus, it is the aim of my presentation to offer a method for the quick determination for the existence of habitable zones in binaries. Therefore, fitting formulas for binary habitable zones regarding both S-type and P-type star-planet configurations are provided. Based on previous work in the literature, a joint constraint regarding radiative habitable zones and planetary orbital stability limits is used. Models of stellar habitable zones utilize updated computations for planetary climate models as given by Kopparapu et al. (2013, 2014) [ApJ 765, 131; ApJL 787, L29]. Cases studies showing the quality of the fit formulas, as well as applications to observed systems, are presented as well.

  9. Look-ahead procedures for Lanczos-type product methods based on three-term recurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Gutknecht, M.H.; Ressel, K.J.

    1996-12-31

    Lanczos-type product methods for the solution of large sparse non-Hermitian linear systems either square the Lanczos process or combine it with a local minimization of the residual. They inherit from the underlying Lanczos process the danger of breakdown. For various Lanczos-type product methods that are based on the Lanczos three-term recurrence, look-ahead versions are presented, which avoid such breakdowns or near breakdowns with a small computational overhead. Different look-ahead strategies are discussed and their efficiency is demonstrated in several numerical examples.

  10. Comparison of thermal conversion methods of different biomass types into gaseous fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, O. M.; Sinelshchikov, V. A.; Sytchev, G. A.

    2016-11-01

    Thermal conversion methods of different biomass types into gaseous fuel are considered. The comparison of the gas mixtures characteristics (volume yield, composition and calorific value) that can be produced from the main biomass types by gasification and pyrolysis is presented. The merits and demerits of these methods are discussed. It is shown that the two-stage pyrolysis technology, which consists of the biomass pyrolysis and the consequent high-temperature conversion of pyrolysis gases and vapors into synthesis gas by filtration through a porous carbon medium, allows to achieve both a high degree of biomass conversion into gaseous fuel and a high energy efficiency.

  11. A data-driven method for syndrome type identification and classification in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nevin Lianwen; Fu, Chen; Liu, Teng Fei; Chen, Bao-Xin; Poon, Kin Man; Chen, Pei Xian; Zhang, Yun-Ling

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments for Western medicine (WM) diseases relies heavily on the proper classification of patients into TCM syndrome types. The authors developed a data-driven method for solving the classification problem, where syndrome types were identified and quantified based on statistical patterns detected in unlabeled symptom survey data. The new method is a generalization of latent class analysis (LCA), which has been widely applied in WM research to solve a similar problem, i.e., to identify subtypes of a patient population in the absence of a gold standard. A well-known weakness of LCA is that it makes an unrealistically strong independence assumption. The authors relaxed the assumption by first detecting symptom co-occurrence patterns from survey data and used those statistical patterns instead of the symptoms as features for LCA. This new method consists of six steps: data collection, symptom co-occurrence pattern discovery, statistical pattern interpretation, syndrome identification, syndrome type identification and syndrome type classification. A software package called Lantern has been developed to support the application of the method. The method was illustrated using a data set on vascular mild cognitive impairment.

  12. A study on SMO-type decomposition methods for support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pai-Hsuen; Fan, Rong-En; Lin, Chih-Jen

    2006-07-01

    Decomposition methods are currently one of the major methods for training support vector machines. They vary mainly according to different working set selections. Existing implementations and analysis usually consider some specific selection rules. This paper studies sequential minimal optimization type decomposition methods under a general and flexible way of choosing the two-element working set. The main results include: 1) a simple asymptotic convergence proof, 2) a general explanation of the shrinking and caching techniques, and 3) the linear convergence of the methods. Extensions to some support vector machine variants are also discussed.

  13. Domain decomposition methods for nonconforming finite element spaces of Lagrange-type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowsar, Lawrence C.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, we consider the application of three popular domain decomposition methods to Lagrange-type nonconforming finite element discretizations of scalar, self-adjoint, second order elliptic equations. The additive Schwarz method of Dryja and Widlund, the vertex space method of Smith, and the balancing method of Mandel applied to nonconforming elements are shown to converge at a rate no worse than their applications to the standard conforming piecewise linear Galerkin discretization. Essentially, the theory for the nonconforming elements is inherited from the existing theory for the conforming elements with only modest modification by constructing an isomorphism between the nonconforming finite element space and a space of continuous piecewise linear functions.

  14. Molecular analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in Lebanon using four different typing methods.

    PubMed

    Rafei, Rayane; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Eveillard, Matthieu; Lemarié, Carole; Gaultier, Marie-Pierre; Mallat, Hassan; Moghnieh, Rima; Husni-Samaha, Rola; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed 42 Acinetobacter baumannii strains collected between 2009-2012 from different hospitals in Beyrouth and North Lebanon to better understand the epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms in our collection and to compare the robustness of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing (SBT). Among 31 carbapenem resistant strains, we have detected three carbapenem resistance genes: 28 carried the blaOXA-23 gene, 1 the blaOXA-24 gene and 2 strains the blaOXA-58 gene. This is the first detection of blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-24 in Lebanon. PFGE identified 11 types and was the most discriminating technique followed by rep-PCR (9 types), blaOXA-51 SBT (8 types) and MLST (7 types). The PFGE type A'/ST2 was the dominant genotype in our collection present in Beyrouth and North Lebanon. The clustering agreement between all techniques was measured by adjust Wallace coefficient. An overall agreement has been demonstrated. High values of adjust Wallace coefficient were found with followed combinations: PFGE to predict MLST types  = 100%, PFGE to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 100%, blaOXA-51 SBT to predict MLST = 100%, MLST to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 84.7%, rep-PCR to predict MLST = 81.5%, PFGE to predict rep-PCR = 69% and rep-PCR to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 67.2%. PFGE and MLST are gold standard methods for outbreaks investigation and population structure studies respectively. Otherwise, these two techniques are technically, time and cost demanding. We recommend the use of blaOXA-51 SBT as first typing method to screen isolates and assign them to their corresponding clonal lineages. Repetitive sequence-based PCR is a rapid tool to access outbreaks but careful interpretation of results must be always performed.

  15. Modelling the economics of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention: a literature review of methods.

    PubMed

    Watson, P; Preston, L; Squires, H; Chilcott, J; Brennan, A

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to review modelling methods for type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention cost-effectiveness studies. The review was conducted to inform the design of a policy analysis model capable of assisting resource allocation decisions across a spectrum of prevention strategies. We identified recent systematic reviews of economic evaluations in diabetes prevention and management of obesity. We extracted studies from two existing systematic reviews of economic evaluations for the prevention of diabetes. We extracted studies evaluating interventions in a non-diabetic population with type 2 diabetes as a modelled outcome, from two systematic reviews of obesity intervention economic evaluations. Databases were searched for studies published between 2008 and 2013. For each study, we reviewed details of the model type, structure, and methods for predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our review identified 46 articles and found variation in modelling approaches for cost-effectiveness evaluations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Investigation of the variables used to estimate the risk of type 2 diabetes suggested that impaired glucose regulation, and body mass index were used as the primary risk factors for type 2 diabetes. A minority of cost-effectiveness models for diabetes prevention accounted for the multivariate impacts of interventions on risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Twenty-eight cost-effectiveness models included cardiovascular events in addition to type 2 diabetes. Few cost-effectiveness models have flexibility to evaluate different intervention types. We conclude that to compare a range of prevention interventions it is necessary to incorporate multiple risk factors for diabetes, diabetes-related complications and obesity-related co-morbidity outcomes.

  16. Comparison of mineral resources calculation methods for different genetic types of gravel and sand deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patashova, T.

    2009-04-01

    Calculation of mineral resources and their proper assessment is relevant, since the stock of resources determines the economic independence of the state. I would like present the work wherein discusses gravel and sand deposits of different genetic type (kames, eskers, marginal glaciofluvial ridges, sandurs, glaciofluvial deltas and redrifted glaciofluvial aeolian formations). Their geological structure and formation conditions have been assessed; quality characteristics of mineral resources have been analysed; calculation of resources has been performed by applying most popular resources calculating methods used in Lithuania up to now, such as those of geological blocks, profiles and isolines, as well as the up-to-date GRID method created on the basis of triangle method in GIS environment. Comparison of resources assessed by different methods has revealed their advantages and disadvantages, their availability subject to deposits‘genetic types.

  17. Comparison of pencil-type ionization chamber calibration results and methods between dosimetry laboratories.

    PubMed

    Hourdakis, Costas J; Büermann, Ludwig; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Csete, Istvan; Delis, Harry; Gomola, Igor; Persson, Linda; Novak, Leos; Petkov, Ivailo; Toroi, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of calibration results and procedures in terms of air kerma length product, PKL, and air kerma, K, was conducted between eight dosimetry laboratories. A pencil-type ionization chamber (IC), generally used for computed tomography dose measurements, was calibrated according to three calibration methods, while its residual signal and other characteristics (sensitivity profile, active length) were assessed. The results showed that the "partial irradiation method" is the preferred method for the pencil-type IC calibration in terms of PKL and it could be applied by the calibration laboratories successfully. Most of the participating laboratories achieved high level of agreement (>99%) for both dosimetry quantities (PKL and K). Estimated relative standard uncertainties of comparison results vary among laboratories from 0.34% to 2.32% depending on the quantity, beam quality and calibration method applied. Detailed analysis of the assigned uncertainties have been presented and discussed.

  18. A One-Step Immunostaining Method to Visualize Rodent Muscle Fiber Type within a Single Specimen

    PubMed Central

    Sawano, Shoko; Komiya, Yusuke; Ichitsubo, Riho; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Mako; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide; Mizunoya, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present a quadruple immunostaining method for rapid muscle fiber typing of mice and rats using antibodies specific to the adult myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms MyHC1, 2A, 2X, and 2B, which are common marker proteins of distinct muscle fiber types. We developed rat monoclonal antibodies specific to each MyHC isoform and conjugated these four antibodies to fluorophores with distinct excitation and emission wavelengths. By mixing the four types of conjugated antibodies, MyHC1, 2A, 2X, and 2B could be distinguished within a single specimen allowing for facile delineation of skeletal muscle fiber types. Furthermore, we could observe hybrid fibers expressing MyHC2X and MyHC2B together in single longitudinal muscle sections from mice and rats, that was not attained in previous techniques. This staining method is expected to be applied to study muscle fiber type transition in response to environmental factors, and to ultimately develop techniques to regulate animal muscle fiber types. PMID:27814384

  19. Improvement of the Owner Distinction Method for Healing-Type Pet Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Hara, Mirai; Abe, Koji; Tajima, Takuya

    In order to decrease human stress, Animal Assisted Therapy which applies pets to heal humans is attracted. However, since animals are insanitary and unsafe, it is difficult to practically apply animal pets in hospitals. For the reason, on behalf of animal pets, pet robots have been attracted. Since pet robots would have no problems in sanitation and safety, they are able to be applied as a substitute for animal pets in the therapy. In our previous study where pet robots distinguish their owners like an animal pet, we used a puppet type pet robot which has pressure type touch sensors. However, the accuracy of our method was not sufficient to practical use. In this paper, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of the distinction. The proposed method can be applied for capacitive touch sensors such as installed in AIBO in addition to pressure type touch sensors. Besides, this paper shows performance of the proposed method from experimental results and confirms the proposed method has improved performance of the distinction in the conventional method.

  20. 46 CFR 161.002-18 - Method of application for type approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Method of application for type approval. 161.002-18 Section 161.002-18 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT... processing unit, zener barrier, special purpose module, or power supply. This list must be identified by...

  1. Relating geographical variation in pollination types to environmental and spatial factors using novel statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Ingolf; Bierman, Stijn Martinus; Durka, Walter; Klotz, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The relative frequencies of functional traits of plant species show notable spatial variation, which is often related to environmental factors. Pollination type (insect-, wind- or self-pollination) is a critical trait for plant reproduction and provision of ecosystem services. Here, we mapped the distribution of pollination types across Germany by combining databases on plant distribution and plant pollination types. Applying a new method, we modelled the composition of pollination types using a set of 12 environmental variables as predictors within a Bayesian framework which allows for the analysis of compositional data in the presence of spatial autocorrelation. A clear biogeographical pattern in the distribution of pollination types was revealed which was adequately captured by our model. The most striking relationship was a relative increase in insect-pollination and a corresponding decrease of selfing with increasing altitude. Further important factors were wind speed, geology and land use. We present a powerful tool to analyse the distribution patterns of plant functional types such as pollination types and their relationship with environmental parameters in a spatially explicit framework.

  2. A new enrichment method for isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from diverse sample types.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan D; Bhanshali, Forum C; Chaudhary, Avani V; Ingle, Sanjay S

    2013-05-01

    New or more efficient methodologies having different principles are needed, as one method could not be suitable for isolation of organisms from samples of diverse types and from various environments. In present investigation, growth kinetics study revealed a higher germination rate, a higher growth rate, and maximum sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) compared to other Bacillus species. Considering these facts, a simple and efficient enrichment method was devised which allowed propagation of spores and vegetative cells of Bt and thereby increased Bt cell population proportionately. The new enrichment method yielded Bt from 44 out of 58 samples. Contrarily, Bt was isolated only from 16 and 18 samples by sodium acetate selection and dry heat pretreatment methods, respectively. Moreover, the percentages of Bt colonies isolated by the enrichment method were higher comparatively. Vegetative whole cell protein profile analysis indicated isolation of diverse population of Bt from various samples. Bt strains isolated by the enrichment method represented novel serovars and possibly new cry2 gene.

  3. Comparison of traditional and molecular methods of typing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Tenover, F C; Arbeit, R; Archer, G; Biddle, J; Byrne, S; Goering, R; Hancock, G; Hébert, G A; Hill, B; Hollis, R

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-nine Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 1 isolate of Staphylococcus intermedius were typed by investigators at eight institutions by using either antibiograms, bacteriophage typing, biotyping, immunoblotting, insertion sequence typing with IS257/431, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, restriction analysis of plasmid DNA, pulsed-field or field inversion gel electrophoresis, restriction analysis of PCR-amplified coagulase gene sequences, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing by using four staphylococcal genes as probes, or ribotyping. Isolates from four well-characterized outbreaks (n = 29) and a collection of organisms from two nursing homes were mixed with epidemiologically unrelated stock strains from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Several isolates were included multiple times either within or between the sets of isolates to analyze the reproducibilities of the typing systems. Overall, the DNA-based techniques and immunoblotting were most effective in grouping outbreak-related strains, recognizing 27 to 29 of the 29 outbreak-related strains; however, they also tended to include 3 to 8 epidemiologically unrelated isolates in the same strain type. Restriction fragment length polymorphism methods with mec gene-associated loci were less useful than other techniques for typing oxacillin-susceptible isolates. Phage typing, plasmid DNA restriction analysis, and antibiogram analysis, the techniques most readily available to clinical laboratories, identified 23 to 26 of 29 outbreak-related isolates and assigned 0 to 6 unrelated isolates to outbreak strain types. No single technique was clearly superior to the others; however, biotyping, because it produced so many subtypes, did not effectively group outbreak-related strains of S. aureus. PMID:7908673

  4. Solving unconstrained optimization with a new type of conjugate gradient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoid, Syazni; Rivaie, Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa; Mohd, Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) methods have been widely used as schemes to solve large-scale unconstrained optimization problems. Numerous studies and modifications have been done recently to improve this method. In this paper, we proposed a new type of CG coefficients (βk) by modification of Polak and Ribiere (PR) method. This new βk is shown to possess global convergence properties by using exact line searches. Performance comparisons are made with the four most common βk proposed by the early researches. Numerical results also show that this new βk performed better.

  5. Muscle-tendon unit scaling methods of Hill-type musculoskeletal models: An overview.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Frederik; Lund, Morten E; Rasmussen, John; de Zee, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of the art in scaling methods of generic Hill-type muscle model parameters in view of different applications and implementation of experimental data. This article establishes the requirements used to alter a generic model toward subject-specific musculoskeletal models. This article aims to improve model transparency by a structured description of scaling methods and the associated limitations in musculoskeletal models and highlight the importance of selecting a scaling method supporting the purpose of the model.

  6. Development of a neutronics calculation method for designing commercial type Japanese sodium-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, T.; Shimazu, Y.; Hibi, K.; Fujimura, K.

    2012-07-01

    Under the R and D project to improve the modeling accuracy for the design of fast breeder reactors the authors are developing a neutronics calculation method for designing a large commercial type sodium- cooled fast reactor. The calculation method is established by taking into account the special features of the reactor such as the use of annular fuel pellet, inner duct tube in large fuel assemblies, large core. The Verification and Validation, and Uncertainty Qualification (V and V and UQ) of the calculation method is being performed by using measured data from the prototype FBR Monju. The results of this project will be used in the design and analysis of the commercial type demonstration FBR, known as the Japanese Sodium fast Reactor (JSFR). (authors)

  7. ABO typing in experimental cynomolgus monkeys using non-invasive methods

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Song; Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    ABH antigens are not expressed on the red blood cells of monkeys, making it difficult to accurately determine their blood type. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility, convenience, and stability of two non-invasive methods for ABO typing (a reverse gel system assay and a buccal mucosal cell immunofluorescent assay) in cynomolgus monkeys (n = 72). The renal tissue immunofluorescent assay was used to obtain an accurate blood type in the monkeys. Using the reverse gel system assay and preabsorbed serum, we achieved accurate detection of ABO blood groups in 65 of the 72 monkeys but obtained confusing results in the remaining 7. The original immunofluorescent staining of the buccal mucosal smears clearly and correctly identified the ABO blood groups in 50 of the 72 monkeys. After repeated smearing and staining, the ABO group type could be correctly identified in samples from the rest of the monkeys, which were either lacking sufficient buccal mucosal cells or contained impurities. Based on our findings, we recommend the reverse gel system assay as the first choice for primate blood type analysis, and the buccal mucosal cell immunofluorescent assay as a Supplementary Method whenever the reverse gel system assay fails to give a clear result. PMID:28112245

  8. Bovine Papillomavirus in Brazil: Detection of Coinfection of Unusual Types by a PCR-RFLP Method

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, R. F.; Sakata, S. T.; Giovanni, D. N. S.; Mori, E.; Brandão, P. E.; Richtzenhain, L. J.; Pozzi, C. R.; Arcaro, J. R. P.; Miranda, M. S.; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J.; Melo, T. C.; Comenale, G.; Assaf, S. L. M. R.; Beçak, W.; Stocco, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is recognized as a causal agent of benign and malignant tumors in cattle. Thirteen types of BPV are currently characterized and classified into three distinct genera, associated with different pathological outcomes. The described BPV types as well as other putative ones have been demonstrated by molecular biology methods, mainly by the employment of degenerated PCR primers. Specifically, divergences in the nucleotide sequence of the L1 gene are useful for the identification and classification of new papillomavirus types. On the present work, a method based on the PCR-RFLP technique and DNA sequencing was evaluated as a screening tool, allowing for the detection of two relatively rare types of BPV in lesions samples from a six-year-old Holstein dairy cow, chronically affected with cutaneous papillomatosis. These findings point to the dissemination of BPVs with unclear pathogenic potential, since two relatively rare, new described BPV types, which were first characterized in Japan, were also detected in Brazil. PMID:23865043

  9. Applicability of meteor radiant determination methods depending on orbit type. I. High-eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Porubcan, V.

    1993-07-01

    It is evident that there is no uniform method of calculating meteor radiants which would yield reliable results for all types of cometary orbits. In the present paper an analysis of this problem is presented, together with recommended methods for various types of orbits. Some additional methods resulting from mathematical modelling are presented and discussed together with Porter's, Steel-Baggaley's and Hasegawa's methods. In order to be able to compare how suitable the application of the individual radiant determination methods is, it is necessary to determine the accuracy with which they approximate real meteor orbits. To verify the accuracy with which the orbit of a meteoroid with at least one node at 1 AU fits the original orbit of the parent body, we applied the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion (Southworth, R.B., Hawkins, G.S.: 1963, Smithson. Contr. Astrophys 7, 261). D<=0.1 indicates a very good fit of orbits, 0.10.2 the fit is rather poor and the change of orbit unrealistic. The optimal methods with the smallest values of D for given types of orbits are shown in two series of six plots. The new method of rotation around the line of apsides we propose is very appropriate in the region of small inclinations. There is no doubt that Hasegawa's omega-adjustment method (Hasegawa, I.: 1990, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 42, 175) has the widest application. A comparison of the theoretical radiants with the observed radiants of seven known meteor showers is also presented.

  10. Standardization of Type 2 Diabetes Outpatient Expenditure with Bundled Payment Method in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Chao; Luo, Yun; Li, Qian; Wu, Meng-Fan; Zhou, Zi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Chinese population has been increasing by years, directly leading to an average annual growth rate of 19.90% of medical expenditure. Therefore, it is urgent to work on strategies to control the growth of medical expenditure on type 2 diabetes on the basis of the reality of China. Therefore, in this study, we explored the feasibility of implementing bundled payment in China through analyzing bundled payment standards of type 2 diabetes outpatient services. Methods: This study analyzed the outpatient expenditure on type 2 diabetes with Beijing Urban Employee's Basic Medical Insurance from 2010 to 2012. Based on the analysis of outpatient expenditure and its influential factors, we adopted decision tree approach to conduct a case-mix analysis. In the end, we built a case-mix model to calculate the standard expenditure and the upper limit of each combination. Results: We found that age, job status, and whether with complication were significant factors that influence outpatient expenditure for type 2 diabetes. Through the analysis of the decision tree, we used six variables (complication, age, diabetic foot, diabetic nephropathy, cardiac-cerebrovascular disease, and neuropathy) to group the cases, and obtained 11 case-mix groups. Conclusions: We argued that it is feasible to implement bundled payment on type 2 diabetes outpatient services. Bundled payment is effective to control the increase of outpatient expenditure. Further improvements are needed for the implementation of bundled payment reimbursement standards, together with relevant policies and measures. PMID:27064041

  11. [Comparative evaluation of different methods for typing bacteria in the genus Proteus].

    PubMed

    Shvidenko, I G

    1986-05-01

    The work presents the comparative evaluation of different methods used for differentiating bacteria of the genus Proteus. A scheme of the combined typing of Proteus is presented. This scheme includes the determination of enzymatic and serological variants with the subsequent additional bacteriocinogenic and phage typing. Among the Proteus strains in our collection (600 strains), 123 sero-enzymatic variants, 71 enzymo-lysogenic variants, 64 enzymo-bacteriocinogenic variants, 162 sero-lysogenic variants, 164 sero-bacteriocinogenic variants and 52 bacteriocinogeno-lysogenic variants have been detected.

  12. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium intracellulare Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, Mycobacteria Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Typing, and Multilocus Sequence Typing: Molecular Characterization and Comparison of Each Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Semi; Lim, Nara; Kwon, Seungjik; Shim, Taesun; Park, Misun; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Seonghan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mycobacterium intracellulare is the major causative agent of nontuberculous mycobacteria-related pulmonary infections. The strain typing of M. intracellulare is important for the treatment and control of its infections. We compared the discrimination capacity and effective value of four different molecular typing methods. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility testing, hsp65 and rpoB sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), mycobacteria interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR), and VNTR assay targeting 44 M. intracellulare isolates obtained from patients with pulmonary infections were performed. Results All the antibiotic susceptibility patterns had no association with the molecular and sequence types tested in this study; however, the molecular and sequence types were related with each other. PFGE gave best results for discriminatory capacity, followed by VNTR, MLST, and MIRU-VNTR. Conclusion The high discriminatory power of PFGE, VNTR, and MLST is enough for differentiating between reinfection and relapse, as well as for other molecular epidemiological usages. The MLST could be regarded as a representative classification method, because it showed the clearest relation with the sequence types. PMID:25180144

  13. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A blood type; AB blood type; O blood type ... The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO ...

  14. Resistance non-uniformity correction method using bias heating for resistive type uncooled microbolometer FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepegoz, Murat; Akin, Tayfun

    2007-04-01

    This paper proposes a new resistance non-uniformity correction method for microbolometer-type uncooled thermal detector focal plane arrays (FPAs) that suffer from pixel-to-pixel resistance variation, which is conventionally corrected by applying a specific bias voltage to each detector by the use on-chip DACs. The proposed method uses the heating of the detector with electrical bias, where the detector is heated-up for a pre-determined period of time before the read-out phase. The proposed method uses only a heat-up signal source and simple digital blocks for each column, eliminating the need for DACs that occupy large area, contribute to the noise floor of the system, and dissipate extra power. The proposed method provides a detector current resolution of 14.5 nA with 9-bit digital data, which corresponds to the resolution of 12-bit DAC used in conventional methods.

  15. Characteristics of selected thermal properties of 8YSZ type powders produced with different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskal, G.

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents test results concerning characteristics of the selected thermal properties of ceramic powders of 8YSZ type on the basis of zirconium oxide modified with yttrium oxide obtained with different methods. The first of the powders was obtained with the spray drying method, the second one was characterized by a structure typical for obtaining methods from liquid phase and the third of the powders was obtained with the grinding method to get maximally broken up powder particles and similar to "nano" type structures. The scope of the tests encompassed thermal diffusivity analysis of the powders in a compressed form within temperature range 25-1500°C, and also tests of specific heat within similar temperature range. Specific heat measurements of the powders showed that the highest values within the entire test temperature range were obtained for the finest grain ("nano-sized") powder. In other two cases, the values obtained were very similar. Analogous results were found in the case of thermal diffusivity measurements. The ground powder was characterized by significantly lower thermal diffusivity value than other two types of powders, which was a result of very strong break-up of particles.

  16. New method to incorporate Type B uncertainty into least-squares procedures in radionuclide metrology.

    PubMed

    Han, Jubong; Lee, K B; Lee, Jong-Man; Park, Tae Soon; Oh, J S; Oh, Pil-Jei

    2016-03-01

    We discuss a new method to incorporate Type B uncertainty into least-squares procedures. The new method is based on an extension of the likelihood function from which a conventional least-squares function is derived. The extended likelihood function is the product of the original likelihood function with additional PDFs (Probability Density Functions) that characterize the Type B uncertainties. The PDFs are considered to describe one's incomplete knowledge on correction factors being called nuisance parameters. We use the extended likelihood function to make point and interval estimations of parameters in the basically same way as the least-squares function used in the conventional least-squares method is derived. Since the nuisance parameters are not of interest and should be prevented from appearing in the final result, we eliminate such nuisance parameters by using the profile likelihood. As an example, we present a case study for a linear regression analysis with a common component of Type B uncertainty. In this example we compare the analysis results obtained from using our procedure with those from conventional methods.

  17. Molecular typing methods used in studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ravansalar, Hassan; Tadayon3, Keyvan; Ghazvini, Kiarash

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Molecular typing methods are important and useful tools to assess the transmission, diversity of strains and differentiation between new infections and relapses which can effectively help in controlling infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular typing methods which have been used in Iran. By evaluating the results and discriminatory power of each method, we can assign appropriate weight to each technique and ultimately offer a common strategy for future epidemiological studies. Method: We searched several databases to identify studies addressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular epidemiology in Iran. Hunter-Gaston discrimination index (HGDI) was used to evaluate the discriminatory power in each method. Relevant articles were selected and analyzed; HGDI index was calculated for each technique. Results: The most common genotyping methods used in the articles were RFLP, MIRU-VNTR, spoligotyping, PFGE and RAPD-PCR. The most frequently techniques were IS6110-RFLP, MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping alone or in combination. The highest discrimination power (average HGDI: 0.9916) was obtained by RFLP followed by MIRU-VNTR (average HGDI: 0.9638) and spoligotyping (average HGDI: 0.9041) respectively. Conclusion: Combination of MIRU-VNTR with spoligotyping can be recommended for large-scale genotyping in Iran. It seems appropriate to consider spoligotyping as the first technique for screening followed by other techniques with higher discrimination power such as MIRU-VNTR or IS6110-RFLP. PMID:28149495

  18. Molecular Analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated in Lebanon Using Four Different Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rafei, Rayane; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Eveillard, Matthieu; Lemarié, Carole; Gaultier, Marie-Pierre; Mallat, Hassan; Moghnieh, Rima; Husni-Samaha, Rola; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed 42 Acinetobacter baumannii strains collected between 2009–2012 from different hospitals in Beyrouth and North Lebanon to better understand the epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms in our collection and to compare the robustness of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing (SBT). Among 31 carbapenem resistant strains, we have detected three carbapenem resistance genes: 28 carried the blaOXA-23 gene, 1 the blaOXA-24 gene and 2 strains the blaOXA-58 gene. This is the first detection of blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-24 in Lebanon. PFGE identified 11 types and was the most discriminating technique followed by rep-PCR (9 types), blaOXA-51 SBT (8 types) and MLST (7 types). The PFGE type A'/ST2 was the dominant genotype in our collection present in Beyrouth and North Lebanon. The clustering agreement between all techniques was measured by adjust Wallace coefficient. An overall agreement has been demonstrated. High values of adjust Wallace coefficient were found with followed combinations: PFGE to predict MLST types  = 100%, PFGE to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 100%, blaOXA-51 SBT to predict MLST = 100%, MLST to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 84.7%, rep-PCR to predict MLST = 81.5%, PFGE to predict rep-PCR = 69% and rep-PCR to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 67.2%. PFGE and MLST are gold standard methods for outbreaks investigation and population structure studies respectively. Otherwise, these two techniques are technically, time and cost demanding. We recommend the use of blaOXA-51 SBT as first typing method to screen isolates and assign them to their corresponding clonal lineages. Repetitive sequence-based PCR is a rapid tool to access outbreaks but careful interpretation of results must be always performed. PMID:25541711

  19. Molecular Strain Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a Review of Frequently Used Methods

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains one of the most serious global health problems. Molecular typing of M. tuberculosis has been used for various epidemiologic purposes as well as for clinical management. Currently, many techniques are available to type M. tuberculosis. Choosing the most appropriate technique in accordance with the existing laboratory conditions and the specific features of the geographic region is important. Insertion sequence IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis is considered the gold standard for the molecular epidemiologic investigations of tuberculosis. However, other polymerase chain reaction-based methods such as spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping), which detects 43 spacer sequence-interspersing direct repeats (DRs) in the genomic DR region; mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units–variable number tandem repeats, (MIRU-VNTR), which determines the number and size of tandem repetitive DNA sequences; repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), which provides high-throughput genotypic fingerprinting of multiple Mycobacterium species; and the recently developed genome-based whole genome sequencing methods demonstrate similar discriminatory power and greater convenience. This review focuses on techniques frequently used for the molecular typing of M. tuberculosis and discusses their general aspects and applications. PMID:27709842

  20. An integrated structural strength analysis method for Spar type floating wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    An integrated structural strength analysis method for a Spar type floating wind turbine is proposed in this paper, and technical issues related to turbine structure modeling and stress combination are also addressed. The NREL-5MW "Hywind" Spar type wind turbine is adopted as study object. Time-domain dynamic coupled simulations are performed by a fully-coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool, FAST, on the purpose of obtaining the dynamic characteristics of the floating wind turbine, and determining parameters for design load cases of finite element calculation. Then design load cases are identified, and finite element analyses are performed for these design load cases. The structural stresses due to wave-induced loads and wind-induced loads are calculated, and then combined to assess the structural strength of the floating wind turbine. The feasibility of the proposed structural strength analysis method for floating wind turbines is then validated.

  1. Conjugate gradient type methods for linear systems with complex symmetric coefficient matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    We consider conjugate gradient type methods for the solution of large sparse linear system Ax equals b with complex symmetric coefficient matrices A equals A(T). Such linear systems arise in important applications, such as the numerical solution of the complex Helmholtz equation. Furthermore, most complex non-Hermitian linear systems which occur in practice are actually complex symmetric. We investigate conjugate gradient type iterations which are based on a variant of the nonsymmetric Lanczos algorithm for complex symmetric matrices. We propose a new approach with iterates defined by a quasi-minimal residual property. The resulting algorithm presents several advantages over the standard biconjugate gradient method. We also include some remarks on the obvious approach to general complex linear systems by solving equivalent real linear systems for the real and imaginary parts of x. Finally, numerical experiments for linear systems arising from the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  2. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Yan, Yanfa; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Dehart, Clay M.

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  3. Power Spectral Density Error Analysis of Spectral Subtraction Type of Speech Enhancement Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Händel, Peter

    2006-12-01

    A theoretical framework for analysis of speech enhancement algorithms is introduced for performance assessment of spectral subtraction type of methods. The quality of the enhanced speech is related to physical quantities of the speech and noise (such as stationarity time and spectral flatness), as well as to design variables of the noise suppressor. The derived theoretical results are compared with the outcome of subjective listening tests as well as successful design strategies, performed by independent research groups.

  4. Legendre spectral-collocation method for solving some types of fractional optimal control problems.

    PubMed

    Sweilam, Nasser H; Al-Ajami, Tamer M

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the Legendre spectral-collocation method was applied to obtain approximate solutions for some types of fractional optimal control problems (FOCPs). The fractional derivative was described in the Caputo sense. Two different approaches were presented, in the first approach, necessary optimality conditions in terms of the associated Hamiltonian were approximated. In the second approach, the state equation was discretized first using the trapezoidal rule for the numerical integration followed by the Rayleigh-Ritz method to evaluate both the state and control variables. Illustrative examples were included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed techniques.

  5. Legendre spectral-collocation method for solving some types of fractional optimal control problems

    PubMed Central

    Sweilam, Nasser H.; Al-Ajami, Tamer M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the Legendre spectral-collocation method was applied to obtain approximate solutions for some types of fractional optimal control problems (FOCPs). The fractional derivative was described in the Caputo sense. Two different approaches were presented, in the first approach, necessary optimality conditions in terms of the associated Hamiltonian were approximated. In the second approach, the state equation was discretized first using the trapezoidal rule for the numerical integration followed by the Rayleigh–Ritz method to evaluate both the state and control variables. Illustrative examples were included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed techniques. PMID:26257937

  6. A ROBUST ARBITRARILY HIGH ORDER TRANSPORT METHOD OF THE CHARACTERISTIC TYPE FOR UNSTRUCTURED TETRAHEDRAL GRIDS

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Ferrer; Y. Y. Azmy

    2009-05-01

    We present a robust arbitrarily high order transport method of the characteristic type for unstructured tetrahedral grids. Previously encountered difficulties have been addressed through the reformulation of the method based on coordinate transformations, evaluation of the moments balance relation as a linear system of equations involving the expansion coefficients of the projected basis, and the asymptotic expansion of the integral kernels in the thin cell limit. The proper choice of basis functions for the high-order spatial expansion of the solution is discussed and its effect on problems involving scattering discussed. Numerical tests are presented to illustrate the beneficial effect of these improvements, and the improved robustness they yield.

  7. Numerical method to solve Cauchy type singular integral equation with error bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setia, Amit; Sharma, Vaishali; Liu, Yucheng

    2017-01-01

    Cauchy type singular integral equations with index zero naturally occur in the field of aerodynamics. Literature is very much developed for these equations and Chebyshevs polynomials are most frequently used to solve these integral equations. In this paper, a residual based Galerkins method has been proposed by using Legendre polynomial as basis functions to solve Cauchy singular integral equation of index zero. It converts the Cauchy singular integral equation into system of equations which can be easily solved. The test examples are given for illustration of proposed numerical method. Error bounds are derived as well as implemented in all the test examples.

  8. Separation of secondary refractories by type by radioresonance and x-ray radiometric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Baranovskii, N.I.; Rogozina, V.G.; Bortnikova, N.V.; Koronchevskii, A.V.; Trufanov, A.M.; Fedorov, Yu.O.

    1987-11-01

    The investigations on radiometric methods of beneficiation were made on samples of secondary refractories taken at Orsk-Khalilov Metallurgical Combine which were a mixture of aluminosilicate and magnesia (periclase and periclase-chromite) refractory scrap. The change in quality factor of the circuit under the action on it of secondary refractories was measured at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and the results of the measurements are presented. The periclase, periclase-chromite, and aluminosilicate refractory scrap change the quality factor of the circuit differently. On the basis of these investigations it may be concluded that the radioresonance method of separation may be used for separation of refractory scrap by types.

  9. ZZ-Type a posteriori error estimators for adaptive boundary element methods on a curve☆

    PubMed Central

    Feischl, Michael; Führer, Thomas; Karkulik, Michael; Praetorius, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the adaptive finite element method (FEM), ZZ-error estimators named after Zienkiewicz and Zhu (1987) [52] are mathematically well-established and widely used in practice. In this work, we propose and analyze ZZ-type error estimators for the adaptive boundary element method (BEM). We consider weakly singular and hyper-singular integral equations and prove, in particular, convergence of the related adaptive mesh-refining algorithms. Throughout, the theoretical findings are underlined by numerical experiments. PMID:24748725

  10. Solution to the Eddy-Current Problem for Type-II Superconductors by Relaxation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janíková, Edita; Slodička, Marián

    2008-09-01

    The fast developing industrial applications of superconductors require rigorous mathematical models of their physical behaviour and efficient numerical methods to solve them. We propose and study theoretically a new approximation scheme to solve the 3D eddy-current problem of diffusion of the electric field in type-II superconductors. The method is based on the relaxation principle, where the nonlinear time- and space-dependent partial differential equation (PDE) is split into a linear time-independent PDE coupled with a nonlinear equation involving no partial derivatives.

  11. An efficient and fast parallel method for Volterra integral equations of Abel type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, Giovanni; Conte, Dajana

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we present an efficient and fast parallel waveform relaxation method for Volterra integral equations of Abel type, obtained by reformulating a nonstationary waveform relaxation method for systems of equations with linear coefficient constant kernel. To this aim we consider the Laplace transform of the equation and here we apply the recurrence relation given by the Chebyshev polynomial acceleration for algebraic linear systems. Back in the time domain, we obtain a three term recursion which requires, at each iteration, the evaluation of convolution integrals, where only the Laplace transform of the kernel is known. For this calculation we can use a fast convolution algorithm. Numerical experiments have been done also on problems where it is not possible to use the original nonstationary method, obtaining good results in terms of improvement of the rate of convergence with respect the stationary method.

  12. Comparison of mineral resources calculation methods for different genetic types of gravel and sand deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patašova, Tatjana; Jurgaitis, Algirdas

    2008-01-01

    Calculation of mineral resources and their proper assessment is relevant, since the stock of resources determines the economic independence of the state. The present work discusses gravel and sand deposits of different genetic type (kames, eskers, marginal glaciofluvial ridges, sandurs, glaciofluvial deltas and redrifted glaciofluvial aeolian formations). Their geological structure and formation conditions have been assessed; quality characteristics of mineral resources have been analysed; calculation of resources has been performed by applying old methods used in Lithuania up to now, such as those of geological blocks, profiles and isolines, as well as the up-to-date GRID method created on the basis of the triangle method in GIS environment. Comparison of resources assessed by different methods has revealed their advantages and disadvantages.

  13. A new measurement method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by aircraft type panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical basis for and experimental validation of a measurement method for separating airborne and structure borne noise radiated by aircraft type panels are presented. An extension of the two microphone, cross spectral, acoustic intensity method combined with existing theory of sound radiation of thin shell structures of various designs, is restricted to the frequency range below the coincidence frequency of the structure. Consequently, the method lends itself to low frequency noise problems such as propeller harmonics. Both an aluminum sheet and two built up aircraft panel designs (two aluminum panels with frames and stringers) with and without added damping were measured. Results indicate that the method is quick, reliable, inexpensive, and can be applied to thin shell structures of various designs.

  14. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE.

  15. Simulating Univariate and Multivariate Burr Type IIII and Type XII Distributions through the Method of L-Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pant, Mohan Dev

    2011-01-01

    The Burr families (Type III and Type XII) of distributions are traditionally used in the context of statistical modeling and for simulating non-normal distributions with moment-based parameters (e.g., Skew and Kurtosis). In educational and psychological studies, the Burr families of distributions can be used to simulate extremely asymmetrical and…

  16. Comparison of serological and sequence-based methods for typing feline calcivirus isolates from vaccine failures.

    PubMed

    Radford, A D; Dawson, S; Wharmby, C; Ryvar, R; Gaskell, R M

    2000-01-29

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) can be typed by exploiting antigenic differences between isolates or, more recently, by the sequence analysis of a hypervariable region of the virus's capsid gene. These two methods were used to characterise FCV isolates from 20 vaccine failures which occurred after the use of a commercial, live-attenuated vaccine. Using virus neutralisation, the isolates showed a spectrum of relatedness to the vaccine; depending on the criterion adopted for identity, 10 to 40 per cent of them appeared to be similar to the vaccine virus. Using sequence analysis, the isolates fell into one of two categories; 20 per cent had a similar sequence to the vaccine (0-67 to 2-67 per cent distant), and the remainder had a dissimilar sequence (21-3 to 36-0 per cent distant). Sequence analysis identified one cat that appeared to be infected with two distinct FCVs. The serological and sequence-based typing methods gave the same result in 80 to 95 per cent of individual cases, depending on the criterion adopted for serological identity. It is suggested that molecular typing is a more definitive method for characterising the relatedness of FCV isolates.

  17. Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities. Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model. Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  18. State of the art of immunoassay methods for B-type natriuretic peptides: An update.

    PubMed

    Clerico, Aldo; Franzini, Maria; Masotti, Silvia; Prontera, Concetta; Passino, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to give an update on the state of the art of the immunoassay methods for the measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its related peptides. Using chromatographic procedures, several studies reported an increasing number of circulating peptides related to BNP in human plasma of patients with heart failure. These peptides may have reduced or even no biological activity. Furthermore, other studies have suggested that, using immunoassays that are considered specific for BNP, the precursor of the peptide hormone, proBNP, constitutes a major portion of the peptide measured in plasma of patients with heart failure. Because BNP immunoassay methods show large (up to 50%) systematic differences in values, the use of identical decision values for all immunoassay methods, as suggested by the most recent international guidelines, seems unreasonable. Since proBNP significantly cross-reacts with all commercial immunoassay methods considered specific for BNP, manufacturers should test and clearly declare the degree of cross-reactivity of glycosylated and non-glycosylated proBNP in their BNP immunoassay methods. Clinicians should take into account that there are large systematic differences between methods when they compare results from different laboratories that use different BNP immunoassays. On the other hand, clinical laboratories should take part in external quality assessment (EQA) programs to evaluate the bias of their method in comparison to other BNP methods. Finally, the authors believe that the development of more specific methods for the active peptide, BNP1-32, should reduce the systematic differences between methods and result in better harmonization of results.

  19. A Minimally Invasive Method for Retrieving Single Adherent Cells of Different Types from Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jia; Mohammadreza, Aida; Gao, Weimin; Merza, Saeed; Smith, Dean; Kelbauskas, Laimonas; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2014-01-01

    The field of single-cell analysis has gained a significant momentum over the last decade. Separation and isolation of individual cells is an indispensable step in almost all currently available single-cell analysis technologies. However, stress levels introduced by such manipulations remain largely unstudied. We present a method for minimally invasive retrieval of selected individual adherent cells of different types from cell cultures. The method is based on a combination of mechanical (shear flow) force and biochemical (trypsin digestion) treatment. We quantified alterations in the transcription levels of stress response genes in individual cells exposed to varying levels of shear flow and trypsinization. We report optimal temperature, RNA preservation reagents, shear force and trypsinization conditions necessary to minimize changes in the stress-related gene expression levels. The method and experimental findings are broadly applicable and can be used by a broad research community working in the field of single cell analysis. PMID:24957932

  20. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008–2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC. PMID:27472385

  1. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008-2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC.

  2. JPPRED: Prediction of Types of J-Proteins from Imbalanced Data Using an Ensemble Learning Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Yang, Runtao

    2015-01-01

    Different types of J-proteins perform distinct functions in chaperone processes and diseases development. Accurate identification of types of J-proteins will provide significant clues to reveal the mechanism of J-proteins and contribute to developing drugs for diseases. In this study, an ensemble predictor called JPPRED for J-protein prediction is proposed with hybrid features, including split amino acid composition (SAAC), pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC), and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM). To deal with the imbalanced benchmark dataset, the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) and undersampling technique are applied. The average sensitivity of JPPRED based on above-mentioned individual feature spaces lies in the range of 0.744–0.851, indicating the discriminative power of these features. In addition, JPPRED yields the highest average sensitivity of 0.875 using the hybrid feature spaces of SAAC, PseAAC, and PSSM. Compared to individual base classifiers, JPPRED obtains more balanced and better performance for each type of J-proteins. To evaluate the prediction performance objectively, JPPRED is compared with previous study. Encouragingly, JPPRED obtains balanced performance for each type of J-proteins, which is significantly superior to that of the existing method. It is anticipated that JPPRED can be a potential candidate for J-protein prediction. PMID:26587542

  3. Synthesis of La-Co Substituted M-type Calcium Hexaferrite by Polymerizable Complex Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Nakanishi, M.; Fujii, T.; Takada, J.; Ikeda, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Synthesis of La-Co substituted M-type Calcium hexaferrite was studied. Samples were prepared by polymerizable complex method. High purity reagent of strontium carbonate, iron (III) nitrate ennnahydrate, cobalt (II) nitrate hexahydrate and lanthanum oxide were used as starting materials. Prepared aqueous solution was heated for dehydration and gelling. Thermal pyrolysis was carried out by heating the gel. The obtained precursor powders were ground with an alumina mortar and compacted by uniaxial pressing into disk specimens and then heated at temperature range between 1173 K and 1573 K in air. Phase identification and determination of lattice parameters were carried out by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized to investigate the microstructure of the polycrystalline ferrites. Magnetic properties were discussed by magnetization measurements by measuring of M-H curve with vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Single-phase of M-type hexaferrite was obtained at lower temperature relative to by conventional synthesis.

  4. Types of cell death and methods of their detection in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wloch-Salamon, D M; Bem, A E

    2013-02-01

    The occurrence of programmed cell death in unicellular organisms is a subject that arouses great interest of theoreticians and experimental scientists. Already found evolutionarily conserved genes and metabolic pathways confirmed its existence in yeast, protozoa and even bacteria. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at least three main types of death are distinguished: apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Their classification suggested by the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death initially based on the morphological characteristics has now been extended to include the measurable biochemical characteristics. Several laboratory methods previously used to detect the types of cell death of higher eucaryotes and later developed and successfully used for the analysis of yeast cells are here critically reviewed. Their advantages and limitations are described.

  5. Phene Plate (PhP) biochemical fingerprinting. A screening method for epidemiological typing of enterococcal isolates.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, B; Tärnberg, M; Gill, H; Hällgren, A; Jonasson, J; Nilsson, L E; Isaksson, B; Kühn, I; Hanberger, H

    2005-09-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is currently considered the gold standard for genotyping of enterococci. However, PFGE is both expensive and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the PhP system can be used as a reliable clinical screening method for detection of genetically related isolates of enterococci. If so, it should be possible to minimize the number of isolates subjected to PFGE typing, which would save time and money. Ninety-nine clinical enterococcal isolates were analysed by PhP (similarity levels 0.90-0.975) and PFGE (similarity levels < or =3 and < or =6 bands) and all possible pairs of isolates were cross-classified as matched or mismatched. We found that the probability that a pair of isolates (A and B) belonging to the same type according to PhP also belong to the same cluster according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE)=B(PFGE) * A(PhP)=B(PhP)), and the probability that a pair of isolates of different types according to PhP also belong to different clusters according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE) not equalB(PFGE) * A(PhP) not equalB(PhP)), was relatively high for E. faecalis (0.86 and 0.96, respectively), but was lower for E. faecium (0.51 and 0.77, respectively). The concordance which shows the probability that PhP and PFGE agree on match or mismatch was 86%-93% for E. faecalis and 54%-66% for E. faecium, which indicates that the PhP method may be useful for epidemiological typing of E. faecalis in the current settings but not for E. faecium.

  6. Molecular typing of Legionella pneumophila from air-conditioning cooling waters using mip gene, SBT, and FAFLP methods.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiangli; Li, Juntao; Zhang, Ying; Hou, Shuiping; Qu, Pinghua; Yang, Zhicong; Chen, Shouyi

    2017-04-07

    Legionella spp. are important waterborne pathogens. Molecular typing has become an important method for outbreaks investigations and source tracking of Legionnaires. In a survey program conducted by the Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, multiple serotypes Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) were isolated from waters in air-conditioning cooling towers in urban Guangzhou region, China between 2008 and 2011. Three genotyping methods, mip (macrophage infectivity potentiator) genotyping, SBT (sequence-based typing), and FAFLP (fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis) were used to type these waterborne L. pneumophila isolates. The three methods were capable of typing all the 134 isolates and a reference strain of L. pneumophila (ATCC33153), with discriminatory indices of 0.7034, 0.9218, and 0.9376, for the mip, SBT, and FAFLP methods respectively. Among the 9 serotypes of the 134 isolates, 10, 50, and 34 molecular types were detected by the mip, SBT, and FAFLP methods respectively. The mip genotyping and SBT typing are more feasible for inter-laboratory results sharing and comparison of different types of L. pneumophila. The SBT and FAFLP typing methods were rapid with higher discriminatory abilities. Combinations of two or more of the typing methods enables more accurate typing of Legionella isolates for outbreak investigations and source tracking of Legionnaires.

  7. Optical fingerprinting in bacterial epidemiology: Raman spectroscopy as a real-time typing method.

    PubMed

    Willemse-Erix, Diana F M; Scholtes-Timmerman, Maarten J; Jachtenberg, Jan-Willem; van Leeuwen, Willem B; Horst-Kreft, Deborah; Bakker Schut, Tom C; Deurenberg, Ruud H; Puppels, Gerwin J; van Belkum, Alex; Vos, Margreet C; Maquelin, Kees

    2009-03-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) increase morbidity and mortality and constitute a high financial burden on health care systems. An effective weapon against HAI is early detection of potential outbreaks and sources of contamination. Such monitoring requires microbial typing with sufficient reproducibility and discriminatory power. Here, a microbial-typing method is presented, based on Raman spectroscopy. This technique provides strain-specific optical fingerprints in a few minutes instead of several hours to days, as is the case with genotyping methods. Although the method is generally applicable, we used 118 Staphylococcus aureus isolates to illustrate that the discriminatory power matches that of established genotyping techniques (numerical index of diversity [D]=0.989) and that concordance with the gold standard (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) is high (95%). The Raman clustering of isolates was reproducible to the strain level for five independent cultures, despite the various culture times from 18 h to 24 h. Furthermore, this technique was able to classify stored (-80 degrees C) and recent isolates of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-colonized individual during surveillance studies and did so days earlier than established genotyping techniques did. Its high throughput and ease of use make it suitable for use in routine diagnostic laboratory settings. This will set the stage for continuous, automated, real-time epidemiological monitoring of bacterial infections in a hospital, which can then be followed by timely corrective action by infection prevention teams.

  8. Study on the rotor design method for a small propeller-type wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Yasuyuki; Yamashita, Yusuke; Inagaki, Terumi

    2016-08-01

    Small propeller-type wind turbines have a low Reynolds number, limiting the number of usable airfoil materials. Thus, their design method is not sufficiently established, and their performance is often low. The ultimate goal of this research is to establish high-performance design guidelines and design methods for small propeller-type wind turbines. To that end, we designed two rotors: Rotor A, based on the rotor optimum design method from the blade element momentum theory, and Rotor B, in which the chord length of the tip is extended and the chord length distribution is linearized. We examined performance characteristics and flow fields of the two rotors through wind tunnel experiments and numerical analysis. Our results revealed that the maximum output tip speed ratio of Rotor B shifted lower than that of Rotor A, but the maximum output coefficient increased by approximately 38.7%. Rotors A and B experienced a large-scale separation on the hub side, which extended to the mean in Rotor A. This difference in separation had an impact on the significant decrease in Rotor A's output compared to the design value and the increase in Rotor B's output compared to Rotor A.

  9. Practical Thermal Evaluation Methods For HAC Fire Analysis In Type B Radiaoactive Material (RAM) Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, Glenn; Hensel, Stephen J; Gupta, Narendra K.

    2013-03-28

    Title 10 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR Part 71.73) requires that Type B radioactive material (RAM) packages satisfy certain Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) thermal design requirements to ensure package safety during accidental fire conditions. Compliance with thermal design requirements can be met by prototype tests, analyses only or a combination of tests and analyses. Normally, it is impractical to meet all the HAC using tests only and the analytical methods are too complex due to the multi-physics non-linear nature of the fire event. Therefore, a combination of tests and thermal analyses methods using commercial heat transfer software are used to meet the necessary design requirements. The authors, along with his other colleagues at Savannah River National Laboratory in Aiken, SC, USA, have successfully used this 'tests and analyses' approach in the design and certification of several United States' DOE/NNSA certified packages, e.g. 9975, 9977, 9978, 9979, H1700, and Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This paper will describe these methods and it is hoped that the RAM Type B package designers and analysts can use them for their applications.

  10. Spectral responsivity calibrations of two types of pyroelectric radiometers using three different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, J.; Eppeldauer, G. P.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.

    2012-06-01

    Spectral responsivity calibrations of two different types of pyroelectric radiometers have been made in the infrared region up to 14 μm in power mode using three different calibration facilities at NIST. One pyroelectric radiometer is a temperature-controlled low noise-equivalent-power (NEP) single-element pyroelectric radiometer with an active area of 5 mm in diameter. The other radiometer is a prototype using the same type of pyroeletric detector with dome-input optics, which was designed to increase absorptance and to minimize spectral structures to obtain a constant spectral responsivity. Three calibration facilities at NIST were used to conduct direct and indirect responsivity calibrations tied to absolute scales in the infrared spectral regime. We report the calibration results for the single-element pyroelectric radiometer using a new Infrared Spectral Comparator Facility (IRSCF) for direct calibration. Also, a combined method using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIS) facility and single wavelength laser tie-points are described to calibrated standard detectors with an indirect approach. For the dome-input pyroelectric radiometer, the results obtained from another direct calibration method using a circular variable filter (CVF) spectrometer and the FTIS are also presented. The inter-comparison of different calibration methods enables us to improve the responsivity uncertainty performed by the different facilities. For both radiometers, consistent results of the spectral power responsivity have been obtained applying different methods from 1.5 μm to 14 μm with responsivity uncertainties between 1 % and 2 % (k = 2). Relevant characterization results, such as spatial uniformity, linearity, and angular dependence of responsivity, are shown. Validation of the spectral responsivity calibrations, uncertainty sources, and improvements for each method will also be discussed.

  11. An advanced method for classifying atmospheric circulation types based on prototypes connectivity graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagouras, Athanassios; Argiriou, Athanassios A.; Flocas, Helena A.; Economou, George; Fotopoulos, Spiros

    2012-11-01

    Classification of weather maps at various isobaric levels as a methodological tool is used in several problems related to meteorology, climatology, atmospheric pollution and to other fields for many years. Initially the classification was performed manually. The criteria used by the person performing the classification are features of isobars or isopleths of geopotential height, depending on the type of maps to be classified. Although manual classifications integrate the perceptual experience and other unquantifiable qualities of the meteorology specialists involved, these are typically subjective and time consuming. Furthermore, during the last years different approaches of automated methods for atmospheric circulation classification have been proposed, which present automated and so-called objective classifications. In this paper a new method of atmospheric circulation classification of isobaric maps is presented. The method is based on graph theory. It starts with an intelligent prototype selection using an over-partitioning mode of fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm, proceeds to a graph formulation for the entire dataset and produces the clusters based on the contemporary dominant sets clustering method. Graph theory is a novel mathematical approach, allowing a more efficient representation of spatially correlated data, compared to the classical Euclidian space representation approaches, used in conventional classification methods. The method has been applied to the classification of 850 hPa atmospheric circulation over the Eastern Mediterranean. The evaluation of the automated methods is performed by statistical indexes; results indicate that the classification is adequately comparable with other state-of-the-art automated map classification methods, for a variable number of clusters.

  12. Communications: A systematic method for locating transition structures of A+B-->X type reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2010-06-01

    Search for transition structures (TSs) as first-order saddles is one of the most important tasks in theoretical study of chemical reaction. Although automated search has been established either by starting from a local minimum (MIN) or by connecting two MINs, there is no systematic method which can locate TSs of A+B→X(+Y) type reactions starting from separated reactants. We propose such an approach for the first time; it was demonstrated to work very well in the SN2, Diels-Alder, and Wittig reactions.

  13. A numerical method for systems of conservation laws of mixed type admitting hyperbolic flux splitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Chi-Wang

    1992-01-01

    The present treatment of elliptic regions via hyperbolic flux-splitting and high order methods proposes a flux splitting in which the corresponding Jacobians have real and positive/negative eigenvalues. While resembling the flux splitting used in hyperbolic systems, the present generalization of such splitting to elliptic regions allows the handling of mixed-type systems in a unified and heuristically stable fashion. The van der Waals fluid-dynamics equation is used. Convergence with good resolution to weak solutions for various Riemann problems are observed.

  14. The effect of temperature and type of peroxide on graphene synthesized by improved Hummers' method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatmi Maab, Negar Z.; Shokuhfar, Ali; Ahmadi, Shervin

    2016-10-01

    The effects of temperature and the type of peroxide used in improved Hummers' method for synthesis of graphene oxide were investigated. Two different temperatures of 60 and 75 °C were examined and the performance of H2O2 and 2,5-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane as peroxides was compared. Scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption, Raman, and X-ray diffraction were utilized to characterize the properties of the as-prepared graphene samples. The results of this study revealed that the temperature is of the most importance in the synthesis process.

  15. An hp -local discontinuous Galerkin method for some quasilinear elliptic boundary value problems of nonmonotone type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudi, Thirupathi; Nataraj, Neela; Pani, Amiya K.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, an hp -local discontinuous Galerkin method is applied to a class of quasilinear elliptic boundary value problems which are of nonmonotone type. On hp -quasiuniform meshes, using the Brouwer fixed point theorem, it is shown that the discrete problem has a solution, and then using Lipschitz continuity of the discrete solution map, uniqueness is also proved. A priori error estimates in broken H^1 norm and L^2 norm which are optimal in h , suboptimal in p are derived. These results are exactly the same as in the case of linear elliptic boundary value problems. Numerical experiments are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  16. Lanczos-type variants of the COCR method for complex nonsymmetric linear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yan-Fei; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Zhang, Yong; Li, Liang; Cheng, Guang-Hui; Ren, Zhi-Gang; Duan, Yong; Sogabe, Tomohiro; Carpentieri, Bruno

    2009-09-01

    Motivated by the celebrated extending applications of the well-established complex Biconjugate Gradient (CBiCG) method to deal with large three-dimensional electromagnetic scattering problems by Pocock and Walker [M.D. Pocock, S.P. Walker, The complex Bi-conjugate Gradient solver applied to large electromagnetic scattering problems, computational costs, and cost scalings, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 45 (1997) 140-146], three Lanczos-type variants of the recent Conjugate A-Orthogonal Conjugate Residual (COCR) method of Sogabe and Zhang [T. Sogabe, S.-L. Zhang, A COCR method for solving complex symmetric linear systems, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 199 (2007) 297-303] are explored for the solution of complex nonsymmetric linear systems. The first two can be respectively considered as mathematically equivalent but numerically improved popularizing versions of the BiCR and CRS methods for complex systems presented in Sogabe's Ph.D. Dissertation. And the last one is somewhat new and is a stabilized and more smoothly converging variant of the first two in some circumstances. The presented algorithms are with the hope of obtaining smoother and, hopefully, faster convergence behavior in comparison with the CBiCG method as well as its two corresponding variants. This motivation is demonstrated by numerical experiments performed on some selective matrices borrowed from The University of Florida Sparse Matrix Collection by Davis.

  17. Assessment of Tikhonov-type regularization methods for solving atmospheric inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Doicu, Adrian; Trautmann, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Inverse problems occurring in atmospheric science aim to estimate state parameters (e.g. temperature or constituent concentration) from observations. To cope with nonlinear ill-posed problems, both direct and iterative Tikhonov-type regularization methods can be used. The major challenge in the framework of direct Tikhonov regularization (TR) concerns the choice of the regularization parameter λ, while iterative regularization methods require an appropriate stopping rule and a flexible λ-sequence. In the framework of TR, a suitable value of the regularization parameter can be generally determined based on a priori, a posteriori, and error-free selection rules. In this study, five practical regularization parameter selection methods, i.e. the expected error estimation (EEE), the discrepancy principle (DP), the generalized cross-validation (GCV), the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), and the L-curve (LC), have been assessed. As a representative of iterative methods, the iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton (IRGN) algorithm has been compared with TR. This algorithm uses a monotonically decreasing λ-sequence and DP as an a posteriori stopping criterion. Practical implementations pertaining to retrievals of vertically distributed temperature and trace gas profiles from synthetic microwave emission measurements and from real far infrared data, respectively, have been conducted. Our numerical analysis demonstrates that none of the parameter selection methods dedicated to TR appear to be perfect and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Alternatively, IRGN is capable of producing plausible retrieval results, allowing a more efficient manner for estimating λ.

  18. A simple gamma spectrometry method for evaluating the burnup of MTR-type HEU fuel elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makmal, T.; Aviv, O.; Gilad, E.

    2016-10-01

    A simple method for the evaluation of the burnup of a materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel element by gamma spectrometry is presented. The method was applied to a highly enriched uranium MTR nuclear fuel element that was irradiated in a 5 MW pool-type research reactor for a total period of 34 years. The experimental approach is based on in-situ measurements of the MTR fuel element in the reactor pool by a portable high-purity germanium detector located in a gamma cell. To corroborate the method, analytical calculations (based on the irradiation history of the fuel element) and computer simulations using a dedicated fuel cycle burnup code ORIGEN2 were performed. The burnup of the MTR fuel element was found to be 52.4±8.8%, which is in good agreement with the analytical calculations and the computer simulations. The method presented here is suitable for research reactors with either a regular or an irregular irradiation regime and for reactors with limited infrastructure and/or resources. In addition, its simplicity and the enhanced safety it confers may render this method suitable for IAEA inspectors in fuel element burnup assessments during on-site inspections.

  19. A Type of Low-Latency Data Gathering Method with Multi-Sink for Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Chao; Qiu, Jian-mei; Li, Shu-yan; Qiang, Meng-ye; Wang, Ru-chuan

    2016-01-01

    To balance energy consumption and reduce latency on data transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), a type of low-latency data gathering method with multi-Sink (LDGM for short) is proposed in this paper. The network is divided into several virtual regions consisting of three or less data gathering units and the leader of each region is selected according to its residual energy as well as distance to all of the other nodes. Only the leaders in each region need to communicate with the mobile Sinks which have effectively reduced energy consumption and the end-to-end delay. Moreover, with the help of the sleep scheduling and the sensing radius adjustment strategies, redundancy in network coverage could also be effectively reduced. Simulation results show that LDGM is energy efficient in comparison with MST as well as MWST and its time efficiency on data collection is higher than one Sink based data gathering methods. PMID:27338401

  20. Statistical Methods for Integrating Multiple Types of High-Throughput Data

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yang; Ahn, Chul

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale sequencing, copy number, mRNA, and protein data have given great promise to the biomedical research, while posing great challenges to data management and data analysis. Integrating different types of high-throughput data from diverse sources can increase the statistical power of data analysis and provide deeper biological understanding. This chapter uses two biomedical research examples to illustrate why there is an urgent need to develop reliable and robust methods for integrating the heterogeneous data. We then introduce and review some recently developed statistical methods for integrative analysis for both statistical inference and classification purposes. Finally, we present some useful public access databases and program code to facilitate the integrative analysis in practice. PMID:20652519

  1. Development of an affordable typing method for Meyerozyma guilliermondii using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Wrent, Petra; Rivas, Eva-María; Peinado, José M; de Silóniz, María-Isabel

    2016-01-18

    Despite previously published methods, there is still a lack of rapid and affordable methods for genotyping the Meyerozyma guilliermondii yeast species. The development of microsatellite markers is a useful genotyping method in several yeast species. Using the Tandem Repeat Finder Software, a total of 19 microsatellite motifs (di-, tri-, and tetra- repetition) were found in silico in seven of the nine scaffolds published so far. Primer pairs were designed for all of them, although only four were used in this work. All microsatellite amplifications showed size polymorphism, and the results were identical when repeated. The combination of three microsatellite markers (sc15F/R, sc32 F/R and sc72 F/R) produced a different pattern for each of the Type Culture Collection strains of M. guilliermondii used to optimize the method. The three primer pairs can be used in the same PCR reaction, which reduces costs, in tandem with the fluorescent labeling of only the forward primer in each primer pair. Microsatellite typing was applied on 40 more M. guilliermondii strains. The results showed that no pattern is repeated between the different environmental niches. Four M. guilliermondii strains were only amplified with primer pair sc32 F/R, and subsequently identified as Meyerozyma caribbica by Taq I-RFLP of the 5.8S ITS rDNA. Most out-group species gave negative results even for physiologically similarly species such as Debaryomyces hansenii. The microsatellite markers used in this work were stable over time, which enables their use as a traceability tool.

  2. Many tests of significance: new methods for controlling type I errors.

    PubMed

    Keselman, H J; Miller, Charles W; Holland, Burt

    2011-12-01

    There have been many discussions of how Type I errors should be controlled when many hypotheses are tested (e.g., all possible comparisons of means, correlations, proportions, the coefficients in hierarchical models, etc.). By and large, researchers have adopted familywise (FWER) control, though this practice certainly is not universal. Familywise control is intended to deal with the multiplicity issue of computing many tests of significance, yet such control is conservative--that is, less powerful--compared to per test/hypothesis control. The purpose of our article is to introduce the readership, particularly those readers familiar with issues related to controlling Type I errors when many tests of significance are computed, to newer methods that provide protection from the effects of multiple testing, yet are more powerful than familywise controlling methods. Specifically, we introduce a number of procedures that control the k-FWER. These methods--say, 2-FWER instead of 1-FWER (i.e., FWER)--are equivalent to specifying that the probability of 2 or more false rejections is controlled at .05, whereas FWER controls the probability of any (i.e., 1 or more) false rejections at .05. 2-FWER implicitly tolerates 1 false rejection and makes no explicit attempt to control the probability of its occurrence, unlike FWER, which tolerates no false rejections at all. More generally, k-FWER tolerates k - 1 false rejections, but controls the probability of k or more false rejections at α =.05. We demonstrate with two published data sets how more hypotheses can be rejected with k-FWER methods compared to FWER control.

  3. Concordance between two methods in measuring treatment adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    López-Simarro, Flora; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Aguado-Jodar, Alba; Cols-Sagarra, Cèlia; Miravet-Jiménez, Sònia

    2016-01-01

    Objective We analyzed the concordance between two methods for measuring treatment adherence (TA) and studied the determinants of TA in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in a primary care center, involving 320 diabetic patients. TA was measured using the Haynes–Sackett (H–S) adherence test during the patient interview and based on pharmacy refill data. TA was calculated globally and by drug groups (antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic drugs). Results Poor TA as measured by the H–S test was observed in 11.2% of the patients. Based on pharmacy refill data, there was a poor global TA rate of 30.3%, which was 33.3%, 26.6%, and 34.2% for oral antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering drugs, respectively. Concordance between the two methods was poor. There was no relationship between the degree of disease control and TA as measured by the H–S test. Good TA measured based on pharmacy refill data for antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs was associated with lower glycosylated hemoglobin and diastolic blood pressure values, respectively. Patients with good global TA showed lower glycosylated hemoglobin, diastolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values. The multivariate analysis found good oral antidiabetic adherence to be associated to free pharmacy service; good antihypertensive drug adherence to the existence of comorbidities; and good lipid-lowering drug adherence to a history of ischemic heart disease, and a more experienced physician and/or female physician. Conclusion Concordance between the two methods in assessing TA was low. Approximately one-third of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented poor TA in relation to antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic medication. An improved TA was associated with a better control of the studied parameters. Comorbidities, such as ischemic heart disease and access to free pharmacy service

  4. A Method and Tool for Fact Type Reuse in the DOGMA Ontology Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debruyne, Christophe; de Leenheer, Pieter; Meersman, Robert

    In the DOGMA approach to ontology engineering, the construction of an ontology starts from a "Lexon Base", a possibly very large and un-interpreted base of plausible elementary fact types called lexons. Lexons - mined from various linguistic sources such as schemas, texts or domain experts - are used to create ontological commitments by selecting or reusing a meaningful set of lexons and together with constraints so that the intended conceptualization is well approximated. All too often, the same or similar lexons are entered in the Lexon Base, which causes heterogeneity among different ontological commitments. Due to this heterogeneity, meaning negotiation to agree upon a common commitment becomes more difficult. Encouraging lexon reuse by providing knowledge engineers and domain experts an automated process for finding relevant lexons in the Lexon Base or existing ontological commitments can tackle this problem. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to fact type reuse that we will apply to DOGMA MESS, a state-of-the-art collaborative ontology engineering methodology. The method we propose uses several heuristics that reside in one of the six semiotic levels described by Ronald Stamper's semiotic ladder and adds a pragmatic and social layer onto the current methodology and tools. We provide a proof of concept by implementing our method in a tool for finding relevant lexons while building an ontological commitment in a production environment called DOGMA Studio Workbench.

  5. Evaluation of high-resolution typing methods for Chlamydia trachomatis in samples from heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Bom, Reinier J M; Christerson, Linus; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Coutinho, Roel A; Herrmann, Björn; Bruisten, Sylvia M

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to compare conventional ompA typing of Chlamydia trachomatis with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). Previously used MLST and MLVA systems were compared to modified versions that used shorter target regions and nested PCR. Heterosexual couples were selected from among persons with urogenital C. trachomatis infections visiting the sexually transmitted infection outpatient clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We identified 30 couples with a total of 65 C. trachomatis-positive samples on which MLST and MLVA for eight target regions were performed. All regions were successfully sequenced in 52 samples, resulting in a complete profile for 18 couples and 12 individuals. Nine ompA genovars from D to K, with two variants of genovar G, were found. The numbers of sequence type and MLVA type profiles were 20 for MLST and 21 for MLVA, and a combination of MLST and MLVA yielded 28 profiles, with discriminatory indexes (D) ranging from 0.95 to 0.99. Partners in 17 couples shared identical profiles, while partners in 1 couple had completely different profiles. Three persons had infections at multiple anatomical locations, and within each of these three individuals, all profiles were identical. The discriminatory capacity of all MLST and MLVA methods is much higher than that of ompA genotyping (D = 0.78). No genotype variation was found within the samples of the same person or from heterosexual couples with a putative single transmission. This shows that the chlamydial genome in clinical specimens has an appropriate polymorphism to enable epidemiological cluster analysis using MLST and MLVA.

  6. Mercury analysis of various types of coal using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jae Young Park; Jong Hyun Won; Tai Gyu Lee

    2006-12-15

    The mercury contents of various types of coal currently consumed in Korea were analyzed using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods. The results of analysis by acid extraction and pyrolysis methods were compared and discussed. Generally, high mercury concentrations of 105.6 to 434.5 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 125.7 to 475.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis) were obtained for tested anthracite coals in this study. For bituminous coals, the mercury contents were 11.5-48 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 12.5-52.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis). For coal samples, much simpler and far less time-consuming pyrolysis method tends to give higher values for the Hg concentration than the acid extraction method (by less than 10%) because of the interference from a UV absorption by SOx generated during thermal destruction of coal matrix. Also, further analysis shows that coals with higher densities have higher mercury contents and that the sulfur and mercury contents of coals are positively correlated with each other. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. A New Type of Fractional Lie Symmetrical Method and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Tian; He, Jin-Man; Luo, Shao-Kai

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new type of fractional Lie symmetrical method for finding conserved quantities and explore its applications. For the fractional generalized Hamiltonian system, we introduce a new kind of single-parameter fractional infinitesimal transformation of Lie group in α-1 order space and, under this transformation, give the invariance of the fractional dynamical system and the fractional Lie symmetrical determining equation. Further, a number of important relationships of the fractional Lie symmetrical method are investigated, which reveal the interior properties of the system. By using these relationships, a fractional Lie symmetrical basic integral variable relation and a new fractional Lie symmetrical conservation law are presented. The new conserved quantity is constructed base on fractional Lie symmetrical infinitesimal generators and the interior properties of the system itself, without solving the complicated structural equation. Furthermore, the fractional Lie symmetrical method is applied to the fractional generalized Hamiltonian system of even dimensions. Also, as the new fractional Lie symmetrical method's applications, we respectively find the conserved quantities of a fractional Duffing oscillator model and a fractional Lotka biochemical oscillator model.

  8. A New Type of Fractional Lie Symmetrical Method and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Tian; He, Jin-Man; Luo, Shao-Kai

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new type of fractional Lie symmetrical method for finding conserved quantities and explore its applications. For the fractional generalized Hamiltonian system, we introduce a new kind of single-parameter fractional infinitesimal transformation of Lie group in α-1 order space and, under this transformation, give the invariance of the fractional dynamical system and the fractional Lie symmetrical determining equation. Further, a number of important relationships of the fractional Lie symmetrical method are investigated, which reveal the interior properties of the system. By using these relationships, a fractional Lie symmetrical basic integral variable relation and a new fractional Lie symmetrical conservation law are presented. The new conserved quantity is constructed base on fractional Lie symmetrical infinitesimal generators and the interior properties of the system itself, without solving the complicated structural equation. Furthermore, the fractional Lie symmetrical method is applied to the fractional generalized Hamiltonian system of even dimensions. Also, as the new fractional Lie symmetrical method's applications, we respectively find the conserved quantities of a fractional Duffing oscillator model and a fractional Lotka biochemical oscillator model.

  9. Effect of the carbohydrate counting method on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of achieving and maintaining an appropriate metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) has been established in many studies aiming to prevent the development of chronic complications. The carbohydrate counting method can be recommended as an additional tool in the nutritional treatment of diabetes, allowing patients with DM1 to have more flexible food choices. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of nutrition intervention and the use of multiple short-acting insulin according to the carbohydrate counting method on clinical and metabolic control in patients with DM1. Methods Our sample consisted of 51 patients with DM1, 32 females, aged 25.3 ± 1.55 years. A protocol of nutritional status evaluation was applied and laboratory analysis was performed at baseline and after a three-month intervention. After the analysis of the food records, a balanced diet was prescribed using the carbohydrate counting method, and short-acting insulin was prescribed based on the total amount of carbohydrate per meal (1 unit per 15 g of carbohydrate). Results A significant decrease in A1c levels was observed from baseline to the three-month evaluation after the intervention (10.40 ± 0.33% and 9.52 ± 0.32%, respectively, p = 0.000). It was observed an increase in daily insulin dose after the intervention (0.99 ± 0.65 IU/Kg and 1.05 ± 0.05 IU/Kg, respectively, p = 0.003). No significant differences were found regarding anthropometric evaluation (BMI, waist, hip or abdominal circumferences and waist to hip ratio) after the intervention period. Conclusions The use of short-acting insulin based on the carbohydrate counting method after a short period of time resulted in a significant improvement of the glycemic control in patients with DM1 with no changes in body weight despite increases in the total daily insulin doses. PMID:20716374

  10. A modification of WKB method for fractional differential operators of Schrödinger's type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayevand, K.; Pichaghchi, K.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we were concerned with the description of the singularly perturbed differential equations within the scope of fractional calculus. However, we shall note that one of the main methods used to solve these problems is the so-called WKB method. We should mention that this was not achievable via the existing fractional derivative definitions, because they do not obey the chain rule. In order to accommodate the WKB to the scope of fractional derivative, we proposed a relatively new derivative called the local fractional derivative. By use of properties of local fractional derivative, we extend the WKB method in the scope of the fractional differential equation. By means of this extension, the WKB analysis based on the Borel resummation, for fractional differential operators of WKB type are investigated. The convergence and the Mittag-Leffler stability of the proposed approach is proven. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with the existing ones in open literature and it is shown that the present approach is very effective and accurate. Furthermore, we are mainly interested to construct the solution of fractional Schrödinger equation in the Mittag-Leffler form and how it leads naturally to this semi-classical approximation namely modified WKB.

  11. Implicit high-order discontinuous Galerkin method with HWENO type limiters for steady viscous flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen-Hua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian

    2013-08-01

    Two types of implicit algorithms have been improved for high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on triangular grids. A block lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BLU-SGS) approach is implemented as a nonlinear iterative scheme. And a modified LU-SGS (LLU-SGS) approach is suggested to reduce the memory requirements while retain the good convergence performance of the original LU-SGS approach. Both implicit schemes have the significant advantage that only the diagonal block matrix is stored. The resulting implicit high-order DG methods are applied, in combination with Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) limiters, to solve viscous flow problems. Numerical results demonstrate that the present implicit methods are able to achieve significant efficiency improvements over explicit counterparts and for viscous flows with shocks, and the HWENO limiters can be used to achieve the desired essentially non-oscillatory shock transition and the designed high-order accuracy simultaneously.

  12. Choice of order and extrapolation method in Aarseth-type N-body algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, William H.; Spergel, David N.

    1988-02-01

    The force-versus-time history of a typical particle in a 50-body King model is taken as input data, and its 'extrapolatability' is measured. Extrapolatability means how far the force can be extrapolated, measured in units of a locally defined rate-of-change time scale, and still be within a specified fractional accuracy of the true values. Greater extrapolatability means larger step size, hence greater efficiency, in an Aarseth-type N-body code. Extrapolatability is found to depend systematically on the order of the extrapolation method, but it goes to a finite limit in the limit of large order. A formula for choosing the optimal (most efficient) order for any desired accuracy is given; higher orders than are presently in use are indicated. Neither rational function extrapolation nor a somewhat vector-regularized polynomial method is found to be systematically better than component-wise polynomial extrapolation, indicating that extrapolatability can be viewed as an intrinsic property of the underlying N-body forces, independent of the extrapolation method.

  13. Free Energy-Based Conformational Search Algorithm Using the Movable Type Sampling Method.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li-Li; Zheng, Zheng; Wang, Ting; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-12-08

    In this article, we extend the movable type (MT) sampling method to molecular conformational searches (MT-CS) on the free energy surface of the molecule in question. Differing from traditional systematic and stochastic searching algorithms, this method uses Boltzmann energy information to facilitate the selection of the best conformations. The generated ensembles provided good coverage of the available conformational space including available crystal structures. Furthermore, our approach directly provides the solvation free energies and the relative gas and aqueous phase free energies for all generated conformers. The method is validated by a thorough analysis of thrombin ligands as well as against structures extracted from both the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). An in-depth comparison between OMEGA and MT-CS is presented to illustrate the differences between the two conformational searching strategies, i.e., energy-based versus free energy-based searching. These studies demonstrate that our MT-based ligand conformational search algorithm is a powerful approach to delineate the conformational ensembles of molecular species on free energy surfaces.

  14. Evaluation of oral mucosa epithelium in type II diabetic patients by an exfoliative cytology method.

    PubMed

    Jajarm, Hassan Hosseinpour; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Rangiani, Afsaneh

    2008-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease that causes chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Although diabetes can cause considerable cellular changes, this field has attracted little research. We therefore decided to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative changes in oral epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method. In 30 control individuals and 30 patients with type II diabetes, smears were obtained from two distinct oral sites: the buccal mucosa and tongue dorsum. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou solution. Quantitative and qualitative changes were evaluated in each slide. For this purpose, 50 clearly defined cells in each slide were microscopically evaluated, and photographs were subjected to computerized morphometric analysis. Cytoplasmic and nuclear areas in the diabetic group were significantly higher than in the control group. The cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio was lower in the control group. At both smear sites, the proportion of cells with nuclear changes was higher in the diabetic group. Diabetes mellitus can cause alterations in the oral epithelium that are detectable with this exfoliative cytology method. The method may be viable in evaluating this disease.

  15. Method of fabricating n-type and p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1990-02-02

    A method of fabricating doped microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material which includes a band gap widening element through a glow discharge deposition process by subjecting a precursor mixture which includes a diluent gas to an a.c. glow discharge in the absence of a magnetic field of sufficient strength to induce electron cyclotron resonance.

  16. Semiconducting p-type MgNiO:Li epitaxial films fabricated by cosputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Yong Hun; Chun, Sung Hyun; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2013-07-15

    Li-doped ternary Mg{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x}O thin films were deposited on (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates by a radio frequency (RF) magnetron cosputtering method with MgO and NiO:Li targets. The Mg mole fraction and Li content were relatively controlled by changing RF power for the MgO target over a range of 0-300 W, while the NiO:Li target was kept at 150 W. As a result, all films were epitaxially grown on (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates with the relationship of [110]{sub NiO}||[1110]{sub Al2O3}, [112]{sub NiO}||[2110]{sub Al2O3} (in-plane), and [111]{sub NiO}||[0001]{sub Al2O3} (out-of-plane), and showed p-type semiconducting properties. Furthermore, from x-ray diffraction patterns, the authors found that MgO was effectively mixed with NiO:Li without structural deformation due to low lattice mismatch (0.8%) between NiO and MgO. However, the excess Li contents degraded the crystallinity of the MgNiO films. The band-gap of films was continuously shifted from 3.66 eV (339 nm) to 4.15 eV (299 nm) by the RF power of the MgO target. A visible transmittance of more than 80% was exhibited at RF powers higher than 200 W. Ultimately, the electrical resistivity of p-type MgNiO films was improved from 7.5 to 673.5 {Omega}cm, indicating that the Li-doped MgNiO films are good candidates for transparent p-type semiconductors.

  17. The influence of methods of bariatric surgery for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bužga, Marek; Maresova, Petra; Seidlerova, Adela; Zonča, Pavel; Holéczy, Pavol; Kuča, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The constantly growing incidence of obesity represents a risk of health complications for individuals, and is a growing economic burden for health care systems and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bariatric surgery, specifically laparoscopic greater curve plication, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The effect of bariatric surgery on the changes in blood pressure before, and 12 months after, surgery and in pharmacotherapy in the 12 months after surgery was analyzed. For achieving this purpose, 74 patients from the Obesity and Surgery Department of Vitkovice Hospital in Ostrava in the Czech Republic, were monitored. They were operated in 2011 and 2012. The Bonferroni method was used to test hypotheses about the impact of surgery on blood pressure and pharmacotherapy. One year after the surgery, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values decreased, both with no statistically significant difference between surgery types. Improvement was observed in 68% of cases, with 25% of patients discontinuing pharmacotherapy entirely. PMID:27143901

  18. Synthesis of Zr-based perovskite-type alloy phosphors by polymerized complex method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komagata, Hiroki; Kato, Riku; Kato, Ariyuki

    2014-02-01

    To demonstrate the fabrication of inorganic electroluminescent (EL) devices using perovskite-type oxide phosphors by electrophoretic deposition (EPD), AZrO3:RE (A = Ca, Sr, Ba; RE = Eu, Tb) were synthesized by the polymerized complex method. AZrO3:Eu showed orange or red emissions and AZrO3:Tb showed blue-green or green emissions depending on their crystal structures. The emission intensity was found to be enhanced by introducing strains to the host matrices by Mg codoping or alloying. Inorganic EL devices prepared by EPD using BaZrO3:Eu and SrZrO3:Eu as the phosphor layers showed orange and blue emissions that were observable under room light, respectively, which is the first observation of EL emission from the devices prepared by EPD to the best of our knowledge. The combination of perovskite-type oxide phosphors and EPD was found to be a promising way to fabricate inorganic EL devices.

  19. On the convergence of Newton-type methods under mild differentiability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyros, Ioannis; Hilout, Saïd

    2009-12-01

    We introduce the new idea of recurrent functions to provide a new semilocal convergence analysis for Newton-type methods, under mild differentiability conditions. It turns out that our sufficient convergence conditions are weaker, and the error bounds are tighter than in earlier studies in some interesting cases (Chen, Ann Inst Stat Math 42:387-401, 1990; Chen, Numer Funct Anal Optim 10:37-48, 1989; Cianciaruso, Numer Funct Anal Optim 24:713-723, 2003; Cianciaruso, Nonlinear Funct Anal Appl 2009; Dennis 1971; Deuflhard 2004; Deuflhard, SIAM J Numer Anal 16:1-10, 1979; Gutiérrez, J Comput Appl Math 79:131-145, 1997; Hernández, J Optim Theory Appl 109:631-648, 2001; Hernández, J Comput Appl Math 115:245-254, 2000; Huang, J Comput Appl Math 47:211-217, 1993; Kantorovich 1982; Miel, Numer Math 33:391-396, 1979; Miel, Math Comput 34:185-202, 1980; Moret, Computing 33:65-73, 1984; Potra, Libertas Mathematica 5:71-84, 1985; Rheinboldt, SIAM J Numer Anal 5:42-63, 1968; Yamamoto, Numer Math 51: 545-557, 1987; Zabrejko, Numer Funct Anal Optim 9:671-684, 1987; Zinc̆ko 1963). Applications and numerical examples, involving a nonlinear integral equation of Chandrasekhar-type, and a differential equation are also provided in this study.

  20. Support of Wheelchairs Using Pheromone Information with Two Types of Communication Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Koji; Nitta, Katsumi

    In this paper, we propose a communication framework which combined two types of communication among wheelchairs and mobile devices. Due to restriction of range of activity, there is a problem that wheelchair users tend to shut themselves up in their houses. We developed a navigational wheelchair which loads a system that displays information on a map through WWW. However, this wheelchair is expensive because it needs a solid PC, a precise GPS, a battery, and so on. We introduce mobile devices and use this framework to provide information to wheelchair users and to facilitate them to go out. When a user encounters other users, they exchange messages which they have by short-distance wireless communication. Once a message is delivered to a navigational wheelchair, the wheelchair uploads the message to the system. We use two types of pheromone information which represent trends of user's movement and existences of a crowd of users. First, when users gather, ``crowd of people pheromone'' is emitted virtually. Users do not send these pheromones to the environment but carry them. If the density exceeds the threshold, messages that express ``people gethered'' are generated automatically. The other pheromone is ``movement trend pheromone'', which is used to improve probability of successful transmissions. From results of experiments, we concluded that our method can deliver information that wheelchair users gathered to other wheelchairs.

  1. A Method for Measuring Active Region Filling Factors on Solar-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampapa, Mark Steven; Andretta, Vincenzo; Beeck, Benjamin; Reiners, Ansgar; Schussler, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    Radiative diagnostics of “activity” in the Sun and solar-type stars are spatially associated with sites of emergent magnetic flux. The magnetic fields themselves are widely regarded as the surface manifestations of a dynamo mechanism. The further development of both dynamo theory and models of the non-radiative heating of outer stellar atmospheres requires a knowledge of stellar magnetic field properties. In this context, it becomes important to determine the surface distribution, or at least the fractional coverage of, magnetic active regions as one critical constraint for dynamo models. But, while information on the spatial distribution of activity on stellar surfaces can be gathered in some special cases (mostly rapid rotators), such measurements have always been elusive in more solar-like stars. We discuss the challenges and results obtained from a method that relies on the non-linear response of the two principal He I triplet lines (at 1083 nm and 587.6 nm) to infer useful constraints on the fractional area coverage of magnetic active regions on solar-type stars.

  2. Superconvergence and recovery type a posteriori error estimation for hybrid stress finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, YanHong; Wu, YongKe; Xie, XiaoPing

    2016-09-01

    Superconvergence and a posteriori error estimators of recovery type are analyzed for the 4-node hybrid stress quadrilateral finite element method proposed by Pian and Sumihara (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engrg., 1984, 20: 1685-1695) for linear elasticity problems. Uniform superconvergence of order $O(h^{1+\\min\\{\\alpha,1\\}})$ with respect to the Lam\\'{e} constant $\\lambda$ is established for both the recovered gradients of the displacement vector and the stress tensor under a mesh assumption, where $\\alpha>0$ is a parameter characterizing the distortion of meshes from parallelograms to quadrilaterals. A posteriori error estimators based on the recovered quantities are shown to be asymptotically exact. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results.

  3. New methods for accelerating the convergence of molecular electronic integrals over exponential type orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safouhi, Hassan; Hoggan, Philip

    2003-01-01

    This review on molecular integrals for large electronic systems (MILES) places the problem of analytical integration over exponential-type orbitals (ETOs) in a historical context. After reference to the pioneering work, particularly by Barnett, Shavitt and Yoshimine, it focuses on recent progress towards rapid and accurate analytic solutions of MILES over ETOs. Software such as the hydrogenlike wavefunction package Alchemy by Yoshimine and collaborators is described. The review focuses on convergence acceleration of these highly oscillatory integrals and in particular it highlights suitable nonlinear transformations. Work by Levin and Sidi is described and applied to MILES. A step by step description of progress in the use of nonlinear transformation methods to obtain efficient codes is provided. The recent approach developed by Safouhi is also presented. The current state of the art in this field is summarized to show that ab initio analytical work over ETOs is now a viable option.

  4. Direct sequencing method for species identification of canned sardine and sardine-type products.

    PubMed

    Jérôme, Marc; Lemaire, Christophe; Verrez-Bagnis, Véronique; Etienne, Monique

    2003-12-03

    A direct sequencing method based on a 103 bp diagnostic sequence derived from a species-specific mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequence of 150 bp obtained by Polymerase Chain Reaction was tested for the identification of 47 commercial canned sardine and sardine-type products from various countries. Multiple alignment of 14 analyzed reference samples belonging to Clupeomorpha species was performed versus the canned samples. Low intraspecific variability was observed for canned sardine (

  5. The Influence of Polymerization Type and Reinforcement Method on Flexural Strength of Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Kasuya, Amanda Vessoni Barbosa; Favarão, Isabella Negro; Naves, Lucas Zago; Hoeppner, Márcio Grama

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of acrylic resin bars by varying the types of resin polymerization and reinforcement methods. Fourteen groups (N = 10) were created by the interaction of factors in study: type of resin (self-cured (SC) or heat-cured (HC)) and reinforcement method (industrialized glass fiber (Ind), unidirectional glass fiber (Uni), short glass fiber (Short), unidirectional and short glass fiber (Uni-Short), thermoplastic resin fiber (Tpl), and steel wire (SW)). Reinforced bars (25 × 2 × 2 mm) were tested in flexural strength (0.5 mm/min) and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data (MPa) were submitted to factorial analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey and T-student tests (a = 5%) showing significant interaction (P = 0.008), for SC: Uni (241.71 ± 67.77)a, Uni-Short (221.05 ± 71.97)a, Ind (215.21 ± 46.59)ab, SW (190.51 ± 31.49)abc, Short (156.31 ± 28.76)bcd, Tpl (132.51 ± 20.21)cd, Control SC (101.47 ± 19.79)d and for HC: Ind (268.93 ± 105.65)a, Uni (215.14 ± 67.60)ab, Short (198.44 ± 95.27)abc, Uni-Short (189.56 ± 92.27)abc, Tpl (161.32 ± 62.51)cd, SW (106.69 ± 28.70)cd, and Control HC (93.39 ± 39.61)d. SEM analysis showed better fiber-resin interaction for HC. Nonimpregnated fibers, irrespective of their length, tend to improve fracture strength of acrylics. PMID:25879079

  6. The influence of polymerization type and reinforcement method on flexural strength of acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Kasuya, Amanda Vessoni Barbosa; Favarão, Isabella Negro; Naves, Lucas Zago; Hoeppner, Márcio Grama

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of acrylic resin bars by varying the types of resin polymerization and reinforcement methods. Fourteen groups (N=10) were created by the interaction of factors in study: type of resin (self-cured (SC) or heat-cured (HC)) and reinforcement method (industrialized glass fiber (Ind), unidirectional glass fiber (Uni), short glass fiber (Short), unidirectional and short glass fiber (Uni-Short), thermoplastic resin fiber (Tpl), and steel wire (SW)). Reinforced bars (25×2×2 mm) were tested in flexural strength (0.5 mm/min) and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data (MPa) were submitted to factorial analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey and T-student tests (a=5%) showing significant interaction (P=0.008), for SC: Uni (241.71±67.77)a, Uni-Short (221.05±71.97)a, Ind (215.21±46.59)ab, SW (190.51±31.49)abc, Short (156.31±28.76)bcd, Tpl (132.51±20.21)cd, Control SC (101.47±19.79)d and for HC: Ind (268.93±105.65)a, Uni (215.14±67.60)ab, Short (198.44±95.27)abc, Uni-Short (189.56±92.27)abc, Tpl (161.32±62.51)cd, SW (106.69±28.70)cd, and Control HC (93.39±39.61)d. SEM analysis showed better fiber-resin interaction for HC. Nonimpregnated fibers, irrespective of their length, tend to improve fracture strength of acrylics.

  7. Salmonella spp. contamination in commercial layer hen farms using different types of samples and detection methods.

    PubMed

    Soria, M C; Soria, M A; Bueno, D J; Godano, E I; Gómez, S C; ViaButron, I A; Padin, V M; Rogé, A D

    2017-03-31

    The performance of detection methods (culture methods and polymerase chain reaction assay) and plating media used in the same type of samples were determined as well as the specificity of PCR primers to detected Salmonella spp. contamination in layer hen farms. Also, the association of farm characteristics with Salmonella presence was evaluated. Environmental samples (feces, feed, drinking water, air, boot-swabs) and eggs were taken from 40 layer hen houses. Salmonella spp. was most detected in boot-swabs taken around the houses (30% and 35% by isolation and PCR, respectively) follow by fecal samples (15.2% and 13.6% by isolation and PCR, respectively). Eggs, drinking water, and air samples were negative for Salmonella detection. Salmonella Schwarzengrund and S. Enteritidis were the most isolated serotypes. For plating media, relative specificity was 1, and the relative sensitivity was greater for EF-18 agar than XLDT agar in feed and fecal samples. However, relative sensitivity was greater in XLDT agar than EF-18 agar for boot-swab samples. Agreement was between fair to good depending on the sample, and it was good between isolation and PCR (feces and boot-swabs), without agreement for feed samples. Salmonella spp. PCR was positive for all strains, while S. Typhimurium PCR was negative. Salmonella Enteritidis PCR used was not specific. Based in the multiple logistic regression analyses, categorization by counties was significant for Salmonella spp. presence (P-value = 0.010). This study shows the importance of considering different types of samples, plating media and detection methods during a Salmonella spp. monitoring study. In addition, it is important to incorporate the sampling of floors around the layer hen houses to learn if biosecurity measures should be strengthened to minimize the entry and spread of Salmonella in the houses. Also, the performance of some PCR methods and S. Enteritidis PCR should be improved, and biosecurity measures in hen farms must be

  8. [Phenotypic and genotypic methods for epidemiological typing of veterinary important bacterial pathogens of the genera Staphylococcus, Salmonella, and Pasteurella].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stefan; Blickwede, Maren; Kehrenberg, Corinna; Michael, Geovana Brenner

    2003-01-01

    Molecular typing methods are capable of providing detailed strain characteristics which are commonly far beyond the capacities of phenotypic typing methods. Such molecular-based characteristics have proved to be very helpful in epidemiological studies of bacterial pathogens. The primary criteria that all typing methods should fulfill include (1) the typeability of the strains in question, (2) the reproducibility of the results, and (3) a high discriminatory power. In general, molecular typing methods can be differentiated with regard to their use in methods that can be applied to virtually all bacteria (e.g. plasmid profiling, ribotyping, macrorestriction analysis) and methods which can only be used for typing of certain bacterial genera or species (e.g. IS200 typing of certain Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars, or coa-PCR of coagulase-positive staphylococci). In the present review, various phenotypic and molecular methods for the epidemiological typing of bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus, Salmonella, and Pasteurella are described and their advantages/disadvantages--also with regard to the fulfillment of the above-mentioned primary criteria--are critically assessed.

  9. Method Dependence of Proline Ring Flexibility in the Poly-l-Proline Type II Polymer.

    PubMed

    Cutini, Michele; Corno, Marta; Ugliengo, Piero

    2017-01-10

    We studied the sensitivity of the energetic and geometrical features of the proline ring (pyrrolidine) to the quantum mechanical computational approach by adopting the proline monomer, trimer, and polymer, as simplified collagen protein models. Within the Density Functional Theory (DFT) approach, we tested the ability of different functionals (GGA PBE and the hybrid B3LYP), added with a posteriori empirical dispersion corrections (D), to predict the conformational potential energy surface of the five-membered heterocycle pyrrolidine ring for the above models, dictating the collagen main features. We also compared the DFT-D results with those from the recently proposed cost-effective HF-3c method and our variant HF-3c-027, both based on Hartree-Fock Hamiltonian and Gaussian minimal basis set properly corrected for basis set superposition error, structure deficiencies, and dispersion interactions. We found that dispersion interactions are essential to destabilize specific conformers. While the HF-3c and its HF-3c-027 variant are unreliable to predict accurately the energy of the ring conformers, structures are accurate. Indeed, the cost-effective DFT-D//HF-3c-027 approach in which the energetic is from the accurate DFT-D method on HF-3c-027 structures provides energetic in line with that derived by the costly DFT-D//DFT-D approach, paving the way to simulate more realistic collagen models of much larger size. The adoption of either PBE or B3LYP functional for the electronic part of the DFT-D method gives very similar results, recommending the first as the most cost-effective method for simulating large collagen models. The predicted most stable conformation computed for the periodic poly proline (type II) model allows for a higher flexibility, in agreement with experimental studies on collagen protein. The present results open the way to large-scale calculations of the collagen/hydroxyapatite system, crucial for understanding the atomistic details in bones and teeth.

  10. Hyperspectral imaging based method for fast characterization of kidney stone types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Francisco; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Havel, Josef; Valiente, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The formation of kidney stones is a common and highly studied disease, which causes intense pain and presents a high recidivism. In order to find the causes of this problem, the characterization of the main compounds is of great importance. In this sense, the analysis of the composition and structure of the stone can give key information about the urine parameters during the crystal growth. But the usual methods employed are slow, analyst dependent and the information obtained is poor. In the present work, the near infrared (NIR)-hyperspectral imaging technique was used for the analysis of 215 samples of kidney stones, including the main types usually found and their mixtures. The NIR reflectance spectra of the analyzed stones showed significant differences that were used for their classification. To do so, a method was created by the use of artificial neural networks, which showed a probability higher than 90% for right classification of the stones. The promising results, robust methodology, and the fast analytical process, without the need of an expert assistance, lead to an easy implementation at the clinical laboratories, offering the urologist a rapid diagnosis that shall contribute to minimize urolithiasis recidivism.

  11. Inversion of heterogeneous parabolic-type equations using the pilot points method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolea, Andrés; Carrera, Jesús; Medina, Agustín

    2006-07-01

    The inverse problem (also referred to as parameter estimation) consists of evaluating the medium properties ruling the behaviour of a given equation from direct measurements of those properties and of the dependent state variables. The problem becomes ill-posed when the properties vary spatially in an unknown manner, which is often the case when modelling natural processes. A possibility to fight this problem consists of performing stochastic conditional simulations. That is, instead of seeking a single solution (conditional estimation), one obtains an ensemble of fields, all of which honour the small scale variability (high frequency fluctuations) and direct measurements. The high frequency component of the field is different from one simulation to another, but a fixed component for all of them. Measurements of the dependent state variables are honoured by framing simulation as an inverse problem, where both model fit and parameter plausibility are maximized with respect to the coefficients of the basis functions (pilot point values). These coefficients (model parameters) are used for parameterizing the large scale variability patterns. The pilot points method, which is often used in hydrogeology, uses the kriging weights as basis functions. The performance of the method (both its variants of conditional estimation/simulation) is tested on a synthetic example using a parabolic-type equation. Results show that including the plausibility term improves the identification of the spatial variability of the unknown field function and that the weight assigned to the plausibility term does lead to optimal results both for conditional estimation and for stochastic simulations.

  12. A multi-wavelength classification method for polar stratospheric cloud types using infrared limb spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, Reinhold; Hoffmann, Lars; Höpfner, Michael; Griessbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf; Pitts, Michael C.; Orr, Andrew M. W.; Riese, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument on board the ESA Envisat satellite operated from July 2002 until April 2012. The infrared limb emission measurements represent a unique dataset of daytime and night-time observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) up to both poles. Cloud detection sensitivity is comparable to space-borne lidars, and it is possible to classify different cloud types from the spectral measurements in different atmospheric windows regions. Here we present a new infrared PSC classification scheme based on the combination of a well-established two-colour ratio method and multiple 2-D brightness temperature difference probability density functions. The method is a simple probabilistic classifier based on Bayes' theorem with a strong independence assumption. The method has been tested in conjunction with a database of radiative transfer model calculations of realistic PSC particle size distributions, geometries, and composition. The Bayesian classifier distinguishes between solid particles of ice and nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), as well as liquid droplets of super-cooled ternary solution (STS). The classification results are compared to coincident measurements from the space-borne lidar Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument over the temporal overlap of both satellite missions (June 2006-March 2012). Both datasets show a good agreement for the specific PSC classes, although the viewing geometries and the vertical and horizontal resolution are quite different. Discrepancies are observed between the CALIOP and the MIPAS ice class. The Bayesian classifier for MIPAS identifies substantially more ice clouds in the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex than CALIOP. This disagreement is attributed in part to the difference in the sensitivity on mixed-type clouds. Ice seems to dominate the spectral behaviour in the limb infrared spectra and may cause an overestimation in ice occurrence

  13. Optimal protein extraction methods from diverse sample types for protein profiling by using Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2DE).

    PubMed

    Tan, A A; Azman, S N; Abdul Rani, N R; Kua, B C; Sasidharan, S; Kiew, L V; Othman, N; Noordin, R; Chen, Y

    2011-12-01

    There is a great diversity of protein samples types and origins, therefore the optimal procedure for each sample type must be determined empirically. In order to obtain a reproducible and complete sample presentation which view as many proteins as possible on the desired 2DE gel, it is critical to perform additional sample preparation steps to improve the quality of the final results, yet without selectively losing the proteins. To address this, we developed a general method that is suitable for diverse sample types based on phenolchloroform extraction method (represented by TRI reagent). This method was found to yield good results when used to analyze human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), Vibrio cholerae, Cryptocaryon irritans cyst and liver abscess fat tissue. These types represent cell line, bacteria, parasite cyst and pus respectively. For each type of samples, several attempts were made to methodically compare protein isolation methods using TRI-reagent Kit, EasyBlue Kit, PRO-PREP™ Protein Extraction Solution and lysis buffer. The most useful protocol allows the extraction and separation of a wide diversity of protein samples that is reproducible among repeated experiments. Our results demonstrated that the modified TRI-reagent Kit had the highest protein yield as well as the greatest number of total proteins spots count for all type of samples. Distinctive differences in spot patterns were also observed in the 2DE gel of different extraction methods used for each type of sample.

  14. Preliminary validation of a novel high-resolution melt-based typing method based on the multilocus sequence typing scheme of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L J; Tong, S Y C; Towers, R J; Huygens, F; McGregor, K; Fagan, P K; Currie, B J; Carapetis, J R; Giffard, P M

    2011-09-01

    The major limitation of current typing methods for Streptococcus pyogenes, such as emm sequence typing and T typing, is that these are based on regions subject to considerable selective pressure. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a better indicator of the genetic backbone of a strain but is not widely used due to high costs. The objective of this study was to develop a robust and cost-effective alternative to S. pyogenes MLST. A 10-member single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) set that provides a Simpson's Index of Diversity (D) of 0.99 with respect to the S. pyogenes MLST database was derived. A typing format involving high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis of small fragments nucleated by each of the resolution-optimized SNPs was developed. The fragments were 59-119 bp in size and, based on differences in G+C content, were predicted to generate three to six resolvable HRM curves. The combination of curves across each of the 10 fragments can be used to generate a melt type (MelT) for each sequence type (ST). The 525 STs currently in the S. pyogenes MLST database are predicted to resolve into 298 distinct MelTs and the method is calculated to provide a D of 0.996 against the MLST database. The MelTs are concordant with the S. pyogenes population structure. To validate the method we examined clinical isolates of S. pyogenes of 70 STs. Curves were generated as predicted by G+C content discriminating the 70 STs into 65 distinct MelTs.

  15. An Improved PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) Method for the Identification of cry1-Type Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Changlong; Liu, Dongming; Zhou, Zishan; Cai, Jilin; Peng, Qi; Gao, Jiguo; Song, Fuping

    2013-01-01

    The cry1-type genes of Bacillus thuringiensis represent the largest cry gene family, which contains 50 distinct holotypes. It is becoming more and more difficult to identify cry1-type genes using current methods because of the increasing number of cry1-type genes. In the present study, an improved PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method which can distinguish 41 holotypes of cry1-type genes was developed. This improved method was used to identify cry1-type genes in 20 B. thuringiensis strains that are toxic to lepidoptera. The results showed that the improved method can efficiently identify single and clustered cry1-type genes and can be used to evaluate cry1-type genes in novel strain collections of B. thuringiensis. Among the detected cry1-type genes, we identified four novel genes, cry1Ai, cry1Bb, cry1Ja, and cry1La. The bioassay results from the expressed products of the four novel cry genes showed that Cry1Ai2, Cry1Bb2, and Cry1Ja2 were highly toxic against Plutella xylostella, whereas Cry1La2 exhibited no activity. Moreover, Cry1Ai2 had good lethal activity against Ostrinia furnacalis, Hyphantria cunea, Chilo suppressalis, and Bombyx mori larvae and considerable weight loss activity against Helicoverpa armigera. PMID:23995930

  16. Methods of testing to determine the thermal performance of unglazed flat-plate liquid-type solar collectors. (ASHRAE standard)

    SciTech Connect

    1989-01-28

    The purpose of this standard is to provide test methods for determining the thermal performance of unglazed flat-plate liquid-type solar energy collector modules which heat a liquid for low temperature applications.

  17. Pescan

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Marques, Osni; Canning, Andrew

    2008-06-05

    The software calculates the interior eigenstates of a nanosystem with a given Hamiltonian. This is used for nonselfconsistent calculations of electron and hole states for large (a few thousands to hundreds of thousands of atoms) nanostructures. The electron wave function is represented by a planewave basis set. FFT is used to transform the wavefunction from reciprocal space to real space to be applied to the potential. Nonlocal pseudopotentlals are used in the Hamiltonian and spin-orbit interactions are included. One primary approach to calculate the interior eigenstates in the code is to use the folded spectrum method. Several numerical algorithms are implemented in this package, including the conjugated gradient method, the Jacobi-Davidson method, and the LOPCG method. The user can select different algorithms based on their particular problem and number of wavefunctions needed to be solved.

  18. Imaging the nano-structure of soft and wet materials with new type of DLS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Yuta; Kumagai, Hiroaki; Abe, Mei; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2016-04-01

    Nano-structure of soft and wet materials are making important roles in radiation therapy, as a three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimeter. In the last decades, radiation therapy instruments have had a large progressive of the accuracy, therefore more precise measurements have became important. We study new materials and apparatus, which measure three dimensional absorbed dose distributions. New materials are double network (DN2) gel and improved PAGAT (yDAGAT) gel, the former has several good points, high transparency, high water content, high mechanical strength, and toughness, the later has similar properties of PAGAT gel but will be more tractable. The new type of optical-CT machine is Scanning Microscopic Light Scattering System (SMILS). Usual optical-CT uses the opacity, which is measured by the intensity, however SMILS also uses dynamic light scattering (DLS) theory with original ensemble average method. By using the intensity and DLS information, more accurate information are expected. We have established one-dimensional measurement by SMILS using irradiated DN gel. Additionally, yDAGAT is successfully composed. In the future, we are planning to develop three-dimensional radiation measurement apparatus by 3D printable gel and 3D SMILS.

  19. Glucose-assisted reduction achieved transparent p-type cuprous oxide thin film by a solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Sha; Sun, Jian; Gong, Hao; Chen, Zequn; Huang, Yifei; Xu, Jianmei; Zhao, Ling; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Qing

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of p-type cuprous oxide thin film via a cheap and simple chemical method has been known as challenging. We first find that glucose can assist reduce Cu to a lower valence state in the preparation of cuprous oxide films by the sol-gel method. By first adding glucose in the sol as reducing agent, oxidation from the oxygen in the environment is limited and transparent p-type cuprous oxide films are eventually achieved under optimized experimental conditions. We have developed a p-type cuprous oxide thin film with an optimal Hall mobility of ∼8 cm2/Vs and an optical transmittance of 78%.

  20. Neutrino transport in type II supernovae: Boltzmann solver vs. Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Shoichi; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    1999-04-01

    We have coded a Boltzmann solver based on a finite difference scheme (S_N method) aiming at calculations of neutrino transport in type II supernovae. Close comparison between the Boltzmann solver and a Monte Carlo transport code has been made for realistic atmospheres of post bounce core models under the assumption of a static background. We have also investigated in detail the dependence of the results on the numbers of radial, angular, and energy grid points and the way to discretize the spatial advection term which is used in the Boltzmann solver. A general relativistic calculation has been done for one of the models. We find good overall agreement between the two methods. This gives credibility to both methods which are based on completely different formulations. In particular, the number and energy fluxes and the mean energies of the neutrinos show remarkably good agreement, because these quantities are determined in a region where the angular distribution of the neutrinos is nearly isotropic and they are essentially frozen in later on. On the other hand, because of a relatively small number of angular grid points (which is inevitable due to limitations of the computation time) the Boltzmann solver tends to slightly underestimate the flux factor and the Eddington factor outside the (mean) ``neutrinosphere'' where the angular distribution of the neutrinos becomes highly anisotropic. As a result, the neutrino number (and energy) density is somewhat overestimated in this region. This fact suggests that the Boltzmann solver should be applied to calculations of the neutrino heating in the hot-bubble region with some caution because there might be a tendency to overestimate the energy deposition rate in disadvantageous situations. A comparison shows that this trend is opposite to the results obtained with a multi-group flux-limited diffusion approximation of neutrino transport. Employing three different flux limiters, we find that all of them lead to a significant

  1. Influence of starting zeolite on synthesis of RUT type zeolite by interzeolite conversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itakura, Masaya; Ota, Kai; Shibata, Shohei; Inoue, Takayuki; Ide, Yusuke; Sadakane, Masahiro; Sano, Tsuneji

    2011-01-01

    In this study, hydrothermal conversions of *BEA and FAU type zeolites using various structure-directing agents were carried out. Highly crystalline and pure RUT type zeolites were obtained from both zeolites in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide. There were no major differences between the characteristics of the RUT type zeolites obtained from the two starting zeolites. However, the Si/Al ratio and the crystallization rate of the RUT type zeolites were strongly dependent on both the framework structure and the Si/Al ratio of the starting zeolite. That is, the crystallization rate of the RUT type zeolite from the *BEA type zeolite did not depend on the Si/Al ratio of the starting *BEA type zeolite, whereas the crystallization rate of the RUT type zeolite from the FAU type zeolite was dependent on the Si/Al ratio of the starting FAU type zeolite. This suggests that the chemical structure and the concentration of locally ordered aluminosilicate species produced by the decomposition/dissolution of the starting zeolite can be altered by changing the framework structure of the zeolite.

  2. In vitro fermentation vessel type and method alter fiber digestibility estimates.

    PubMed

    Hall, M B; Mertens, D R

    2008-01-01

    7 to 15% lower for treatment 1 than for the average of all other treatments. Slopes of the gas production per gram of substrate dry matter curves differed between treatments 3 and 5. In conclusion, measured NDFD was altered by fermentation treatment, with polyethylene tubes + gas-release valves giving the lowest values. Consequently, NDFD values may not be comparable across fermentation methods, but the effect will vary among feedstuffs. The combination of methods used for sealing, gassing, or agitating vessels may have a greater impact on NDFD than does vessel type.

  3. Homotopy perturbation method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM) for solving Lane-Emden type differential equations (LETDEs).

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Rajnee; Mishra, Hradyesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, we describe the Homotopy Perturbation Method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM), which is used to solve the Lane-Emden type differential equations. It's very difficult to solve numerically the Lane-Emden types of the differential equation. Here we implemented this method for two linear homogeneous, two linear nonhomogeneous, and four nonlinear homogeneous Lane-Emden type differential equations and use their appropriate comparisons with exact solutions. In the current study, some examples are better than other existing methods with their nearer results in the form of power series. The Laplace transform used to accelerate the convergence of power series and the results are shown in the tables and graphs which have good agreement with the other existing method in the literature. The results show that LT-HPM is very effective and easy to implement.

  4. A reddening-free method to estimate the 56Ni mass of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, S.; Leibundgut, B.; Spyromilio, J.; Blondin, S.

    2016-04-01

    The increase in the number of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has demonstrated that the population shows greater diversity than has been assumed in the past. The reasons (e.g. parent population, explosion mechanism) for this diversity remain largely unknown. We investigated a sample of SNe Ia near-infrared light curves and correlated the phase of the second maximum with the bolometric peak luminosity. The peak bolometric luminosity is related to the time of the second maximum (relative to the B light curve maximum) as follows: Lmax(1043 erg s-1) = (0.039 ± 0.004) × t2(J)(days) + (0.013 ± 0.106). 56Ni masses can be derived from the peak luminosity based on Arnett's rule, which states that the luminosity at maximum is equal to the instantaneous energy generated by the nickel decay. We checked this assumption against recent radiative-transfer calculations of Chandrasekhar-mass delayed detonation models and find this assumption is valid to within 10% in recent radiative-transfer calculations of Chandrasekhar-mass delayed detonation models. The Lmax vs. t2 relation is applied to a sample of 40 additional SNe Ia with significant reddening (E(B - V) > 0.1 mag), and a reddening-free bolometric luminosity function of SNe Ia is established. The method is tested with the 56Ni mass measurement from the direct observation of γ-rays in the heavily absorbed SN 2014J and found to be fully consistent. Super-Chandrasekhar-mass explosions, in particular SN 2007if, do not follow the relations between peak luminosity and second IR maximum. This may point to an additional energy source contributing at maximum light. The luminosity function of SNe Ia is constructed and is shown to be asymmetric with a tail of low-luminosity objects and a rather sharp high-luminosity cutoff, although it might be influenced by selection effects.

  5. Improvement of minority carrier life time in N-type monocrystalline Si by the Czochralski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Sungsun; Pang, Ilsun; Kim, Jaemin; Kim, Kwanghun

    2016-07-01

    The installation amount of solar power plants increases every year. Multi-crystalline Si solar cells comprise a large share of the market of solar power plants. Multi-crystalline and single-crystalline Si solar cells are competing against one another in the market. Many single-crystalline companies are trying to develop and produce n-type solar cells with higher cell efficiency than that of p-type. In n-type wafers with high cell efficiency, wafer quality has become increasingly important. In order to make ingots with higher MCLT, the effects of both poly types related to metal impurities and pull speeds related to vacancy concentration on minority carrier life time were studied. In the final part of ingots, poly types related to the metal impurities are a dominant factor on MCLT. In the initial part of ingots, pull speeds related to vacancy concentration are a dominant factor on MCLT. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. A new type of descent conjugate gradient method with exact line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajar, Nurul; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd.; Jusoh, Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, conjugate gradient (CG) methods are impressive for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems. In this paper, a new CG method is proposed and analyzed. This new CG method satisfies descent condition and its global convergence is established using exact line search. Numerical results show that this new CG method substantially outperforms the previous CG methods. This new CG method is considered robust, efficient and provided faster and stable convergence.

  7. On modification of certain methods of the conjugate direction type for solving rectangular systems of linear algebraic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukhno, L. F.

    2007-12-01

    The use of modifications of certain well-known methods of the conjugate direction type for solving systems of linear algebraic equations with rectangular matrices is examined. The modified methods are shown to be superior to the original versions with respect to the round-off accumulation; the advantage is especially large for ill-conditioned matrices. Examples are given of the efficient use of the modified methods for solving certain fairly large ill-conditioned problems.

  8. A STUDY ON THE EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE AND EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN METHOD OF AN OPEN TYPE WHARF WITH PNEUMATIC CAISSONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Masahiko; Nagao, Takashi; Shigeki, Kouji; Ouchi, Masatoshi; Sato, Yuske; Kinomiya, Osamu

    Seismic response of an open type wharf with pneumatic caisson was clarified using a dynamic finite element method. As a result, rocking behavior of caisson foundations were observed and applicability of a frame model analysis to the earthquake resistant design of a wharf was suggested. Authors proposed the framework of earthquake resistant design method of the wharf including the evaluation method of response acceleration of the wharf.

  9. Solving Maxwell eigenvalue problems for accelerating cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbenz, Peter; Geus, Roman; Adam, Stefan

    2001-02-01

    We investigate algorithms for computing steady state electromagnetic waves in cavities. The Maxwell equations for the strength of the electric field are solved by a mixed method with quadratic finite edge (Nédélec) elements for the field values and corresponding node-based finite elements for the Lagrange multiplier. This approach avoids so-called spurious modes which are introduced if the divergence-free condition for the electric field is not treated properly. To compute a few of the smallest positive eigenvalues and corresponding eigenmodes of the resulting large sparse matrix eigenvalue problems, two algorithms have been used: the implicitly restarted Lanczos algorithm and the Jacobi-Davidson algorithm, both with shift-and-invert spectral transformation. Two-level hierarchical basis preconditioners have been employed for the iterative solution of the resulting systems of equations.

  10. A quantitative real-time PCR method for monitoring Clostridium botulinum type A in rice samples.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hajime; Takakura, Chikako; Kimura, Bon

    2010-04-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR using SYBR Green dye was developed to target the neurotoxin type A (boNT/A) gene of Clostridium botulinum type A. Primer specificity was confirmed by analyzing 63 strains including 5 strains of C. botulinum type A and 11 of non-type A C. botulinum. The highly similar amplification efficiencies of the real-time PCR assay were observed for 5 strains of C. botulinum type A. The DNA extraction with NucliSENS miniMAG provided sufficient performance to obtain the purified DNA from steamed rice samples and to develop the standard curve for the enumeration of C. botulinum in steamed rice samples. The real-time PCR assay could detect 10 cells per milliliter of 10 x rice homogenate, thus indicating that more than 100 C. botulinum cells per g of rice sample was quantifiable by the real-time PCR assay. The inoculation of aseptic rice samples with low numbers of C. botulinum type A cells revealed that the fate of inoculated C. botulinum type A cells in rice samples could be monitored accurately by the real-time PCR assay. These results indicate that the real-time PCR assay developed in this study provides rapid, effective, and quantitative monitoring of C. botulinum in steamed rice samples.

  11. On conjugate gradient type methods and polynomial preconditioners for a class of complex non-Hermitian matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland

    1988-01-01

    Conjugate gradient type methods are considered for the solution of large linear systems Ax = b with complex coefficient matrices of the type A = T + i(sigma)I where T is Hermitian and sigma, a real scalar. Three different conjugate gradient type approaches with iterates defined by a minimal residual property, a Galerkin type condition, and an Euclidian error minimization, respectively, are investigated. In particular, numerically stable implementations based on the ideas behind Paige and Saunder's SYMMLQ and MINRES for real symmetric matrices are proposed. Error bounds for all three methods are derived. It is shown how the special shift structure of A can be preserved by using polynomial preconditioning. Results on the optimal choice of the polynomial preconditioner are given. Also, some numerical experiments for matrices arising from finite difference approximations to the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  12. Representative Benchmark Suites for Barrier Heights of Diverse Reaction Types and Assessment of Electronic Structure Methods for Thermochemical Kinetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-19

    Number of reactions HAT SN2 UA Figure 1: Percentage error in representation vs. number of reactions . (a) is for strategy A and (b) is for strategy B...Representative Benchmark Suites for Barrier Heights of Diverse Reaction Types and Assessment of Electronic Structure Methods for Thermochemical...DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Representative Benchmark Suites for Barrier Heights of Diverse Reaction Types and

  13. Fast Bundle-Level Type Methods for Unconstrained and Ball-Constrained Convex Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    ZHANG ¶ Abstract. It has been shown in [14] that the accelerated prox-level ( APL ) method and its variant, the uniform smoothing level (USL) method...introduce two new variants of level methods, i.e., the fast APL (FAPL) method and the fast USL (FUSL) method, for solving large scale black-box and...structured convex programming problems respectively. Both FAPL and FUSL enjoy the same optimal iteration complexity as APL and USL, while the number of

  14. First web space post-burn contracture types: contracture elimination methods.

    PubMed

    Grishkevich, Viktor M

    2011-03-01

    First web space adduction contractures are a common consequence of hand burns. Many reconstructive techniques are used and investigation for more effective methods continues. Effective hand reconstruction usually considers anatomy as its foundation. Based on the experience of over 500 web space contracture elimination cases, three anatomical types of thumb adduction contractures were identified: edge, medial and total. Edge contractures (80% of all thumb adduction contractures) are caused by a fold in which only one sheet is scarred, either the palmar or dorsal surface. The contraction is caused by a trapeze-shaped length deficiency of the scar sheet, which has a surface surplus in width. Reconstruction consists of surface deficiency compensation with trapezoid flap prepared from the non-scarred side and skin-fat tissues of the web space. In most cases, the small scar-fat trapezoid flaps should be prepared from the non-scarred side to cover the donor wounds on both sides of the main flap. Medial contractures (10% of thumb adduction contractures) are caused by the fold, both sheets of which are scarred and have trapeze-shaped surface deficiency in length and surplus in width. Both fold sheets are converted into one or several pairs of trapezoid scar-fat flaps by radial incisions. The oppositely located flaps are transposed towards each other. As a result of the counter flaps transposition, the contracture is eliminated; the web space's shape and depth are restored by the use of flaps alone or in combination with skin grafting. The trapeze-flap plasty is very simple and effective with the length gain of up to 100-200%. Neither flap loss nor re-contracture occurs. Total contractures (about 10% of all) have no fold. Reconstruction consists of the creation of the central zone of the first web space depth with the rectangular subdermal pedicle flap; the wounds on both sides of the flap are skin grafted. The flap sustains normal web depth and prevents the contracture

  15. Effects of categorization method, regression type, and variable distribution on the inflation of Type-I error rate when categorizing a confounding variable.

    PubMed

    Barnwell-Ménard, Jean-Louis; Li, Qing; Cohen, Alan A

    2015-03-15

    The loss of signal associated with categorizing a continuous variable is well known, and previous studies have demonstrated that this can lead to an inflation of Type-I error when the categorized variable is a confounder in a regression analysis estimating the effect of an exposure on an outcome. However, it is not known how the Type-I error may vary under different circumstances, including logistic versus linear regression, different distributions of the confounder, and different categorization methods. Here, we analytically quantified the effect of categorization and then performed a series of 9600 Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the Type-I error inflation associated with categorization of a confounder under different regression scenarios. We show that Type-I error is unacceptably high (>10% in most scenarios and often 100%). The only exception was when the variable categorized was a continuous mixture proxy for a genuinely dichotomous latent variable, where both the continuous proxy and the categorized variable are error-ridden proxies for the dichotomous latent variable. As expected, error inflation was also higher with larger sample size, fewer categories, and stronger associations between the confounder and the exposure or outcome. We provide online tools that can help researchers estimate the potential error inflation and understand how serious a problem this is.

  16. Application of physico-chemical typing methods for the epidemiological analysis of Salmonella enteritidis strains of phage type 25/17.

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, G.; Voigt, W.; Beer, W.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty-nine Salmonella enteritidis phage type 25/17 strains isolated from a localized outbreak in the German state Nordrhein-Westfalen (outbreak NWI) could not be further differentiated by biochemotyping and plasmid pattern analysis. They were submitted to a complex typing system consisting of modern physico-chemical analytical procedures. In lipopolysaccharide pattern analysis the strains proved to be homogeneous. In multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, outer membrane and whole cell protein pattern (WCPP) analysis, and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (increasing extent of differentiation in the given order) strains deviating from each basal pattern were found. The extent of correspondence in these deviations was satisfactory. Forty-six strains of the same sero- and phage type, however, obtained from different outbreaks, were additionally typed. The results obtained with them indicate that the data of the first group were not restricted to strains from outbreak NWI, but of general validity. It was found that both WCPP and FT-IR represent valuable methods for the sub-grouping of bacteria. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7995351

  17. Application of Campylobacter molecular classification and typing techniques in veterinary medicine: old-established methods and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Laturnus, Claudia; Wieler, Lothar H

    2007-01-01

    In this review the application and usefulness of Campylobacter genotypical classification and typing in veterinary medicine will be discussed.While there is a large area of overlapping applications between the veterinary and the medical field, several differences exist, as the spectrum of veterinary pathogens is different from the human and contaminated food of healthy animal origin may cause disease in man. In general, genotyping in the veterinary field can be applied in three different areas: (a) purely diagnostic purposes for classification of Campylobacter species and subspecies, (b) typing methods useful for monitoring or surveillance of animals as well as food products of animal origin, and (c) typing methods that can be applied during outbreaks and for source tracing. In addition, typing methods applied in areas (b) and (c) should be distinguished in regard to local short-term and global long-term epidemiology, respectively. While a whole plethora of discriminative typing methods are available, classification tools of certain species and subspecies are still missing. Perspectively, as the genomes of many relevant Campylobacter species have now been sequenced, this will help to identify several species specific loci, the products of which should be available to develop easy and fast applicable diagnostic tools. Global cooperation, sharing of strains and databases should close the currently existing gaps in Campylobacter identification tools.

  18. Kinetic Chemiluminescence as a Method for Oxidative Stress Evaluation in Examinations of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Proskurnina, E V; Polimova, A M; Sozarukova, M M; Prudnikova, M A; Ametov, A S; Vladimirov, Yu A

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new approach to evaluation of oxidative stress based on kinetic chemiluminescence: measurement of antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of the plasma. The study included 50 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving peroral hypoglycemic therapy. In addition to the above parameters, the levels of TBA-reactive products, inflammation markers, clotting parameters, and biochemical values were studied. The new method provides information on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of the clinical and laboratory values. The use of this method in complex with the clinical, laboratory, and instrumental studies allows comprehensive evaluation of patient's status for the diagnosis and choice of therapy.

  19. Rapid method for hydrocarbon-type analysis of heavy oils and synthetic fuels by pyrolysis thin layer chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.A.; George, A.E.

    1982-09-01

    This work describes a rapid method for hydrocargon-type analysis applying thin layer chromatography (TLC) to the pentane-soluble fraction *malthenes) of the petroleum and synthetic fuels boiling above 200/sup 0/C. The principal component types encountered in this paper are saturates (SA), aromatics (AR), (mono and di together) polynuclear aromatics (PNA) and polar material (PO). The method uses a Iatroscan TLC pyrolyzer which combines the resolution capabilities of TLC with the possibility of quantification by using a flame-ionization detector (FID). Comparison of the results with those obtained by the API-60 procedure is presented.

  20. A generic method for the evaluation of interval type-2 fuzzy linguistic summaries.

    PubMed

    Boran, Fatih Emre; Akay, Diyar

    2014-09-01

    Linguistic summarization has turned out to be an important knowledge discovery technique by providing the most relevant natural language-based sentences in a human consistent manner. While many studies on linguistic summarization have handled ordinary fuzzy sets [type-1 fuzzy set (T1FS)] for modeling words, only few of them have dealt with interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2FS) even though IT2FS is better capable of handling uncertainties associated with words. Furthermore, the existent studies work with the scalar cardinality based degree of truth which might lead to inconsistency in the evaluation of interval type-2 fuzzy (IT2F) linguistic summaries. In this paper, to overcome this shortcoming, we propose a novel probabilistic degree of truth for evaluating IT2F linguistic summaries in the forms of type-I and type-II quantified sentences. We also extend the properties that should be fulfilled by any degree of truth on linguistic summarization with T1FS to IT2F environment. We not only prove that our probabilistic degree of truth satisfies the given properties, but also illustrate by examples that it provides more consistent results when compared to the existing degree of truth in the literature. Furthermore, we carry out an application on linguistic summarization of time series data of Europe Brent Spot Price, along with a comparison of the results achieved with our approach and that of the existing degree of truth in the literature.

  1. A novel method for simultaneous Enterococcus species identification/typing and van genotyping by high resolution melt analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Volker; Grando, Danilla; Mayall, Barrie C; Wang, Jenny; Ghaly-Derias, Shahbano

    2012-09-01

    In order to develop a typing and identification method for van gene containing Enterococcus faecium, two multiplex PCR reactions were developed for use in HRM-PCR (High Resolution Melt-PCR): (i) vanA, vanB, vanC, vanC23 to detect van genes from different Enterococcus species; (ii) ISR (intergenic spacer region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes) to detect all Enterococcus species and obtain species and isolate specific HRM curves. To test and validate the method three groups of isolates were tested: (i) 1672 Enterococcus species isolates from January 2009 to December 2009; (ii) 71 isolates previously identified and typed by PFGE (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and MLST (multi-locus sequence typing); and (iii) 18 of the isolates from (i) for which ISR sequencing was done. As well as successfully identifying 2 common genotypes by HRM from the Austin Hospital clinical isolates, this study analysed the sequences of all the vanB genes deposited in GenBank and developed a numerical classification scheme for the standardised naming of these vanB genotypes. The identification of Enterococcus faecalis from E. faecium was reliable and stable using ISR PCR. The typing of E. faecium by ISR PCR: (i) detected two variable peaks corresponding to different copy numbers of insertion sequences I and II corresponding to peak I and II respectively; (ii) produced 7 melt profiles for E. faecium with variable copy numbers of sequences I and II; (iii) demonstrated stability and instability of peak heights with equal frequency within the patient sample (36.4±4.5 days and 38.6±5.8 days respectively for 192 patients); (iv) detected ISR-HRM types with as much discrimination as PFGE and more than MLST; and (v) detected ISR-HRM types that differentiated some isolates that were identical by PFGE and MLST. In conjunction with the rapid and accurate van genotyping method described here, this ISR-HRM typing and identification method can be used as a stable identification and typing method with

  2. A comparison of three types of pulse tube refrigerators - New methods for reaching 60 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radebaugh, Ray; Zimmerman, James; Smith, David R.; Louie, Beverly

    1986-01-01

    The three types of pulse tube refrigerator, namely the resonant, basic, and orifice designs, are compared with each other and with such common refrigerators as the Joule-Thomson and Stirling types, using an apparatus able to measure their intrinsic behavior from 30 to 300 K. Orifice pulse tubes are found capable of reaching 60 K temperature drops in a single stage. Additional advantages of the type are (1) a single, room-temperature moving part, (2) the use of moderate pressures and pressure ratios, (3) good intrinsic efficiency, and (4) the ability to operate several stages from the same pressure wave generator. The low refrigeration rate/unit mass flow means, however, that better regenerator units are required.

  3. Applications of the Method for Transducer Transient Suppression to Various Transducer Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    previously. These types are (i) flexural disk, (ii) Helmholtz resonator, (iii) moving coil, (iv) inductor-tuned Tonpilz , and (v)a dual transducer array of...previously. These types are (i) flexural disk. (ii) Helmholtz resonator, (iii) moving coil, (iv) inductor-tuned Tonpilz , and (v) a dual transducer array of...cycle case, we findV(O -- t-- +i, R (t;>r. even number of half-cycles), (3) FIG. 2. Equivalent circuit for an inductor-tuned Tonpilz transducer . The

  4. Strain typing of Zygosaccharomyces yeast species using a single molecular method based on polymorphism of the intergenic spacer region (IGS).

    PubMed

    Wrent, Petra; Rivas, Eva-María; Peinado, José M; de Silóniz, María-Isabel

    2010-08-15

    Unlike previously reported methods that need a combination of several typing techniques, we have developed a single method for strain typing of the Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Z. mellis and Z. rouxii spoilage species. Strains belonging to other species have also been included for comparison. We have demonstrated that the IGS-PCR RFLP method has a high discriminative power. Considering the three endonucleases used in this work, we have obtained a variability of 100% for Z. mellis and Z. rouxii strains and up to 70% for Z. bailii. We have also detected two misidentified Z. mellis strains (CBS 711 and CBS 7412) which have RFLP patterns with a set of bands characteristic of Z. rouxii strains. Sequencing of 26S rDNA D1/D2 domains and the 5.8-ITS rDNA region confirmed these strains as Z. rouxii. The method also groups three certified hybrid strains of Zygosaccharomyces in a separate cluster.

  5. Carotenoid profiling from 27 types of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) with different colors, shapes, and cultivation methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; An, Chul Geon; Park, Jong-Suk; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Suna

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we investigated carotenoid profiles and contents from 27 types of paprika with different colors (red, orange, and yellow), shapes (blocky and conical), and cultivation methods (soil and soilless). We simultaneously analyzed 12 kinds of carotenoids using UPLC equipped with an HSS T3 column for 30 min, and we identified six kinds of carotenoids in red paprika and nine types in orange and yellow paprika. Zeaxanthin concentrations in orange paprika were in the range of 85.06±23.37-151.39±5.94 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), which shows that orange paprika is a great source of zeaxanthin. Generally, red paprika is a great source of capsanthin. However, a new cultivar, 'Mini Goggal Red', contained large amounts of zeaxanthin (121.41±30.10 mg/100 g dw) even though its visible color is red. This is very meaningful considering that consumers have a preference for red color and the potent functional value of zeaxanthin. Carotenoid profiles and concentrations in blocky and conical type paprika were not significantly different in red paprika except the 'Mini Goggal Red' cultivar and yellow paprika. Blocky type orange paprika contains plenty of zeaxanthin, unlike conical type orange paprika. Three new cultivars of the conical type were cultivated in both soil culture and soilless culture in the same province, and carotenoid profiles and concentrations were similar, showing that both cultivations methods can be used.

  6. Comparison of four methods, including semi-automated rep-PCR, for the typing of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Nancy; Lemire, Astrid; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Auzou, Michel; Périchon, Bruno; Courvalin, Patrice; Cattoir, Vincent; Leclercq, Roland

    2011-01-01

    We have assessed the performance of semi-automated rep-PCR (Diversilab®) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in comparison to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for typing a collection of 29 epidemiologically characterized vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). Sixteen strains that harbored the Tn1546 element were typed by PCR mapping. The discriminative power of the typing methods was calculated by the Simpson's index of diversity, and the concordance between methods was evaluated by the Kendall's coefficient of concordance. Semi-automated rep-PCR appeared as discriminative as PFGE and was further compared with PFGE for typing 67 VRE isolated during a hospital outbreak. Rep-PCR appeared to be more discriminative than PFGE for this second set of strains. Reproducibility of DiversiLab® was also tested against 35 selected isolates. Only three showed less than 97% similarity, indicating high reproducibility at this level of discrimination. In conclusion, semi-automated rep-PCR is a useful tool for rapid screening of VRE isolates during an outbreak, although cost of the system may be limiting for routine implementation. PFGE, which remains the reference method, should be used for confirmation and evaluation of the genetic relatedness of epidemic isolates.

  7. Variable genetic element typing: a quick method for epidemiological subtyping of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Pannier, K; Heuner, K; Lück, C

    2010-04-01

    A total of 57 isolates of Legionella pneumophila were randomly selected from the German National Legionella strain collection and typed by monoclonal antibody subgrouping, seven-gene locus sequence-based typing (SBT) scheme and a newly developed variable element typing (VET) system based on the presence or absence of ten variable genetic elements. These elements were detected while screening a genomic library of strain Corby, as well as being taken from published data for PAI-1 (pathogenicity island) from strain Philadelphia. Specific primers were designed and used in gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. PCR amplification of the mip gene served as a control. The end-point was the presence/absence of a PCR product on an ethidium bromide-strained gel. In the present study, the index of discrimination was somewhat lower than that of the SBT (0.87 versus 0.97). Nevertheless, the results obtained showed as a 'proof of principle' that this simple and quick typing assay might be useful for the epidemiological characterisation of L. pneumophila strains.

  8. The Optimal Conditions for Form-Focused Instruction: Method, Target Complexity, and Types of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-eun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates optimal conditions for form-focused instruction (FFI) by considering effects of internal (i.e., timing and types of FFI) and external (i.e., complexity and familiarity) variables of FFI when it is offered within a primarily meaning-focused context of adult second language (L2) learning. Ninety-two Korean-speaking…

  9. Seismic velocity deviation log: An effective method for evaluating spatial distribution of reservoir pore types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirmohamadi, Mohamad; Kadkhodaie, Ali; Rahimpour-Bonab, Hossain; Faraji, Mohammad Ali

    2017-04-01

    Velocity deviation log (VDL) is a synthetic log used to determine pore types in reservoir rocks based on a combination of the sonic log with neutron-density logs. The current study proposes a two step approach to create a map of porosity and pore types by integrating the results of petrographic studies, well logs and seismic data. In the first step, velocity deviation log was created from the combination of the sonic log with the neutron-density log. The results allowed identifying negative, zero and positive deviations based on the created synthetic velocity log. Negative velocity deviations (below - 500 m/s) indicate connected or interconnected pores and fractures, while positive deviations (above + 500 m/s) are related to isolated pores. Zero deviations in the range of [- 500 m/s, + 500 m/s] are in good agreement with intercrystalline and microporosities. The results of petrographic studies were used to validate the main pore type derived from velocity deviation log. In the next step, velocity deviation log was estimated from seismic data by using a probabilistic neural network model. For this purpose, the inverted acoustic impedance along with the amplitude based seismic attributes were formulated to VDL. The methodology is illustrated by performing a case study from the Hendijan oilfield, northwestern Persian Gulf. The results of this study show that integration of petrographic, well logs and seismic attributes is an instrumental way for understanding the spatial distribution of main reservoir pore types.

  10. A comparison of two internet programs for adolescents with type 1 diabetes: design and methods.

    PubMed

    Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin; Liberti, Lauren; Delamater, Alan; Murphy, Kathryn; Faulkner, Melissa S

    2012-07-01

    Implementing psycho-educational programs for youth with type 1 diabetes in clinical care and reaching diverse youth with type 1 diabetes is challenging due to youth, provider, and organizational barriers. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of an internet coping skills training program with a control condition of internet diabetes education. Each program consists of 5 weekly interactive lessons; the coping skills training program also provides the ability for youth to interact with each other as well as a health coach. Approximately 300 youths with type 1 diabetes will be recruited to participate in this multi-site clinical trial. The primary outcomes are metabolic control, quality of life, and family conflict. Secondary outcomes include stress, coping, self-efficacy, and social competence. Usage, satisfaction, and cost will also be evaluated. In addition, mediators and moderators to intervention effects will be explored. An internet based psycho-educational program for youth with type 1 diabetes may be a promising approach that can be easily be integrated into clinical care.

  11. Type I Error Rate and Power of Some Alternative Methods to the Independent Samples "t" Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nthangeni, Mbulaheni; Algina, James

    2001-01-01

    Examined Type I error rates and power for four tests for treatment control studies in which a larger treatment mean may be accompanied by a larger treatment variance and examined these aspects of the independent samples "t" test and the Welch test. Evaluated each test and suggested conditions for the use of each approach. (SLD)

  12. A Laboratory Exercise to Determine Human ABO Blood Type by Noninvasive Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael P.; Detzel, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and their association with diseases and nondisease phenotypes is of growing importance in human biology studies. In this laboratory exercise, students determine the genetic basis for their ABO blood type; however, no blood is drawn. Students isolate genomic DNA from buccal mucosa cells that are present…

  13. An instrumental method to identify electric charge types with a simple device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isik, Hakan

    2015-07-01

    In this study, an easy and enjoyable activity to determine the type of electric charge is presented, using a readymade electronic test screw. A four-way usage of the tester is explained with an electroscope. In the activity, ebonite and glass rods are negatively and positively charged by rubbing with paper sheets, respectively.

  14. Flexible n-Type High-Performance Thermoelectric Thin Films of Poly(nickel-ethylenetetrathiolate) Prepared by an Electrochemical Method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanhui; Qiu, Lin; Tang, Liangpo; Geng, Hua; Wang, Hanfu; Zhang, Fengjiao; Huang, Dazhen; Xu, Wei; Yue, Peng; Guan, Ying-Shi; Jiao, Fei; Sun, Yimeng; Tang, Dawei; Di, Chong-An; Yi, Yuanping; Zhu, Daoben

    2016-05-01

    Flexible thin films of poly(nickel-ethylenetetrathiolate) prepared by an electrochemical method display promising n-type thermoelectric properties with the highest ZT value up to 0.3 at room temperature. Coexistence of high electrical conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient in this coordination polymer is attributed to its degenerate narrow-bandgap semiconductor behavior.

  15. Objectivity of two methods of differentiating fibre types and repeatability of measurements by application of the TEMA image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Henckel, P; Ducro, B; Oksbjerg, N; Hassing, L

    1998-01-01

    The objectivity of two of the most widely used methods for differentiation of fibre types, i.e. 1) the myosin ATP-ase method (Brooke and Kaiser, 1970a,b) and 2) the combined method, by which the myosin ATP-ase reaction is used to differentiate between fast and slow twitch fibres and NADH-tetrazolium reductase activity is used to identify the subgroups of fast twitch fibres (Ashmore and Doerr, 1970, Peter et al., 1972), was assessed in muscle samples from horses, calves and pigs. We also assessed the objectivity of the alpha-amylase-PAS preparation for the visualisation of capillaries (Andersen, 1975) in these species. For the purpose of reducing the time costs of histochemical analysis of muscle samples, we have developed an interactive image analysis system which is described. All analyses are performed on this system. In accordance with several other investigations, differences between the two methods of differentiating fibre types were found only for the relative distribution of the fast-twitch fibre subgroups (p < 0.02 and p < 0.05 for the relative number of type IIA and IIB, respectively) whereas when calculated in relative area, only the proportion of type IIA fibres differed significantly (p < 0.05). Significant interaction effects between method and person and method and species were found for the same traits. When methods were analysed separately, the combined method displayed a significant variance component of person for the distribution of type IIA fibres both in relative number and in relative area (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). The objectivity of the ATP-ase method was further substantiated by the fact that a higher fraction of the total variance for the relative area distribution of type IIA fibres was explained by the statistical model (72.1% versus 34.2% for the combined method). Although the repeatability of measurements between persons was generally high (> 87%), the impact of differences in pre-requisites (varied degrees of overlap

  16. Optimization of complex slater-type functions with analytic derivative methods for describing photoionization differential cross sections.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Rei; Yabushita, Satoshi

    2017-05-05

    The complex basis function (CBF) method applied to various atomic and molecular photoionization problems can be interpreted as an L2 method to solve the driven-type (inhomogeneous) Schrödinger equation, whose driven term being dipole operator times the initial state wave function. However, efficient basis functions for representing the solution have not fully been studied. Moreover, the relation between their solution and that of the ordinary Schrödinger equation has been unclear. For these reasons, most previous applications have been limited to total cross sections. To examine the applicability of the CBF method to differential cross sections and asymmetry parameters, we show that the complex valued solution to the driven-type Schrödinger equation can be variationally obtained by optimizing the complex trial functions for the frequency dependent polarizability. In the test calculations made for the hydrogen photoionization problem with five or six complex Slater-type orbitals (cSTOs), their complex valued expansion coefficients and the orbital exponents have been optimized with the analytic derivative method. Both the real and imaginary parts of the solution have been obtained accurately in a wide region covering typical molecular regions. Their phase shifts and asymmetry parameters are successfully obtained by extrapolating the CBF solution from the inner matching region to the asymptotic region using WKB method. The distribution of the optimized orbital exponents in the complex plane is explained based on the close connection between the CBF method and the driven-type equation method. The obtained information is essential to constructing the appropriate basis sets in future molecular applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The proof of sufficient descent condition for a new type of conjugate gradient methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abashar, Abdelrhaman; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd; Mohd, Ismail; Omer, Osman

    2014-06-01

    Conjugate gradient methods are effective in solving linear equations and solving non-linear optimization. In this work we compare our new conjugate gradient coefficient βk with classical formula under strong Wolfe line search; our method contains sufficient descent condition. Numerical results have shown that the new βk performs better than classical formula.

  18. Mathematics Learning with Multiple Solution Methods: Effects of Types of Solutions and Learners' Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Große, Cornelia S.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly suggested to mathematics teachers to present learners different methods in order to solve one problem. This so-called "learning with multiple solution methods" is also recommended from a psychological point of view. However, existing research leaves many questions unanswered, particularly concerning the effects of…

  19. A Local Discontinuous Galerkin Method for KdV-type Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    convection alone. This is a big advantage of the scheme over the traditional \\ mixed methods ", and it is the reason that the scheme is termed local...same order of accuracy, thus matching the advantage of traditional \\ mixed methods " on this. The purpose of this paper is to develop a similar local

  20. What Math Matters? Types of Mathematics Knowledge and Relationships to Methods Course Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajander, Ann; Holm, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a departmental focus on enhanced mathematics knowledge for teaching on overall performance in upper elementary mathematics methods courses. The study examined the effect of performance on a new course in mathematics for teaching on performance at the methods course level. In addition, the effect of performance…

  1. On Differential form Method to Find Lie Symmetries of two Types of Toda Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qi; Tian, Shou-Fu

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate Lie symmetries of the (1 + 1)-dimensional celebrated Toda lattice and the (2 + 1)-dimensional modified semidiscrete Toda lattice by using the extended Harrison and Estabrook's geometric approach. Two closed ideals written in terms of a set of differential forms are constructed for Toda lattices. Moreover, commutation relations of a Kac-Moody-Virasoro type Lie algebra are obtained by direct computation.

  2. Variations in acoustic admittance related to type of ear tip. A plea for a standardized method.

    PubMed

    Himelfarb, M Z; Rapoport, Y; Shanon, E

    1976-11-01

    In order to assess the validity of using various ear tips, tympanometry and acoustic admittance were studied in 20 young healthy subjects, and three different types of ear tip used to seal the external auditory canal. Significant variations in the admittance components and tympanometry curves were observed, resulting most probably from changes in the canal volume and the physical nature of the tipe. It appears advisable to develop and adopt an appropriate, standard ear tip for studies of admittance audiometry.

  3. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996-2013: method development and detailed accounting by battery type.

    PubMed

    Patrício, João; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E O; Rosado, Leonardo; Åberg, Helena

    2015-05-01

    In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows - due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996-2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese dioxide batteries, the value achieved 74%.

  4. Use of molecular typing methods to trace the dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes in a shrimp processing plant.

    PubMed Central

    Destro, M T; Leitão, M F; Farber, J M

    1996-01-01

    Molecular typing of bacteria has been widely used in epidemiological studies but not as extensively for tracing the transmission of pathogenic bacteria in food plants. This study was conducted to examine the potential use of two molecular typing methods, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), to trace Listeria monocytogenes contamination in a shrimp processing plant. Ribotyping and phase typing were also performed on a select number of strains. One hundred fifteen strains of L. monocytogenes collected in different areas of a shrimp processing plant were first serotyped and then subtyped by molecular typing. RAPD and PFGE showed great promise for typing L. monocytogenes isolates since distinguishable and reproducible DNA polymorphisms were obtained. When the composite profile from both (RAPD and PFGE) methods was generated, there was an increase in the discriminatory power to discern differences between strains of L. monocytogenes. The results indicated that environmental strains all fell into composite profile groupings unique to the environment, while strains from both water and utensils shared another composite profile group. L. monocytogenes fresh shrimp isolates belonging to one profile group were found in different areas of the processing line. This same profile group was also present in food handlers from the processing and packaging areas of the plant. PMID:8593073

  5. A facile method for processing lignin reinforced chitosan biopolymer microfibres: optimising the fibre mechanical properties through lignin type and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Loo, L. S.; Goh, K. L.

    2016-03-01

    A chitosan biopolymer microfibre—reinforced by lignin—has been processed by a wet-spinning method. To optimise the fibre mechanical and structural properties two types of lignin, with molecular weights 28 000 g mol-1 and 60 000 g mol-1, were examined and the chitosan fibre was blended with the respective lignin type at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 wt% lignin concentrations. The main effects of lignin type and concentration, as well as the interaction between the two parameters, on the fibre tensile stiffness, extensibility, strength and toughness were evaluated using the two-factor analysis of variance. Significant variations in the respective mechanical properties were observed with varying lignin concentrations (P < 0.05). The magnitude of the respective mechanical properties is low at 1 wt% but peaks at 3 wt% before decreasing steadily with increasing lignin concentration. Except for extensibility, significant variations in the strength and toughness were observed with respect to lignin type (P < 0.05) variations in the stiffness were masked by interactions between lignin type and concentration. These results were related to the dispersion of lignin in the fibre and the nature of the bonds between lignin and chitosan, based on findings from scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This new method for the fabrication of chitosan biopolymer microfibre is inexpensive and versatile and could lend itself to the production of high performance biocomposite structures.

  6. A comparative study of finite element and finite difference methods for Cauchy-Riemann type equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, G. J.; Rose, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    A least squares formulation of the system divu = rho, curlu = zeta is surveyed from the viewpoint of both finite element and finite difference methods. Closely related arguments are shown to establish convergence estimates.

  7. Typing of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Turkey by Genotypic Methods, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Virulence Gene Patterns: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Manfreda, Gerardo; Parisi, Antonio; De Cesare, Alessandra; Mion, Domenico; Piva, Silvia; Zanoni, Renato G

    2016-02-01

    In this retrospective study, typing ability, discriminatory power, and concordance between typing results obtained on 123 Campylobacter jejuni turkey isolates, collected in 1998, within 14 different farms, applying multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antibiotic resistance profile, and virulence gene pattern, were assessed and compared. Overall, 33 sequence types, 28 pulsotypes, 10 resistotypes, and 5 pathotypes were identified. MLST and PFGE showed the better discriminatory ability (i.e., Simpson's diversity index >0.90) as well as unidirectional (i.e., Wallace and adjusted Wallace coefficients >0.86) and bidirectional (i.e., adjusted Rand coefficient >0.60) concordance. Moreover, both methods showed a good unidirectional and bidirectional concordance with the resistotype. On the contrary, the congruence of both genotyping methods and resistotype with the pathotype seemed due to chance alone. A clonal relationship was identified among 66.7% of the isolates. Furthermore, 59.7% of the investigated isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobials and 92% to tetracycline. All the isolates harbored cadF and pldA genes, whereas a flaA gene product and a cdtB gene product were amplified from 85.4% and 79.7% of the isolates, respectively, using the primers designed by Bang et al. (2003). The results of this study clarify the level of genetic diversity among the C. jejuni originating from turkeys. MLST level of correlation with PFGE, resistotype, and pathotype is assessed. This result supports the selection of type and number of typing methods to use in epidemiological studies. Finally, the identification of clonal complexes (i.e., groups of profiles differing by no more than one gene from at least one other profile of the group using the entire Campylobacter MLST database) shared between turkey and human isolates suggests that turkeys could be a possible source of Campylobacter infection.

  8. [Comparison of two types of double-lined simulated landfill leakage detection based on high voltage DC method].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Nai, Chang-Xin; Dong, Lu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Yan-Wen

    2006-01-01

    Two types of double high density polyethylene (HDPE) liners landfill that clay or geogrid was added between the two HDPE liners. The general resistance of the second mode is 15% larger than the general resistance of the first mode in the primary HDPE liner detection, and 20% larger than that of the first one in the secondary HDPE liner detection. High voltage DC method can accomplish the leakage detection and location of these two types of landfill and the error of leakage location is less than 10cm when electrode space is 1m.

  9. Numerical methods for systems of conservation laws of mixed type using flux splitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Chi-Wang

    1990-01-01

    The essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) finite difference scheme is applied to systems of conservation laws of mixed hyperbolic-elliptic type. A flux splitting, with the corresponding Jacobi matrices having real and positive/negative eigenvalues, is used. The hyperbolic ENO operator is applied separately. The scheme is numerically tested on the van der Waals equation in fluid dynamics. Convergence was observed with good resolution to weak solutions for various Riemann problems, which are then numerically checked to be admissible as the viscosity-capillarity limits. The interesting phenomena of the shrinking of elliptic regions if they are present in the initial conditions were also observed.

  10. DIMENSION STABILIZED FIXED PHOTOGRAPHIC TYPE EMULSION AND A METHOD FOR PRODUCING SAME

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, F.C.

    1962-03-13

    A process is given for stabilizing the dimensions of fixed gelatin-base photographic type emulsions containing silver halide, and particularly to such emulsions containing large amounts of silver chloride for use as nuclear track emulsions, so that the dimensions of the final product are the same as or in a predetermined fixed ratio to the dimensions of the emulsions prior to exposure. The process comprises contacting an exposed, fixed emulsion with a solution of wood rosin dissolved in ethyl alcohol for times corresponding to the dimensions desired, and thereafter permitting the alcohol to evaporate. (AEC)

  11. Transverse-type laser assembly using induced electrical discharge excitation and method

    DOEpatents

    Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    A transverse-type laser assembly is disclosed herein. This assembly defines a laser cavity containing a vapor or gaseous substance which lases when subjected to specific electrical discharge excitation between a pair of spaced-apart electrodes located within the cavity in order to produce a source of light. An arrangement located entirely outside the laser cavity is provided for inducing a voltage across the electrodes within the cavity sufficient to provide the necessary electrical discharge excitation to cause a vapor substance between the electrodes to lase.

  12. Transverse-type laser assembly using induced electrical discharge excitation and method

    DOEpatents

    Ault, E.R.

    1994-04-19

    A transverse-type laser assembly is disclosed herein. This assembly defines a laser cavity containing a vapor or gaseous substance which lases when subjected to specific electrical discharge excitation between a pair of spaced-apart electrodes located within the cavity in order to produce a source of light. An arrangement located entirely outside the laser cavity is provided for inducing a voltage across the electrodes within the cavity sufficient to provide the necessary electrical discharge excitation to cause a vapor substance between the electrodes to lase. 3 figures.

  13. Method of mitigating titanium impurities effects in p-type silicon material for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, A. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Microstructural evaluation tests performed on Cu-doped, Ti-doped and Cu/Ti doped p-type silicon single crystal wafers, before and after the solar cell fabrication, and evaluation of both dark forward and reverse I-V characteristic records for the solar cells produced from the corresponding silicon wafers, show that Cu mitigates the unfavorable effects of Ti, and thus provides for higher conversion efficiency, thereby providing an economical way to reduce the deleterious effects of titanium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon material.

  14. Ribbons of semithin sections: an advanced method with a new type of diamond knife.

    PubMed

    Blumer, Michael J F; Gahleitner, P; Narzt, T; Handl, C; Ruthensteiner, B

    2002-10-15

    Complete series of semithin sections are imperative for 3-D reconstruction, but with traditional microtomy techniques it is difficult and time-consuming to trace stained and labeled structures. In the present study we introduce a method for making and collecting ribbons of semithin sections with a new, commercial available diamond knife (histo-jumbo-diamond knife, Diatome AG, Biel, Switzerland). The special feature of the diamond knife is the large water bath (boat) into which a glass slide can be dipped. The method has distinct advantages and the handling is simple. The resin block is trimmed into a truncated pyramid. Contact glue is applied to the leading face of the pyramid, which makes sections stick together to form a ribbon. Following sectioning, the ribbons are mounted onto glass slides and aligned in parallel. Stretching out and drying the ribbons on a hot plate is the final step of the method. Major advantages of this method are the perfect alignment of sections with identical orientation of structures, the completeness of series, and the significant saving of time. This facilitates tracing of stained and labeled structures, yielding quick 3-D reconstruction. Semithin sections can be cut from 0.5 to 2 micro m and several ribbons can be mounted side by side onto the slide. Two examples are presented to illustrate the advantages of the method.

  15. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar berta, and comparison of methods for typing.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J. E.; Brown, D. J.; Baggesen, D. L.; Bisgaard, M.

    1992-01-01

    Strains of Salmonella enterica serovar berta (S. berta) from Denmark and seven other countries have been characterized with the aim of developing a rational typing strategy in connection with outbreak investigations. Biotyping divided the strains into H2S-positive (90%) and H2S-negative (10%) biovars. Six percent of the strains were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Eighty-eight percent of the strains carried plasmids and 52 different plasmid profiles were recognized. Six of the common plasmid sizes in these profiles were shown by restriction enzyme analyses to contain more than one plasmid species. More than 90% of the strains had the same ribotype with the restriction enzymes Sma I and EcoR I and the same whole cell protein profile. Outer membrane protein profiles and isoenzyme profiles were identical in all S. berta analysed. Plasmid profiling in combination with restriction enzyme analysis of plasmids seemed to be the most rational typing strategy for S. berta. The results indicated that S. berta strains regardless of geographical source or host are possibly clonal in nature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1582467

  16. Linking questions to practices in the study of microbial pathogens: sampling bias and typing methods.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Díaz, Elena

    2009-12-01

    The importance of understanding the population genetics and evolution of microbial pathogens is increasing as a result of the spread and re-emergence of many infectious diseases and their impact for public health. In the last few years, the development of high throughput multi-gene sequence methodologies has opened new opportunities for studying pathogen populations, providing reliable and robust means for both epidemiological and evolutionary investigations. For instance, for many pathogens, multilocus sequence typing has become the "gold standard" in molecular epidemiology, allowing strain identification and discovery. However, there is a huge gap between typing a clinical collection of isolates and making inferences about their evolutionary history and population genetics. Critical issues for studying microbial pathogens such as an adequate sampling design and the appropriate selection of the genetic technique are also required, and will rely on the scale of study and the characteristics of the biological system (e.g., multi- vs. single-host pathogens and vector vs. food or air-borne pathogens). My aim here is to discuss some of these issues in more detail and illustrate how these aspects are often overlooked and easily neglected in the field. Finally, given the rapid accumulation of complete genome sequences and the increasing effort on microbiology research, it is clear that now more than ever integrative approaches bringing together epidemiology and evolutionary biology are needed for understanding the diversity of microbial pathogens.

  17. Versatile alignment layer method for new types of liquid crystal photonic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Finnemeyer, V.; Bryant, D.; Lu, L.; Bos, P.; Reich, R.; Clark, H.; Berry, S.; Bozler, C.; Yaroshchuk, O.

    2015-07-21

    Liquid crystal photonic devices are becoming increasingly popular. These devices often present a challenge when it comes to creating a robust alignment layer in pre-assembled cells. In this paper, we describe a method of infusing a dye into a microcavity to produce an effective photo-definable alignment layer. However, previous research on such alignment layers has shown that they have limited stability, particularly against subsequent light exposure. As such, we further describe a method of utilizing a pre-polymer, infused into the microcavity along with the liquid crystal, to provide photostability. We demonstrate that the polymer layer, formed under ultraviolet irradiation of liquid crystal cells, has been effectively localized to a thin region near the substrate surface and provides a significant improvement in the photostability of the liquid crystal alignment. This versatile alignment layer method, capable of being utilized in devices from the described microcavities to displays, offers significant promise for new photonics applications.

  18. Applicability of meteor radiant determination methods depending on orbit type. II. Low-eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Porubcan, V.

    1994-08-01

    All known parent bodies of meteor showers belong to bodies moving in high-eccentricity orbits (e => 0.5). Recently, asteroids in low-eccentricity orbits (e < 0.5) approaching the Earth's orbit, were suggested as another population of possible parent bodies of meteor streams. This paper deals with the problem of calculation of meteor radiants connected with the bodies in low-eccentricity orbits from the point of view of optimal results depending on the method applied. The paper is a continuation of our previous analysis of high-eccentricity orbits (Svoren, J., Neslusan, L., Porubcan, V.: 1993, Contrib. Astron. Obs. Skalnate Pleso 23, 23). Some additional methods resulting from mathematical modelling are presented and discussed together with Porter's, Steel-Baggaley's and Hasegawa's methods. In order to be able to compare how suitable the application of the individual radiant determination methods is, it is necessary to determine the accuracy with which they approximate real meteor orbits. To verify the accuracy with which the orbit of a meteoroid with at least one node at 1 AU fits the original orbit of the parent body, the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion (Southworth, R.B., Hawkins, G.S.: 1963, Smithson. Contr. Astrophys. 7, 261) was applied. D <= 0.1 indicates a very good fit of orbits, 0.1 < D <= 0.2 is considered for a good fit and D > 0.2 means that the fit is rather poor and the change of orbit unrealistic. The optimal method, i.e. the one which results in the smallest D values for the population of low-eccentricity orbits, is that of adjusting the orbit by varying both the eccentricity and perihelion distance. A comparison of theoretical radiants obtained by various methods was made for typical representatives from each group of the NEA (near-Earth asteroids) objects.

  19. Employing a Monte Carlo algorithm in Newton-type methods for restricted maximum likelihood estimation of genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Matilainen, Kaarina; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Lidauer, Martin H; Strandén, Ismo; Thompson, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of variance components by Monte Carlo (MC) expectation maximization (EM) restricted maximum likelihood (REML) is computationally efficient for large data sets and complex linear mixed effects models. However, efficiency may be lost due to the need for a large number of iterations of the EM algorithm. To decrease the computing time we explored the use of faster converging Newton-type algorithms within MC REML implementations. The implemented algorithms were: MC Newton-Raphson (NR), where the information matrix was generated via sampling; MC average information(AI), where the information was computed as an average of observed and expected information; and MC Broyden's method, where the zero of the gradient was searched using a quasi-Newton-type algorithm. Performance of these algorithms was evaluated using simulated data. The final estimates were in good agreement with corresponding analytical ones. MC NR REML and MC AI REML enhanced convergence compared to MC EM REML and gave standard errors for the estimates as a by-product. MC NR REML required a larger number of MC samples, while each MC AI REML iteration demanded extra solving of mixed model equations by the number of parameters to be estimated. MC Broyden's method required the largest number of MC samples with our small data and did not give standard errors for the parameters directly. We studied the performance of three different convergence criteria for the MC AI REML algorithm. Our results indicate the importance of defining a suitable convergence criterion and critical value in order to obtain an efficient Newton-type method utilizing a MC algorithm. Overall, use of a MC algorithm with Newton-type methods proved feasible and the results encourage testing of these methods with different kinds of large-scale problem settings.

  20. Inculcation Method of Character Education Based on Personality Types Classification in Realizing Indonesia Golden Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunarto, M. J. Dewiyani; Sagirani, Tri

    2014-01-01

    "The rise of Indonesia Golden Generation" is the theme of National Education Day in 2012. In an effort to create a golden generation; education must be interpreted as a complex problem, in particular the cultivation of character education that was originally using indoctrination method. Given the shifting of the changing times,…

  1. Cluster Analysis as a Method of Recovering Types of Intraindividual Growth Trajectories: A Monte Carlo Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumenci, Levent; Windle, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Used Monte Carlo methods to evaluate the adequacy of cluster analysis to recover group membership based on simulated latent growth curve (LCG) models. Cluster analysis failed to recover growth subtypes adequately when the difference between growth curves was shape only. Discusses circumstances under which it was more successful. (SLD)

  2. Adaptive broadcasting method using neighbor type information in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyocheol; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoo, Younghwan

    2011-01-01

    Flooding is the simplest and most effective way to disseminate a packet to all nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN). However, basic flooding makes all nodes transmit the packet at least once, resulting in the broadcast storm problem in a worst case, and in turn, network resources are severely wasted. Particularly, power is the most valuable resource of WSNs as nodes are powered by batteries, then the waste of energy by the basic flooding lessens the lifetime of WSNs. In order to solve the broadcast storm problem, this paper proposes a dynamic probabilistic flooding that utilizes the neighbor information like the numbers of child and sibling nodes. In general, the more sibling nodes there are, the higher is the probability that a broadcast packet may be sent by one of the sibling nodes. The packet is not retransmitted by itself, though. Meanwhile, if a node has many child nodes its retransmission probability should be high to achieve the high packet delivery ratio. Therefore, these two terms-the numbers of child and sibling nodes-are adopted in the proposed method in order to attain more reliable flooding. The proposed method also adopts the back-off delay scheme to avoid collisions between close neighbors. Simulation results prove that the proposed method outperforms previous flooding methods in respect of the number of duplicate packets and packet delivery ratio.

  3. Type-Independent Calibration Method for Microwave Moisture Sensing in Unshelled and Shelled Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microwave dielectric method was used for nondestructive and instantaneous determination of moisture content in shelled and unshelled peanuts from measurement of their relative complex permittivities in free space at 6.0 GHz and 23°C. Moisture content was determined independent of bulk density with...

  4. Burton-Miller-type singular boundary method for acoustic radiation and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhuo-Jia; Chen, Wen; Gu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes the singular boundary method (SBM) in conjunction with Burton and Miller's formulation for acoustic radiation and scattering. The SBM is a strong-form collocation boundary discretization technique using the singular fundamental solutions, which is mathematically simple, easy-to-program, meshless and introduces the concept of source intensity factors (SIFs) to eliminate the singularities of the fundamental solutions. Therefore, it avoids singular numerical integrals in the boundary element method (BEM) and circumvents the troublesome placement of the fictitious boundary in the method of fundamental solutions (MFS). In the present method, we derive the SIFs of exterior Helmholtz equation by means of the SIFs of exterior Laplace equation owing to the same order of singularities between the Laplace and Helmholtz fundamental solutions. In conjunction with the Burton-Miller formulation, the SBM enhances the quality of the solution, particularly in the vicinity of the corresponding interior eigenfrequencies. Numerical illustrations demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the present scheme on some benchmark examples under 2D and 3D unbounded domains in comparison with the analytical solutions, the boundary element solutions and Dirichlet-to-Neumann finite element solutions.

  5. Perceptions of Self-Efficacy for Two Types of Second Language Methods Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A mixed method design was used to investigate the effects of online second language (L2) methodology instruction on the sense of efficacy of teacher-candidates enrolled in initial licensure programs for L2 teachers. More specifically, the researcher examined the extent to which L2 teacher-candidates completing online L2 methodology instruction…

  6. Efficacy of surface sampling methods for different types of beryllium compounds.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, A; Mocanu, T; Viau, S; Perrault, G; Dion, C

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the research work was to evaluate the efficiency of three different sampling methods (Ghost Wipe™, micro-vacuum, and ChemTest®) in the recovery of Be dust by assessing: (1) four Be compounds (beryllium acetate, beryllium chloride, beryllium oxide and beryllium aluminium), (2) three different surfaces (polystyrene, glass and aluminium) and (3) inter-operator variation. The three sampling methods were also tested on site in a laboratory of a dental school for validation purposes. The Ghost Wipe™ method showed recovery ranging from 43.3% to 85.8% for all four Be compounds and for all three quantities of Be spiked on Petri dishes, while recovery with the micro-vacuum method ranged from 0.1% to 12.4%. On polystyrene dishes with 0.4 µg Be, the recovery ranged from 48.3% to 81.7%, with an average recovery of 59.4% for Operator 1 and 68.4% for Operator 2. The ChemTest® wipe method with beryllium acetate, beryllium chloride, and AlBeMet® showed analogous results that are in line with the manufacturer's manual, but collection of beryllium oxide was negative. In the dental laboratory, Ghost Wipe™ samplings showed better recovery than the micro-vacuum method. The ratios between the recovered quantities of Be in each location where the Ghost Wipe™ was tested differed substantially, ranging from 1.45 to 64. In the dental laboratory, a faint blue color indicating the presence of Be was observed on the ChemTest® wipes used in two locations out of six. In summary, the Ghost Wipe™ method was more efficient than micro-vacuuming in collecting the Be dust from smooth, non-porous surfaces such as Petri dishes by a factor of approximately 18. The results obtained on site in a dental laboratory also showed better recovery with Ghost Wipes™. However, the ratio of Be recovered by Ghost Wipes™ versus micro-vacuuming was much lower for surfaces where a large amount of dust was present. Wet wiping is preferred over micro-vacuuming for beryllium forms, but

  7. Discrimination of the ITS1 types of Fasciola spp. based on a PCR-RFLP method.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Madoka; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2010-02-01

    Molecular characterization is important for discriminating Fasciola specimens having the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences of Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, and both Fasciola species, since three Fasciola forms coexist in Asian countries. We have developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism of amplified DNA (PCR-RFLP) of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region in Fasciola species. The band patterns of the fragments digested with a restriction enzyme, Rsa I, were accurately distinguished among the three forms of Fasciola. Amplicons with the sequences of F. hepatica and F. gigantica were divided into fragments of about 360, 100, and 60 bp, and 360, 170, and 60 bp, respectively, and amplicons with the sequences of both Fasciola species yielded fragments of 360, 170, 100, and 60 bp. The results of PCR-RFLP completely coincided with those of sequence analysis, and thus PCR-RFLP is a useful technique for determining the ITS1 type in Fasciola species.

  8. Three-stage sorption type cryogenic refrigeration systems and methods employing heat regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, Steven (Inventor); Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A three-stage sorption type cryogenic refrigeration system, each stage containing a fluid having a respectively different boiling point, is presented. Each stage includes a compressor in which a respective fluid is heated to be placed in a high pressure gaseous state. The compressor for that fluid which is heated to the highest temperature is enclosed by the other two compressors to permit heat to be transferred from the inner compressor to the surrounding compressors. The system may include two sets of compressors, each having the structure described above, with the interior compressors of the two sets coupled together to permit selective heat transfer therebetween, resulting in more efficient utilization of input power.

  9. Concise Review: Methods and Cell Types Used to Generate Down Syndrome Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hibaoui, Youssef; Feki, Anis

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21), is the most common viable chromosomal disorder, with an incidence of 1 in 800 live births. Its phenotypic characteristics include intellectual impairment and several other developmental abnormalities, for the majority of which the pathogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Several models have been used to investigate the mechanisms by which the extra copy of chromosome 21 leads to the DS phenotype. In the last five years, several laboratories have been successful in reprogramming patient cells carrying the trisomy 21 anomaly into induced pluripotent stem cells, i.e., T21-iPSCs. In this review, we summarize the different T21-iPSCs that have been generated with a particular interest in the technical procedures and the somatic cell types used for the reprogramming. PMID:26239351

  10. A Novel Typing Method for Streptococcus pneumoniae Using Selected Surface Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Domenech, Arnau; Moreno, Javier; Ardanuy, Carmen; Liñares, Josefina; de la Campa, Adela G.; Martin-Galiano, Antonio J.

    2016-01-01

    The diverse pneumococcal diseases are associated with different pneumococcal lineages, or clonal complexes. Nevertheless, intra-clonal genomic variability, which influences pathogenicity, has been reported for surface virulence factors. These factors constitute the communication interface between the pathogen and its host and their corresponding genes are subjected to strong selective pressures affecting functionality and immunogenicity. First, the presence and allelic dispersion of 97 outer protein families were screened in 19 complete pneumococcal genomes. Seventeen families were deemed variable and were then examined in 216 draft genomes. This procedure allowed the generation of binary vectors with 17 positions and the classification of strains into surfotypes. They represent the outer protein subsets with the highest inter-strain discriminative power. A total of 116 non-redundant surfotypes were identified. Those sharing a critical number of common protein features were hierarchically clustered into 18 surfogroups. Most clonal complexes with comparable epidemiological characteristics belonged to the same or similar surfogroups. However, the very large CC156 clonal complex was dispersed over several surfogroups. In order to establish a relationship between surfogroup and pathogenicity, the surfotypes of 95 clinical isolates with different serogroup/serotype combinations were analyzed. We found a significant correlation between surfogroup and type of pathogenic behavior (primary invasive, opportunistic invasive, and non-invasive). We conclude that the virulent behavior of S. pneumoniae is related to the activity of collections of, rather than individual, surface virulence factors. Since surfotypes evolve faster than MLSTs and directly reflect virulence potential, this novel typing protocol is appropriate for the identification of emerging clones. PMID:27064593

  11. Using Photography as a Method to Explore Adolescent Challenges and Resilience in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cathryn; Schatz, Desmond A.; Silverstein, Janet H.; Lyles, Shannon; Rohrs, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Patient-centered approaches to disease management are consistently recognized as valuable tools for improving health outcomes, yet studies are rarely designed to elicit adolescent perspectives. This study sought to better understand the perspectives of youths with type 1 diabetes according to key demographic variables. We conducted an exploratory study through which 40 youths were provided with disposable cameras and prompted to take five photographs each that captured what diabetes meant to them and to provide narratives to accompany their photo choices. Demographic variables examined included sex, age, disease duration, socioeconomic status (SES), race, and glycemic control (A1C). Content analysis was used for photos and open-ended responses to assign photo index scores, which were then analyzed by demographic variables using Mann-Whitney U tests for statistical significance. Analysis of photos/narratives (n = 202) revealed five main types of representations depicted by at least 50% of the young people. “Challenge” photos included diabetes supplies as tethering, food as a source of frustration, and the body as a territory for disease encroachment. “Resilience” photos included coping mechanisms and symbols of resistance. Overall, these representations were consistent across demographic categories with two exceptions. Males took more food depictions than females (P <0.005) and had fewer coping depictions (P <0.05). Youths from more affluent households were more likely to take photos of resistance (P <0.05). The use of photo index scores expands previous studies using photography by comparing demographic variation within a sample. Our findings provide insight into coping strategies and indicate that SES may provide an advantage for affluent youths in meeting diabetes-specific challenges. PMID:25987807

  12. Estimating particulate black carbon concentrations using two offline light absorption methods applied to four types of filter media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, Pamela M.; Tremper, Anja H.; Nicolosi, Eleonora M. G.; Quincey, Paul; Fuller, Gary W.

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric particulate black carbon has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Additional black carbon measurements would aid a better understanding of population exposure in epidemiological studies as well as the success, or otherwise, of relevant abatement technologies and policies. Two light absorption measurement methods of particles collected on filters have been applied to four different types of filters to provide estimations of particulate black carbon concentrations. The ratio of transmittance (lnI0/I) to reflectance (lnR0/R) varied by filter type and ranged from close to 0.5 (as expected from simple theory) to 1.35 between the four filter types tested. The relationship between light absorption and black carbon, measured by the thermal EC(TOT) method, was nonlinear and differed between filter type and measurement method. This is particularly relevant to epidemiological studies that use light absorption as an exposure metric. An extensive archive of filters was used to derive loading factors and mass extinction coefficients for each filter type. Particulate black carbon time series were then calculated at locations where such measurements were not previously available. When applied to two roads in London, black carbon concentrations were found to have increased between 2011 and 2013, by 0.3 (CI: -0.1, 0.5) and 0.4 (CI: 0.1, 0.9) μg m-3 year-1, in contrast to the expectation from exhaust abatement policies. New opportunities using archived or bespoke filter collections for studies on the health effects of black carbon and the efficacy of abatement strategies are created.

  13. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella spp. in chicken meat and humans: a comparison of typing methods.

    PubMed

    Overdevest, I T M A; Heck, M; van der Zwaluw, K; Huijsdens, X; van Santen, M; Rijnsburger, M; Eustace, A; Xu, L; Hawkey, P; Savelkoul, P; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C; Willemsen, I; van der Ven, J; Verhulst, C; Kluytmans, J A J W

    2014-03-01

    Recently, chicken meat was identified as a plausible source of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli in humans. We investigated the relatedness of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. in chicken meat and humans. Furthermore, we tested the performance of SpectraCell RA(®) (River Diagnostics), a new typing method based on Raman spectroscopy, in comparison with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Twenty-seven phenotypically and genotypically confirmed ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. isolates were typed with MLST and SpectraCell RA. The isolates derived from chicken meat, human rectal swabs and clinical blood cultures. In the 22 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, CTX-M15 was the predominant genotype, found in five isolates of human origin and in one chicken meat isolate. With MLST, 16 different STs were found, including five new STs. Comparing the results of SpectraCell RA with MLST, we found a sensitivity of 70.0% and a specificity of 81.8% for the new SpectraCell RA typing method. Therefore, we conclude that SpectraCell RA is not a suitable typing method when evaluating relationships of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. at the population level. Although no clustering was found with isolates of chicken meat and human origin containing the same ESBL genes, MLST showed no clustering into distinctive clones of isolates from chicken meat and human origin. More studies are needed to elucidate the role of chicken meat in the rise of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. in humans.

  14. Recommendations for choosing an analysis method that controls Type I error for unbalanced cluster sample designs with Gaussian outcomes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jacqueline L; Kreidler, Sarah M; Catellier, Diane J; Murray, David M; Muller, Keith E; Glueck, Deborah H

    2015-11-30

    We used theoretical and simulation-based approaches to study Type I error rates for one-stage and two-stage analytic methods for cluster-randomized designs. The one-stage approach uses the observed data as outcomes and accounts for within-cluster correlation using a general linear mixed model. The two-stage model uses the cluster specific means as the outcomes in a general linear univariate model. We demonstrate analytically that both one-stage and two-stage models achieve exact Type I error rates when cluster sizes are equal. With unbalanced data, an exact size α test does not exist, and Type I error inflation may occur. Via simulation, we compare the Type I error rates for four one-stage and six two-stage hypothesis testing approaches for unbalanced data. With unbalanced data, the two-stage model, weighted by the inverse of the estimated theoretical variance of the cluster means, and with variance constrained to be positive, provided the best Type I error control for studies having at least six clusters per arm. The one-stage model with Kenward-Roger degrees of freedom and unconstrained variance performed well for studies having at least 14 clusters per arm. The popular analytic method of using a one-stage model with denominator degrees of freedom appropriate for balanced data performed poorly for small sample sizes and low intracluster correlation. Because small sample sizes and low intracluster correlation are common features of cluster-randomized trials, the Kenward-Roger method is the preferred one-stage approach.

  15. Versatile methods for synthesizing organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids as anti-ulcerative colitis agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hai-Jing; Deng, An-Jun; Wu, Lian-Qiu; Li, Zhi-Hong; Song, Hong-Rui; Wang, Wen-Jie; Qin, Hai-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Two versatile methods to synthesize kinds of organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids were investigated in order to determine which is more efficient to improve the liposolubility of the target compounds and to explore the efficacy of the target compounds as anti-ulcerative colitis (UC) agents. Overall evaluation according to the reaction results and yields of the final products indicated that the synthetic method using tertiary (±)-8-acylmethyldihydroberberine-type alkaloids as key intermediates is superior to that of using tertiary dihydroberberine-type alkaloids as intermediates. Ten target compounds were synthesized using quaternary berberine chloride and quaternary coptisine chloride as starting materials, respectively, and the anti-UC activity of some target compounds was evaluated in an in vitro x-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) transcriptional activity assay using dual luciferase reporter detection. At 10 μM, the tested compounds were found to activate the transcription of XBP1 target at almost the same level as that of quaternary coptisine chloride. The synthesized target compounds were also found to share higher liposolubility than the inorganic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloid.

  16. Iranian clonal population of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, characterized by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) method

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderi, Rainak; Tadayon, Keyvan; Khaki, Pejvak; Mosavari, Nader

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Some 2 million tons of chicken meat is produced by Iran per annum, positioning Iran among the top producers in the region. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular epidemiology and genetic characteristics of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis in Iran. Materials and Methods: A representative selection of isolates (n=76), initially genotyped by a 7-locus MLVA typing system, was examined by the standard MLST genotyping. Results and Conclusion: All the MLVA typed isolates, classified into six types, were gathered under a single ST11 MLST type. This is an intriguing observation as much more genome heterogeneity was expected considering the extent of diversity in the host and geography origin of the examined isolates. ST11, on the other hand is not exclusively found in Iran as it is reported also from Brazil, Denmark, Japan and the United States. In explanation of these observations, ST11 might stand for a single probably ancestral clone of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis successfully scattered in all these geographically diverse countries. Further global investigation covering more isolates and methods like whole genome sequencing would be advisable. PMID:26719781

  17. Analysis of a head-mounted display-type multifocus display system using a laser scanning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Kwon, Yong-Moo; Park, Q.-Han; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2011-03-01

    We developed a head-mounted display (HMD)-type multifocus display system using a laser-scanning method to provide an accommodation effect for viewers. This accomplishment indicates that providing a monocular depth cue is possible through this multifocus system. In the system, the optical path is changed by a scanning action. To provide an accurate accommodation effect for the viewer, the multifocus display system is designed and manufactured in accordance with the geometric analysis of the system's scanning action. Using a video camera as a substitute for the viewer, correct focus adjustment without the scanning action problem is demonstrated. By analyzing the scanning action and experimental results, we are able to illustrate the formation of a viewpoint in an HMD-type multifocus display system using a laser-scanning method. In addition, we demonstrate that the accommodation effect could be provided independent of the viewing condition of the viewer.

  18. A conservative type-dependent full potential method for the treatment of supersonic flows with embedded subsonic regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, V.; Szema, K.-Y.; Osher, S.

    1983-01-01

    A nonlinear method based on the full potential equation in conservation form, cast in an arbitrary coordinate system, has been developed to treat predominantly supersonic flows with embedded subsonic regions. This type of flow field occurs frequently near the fuselage-canopy junction area and wing leading edge regions for a moderately swept fighter configuration. The method uses the theory of characteristics to accurately monitor the type-dependent flow field. A conservative switching scheme is developed to transition from the supersonic marching algorithm to a subsonic relaxation procedure, and vice versa. An implicit approximate factorization scheme is employed to solve the finite-differenced equation. Results are shown for a few configurations, including a wing-body-wake realistic fighter model having embedded subsonic regions.

  19. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996–2013: Method development and detailed accounting by battery type

    SciTech Connect

    Patrício, João; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E.O.; Rosado, Leonardo; Åberg, Helena

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Developed MFA method was validated by the national statistics. • Exponential increase of EEE sales leads to increase in integrated battery consumption. • Digital convergence is likely to be a cause for primary batteries consumption decline. • Factors for estimation of integrated batteries in EE are provided. • Sweden reached the collection rates defined by European Union. - Abstract: In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows – due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996–2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese

  20. General algebraic method applied to control analysis of complex engine types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boksenbom, Aaron S; Hood, Richard

    1950-01-01

    A general algebraic method of attack on the problem of controlling gas-turbine engines having any number of independent variables was utilized employing operational functions to describe the assumed linear characteristics for the engine, the control, and the other units in the system. Matrices were used to describe the various units of the system, to form a combined system showing all effects, and to form a single condensed matrix showing the principal effects. This method directly led to the conditions on the control system for noninteraction so that any setting disturbance would affect only its corresponding controlled variable. The response-action characteristics were expressed in terms of the control system and the engine characteristics. The ideal control-system characteristics were explicitly determined in terms of any desired response action.

  1. [RT-PCR-based methods for identification and typing of infectious hemopoietic necrosis virus in salmons].

    PubMed

    Popova, A G; Oreshkova, S F; Zhchelkunov, I S; Rudakova, S L; Zhchelkunova, T I; Tikunova, N V; Blinova, N N; Il'ichev, A A

    2008-01-01

    A RT-PCR method has been developed to diagnose infectious hemopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in salmons. The authors show it possible to use the method for viral shedding in both a cell culture and a clinical sample from infected fishes. Genotyping of IHNV strains originating from North America, Europe, and Russia, by using the restriction fragment length polymerase analysis, has revealed that 10 of them belong to 3 existing genogroups (U, M, and L). Three Russian isolates are assigned into a separate subgroup. Phylogenetic analysis of several isolates has confirmed that viral strains from Katchatka belong to the North American U-genogroup whereas 3 Russian isolates from the continental zone of the country make up a separate subgroup within the same genogroup.

  2. A method of congruent type for linear systems with conjugate-normal coefficient matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi Kamalvand, M.; Ikramov, Kh. D.

    2009-02-01

    Minimal residual methods, such as MINRES and GMRES, are well-known iterative versions of direct procedures for reducing a matrix to special condensed forms. The method of reduction used in these procedures is a sequence of unitary similarity transformations, while the condensed form is a tridiagonal matrix (MINRES) or a Hessenberg matrix (GMRES). The algorithm CSYM proposed in the 1990s for solving systems with complex symmetric matrices was based on the tridiagonal reduction performed via unitary congruences rather than similarities. In this paper, we construct an extension of this algorithm to the entire class of conjugate-normal matrices. (Complex symmetric matrices are a part of this class.) Numerical results are presented. They show that, on many occasions, the proposed algorithm has a superior convergence rate compared to GMRES.

  3. A HUBBLE DIAGRAM FROM TYPE II SUPERNOVAE BASED SOLELY ON PHOTOMETRY: THE PHOTOMETRIC COLOR METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    De Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Anderson, J. P.; Phillips, M. M.; Campillay, A.; Castellón, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Contreras, C.; Bolt, L.; Burns, C. R.; Folatelli, G.; Krisciunas, K.; Krzeminski, W.; and others

    2015-12-20

    We present a Hubble diagram of SNe II using corrected magnitudes derived only from photometry, with no input of spectral information. We use a data set from the Carnegie Supernovae Project I for which optical and near-infrared light curves were obtained. The apparent magnitude is corrected by two observables, one corresponding to the slope of the plateau in the V band and the second a color term. We obtain a dispersion of 0.44 mag using a combination of the (V − i) color and the r band and we are able to reduce the dispersion to 0.39 mag using our golden sample. A comparison of our photometric color method (PCM) with the standardized candle method (SCM) is also performed. The dispersion obtained for the SCM (which uses both photometric and spectroscopic information) is 0.29 mag, which compares with 0.43 mag from the PCM for the same SN sample. The construction of a photometric Hubble diagram is of high importance in the coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys, which will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will prohibit spectroscopic follow up in the vast majority of cases, and hence methods must be deployed which can proceed using solely photometric data.

  4. Influence of Individual Differences on the Calculation Method for FBG-Type Blood Pressure Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Shouhei; Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Chino, Shun; Kobayashi, Yuka

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a blood pressure calculation and associated measurement method that by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. There are several points at which the pulse can be measured on the surface of the human body, and when a FBG sensor located at any of these points, the pulse wave signal can be measured. The measured waveform is similar to the acceleration pulse wave. The pulse wave signal changes depending on several factors, including whether or not the individual is healthy and/or elderly. The measured pulse wave signal can be used to calculate the blood pressure using a calibration curve, which is constructed by a partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis using a reference blood pressure and the pulse wave signal. In this paper, we focus on the influence of individual differences from calculated blood pressure based on each calibration curve. In our study, the calculated blood pressure from both the individual and overall calibration curves were compared, and our results show that the calculated blood pressure based on the overall calibration curve had a lower measurement accuracy than that based on an individual calibration curve. We also found that the influence of the individual differences on the calculated blood pressure when using the FBG sensor method were very low. Therefore, the FBG sensor method that we developed for measuring the blood pressure was found to be suitable for use by many people. PMID:28036015

  5. Synthesis of Magnetic Rattle-Type Silica with Controllable Magnetite and Tunable Size by Pre-Shell-Post-Core Method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Tan, Longfei; Meng, Xianwei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have developed the pre-shell-post-core route to synthesize the magnetic rattle-type silica. This method has not only simplified the precursor's process and reduced the reacting time, but also ameliorated the loss of magnetite and made the magnetite content and the inner core size controllable and tunable. The magnetite contents and inner core size can be easily controlled by changing the type and concentration of alkali, reaction system and addition of water. The results show that alkali aqueous solution promotes the escape of the precursor iron ions from the inner space of rattle-type silica and results in the loss of magnetite. In this case, NaOH ethanol solution is better for the formation of magnetite than ammonia because it not only offers an appropriate alkalinity to facilitate the synthesis of. magnetic particles, but also avoids the escape of the iron ions from the mesopores of rattle-type silica. The synthesis process is very simple and efficient, and it takes no more than 2 hours to complete the total preparation and handling of the magnetic rattle-type silica. The end-product Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposites also have good magnetic properties which will perform potential application in biomedical science.

  6. HPAEC-PAD method for the analysis of alkaline hydrolyzates of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Alex; van der Put, Robert M F; Beurret, Michel

    2013-09-01

    A gradient method has been devised for the rapid analysis of alkaline hydrolyzates of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide-based vaccines by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). As compared with published procedures, peak shape and sensitivity were significantly improved with this approach, analysis time was short and there was little interference from impurities. The limits of detection and quantification were established with a purified reference polysaccharide. We propose this method as a practical alternative for the analysis of minute amounts of Hib polysaccharide, which can be lower than with the conventional approaches.

  7. A photon counting and a squeezing measurement method by the exact absorption and dispersion spectrum of Λ-type Atoms.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, Ghasem; Alipour, Samira; Khademi, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the master equations for the interaction of two-mode photons with a three-level Λ-type atom are exactly solved for the coherence terms. In this paper the exact absorption spectrum is applied for the presentation of a non-demolition photon counting method, for a few number of coupling photons, and its benefits are discussed. The exact scheme is also applied where the coupling photons are squeezed and the photon counting method is also developed for the measurement of the squeezing parameter of the coupling photons.

  8. Control Theoretic Approach to Iterative Methods for Large-scale Toeplitz-type Systems with Application to Magnetic Field Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Tomohito; Kashima, Kenji; Imura, Jun-Ichi; Miyazaki, Shuji; Morita, Hiroshi

    In this paper, stationary iterative methods for large-scale Toeplitz-type systems are investigated from a control theoretic point of view. We utilize spatially invariant structure of Toeplitz matrices, to avoid the curse of dimensionality arising in analysis and design of the convergence properties. Nonlinearities in the system are theoretically handled within the small gain and stability analysis for Lur'e systems. This theory enables us to achieve the desired global convergence of the proposed numerical scheme. We also evaluate the efficacy of the proposed method through an application to magnetic field analysis.

  9. A Confidence Interval for the Wallace Coefficient of Concordance and Its Application to Microbial Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Francisco R.; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mário

    2008-01-01

    Very diverse research fields frequently deal with the analysis of multiple clustering results, which should imply an objective detection of overlaps and divergences between the formed groupings. The congruence between these multiple results can be quantified by clustering comparison measures such as the Wallace coefficient (W). Since the measured congruence is dependent on the particular sample taken from the population, there is variability in the estimated values relatively to those of the true population. In the present work we propose the use of a confidence interval (CI) to account for this variability when W is used. The CI analytical formula is derived assuming a Gaussian sampling distribution and recurring to the algebraic relationship between W and the Simpson's index of diversity. This relationship also allows the estimation of the expected Wallace value under the assumption of independence of classifications. We evaluated the CI performance using simulated and published microbial typing data sets. The simulations showed that the CI has the desired 95% coverage when the W is greater than 0.5. This behaviour is robust to changes in cluster number, cluster size distributions and sample size. The analysis of the published data sets demonstrated the usefulness of the new CI by objectively validating some of the previous interpretations, while showing that other conclusions lacked statistical support. PMID:19002246

  10. Mechanically stable, high aspect ratio, multifilar, wound, ribbon-type conductor and method for manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Cottingham, James G.

    1987-01-01

    A mechanically stable, wound, multifilar, ribbon-type conductor having a cross-sectional aspect ratio which may be greater than 12:1, comprising a plurality of conductive strands wound to form a flattened helix containing a plastic strip into which the strands have been pressed so as to form a bond between the strip and the strands. The bond mechanically stabilizes the conductor under tension, preventing it from collapsing into a tubular configuration. In preferred embodiments the plastic strip may be polytetrafluoroethylene, and the conductive strands may be formed from a superconductive material. Conductors in accordance with the present invention may be manufactured by winding a plurality of conductive strands around a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of the mandrel continuously varying from substantially circular to a high aspect ratio elipse while maintaining a constant circumference. The wound conductive strands are drawn from the mandrel as a multifilar helix while simultaneously a plastic strip is fed through the hollow mandrel so that it is contained within the helix as it is withdrawn from the mandrel. The helical conductor is then compressed into a ribbon-like form and the strands are bonded to the plastic strip by a combination of heat and pressure.

  11. Mechanically stable, high aspect ratio, multifilar, wound, ribbon-type conductor and method for manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Cottingham, James G.

    1987-11-03

    A mechanically stable, wound, multifilar, ribbon-type conductor having a cross-sectional aspect ratio which may be greater than 12:1, comprising a plurality of conductive strands wound to form a flattened helix containing a plastic strip into which the strands have been pressed so as to form a bond between the strip and the strands. The bond mechanically stabilizes the conductor under tension, preventing it from collapsing into a tubular configuration. In preferred embodiments the plastic strip may be polytetrafluoroethylene, and the conductive strands may be formed from a superconductive material. Conductors in accordance with the present invention may be manufactured by winding a plurality of conductive strands around a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of the mandrel continuously varying from substantially circular to a high aspect ratio elipse while maintaining a constant circumference. The wound conductive strands are drawn from the mandrel as a multifilar helix while simultaneously a plastic strip is fed through the hollow mandrel so that it is contained within the helix as it is withdrawn from the mandrel. The helical conductor is then compressed into a ribbon-like form and the strands are bonded to the plastic strip by a combination of heat and pressure.

  12. A Hubble Diagram from Type II Supernovae Based Solely on Photometry: The Photometric Color Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Anderson, J. P.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Bolt, L.; Burns, C. R.; Campillay, A.; Castellón, S.; Contreras, C.; Folatelli, G.; Freedman, W. L.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Krisciunas, K.; Krzeminski, W.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Morrell, N.; Olivares E., F.; Persson, S. E.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-12-01

    We present a Hubble diagram of SNe II using corrected magnitudes derived only from photometry, with no input of spectral information. We use a data set from the Carnegie Supernovae Project I for which optical and near-infrared light curves were obtained. The apparent magnitude is corrected by two observables, one corresponding to the slope of the plateau in the V band and the second a color term. We obtain a dispersion of 0.44 mag using a combination of the (V - i) color and the r band and we are able to reduce the dispersion to 0.39 mag using our golden sample. A comparison of our photometric color method (PCM) with the standardized candle method (SCM) is also performed. The dispersion obtained for the SCM (which uses both photometric and spectroscopic information) is 0.29 mag, which compares with 0.43 mag from the PCM for the same SN sample. The construction of a photometric Hubble diagram is of high importance in the coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys, which will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will prohibit spectroscopic follow up in the vast majority of cases, and hence methods must be deployed which can proceed using solely photometric data. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes, with the du Pont and Swope telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS-2008B-Q-56). Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programmes 076.A-0156,078.D-0048, 080.A-0516, and 082.A-0526).

  13. Alfalfa hay storage losses study as influenced by bale type and storage method. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cuomo, G.; Sheaffer, C.; Martin, N.

    1997-10-30

    This experiment was conducted in cooperation with the Minnesota Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) cooperative. Alfalfa for use as both a biomass energy source and as a protein supplement has been proposed by MnVAP. Research has shown that alfalfa deteriorates over time in storage, and that storage method and bale type affect the amount of deterioration. Therefore, evaluation of different storage methods and bale types on dry matter and quality losses of alfalfa leaf and stem components is important information for the alfalfa grower and the MnVAP cooperative. Two bale types were evaluated for four storage methods, and measurements were made of initial and final bale weights, dry matter, leaf and stem components, and forage quality estimates. Few differences were detected among bale types for dry matter losses, and interactions among bale type and storage method were not detected. This indicates that dry matter losses were similar for different bale types regardless of the storage method. However, differences in dry matter losses and visible spoilage were detected among storage methods. No interactions between bale type and storage method were detected for forage quality parameters, indicating that forage quality losses as a result of storage were similar for different bale types. Bale type by sample type and storage method by sample type interactions were detected. Many of these were the result of poorer quality alfalfa. 4 refs., 9 tabs.

  14. A low density microarray method for the identification of human papillomavirus type 18 variants.

    PubMed

    Meza-Menchaca, Thuluz; Williams, John; Rodríguez-Estrada, Rocío B; García-Bravo, Aracely; Ramos-Ligonio, Ángel; López-Monteon, Aracely; Zepeda, Rossana C

    2013-09-26

    We describe a novel microarray based-method for the screening of oncogenic human papillomavirus 18 (HPV-18) molecular variants. Due to the fact that sequencing methodology may underestimate samples containing more than one variant we designed a specific and sensitive stacking DNA hybridization assay. This technology can be used to discriminate between three possible phylogenetic branches of HPV-18. Probes were attached covalently on glass slides and hybridized with single-stranded DNA targets. Prior to hybridization with the probes, the target strands were pre-annealed with the three auxiliary contiguous oligonucleotides flanking the target sequences. Screening HPV-18 positive cell lines and cervical samples were used to evaluate the performance of this HPV DNA microarray. Our results demonstrate that the HPV-18's variants hybridized specifically to probes, with no detection of unspecific signals. Specific probes successfully reveal detectable point mutations in these variants. The present DNA oligoarray system can be used as a reliable, sensitive and specific method for HPV-18 variant screening. Furthermore, this simple assay allows the use of inexpensive equipment, making it accessible in resource-poor settings.

  15. A Low Density Microarray Method for the Identification of Human Papillomavirus Type 18 Variants

    PubMed Central

    Meza-Menchaca, Thuluz; Williams, John; Rodríguez-Estrada, Rocío B.; García-Bravo, Aracely; Ramos-Ligonio, Ángel; López-Monteon, Aracely; Zepeda, Rossana C.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel microarray based-method for the screening of oncogenic human papillomavirus 18 (HPV-18) molecular variants. Due to the fact that sequencing methodology may underestimate samples containing more than one variant we designed a specific and sensitive stacking DNA hybridization assay. This technology can be used to discriminate between three possible phylogenetic branches of HPV-18. Probes were attached covalently on glass slides and hybridized with single-stranded DNA targets. Prior to hybridization with the probes, the target strands were pre-annealed with the three auxiliary contiguous oligonucleotides flanking the target sequences. Screening HPV-18 positive cell lines and cervical samples were used to evaluate the performance of this HPV DNA microarray. Our results demonstrate that the HPV-18's variants hybridized specifically to probes, with no detection of unspecific signals. Specific probes successfully reveal detectable point mutations in these variants. The present DNA oligoarray system can be used as a reliable, sensitive and specific method for HPV-18 variant screening. Furthermore, this simple assay allows the use of inexpensive equipment, making it accessible in resource-poor settings. PMID:24077317

  16. [A brief introduction to a new method of inserting TCu220C type IUD].

    PubMed

    Zhao, C T

    1988-02-01

    Using standard procedure to insert T shaped IUDs the two arms on the top may not extend properly into the corners of the uterus, and often land with the arms stuck into the side wall of the uterus and cause malpositioning. A new method of insertion was tried and the result was satisfactory. Among the 200 cases of IUD insertion in 1984 in the hospital where the author worked, no expulsion and no accidental pregnancy occurred. The purpose of the procedure is to bend the two arms of IUD upwards and put into the applicator before insertion rather than the standard procedure of bending them downward and leave 1 cm of space inside the uterus for the two arms to open up. When the IUD is pushed out of the applicator into the uterus, the two arms gradually reach to the corners of uterus. The IUD will stay in uterus in a "Y" shape rather than a "T" shape and the distance between the end of the arms is smaller. Actually, the "Y" shape fits of uterine cavity better and it is more appropriate in uterine contraction when the width tends to become smaller. The advantage of the procedure is that no scratching or perforation of uterine wall will be caused and the method may be used by people who have a narrower uterus.

  17. Optimization of Escherichia coli cultivation methods for high yield neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 production.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Montag, Cindy; Berndt, Sandra; Huster, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    The recombinant expression of human G protein-coupled receptors usually yields low production levels using commonly available cultivation protocols. Here, we describe the development of a high yield production protocol for the human neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 (Y2R), which provides the determination of expression levels in a time, media composition, and process parameter dependent manner. Protein was produced by Escherichia coli in a defined medium composition suitable for isotopic labeling required for investigations by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The Y2 receptor was fused to a C-terminal 8x histidine tag by means of the pET vector system for easy one-step purification via affinity chromatography, yielding a purity of 95-99% for every condition tested, which was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The Y2 receptor was expressed as inclusion body aggregates in complex media and minimal media, using different carbon sources. We investigated the influences of media composition, temperature, pH, and set specific growth rate on cell behavior, biomass wet weight specific and culture volume specific amounts of the target protein, which had been identified by inclusion body preparation, solubilization, followed by purification and spectrometric determination of the protein concentration. The developed process control strategy led to very high reproducibility of cell growth and protein concentrations with a maximum yield of 800 μg purified Y2 receptor per gram wet biomass when glycerol was used as carbon source in the mineral salt medium composition (at 38 °C, pH 7.0, and a set specific growth rate of 0.14 g/(gh)). The maximum biomass specific amount of purified Y2 receptor enabled the production of 35 mg Y2R per liter culture medium at an optical density (600 nm) of 25.

  18. TESTING THE METAL OF LATE-TYPE KEPLER PLANET HOSTS WITH IRON-CLAD METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Andrew W.; Hilton, Eric J.; Gaidos, Eric; Kraus, Adam

    2013-06-10

    It has been shown that F, G, and early K dwarf hosts of Neptune-sized planets are not preferentially metal-rich. However, it is less clear whether the same holds for late K and M dwarf planet hosts. We report metallicities of Kepler targets and candidate transiting planet hosts with effective temperatures below 4500 K. We use new metallicity calibrations to determine [Fe/H] from visible and near-infrared spectra. We find that the metallicity distribution of late K and M dwarfs monitored by Kepler is consistent with that of the solar neighborhood. Further, we show that hosts of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets have metallicities consistent with those lacking detected planets and rule out a previously claimed 0.2 dex offset between the two distributions at 6{sigma} confidence. We also demonstrate that the metallicities of late K and M dwarfs hosting multiple detected planets are consistent with those lacking detected planets. Our results indicate that multiple terrestrial and Neptune-sized planets can form around late K and M dwarfs with metallicities as low as 0.25 solar. The presence of Neptune-sized planets orbiting such low-metallicity M dwarfs suggests that accreting planets collect most or all of the solids from the disk and that the potential cores of giant planets can readily form around M dwarfs. The paucity of giant planets around M dwarfs compared to solar-type stars must be due to relatively rapid disk evaporation or a slower rate of planet accretion, rather than insufficient solids to form a core.

  19. Investigation of synthetic aperture methods in ultrasound surface imaging using elementary surface types.

    PubMed

    Kerr, W; Pierce, S G; Rowe, P

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic aperture imaging methods have been employed widely in recent research in non-destructive testing (NDT), but uptake has been more limited in medical ultrasound imaging. Typically offering superior focussing power over more traditional phased array methods, these techniques have been employed in NDT applications to locate and characterise small defects within large samples, but have rarely been used to image surfaces. A desire to ultimately employ ultrasonic surface imaging for bone surface geometry measurement prior to surgical intervention motivates this research, and results are presented for initial laboratory trials of a surface reconstruction technique based on global thresholding of ultrasonic 3D point cloud data. In this study, representative geometry artefacts were imaged in the laboratory using two synthetic aperture techniques; the Total Focusing Method (TFM) and the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) employing full and narrow synthetic apertures, respectively. Three high precision metallic samples of known geometries (cuboid, sphere and cylinder) which featured a range of elementary surface primitives were imaged using a 5MHz, 128 element 1D phased array employing both SAFT and TFM approaches. The array was manipulated around the samples using a precision robotic positioning system, allowing for repeatable ultrasound derived 3D surface point clouds to be created. A global thresholding technique was then developed that allowed the extraction of the surface profiles, and these were compared with the known geometry samples to provide a quantitative measure of error of 3D surface reconstruction. The mean errors achieved with optimised SAFT imaging for the cuboidal, spherical and cylindrical samples were 1.3mm, 2.9mm and 2.0mm respectively, while those for TFM imaging were 3.7mm, 3.0mm and 3.1mm, respectively. These results were contrary to expectations given the higher information content associated with the TFM images. However, it was

  20. Probabilistic methods for identification of significant accident sequences in loop-type LMFBRs

    SciTech Connect

    Jamali, K M.A.

    1983-06-01

    The aim of the Probabilistic Accident Progression Analysis (PAPA) described herein is to establish a framework for better use of the probability measure; first, as a basis for deterministic calculations, and second, as a part of a comprehensive method for risk assessment in its own right. The achievement of this goal rests on: (1) improvements in the existing approaches for acquisition and analysis of accident sequences; (2) defining a new measure of probabilistic importance that aids in the ranking of sequences of highly uncertain events; and (3) implementation of new techniques for quantification of dependent failures of similar components. The existing techniques related to the above three topics are discussed and the state of the art is reviewed. The PAPA approach is described. The techniques of PAPA are applied to a class of Protected Transients (transients in which the reactor is successfully shutdown) in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The results of the application of these techniques are described.

  1. A new scaleable method for the purification of botulinum neurotoxin type E.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Frank

    2005-09-23

    Botulinum neurotoxins belong to the most toxic substances in nature. Well-known as a food poisoning agent for almost two centuries, the beneficial aspects of this bacterial metabolite were rediscovered about 30 years ago. These toxins, which are produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum are nowadays used to treat a variety of neuro-muscular disorders. The increased demand requires techniques for the production and purification of these toxins on an industrial scale. The method described herein is based on filtration and chromatography procedures only. Precipitation, centrifugation and dialysis steps were consequently excluded to develop a protocol, which can easily be scaled up from the laboratory purification to industrial needs. About 4 mg of BoNT/E were purified from a 10-L batch culture corresponding to an overall recovery of approximately 14%.

  2. Probe-based real-time PCR method for multilocus melt typing of Xylella fastidiosa strains.

    PubMed

    Brady, Jeff A; Faske, Jennifer B; Ator, Rebecca A; Castañeda-Gill, Jessica M; Mitchell, Forrest L

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of Pierce's disease (PD) can be confounded by a lack of taxonomic detail on the bacterial causative agent, Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). PD in grape is caused by strains of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, but is not caused by other subspecies of Xf that typically colonize plants other than grape. Detection assays using ELISA and qPCR are effective at detecting and quantifying Xf presence or absence, but offer no information on Xf subspecies or strain identity. Surveying insects or host plants for Xf by current ELISA or qPCR methods provides only presence/absence and quantity information for any and all Xf subspecies, potentially leading to false assessments of disease threat. This study uses a series of adjacent-hybridizing DNA melt analysis probes that are capable of efficiently discriminating Xf subspecies and strain relationships in rapid real-time PCR reactions.

  3. A combinational approach of multilocus sequence typing and other molecular typing methods in unravelling the epidemiology of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains from poultry and mammals.

    PubMed

    Janßen, Traute; Voss, Matthias; Kühl, Michael; Semmler, Torsten; Philipp, Hans-Christian; Ewers, Christa

    2015-07-21

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infections re-emerged as a matter of great concern particularly in the poultry industry. In contrast to porcine isolates, molecular epidemiological traits of avian E. rhusiopathiae isolates are less well known. Thus, we aimed to (i) develop a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for E. rhusiopathiae, (ii) study the congruence of strain grouping based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and MLST, (iii) determine the diversity of the dominant immunogenic protein SpaA, and (iv) examine the distribution of genes putatively linked with virulence among field isolates from poultry (120), swine (24) and other hosts (21), including humans (3). Using seven housekeeping genes for MLST analysis we determined 72 sequence types (STs) among 165 isolates. This indicated an overall high diversity, though 34.5% of all isolates belonged to a single predominant ST-complex, STC9, which grouped strains from birds and mammals, including humans, together. PFGE revealed 58 different clusters and congruence with the sequence-based MLST-method was not common. Based on polymorphisms in the N-terminal hyper-variable region of SpaA the isolates were classified into five groups, which followed the phylogenetic background of the strains. More than 90% of the isolates harboured all 16 putative virulence genes tested and only intI, encoding an internalin-like protein, showed infrequent distribution. MLST data determined E. rhusiopathiae as weakly clonal species with limited host specificity. A common evolutionary origin of isolates as well as shared SpaA variants and virulence genotypes obtained from avian and mammalian hosts indicates common reservoirs, pathogenic pathways and immunogenic properties of the pathogen.

  4. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmashkin, A. A.; Dubrovskii, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  5. Mouse TU tagging: a chemical/genetic intersectional method for purifying cell type-specific nascent RNA.

    PubMed

    Gay, Leslie; Miller, Michael R; Ventura, P Britten; Devasthali, Vidusha; Vue, Zer; Thompson, Heather L; Temple, Sally; Zong, Hui; Cleary, Michael D; Stankunas, Kryn; Doe, Chris Q

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling is a powerful approach for understanding development and disease. Current cell type-specific RNA purification methods have limitations, including cell dissociation trauma or inability to identify all RNA species. Here, we describe "mouse thiouracil (TU) tagging," a genetic and chemical intersectional method for covalent labeling and purification of cell type-specific RNA in vivo. Cre-induced expression of uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) provides spatial specificity; injection of 4-thiouracil (4TU) provides temporal specificity. Only UPRT(+) cells exposed to 4TU produce thio-RNA, which is then purified for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). This method can purify transcripts from spatially complex and rare (<5%) cells, such as Tie2:Cre(+) brain endothelia/microglia (76% validated by expression pattern), or temporally dynamic transcripts, such as those acutely induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Moreover, generating chimeric mice via UPRT(+) bone marrow transplants identifies immune versus niche spleen RNA. TU tagging provides a novel method for identifying actively transcribed genes in specific cells at specific times within intact mice.

  6. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dolmashkin, A A; Dubrovskii, V A; Zabenkov, I V

    2012-05-31

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  7. Low template STR typing: effect of replicate number and consensus method on genotyping reliability and DNA database search results.

    PubMed

    Benschop, Corina C G; van der Beek, Cornelis P; Meiland, Hugo C; van Gorp, Ankie G M; Westen, Antoinette A; Sijen, Titia

    2011-08-01

    To analyze DNA samples with very low DNA concentrations, various methods have been developed that sensitize short tandem repeat (STR) typing. Sensitized DNA typing is accompanied by stochastic amplification effects, such as allele drop-outs and drop-ins. Therefore low template (LT) DNA profiles are interpreted with care. One can either try to infer the genotype by a consensus method that uses alleles confirmed in replicate analyses, or one can use a statistical model to evaluate the strength of the evidence in a direct comparison with a known DNA profile. In this study we focused on the first strategy and we show that the procedure by which the consensus profile is assembled will affect genotyping reliability. In order to gain insight in the roles of replicate number and requested level of reproducibility, we generated six independent amplifications of samples of known donors. The LT methods included both increased cycling and enhanced capillary electrophoresis (CE) injection [1]. Consensus profiles were assembled from two to six of the replications using four methods: composite (include all alleles), n-1 (include alleles detected in all but one replicate), n/2 (include alleles detected in at least half of the replicates) and 2× (include alleles detected twice). We compared the consensus DNA profiles with the DNA profile of the known donor, studied the stochastic amplification effects and examined the effect of the consensus procedure on DNA database search results. From all these analyses we conclude that the accuracy of LT DNA typing and the efficiency of database searching improve when the number of replicates is increased and the consensus method is n/2. The most functional number of replicates within this n/2 method is four (although a replicate number of three suffices for samples showing >25% of the alleles in standard STR typing). This approach was also the optimal strategy for the analysis of 2-person mixtures, although modified search strategies may be

  8. Use of Relational Agents to Improve Family Communication in Type 1 Diabetes: Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Karen W; Redondo, Maria J; Anderson, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Physiological and environmental risk factors interact to undermine blood glucose control during early adolescence. This has been documented to be associated with family conflict and poor adherence to diabetes management tasks. Family Teamwork is an efficacious program demonstrated to enhance family communication and reduce conflict during this vulnerable period. It was designed to be delivered to families in-person, which limited reach and potential impact. Objective The purpose of this paper is to present the protocol for adapting Family Teamwork for Web-based delivery. Methods Formative research with health care providers, parents, and adolescents will help modify Family Teamwork for Web-based delivery by a relational agent (ie, a computerized character with human-like features and actions). Sessions will be interactive, requiring both parent and adolescent participation, with the relational agent serving as a health coach. After programming, usability testing will be conducted to help ensure the program is easy to use. Video and instructional materials will be developed to facilitate use, and a small pilot study will be conducted to assess feasibility. Families will provide written informed consent prior to participation in any phase of the study. The Institutional Review Board at Baylor College of Medicine reviewed and approved the protocol (H-37245). Results Formative research is underway. No results are available at this time. Conclusions This research has the potential to make an important contribution to diabetes management by using technology to enhance the reach of an efficacious program. PMID:27468762

  9. Fish sedation, analgesia, anesthesia, and euthanasia: considerations, methods, and types of drugs.

    PubMed

    Neiffer, Donald L; Stamper, M Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Fish display robust neuroendocrine and physiologic stress responses to noxious stimuli. Many anesthetic, sedative, or analgesic drugs used in other vertebrates reduce stress in fish, decrease handling trauma, minimize movement and physiologic changes in response to nociceptive stimuli, and can be used for euthanasia. But extrapolating from limited published anesthetic and sedative data to all fish species is potentially harmful because of marked anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral variations; instead, a stepwise approach to anesthetizing or sedating unfamiliar species or using unproven drugs for familiar species is advisable. Additionally, knowledge of how water quality influences anesthesia or sedation helps limit complications. The most common method of drug administration is through immersion, a technique analogous to gaseous inhalant anesthesia in terrestrial animals, but the use of injectable anesthetic and sedative agents (primarily intramuscularly, but also intravenously) is increasing. Regardless of the route of administration, routine preprocedural preparation is appropriate, to stage both the animals and the supplies for induction, maintenance, and recovery. Anesthetic and sedation monitoring and resuscitation are similar to those for other vertebrates. Euthanasia is most commonly performed using an overdose of an immersion drug but injectable agents are also effective. Analgesia is an area in need of significant research as only a few studies exist and they provide some contrasting results. However, fish have mu and kappa opiate receptors throughout the brain, making it reasonable to expect some effect of at least opioid treatments in fish experiencing noxious stimuli.

  10. A clock steering method: using a third-order type 3 DPLL equivalent to a Kalman filter with a delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yiwei; Gong, Hang; Zhu, Xiangwei; Ou, Gang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a new clock steering method, which uses a third-order type 3 digital phase locked loop (DPLL) which is equivalent to a Kalman filter with a delay. A general overview of the theoretical framework is described in detail including the transfer functions, the structure and control values, the specifications, and the approach to choosing a parameter. Simulations show that the performance of the time and frequency steering errors and the frequency stability are quite desirable. Comparing with traditional clock steering methods, it is easier to work with just one parameter. The DPLL method satisfies the requirements of generating a local representation of universal time coordinated and the system time of a global navigation satellite system.

  11. A correction method for the axial maladjustment of transmission-type optical system based on aberration theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chunmei; Huang, Fu-yu; Yin, Jian-ling; Chen, Yu-dan; Mao, Shao-juan

    2016-10-01

    The influence of aberration on misalignment of optical system is considered fully, the deficiencies of Gauss optical correction method is pointed, and a correction method for transmission-type misalignment optical system is proposed based on aberration theory. The variation regularity of single lens aberration caused by axial displacement is analyzed, and the aberration effect is defined. On this basis, through calculating the size of lens adjustment induced by the image position error and the magnifying rate error, the misalignment correction formula based on the constraints of the aberration is deduced mathematically. Taking the three lens collimation system for an example, the test is carried out to validate this method, and its superiority is proved.

  12. Separation and identification of various vulcanization agents and antioxidants in two types of rubber by chromatographic and spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, S; Hamon, M; Leleu, E

    1991-11-01

    The aim of this study was to separate and identify by chromatographic and spectrometric methods, the various allergenic vulcanization agents and antioxidants used in the manufacture of industrial rubber. Specimens of elastomers were manufactured specially for this study. The specificity of the gas chromatographic method developed allows separation of all the manufacturing additives in the selected rubber types after one injection only, even though they belong to extremely varied chemical categories. The GLC method was coupled with mass spectrometry, which permitted identification of the peaks obtained and the study of the fragmentation of the 4 reference products under various conditions. Separation by TLC was performed in parallel on the same extracts, allowing rapid identification of the products tested for, and showed new spots after vulcanization.

  13. Multilocus sequence typing is a reliable alternative method to DNA fingerprinting for discriminating among strains of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Robles, Juan C; Koreen, Larry; Park, Steven; Perlin, David S

    2004-06-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has emerged as a powerful new DNA-typing tool for the evaluation of intraspecies genetic relatedness. This method relies on DNA sequence analysis of nucleotide polymorphisms in housekeeping genes and has shown a high degree of intraspecies discriminatory power for bacterial and fungal pathogens. However, the results of the MLST scheme for Candida albicans have heretofore never been formally compared to those of other established typing techniques. To assess the value of MLST relative to those of other DNA fingerprinting tools for discriminating among strains of C. albicans, we applied it to a previously well-characterized set of 29 C. albicans isolates evaluated by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), and Ca3 Southern hybridization probe techniques. MLST identified three clusters of genetically related isolates, with 82.3% direct concordance with MLEE, 82.7% with RAPD analysis, and 86.2% with the Ca3 Southern hybridization technique. When MLST was applied to a subset of 22 isolates of unrelated origins, it identified 21 independent diploid sequence types (DSTs), resulting in a discriminatory power of 99.6%. These DSTs were 96.9, 99.6, and 99.6% concordant with the genotypes identified by RAPD analysis, MLEE, and Ca3 Southern hybridization, respectively. These results demonstrate that MLST is a highly effective technique that performs at least comparably to other established DNA fingerprinting techniques.

  14. Boron liquid solution deposited by spray method for p-type emitter formation in crystalline Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panek, Piotr; Swatowska, Barbara; Dawidowski, Wojciech; Juel, Mari; Zieba, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of n-type crystalline Si based solar cell using boron liquid solution (BLS) deposited by spray method for p-type emitter formation. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used for the analysis of surface composition and electronic states of elements at the glass layer of dopant (GLD) obtained from BLS. The investigation of the borosilicate glass layer (BSG) created on a base of GLD during diffusion process were carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The diffusion profiles were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrochemical capacitance-voltage (EC-V) techniques, whereas the solar cells were characterized by the light current-voltage (I-V) and spectral measurements. The influence of a doping process on a minority carrier lifetime of the Si wafers was detected by quasi-steady-state photoconductance technique. Application of the elaborated BSL allowed to obtain the p-type Si emitters from BSG layer which exhibits unproblematic etching behaviour after diffusion process and final fabrication of the solar cells with the fill factor of 74% and photoconversion efficiency of 13.04 %. The elaborated BLS is a source which offers an attractive practicable alternative to form emitters on the n-type Si substrate.

  15. Comparative Outcomes of the Two Types of Sacral Extradural Spinal Meningeal Cysts Using Different Operation Methods: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian-jun; Wang, Zhen-yu; Teo, Mario; Li, Zhen-dong; Wu, Hai-bo; Yen, Ru-yu; Zheng, Mei; Chang, Qing; Yisha Liu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study compares different clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with two types of sacral extradural spinal meningeal cysts (SESMC) undergoing different means of surgical excision. Using the relationship between the cysts and spinal nerve roots fibers (SNRF) as seen under microscope, SESMCs were divided into two types: cysts with SNRF known as Tarlov cysts and cysts without. The surgical methods were tailored to the different types of SESMCs. The improved Japanese Orthopedic Association (IJOA) scoring system was used to evaluate preoperative and postoperative neurological function of the patients. Preoperative IJOA scores were 18.5±1.73, and postoperative IJOA scores were 19.6±0.78. The difference between preoperative and postoperative IJOA scores was statistically significant (t = -4.52, p = 0.0001), with a significant improvement in neurological function after surgery. Among the improvements in neurological functions, the most significant was sensation (z=-2.74, p=0.006), followed by bowel/bladder function (z=-2.50, p=0.01). There was a statistically significant association between the types of SESMC and the number (F=12.57, p=0.001) and maximum diameter (F=8.08, p=0.006) of the cysts. SESMC with SNRF are often multiple and small, while cysts without SNRF tend to be solitary and large. We advocate early surgical intervention for symptomatic SESMCs in view of significant clinical improvement postoperatively. PMID:24386317

  16. Comparative outcomes of the two types of sacral extradural spinal meningeal cysts using different operation methods: a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Teo, Mario; Li, Zhen-Dong; Wu, Hai-Bo; Yen, Ru-Yu; Zheng, Mei; Chang, Qing; Yisha Liu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study compares different clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with two types of sacral extradural spinal meningeal cysts (SESMC) undergoing different means of surgical excision. Using the relationship between the cysts and spinal nerve roots fibers (SNRF) as seen under microscope, SESMCs were divided into two types: cysts with SNRF known as Tarlov cysts and cysts without. The surgical methods were tailored to the different types of SESMCs. The improved Japanese Orthopedic Association (IJOA) scoring system was used to evaluate preoperative and postoperative neurological function of the patients. Preoperative IJOA scores were 18.5 ± 1.73, and postoperative IJOA scores were 19.6 ± 0.78. The difference between preoperative and postoperative IJOA scores was statistically significant (t = -4.52, p = 0.0001), with a significant improvement in neurological function after surgery. Among the improvements in neurological functions, the most significant was sensation (z=-2.74, p=0.006), followed by bowel/bladder function (z=-2.50, p=0.01). There was a statistically significant association between the types of SESMC and the number (F=12.57, p=0.001) and maximum diameter (F=8.08, p=0.006) of the cysts. SESMC with SNRF are often multiple and small, while cysts without SNRF tend to be solitary and large. We advocate early surgical intervention for symptomatic SESMCs in view of significant clinical improvement postoperatively.

  17. An Efficient Antipodal Cell Isolation Method for Screening of Cell Type-Specific Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng-xiang

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, the mature embryo sac consists of seven cells, namely two synergid cells and an egg cell at the micropylar end, one central cell, and three antipodal cells at the chalazal end. Excluding the antipodal cell, as a model for the study of cell fate determination and cell type specification, the roles of these embryo sac component cells in fertilization and seed formation have been widely investigated. At this time, little is known regarding the function of antipodal cells and their cell type-specific gene expression patterns. One reason for this is difficulties related to the observation and isolation of cells for detailed functional analyses. Here, we report a method for antipodal cell isolation and transcriptome analysis. We identified antipodal cell-specific marker line K44-1, and based on this marker line, established a procedure allowing us to isolate antipodal cells with both high quality and quantity. PCR validation of antipodal-specific genes from antipodal cell cDNA showed that the isolated cells are qualified and can be used for transcriptome analysis and screening of cell type-specific marker genes. The isolated cells could keep viable for a week in culture condition. This method can be used to efficiently isolate antipodal cells of high quality and will promote the functional investigation of antipodal cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. This increases our understanding of the molecular regulatory mechanism of antipodal cell specification. PMID:27875553

  18. Comparison Study for Whitney (Raviart-Thomas)-Type Source Models in Finite-Element-Method-Based EEG Forward Modeling.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Martin; Pursiainen, Sampsa; Vorwerk, Johannes; Kostler, Harald; Wolters, Carsten H

    2015-11-01

    This study concentrates on finite-element-method (FEM)-based electroencephalography (EEG) forward simulation in which the electric potential evoked by neural activity in the brain is to be calculated at the surface of the head. The main advantage of the FEM is that it allows realistic modeling of tissue conductivity inhomogeneity. However, it is not straightforward to apply the classical model of a dipolar source with the FEM, due to its strong singularity and the resulting irregularity. The focus of this study is on comparing different methods to cope with this problem. In particular, we evaluate the accuracy of Whitney (Raviart-Thomas)-type dipole-like source currents compared to two reference dipole modeling methods: the St. Venant and partial integration approach. Common to all these methods is that they enable direct approximation of the potential field utilizing linear basis functions. In the present context, Whitney elements are particularly interesting, as they provide a simple means to model a divergence-conforming primary current vector field satisfying the square integrability condition. Our results show that a Whitney-type source model can provide simulation accuracy comparable to the present reference methods. It can lead to superior accuracy under optimized conditions with respect to both source location and orientation in a tetrahedral mesh. For random source orientations, the St. Venant approach turns out to be the method of choice over the interpolated version of the Whitney model. The overall moderate differences obtained suggest that practical aspects, such as the focality, should be prioritized when choosing a source model.

  19. Preventive effects of various types of footwear and cleaning methods on dermatophyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kumi; Katoh, Takuro; Irimajiri, Junya; Taniguchi, Hiroko; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2006-08-01

    Tinea pedis is contagious and typically spreads from infected to non-infected persons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of footwear in preventing tinea pedis adhesion. Using the stamp culture method, we investigated the effectiveness of preventing dermatophyte passage by the wearing of stockings made of nylon, socks made of cotton and tabi (Japanese socks), as well as the effect of removing dermatophytes from these items by washing with soap, cold water and cold water after turning inside-out. For sandals, sneakers and boots, we also investigated the effect of dermatophyte removal by pouring cold water into the footwear, wiping with a wet towel, and pouring boiling water into the footwear. The wearing of socks or tabi was effective in preventing passage of dermatophytes. The stocking material proved to be too thin to prevent passage. On the inner side of socks (the side of the sole), all treatments were effective at removing dermatophytes, but on the outer side of socks (the side touching the surface of the sandals), the treatment of washing in cold water after turning inside-out resulted in significantly more dermatophytes as compared with the other treatments. Pouring cold water, wiping with a wet towel and pouring boiling water were all effective for removing dermatophytes from sandals and sneakers. However, for boots, the treatment of pouring cold water was less effective. To prevent the adhesion of dermatophytes to sandals, wearing socks or tabi was effective, and the treatments of washing socks in cold water after turning inside-out and of pouring cold water into the boots were less effective than the others.

  20. A multispectral cloud type identification method developed for tropical ocean areas with Nimbus-3 MRIR measurements. [Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, W. E.; Neff, R. A.; Holub, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A four-channel multispectral cloud type identification technique is developed on the basis of Nimbus-3 Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) measurements, with the four channels being spectrally located at 0.2-4.0, 6.5-7, 10-11, and 20-23 microns. The technique requires the use of a radiative transfer model with information on the vertical temperature and moisture profiles and climatological knowledge of the upper boundaries of cloud surfaces associated with expected cloud types within a given area. Experimental verification of the technique indicates that deletion of the 20-23 micron channel has no adverse effect on method capability, and that the 6.5-7 micron channel alone is well suited for successful mapping of the areas where cirrus is reasonably dense, while indicating the regions where cirrus is not present.

  1. Evaluation of a co-extraction method for real-time PCR-based body fluid identification and DNA typing.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Iwashima, Yasuki; Akutsu, Tomoko; Sekiguchi, Kazumasa; Sakurada, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Body fluid identification and individual identification are an important series of tests in usual criminal investigations. Recent reports have demonstrated a new approach using DNA/RNA co-extraction methods in which RNA for body fluid identification and DNA for short tandem repeat (STR) typing are extracted simultaneously from the same sample. This study evaluated a standard co-extraction kit, the AllPrep® DNA/RNA Mini Kit, in order to demonstrate the availability of the co-extraction procedure for those real-time polymerase chain reaction-based body fluid identification methods that we have validated previously. We demonstrated that the use of the Allprep Kit, for which we adjusted the lysis temperature to 56°C to improve extraction efficiency, can simultaneously extract sufficient RNA and DNA for body fluid identification and STR analysis; however, a longer incubation at a high temperature slightly affected the ΔCt value of each target gene and appeared to be not as effective for DNA extraction from old stains as from 1-day-old stains. This method is promising for future forensic investigations because the use of this kit can reduce sample consumption for body fluid identification and DNA typing.

  2. One-sided Post-processing for the Discontinuous Galerkin Method Using ENO Type Stencil Choosing and the Local Edge Detection Method

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, Richard K; Gelb, Anne; Gottlieb, Sigal; Ryan, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    In a previous paper by Ryan and Shu [Ryan, J. K., and Shu, C.-W. (2003). Methods Appl. Anal. 10(2), 295-307], a one-sided post-processing technique for the discontinuous Galerkin method was introduced for reconstructing solutions near computational boundaries and discontinuities in the boundaries, as well as for changes in mesh size. This technique requires prior knowledge of the discontinuity location in order to determine whether to use centered, partially one-sided, or one-sided post-processing. We now present two alternative stencil choosing schemes to automate the choice of post-processing stencil. The first is an ENO type stencil choosing procedure, which is designed to choose centered post-processing in smooth regions and one-sided or partially one-sided post-processing near a discontinuity, and the second method is based on the edge detection method designed by Archibald, Gelb, and Yoon [Archibald, R., Gelb, A., and Yoon, J. (2005). SIAM J. Numeric. Anal. 43, 259-279; Archibald, R., Gelb, A., and Yoon, J. (2006). Appl. Numeric. Math. (submitted)]. We compare these stencil choosing techniques and analyze their respective strengths and weaknesses. Finally, the automated stencil choices are applied in conjunction with the appropriate post-processing procedures and it is determine that the resulting numerical solutions are of the correct order.

  3. Evaluation of Anatomical and Functional Hip Joint Center Methods: The Effects of Activity Type, Gender, and Proximal Reference Segment.

    PubMed

    McGibbon, C A; Fowler, J; Chase, S; Steeves, K; Landry, J; Mohamed, A

    2016-01-01

    Accurate hip joint center (HJC) location is critical when studying hip joint biomechanics. The HJC is often determined from anatomical methods, but functional methods are becoming increasingly popular. Several studies have examined these methods using simulations and in vivo gait data, but none has studied high-range of motion activities, such a chair rise, nor has HJC prediction been compared between males and females. Furthermore, anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) marker visibility during chair rise can be problematic, requiring a sacral cluster as an alternative proximal segment; but functional HJC has not been explored using this approach. For this study, the quality of HJC measurement was based on the joint gap error (JGE), which is the difference in global HJC between proximal and distal reference segments. The aims of the present study were to: (1) determine if JGE varies between pelvic and sacral referenced HJC for functional and anatomical methods, (2) investigate which functional calibration motion results in the lowest JGE and if the JGE varies depending on movement type (gait versus chair rise) and gender, and (3) assess whether the functional HJC calibration results in lower JGE than commonly used anatomical approaches and if it varies with movement type and gender. Data were collected on 39 healthy adults (19 males and 20 females) aged 14-50 yr old. Participants performed four hip "calibration" tests (arc, cross, star, and star-arc), as well as gait and chair rise (activities of daily living (ADL)). Two common anatomical methods were used to estimate HJC and were compared to HJC computed using a published functional method with the calibration motions above, when using pelvis or sacral cluster as the proximal reference. For ADL trials, functional methods resulted in lower JGE (12-19 mm) compared to anatomical methods (13-34 mm). It was also found that women had significantly higher JGE compared to men and JGE was significantly higher for

  4. A sandwich-type DNA electrochemical biosensor for hairpin-stem-loop structure based on multistep temperature-controlling method

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Guolin; Liu, Yinhuan; Chen, Wei; Weng, Shaohuang; Liu, Qicai; Liu, Ailin; Zheng, Daoxin; Lin, Xinhua

    2012-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective method for amplified electrochemical detection for hairpin-stem-loop structured target sequences was developed based on the temperature regulation of DNA hybrids on a sandwich-type electrochemical DNA sensor. Multistep hybridization was applied to promote the hybridization efficiency of each section of sandwich structure. The results showed that both multistep and temperature-controlling hybridization techniques were both especially made to fabricate the sensor for the tendency of internal hybridization of target gene sequences. This strategy provides significantly enhanced hybridization efficiency and sequence specificity of electrochemical detection. PMID:23028223

  5. Method for generating extreme ultraviolet with mather-type plasma accelerators for use in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hassanein, Ahmed; Konkashbaev, Isak

    2006-10-03

    A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave uses two intersecting plasma beams generated by two plasma accelerators. The intersection of the two plasma beams emits electromagnetic radiation and in particular radiation in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength. In the preferred orientation two axially aligned counter streaming plasmas collide to produce an intense source of electromagnetic radiation at the 13.5 nm wavelength. The Mather type plasma accelerators can utilize tin, or lithium covered electrodes. Tin, lithium or xenon can be used as the photon emitting gas source.

  6. Systematic review of the types of methods and approaches used to assess the effectiveness of healthcare information websites.

    PubMed

    Tieman, Jennifer; Bradley, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify types of approaches and methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare information websites. Simple usage data may not be sufficient to assess whether desired healthcare outcomes were achieved or to determine the relative effectiveness of different web resources on the same health topic. To establish the state of the knowledge base on assessment methods used to determine the effectiveness of healthcare websites, a structured search of the literature was conducted in Ovid Medline, resulting in the retrieval of 1611 articles, of which 240 met the inclusion criteria for the present review. The present review found that diverse evaluation methods were used to measure the effectiveness of healthcare websites. These evaluation methods were used during development, before release and after release. Economic assessment was rare and most evaluations looked at content issues, such as readability scores. Several studies did try to assess the usefulness of websites, but few studies looked at behaviour change or knowledge transfer following engagement with the designated health website. To assess the effectiveness of the knowledge transfer of healthcare information through the online environment, multiple methods may need to be used to evaluate healthcare websites and may need to be undertaken at all stages of the website development process.

  7. Effects of vegetation type on soil microbial community structure and catabolic diversity assessed by polyphasic methods in North China.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue-mei; Wang, Ren-qing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Meng-cheng; Zhou, Juan; Guo, Wei-hua

    2007-01-01

    Soil microbes play a major role in ecological processes and are closely associated with the aboveground plant community. In order to understand the effects of vegetation type on the characteristics of soil microbial communities, the soil microbial communities were assessed by plate counts, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and Biolog microplate techniques in five plant communities, i.e., soybean field (SF), artificial turf (AT), artificial shrub (AS), natural shrub (NS), and maize field (MF) in Jinan, Shandong Province, North China. The results showed that plant diversity had little discernible effect on microbial biomass but a positive impact on the evenness of utilized substrates in Biolog microplate. Legumes could significantly enhance the number of cultural microorganisms, microbial biomass, and community catabolic diversity. Except for SF dominated by legumes, the biomass of fungi and the catabolic diversity of microbial community were higher in less disturbed soil beneath NS than in frequently disturbed soils beneath the other vegetation types. These results confirmed that high number of plant species, legumes, and natural vegetation types tend to support soil microbial communities with higher function. The present study also found a significant correlation between the number of cultured bacteria and catabolic diversity of the bacterial community. Different research methods led to varied results in this study. The combination of several approaches is recommended for accurately describing the characteristics of microbial communities in many respects.

  8. Comparing Type of Health Insurance Among Low-Income Children: A Mixed-Methods Study from Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Lorraine; Selph, Shelley; Westfall, Nicholas; Crocker, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    We employed a mixed-methods study of primary data from a statewide household survey and in-person interviews with parents to examine—quantitatively and qualitatively—whether low-income children experienced differences between public and private insurance coverage types. We carried out 24 in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of respondents to Oregon’s 2005 Children’s Access to Healthcare Study (CAHS), analyzed using a standard iterative process and immersion/crystallization cycles. Qualitative findings guided quantitative analyses of CAHS data that assessed associations between insurance type and parental-reported unmet children’s health care needs. Interviewees uniformly reported that stable health insurance was important, but there was no consensus regarding which type was superior. Quantitatively, there were only a few significant differences. Cross-sectionally, compared with private coverage, public coverage was associated with higher odds of unmet specialty care needs (odds ratio [OR] 3.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52–8.24). Comparing full-year coverage patterns, those with public coverage had lower odds of unmet prescription needs (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.36–0.99) and unmet mental health counseling needs (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10–0.63), compared with privately covered children. Low-income Oregon parents reported few differences in their child’s experience with private versus public coverage. PMID:21052802

  9. Comparing type of health insurance among low-income children: a mixed-methods study from Oregon.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Wallace, Lorraine; Selph, Shelley; Westfall, Nicholas; Crocker, Stephanie

    2011-11-01

    We employed a mixed-methods study of primary data from a statewide household survey and in-person interviews with parents to examine-quantitatively and qualitatively-whether low-income children experienced differences between public and private insurance coverage types. We carried out 24 in-depth interviews with a subsample of respondents to Oregon's 2005 Children's Access to Healthcare Study (CAHS), analyzed using a standard iterative process and immersion/crystallization cycles. Qualitative findings guided quantitative analyses of CAHS data that assessed associations between insurance type and parental-reported unmet children's health care needs. Interviewees uniformly reported that stable health insurance was important, but there was no consensus regarding which type was superior. Quantitatively, there were only a few significant differences. Cross-sectionally, compared with private coverage, public coverage was associated with higher odds of unmet specialty care needs (odds ratio [OR] 3.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52-8.24). Comparing full-year coverage patterns, those with public coverage had lower odds of unmet prescription needs (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.36-0.99) and unmet mental health counseling needs (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.63), compared with privately covered children. Low-income Oregon parents reported few differences in their child's experience with private versus public coverage.

  10. Synthesis and magnetic properties of (Eu-Ni) substituted Y-type hexaferrite by surfactant assisted co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Irshad; Islam, M. U.; sadiq, Imran; Karamat, Nazia; Iftikhar, Aisha; khan, M. Azhar; Shah, Afzal; Athar, Muhammad; Shakir, Imran; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem

    2015-07-01

    A series of (Eu-Ni) substituted Y-type hexaferrite with composition Sr2Co(2-x)NixEuyFe(12-y)O22 (x=0.0-1, Y=0.0-0.1) were prepared by the surfactant assisted co-precipitation method. The present samples were sintered at 1050 °C for 8 h. The shape of the particles is plate-like which is very advantageous for various applications and the grain size varies from 73 to 269 nm. The values of saturation magnetization (Ms), remanent magnetization (Mr) and magnetic moment (nB) were found to decrease which are attributed to the weakening of super exchange interactions. The values of in-plane Squareness ratios (Mr/Ms) ranging from 0.41 to 0.65 whereas in case of out of plane measurement it varies from 0.30 to 0.62.The investigated samples can be used in perpendicular recording media (PRM) due to high value of coercivity 2300 Oe which is analogous to the those of M-type and W-type hard magnetic.

  11. Assessment of the Relationship between Diabetic Retinopathy and Nailfold Capillaries in Type 2 Diabetics with a Noninvasive Method: Nailfold Videocapillaroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Balkarlı, Ayşe; Yeşil, Bayram; Tokuç, Abdullah; Durmaz, Doğan; Görar, Süheyla; Çekin, Ayhan Hilmi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Nailfold capillaroscopy is an easy and noninvasive technique used to investigate dermal microvasculature. Traditional investigations of vascularity do not detect changes until they are well-established in type 2 diabetics. The objective of the current study was to evaluate nailfold capillaries in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and to determine the association of retinopathy with changes in the nailfold capillaries. Materials and Methods. Capillaroscopic findings by nailfold capillaroscopy and fundoscopic examinations were assessed in 216 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 101 healthy controls included in this prospective study. Results. Retinopathy was detected in 43.05% of diabetic patients (n = 93). Capillaroscopic findings including tortuosity (p < 0.001), bushy capillary (p < 0.001), neoformation (p < 0.001), bizarre capillary (p < 0.001), microhemorrhage (p = 0.001), capillary ectasia (p = 0.002), and aneurysm (p = 0.004) were significantly higher in diabetic group than control group. In logistic regression analysis, only tortuosity was shown significant (OR, 2.16; p = 0.036). There was also a significant relation between diabetes duration and most of the capillaroscopic findings. Conclusion. Capillaroscopic changes were found to be correlated with diabetic retinopathy, in particular with longer disease duration in our study. Capillaroscopic imaging could be a useful new technique for assessment of diabetic microvascular changes. PMID:28058264

  12. A Novel Feature Extraction Method with Feature Selection to Identify Golgi-Resident Protein Types from Imbalanced Data

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi Apparatus (GA) is a major collection and dispatch station for numerous proteins destined for secretion, plasma membranes and lysosomes. The dysfunction of GA proteins can result in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, accurate identification of protein subGolgi localizations may assist in drug development and understanding the mechanisms of the GA involved in various cellular processes. In this paper, a new computational method is proposed for identifying cis-Golgi proteins from trans-Golgi proteins. Based on the concept of Common Spatial Patterns (CSP), a novel feature extraction technique is developed to extract evolutionary information from protein sequences. To deal with the imbalanced benchmark dataset, the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE) is adopted. A feature selection method called Random Forest-Recursive Feature Elimination (RF-RFE) is employed to search the optimal features from the CSP based features and g-gap dipeptide composition. Based on the optimal features, a Random Forest (RF) module is used to distinguish cis-Golgi proteins from trans-Golgi proteins. Through the jackknife cross-validation, the proposed method achieves a promising performance with a sensitivity of 0.889, a specificity of 0.880, an accuracy of 0.885, and a Matthew’s Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.765, which remarkably outperforms previous methods. Moreover, when tested on a common independent dataset, our method also achieves a significantly improved performance. These results highlight the promising performance of the proposed method to identify Golgi-resident protein types. Furthermore, the CSP based feature extraction method may provide guidelines for protein function predictions. PMID:26861308

  13. A Novel Feature Extraction Method with Feature Selection to Identify Golgi-Resident Protein Types from Imbalanced Data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Lina

    2016-02-06

    The Golgi Apparatus (GA) is a major collection and dispatch station for numerous proteins destined for secretion, plasma membranes and lysosomes. The dysfunction of GA proteins can result in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, accurate identification of protein subGolgi localizations may assist in drug development and understanding the mechanisms of the GA involved in various cellular processes. In this paper, a new computational method is proposed for identifying cis-Golgi proteins from trans-Golgi proteins. Based on the concept of Common Spatial Patterns (CSP), a novel feature extraction technique is developed to extract evolutionary information from protein sequences. To deal with the imbalanced benchmark dataset, the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE) is adopted. A feature selection method called Random Forest-Recursive Feature Elimination (RF-RFE) is employed to search the optimal features from the CSP based features and g-gap dipeptide composition. Based on the optimal features, a Random Forest (RF) module is used to distinguish cis-Golgi proteins from trans-Golgi proteins. Through the jackknife cross-validation, the proposed method achieves a promising performance with a sensitivity of 0.889, a specificity of 0.880, an accuracy of 0.885, and a Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.765, which remarkably outperforms previous methods. Moreover, when tested on a common independent dataset, our method also achieves a significantly improved performance. These results highlight the promising performance of the proposed method to identify Golgi-resident protein types. Furthermore, the CSP based feature extraction method may provide guidelines for protein function predictions.

  14. Frontiers of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. Part 2. Perturbation methods, fields of applications, and types of analytical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Isao

    2014-07-01

    Noteworthy experimental practices, which are advancing forward the frontiers of the field of two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy, are reviewed with the focus on various perturbation methods currently practiced to induce spectral changes, pertinent examples of applications in various fields, and types of analytical probes employed. Types of perturbation methods found in the published literature are very diverse, encompassing both dynamic and static effects. Although a sizable portion of publications report the use of dynamic perturbatuions, much greater number of studies employ static effect, especially that of temperature. Fields of applications covered by the literature are also very broad, ranging from fundamental research to practical applications in a number of physical, chemical and biological systems, such as synthetic polymers, composites and biomolecules. Aside from IR spectroscopy, which is the most commonly used tool, many other analytical probes are used in 2D correlation analysis. The ever expanding trend in depth, breadth and versatility of 2D correlation spectroscopy techniques and their broad applications all point to the robust and healthy state of the field.

  15. Solubility of 238U radionuclide from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids using "US in vitro" digestion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Sarmani, Sukiman; Majid, Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2015-04-01

    238U radionuclide is a naturally occuring radioactive material that can be found in soil. In this study, the solubility of 238U radionuclide obtained from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids was analysed by "US P in vitro" digestion method. The synthetic gastrointestinal fluids were added to the samples with well-ordered, mixed throughly and incubated according to the human physiology digestive system. The concentration of 238U radionuclide in the solutions extracted from the soil was measured using Induced Coupling Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of 238U radionuclide from the soil samples in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids showed different values due to different homogenity of soil types and chemical reaction of 238U radionuclide. In general, the solubility of 238U radionuclide in gastric fluid was higher (0.050 - 0.209 ppm) than gastrointestinal fluids (0.024 - 0.050 ppm). It could be concluded that the US P in vitro digestion method is practicle for estimating the solubility of 238U radionuclide from soil materials and could be useful for monitoring and risk assessment purposes applying to environmental, health and contaminated soil samples.

  16. Solubility assessment of 232Th from various types of soil in Malaysia using USP and DIN In Vitro digestion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Perama, Yasmin Mohd Idris; Salih, Fitri Hakeem Mohd; Sarmani, Sukiman; Majid, Amran Ab.; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2016-11-01

    The overall results of the study showed that the concentrations of 232Th radionuclide using DIN digestion method during gastric phase are 0.0015 mg/kg - 0.0554 mg/kg and 0.0015 mg/kg - 0.0139 mg/kg during intestinal phase, respectively. As for USP digestion method during gastric phase are between 0.0877 mg/kg - 0.4964 mg/kg and 0.0207 mg/kg - 0.2291 mg/kg. The results from the measurements in various types of soils indicates some elevation of 232Th concentration in some types of soil compared to UNSCEAR reference values, in which may be a result from the impact of previous mining activity in the surrounding area and considered to be safe. In general, the results of 232Th concentrations from in vitro extraction technique is considered to be safe. By natural processes, thorium ingestion is getting transferred to living beings through different pathways and need to be monitored in order to assess possible hazards. Environmental studies are generally carried out to trace the pathway of radionuclides/radiotoxic elements to reach living organism. Environmental monitoring and meaningful interpretation of data from man-made pollution are more complicated without adequate knowledge about the natural abundance of radioactive elements in the environment.

  17. Impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomic instability on the application of typing methods for chronic cystic fibrosis infections.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Joanne L; White, Judith; Foweraker, Juliet E; Walshaw, Martin J; Ledson, Martin J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Winstanley, Craig

    2010-06-01

    The Liverpool epidemic strain (LES) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is widespread among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients in the United Kingdom and has emerged recently in North America. In this study, we report the analysis of 24 "anomalous" CF isolates of P. aeruginosa that produced inconsistent results with regard to either pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or PCR tests for the LES. We used a new typing method, the ArrayTube genotyping system, to determine that of the 24 anomalous isolates tested, 13 were confirmed as the LES. LES isolates could not be clearly distinguished from non-LES isolates by two other commonly used genetic fingerprinting tests, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and BOX-PCR, and varied considerably in their carriage of LES genomic islands and prophages. The genomic instability of the LES suggests that identification of this emerging transmissible strain could be a challenging task, and it questions whether discrimination is always a desirable feature of bacterial typing methods in the context of chronic CF infections.

  18. Comparative studies on p-type CuI grown on glass and copper substrate by SILAR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Sunetra L.; Latthe, Sanjay S.; Kappenstein, Charles; Mukherjee, S. K.; Rao, A. Venkateswara

    2010-04-01

    Depending upon the method of synthesis and the nature of substrate surface, there is variation in the physico-chemical properties of the material. Cuprous iodide films are deposited at room temperature on the glass and copper substrates by a simple SILAR method and the obtained results are compared. The p-type material with optical band gap 2.88 eV is found to be possessing face-centered cubic crystal structure with lattice parameter 6.134 Å. We observed irregular particles for the CuI film on the glass substrate while patterned arrays of micro-rods with cabbage like tips on copper substrate, for the same preparative conditions. Also, the material deposited on copper is showing superhydrophobic nature (contact angle ˜156°) while that on glass it is hydrophilic (contact angle ˜88°). We have characterized the thin films by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness and contact angle measurement, thermoelectric power measurement and optical studies. This hydrophobic, p-type material with wide band gap will be helpful in the development of optoelectronic devices.

  19. The effects of fuel type in synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles by microwave assisted combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcıoğlu Karakaş, Zeynep; Boncukçuoğlu, Recep; Karakaş, İbrahim H.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, it was investigated the effects of the used fuels on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of nanoparticles in nanoparticle synthesis with microwave assisted combustion method with an important method in quick, simple and low cost at synthesis of the nanoparticles. In this aim, glycine, urea and citric acid were used as fuel, respectively. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area (BET), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) techniques. We observed that fuel type is quite effective on magnetic properties and surface properties of the nanoparticles. X-ray difractograms of the obtained nanoparticles were compared with standard powder diffraction cards of NiFe2O4 (JCPDS Card Number 54-0964). The results demonstrated that difractograms are fully compatible with standard reflection peaks. According to the results of the XRD analysis, the highest crystallinity was observed at nanoparticles synthesized with glycine. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles prepared with urea has the highest surface area. The micrographs of SEM showed that all of the nanoparticles have nano-crystalline behaviour and particles indication cubic shape. VSM analysis demonstrated that the type of fuel used for synthesis is highly effective a parameter on magnetic properties of nanoparticles.

  20. Evaluation of DNA typing as a positive identification method for soft and hard tissues immersed in strong acids.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Pazzi, M; Di Vella, G; Martinelli, D; Mazzola, L; Ricci, U; Testi, R; Vincenti, M

    2015-11-01

    Identification of human remains can be hindered by several factors (e.g., traumatic mutilation, carbonization or decomposition). Moreover, in some criminal cases, offenders may purposely adopt various expedients to thwart the victim's identification, including the dissolution of body tissues by the use of corrosive reagents, as repeatedly reported in the past for Mafia-related murders. By means of an animal model, namely porcine samples, we evaluated standard DNA typing as a method for identifying soft (muscle) and hard (bone and teeth) tissues immersed in strong acids (hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acid) or in mixtures of acids (aqua regia). Samples were tested at different time intervals, ranging between 2 and 6h (soft tissues) and 2-28 days (hard tissues). It was shown that, in every type of acid, complete degradation of the DNA extracted from soft tissues preceded tissue dissolution and could be observed within 4h of immersion. Conversely, high molecular weight DNA amenable to STR analysis could be isolated from hard tissues as long as cortical bone fragments were still present (28 days for sulfuric acid, 7 days for nitric acid, 2 days for hydrochloric acid and aqua regia), or the integrity of the dental pulp chamber was preserved (7 days, in sulfuric acid only). The results indicate that DNA profiling of acid-treated body parts (in particular, cortical bone) is still feasible at advanced stages of corrosion, even when the morphological methods used in forensic anthropology and odontology can no longer be applied for identification purposes.

  1. Determination of the Viability of Aeromonas hydrophila in Different Types of Water by Flow Cytometry, and Comparison with Classical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pianetti, Anna; Falcioni, Tania; Bruscolini, Francesca; Sabatini, Luigia; Sisti, Elivio; Papa, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    The presence of Aeromonas spp. in water can represent a risk for human health. Therefore, it is important to know the physiological status of these bacteria and their survival in the environment. We studied the behavior of a strain of Aeromonas hydrophila in river water, spring water, brackish water, mineral water, and chlorinated drinking water, which had different physical and chemical characteristics. The bacterial content was evaluated by spectrophotometric and plate count techniques. Flow cytometric determination of viability was carried out using a dual-staining technique that enabled us to distinguish viable bacteria from damaged and membrane-compromised bacteria. The traditional methods showed that the bacterial content was variable and dependent on the type of water. The results obtained from the plate count analysis correlated with the absorbance data. In contrast, the flow cytometric analysis results did not correlate with the results obtained by traditional methods; in fact, this technique showed that there were viable cells even when the optical density was low or no longer detectable and there was no plate count value. According to our results, flow cytometry is a suitable method for assessing the viability of bacteria in water samples. Furthermore, it permits fast detection of bacteria that are in a viable but nonculturable state, which are not detectable by conventional methods. PMID:16332772

  2. A New Aspergillus fumigatus Typing Method Based on Hypervariable Tandem Repeats Located within Exons of Surface Protein Coding Genes (TRESP)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rubio, Rocio; Gil, Horacio; Monteiro, Maria Candida; Pelaez, Teresa; Mellado, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic mold fungus ubiquitously found in the environment and is the most common species causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. For A. fumigatus genotyping, the short tandem repeat method (STRAf) is widely accepted as the first choice. However, difficulties associated with PCR product size and required technology have encouraged the development of novel typing techniques. In this study, a new genotyping method based on hypervariable tandem repeats within exons of surface protein coding genes (TRESP) was designed. A. fumigatus isolates were characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing with a panel of three TRESP encoding genes: cell surface protein A; MP-2 antigenic galactomannan protein; and hypothetical protein with a CFEM domain. The allele sequence repeats of each of the three targets were combined to assign a specific genotype. For the evaluation of this method, 126 unrelated A. fumigatus strains were analyzed and 96 different genotypes were identified, showing a high level of discrimination [Simpson’s index of diversity (D) 0.994]. In addition, 49 azole resistant strains were analyzed identifying 26 genotypes and showing a lower D value (0.890) among them. This value could indicate that these resistant strains are closely related and share a common origin, although more studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. In summary, a novel genotyping method for A. fumigatus has been developed which is reproducible, easy to perform, highly discriminatory and could be especially useful for studying outbreaks. PMID:27701437

  3. Paleoepidemiologic investigation of Legionnaires disease at Wadsworth Veterans Administration Hospital by using three typing methods for comparison of legionellae from clinical and environmental sources.

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, P H; Nakahama, C; Tobin, J O; Calarco, K; Beer, K B; Joly, J R; Selander, R K

    1986-01-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, monoclonal antibody typing for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, and plasmid analysis were used to type 89 L. pneumophila strains isolated from nosocomial cases of Legionnaires disease at the Veterans Administration Wadsworth Medical Center (VAWMC) and from the hospital environment. Twelve L. pneumophila clinical isolates, obtained from patients at non-VAWMC hospitals, were also typed by the same methods to determine typing specificity. Seventy-nine percent of 33 VAWMC L. pneumophila serogroup 1 clinical isolates and 70% of 23 environmental isolates were found in only one of the five monoclonal subgroups. Similar clustering was found for the other two typing methods, with excellent correlation between all methods. Enzyme electrophoretic typing divided the isolates into the greatest number of distinct groups, resulting in the identification of 10 different L. pneumophila types and 5 types not belonging to L. pneumophila, which probably constitute an undescribed Legionella species; 7 clinical and 34 environmental VAWMC isolates and 2 non-VAWMC clinical isolates were found to be members of the new species. Twelve different plasmid patterns were found; 95% of VAWMC clinical isolates contained plasmids. Major VAWMC epidemic-bacterial types were common in the hospital potable-water distribution system and cooling towers. Strains of L. pneumophila which persisted after disinfection of contaminated environmental sites were of a different type from the prechlorination strains. All three typing methods were useful in the epidemiologic analysis of the VAWMC outbreak. PMID:3711303

  4. The research of calibration method on lens-tilt displacement transmission-type system based on the aberration bounded model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chun-mei; Liu, Bing-qi; Li, Li; Huang, Fu-yu; Zhang, Chu

    2015-10-01

    As the developing appliance range of high-resolution optical design, the requirement on the aberration of system design is becoming higher and higher, but the installation and adjustment error of optical components is an important element which influences the aberration. The decentration and tilt of optical components result not only the image lateral displacement but also the aberration enlargement of the optical system, the research on image quality of plane symmetric optical system is becoming more and more popular. The Gaussian correction methods on lens decentration already exist, but it is short of theoretical research to guide the correction on the lens tilt, which leads to the effect of image lateral displacement. This thesis analyzes theoretically a mathematical model between the lens tilt degree and wave aberration, and deduces mathematically the correction equation of zero aberration increment under the aberration constraint condition. Taking an example of some type optical sight, the ZEMAX simulation is carried out to validate this method, and the results show that: This method can effectively guide the correction of lens tilt, and reduce the influence of lens position change on the optical imaging quality. It has important practical significance to guide high-resolution optical design.

  5. Simultaneous determination of methylxanthines in different types of tea by a newly developed and validated TLC method.

    PubMed

    Cimpoiu, Claudia; Hosu, Anamaria; Seserman, Liana; Sandru, Mihaela; Miclaus, Vasile

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a new simple, fast and economical method for simultaneous quantitative determination of methylxanthine compounds based on TLC combined with image analysis. To obtain certain results, both extraction and chromatographic separation were optimized. The optimum extraction conditions were maceration in ethanol-water 8:2, v/v. The chromatographic separations were done on the silica gel F(254) TLC plates developed with chloroform-dichloromethane-isopropanol, 4:2:1 v/v/v. Detection was performed under UV lamp at 254 nm and the evaluation of the chromatographic plate was based on digital processing of chromatographic images. The developed TLC method was validated for parameters such as specificity, linearity and range, LOD and LOQ, precision, robustness and accuracy. This method was then applied for determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in different types of tea, commercially available. Moreover, the content of methylxanthines detected and determined in commercial tea samples can be used as chemical marker in quality control.

  6. Performance of DFT+U method for prediction of structural and thermodynamic parameters of monazite-type ceramics.

    PubMed

    Blanca Romero, Ariadna; Kowalski, Piotr M; Beridze, George; Schlenz, Hartmut; Bosbach, Dirk

    2014-07-05

    We performed a density functional theory (DFT) study of the monazite-type ceramics using DFT+U method, where the Hubbard U parameters are derived ab initio, with the main goal in testing the predictive power of this computational method for modeling of f-electron materials that are of interest in nuclear waste management. We show that DFT+U approach with PBEsol as the exchange-correlation functional significantly improves description of structures and thermodynamic parameters of lanthanide-bearing oxides and monazites over commonly used standard DFT (PBE) approach. We found that it is essential to use the Hubbard U parameter derived for a given element and a given structure to reproduce the structural parameters of the measured materials. We obtained exceptionally good description of the structural parameters with U parameter derived using the linear response approach of Cococcioni and de Gironcoli (Phys. Rev. B 2005, 71, 035105). This shows that affordable methods, such as DFT+U with a clever choice of exchange-correlation functional and the Hubbard U parameter can lead to a good description of f-electron materials.

  7. The method for recovering the soft information in the protocol stacks in type of WIFI and WIMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yi; Kieffer, Michel; Liu, Deming

    2009-08-01

    The paper will present the method for recovering the soft information in the protocol stacks in type of WIFI and WIMAX, which is based on the joint source-channel decoding (JSCD) techniques with enhanced permeable layer mechanism used for wireless multimedia transmission. Packet header recovery at varieties of protocol layers using MAP estimation is the cornerstone of the proposed method. The inherently obtainable correlation of intro-layer and inter-layer header proves to be effective in picking out a simplified set of header configurations for further processing. The best candidate is then obtained using the soft decoding of CRC or Checksum protected data and CRC or Checksum redundancy itself. Finally, with a simulating program written by C++, we can prove that a multimedia transmission system added an AWGN channel (Gaussian noise of zero mean and variance s 2 ) using the method proposed in the paper can really obtain a significant improvement of ENR at the receiver, and effective make the band of transmission much wider and the quality of transmission much better.

  8. DNA typing methods for differentiation of Debaryomyces hansenii strains and other yeasts related to surface ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Petersen, K M; Møller, P L; Jespersen, L

    2001-09-19

    The discriminative power of ITS-PCR, ITS-PCR RFLP and mitochondrial (mt)-DNA RFLP were evaluated for differentiation of yeasts of importance for surface ripened cheeses. In total 60 isolates were included. Of these, 40 strains of the following species, Debaryomyces hansenii var. hansenii, D. hansenii var. fabryi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida zeylanoides, Kluyveromyces lactis and Yarrowia lipolytica, were obtained from culture collections and 20 isolates of D. hansenii representing six different phenotypes were collected from seven Danish producers of surface ripened cheeses. ITS-PCR was evaluated for differentiation at species level on the 40 strains obtained from culture collections. Ten strains of each variety of D. hansenii and five strains of each of the above mentioned species were analysed. For each of the investigated species, a specific ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region size was observed. Accordingly ITS-PCR was found valuable for differentiation at species level of yeasts of importance for surface ripened cheeses. ITS-PCR RFLP was investigated for the purpose of strain typing of D. hansenii. Ten CBS strains of each variety of D. hansenii were analysed. Only one enzyme (TaqI) out of several investigated (BamHI, DpnI, Fnu4HI, HaeIII, HindIII, HpaII, NlaII, Sau3AI, TaqI) demonstrated genetic diversity within the strains. This enzyme divided the 20 strains in three groups. Sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region for the type strains of each variety of D. hansenii showed an identity of 99.84%, corresponding to a difference in one basepair. Based on these results, ITS-PCR RFLP was found ineffective for strain typing of D. hansenii. MtDNA RFLP using HaeIII and HpaII was evaluated for strain typing of D. hansenii on the 20 CBS strains of D. hansenii. The CBS strains were divided into 16 groups according to their restriction profiles, which proved the method useful for typing of D. hansenii at subspecies level. The 20 dairy isolates showed a lower genetic

  9. Microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorptive behavior of doped W-type hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Gordani, Gholam Reza Mohseni, Marzieh; Ghasemi, Ali; Hosseini, Sayed Rahman

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • High frequency properties of substituted W-type Sr-hexaferrite. • Saturation magnetization of samples is decreased with increasing of dopants content. • The ferrite sample covers about 6 GHz of bandwidth in K{sub u} band. • The optimum substituted samples can be used as a potential magnetic loss material. • Sample contain x = 0.4 of dopants have shown greater than 90% of reflection loss. - Abstract: Substituted W-type hexaferrite nanoparticles of SrZn{sub 2−x}Co{sub x/2}Ni{sub x/2}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction results confirmed that W-type ferrite was identified as the main phase in whole samples in the range of x = 0–0.4. According to magnetic hysteresis loops, with increasing of substituted cations, saturation of magnetization increased and coercivity decreased due to crystalline site occupation of Zn with Ni and Co cations. The microwave reflection loss analysis results in the K{sub u} band (12–18 GHz) show that the highest value of reflection loss of samples was −29.11 dB at frequency of 14.57 GHz with an absorption bandwidth of more than 6 GHz by choosing reflection loss value of −10 dB as a reference. The results indicate that, the sample with appropriate amount of substituted cations hold great promise for microwave device applications.

  10. Mixed methods study of engagement in behaviors to prevent type 2 diabetes among employees with pre-diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Knaus, Megan; Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig; Heisler, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Background Many employers use screenings to identify and recommend modification of employees' risk factors for type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about how often employees then engage in recommended behaviors and what factors influence engagement. We examined the frequency of, facilitators of, and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors among employees found to have pre-diabetes during a workplace screening. Methods We surveyed 82 University of Michigan employees who were found to have pre-diabetes during a 2014 workplace screening and compared the characteristics of employees who 3 months later were and were not engaged in recommended behaviors. We interviewed 40 of these employees to identify the facilitators of and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors. Results 3 months after screening, 54% of employees with pre-diabetes reported attempting to lose weight and getting recommended levels of physical activity, had asked their primary care provider about metformin for diabetes prevention, or had attended a Diabetes Prevention Program. These employees had higher median levels of motivation to prevent type 2 diabetes (9/10 vs 7/10, p<0.001) and lower median estimations of their risk for type 2 diabetes (40% vs 60%, p=0.02). Key facilitators of engagement were high motivation and social and external supports. Key barriers were lack of motivation and resources, and competing demands. Conclusions Most employees found to have pre-diabetes through a workplace screening were engaged in a recommended preventive behavior 3 months after the screening. This engagement could be enhanced by optimizing motivation and risk perception as well as leveraging social networks and external supports. PMID:27738513

  11. Minority-carrier lifetime and defect content of n-type silicon grown by the noncontact crucible method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivambe, Maulid; Powell, Douglas M.; Castellanos, Sergio; Ann Jensen, Mallory; Morishige, Ashley E.; Nakajima, Kazuo; Morishita, Kohei; Murai, Ryota; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2014-12-01

    We evaluate minority-carrier lifetime and defect content of n-type photovoltaic silicon grown by the noncontact crucible method (NOC-Si). Although bulk impurity concentrations are measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy to be less than one part per million, homogeneously throughout the as-grown material we observe lifetimes in the 150 μs range, well below the theoretical entitlement of single-crystalline silicon. These observations suggest the presence of homogeneously distributed recombination-active point defects. We compare an industry-standard gettering profile to an extended gettering profile tailored for chromium extraction, to elucidate potential gains and limitations of impurity gettering. Near the ingot top, gettering improves lifetimes to 750 and >1800 μs for standard and extended profiles, respectively. Relatively lower gettered lifetimes are observed in wafers extracted from the ingot middle and bottom. In these regions, concentric-swirl patterns of low lifetime are revealed after gettering. We hypothesize that gettering removes a large fraction of fast-diffusing recombination-active impurities, while swirl microdefect regions reminiscent of Czochralski silicon can locally limit gettering efficiency and lifetime. Apart from these swirl microdefects, a low dislocation density of <103 cm-2 is observed. The millisecond lifetimes and low dislocation density suggest that, by applying appropriate bulk microdefect and impurity control during growth and/or gettering, n-type NOC-Si can readily support solar cells with efficiencies >23%.

  12. PEG precipitation coupled with chromatography is a new and sufficient method for the purification of botulinum neurotoxin type B [corrected].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yao; Kang, Lin; Gao, Shan; Gao, Xing; Xin, Wenwen; Wang, Jinglin

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins are used to treat a variety of neuro-muscular disorders, as well as in cosmetology. The increased demand requires efficient methods for the production and purification of these toxins. In this study, a new purification process was developed for purifying type B neurotoxin. The kinetics of C.botulinum strain growth and neurotoxin production were determined for maximum yield of toxin. The neurotoxin was purified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and chromatography. Based on design of full factorial experiment, 20% (w/v) PEG-6000, 4 °C, pH 5.0 and 0.3 M NaCl were optimal conditions to obtain a high recovery rate of 87% for the type B neurotoxin complex, as indicated by a purification factor of 61.5 fold. Furthermore, residual bacterial cells, impurity proteins and some nucleic acids were removed by PEG precipitation. The following purification of neurotoxin was accomplished by two chromatography techniques using Sephacryl™ S-100 and phenyl HP columns. The neurotoxin was recovered with an overall yield of 21.5% and the purification factor increased to 216.7 fold. In addition, a mouse bioassay determined the purified neurotoxin complex possessed a specific toxicity (LD(50)) of 4.095 ng/kg.

  13. Application of four molecular typing methods for analysis of Mycobacterium fortuitum group strains causing post-mammaplasty infections.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, J L M; Chimara, E; Ferrazoli, L; da Silva Telles, M A; Del Guercio, V M F; Jericó, Z V N; Miyashiro, K; Fortaleza, C M C B; Padoveze, M C; Leão, S C

    2006-02-01

    A cluster of cases of post-augmentation mammaplasty surgical site infections occurred between 2002 and 2004 in Campinas, in the southern region of Brazil. Rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from samples from 12 patients. Eleven isolates were identified as Mycobacterium fortuitum and one as Mycobacterium porcinum by PCR-restriction digestion of the hsp65 gene. These 12 isolates, plus six additional M. fortuitum isolates from non-related patients, were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and three PCR-based techniques: 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genotyping; randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR; and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR. Four novel M. fortuitum allelic variants were identified by restriction analysis of the ITS fragment. One major cluster, comprising six M. fortuitum isolates, and a second cluster of two isolates, were identified by the four methods. RAPD-PCR and ITS genotyping were less discriminative than ERIC-PCR. ERIC-PCR was comparable to PFGE as a valuable complementary tool for investigation of this type of outbreak.

  14. PCV2 on the spot-A new method for the detection of single porcine circovirus type 2 secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Fossum, Caroline; Hjertner, Bernt; Lövgren, Tanja; Fuxler, Lisbeth; Charerntantanakul, Wasin; Wallgren, Per

    2014-02-01

    A porcine circovirus type 2 SPOT (PCV2-SPOT) assay was established to enumerate virus-secreting lymphocytes obtained from naturally infected pigs. The assay is based on the same principle as general ELISPOT assays but instead of detecting cytokine or immunoglobulin secretion, PCV2 particles are immobilized and detected as filter spots. The method was used to evaluate the influence of various cell activators on the PCV2 secretion in vitro and was also applied to study the PCV2 secretion by lymphocytes obtained from pigs in healthy herds and in a herd afflicted by postweaning multisystemic wasting disease (PMWS). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from a pig with severe PMWS produced PCV2-SPOTs spontaneously whereas PBMCs obtained from pigs infected subclinically only generated PCV2-SPOTs upon in vitro stimulation. The PCV2 secretion potential was related to the PCV2 DNA content in the PBMCs as determined by two PCV2 real-time PCR assays, developed to differentiate between Swedish PCV2 genogroups 1 (PCV2a) and 3 (PCV2b). Besides the current application these qPCRs could simplify future epidemiological studies and allow genogroup detection/quantitation in dual infection experiments and similar studies. The developed PCV2-SPOT assay offers a semi-quantitative approach to evaluate the potential of PCV2-infected porcine cells to release PCV2 viral particles as well as a system to evaluate the ability of different cell types or compounds to affect PCV2 replication and secretion.

  15. A Novel Approach for Weed Type Classification Based on Shape Descriptors and a Fuzzy Decision-Making Method

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Pedro Javier; Dorado, José.; Ribeiro, Ángela.

    2014-01-01

    An important objective in weed management is the discrimination between grasses (monocots) and broad-leaved weeds (dicots), because these two weed groups can be appropriately controlled by specific herbicides. In fact, efficiency is higher if selective treatment is performed for each type of infestation instead of using a broadcast herbicide on the whole surface. This work proposes a strategy where weeds are characterised by a set of shape descriptors (the seven Hu moments and six geometric shape descriptors). Weeds appear in outdoor field images which display real situations obtained from a RGB camera. Thus, images present a mixture of both weed species under varying conditions of lighting. In the presented approach, four decision-making methods were adapted to use the best shape descriptors as attributes and a choice was taken. This proposal establishes a novel methodology with a high success rate in weed species discrimination. PMID:25195854

  16. A novel approach for weed type classification based on shape descriptors and a fuzzy decision-making method.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Pedro Javier; Dorado, José; Ribeiro, Ángela

    2014-08-19

    An important objective in weed management is the discrimination between grasses (monocots) and broad-leaved weeds (dicots), because these two weed groups can be appropriately controlled by specific herbicides. In fact, efficiency is higher if selective treatment is performed for each type of infestation instead of using a broadcast herbicide on the whole surface. This work proposes a strategy where weeds are characterised by a set of shape descriptors (the seven Hu moments and six geometric shape descriptors). Weeds appear in outdoor field images which display real situations obtained from a RGB camera. Thus, images present a mixture of both weed species under varying conditions of lighting. In the presented approach, four decision-making methods were adapted to use the best shape descriptors as attributes and a choice was taken. This proposal establishes a novel methodology with a high success rate in weed species discrimination.

  17. Sorting of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes According to Their Outer Wall Electronic Type via a Gel Permeation Method.

    PubMed

    Moore, Katherine E; Pfohl, Moritz; Tune, Daniel D; Hennrich, Frank; Dehm, Simone; Chakradhanula, Venkata Sai K; Kübel, Christian; Krupke, Ralph; Flavel, Benjamin S

    2015-04-28

    In this work, we demonstrate the application of the gel permeation technique to the sorting of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) according to their outer wall electronic type. Our method uses Sephacryl S-200 gel and yields sorted fractions of DWCNTs with impurities removed and highly enriched in nanotubes with either metallic (M) or semiconducting (S) outer walls. The prepared fractions are fully characterized using optical absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, and the entire procedure is monitored in real time using process Raman analysis. The sorted DWCNTs are then integrated into single nanotube field effect transistors, allowing detailed electronic measurement of the transconductance properties of the four unique inner@outer wall combinations of S@S, S@M, M@S, and M@M.

  18. Solar Cell Efficiency and High Temperature Processing of n-type Silicon Grown by the Noncontact Crucible Method

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Mallory A.; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Morishige, Ashley E.; Nakajima, Kazuo; Veschetti, Yannick; Jay, Frederic; Jouini, Anis; Youssef, Amanda; Stradins, Paul; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-08-01

    The capital expense (capex) of conventional crystal growth methods is a barrier to sustainable growth of the photovoltaic industry. It is challenging for innovative techniques to displace conventional growth methods due the low dislocation density and high lifetime required for high efficiency devices. One promising innovation in crystal growth is the noncontact crucible method (NOC-Si), which combines aspects of Czochralski (Cz) and conventional casting. This material has the potential to satisfy the dual requirements, with capex likely between that of Cz (high capex) and multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si, low capex). In this contribution, we observe a strong dependence of solar cell efficiency on ingot height, correlated with the evolution of swirl-like defects, for single crystalline n-type silicon grown by the NOC-Si method. We posit that these defects are similar to those observed in Cz, and we explore the response of NOC-Si to high temperature treatments including phosphorous diffusion gettering (PDG) and Tabula Rasa (TR). The highest lifetimes (2033 us for the top of the ingot and 342 us for the bottom of the ingot) are achieved for TR followed by a PDG process comprising a standard plateau and a low temperature anneal. Further improvements can be gained by tailoring the time-temperature profiles of each process. Lifetime analysis after the PDG process indicates the presence of a getterable impurity in the as-grown material, while analysis after TR points to the presence of oxide precipitates especially at the bottom of the ingot. Uniform lifetime degradation is observed after TR which we assign to a presently unknown defect. Future work includes additional TR processing to uncover the nature of this defect, microstructural characterization of suspected oxide precipitates, and optimization of the TR process to achieve the dual goals of high lifetime and spatial homogenization.

  19. A PCR-based genotyping method to distinguish between wild-type and ornamental varieties of Imperata cylindrica.

    PubMed

    Cseke, Leland J; Talley, Sharon M

    2012-02-20

    Wild-type I. cylindrica (cogongrass) is one of the top ten worst invasive plants in the world, negatively impacting agricultural and natural resources in 73 different countries throughout Africa, Asia, Europe, New Zealand, Oceania and the Americas(1-2). Cogongrass forms rapidly-spreading, monodominant stands that displace a large variety of native plant species and in turn threaten the native animals that depend on the displaced native plant species for forage and shelter. To add to the problem, an ornamental variety [I. cylindrica var. koenigii (Retzius)] is widely marketed under the names of Imperata cylindrica 'Rubra', Red Baron, and Japanese blood grass (JBG). This variety is putatively sterile and noninvasive and is considered a desirable ornamental for its red-colored leaves. However, under the correct conditions, JBG can produce viable seed (Carol Holko, 2009 personal communication) and can revert to a green invasive form that is often indistinguishable from cogongrass as it takes on the distinguishing characteristics of the wild-type invasive variety(4) (Figure 1). This makes identification using morphology a difficult task even for well-trained plant taxonomists. Reversion of JBG to an aggressive green phenotype is also not a rare occurrence. Using sequence comparisons of coding and variable regions in both nuclear and chloroplast DNA, we have confirmed that JBG has reverted to the green invasive within the states of Maryland, South Carolina, and Missouri. JBG has been sold and planted in just about every state in the continental U.S. where there is not an active cogongrass infestation. The extent of the revert problem in not well understood because reverted plants are undocumented and often destroyed. Application of this molecular protocol provides a method to identify JBG reverts and can help keep these varieties from co-occurring and possibly hybridizing. Cogongrass is an obligate outcrosser and, when crossed with a different genotype, can produce

  20. A numerical method to enhance the performance of a cam-type electric motor-driven left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Ming; Lu, Cunyue; Xu, Liang; Zhuang, Xiaoqi; Meng, Fan

    2013-10-01

    Pulsatile left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) driven by electric motors have been widely accepted as a treatment of heart failure. Performance enhancement with computer assistance for this kind of LVAD has seldom been reported. In this article, a numerical method is proposed to assist the design of a cam-type pump. The method requires an integrated model of an LVAD system, consisting of a motor, a transmission mechanism, and a cardiovascular circulation. Performance indices, that is, outlet pressure, outlet flow, and pump efficiency, were used to select the best cam profile from six candidates. A prototype pump connected to a mock circulatory loop (MCL) was used to calibrate the friction coefficient of the cam groove and preliminarily evaluate modeling accuracy. In vitro experiments show that the mean outlet pressure and flow can be predicted with high accuracy by the model, and gross geometries of the measurements can also be reproduced. Simulation results demonstrate that as the total peripheral resistance (TPR) is fixed at 1.1 mm Hg.s/mL, the two-cycle 2/3-rise profile is the best. Compared with other profiles, the maximum increases of pressure and flow indices are 75 and 76%, respectively, and the maximum efficiency increase is over 51%. For different TPRs (0.5∼1.5 mm Hg.s/mL) and operation intervals (0.1∼0.4 s) in counterpulsation, the conclusion is also acceptable.

  1. An Empirical Fitting Method for Type Ia Supernova Light Curves: A Case Study of SN 2011fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2017-03-01

    We present a new empirical fitting method for the optical light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We find that a variant broken-power-law function provides a good fit, with the simple assumption that the optical emission is approximately the blackbody emission of the expanding fireball. This function is mathematically analytic and is derived directly from the photospheric velocity evolution. When deriving the function, we assume that both the blackbody temperature and photospheric velocity are constant, but the final function is able to accommodate these changes during the fitting procedure. Applying it to the case study of SN 2011fe gives a surprisingly good fit that can describe the light curves from the first-light time to a few weeks after peak brightness, as well as over a large range of fluxes (∼5 mag, and even ∼7 mag in the g band). Since SNe Ia share similar light-curve shapes, this fitting method has the potential to fit most other SNe Ia and characterize their properties in large statistical samples such as those already gathered and in the near future as new facilities become available.

  2. Investigation of calcium antagonist-L-type calcium channel interactions by a vascular smooth muscle cell membrane chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Du, Hui; He, Jianyu; Wang, Sicen; He, Langchong

    2010-07-01

    The dissociation equilibrium constant (K(D)) is an important affinity parameter for studying drug-receptor interactions. A vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell membrane chromatography (CMC) method was developed for determination of the K(D) values for calcium antagonist-L-type calcium channel (L-CC) interactions. VSM cells, by means of primary culture with rat thoracic aortas, were used for preparation of the cell membrane stationary phase in the VSM/CMC model. All measurements were performed with spectrophotometric detection (237 nm) at 37 degrees C. The K(D) values obtained using frontal analysis were 3.36 x 10(-6) M for nifedipine, 1.34 x 10(-6) M for nimodipine, 6.83 x 10(-7) M for nitrendipine, 1.23 x 10(-7) M for nicardipine, 1.09 x 10(-7) M for amlodipine, and 8.51 x 10(-8) M for verapamil. This affinity rank order obtained from the VSM/CMC method had a strong positive correlation with that obtained from radioligand binding assay. The location of the binding region was examined by displacement experiments using nitrendipine as a mobile-phase additive. It was found that verapamil occupied a class of binding sites on L-CCs different from those occupied by nitrendipine. In addition, nicardipine, amlodipine, and nitrendipine had direct competition at a single common binding site. The studies showed that CMC can be applied to the investigation of drug-receptor interactions.

  3. The Development of Screening Methods to Identify Drugs to Limit ER Stress Using Wild-type and Mutant Serotonin Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Katarao, Kazusa; Murakawa, Seiya; Asano, Masaya; Usuki, Naoto; Yamamoto, Hikaru; Shirafuji, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Shigeru; Hide, Izumi; Sakai, Norio

    2016-01-01

    The function of the serotonin transporter (SERT) is regulated by its membrane trafficking. Previously, we showed that the C-terminus-deleted mutant of SERT (SERTΔCT) exhibited an aberrant membrane trafficking and subsequent retention at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In addition, we found that proteasome inhibitor-induced ER stress resulted in the impairment of SERT membrane trafficking and retention of SERT at the ER, an impairment very similar to that of SERTΔCT. Based on the result that the chemical chaperone 4-phnylbutulic acid (4-PBA), which relieves ER stress, accelerated the membrane trafficking and upregulated SERT activity, we hypothesized that drugs that facilitate the membrane trafficking of SERT would have potential therapeutic effects on an ER stress-related disease. In this study, we aimed to develop simple screening methods for such drugs using SERT. We first validated the serotonin uptake assay using fluorescent substrates. This simple and reliable assay method was useful for screening for drugs that affected the wild-type SERT but not SERTΔCT. In addition, we verified an assay focusing on the formation of SERTΔCT aggregates. The drugs 4-PBA and SKF-10047 facilitated the trafficking of SERT to the membrane and reduced SERTΔCT aggregates, indicating that the drugs with such characters could be potential candidates for ER stress relief. For both assays, we clarified the usefulness of a high-content screening microscope. These results could pave the way for high-throughput screening for such drugs. PMID:28127108

  4. A quantitative real-time PCR method using an X-linked gene for sex typing in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Maria; Castelló, Anna; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Folch, Josep M

    2013-06-01

    At present, a wide range of molecular sex-typing protocols in wild and domestic animals are available. In pigs, most of these methods are based on PCR amplification of X-Y homologous genes followed by gel electrophoresis which is time-consuming and in some cases expensive. In this paper, we describe, for the first time, a SYBR green-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using an X-linked gene, the glycoprotein M6B, for genetic sexing of pigs. Taking into account the differences in the glycoprotein M6B gene copy number between genders, we determine the correct sex of 54 pig samples from either diaphragm or hair follicle from different breeds using the 2(-ΔΔCT) method for relative quantification. Our qPCR assay represents a quick, inexpensive, and reliable tool for sex determination in pigs. This new protocol could be easily adapted to other species in which the sex determination was required.

  5. Electron mobilities of n-type organic semiconductors from time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method: pentacenequinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, WeiWei; Zhong, XinXin; Zhao, Yi

    2012-11-26

    The electron mobilities of two n-type pentacenequinone derivative organic semiconductors, 5,7,12,14-tetraaza-6,13-pentacenequinone (TAPQ5) and 1,4,8,11-tetraaza-6,13-pentacenequinone (TAPQ7), are investigated with use of the methods of electronic structure and quantum dynamics. The electronic structure calculations reveal that the two key parameters for the control of electron transfer, reorganization energy and electronic coupling, are similar for these two isomerization systems, and the charge carriers essentially display one-dimensional transport properties. The mobilities are then calculated by using the time-dependent wavepacket diffusion approach in which the dynamic fluctuations of the electronic couplings are incorporated via their correlation functions obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The predicted mobility of TAPQ7 crystal is about six times larger than that of TAPQ5 crystal. Most interestingly, Fermi's golden rule predicts the mobilities very close to those from the time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method, even though the electronic couplings are explicitly large enough to make the perturbation theory invalid. The possible reason is analyzed from the dynamic fluctuations.

  6. Characterization and detection of Vero cells infected with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 using Raman spectroscopy and advanced statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Salman, A; Shufan, E; Zeiri, L; Huleihel, M

    2014-07-01

    Herpes viruses are involved in a variety of human disorders. Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) is the most common among the herpes viruses and is primarily involved in human cutaneous disorders. Although the symptoms of infection by this virus are usually minimal, in some cases HSV-1 might cause serious infections in the eyes and the brain leading to blindness and even death. A drug, acyclovir, is available to counter this virus. The drug is most effective when used during the early stages of the infection, which makes early detection and identification of these viral infections highly important for successful treatment. In the present study we evaluated the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a sensitive, rapid, and reliable method for the detection and identification of HSV-1 viral infections in cell cultures. Using Raman spectroscopy followed by advanced statistical methods enabled us, with sensitivity approaching 100%, to differentiate between a control group of Vero cells and another group of Vero cells that had been infected with HSV-1. Cell sites that were "rich in membrane" gave the best results in the differentiation between the two categories. The major changes were observed in the 1195-1726 cm(-1) range of the Raman spectrum. The features in this range are attributed mainly to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

  7. An Empirical Correction Method for Improving off-Axes Response Prediction in Component Type Flight Mechanics Helicopter Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Tischler, Mark B.

    1997-01-01

    Historically, component-type flight mechanics simulation models of helicopters have been unable to satisfactorily predict the roll response to pitch stick input and the pitch response to roll stick input off-axes responses. In the study presented here, simple first-order low-pass filtering of the elemental lift and drag forces was considered as a means of improving the correlation. The method was applied to a blade-element model of the AH-64 APache, and responses of the modified model were compared with flight data in hover and forward flight. Results indicate that significant improvement in the off-axes responses can be achieved in hover. In forward flight, however, the best correlation in the longitudinal and lateral off-axes responses required different values of the filter time constant for each axis. A compromise value was selected and was shown to result in good overall improvement in the off-axes responses. The paper describes both the method and the model used for its implementation, and presents results obtained at hover and in forward flight.

  8. Development of a non-viral multifunctional envelope-type nano device by a novel lipid film hydration method.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Kentaro; Moriguchi, Rumiko; Sasaki, Kentaro; Ueno, Masaharu; Futaki, Shiroh; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2004-08-11

    The development of a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) for use in a non-viral gene delivery system using a novel lipid film hydration method is described. This packaging method involves three steps: (i) DNA condensation with a polycation, (ii) lipid film hydration for the electrostatic binding of the condensed DNA, and (iii) sonication to package the condensed DNA with lipids. For DNA condensation, the optimum ratio of DNA to poly-L-lysine (PLL) was determined by titrating DNA and PLL. The condensed DNA/PLL complex (DPC) was coated with a lipid bilayer by lipid film hydration followed by sonication, which was confirmed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Packaging of DPC with lipids increased the transfection activity 10-fold over that of DPC. MEND, having octaarginine on the envelope as a device for membrane penetration to enhance cellular uptake, showed a 1000-fold higher transfection activity than DPC. The MEND developed in this study represents a promising non-viral gene delivery system.

  9. Evaluation of a Method Using Three Genomic Guided Escherichia coli Markers for Phylogenetic Typing of E. coli Isolates of Various Genetic Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Hirai, Itaru

    2015-06-01

    Genotyping and characterization of bacterial isolates are essential steps in the identification and control of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Recently, one novel genotyping method using three genomic guided Escherichia coli markers (GIG-EM), dinG, tonB, and dipeptide permease (DPP), was reported. Because GIG-EM has not been fully evaluated using clinical isolates, we assessed this typing method with 72 E. coli collection of reference (ECOR) environmental E. coli reference strains and 63 E. coli isolates of various genetic backgrounds. In this study, we designated 768 bp of dinG, 745 bp of tonB, and 655 bp of DPP target sequences for use in the typing method. Concatenations of the processed marker sequences were used to draw GIG-EM phylogenetic trees. E. coli isolates with identical sequence types as identified by the conventional multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method were localized to the same branch of the GIG-EM phylogenetic tree. Sixteen clinical E. coli isolates were utilized as test isolates without prior characterization by conventional MLST and phylogenetic grouping before GIG-EM typing. Of these, 14 clinical isolates were assigned to a branch including only isolates of a pandemic clone, E. coli B2-ST131-O25b, and these results were confirmed by conventional typing methods. Our results suggested that the GIG-EM typing method and its application to phylogenetic trees might be useful tools for the molecular characterization and determination of the genetic relationships among E. coli isolates.

  10. Lagrange-type modeling of continuous dielectric permittivity variation in double-higher-order volume integral equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobanyan, E.; Ilić, M. M.; Notaroš, B. M.

    2015-05-01

    A novel double-higher-order entire-domain volume integral equation (VIE) technique for efficient analysis of electromagnetic structures with continuously inhomogeneous dielectric materials is presented. The technique takes advantage of large curved hexahedral discretization elements—enabled by double-higher-order modeling (higher-order modeling of both the geometry and the current)—in applications involving highly inhomogeneous dielectric bodies. Lagrange-type modeling of an arbitrary continuous variation of the equivalent complex permittivity of the dielectric throughout each VIE geometrical element is implemented, in place of piecewise homogeneous approximate models of the inhomogeneous structures. The technique combines the features of the previous double-higher-order piecewise homogeneous VIE method and continuously inhomogeneous finite element method (FEM). This appears to be the first implementation and demonstration of a VIE method with double-higher-order discretization elements and conformal modeling of inhomogeneous dielectric materials embedded within elements that are also higher (arbitrary) order (with arbitrary material-representation orders within each curved and large VIE element). The new technique is validated and evaluated by comparisons with a continuously inhomogeneous double-higher-order FEM technique, a piecewise homogeneous version of the double-higher-order VIE technique, and a commercial piecewise homogeneous FEM code. The examples include two real-world applications involving continuously inhomogeneous permittivity profiles: scattering from an egg-shaped melting hailstone and near-field analysis of a Luneburg lens, illuminated by a corrugated horn antenna. The results show that the new technique is more efficient and ensures considerable reductions in the number of unknowns and computational time when compared to the three alternative approaches.

  11. Direct-detect Type Residual Charge Method with Short-term Voltage Up-down for Water Tree Deterioration Diagnosis in XLPE Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootaka, Iwao; Aoki, Masaru; Togashi, Hirotaka; Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko

    Water tree is one of the unique type of deterioration in XLPE cable, which is the primary cause of aging breakdown. Water tree, which bridges between conductor and shield, can be detected easily, such as DC leakage current method. However, 22kV class or above XLPE cable, most of breakdown occurs before water tree bridges, and there used to be no effective method for detecting non-bridged water tree. In this paper, we've found residual charge in harmful water tree relaxes quickly with AC voltage application. To detect this type of residual charge, we've developed new diagnosis method with “direct-detect type residual charge method" and “short-term voltage up-down method". This new method found to be very effective for diagnosing over 22kV class XLPE cable lines.

  12. Effect of Filling Type and Heating Method on Prevalence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes in Dumplings Produced in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Barbara; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-05-01

    The count of Listeria monocytogenes was determined, before and after heat treatment, in 200 samples of dumplings of 9 brands and with different types of stuffing. Analyses were conducted according to ISO 11290-1 standard and with real-time PCR method. The highest count of L. monocytogenes was found in meat dumplings (10(2) to 10(4) CFU/g), whereas products with white cheese-potato stuffing and vegetable-mushroom stuffing contained significantly less Listeria, 20 to 80 and 5 to 32 CFU/g, respectively. In cooled meat dumplings the extent of contamination depended significantly on the producer. In addition, a significant (P < 0.05) correlation was determined between contamination level and meat content in the stuffing (rho = 0.418), especially in stuffing containing pork meat (0.464), contrary to beef-containing stuffing (0.284). Heating dumplings in boiling water for 2 min completely eliminated L. monocytogenes in meat dumplings. In contrast, the microwave heating applied for 2 min at 600 W only reduced the count of L. monocytogenes by 1 to 2 logs. Hence, the microwave heating failed to reduce the risk of infection with this pathogen below the level permissible in the EU regulation, especially in the most contaminated samples. In this case, the efficacy of microwave heating was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the initial count of L. monocytogenes (rho = 0.626), then by meat content in the stuffing (0.476), and to the lowest extent--by the type of meat (0.415 to 0.425). However, no Listeria sp. and L. monocytogenes were isolated from cooked dumplings with fruits (strawberries or blueberries).

  13. Walking behaviour and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: seasonal and gender differences-Study design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Chan, Cathy; Da Costa, Deborah; Pilote, Louise; De Civita, Mirella; Ross, Nancy; Strachan, Ian; Sigal, Ronald; Joseph, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Background The high glucose levels typically occurring among adults with type 2 diabetes contribute to blood vessel injury and complications such as blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, and stroke. Higher physical activity levels are associated with improved glycemic control, as measured by hemoglobin A1C. A 1% absolute increase in A1C is associated with an 18% increased risk for heart disease or stroke. Among Canadians with type 2 diabetes, we postulate that declines in walking associated with colder temperatures and inclement weather may contribute to annual post-winter increases in A1C levels. Methods During this prospective cohort study being conducted in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 100 men and 100 women with type 2 diabetes will undergo four assessments (once per season) over a one-year period of observation. These assessments include (1) use of a pedometer with a concealed viewing window for a two-week period to measure walking (2) a study centre visit during which venous blood is sampled for A1C, anthropometrics are assessed, and questionnaires are completed for measurement of other factors that may influence walking and/or A1C (e.g. food frequency, depressive symptomology, medications). The relationship between spring-fall A1C difference and winter-summer difference in steps/day will be examined through multivariate linear regression models adjusted for possible confounding. Interpretation of findings by researchers in conjunction with potential knowledge "users" (e.g. health professionals, patient groups) will guide knowledge translation efforts. Discussion Although we cannot alter weather patterns to favour active lifestyles, we can design treatment strategies that take seasonal and weather-related variations into account. For example, demonstration of seasonal variation of A1C levels among Canadian men and women with T2D and greater understanding of its determinants could lead to (1) targeting physical activity levels to remain at or exceed peak

  14. Numerical simulation of X-wing type biplane flapping wings in 3D using the immersed boundary method.

    PubMed

    Tay, W B; van Oudheusden, B W; Bijl, H

    2014-09-01

    The numerical simulation of an insect-sized 'X-wing' type biplane flapping wing configuration is performed in 3D using an immersed boundary method solver at Reynolds numbers equal to 1000 (1 k) and 5 k, based on the wing's root chord length. This X-wing type flapping configuration draws its inspiration from Delfly, a bio-inspired ornithopter MAV which has two pairs of wings flapping in anti-phase in a biplane configuration. The objective of the present investigation is to assess the aerodynamic performance when the original Delfly flapping wing micro-aerial vehicle (FMAV) is reduced to the size of an insect. Results show that the X-wing configuration gives more than twice the average thrust compared with only flapping the upper pair of wings of the X-wing. However, the X-wing's average thrust is only 40% that of the upper wing flapping at twice the stroke angle. Despite this, the increased stability which results from the smaller lift and moment variation of the X-wing configuration makes it more suited for sharp image capture and recognition. These advantages make the X-wing configuration an attractive alternative design for insect-sized FMAVS compared to the single wing configuration. In the Reynolds number comparison, the vorticity iso-surface plot at a Reynolds number of 5 k revealed smaller, finer vortical structures compared to the simulation at 1 k, due to vortices' breakup. In comparison, the force output difference is much smaller between Re = 1 k and 5 k. Increasing the body inclination angle generates a uniform leading edge vortex instead of a conical one along the wingspan, giving higher lift. Understanding the force variation as the body inclination angle increases will allow FMAV designers to optimize the thrust and lift ratio for higher efficiency under different operational requirements. Lastly, increasing the spanwise flexibility of the wings increases the thrust slightly but decreases the efficiency. The thrust result is similar to one of the

  15. Methods of thermoelectric enhancement in silicon-germanium alloy type I clathrates and in nanostructured lead chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joshua

    The rapid increase in thermoelectric (TE) materials R&D is a consequence of the growing need to increase energy efficiency and independence through waste heat recovery. TE materials enable the direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity, with little maintenance, noise, or cost. In addition, these compact devices can be incorporated into existing technologies to increase the overall operating efficiency. High efficiency TE materials would enable the practical solid-state conversion of thermal to electrical energy. Optimizing the interdependent physical parameters to achieve acceptable efficiencies requires materials exhibiting a unique combination of properties. This research reports two methods of thermoelectric enhancement: lattice strain effects in silicon-germanium alloy type I clathrates and the nanostructured enhancement of lead chalcogenides. The synthesis and chemical, structural, and transport properties characterization of Ba8Ga16SixGe30-x type I clathrates with similar Ga-to-group IV element ratios but with increasing Si substitution (4 < x < 14) is reported. Substitution of Si within the Ga-Ge lattice framework of the type I clathrate Ba8Ga16Ge30 results in thermoelectric performance enhancement. The unique dependences of carrier concentration, electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and carrier effective mass on Si substitution level, may imply a modified band structure with Si substitution. These materials were then further optimized by adjusting the Ga-to-group IV element ratios. Recent progress in a number of higher efficiency TE materials can be attributed to nanoscale enhancement. Many of these materials demonstrate increased Seebeck coefficient and decreased thermal conductivity due to the phenomenological properties of nanometer length scales. To satisfy the demands of bulk industrial applications requires additional synthesis techniques to incorporate nanostructure directly within a bulk matrix. This research investigates, for

  16. Heterogeneity of nuclear estrogen-binding sites in the rat uterus: a simple method for the quantitation of type I and type II sites by (3H)estradiol exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Markaverich, B.M.; Williams, M.; Upchurch, S.; Clark, J.H.

    1981-07-01

    Estrogen administration to mature-ovariectomized rats causes the activation or stimulation of secondary nuclear estrogen-binding sites (type II) in the uterus which can interfere with estrogen receptor (type I) measurement. Earlier reports from our laboratory have shown that quantitation of type I sites in the presence of the type II site is very difficult and can only be achieved by graphic analysis of saturation curves which employ a wide range (0.4-40 NM) of (/sup 3/H)estradiol concentrations in nuclear exchange assay. The studies presented in this manuscript describe simple methods which can be used to separately quantitate both nuclear estrogen-binding sites using a single concentration of (/sup 3/H)estradiol. Since the nuclear type II site does not bind (/sup 3/H)estradiol in the presence of reducing agent, type I sites can be easily quantitated by incubating nuclei (37 C for 30 min) in Tris-EDTA buffer containing 0.1-1.00 mM dithiothreitol using a single saturating concentration of (/sup 3/H)estradiol. Conversely, a single concentration of (/sup 3/H)estradiol (40-80 nM) can be used to quantitate the nuclear type II site by incubating nuclei in Tris-EDTA buffer under conditions (4 C for 60 min) which do not measure occupied nuclear estrogen receptor. Therefore, by using the appropriate buffer system, type I and type II sites can be easily separated in mixed binding systems. In addition, we also demonstrate that Nafoxidine does not bind to the nuclear type II site. Therefore, it can be used as a competitive inhibitor of (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding to type I sites and permit the measurement of type II sites without interference from type I sites. These techniques should be applicable to autoradiographic or fluorescence studies which cannot discriminate between steroid binding to these two classes of nuclear estrogen-binding sites.

  17. Validation of IRS PCR, a molecular typing method, for the study of the diversity and population dynamics of Legionella in industrial cooling circuits.

    PubMed

    Jakubek, D; Le Brun, M; Leblon, G; Dubow, M; Binet, M

    2013-02-01

    Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Members of the species Legionella pneumophila are responsible for more than 98% of cases of Legionnaires' disease in France. Our objective was to validate a molecular typing method called infrequent restriction site PCR (IRS PCR), applied to the study of the ecology of Legionella and to compare this method with reference typing methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequence-based Typing (SBT). PFGE and SBT are considered as gold methods for the epidemiological typing of Leg. pneumophila strains. However, these methods are not suitable to an ecological monitoring of Legionella in natural environments where a large number of strains has to be typed. Validation of IRS PCR method was performed by the identification of 45 Leg. pneumophila isolates from cooling circuits of thermal power plants by IRS PCR, PFGE and SBT. The parameters of each method were measured and compared to evaluate the effectiveness of IRS PCR. The results of this study showed that IRS PCR has a discriminating power similar or better than that of the reference methods and thus that, by its speed and low cost represents an appropriate tool for the study of the ecology of Legionella in cooling circuits.

  18. Pocket-creation method facilitates endoscopic submucosal dissection of colorectal laterally spreading tumors, non-granular type

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Hirotsugu; Hayashi, Yoshikazu; Miura, Yoshimasa; Shinozaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Haruo; Fukuda, Hisashi; Okada, Masahiro; Ino, Yuji; Takezawa, Takahito; Sunada, Keijiro; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Yamamoto, Hironori

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims The pocket-creation method (PCM) is a novel strategy for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of the PCM for colorectal laterally spreading tumors, non-granular type (LST-NG). Patients and methods The records of 126 consecutive patients with colorectal LST-NG who underwent ESD between April 2012 and July 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into PCM (n = 73) and conventional method (CM) (n = 53) groups. Results The en bloc resection rate in the PCM group was significantly higher than in the CM group (100 % [73/73] vs. 92 % [49/53], P = 0.03). The en bloc resection rate with severe fibrosis was higher in the PCM group than in the CM group (100 % [3/3] vs. 60 % [3/5]). The R0 resection rate for the two groups was not statistically significantly different (93 % [68/73] vs. 91 % [48/53], P = 0.74). The perforation rate in the PCM group was lower than in the CM group although not statistically significantly less (0 % 0/73 vs. 4 % 2/53, P = 0.18). For lesions resected en bloc, dissection speed for the PCM group was significantly faster than for the CM group (median [IQR], 19 [13 –24] vs. 14 [10 – 22] mm2/min, P = 0.03). Conclusion ESD using PCM achieves a reliable and safe resection of colorectal LST-NG. PMID:28337483

  19. Two-point closure method for turbulence with reacting and mixing chemical elements of type A+B→ C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshram, M. C.

    2010-12-01

    Turbulence with reacting and mixing chemical elements of type A+B→C was investigated by using the two-point closure method, For implementation of this method, two-point correlation functions and two-point triple correlation functions are defined first. Equations describing the turbulence under study that describe the dynamical behaviour are written in terms of two-point correlation functions and two-point triple correlation functions. These describe the dynamical behaviour of two-point double-reactant fluctuation correlation functions. In each of these equations, two-point triple correlation functions appear. Thus, the characteristic difficulty of indeterminacy in turbulence theory is noticed in these equations too. A simple closure hypothesis for two-point triple correlation functions is proposed with a view to overcoming the indeterminacy. This hypothesis enables one to obtain the closed set of equations for double correlation functions, as desired. The resulting equations for double correlation functions provide theoretical information about the turbulence under investigation. Having obtained the closed set of equations for double correlation functions, the relationships for reactants' eddy diffusivity functions are derived. Also, the reactants' energy and transfer functions in fluid space are obtained. Having expressed the Karman-Howarth equations for the present investigation in dimensionless form, these are rewritten in terms of energy functions in fluid space. The system of equations for scales of segregation related to reactants A and B is derived. Various length scales involved in this study can be evaluated on integration of these equations, which in turn generates theoretical information about the turbulence under investigation.

  20. Factorized cumulant expansion approximation method for turbulence with reacting and mixing chemical elements of type A + B → Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshram, M. C.

    2013-07-01

    The Lewis-Kraichnan space-time version of Hopf functional formalism is considered for the investigation of turbulence with reacting and mixing chemical elements of type A + B → Product. The equations of motion are written in Fourier space. We first define the characteristic functional (or the moments generating functional) for the joint probability distribution of the velocity vector of the flow field and the reactants’ concentration scalar fields and translate the equations of motion in terms of the differential equations for the characteristic functional. These differential equations for the characteristic functional are further written in terms of the second characteristic functional (or the cumulant generating functional). This helps us in obtaining the equations for various order cumulants. We note from these equations for cumulants the characteristic difficulty of the theory of turbulence that the (n + 1)th order cumulant C(n+1) occurs in the equation for the dynamics of nth order cumulant Cn. We use the factorized cumulant expansion approximation method for the present investigation. Under this approximation an arbitrary nth order cumulant Cn is expressed in terms of the lower-order cumulants C(2), C(3) and C(n-1) and thus we obtain a closed but untruncated system of equations for the cumulants. On using the factorized fourth-cumulant approximation method a closed set of equations for the reactants’ energy spectrum functions and the reactants’ energy transfer functions are derived. These equations are solved numerically and the similarity laws of the solutions are derived analytically. The statistical quantities such as the reactants’ energy, the reactants’ enstrophy, the reactants’ scale of segregations and so on are calculated numerically and the statistical laws of these quantities are discussed. Also, the scope of this tool for investigation of turbulent phenomena not covered in the present study is discussed.

  1. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Megan E; Ash, Susan; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Russell, Anthony W

    2015-06-17

    Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day) was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57), carbohydrate (g/day) (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), protein (g/day) (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and alcohol (g/day) (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01), with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day) (r = 0.24). Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.77-0.99) was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82-0.99). These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required.

  2. Detection of Diurnal Variation of Tomato Transcriptome through the Molecular Timetable Method in a Sunlight-Type Plant Factory

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Takanobu; Tanigaki, Yusuke; Takayama, Kotaro; Nagano, Atsushi J.; Honjo, Mie N.; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    The timing of measurement during plant growth is important because many genes are expressed periodically and orchestrate physiological events. Their periodicity is generated by environmental fluctuations as external factors and the circadian clock as the internal factor. The circadian clock orchestrates physiological events such as photosynthesis or flowering and it enables enhanced growth and herbivory resistance. These characteristics have possible applications for agriculture. In this study, we demonstrated the diurnal variation of the transcriptome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves through molecular timetable method in a sunlight-type plant factory. Molecular timetable methods have been developed to detect periodic genes and estimate individual internal body time from these expression profiles in mammals. We sampled tomato leaves every 2 h for 2 days and acquired time-course transcriptome data by RNA-Seq. Many genes were expressed periodically and these expressions were stable across the 1st and 2nd days of measurement. We selected 143 time-indicating genes whose expression indicated periodically, and estimated internal time in the plant from these expression profiles. The estimated internal time was generally the same as the external environment time; however, there was a difference of more than 1 h between the two for some sampling points. Furthermore, the stress-responsive genes also showed weakly periodic expression, implying that they were usually expressed periodically, regulated by light–dark cycles as an external factor or the circadian clock as the internal factor, and could be particularly expressed when the plant experiences some specific stress under agricultural situations. This study suggests that circadian clock mediate the optimization for fluctuating environments in the field and it has possibilities to enhance resistibility to stress and floral induction by controlling circadian clock through light supplement and temperature control

  3. Detection of Diurnal Variation of Tomato Transcriptome through the Molecular Timetable Method in a Sunlight-Type Plant Factory.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Takanobu; Tanigaki, Yusuke; Takayama, Kotaro; Nagano, Atsushi J; Honjo, Mie N; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    The timing of measurement during plant growth is important because many genes are expressed periodically and orchestrate physiological events. Their periodicity is generated by environmental fluctuations as external factors and the circadian clock as the internal factor. The circadian clock orchestrates physiological events such as photosynthesis or flowering and it enables enhanced growth and herbivory resistance. These characteristics have possible applications for agriculture. In this study, we demonstrated the diurnal variation of the transcriptome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves through molecular timetable method in a sunlight-type plant factory. Molecular timetable methods have been developed to detect periodic genes and estimate individual internal body time from these expression profiles in mammals. We sampled tomato leaves every 2 h for 2 days and acquired time-course transcriptome data by RNA-Seq. Many genes were expressed periodically and these expressions were stable across the 1st and 2nd days of measurement. We selected 143 time-indicating genes whose expression indicated periodically, and estimated internal time in the plant from these expression profiles. The estimated internal time was generally the same as the external environment time; however, there was a difference of more than 1 h between the two for some sampling points. Furthermore, the stress-responsive genes also showed weakly periodic expression, implying that they were usually expressed periodically, regulated by light-dark cycles as an external factor or the circadian clock as the internal factor, and could be particularly expressed when the plant experiences some specific stress under agricultural situations. This study suggests that circadian clock mediate the optimization for fluctuating environments in the field and it has possibilities to enhance resistibility to stress and floral induction by controlling circadian clock through light supplement and temperature control.

  4. Comparison of biotyping methods as alternative identification tools to molecular typing of pathogenic Cryptococcus species in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyazika, Tinashe K; Robertson, Valerie J; Nherera, Brenda; Mapondera, Prichard T; Meis, Jacques F; Hagen, Ferry

    2016-03-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is the leading fungal infection and AIDS defining opportunistic illness in patients with late stage HIV infection, particularly in South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Given the high mortality, clinical differences and the extensive ecological niche of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complexes, there is need for laboratories in sub-Sahara African countries to adopt new and alternative reliable diagnostic algorithms that rapidly identify and distinguish these species. We biotyped 74 and then amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyped 66 Cryptococcus isolates from a cohort of patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. C. gattii sensu lato was isolated at a prevalence of 16.7% (n = 11/66) and C. neoformans sensu stricto was responsible for 83.3% (n = 55/66) of the infections. l-Canavanine glycine bromothymol blue, yeast-carbon-base-d-proline-d-tryptophan and creatinine dextrose bromothymol blue thymine were able to distinguish pathogenic C. gattii sensu lato from C. neoformans sensu stricto species when compared with AFLP genotyping. This study demonstrates high C. gattii sensu lato prevalence in Zimbabwe. In addition, biotyping methods can be used as alternative diagnostic tools to molecular typing in resource-limited areas for differentiating pathogenic Cryptococcus species.

  5. A novel method for rearing first-feeding larval zebrafish: polyculture with Type L saltwater rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis).

    PubMed

    Best, Jason; Adatto, Isaac; Cockington, Jason; James, Althea; Lawrence, Christian

    2010-09-01

    Promoting high rates of growth and survival can be a major challenge in zebrafish culture, especially during the first-feeding stage. Here we describe a new rearing technique in which zebrafish larvae are polycultured in static tanks with Type "L" saltwater rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) for the first 5 days of feeding (days 5-9 postfertilization). To demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted rearing trials using fish from two different strains: AB and nacre. Growth, survival, water quality, and rotifer density were assayed daily through the polyculture phase (days 5-9), and during the transition to standard rearing conditions (days 10-12). After that point, once the fish were fully integrated onto recirculating systems, parameters were measured once per week out to day 30. In all trials, the fish displayed high rates of growth and survival throughout the three phases (polyculture, transition, and recirculating flow), indicating that this method may be employed during the critical first-feeding stage to help improve rearing performance in zebrafish facilities. Additionally, water quality parameters observed during the polyculture phase of the trials reveal that early zebrafish larvae are much more tolerant of elevated levels of ammonia and salinity than previously believed.

  6. Layered double hydroxide/polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites. Influence of the intercalated LDH anion and the type of polymerization heating method

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero, M.; Martinez-Gallegos, S.; Labajos, F.M.; Rives, V.

    2011-11-15

    Conventional and microwave heating routes have been used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate had been previously intercalated in the LDH. PXRD and TEM were used to detect the degree of dispersion of the filler and the type of the polymeric composites obtained, and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the polymerization process had taken place. The thermal stability of these composites, as studied by thermogravimetric analysis, was enhanced when the microwave heating method was applied. Dodecyl sulphate was more effective than terephthalate to exfoliate the samples, which only occurred for the terephthalate ones under microwave irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Conventional and microwave heating routes were used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate was previously intercalated into the LDH. The microwave process improves the dispersion and the thermal stability of nanocomposites due to the interaction of the microwave radiation and the dipolar properties of EG and the homogeneous heating. Highlights: > LDH-PET compatibility is enhanced by preintercalation of organic anions. > Dodecylsulphate performance is much better than that of terephthalate. > Microwave heating improves the thermal stability of the composites. > Microwave heating improves as well the dispersion of the inorganic phase.

  7. An ultra fast detection method reveals strain-induced Ca(2+) entry via TRPV2 in alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Fois, Giorgio; Wittekindt, Oliver; Zheng, Xing; Felder, Erika Tatiana; Miklavc, Pika; Frick, Manfred; Dietl, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2012-09-01

    A commonly used technique to investigate strain-induced responses of adherent cells is culturing them on an elastic membrane and globally stretching the membrane. However, it is virtually impossible to acquire microscopic images immediately after the stretch with this method. Using a newly developed technique, we recorded the strain-induced increase of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) in rat primary alveolar type II (ATII) cells at an acquisition rate of 30ms and without any temporal delay. We can show that the onset of the mechanically induced rise in [Ca(2+)](c) was very fast (<30 ms), and Ca(2+) entry was immediately abrogated when the stimulus was withdrawn. This points at a direct mechanical activation of an ion channel. RT-PCR revealed high expression of TRPV2 in ATII cells, and silencing TRPV2, as well as blocking TRPV channels with ruthenium red, significantly reduced the strain-induced Ca(2+) response. Moreover, the usually homogenous pattern of the strain-induced [Ca(2+)](c) increase was converted into a point-like response after both treatments. Also interfering with actin/myosin and integrin binding inhibited the strain-induced increase of [Ca(2)](c). We conclude that TRPV2 participates in strain-induced Ca(2+) entry in ATII cells and suggest a direct mechanical activation of the channel that depends on FAs and actin/myosin. Furthermore, our results underline the importance of cell strain systems that allow high temporal resolution.

  8. Comparison of biotyping methods as alternative identification tools to molecular typing of pathogenic Cryptococcus species in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nyazika, Tinashe K.; Robertson, Valerie J.; Nherera, Brenda; Mapondera, Prichard T.; Meis, Jacques F.; Hagen, Ferry

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cryptococcal meningitis is the leading fungal infection and AIDS defining opportunistic illness in patients with late stage HIV infection, particularly in South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Given the high mortality, clinical differences and the extensive ecological niche of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complexes, there is need for laboratories in sub-Sahara African countries to adopt new and alternative reliable diagnostic algorithms that rapidly identify and distinguish these species. We biotyped 74 and then amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyped 66 Cryptococcus isolates from a cohort of patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato was isolated at a prevalence of 16.7% (n = 11/66) and C. neoformans sensu stricto was responsible for 83.3% (n = 55/66) of the infections. l-Canavanine glycine bromothymol blue, yeast-carbon-base-d-proline-d-tryptophan and creatinine dextrose bromothymol blue thymine were able to distinguish pathogenic C. gattii sensu lato from C. neoformans sensu stricto species when compared with amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping. This study demonstrates high C. gattii sensu lato prevalence in Zimbabwe. In addition, biotyping methods can be used as alternative diagnostic tools to molecular typing in resource-limited areas for differentiating pathogenic Cryptococcus species. PMID:26661484

  9. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

    PubMed

    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity.

  10. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  11. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  12. Deep-sequencing method for quantifying background abundances of symbiodinium types: exploring the rare symbiodinium biosphere in reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Kate M; Davies, Sarah W; Kenkel, Carly D; Willis, Bette L; Matz, Mikhail V; Bay, Line K

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of reef-building corals to associate with environmentally-appropriate types of endosymbionts from the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium contributes significantly to their success at local scales. Additionally, some corals are able to acclimatize to environmental perturbations by shuffling the relative proportions of different Symbiodinium types hosted. Understanding the dynamics of these symbioses requires a sensitive and quantitative method of Symbiodinium genotyping. Electrophoresis methods, still widely utilized for this purpose, are predominantly qualitative and cannot guarantee detection of a background type below 10% of the total Symbiodinium population. Here, the relative abundances of four Symbiodinium types (A13, C1, C3, and D1) in mixed samples of known composition were quantified using deep sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA gene (ITS-2) by means of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) using Roche 454. In samples dominated by each of the four Symbiodinium types tested, background levels of the other three types were detected when present at 5%, 1%, and 0.1% levels, and their relative abundances were quantified with high (A13, C1, D1) to variable (C3) accuracy. The potential of this deep sequencing method for resolving fine-scale genetic diversity within a symbiont type was further demonstrated in a natural symbiosis using ITS-1, and uncovered reef-specific differences in the composition of Symbiodinium microadriaticum in two species of acroporid corals (Acropora digitifera and A. hyacinthus) from Palau. The ability of deep sequencing of the ITS locus (1 and 2) to detect and quantify low-abundant Symbiodinium types, as well as finer-scale diversity below the type level, will enable more robust quantification of local genetic diversity in Symbiodinium populations. This method will help to elucidate the role that background types have in maximizing coral fitness across diverse environments and in response to

  13. Mycobacterium avium restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS IS1245 and the simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction typing method to screen genetic diversity in Brazilian strains.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho de; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Silva, Marlei Gomes da; Saad, Maria Helena Féres

    2005-11-01

    Simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (MaDRE-PCR) and Pvu II-IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing methods were used to type 41 Mycobacterium avium isolates obtained from 14 AIDS inpatients and 10 environment and animals specimens identified among 53 mycobacteria isolated from 237 food, chicken, and pig. All environmental and animals strains showed orphan patterns by both methods. By MaDRE-PCR four patients, with multiple isolates, showed different patterns, suggesting polyclonal infection that was confirmed by RFLP in two of them. This first evaluation of MaDRE-PCR on Brazilian M. avium strains demonstrated that the method seems to be useful as simple and less expensive typing method for screening genetic diversity in M. avium strains on selected epidemiological studies, although with limitation on analysis identical patterns except for one band.

  14. Free and Protein-Bound Maillard Reaction Products in Beer: Method Development and a Survey of Different Beer Types.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Michael; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2016-09-28

    The Maillard reaction is important for beer color and flavor, but little is known about the occurrence of individual glycated amino acids in beer. Therefore, seven Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, fructosyllysine, maltulosyllysine, pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, MG-H1, and argpyrimidine, were synthesized and quantitated in different types of beer (Pilsner, dark, bock, wheat, and nonalcoholic beers) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode through application of the standard addition method. Free MRPs were analyzed directly. A high molecular weight fraction was isolated by dialysis and hydrolyzed enzymatically prior to analysis. Maltulosyllysine was quantitated for the first time in food. The most important free MRPs in beer are fructosyllysine (6.8-27.0 mg/L) and maltulosyllysine (3.7-21.8 mg/L). Beer contains comparatively high amounts of late-stage free MRPs such as pyrraline (0.2-1.6 mg/L) and MG-H1 (0.3-2.5 mg/L). Minor amounts of formyline (4-230 μg/L), maltosine (6-56 μg/L), and argpyrimidine (0.1-4.1 μg/L) were quantitated. Maltulosyllysine was the most significant protein-bound MRP, but both maltulosyllysine and fructosyllysine represent only 15-60% of the total protein-bound lysine-derived Amadori products. Differences in the patterns of protein-bound and free individual MRPs and the ratios between them were identified, which indicate differences in their chemical, biochemical, and microbiological stabilities during the brewing process.

  15. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Method for Simultaneous Identification and Toxigenic Type Characterization of Clostridium difficile From Stool Samples

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammad J.; Tisdel, Naradah L.; Shah, Dhara N.; Yapar, Mehmet; Lasco, Todd M.; Garey, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to develop and validate a multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous identification and toxigenic type characterization of Clostridium difficile. Methods The multiplex real-time PCR assay targeted and simultaneously detected triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and binary toxin (cdtA) genes, and toxin A (tcdA) and B (tcdB) genes in the first and sec tubes, respectively. The results of multiplex real-time PCR were compared to those of the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay, targeting the tcdB gene alone. The toxigenic culture was used as the reference, where toxin genes were detected by multiplex real-time PCR. Results A total of 351 stool samples from consecutive patients were included in the study. Fifty-five stool samples (15.6%) were determined to be positive for the presence of C. difficile by using multiplex real-time PCR. Of these, 48 (87.2%) were toxigenic (46 tcdA and tcdB-positive, two positive for only tcdB) and 11 (22.9%) were cdtA-positive. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) of the multiplex real-time PCR compared with the toxigenic culture were 95.6%, 98.6%, 91.6%, and 99.3%, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of the multiplex real-time PCR assay was determined to be 103colonyforming unit (CFU)/g spiked stool sample and 0.0625 pg genomic DNA from culture. Analytical specificity determined by using 15 enteric and non-clostridial reference strains was 100%. Conclusions The multiplex real-time PCR assay accurately detected C. difficile isolates from diarrheal stool samples and characterized its toxin genes in a single PCR run. PMID:25932438

  16. Sensitive, Rapid, Quantitative and in Vitro Method for the Detection of Biologically Active Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type E

    PubMed Central

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula; Hernlem, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial cause of clinical infections and foodborne illnesses through its production of a group of enterotoxins (SEs) which cause gastroenteritis and also function as superantigens to massively activate T cells. In the present study, we tested Staphylococcal enterotoxin type E (SEE), which was detected in 17 of the 38 suspected staphylococcal food poisoning incidents in a British study and was the causative agent in outbreaks in France, UK and USA. The current method for detection of enterotoxin activity is an in vivo monkey or kitten bioassay; however, this expensive procedure has low sensitivity and poor reproducibility, requires many animals, is impractical to test on a large number of samples, and raises ethical concerns with regard to the use of experimental animals. The purpose of this study is to develop rapid sensitive and quantitative bioassays for detection of active SEE. We apply a genetically engineered T cell-line expressing the luciferase reporter gene under the regulation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells response element (NFAT-RE), combined with a Raji B-cell line that presents the SEE-MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class II to the engineered T cell line. Exposure of the above mixed culture to SEE induces differential expression of the luciferase gene and bioluminescence is read out in a dose dependent manner over a 6-log range. The limit of detection of biologically active SEE is 1 fg/mL which is 109 times more sensitive than the monkey and kitten bioassay. PMID:27187474

  17. Natural olivine crystal-fabrics in the western Pacific convergence region: A new method to identify fabric type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Mainprice, David; Fujii, Ayano; Uehara, Shigeki; Shinkai, Yuri; Kondo, Yusuke; Ohara, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Teruaki; Fryer, Patricia; Bloomer, Sherman H.; Ishiwatari, Akira; Hawkins, James W.; Ji, Shaocheng

    2016-06-01

    Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) of olivine within natural peridotites are commonly depicted by pole figures for the [100], [010], and [001] axes, and they can be categorized into five well-known fabric types: A, B, C, D, and E. These fabric types can be related to olivine slip systems: A with (010)[100], B with (010)[001], C with (001)[001], D with {0kl}[100], and E with (001)[100]. In addition, an AG type is commonly found in nature, but its origin is controversial, and could involve several contributing factors such as complex slip systems, non-coaxial strain types, or the effects of melt during plastic flow. In this paper we present all of our olivine fabric database published previously as well as new data mostly from ocean floor, mainly for the convergent margin of the western Pacific region, and we introduce a new index named Fabric-Index Angle (FIA), which is related to the P-wave property of a single olivine crystal. The FIA can be used as an alternative to classifying the CPOs into the six fabric types, and it allows a set of CPOs to be expressed as a single angle in a range between -90° and 180°. The six olivine fabric types have unique values of FIA: 63° for A type, -28° for B type, 158° for C type, 90° for D type, 106° for E type, and 0° for AG type. We divided our olivine database into five tectonic groups: ophiolites, ridge peridotites, trench peridotites, peridotite xenoliths, and peridotites enclosed in high-pressure metamorphic rocks. Our results show that although our database is not yet large enough (except for trench peridotites) to define the characteristics of the five tectonic groups, the natural olivine fabrics vary in their range of FIA: 0° to 150° for the ophiolites, 40° to 80° for the ridge peridotites, -40° to 100° for the trench peridotites, 0° to 100° for the peridotite xenoliths, and -40° to 10° for the peridotites enclosed in high-pressure metamorphic rocks. The trench peridotites show a statistically

  18. Method and system employing finite state machine modeling to identify one of a plurality of different electric load types

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Harley, Ronald Gordon; Habetler, Thomas G.; He, Dawei

    2016-08-09

    A system is for a plurality of different electric load types. The system includes a plurality of sensors structured to sense a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; and a processor. The processor acquires a voltage and current waveform from the sensors for a corresponding one of the different electric load types; calculates a power or current RMS profile of the waveform; quantizes the power or current RMS profile into a set of quantized state-values; evaluates a state-duration for each of the quantized state-values; evaluates a plurality of state-types based on the power or current RMS profile and the quantized state-values; generates a state-sequence that describes a corresponding finite state machine model of a generalized load start-up or transient profile for the corresponding electric load type; and identifies the corresponding electric load type.

  19. Impact of strain typing methods on assessment of relationship between paired nares and wound isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Clarridge, Jill E; Harrington, Amanda T; Roberts, Marilyn C; Soge, Olusegun O; Maquelin, Kees

    2013-01-01

    The anterior nares are the site of choice for the Veterans Administration methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance program; however, a correlation between nares colonization and concomitant wound infections has not been well established. The purpose of this study was 3-fold: to determine the relatedness of MRSA isolates from 40 paired wound and nares specimens by four different strain typing methods, to determine concordance of typing methods, and to establish a baseline of MRSA types at this medical center. Isolates were typed by repetitive PCR (rep-PCR) (DiversiLab System; DL) and SpectraCell Raman analysis (SCRA) (commercially available methods that can be performed within a clinical lab), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and an antibiotic susceptibility profile (AB). Whole-genome optical mapping (WGM) (OpGen, Inc.) was performed on selected isolates. All methods agreed that 26 pairs were indistinguishable and four pairs were different. Discrepant results were as follows: 4 where only SCRA was discordant, 3 where only AB was discordant, 2 where both DL and AB were discordant, and 1 where both DL and SCRA were discordant. All WGM agreed with PFGE. After discrepancy resolution, 80% of the pairs were indistinguishable and 20% were different. A total of 56% of nares results were nonpredictive if negative nares and positive wound cultures are included. Methods agreed 85 to 93% of the time; however, congruence of isolates to a clade was lower. Baseline analysis of types showed that 15 pairs were unique to single patients (30 strains, 38%; 47% of the matching pairs). Twenty-five strains (30%) represented a single clade identical by PFGE, SCRA, and DL, decreasing specificity. Typing method and institutional type frequency are important in assessing MRSA strain relatedness.

  20. New clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat locus spacer pair typing method based on the newly incorporated spacer for Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Li, Peng; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Yang, Chaojie; Wang, Jian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Nan; Wang, Xu; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Wang, Yong; Jia, Leili; Li, Kaiqin; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2014-08-01

    A clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) typing method has recently been developed and used for typing and subtyping of Salmonella spp., but it is complicated and labor intensive because it has to analyze all spacers in two CRISPR loci. Here, we developed a more convenient and efficient method, namely, CRISPR locus spacer pair typing (CLSPT), which only needs to analyze the two newly incorporated spacers adjoining the leader array in the two CRISPR loci. We analyzed a CRISPR array of 82 strains belonging to 21 Salmonella serovars isolated from humans in different areas of China by using this new method. We also retrieved the newly incorporated spacers in each CRISPR locus of 537 Salmonella isolates which have definite serotypes in the Pasteur Institute's CRISPR Database to evaluate this method. Our findings showed that this new CLSPT method presents a high level of consistency (kappa = 0.9872, Matthew's correlation coefficient = 0.9712) with the results of traditional serotyping, and thus, it can also be used to predict serotypes of Salmonella spp. Moreover, this new method has a considerable discriminatory power (discriminatory index [DI] = 0.8145), comparable to those of multilocus sequence typing (DI = 0.8088) and conventional CRISPR typing (DI = 0.8684). Because CLSPT only costs about $5 to $10 per isolate, it is a much cheaper and more attractive method for subtyping of Salmonella isolates. In conclusion, this new method will provide considerable advantages over other molecular subtyping methods, and it may become a valuable epidemiologic tool for the surveillance of Salmonella infections.

  1. Method of developing all-optical trinary JK, D-type, and T-type flip-flops using semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2012-04-10

    To meet the demand of very fast and agile optical networks, the optical processors in a network system should have a very fast execution rate, large information handling, and large information storage capacities. Multivalued logic operations and multistate optical flip-flops are the basic building blocks for such fast running optical computing and data processing systems. In the past two decades, many methods of implementing all-optical flip-flops have been proposed. Most of these suffer from speed limitations because of the low switching response of active devices. The frequency encoding technique has been used because of its many advantages. It can preserve its identity throughout data communication irrespective of loss of light energy due to reflection, refraction, attenuation, etc. The action of polarization-rotation-based very fast switching of semiconductor optical amplifiers increases processing speed. At the same time, tristate optical flip-flops increase information handling capacity.

  2. A T-type method for characterization of the thermoelectric performance of an individual free-standing single crystal Bi2S3 nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weigang; Miao, Tingting; Zhang, Xing; Takahashi, Koji; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Zhang, Boping; Ge, Zhenhua

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive method to evaluate the thermoelectric performance of one-dimensional nanostructures, called the T-type method, has been first developed. The thermoelectric properties, including the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, of an individual free-standing single crystal Bi2S3 nanowire have been first characterized by applying the T-type method. The determined figure of merit is far less than the reported values of nanostructured bulk Bi2S3 samples, and the mechanism is that the Seebeck coefficient is nearly zero in the temperature range of 300-420 K and changes its sign at 320 K.A comprehensive method to evaluate the thermoelectric performance of one-dimensional nanostructures, called the T-type method, has been first developed. The thermoelectric properties, including the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, of an individual free-standing single crystal Bi2S3 nanowire have been first characterized by applying the T-type method. The determined figure of merit is far less than the reported values of nanostructured bulk Bi2S3 samples, and the mechanism is that the Seebeck coefficient is nearly zero in the temperature range of 300-420 K and changes its sign at 320 K. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05946a

  3. Analysis of focusing error signals by differential astigmatic method under off-center tracking in the land-groove-type optical disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Nakatani, Hidehiko

    2015-04-01

    We theoretically calculate the behavior of the focusing error signal in the land-groove-type optical disk when the objective lens traverses on out of the radius of the optical disk. The differential astigmatic method is employed instead of the conventional astigmatic method for generating the focusing error signals. The signal behaviors are compared and analyzed in terms of the gain difference of the slope sensitivity of the focusing error signals from the land and the groove. In our calculation, the format of digital versatile disc-random access memory (DVD-RAM) is adopted as the land-groove-type optical disk model, and advantageous conditions for suppressing the gain difference are investigated. The calculation method and results described in this paper will be reflected in the next generation land-groove-type optical disks.

  4. Development of a Method for Converting a TAK1 Type I Inhibitor into a Type II or c-Helix-Out Inhibitor by Structure-Based Drug Design (SBDD).

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Terushige; Ide, Mitsuaki; Irie, Machiko; Morikami, Kenji; Miura, Takaaki; Nishihara, Masamichi; Kashiwagi, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method for converting a transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) type I inhibitor into a type II or c-helix-out inhibitor by structure-based drug design (SBDD) to achieve an effective strategy for developing these different types of kinase inhibitor in parallel. TAK1 plays a key role in inflammatory and immune signaling, and is therefore considered to be an attractive molecular target for the treatment of human diseases (inflammatory disease, cancer, etc.). We have already reported novel type I TAK1 inhibitor, so we utilized its X-ray information to design a new chemical class type II and c-helix-out inhibitors. To develop the type II inhibitor, we superimposed the X-ray structure of our reported type I inhibitor onto a type II compound that inhibits multiple kinases, and used SBDD to design a new type II inhibitor. For the TAK1 c-helix-out inhibitor, we utilized the X-ray structure of a b-Raf c-helix-out inhibitor to design compounds, because TAK1 is located close to b-Raf in the Sugen kinase tree, so we considered that TAK1 would, similarly to b-Raf, form a c-helix-out conformation. The X-ray crystal structure of the inhibitors in complex with TAK1 confirmed the binding modes of the compounds we designed. This report is notable for being the first discovery of a c-helix-out inhibitor against TAK1.

  5. Mass Spectrometry-Based Method of Detecting and Distinguishing Type 1 and Type 2 Shiga-Like Toxins in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Christopher J.; Erickson-Beltran, Melissa L.; Skinner, Craig B.; Patfield, Stephanie A.; He, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Shiga-like toxins (verotoxins) are responsible for the virulence associated with a variety of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Direct detection of toxins requires a specific and sensitive technique. In this study, we describe a mass spectrometry-based method of analyzing the tryptic decapeptides derived from the non-toxic B subunits. A gene encoding a single protein that yields a set of relevant peptides upon digestion with trypsin was designed. The 15N-labeled protein was prepared by growing the expressing bacteria in minimal medium supplemented with 15NH4Cl. Trypsin digestion of the 15N-labeled protein yields a set of 15N-labeled peptides for use as internal standards to identify and quantify Shiga or Shiga-like toxins. We determined that this approach can be used to detect, quantify and distinguish among the known Shiga toxins (Stx) and Shiga-like toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) in the low attomole range (per injection) in complex media, including human serum. Furthermore, Stx1a could be detected and distinguished from the newly identified Stx1e in complex media. As new Shiga-like toxins are identified, this approach can be readily modified to detect them. Since intact toxins are digested with trypsin prior to analysis, the handling of intact Shiga toxins is minimized. The analysis can be accomplished within 5 h. PMID:26633510

  6. An Efficient Method for the Synthesis of Peptoids with Mixed Lysine-type/Arginine-type Monomers and Evaluation of Their Anti-leishmanial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bolt, Hannah L.; Denny, Paul W.; Cobb, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the manual solid-phase synthesis of linear peptoids that contain two differently functionalized cationic monomers. In this procedure amino functionalized 'lysine' and guanido functionalized 'arginine' peptoid monomers can be included within the same peptoid sequence. This procedure uses on-resin (N-(1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclohexylidene)ethyl) or Dde protection, orthogonal conditions to the Boc protection of lysine monomers. Subsequent deprotection allows an efficient on-resin guanidinylation reaction to form the arginine residues. The procedure is compatible with the commonly used submonomer method of peptoid synthesis, allowing simple peptoids to be made using common laboratory equipment and commercially available reagents. The representative synthesis, purification and characterization of two mixed peptoids is described. The evaluation of these compounds as potential anti-infectives in screening assays against Leishmania mexicana is also described. The protozoan parasite L. mexicana is a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects up to 12 million people worldwide. PMID:27842365

  7. Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An

    DOEpatents

    Loustau, Marie-Therese; Verhoog, Roelof; Precigout, Claude

    1996-09-24

    A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

  8. Embedded symmetric nested implicit Runge-Kutta methods of Gauss and Lobatto types for solving stiff ordinary differential equations and Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, G. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    A technique for constructing nested implicit Runge-Kutta methods in the class of mono-implicit formulas of this type is studied. These formulas are highly efficient in practice, since the dimension of the original system of differential equations is preserved, which is not possible in the case of implicit multistage Runge-Kutta formulas of the general from. On the other hand, nested implicit Runge-Kutta methods inherit all major properties of general formulas of this form, such as A-stability, symmetry, and symplecticity in a certain sense. Moreover, they can have sufficiently high stage and classical orders and, without requiring high extra costs, can ensure dense output of integration results of the same accuracy as the order of the underlying method. Thus, nested methods are efficient when applied to the numerical integration of differential equations of various sorts, including stiff and nonstiff problems, Hamiltonian systems, and invertible equations. In this paper, previously proposed nested methods based on the Gauss quadrature formulas are generalized to Lobatto-type methods. Additionally, a unified technique for constructing all such methods is proposed. Its performance is demonstrated as applied to embedded examples of nested implicit formulas of various orders. All the methods constructed are supplied with tools for local error estimation and automatic variable-stepsize mesh generation based on an optimal stepsize selection. These numerical methods are verified by solving test problems with known solutions. Additionally, a comparative analysis of these methods with Matlab built-in solvers is presented.

  9. DNA extraction method using a silica-base resin type kit for the detection of genetically modified papaya.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Kiyomi; Tsuchiya, Hisayo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Yamada, Toshiharu; Hirayama, Kuni; Satoh, Shuji

    2008-04-01

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya has not yet been approved for importation into, or cultivation in the European Union (EU) and Japan. A DNA extraction method using the Qiagen DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (PM method) and a method using a buffer containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method) have been adopted as the official Japanese methods for detecting GM foods. However, the amounts of DNA extracted from papaya by these methods are very low. Therefore, we investigated an extraction method to obtain a high yield of DNA from raw or freeze-dried fresh papaya using the Promega Wizard DNA Clean-Up Resin System (WCR). The incubation for the extraction was carried out at 58 degrees C without proteinase K for 15 min. The extract was applied to a mini-column, then the column was washed with 80% isopropyl alcohol, and genomic DNA adsorbed on the column was eluted with TE buffer. The WCR method gave a higher yield of genomic DNA, and was simpler and faster than the PM method or CTAB method. In addition, it could be used to extract genomic DNA from fresh papaya at various stages of ripeness. Based on these results, we propose that the present method using WCR is the most practical and useful way to extract genomic DNA for the purpose of detecting GM papaya.

  10. Investigation of the Spatial Propagation Properties of Type-I Parametric Fluorescence by Use of Tuning Curve Filtering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yoshio; Fujiwara, Hideki; Takeuchi, Shigeki; Sasaki, Keiji

    2007-09-01

    The spatial propagation properties of photon-pairs generated via type-I spontaneous parametric down conversion is investigated with numerical calculations and experiments. The number of photon-pairs detected after the apparatuses and frequency filters is calculated using the “tuning curve filtering method” [Fujiwara et al.: Phys. Rev. A 75 (2007) 023802] taking fully into account the experimental configurations required to study type-I collinear conditions. The experimentally obtained iris size dependences of single count rates and coincidence count rates are well reproduced by the calculations.

  11. Improving Diabetes Care for Young People With Type 1 Diabetes Through Visual Learning on Mobile Phones: Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Frøisland, Dag Helge; Skårderud, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Background Only 17% of Norwegian children and adolescents with diabetes achieve international treatment goals measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Classic patient–physician consultations seem to be poorly adapted to young children. New strategies that are better attuned to young people to improve support of adolescents’ self-management of diabetes need to be tested and evaluated. Objective (1) To explore how applications for mobile phones can be used in follow-up of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and (2) to use the findings to guide further development of the applications and as a basis for future studies. Method We pilot tested two mobile phone applications: (1) an application that contained a picture-based diabetes diary to record physical activity and photos taken with the phone camera of food eaten, where the phone also communicated with the glucometer by Bluetooth technology to capture blood glucose values, and (2) a Web-based, password-secured and encrypted short message service (SMS), based on access using login passwords received via SMS to be used by participants to send messages to their providers when they faced obstacles in everyday life, and to send educational messages to the participants. At the end of the 3-month pilot study, 12 participants (7 girls and 5 boys ) aged 13–19 years completed semistructured interviews. The participants had a mean HbA1c value of 8.3 (SD 0.3), mean age of 16.2 (SD 1.7) years, mean body mass index of 23.3 (SD 3.2) kg/m2, and mean diabetes duration of 7.5 (SD 4.6) years. We applied three additional measurements: change in metabolic control as measured by HbA1c, the System Usability Scale, and diabetes knowledge. Results From the interviews, three main categories emerged: visualization, access, and software changes. Participants appreciated the picture-based diary more than the SMS solution. Visualization of cornerstones in diabetes self-care (ie, diet, insulin dosage, physical activity, and pre- and

  12. Ranking of causes lead to road accidents using a new linguistic variable in interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight of a decision making method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-07-01

    A linguistic data is a variable whose value is naturally language phase in dealing with too complex situation to be described properly in conventional quantitative expressions. However, all the past researchers on linguistic variables used positive fuzzy numbers in expressing meaning of symbolic word. It seems that positive and negative numbers were never put concurrently in defining linguistic variables. Accordingly, we intend to construct a new positive and negative linguistic variable in interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight for interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS (IT2 FTOPSIS). This paper uses a new linguistic variable in interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight to capture the problems on reducing number of road accidents due to all the previously mentioned methods had no discussion about ranking of factors associated with road accidents. Specifically the objective of this paper is to establish rankings of the selected factors associated with road accidents using a new positive and negative linguistic variable and interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight in interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This new method is hoped can produce an optimal preference ranking of alternatives in accordance with a set of criterion wise ranking in selection of causes that lead to road accidents. The proposed method produces actionable results that laid the decision-making process. Besides, it does not require a complicated computation procedure and will be beneficial to decision analysis.

  13. Comparison of four molecular typing methods for evaluating genetic diversity among Candida albicans isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with oral candidiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Guerra, T M; Martínez-Suárez, J V; Laguna, F; Rodríguez-Tudela, J L

    1997-01-01

    Candida albicans strain delineation by karyotyping. NotI restriction pattern analysis, hybridization with specific probe 27A, and PCR fingerprinting with the phage M13 core sequence were performed with 30 isolates from the oral cavities of 30 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and 8 reference strains. Within the panel of clinical isolates, 20 were geographically related, although 10 isolates were susceptible to fluconazole and 10 isolates were resistant to fluconazole. The remaining isolates used in this study were fluconazole resistant and geographically unrelated. A composite DNA type was defined for each of the strains as the combination of types obtained by the four molecular methods. By this procedure, a great diversity of DNA types was found among isolates from the oropharynges of HIV-infected individuals with oral candidiasis. This diversity was not reduced when isolates were evaluated on the basis of whether they came from the same geographical locale and whether they were fluconazole resistant. These data refute the idea of a clonal origin for fluconazole-resistant strains among HIV-positive patients. Karyotyping was the least discriminatory method, yielding 19 DNA types among the 38 strains analyzed. Conversely, hybridization with the 27A probe showed a unique DNA pattern for each of the strains examined in this study. Our results demonstrate that at least two different molecular methods are needed for Candida albicans typing and that there is a great deal of strain variation within the species, irrespective of place of origin or antifungal resistance patterns. PMID:9157142

  14. Development of an irradiation method with lateral modulation of SOBP width using a cone-type filter for carbon ion beams.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Azusa; Ishii, Keizo; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yonai, Shunsuke; Kase, Yuki; Takei, Yuka; Komori, Masataka

    2009-06-01

    Passive irradiation methods deliver an extra dose to normal tissues upstream of the target tumor, while in dynamic irradiation methods, interplay effects between dynamic beam delivery and target motion induced by breathing or respiration distort the dose distributions. To solve the problems of those two irradiation methods, the authors have developed a new method that laterally modulates the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) width. By reducing scanning in the depth direction, they expect to reduce the interplay effects. They have examined this new irradiation method experimentally. In this system, they used a cone-type filter that consisted of 400 cones in a grid of 20 cones by 20 cones. There were five kinds of cones with different SOBP widths arranged on the frame two dimensionally to realize lateral SOBP modulation. To reduce the number of steps of cones, they used a wheel-type filter to make minipeaks. The scanning intensity was modulated for each SOBP width with a pair of scanning magnets. In this experiment, a stepwise dose distribution and spherical dose distribution of 60 mm in diameter were formed. The nonflatness of the stepwise dose distribution was 5.7% and that of the spherical dose distribution was 3.8%. A 2 mm misalignment of the cone-type filter resulted in a nonflatness of more than 5%. Lateral SOBP modulation with a cone-type filter and a scanned carbon ion beam successfully formed conformal dose distribution with nonflatness of 3.8% for the spherical case. The cone-type filter had to be set to within 1 mm accuracy to maintain nonflatness within 5%. This method will be useful to treat targets moving during breathing and targets in proximity to important organs.

  15. Development of an irradiation method with lateral modulation of SOBP width using a cone-type filter for carbon ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizaki, Azusa; Ishii, Keizo; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yonai, Shunsuke; Kase, Yuki; Takei, Yuka; Komori, Masataka

    2009-06-15

    Passive irradiation methods deliver an extra dose to normal tissues upstream of the target tumor, while in dynamic irradiation methods, interplay effects between dynamic beam delivery and target motion induced by breathing or respiration distort the dose distributions. To solve the problems of those two irradiation methods, the authors have developed a new method that laterally modulates the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) width. By reducing scanning in the depth direction, they expect to reduce the interplay effects. They have examined this new irradiation method experimentally. In this system, they used a cone-type filter that consisted of 400 cones in a grid of 20 cones by 20 cones. There were five kinds of cones with different SOBP widths arranged on the frame two dimensionally to realize lateral SOBP modulation. To reduce the number of steps of cones, they used a wheel-type filter to make minipeaks. The scanning intensity was modulated for each SOBP width with a pair of scanning magnets. In this experiment, a stepwise dose distribution and spherical dose distribution of 60 mm in diameter were formed. The nonflatness of the stepwise dose distribution was 5.7% and that of the spherical dose distribution was 3.8%. A 2 mm misalignment of the cone-type filter resulted in a nonflatness of more than 5%. Lateral SOBP modulation with a cone-type filter and a scanned carbon ion beam successfully formed conformal dose distribution with nonflatness of 3.8% for the spherical case. The cone-type filter had to be set to within 1 mm accuracy to maintain nonflatness within 5%. This method will be useful to treat targets moving during breathing and targets in proximity to important organs.

  16. Methods to Mark Termites with Protein for Mark-Release-Recapture and Mark-Capture Type Studies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of marking the southwestern desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder), with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein for mark-release-recapture (MRR) and mark-capture type studies. Qualitative laboratory studies were conducted to de...

  17. Investigation of prediction methods for the loads and stresses of Apollo type spacecraft parachutes. Volume 1: Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickey, F. E.; Mcewan, A. J.; Ewing, E. G.; Huyler, W. C., Jr.; Khajeh-Nouri, B.

    1970-01-01

    An analysis was conducted with the objective of upgrading and improving the loads, stress, and performance prediction methods for Apollo spacecraft parachutes. The subjects considered were: (1) methods for a new theoretical approach to the parachute opening process, (2) new experimental-analytical techniques to improve the measurement of pressures, stresses, and strains in inflight parachutes, and (3) a numerical method for analyzing the dynamical behavior of rapidly loaded pilot chute risers.

  18. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Method for calculating a negative-dispersion resonator-type multilayer mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholokhonova, Polina A.; Erg, G. V.

    2005-11-01

    A method is proposed for the calculation of negative-dispersion mirrors with resonator cavities. The mirror optimisation algorithm combines the capabilities of the gradient method and the random search method. A multilayer mirror structure with a reflectivity R>99.9% and a group delay dispersion of -60±10 fs2 in the 930-1070 nm wavelength range was calculated. The sensitivity of the obtained structure to random variations of layer thicknesses was analysed.

  19. Analysis of behavior of focusing error signals generated by astigmatic method when a focused spot moves beyond the radius of a land-groove-type optical disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Nakatani, Hidehiko; Nakai, Kenya; Ohmaki, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically calculate behaviors of focusing error signals generated by an astigmatic method in a land-groove-type optical disk. The focusing error signal from the land does not coincide with that from the groove. This behavior is enhanced when a focused spot of an optical pickup moves beyond the radius of the optical disk. A gain difference between the slope sensitivities of focusing error signals from the land and the groove is an important factor with respect to stable focusing servo control. In our calculation, the format of digital versatile disc-random access memory (DVD-RAM) is adopted as the land-groove-type optical disk model, and the dependences of the gain difference on various factors are investigated. The gain difference strongly depends on the optical intensity distribution of the laser beam in the optical pickup. The calculation method and results in this paper will be reflected in newly developed land-groove-type optical disks.

  20. 41 CFR 302-7.13 - What are the various methods of shipping HHG and how is the weight determined for each type of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the various methods of shipping HHG and how is the weight determined for each type of shipment? 302-7.13 Section 302-7.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION...

  1. Analysis of Magnetic Properties on the Outer Rotor Type Hybrid Stepping Motors Using 3D Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Yuji; Miyata, Kenji; Oonishi, Kazuo; Motegi, Yasuaki

    The three-dimensional magnetic field analysis has clarified the effect of several structural and manufacturing factors on the properties of the outer rotor type stepping motors. (1) The number of rotor teeth, 128, can make a unit step angle under 0.5 degree and a cogging torque under 1mNm for the outer rotor type stepping motor with the outer diameter under 60mm and with the output torque above 0.4Nm. (2) The permanent magnet flux has an optimal value dependent on the thickness of the laminated core to maximize the motor torque. (3) The lamination stacking error of the small teeth of the rotor and stator has a large effect on the cogging torque of the stepping motor.

  2. Method of enhancing the electronic properties of an undoped and/or N-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon film

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    The dark conductivity and photoconductivity of an N-type and/or undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer fabricated by an AC or DC proximity glow discharge in silane can be increased through the incorporation of argon in an amount from 10 to about 90 percent by volume of the glow discharge atmosphere which contains a silicon-hydrogen containing compound in an amount of from about 90 to about 10 volume percent.

  3. Development of an infusion method for encapsulating ascorbyl palmitate in V-type granular cold-water swelling starch.

    PubMed

    Dries, D M; Gomand, S V; Pycarelle, S C; Smet, M; Goderis, B; Delcour, J A

    2017-06-01

    Certain lipophilic components can be inserted very efficiently as guest molecule in the existing single helical amylose cavities in VH-type crystalline granular cold-water swelling starch (GCWSS). In the present study, ascorbyl palmitate (AscP) was used as a model guest compound. The impacts of temperature (20 and 60°C) and ethanol [48 and 68% (v/v)] and AscP [1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0% (w/w)] concentrations on encapsulation performance were investigated. First, native maize and potato starches were converted into VH-type GCWSS by aqueous ethanol [48% (v/v)] treatment at 95°C. Exposing GCWSS to AscP induced the formation of inclusion complexes when a particular solvent (and temperature) environment was met. In 48% (v/v) ethanol, raising the treatment temperature to 60°C did not significantly impact on the encapsulation performance. Maximum degrees of AscP encapsulation were 2.9 and 1.5% (w/w) for maize and potato starch, respectively, as determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. As maize GCWSS contained more 'parent' VH-type crystals, it was capable of entrapping more AscP than potato GCWSS.

  4. Evaluation of a novel method based on amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (ADSRRS fingerprinting) for typing strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Beata; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Bronk, Marek; Samet, Alfred; Myjak, Przemysław; Kur, Józef

    2003-03-01

    In the search for an effective DNA-typing technique for use in hospital epidemiology, the performance and convenience of a novel assay based on the fingerprinting of bacterial genomes by amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (ADSRRS fingerprinting) was tested. A large number of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREM) isolates from haematological ward patients of the Clinical Hospital in Gdańsk were examined. We found that ADSRRS fingerprinting analysis is a rapid method that offers good discriminatory power. The method demonstrated also excellent reproducibility. The usefulness of the ADSRRS fingerprinting method for molecular typing was compared with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method, which is currently considered the gold standard for molecular typing of isolates recovered from patients and the environment in the course of investigation and control of nosocomial outbreaks. Clustering of ADSRRS fingerprinting data matched pulsed field gel electrophoresis data. The features of ADSRRS fingerprinting technique is discussed in comparison with conventional methods. Data presented here demonstrate the complexity of the epidemiological situation concerning VREM that may occur in a single medical ward.

  5. The influence of digital filter type, amplitude normalisation method, and co-contraction algorithm on clinically relevant surface electromyography data during clinical movement assessments.

    PubMed

    Devaprakash, Daniel; Weir, Gillian J; Dunne, James J; Alderson, Jacqueline A; Donnelly, Cyril J

    2016-12-01

    There is a large and growing body of surface electromyography (sEMG) research using laboratory-specific signal processing procedures (i.e., digital filter type and amplitude normalisation protocols) and data analyses methods (i.e., co-contraction algorithms) to acquire practically meaningful information from these data. As a result, the ability to compare sEMG results between studies is, and continues to be challenging. The aim of this study was to determine if digital filter type, amplitude normalisation method, and co-contraction algorithm could influence the practical or clinical interpretation of processed sEMG data. Sixteen elite female athletes were recruited. During data collection, sEMG data was recorded from nine lower limb muscles while completing a series of calibration and clinical movement assessment trials (running and sidestepping). Three analyses were conducted: (1) signal processing with two different digital filter types (Butterworth or critically damped), (2) three amplitude normalisation methods, and (3) three co-contraction ratio algorithms. Results showed the choice of digital filter did not influence the clinical interpretation of sEMG; however, choice of amplitude normalisation method and co-contraction algorithm did influence the clinical interpretation of the running and sidestepping task. Care is recommended when choosing amplitude normalisation method and co-contraction algorithms if researchers/clinicians are interested in comparing sEMG data between studies.

  6. Characterization of Human Myotubes From Type 2 Diabetic and Nondiabetic Subjects Using Complementary Quantitative Mass Spectrometric Methods*

    PubMed Central

    Thingholm, Tine E.; Bak, Steffen; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Jensen, Ole N.; Gaster, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a key tissue site of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Human myotubes are primary skeletal muscle cells displaying both morphological and biochemical characteristics of mature skeletal muscle and the diabetic phenotype is conserved in myotubes derived from subjects with type 2 diabetes. Several abnormalities have been identified in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects, however, the exact molecular mechanisms leading to the diabetic phenotype has still not been found. Here we present a large-scale study in which we combine a quantitative proteomic discovery strategy using isobaric peptide tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and a label-free study with a targeted quantitative proteomic approach using selected reaction monitoring to identify, quantify, and validate changes in protein abundance among human myotubes obtained from nondiabetic lean, nondiabetic obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects, respectively. Using an optimized protein precipitation protocol, a total of 2832 unique proteins were identified and quantified using the iTRAQ strategy. Despite a clear diabetic phenotype in diabetic myotubes, the majority of the proteins identified in this study did not exhibit significant abundance changes across the patient groups. Proteins from all major pathways known to be important in type 2 diabetic subjects were well-characterized in this study. This included pathways like the trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle, lipid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, the glycolytic pathway, and glycogen metabolism from which all but two enzymes were found in the present study. None of these enzymes were found to be regulated at the level of protein expression or degradation supporting the hypothesis that these pathways are regulated at the level of post-translational modification. Twelve proteins were, however, differentially expressed among the three different groups. Thirty-six proteins were chosen for further analysis and

  7. COMPARISON OF IN VITRO-CULTURED AND WILD-TYPE PERKINSUS MARINUS. II: DOSING METHODS AND HOST RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endoparasites must breach host barriers to establish infection and then must survive host internal defenses to cause disease. Such barriers may frustrate attempts to experimentally transmit parasites by ?natural' methods. In addition, the host's condition may affect a study's out...

  8. Refraction-Contrast Articular Cartilage Image: Comparison of Depiction Abilities between In-Line Holographic Method and a Laue Type Analyzer Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimao, Daisuke; Mori, Koichi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Hyodo, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    Two kinds of refraction-contrast image, one obtained using the in-line holographic method and the other obtained using an analyzer crystal in the Laue geometry, from a specimen of a human articular cartilage were investigated using synchrotron X-rays at 30 keV. The former image was superior in spatial resolution and the latter image was superior in contrast regarding the delineation of the articular cartilage, which is invisible by the absorption contrast.

  9. Investigation of a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak combining case-control, traditional typing and whole genome sequencing methods, Luxembourg, June 2014.

    PubMed

    Mossong, Joël; Decruyenaere, Frédéric; Moris, Gilbert; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Olinger, Christophe M; Johler, Sophia; Perrin, Monique; Hau, Patrick; Weicherding, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak occurred at an international equine sports event in Luxembourg requiring the hospitalisation of 31 persons. We conducted a microbiological investigation of patients and buffet items, a case-control study and a carriage study of catering staff. Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from patients, food and catering staff were characterised and compared using traditional typing methods and whole genome sequencing. Genotypically identical strains (sequence type ST8, spa-type t024, MLVA-type 4698, enterotoxin A FRI100) were isolated in 10 patients, shiitake mushrooms, cured ham, and in three members of staff. The case-control study strongly suggested pasta salad with pesto as the vehicle of infection (p<0.001), but this food item could not be tested, because there were no leftovers. Additional enterotoxigenic strains genetically unrelated to the outbreak strain were found in four members of staff. Non-enterotoxigenic strains with livestock-associated sequence type ST398 were isolated from three food items and two members of staff. The main cause of the outbreak is likely to have been not maintaining the cold chain after food preparation. Whole genome sequencing resulted in phylogenetic clustering which concurred with traditional typing while simultaneously characterising virulence and resistance traits.

  10. The method used for justification of engineering solutions for multistage plate-type mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupov, V. B.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes technical and economic problems associated with the selection of designs of mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants. A method is suggested that makes it possible to determine the dimensions of each stage of plate-type mufflers on the basis of achieving the lowest total discounted costs in order to provide the required acoustical performance at a permissible aerodynamic resistance of a muffler. The condition of the lowest total discounted costs for a multistage muffler, which is valid for different types of mufflers, has been obtained.

  11. Analysis of Experimental Sea-level Transient Data and Analog Method of Obtaining Altitude Response for Turbine-propeller Engine with Relay-type Speed Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasu, George; Pack, George J

    1951-01-01

    Correlation has been established between transient engine and control data obtained experimentally and data obtained by simulating the engine and control with an analog computer. This correlation was established at sea-level conditions for a turbine-propeller engine with a relay-type speed control. The behavior of the controlled engine at altitudes of 20,000 and 35,000 feet was determined with an analog computer using the altitude pressure and temperature generalization factors to calculate the new engine constants for these altitudes. Because the engine response varies considerably at altitude some type of compensation appears desirable and four methods of compensation are discussed.

  12. Efficiency of the MO method using a Slater-type basis set and non-local density functional formalism for describing DNA base stacking energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Noriyuki; Araki, Masahiro; Nakao, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kinya

    1999-11-01

    We have developed a molecular-orbital (MO) method based on a Slater-type basis set and non-local density functional theory (DFT) for describing the DNA base stacking properties, and its efficiency has been confirmed by investigating the stacking energy of cytosine dimer. Our DFT method can reproduce the dependence of stacking energy on the stacking conformation obtained by the ab initio second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) calculation. The stable structures of hydrogen-bonded Watson-Crick base pairs and (PO 4H 2) -1 ion have been investigated and the structures obtained by our DFT method are comparable with those from the MP2 and DFT methods in Gaussian94. Therefore, our DFT method may be applicable for investigating the stable structures of more realistic models for stacked DNA base pairs including backbones.

  13. A multiple information fusion method for predicting subcellular locations of two different types of bacterial protein simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Xu, Huimin; He, Ping-An; Dai, Qi; Yao, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular localization prediction of bacterial protein is an important component of bioinformatics, which has great importance for drug design and other applications. For the prediction of protein subcellular localization, as we all know, lots of computational tools have been developed in the recent decades. In this study, we firstly introduce three kinds of protein sequences encoding schemes: physicochemical-based, evolutionary-based, and GO-based. The original and consensus sequences were combined with physicochemical properties. And elements information of different rows and columns in position-specific scoring matrix were taken into consideration simultaneously for more core and essence information. Computational methods based on gene ontology (GO) have been demonstrated to be superior to methods based on other features. Then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied for feature selection and reduced vectors are input to a support vector machine (SVM) to predict protein subcellular localization. The proposed method can achieve a prediction accuracy of 98.28% and 97.87% on a stringent Gram-positive (Gpos) and Gram-negative (Gneg) dataset with Jackknife test, respectively. At last, we calculate "absolute true overall accuracy (ATOA)", which is stricter than overall accuracy. The ATOA obtained from the proposed method is also up to 97.32% and 93.06% for Gpos and Gneg. From both the rationality of testing procedure and the success rates of test results, the current method can improve the prediction quality of protein subcellular localization.

  14. Molecular beacon-based real-time PCR method for detection of 15 high-risk and 5 low-risk HPV types.

    PubMed

    Takács, Tibor; Jeney, Csaba; Kovács, Laura; Mózes, Johanna; Benczik, Márta; Sebe, Attila

    2008-04-01

    Detection of HPV infections requires a robust time-effective single-step method for efficient screening. A molecular beacon-based one-step multiplex real-time PCR system was developed to detect 15 high-risk (HPV types 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68) and 5 low-risk HPV types (HPV types 6, 11, 42, 43, 44). Molecular beacons detecting high-risk types are 5'-FAM-3'-DABCYL-labelled, molecular beacons for low-risk detection are 5'-TET-3'-DABCYL-labelled, while the internal control added before sample DNA extraction is detected by a 5'-FAM-TexasRed-3'-DABCYL wavelength-shifting molecular beacon. Accordingly, fluorescent data for HPV detection are collected at 530 nm for high-risk types, 560 nm in case of low-risk types and the reaction internal control is detected at 610 nm on a Roche LightCycler 2.0 instrument. The sensitivity for detected types varies between 22 and 700 copies/reaction. The clinical performance was tested on 161 clinical sample DNAs. The MB-RT PCR results were compared to the typing results obtained by the L1F/L1R PCR and hybridization-based system described previously, and the concordance rate between the two systems was 89.44%. The favorable characteristics shown by this multiplex single-step real-time HPV detection system make this promising approach worthy for further development and application for clinical screening.

  15. Identification of WA-type three-line hybrid rice with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y; Gao, B D; Chen, H Y; Mao, J J; Cao, A X; Zhu, J G; Zhu, S F

    2012-02-01

    A real-time fluorescent PCR (RTF-PCR) was developed to detect and quantify wild abortive (WA)-type three-line hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). The mitochondrial R₂₋₆₃₀ WA gene was reported to be closely related to male sterility in plants, and developed as a molecular maker to identify the cytoplasmic male sterility system of hybrid rice. First, we got the DNA sequence of R₂₋₆₃₀ WA gene in 17 rice species with traditional PCR. Then, a pair of specific primers (P₃, P₄) and TaqMan fluorescence probe (P₃₋₁₄) were designed based on the R₂₋₆₃₀ DNA sequence. The following RTF-PCR was performed on the 17 rice species finally. The results indicate that the probes used here are specific for three-line hybrid rice F₁ and male sterile lines. We can even identify a single hybrid seed using the probes, which confirmed that the probes can be applied to the identification and quantification of the WA-type three-line hybrid rice. In addition, the RFT-PCR system can be optimized when the annealing temperature is 60 °C and the Mg²⁺ concentration is 3.5 mmol/L.

  16. Efficiency transfer in the calibration of a coaxial p-type HpGe detector using the Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Vargas, M Jurado; Díaz, N Cornejo; Sánchez, D Pérez

    2003-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was applied to the efficiency transfer exercise described in the EUROMET428 project (Appl. Radiat. Isot. 55 (2001) 493), evaluating the peak efficiencies in the energy range 60-2000 keV for a typical coaxial p-type HpGe detector and several types of source configuration: point sources located at various distances from the detector and a cylindrical box containing three matrices. The efficiency values were derived in two ways: (a) by direct calculation taking into account the physical dimensions of the detector provided by the supplier, and (b) by means of relative computation (efficiency transfer) taking also into consideration the known efficiency values for a reference point source. As expected, some significant discrepancies between the calculated and experimental values were found when a direct computation was made using the data provided by the supplier. On the contrary, the results for the peak efficiency derived by relative calculation by means of an efficiency transfer were in good agreement with the experimental values. The deviations found with this last procedure were generally below 5% for all the geometries considered, which is entirely satisfactory for the purposes of routine measurements.

  17. Influence of binder properties, method of addition, powder type and operating conditions on fluid-bed melt granulation and resulting tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Abberger, T

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate melt granulation in a laboratory scale fluid-bed granulator with respect to granule growth, granule properties and resulting tablet properties. The parameters investigated were method of addition of PEG (spray-on or addition as flakes), binder concentration, PEG type (3000, 4000 and 6000, sprayed-on), size (PEG 4000, added as three different sized flakes), powder type (two different sized lactose types and corn starch) and operating conditions (volume air flow and heating temperature). Addition of binder as flakes led to layering as a growth mechanism when the size of the flakes was high. Coalescence occurred when the size was low. Coalescence also occurred when spraying was the method of addition. Due to the greater viscosity of the PEG 6000 melt it produced bigger granules than 3000 or 4000. The influence of volume air flow was moderate and the influence of heating temperature in the range of 70-90 degrees C was very low with both methods of addition. The disintegration time of tablets from granules where PEG was added as flakes was shorter than from granules where PEG was sprayed-on. The latter method of binder addition led to tablets which did not disintegrate but eroded. This was apparently caused by formation of a binder matrix, which could not be destroyed by the disintegrant.

  18. Semi-automated disk-type solid-phase extraction method for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in aqueous samples and its application to natural water.

    PubMed

    Choi, J W; Lee, J H; Moon, B S; Baek, K H

    2007-07-20

    A disk-type solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was used for the extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in natural water and tap water. Since this SPE system comprised airtight glass covers with a decompression pump, it enabled continuous extraction with semi-automation. The disk-type SPE method was validated by comparing its recovery rates of spiked internal standards with those of the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The recovery ranges of both methods were similar in terms of (13)C-labeled internal standards: 64.3-99.2% for the LLE and 52.4-93.6% for the SPE. For the native spike of 1,3,6,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), the recoveries in the SPE were in the normal range of 77.9-101.1%. However, in the LLE, the recoveries of 1,3,6,8-TCDD decreased significantly. One of the reasons for the low recovery is that the solubility of this congener is high. The semi-automated SPE method was applied to the analysis of different types of water: river water, snow, sea water, raw water for drinking purposes, and tap water. PCDD/F congeners were found in some sea water and snow samples, while their concentrations in the other samples were below the limits of detection (LODs). This SPE system is appropriate for the routine analysis of water samples below 50L.

  19. Evaluation of Molecular Typing Methods in Characterizing a European Collection of Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains: the HARMONY Collection▿

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Barry D.; Robinson, D. Ashley; Monk, Alastair B.; Murchan, Stephen; Deplano, Ariane; de Ryck, Rafaël; Struelens, Marc J.; Scheel, Christina; Fussing, Vivian; Salmenlinna, Saara; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Cuny, Christina; Witte, Wolfgang; Tassios, Panayotis T.; Legakis, Nikolas J.; van Leeuwen, Willem; van Belkum, Alex; Vindel, Anna; Garaizar, Javier; Haeggman, Sara; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Ransjo, Ulrika; Muller-Premru, Manica; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Rossney, Angela; O'Connell, Brian; Short, Benjamin D.; Thomas, Jonathan; O'Hanlon, Simon; Enright, Mark C.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed a representative sample of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from 11 European countries (referred to as the HARMONY collection) using three molecular typing methods used within the HARMONY group to examine their usefulness for large, multicenter MRSA surveillance networks that use these different laboratory methodologies. MRSA isolates were collected based on their prevalence in each center and their genetic diversity, assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE groupings (≤3 bands difference between patterns) were compared to those made by sequencing of the variable repeats in the protein A gene spa and clonal designations based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), combined with PCR analysis of the staphylococcal chromosome cassette containing the mec genes involved in methicillin resistance (SCCmec). A high level of discrimination was achieved using each of the three methodologies, with discriminatory indices between 89.5% and 91.9% with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. There was also a high level of concordance of groupings made using each method. MLST/SCCmec typing distinguished 10 groups containing at least two isolates, and these correspond to the majority of nosocomial MRSA clones described in the literature. PFGE and spa typing resolved 34 and 31 subtypes, respectively, within these 10 MRSA clones, with each subtype differing only slightly from the most common pattern using each method. The HARMONY group has found that the methods used in this study differ in their availability and affordability to European centers involved in MRSA surveillance. Here, we demonstrate that the integration of such technologies is achievable, although common protocols (such as we have developed for PFGE) may also be important, as is the use of centralized Internet sites to facilitate data analysis. PFGE and spa-typing data from analysis of MRSA isolates from the many centers that have access to the relevant equipment can be

  20. An online failure detection method of the glucose sensor-insulin pump system: improved overnight safety of type-1 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Andrea; Del Favero, Simone; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-02-01

    Sensors for real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and pumps for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) have opened new scenarios for Type-1 diabetes treatment. However, occasional failures of either CGM or CSII may expose diabetic patients to possibly severe risks, especially overnight (e.g., inappropriate insulin administration). In this contribution, we present a method to detect in real time such failures by simultaneously using CGM and CSII data streams and a black-box model of the glucose-insulin system. First, an individualized state-space model of the glucose-insulin system is identified offline from CGM and CSII data collected during a previous monitoring. Then, this model, CGM and CSII real-time data streams are used online to obtain predictions of future glucose concentrations together with their confidence intervals by exploiting a Kalman filtering approach. If glucose values measured by the CGM sensor are not consistent with the predictions, a failure alert is generated in order to mitigate the risks for patient safety. The method is tested on 100 virtual patients created by using the UVA/Padova Type-1 diabetic simulator. Three different types of failures have been simulated: spike in the CGM profile, loss of sensitivity of glucose sensor, and failure in the pump delivery of insulin. Results show that, in all cases, the method is able to correctly generate alerts, with a very limited number of false negatives and a number of false positives, on average, lower than 10%. The use of the method in three subjects supports the simulation results, demonstrating that the accuracy of the method in generating alerts in presence of failures of the CGM sensor-CSII pump system can significantly improve safety of Type-1 diabetic patients overnight.

  1. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat fingerprinting as a method for rapid and cost-effective typing of animal-associated Staphylococcus aureus strains from lineages other than sequence type 398.

    PubMed

    Kosecka-Strojek, Maja; Ilczyszyn, Weronika M; Buda, Aneta; Polakowska, Klaudia; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Panz, Tomasz; Bialecka, Anna; Kasprowicz, Andrzej; Jakubczak, Antoni; Krol, Jaroslaw; Wieliczko, Alina; Wladyka, Benedykt; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    In veterinary medicine, Staphylococcus aureus is associated with a range of mild to severe infections. The high density of livestock in intensive farming systems increases the risk of disease spread and hampers its control and measures of prevention, making S. aureus one of the most important animal pathogens. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) has been successfully applied to the characterization of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 but not to the characterization of a wide range of other animal isolates. The objective of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of MLVF for studying S. aureus strains isolated from households, farms and exotic animals in three regions of Poland. MLVF, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), spa typing and diagnostic microarrays were compared to determine the most suitable combination of methods for veterinary purposes. MLVF generated results consistent with host and geographic origins, reflecting population structures with a high concordance to spa typing results. MLVF has been proven to be a rapid, highly discriminatory and cost-effective method suitable for molecular typing in veterinary settings.

  2. Tandem repeat-tRNA (TRtRNA) PCR method for the molecular typing of non-Saccharomyces subspecies.

    PubMed

    Barquet, Marianne; Martín, Valentina; Medina, Karina; Pérez, Gabriel; Carrau, Francisco; Gaggero, Carina

    2012-01-01

    There is a worldwide trend to understand the impact of non-Saccharomyces yeast species on the process of winemaking. Although the predominant species at the end of the fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several non-Saccharomyces species present during the first days of the process can produce and/or release aromas that improve the bouquet and complexity of the final wine. Since no genomic sequences are available for the predominant non-Saccharomyces species selected from grapes or musts (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora vineae, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Candida zemplinina), a reproducible PCR method was devised to discriminate strains at the subspecies level. The method combines different oligonucleotides based on tandem repeats with a second oligonucleotide based on a conserved tRNA region, specific for ascomycetes. Tandem repeats are randomly dispersed in all eukaryotic genomes and tRNA genes are conserved and present in several copies in different chromosomes. As an example, the method was applied to discriminate native M. pulcherrima strains but it could be extended to differentiate strains from other non-Saccharomyces species. The biodiversity of species and strains found in the grape ecosystem is a potential source of new enzymes, fungicides and/or novel sustainable methods for biological control of phytopathogens.

  3. Cryoconservation of Chicken Blastodermal Cells: Effects of Slow Freezing, Vitrification, Cryoprotectant Type and Thawing Method during In Vitro Processing.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Dorota; Chojnacka-Puchta, Luiza; Brzezinska, Jadwiga; Lakota, Pawel; Bednarczyk, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Cryoconservation of blastodermal cells (BCs) can preserve genetic material for the future reconstruction of poultry breeds. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of three slow freezing programs and vitrification, different cryoprotectants (5% DMSO, 10% DMSO, or multi-component cryoprotectant (MC) and two thawing methods on the viability of chicken BCs. Significant differences in the survival of slowly frozen BCs using program 3 (2°C/min. to 0.4°C/min.) compared with programs 1 (1°C/min. to 0.3°C/min.) and 2 (4°C/min. to 0.3°C/min.) were observed. The percentage of live BCs was significantly higher after slow freezing in the presence of the MC compared with DMSO. The thawing method did not have a significant effect on the percentage of live BCs. We also observed significant differences in the survival rate of BCs after vitrification (81%) and slow freezing in the presence of 10% DMSO using program 3 (60%). The highest percentage of viable BCs was achieved by slow freezing with the MC using program 2 and thawing with method 1 (94%). The most unfavorable combination for BCs survival was slow freezing in 5% DMSO using program 3 and thawing with method 2 (58.3%). This is the first study to apply MC to the slow freezing of BCs. We also showed successful BCs vitrification.

  4. Diabetes MILES--Australia (management and impact for long-term empowerment and success): methods and sample characteristics of a national survey of the psychological aspects of living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australian adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Successful management of diabetes requires attention to the behavioural, psychological and social aspects of this progressive condition. The Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Study is an international collaborative. Diabetes MILES--Australia, the first Diabetes MILES initiative to be undertaken, was a national survey of adults living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australia. The aim of this study was to gather data that will provide insights into how Australians manage their diabetes, the support they receive and the impact of diabetes on their lives, as well as to use the data to validate new diabetes outcome measures. Methods/design The survey was designed to include a core set of self-report measures, as well as modules specific to diabetes type or management regimens. Other measures or items were included in only half of the surveys. Cognitive debriefing interviews with 20 participants ensured the survey content was relevant and easily understood. In July 2011, the survey was posted to 15,000 adults (aged 18-70 years) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes selected randomly from the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) database. An online version of the survey was advertised nationally. A total of 3,338 eligible Australians took part; most (70.4%) completed the postal survey. Respondents of both diabetes types and genders, and of all ages, were adequately represented in both the postal and online survey sub-samples. More people with type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes took part in Diabetes MILES--Australia (58.8% versus 41.2%). Most respondents spoke English as their main language, were married/in a de facto relationship, had at least a high school education, were occupied in paid work, had an annual household income > $AUS40,000, and lived in metropolitan areas. Discussion A potential limitation of the study is the under-representation of respondents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds

  5. Verification of simple hydration/dehydration methods to characterize multiple water compartments on tendon type 1 collagen.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Ivan L; Short, Nicholas J; Fullerton, Gary D

    2007-06-01

    A molecular model of collagen hydration is used to validate centrifugal dehydration force (CDF) and re-hydration isotherm (RHI) methods to measure and characterize hydration compartments on bovine tendon. The CDF method assesses fluid flow rate from flexor and extensor tendons expressed in (g-water/g-dry mass-minute) and hydration capacity of compartments in (g-water/g-dry mass). Measured water compartment capacities agree with the molecular model of collagen hydration [Fullerton GD, Rahal A. Collagen structure: the molecular source of tendon magic angle effect. J Mag Reson Imag 2007;25:345-361; Fullerton GD, Amurao MR. Evidence that collagen and tendon have monolayer water coverage in the native state. Cell Biol Int 2006;30(1):56-65]. Native tendon hydration has monolayer coverage on collagen h(m)=1.6 g/g which divides into primary hydration on polar surfaces h(pp)=0.8 g/g and secondary hydration h(s)=0.8 g/g bridging over hydrophobic surfaces. Primary hydration is hydrogen bonded to collagen polar side chains h(psc)=0.54 g/g with small free energy or to the protein main chain hydration h(pmc)=0.26 g/g with greater free energy of binding. The CDF method replaces the more time consuming water proton NMR spin-lattice dehydration (NMR titration) method, confirms the presence of three non-bulk water compartments on collagen (h(pmc)=0.26 g/g, h(pp)=0.8 g/g and h(m)=1.6 g/g). This CDF method provides the most reproducible experimental measure of total tissue non-bulk water (TNBW). The re-hydration isotherm method, on the other hand, provides the most accurate measure of the Ramachandran water-bridge capacity h(Ra)=0.0656 g/g. The only equipment needed are: microfilterfuge tubes, a microcentrifuge capable of 14,000 x g or 4MPa, a vacuum drying oven, an accurate balance and curve fitting ability. The newly validated methods should be useful for characterizing multiple water compartments in biological and non-biological materials by allowing direct measurement of water

  6. Method and system employing graphical electric load categorization to identify one of a plurality of different electric load types

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yi; Du, Liang

    2016-09-13

    A system for different electric loads includes sensors structured to sense voltage and current signals for each of the different electric loads; a hierarchical load feature database having a plurality of layers, with one of the layers including a plurality of different load categories; and a processor. The processor acquires voltage and current waveforms from the sensors for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; maps a voltage-current trajectory to a grid including a plurality of cells, each of which is assigned a binary value of zero or one; extracts a plurality of different features from the mapped grid of cells as a graphical signature of the corresponding one of the different electric loads; derives a category of the corresponding one of the different electric loads from the database; and identifies one of a plurality of different electric load types for the corresponding one of the different electric loads.

  7. Tibialis anterior muscle needle biopsy and sensitive biomolecular methods: a useful tool in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Iachettini, S; Valaperta, R; Marchesi, A; Perfetti, A; Cuomo, G; Fossati, B; Vaienti, L; Costa, E; Meola, G; Cardani, R

    2015-10-26

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by a CTG repeat expansion in 3'UTR of DMPK gene. This mutation causes accumulation of toxic RNA in nuclear foci leading to splicing misregulation of specific genes. In view of future clinical trials with antisense oligonucleotides in DM1 patients, it is important to set up sensitive and minimally-invasive tools to monitor the efficacy of treatments on skeletal muscle. A tibialis anterior (TA) muscle sample of about 60 mg was obtained from 5 DM1 patients and 5 healthy subjects through a needle biopsy. A fragment of about 40 mg was used for histological examination and a fragment of about 20 mg was used for biomolecular analysis. The TA fragments obtained with the minimally-invasive needle biopsy technique is enough to perform all the histopathological and biomolecular evaluations useful to monitor a clinical trial on DM1 patients.

  8. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS Characteristics of the magnetic analysis system for a compact MPR-type spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jian-Min; Zhou, Lin; Jiang, Shi-Lun; Peng, Tai-Ping

    2010-12-01

    The magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer is a novel diagnostic instrument with high performance for measurements of neutron spectra in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments and high power fusion devices. A compact MPR-type spectrometer dedicated to the research of pulsed deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron spectroscopy of special experimental conditions is currently under design. Analyses of the main parameters and performance of the magnetic analysis system through 3-D particle transport calculations and MonteCarlo simulations and calibration of the system performance as a test using CR-39 solid track detector and α particle from 239Pu and 226Ra radioactive sources are presented in this paper. The results indicate that the magnetic analysis system will achieve a detection efficiency level of 10-5 -10-4 at an energy resolution of 1.5%-2.1%, and fulfills the design goals of the spectrometer.

  9. AN ANALYTIC METHOD TO DETERMINE HABITABLE ZONES FOR S-TYPE PLANETARY ORBITS IN BINARY STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos E-mail: elke.pilat-lohinger@univie.ac.at

    2012-06-10

    With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone have arisen. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the habitable zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host star only? In this article, we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time-independent analytical estimates and compare them to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of habitable zones toward the secondary in close binary systems.

  10. HEALTHY study rationale, design and methods: moderating risk of type 2 diabetes in multi-ethnic middle school students.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Kathryn; Baranowski, Tom; DeBar, Lynn; Foster, Gary D; Kaufman, Francine; Kennel, Phyllis; Linder, Barbara; Schneider, Margaret; Venditti, Elizabeth M; Yin, Zenong

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed and implemented in response to the growing numbers of children and adolescents being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Modifiable risk factors measured were indicators of adiposity and glycemic dysregulation: body mass index > or =85th percentile, fasting glucose > or =5.55 mmol l(-1) (100 mg per 100 ml) and fasting insulin > or =180 pmol l(-1) (30 microU ml(-1)). A series of pilot studies established the feasibility of performing data collection procedures and tested the development of an intervention consisting of four integrated components: (1) changes in the quantity and nutritional quality of food and beverage offerings throughout the total school food environment; (2) physical education class lesson plans and accompanying equipment to increase both participation and number of minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; (3) brief classroom activities and family outreach vehicles to increase knowledge, enhance decision-making skills and support and reinforce youth in accomplishing goals; and (4) communications and social marketing strategies to enhance and promote changes through messages, images, events and activities. Expert study staff provided training, assistance, materials and guidance for school faculty and staff to implement the intervention components. A cohort of students were enrolled in sixth grade and followed to end of eighth grade. They attended a health screening data collection at baseline and end of study that involved measurement of height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference and a fasting blood draw. Height and weight were also collected at the end of the seventh grade. The study was conducted in 42 middle schools, six at each of seven locations across the country, with 21 schools randomized to receive the intervention and 21 to act as controls (data collection activities only). Middle school was the unit of

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy and Tensile Strength of a Type IV Gypsum Using Microwave and Air Drying Methods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anuraag; Shetty, Manoj; Hegde, Chethan; Shetty, N Sridhar; Prasad, D Krishna

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate dimensional accuracy and tensile strength of a type IV gypsum product, at different time intervals, dried in air or a microwave oven. Eighty specimens prepared from a cylindrical mould were used for measuring tensile strength (group A). Twenty specimens from a master die mould were used for determining dimensional accuracy (group B). In group A, 40 specimens were dried in open air at room temperature (A1). The other 40 were removed after 30 min and air dried for 20 min. These were subjected to microwave oven drying for 5 min (A2). Ten specimens each were tested under diametral compression at each of the following time periods: 1, 2, 4 and 24 h after drying. In group B, ten specimens were dried in open air at room temperature (B1). Ten specimens were removed from the mould after 30 min and air dried for 20 min. These were then dried in a microwave oven for 5 min (B2). The data was statistically analyzed using students unpaired "t" test. At all time intervals, diametral tensile strength (DTS) values for specimens dried in microwave oven were significantly higher than for those dried in open air. There were no significant differences between the dimensional accuracy of the two groups. In this study, microwave oven drying had a positive effect on the DTS of a type IV gypsum and the microwave oven dried specimens were as accurate as the air dried specimens over the same time period.

  12. A New Double Digestion Ligation Mediated Suppression PCR Method for Simultaneous Bacteria DNA-Typing and Confirmation of Species: An Acinetobacter sp. Model

    PubMed Central

    Stojowska, Karolina; Krawczyk, Beata

    2014-01-01

    We have designed a new ddLMS PCR (double digestion Ligation Mediated Suppression PCR) method based on restriction site polymorphism upstream from the specific target sequence for the simultaneous identification and differentiation of bacterial strains. The ddLMS PCR combines a simple PCR used for species or genus identification and the LM PCR strategy for strain differentiation. The bacterial identification is confirmed in the form of the PCR product(s), while the length of the PCR product makes it possible to differentiate between bacterial strains. If there is a single copy of the target sequence within genomic DNA, one specific PCR product is created (simplex ddLMS PCR), whereas for multiple copies of the gene the fingerprinting patterns can be obtained (multiplex ddLMS PCR). The described ddLMS PCR method is designed for rapid and specific strain differentiation in medical and microbiological studies. In comparison to other LM PCR it has substantial advantages: enables specific species' DNA-typing without the need for pure bacterial culture selection, is not sensitive to contamination with other cells or genomic DNA, and gives univocal “band-based” results, which are easy to interpret. The utility of ddLMS PCR was shown for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex, the genetically closely related and phenotypically similar species and also important nosocomial pathogens, for which currently, there are no recommended methods for screening, typing and identification. In this article two models are proposed: 3′ recA-ddLMS PCR-MaeII/RsaI for Acb complex interspecific typing and 5′ rrn-ddLMS PCR-HindIII/ApaI for Acinetobacter baumannii intraspecific typing. ddLMS PCR allows not only for DNA-typing but also for confirmation of species in one reaction. Also, practical guidelines for designing a diagnostic test based on ddLMS PCR for genotyping different species of bacteria are provided. PMID:25522278

  13. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis for Clostridium botulinum type B isolates in Japan: comparison with other isolates and genotyping methods.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Kaoru; Wada, Takayuki; Kohda, Tomoko; Kozaki, Shunji

    2013-06-01

    Clostridium botulinum produces botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) and causes botulism in humans and animals. Recently, 15-loci multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for C. botulinum was developed for high-resolution and inter-lab comparative genotyping. This study examines the relation between MLVA and other genotyping methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), BoNT/B subtyping and bont/b gene location to evaluate MLVA as a method applicable to the genetic markers for C. botulinum type B. Japanese isolates were genotyped using MLVA and were compared with strains from other sources reported previously. Results show that the discriminatory power of MLVA was comparable to that of PFGE and higher than that of MLST. The topology of the minimum spanning tree (MST) constructed using MLVA data was very consistent with the phylogenetic classifications of PFGE and MLST. The MST topology also represented genetic diversity between the strains possessing bont/b gene on chromosomes and plasmids. Some Japanese isolates including those associated with infant botulism were inferred to be related to isolates of Europe origin from MLVA genotyping results. The MLVA scheme used for this study is apparently useful not only for high-resolution molecular typing, but also for phylogenetic characterization of C. botulinum type B.

  14. Rapid species identification and epidemiological analysis of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. by a PCR-based open reading frame typing method.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuki; Endo, Kentaro; Sawase, Kaori; Anetai, Marie; Narita, Kazuya; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Ishifuji, Katsunori; Kurota, Makiko; Suwabe, Akira

    2016-09-01

    The spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. has become a global problem. In this study, 18 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (ACB) complexes, identified using a conventional biochemical method at our hospital during 2004-2013, were studied for species identification and epidemiological analyses. Species identification was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS, a partial sequence analysis of rpoB and a PCR-based ORF typing (POT) method. The POT method can not only identify the species of ACB complexes but also simultaneously determine the international epidemic clones and the genetic identities of Acinetobacterbaumannii in several hours. Carbapenem resistance gene detection by PCR, molecular epidemiological analysis by PFGE and Pasteur Institute multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis were performed. All three methods identified 18 isolates as A. baumannii (n=10), Acinetobacterpittii (n=4) and Acinetobacternosocomialis (n=4). A metallo-β-lactamase gene in all strains of A. pittii and A. nosocomialis and an ISAba1 gene in the upstream of the blaOXA-51-like gene in eight strains of A. baumannii were detected, respectively, as carbapenemase-related genes. Results from PFGE demonstrated that nine strains of A. baumannii were closely related genetically. Results of MLST analysis showed that A. baumannii are classifiable to sequence type 2. These results were consistent with those obtained using the POT method. This POT method can easily and rapidly identify the international epidemic clones and the identities of A. baumannii. It can be a useful tool for infection control.

  15. Typing Method for the QUB11a Locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: IS6110 Insertions and Tandem Repeat Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maeda-Mitani, Eriko; Oishi, Akira; Etoh, Yoshiki; Sera, Nobuyuki; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    QUB11a is used as a locus for variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage. However, amplification of QUB11a occasionally produces large fragments (>1,400 bp) that are not easily measured by capillary electrophoresis because of a lack of the typical stutter peak patterns that are used for counting repeat numbers. IS6110 insertion may complicate VNTR analysis of large QUB11a fragments in M. tuberculosis. We established a method for determining both tandem repeat numbers and IS6110 insertion in the QUB11a locus of M. tuberculosis using capillary electrophoresis analysis and BsmBI digestion. All 29 large QUB11a fragments (>1,200 bp) investigated contained IS6110 insertions and varied in the number of repeats (18 patterns) and location of IS6110 insertions. This method allows VNTR analysis with high discrimination. PMID:27812529

  16. The Fixation Method according to the Fracture Type of the Greater Trochanter in Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures Undergoing Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Doohoon; Park, Byeong-Seop; Jang, Gun-Il

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a study on patients who underwent hip joint arthroplasty because of unstable femur intertrochanteric fractures with greater trochanter bony fragments. After dividing patients into three groups depending on their fracture patterns, we evaluated the clinical and radiological outcomes of different operation methods applied to each of these groups. Materials and Methods Using Evan's classification, we defined an unstable intertrochanteric fracture as those characterized as stage 4 or 5. Of the 137 patients presenting with an intertrochanteric fracture with osteoporosis (bone mineral density, <−2.5) between March 2014 and October 2015, 63 met the eligibility criteria and were included in this study. Next, patients were divided into three groups based on their greater trochanter fracture patterns (discerned with three-dimensional computed tomography images); different fixation methods were applied to each group by a single orthopaedic surgeon. Results Taken as a whole, 50 out of 63 patients experienced no reduction in walking distance in their daily lives. Harris hip score increased from 74.8 to 85.7 point and we considered this a relatively good result. Radiologically, we observed complete bone union in 62 cases (98.4%); the lone exception was in a patient who experienced osteolysis. There were also 3 cases who removed greater trochanter reattachment device due to broken implant and 1 case of dislocation. Conclusion The different fixation methods applied to three distinct groups with varying fractures patterns were successful in achieving proper reduction and fixation of greater trochanteric fractures. We also observed reduced bone union periods when arthroplasty was performed in patients with unstable intertrochanteric fractures. Lastly, we believe these approaches may also aid in achieving early ambulation and early rehabilitations. PMID:28316964

  17. An Adaptive Method of Lines with Error Control for Parabolic Equations of the Reaction-Diffusion Type.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    space discretization error . 1. I 3 1. INTRODUCTION Reaction- diffusion processes occur in many branches of biology and physical chemistry. Examples...to model reaction- diffusion phenomena. The primary goal of this adaptive method is to keep a particular norm of the space discretization error less...AD-A142 253 AN ADAPTIVE MET6 OFD LNES WITH ERROR CONTROL FOR 1 INST FOR PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND TECH. I BABUSKAAAO C7 EA OH S UMR AN UNVC EEP R

  18. Enhanced interference-pattern visibility using multislit optical superposition method for imaging-type two-dimensional Fourier spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Suzuki, Yo; Sato, Shun; Fujiwara, Masaru; Kawashima, Natsumi; Suzuki, Satoru; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep; Wada, Kenji; Nishiyama, Akira; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-10

    A solution is found for the problem of phase cancellation between adjacent bright points in wavefront-division phase-shift interferometry. To this end, a design is proposed that optimizes the visibility of the interference pattern from multiple slits. The method is explained in terms of Fraunhofer diffraction and convolution imaging. Optical simulations verify the technique. The final design can be calculated using a simple equation.

  19. Analytical Solutions for the Resonance Response of Goupillaud-type Elastic Media Using Z-transform Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of...using z-transform methods. The determinant of the resulting global system matrix in the z-space |Am| is a palindromic polynomial with real...Alcalá Park, San Diego, CA 92110, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 14 March 2011 Received in revised form 1 August 2011 Accepted 5

  20. A comparison of three methods of measuring the type and quantity of services provided during substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Zanis, D A; McLellan, A T; Belding, M A; Moyer, G

    1997-12-01

    This study examined three data collection methods of quantifying and categorizing treatment services provided in a publicly funded methadone program. All three approaches were research technician implemented: (1) bi-weekly patient interview with the Treatment Services Review (TSR); (2) weekly counselor interview by the Counselor Services Interview (CSI); and (3) data abstraction from clinical patient records (REC). Fifty patients were followed over 28 days using each method to assess the services received/provided within the program. Five service domains were assessed: medical, employment, alcohol/drug, family, and psychiatric. Correlations were calculated among the three methods of data collection across each of the five service domains. Overall, low to moderate correlations were found with the highest rates of agreement detected between the TSR and the REC in the employment domain (0.48) and the REC and CSI in the family domain (0.48). Post hoc focus groups with the counselors and patients found that: (1) counseling sessions rarely focused on specific problem domains; (2) counselors and patients disagreed about the quality of treatment services; and (3) counselors 'rounded-up' time spent counseling. These findings suggest that measuring treatment service delivery varies markedly based on who provides the information (e.g. patient or treatment staff) and what procedures are used for data collection (e.g. chart abstraction or self-report).

  1. An empirical inferential method of estimating nitrogen deposition to Mediterranean-type ecosystems: the San Bernardino Mountains case study.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, A; Johnson, R F; Zhang, L; Jenerette, G D; Fenn, M E; Schilling, S L; Gonzalez-Fernandez, I

    2015-08-01

    The empirical inferential method (EIM) allows for spatially and temporally-dense estimates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to Mediterranean ecosystems. This method, set within a GIS platform, is based on ambient concentrations of NH3, NO, NO2 and HNO3; surface conductance of NH4(+) and NO3(-); stomatal conductance of NH3, NO, NO2 and HNO3; and satellite-derived LAI. Estimated deposition is based on data collected during 2002-2006 in the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM) of southern California. Approximately 2/3 of dry N deposition was to plant surfaces and 1/3 as stomatal uptake. Summer-season N deposition ranged from <3 kg ha(-1) in the eastern SBM to ∼ 60 kg ha(-1) in the western SBM near the Los Angeles Basin and compared well with the throughfall and big-leaf micrometeorological inferential methods. Extrapolating summertime N deposition estimates to annual values showed large areas of the SBM exceeding critical loads for nutrient N in chaparral and mixed conifer forests.

  2. Some procedures for the construction of high-order exponentially fitted Runge-Kutta-Nyström methods of explicit type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, J. M.; Gómez, I.

    2013-04-01

    The construction of high-order exponentially fitted Runge-Kutta-Nyström (EFRKN) methods of explicit type for the numerical solution of oscillatory differential systems is analyzed. Based on two basic symmetric and symplectic EFRKN methods of reference we present two procedures for constructing high-order explicit methods. The first procedure is based on composition methods and it allows the construction of high-order explicit EFRKN methods which are symmetric and symplectic. The second procedure is based on combining different EFRKN methods in order to construct embedded pairs of explicit parallel EFRKN methods which can be implemented in variable-step codes without additional cost. The numerical experiments carried out show the qualitative behavior and the efficiency of the new EFRKN methods when they are compared with some standard methods proposed in the scientific literature for solving second-order nonstiff differential systems. Catalogue identifier: AEOO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2527 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 107433 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77. Computer: Standard PC. Operating system: Windows. It might work with others. Successfully tested by CPC on Linux. RAM: For the test problems used less than 1 MB. Classification: 4.3, 4.12, 16.3, 17.17. Nature of problem: Some models in astronomy and astrophysics, quantum mechanics and nuclear physics lead to second-order oscillatory differential systems. The solution of these oscillatory models requires accurate and efficient numerical methods. The codes SVI-IIEXPOreferee.for and SVI-IIvarreferee.for were developed for this purpose. Solution method: We propose high-order exponentially fitted Runge

  3. A new method for typing bovine major histocompatibility complex class II DRB3 alleles by combining two established PCR sequence-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S-N; Matsumoto, Y; Miyasaka, T; Arainga-Ramirez, M; Saito, H; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2011-09-01

    Recently, two polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) methods were reported for the genotyping of the bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA)-DRB3. One technique is a single PCR-SBT (sPCR-SBT) method that generates heterozygous sequences that are subsequently analyzed by the haplofinder program, while the other technique is a nested PCR-SBT (nPCR-SBT) method that allows the analysis of heterozygous sequences using the assign 400ATF software. In this study, these techniques were compared and then integrated to produce an improved genotyping method. The primer set used for sPCR-SBT was more accurate than those used for nPCR-SBT. Combining sPCR-SBT with the assign 400ATF software previously reported for nPCR-SBT enables rapid and accurate genotyping of a large number of DNA samples.

  4. Landscape object-based analysis of wetland plant functional types: the effects of spatial scale, vegetation classes and classifier methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dronova, I.; Gong, P.; Wang, L.; Clinton, N.; Fu, W.; Qi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Remote sensing-based vegetation classifications representing plant function such as photosynthesis and productivity are challenging in wetlands with complex cover and difficult field access. Recent advances in object-based image analysis (OBIA) and machine-learning algorithms offer new classification tools; however, few comparisons of different algorithms and spatial scales have been discussed to date. We applied OBIA to delineate wetland plant functional types (PFTs) for Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China and Ramsar wetland conservation site, from 30-m Landsat TM scene at the peak of spring growing season. We targeted major PFTs (C3 grasses, C3 forbs and different types of C4 grasses and aquatic vegetation) that are both key players in system's biogeochemical cycles and critical providers of waterbird habitat. Classification results were compared among: a) several object segmentation scales (with average object sizes 900-9000 m2); b) several families of statistical classifiers (including Bayesian, Logistic, Neural Network, Decision Trees and Support Vector Machines) and c) two hierarchical levels of vegetation classification, a generalized 3-class set and more detailed 6-class set. We found that classification benefited from object-based approach which allowed including object shape, texture and context descriptors in classification. While a number of classifiers achieved high accuracy at the finest pixel-equivalent segmentation scale, the highest accuracies and best agreement among algorithms occurred at coarser object scales. No single classifier was consistently superior across all scales, although selected algorithms of Neural Network, Logistic and K-Nearest Neighbors families frequently provided the best discrimination of classes at different scales. The choice of vegetation categories also affected classification accuracy. The 6-class set allowed for higher individual class accuracies but lower overall accuracies than the 3-class set because

  5. A versatile numerical method for obtaining structures of rapidly rotating baroclinic stars: self-consistent and systematic solutions with shellular-type rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Kotaro

    2015-12-01

    This paper develops a novel numerical method for obtaining structures of rapidly rotating stars based on a self-consistent field scheme. The solution is obtained iteratively. Both rapidly rotating barotropic and baroclinic equilibrium states are calculated self-consistently using this method. Two types of rotating baroclinic stars are investigated by changing the isentropic surfaces inside the star. Solution sequences of these are calculated systematically and critical rotation models beyond which no rotating equilibrium state exists are also obtained. All of these rotating baroclinic stars satisfy necessarily the Bjerknes-Rosseland rules. Self-consistent solutions of baroclinic stars with shellular-type rotation are successfully obtained where the isentropic surfaces are oblate and the surface temperature is hotter at the poles than at the equator if it is assumed that the star is an ideal gas star. These are the first self-consistent and systematic solutions of rapidly rotating baroclinic stars with shellular-type rotations. Since they satisfy the stability criterion due to their rapid rotation, these rotating baroclinic stars would be dynamically stable. This novel numerical method and the solutions of the rapidly rotating baroclinic stars will be useful for investigating stellar evolution with rapid rotations.

  6. Short communication: Establishment of a new polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing method for genotyping cattle major histocompatibility complex class II DRB3.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S-N; Matsumoto, Y; Aida, Y

    2009-06-01

    Sequence-based typing (SBT) is the most comprehensive method for characterizing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene polymorphisms. We report here a new PCR-SBT method for genotyping cattle MHC (BoLA) class II DRB3 using the Assign 400ATF ver. 1.0.2.41 software (Conexio Genomics, Fremantle, Australia), which detects alleles in a semiautomated manner. We examined 12 sets of PCR reactions for their ability to amplify BoLA-DRB3 exon 2 and selected an optimal primer set, which used ERB3N-HL031 for first-round PCR and ALL-DRB3B for second-round PCR. Next, we constructed a BoLA-DRB3 allele database using the reference sequences of the Assign 400ATF software and successfully assigned heterozygous samples (including those with deletion alleles) using bidirectional sequencing, unlike our previously described method, which used unidirectional sequencing for detecting of deletion alleles. Next, blood samples of 128 Holstein cattle were used to correlate the results of our modified PCR-SBT method with those of our previously described PCR-SBT method. Each new PCR-SBT result corresponded completely with the DRB3 allele that was genotyped by our previously described PCR-SBT method. Moreover, we confirmed the accuracy of our modified PCR-SBT method by genotyping 7 sire cattle and their 22 calves using Japanese Black cattle. This new method will contribute to high-throughput genotyping of BoLA-DRB3 by sequence-based typing.

  7. New Measurement Service for Determining Pressure Sensitivity of Type LS2aP Microphones by the Reciprocity Method

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Randall P.; Nedzelnitsky, Victor; Fick, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    A new National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) measurement service has been developed for determining the pressure sensitivities of American National Standards Institute and International Electrotechnical Commission type LS2aP laboratory standard microphones over the frequency range 31.5 Hz to 20 000 Hz. At most frequencies common to the new service and the old service, the values of the expanded uncertainties of the new service are one-half the corresponding values of the old service, or better. The new service uses an improved version of the system employed by NIST in the Consultative Committee for Acoustics, Ultrasound, and Vibration (CCAUV) key comparison CCAUV.A-K3. Measurements are performed using a long and a short air-filled plane-wave coupler. For each frequency in the range 31.5 Hz to 2000 Hz, the reported sensitivity level is the average of data from both couplers. For each frequency above 2000 Hz, the reported sensitivity level is determined with data from the short coupler only. For proof test data in the frequency range 31.5 Hz to 2000 Hz, the average absolute differences between data from the long and the short couplers are much smaller than the expanded uncertainties. PMID:26989598

  8. Mechanically stable, high-aspect-ratio, multifilar, wound, ribbon-type conductor and method for manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Cottingham, J.G.

    1982-03-15

    A mechanically stable, wound, multifilar, ribbon-type conductor is described having a cross-sectional aspect ratio which may be greater than 12:1, comprising a plurality of conductive strands wound to form a flattened helix containing a plastic strip into which the strands have been pressed so as to form a bond between the strip and the strands. The bond mechanically stabilizes the conductor under tension, preventing it from collapsing into a tubular configuration. In preferred embodiments the plastic strip may be polytetrafluoroethylene, and the conductive strands may be formed from a superconductive material. Conductors in accordance with the present invention may be manufactured by winding a plurality of conductive strands around a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of the mandrel continuously varying from substnatially circular to a high aspect ratio elipse while maintaining a constant circumference. The wound conductive strands are drawn from the mandrel as a multifilar helix while simultaneously a plastic strip is fed through the hollow mandrel so that it is contained within the helix as it is withdrawn from the mandrel. The helical conductor is then compressed into a ribbon-like form and the strands are bonded to the plastic strip by a combination of heat and pressure.

  9. Nosocomial Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6: implication of the sequence-based typing method (SBT).

    PubMed

    Fendukly, Faiz; Bernander, Sverker; Hanson, Hanna-Stina

    2007-01-01

    Sequence-based typing (SBT) was used to determine the allelic profiles of 3 sporadic clinical isolates as well as 7 environmental isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6, isolated at the Karolinska Hospital during 2004. The clinical isolates were cultured from patients with nosocomial Legionnaires' disease (LD), while the environmental isolates were cultured from potable water sources of the hospital wards in the close vicinity of the 3 patients being investigated. The genes sequenced for the construction of the SBT profile included flaA, pilE, asd, mip, mompS and proA, in this pre-determined order and the allelic profile of the 10 isolates was identical (3, 13, 1, 28, 14, 9). Furthermore, 2 of the isolates, 1 clinical and 1 environmental, were analysed using the amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis (AFLP). The AFLP genotype of both isolates was congruent. Eight of 9 control L. pneumophila serogroup 6 isolates had the same SBT profile as the study isolates. We conclude that the environmental strain isolated from our hospital's drinking water is indistinguishable genotypically from the 3 clinical isolates of Legionella. However, this genotype of L. pneumophila is geographically widespread. Thus, results of genotyping must be evaluated in conjunction with the clinical and epidemiological data.

  10. The impact of method on kidney graft and patient survival in kidney-pancreas transplantations for type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dinckan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoglu, Ibrahim; Kocak, Huseyin; Mesci, Ayhan; Altunbas, Hasan; Gurkan, Alihan

    2015-01-01

    Patients who develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) associated with Type I Diabetes Mellitus may receive kidney alone (KA) transplantation, simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation, or a pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantation. The goal of this study is to examine the long-term impact of pancreas transplantation on kidney graft and patient survival rates. A total of 85 transplantation cases, consisting of 30 that received living donor KA, 21 that received SPK, and 34 that received PAK, from 2003-2010 at Akdeniz University Organ Transplantation Institute were retrospectively screened. There was a graft loss in 4 cases from the KA group, and in 1 case from each of the SPK and PAK groups. The five-year kidney graft survival rates were 86.7% in KA, 95.2% in SPK, and 97.1% in PAK. There was a single patient loss in both KA and SPK. The kidney survival percentages were higher in SPK and PAK groups compared to the KA group. Therefore, SPK should be the primary preference in these patients; however, for the cases that have a living donor, pancreas transplantation should be considered after kidney transplantation, or the patients can be followed-up on with close blood sugar control.

  11. Learning the Cell Structures with Three-Dimensional Models: Students' Achievement by Methods, Type of School and Questions' Cognitive Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Naim, Raphael

    2013-08-01

    The cell topic was taught to 9th-grade students in three modes of instruction: (a) students "hands-on," who constructed three-dimensional cell organelles and macromolecules during the learning process; (b) teacher demonstration of the three-dimensional model of the cell structures; and (c) teaching the cell topic with the regular learning material in an expository mode (which use one- or two-dimensional cell structures as are presented in charts, textbooks and microscopic slides). The sample included 669, 9th-grade students from 25 classes who were taught by 22 Biology teachers. Students were randomly assigned to the three modes of instruction, and two tests in content knowledge in Biology were used. Data were treated with multiple analyses of variance. The results indicate that entry behavior in Biology was equal for all the study groups and types of schools. The "hands-on" learning group who build three-dimensional models through the learning process achieved significantly higher on academic achievements and on the high and low cognitive questions' levels than the other two groups. The study indicates the advantages students may have being actively engaged in the learning process through the "hands-on" mode of instruction/learning.

  12. Structure of Bergman-type W-TiZrNi approximants to quasicrystal, analyzed by lattice inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Meng, D. Q.; Lai, X. C.; Liu, T. W.; Long, Y.; Hu, Q. M.

    2014-08-01

    The combined interatomic pair potentials of TiZrNi, including Morse and Inversion Gaussian, are successfully built by the lattice inversion method. Some experimental controversies on atomic occupancies of sites 6-8 in W-TiZrNi are analyzed and settled with these inverted potentials. According to the characteristics of composition and site preference occupancy of W-TiZrNi, two stable structural models of W-TiZrNi are proposed and the possibilities are partly confirmed by experimental data. The stabilities of W-TiZrNi mostly result from the contribution of Zr atoms to the phonon densities of states in lower frequencies.

  13. Using qualitative methods to inform the trade-off between content validity and consistency in utility assessment: the example of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Key stakeholders regard generic utility instruments as suitable tools to inform health technology assessment decision-making regarding allocation of resources across competing interventions. These instruments require a 'descriptor', a 'valuation' and a 'perspective' of the economic evaluation. There are various approaches that can be taken for each of these, offering a potential lack of consistency between instruments (a basic requirement for comparisons across diseases). The 'reference method' has been proposed as a way to address the limitations of the Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY). However, the degree to which generic measures can assess patients' specific experiences with their disease would remain unresolved. This has been neglected in the discussions on methods development and its impact on the QALY values obtained and resulting cost per QALY estimate underestimated. This study explored the content of utility instruments relevant to type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) as examples, and the role of qualitative research in informing the trade-off between content coverage and consistency. Method A literature review was performed to identify qualitative and quantitative studies regarding patients' experiences with type 2 diabetes or AD, and associated treatments. Conceptual models for each indication were developed. Generic- and disease-specific instruments were mapped to the conceptual models. Results Findings showed that published descriptions of relevant concepts important to patients with type 2 diabetes or AD are available for consideration in deciding on the most comprehensive approach to utility assessment. While the 15-dimensional health related quality of life measure (15D) seemed the most comprehensive measure for both diseases, the Health Utilities Index 3 (HUI 3) seemed to have the least coverage for type 2 diabetes and the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) for AD. Furthermore, some of the utility instruments contained items that

  14. A Novel Earphone Type Sensor for Measuring Mealtime: Consideration of the Method to Distinguish between Running and Meals

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Kazuhiro; Chiaki, Hikaru; Kurosawa, Mami; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we describe a technique for estimating meal times using an earphone-type wearable sensor. A small optical sensor composed of a light-emitting diode and phototransistor is inserted into the ear hole of a user and estimates the meal times of the user from the time variations in the amount of light received. This is achieved by emitting light toward the inside of the ear canal and receiving light reflected back from the ear canal. This proposed technique allowed “meals” to be differentiated from having conversations, sneezing, walking, ascending and descending stairs, operating a computer, and using a smartphone. Conventional devices worn on the head of users and that measure food intake can vibrate during running as the body is jolted more violently than during walking; this can result in the misidentification of running as eating by these devices. To solve this problem, we used two of our sensors simultaneously: one in the left ear and one in the right ear. This was based on our finding that measurements from the left and right ear canals have a strong correlation during running but no correlation during eating. This allows running and eating to be distinguished based on correlation coefficients, which can reduce misidentification. Moreover, by using an optical sensor composed of a semiconductor, a small and lightweight device can be created. This measurement technique can also measure body motion associated with running, and the data obtained from the optical sensor inserted into the ear can be used to support a healthy lifestyle regarding both eating and exercise. PMID:28134820

  15. Real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of Acanthamoeba species in various types of water samples.

    PubMed

    Kao, Po-Min; Tung, Min-Che; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Tsai, Hsien-Lung; She, Cheng-Yu; Shen, Shu-Min; Huang, Wen-Chien

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR was developed to detect and quantify Acanthamoeba spp. in various environmental water samples. The water samples were taken from watershed, water treatment plant, and three thermal spring recreation areas. The overall detection rate was 14.2 % (25/176) for Acanthamoeba spp. The percentages of samples containing Acanthamoeba spp. from river water, raw drinking water, and thermal spring water were 13 % (13/100), 25 % (7/28), and 10.4 % (5/48), respectively. Acanthamoeba spp. concentrations were determined according to SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR. A plasmid-based standard curve was constructed to determine the Acanthamoeba concentration using dilution factors for achieving 1.36 × 10(9) gene copies per PCR for 18S rRNA gene in Acanthamoeba spp. The resulting concentrations varied by the type of water, in the range of 46-2.6 × 10(2) cells/l in positive raw drinking water, 2.7 × 10(2)-1.5 × 10(4) cells/l in river water, and 54-1.7 × 10(3) cells/l in thermal spring water. The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in the raw drinking water samples was also found to have a significant difference with heterotrophic plate count. The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in various aquatic environments may be a potential health hazard and must be further evaluated.

  16. Study of the Influence of Bone Cement Type and Mixing Method on the Bioactivity and the Elution Kinetics of Ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, Javier; Mura, Carla; Merino, Virginia; Nácher, Amparo; Climente, Mónica; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine ciprofloxacin release from three trademarks of bone cements (Simplex®, Lima® and Palacos®) and its bioactivity using as variables, the mixing method, the chemical form of the antibiotic and the antibiotic combination. The antibiotic amount released in base form represents 35% of antibiotic amount released when hydrochloride form is incorporated. Moreover, the combination (vancomycin and ciprofloxacin) shows a stronger release (132%) than hydrochloride ciprofloxacin alone. Three cements show equal drug release profile (P > 0.05). A bioactivity simulation exercise showed that until 72 hours post-surgery, ciprofloxacin concentrations in the implant would be higher than 0.1 μg/mL in 100% of the patients. After drain removal, it is expected that bioactivity would increase since drug clearance from implant would decrease.

  17. Estimation of type- and subtype-specific influenza vaccine effectiveness in Victoria, Australia using a test negative case control method, 2007-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antigenic variation of influenza virus necessitates annual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines, which contain two type A strains (H1N1 and H3N2) and one type B strain. We used a test negative case control design to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza by type and subtype over two consecutive seasons in Victoria, Australia. Methods Patients presenting with influenza-like illness to general practitioners (GPs) in a sentinel surveillance network during 2007 and 2008 were tested for influenza. Cases tested positive for influenza by polymerase chain reaction and controls tested negative for influenza. Vaccination status was recorded by sentinel GPs. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as [(1 - adjusted odds ratio) × 100%]. Results There were 386 eligible study participants in 2007 of whom 50% were influenza positive and 19% were vaccinated. In 2008 there were 330 eligible study participants of whom 32% were influenza positive and 17% were vaccinated. Adjusted VE against A/H3N2 influenza in 2007 was 68% (95% CI, 32 to 85%) but VE against A/H1N1 (27%; 95% CI, -92 to 72%) and B (84%; 95% CI, -2 to 98%) were not statistically significant. In 2008, the adjusted VE estimate was positive against type B influenza (49%) but negative for A/H1N1 (-88%) and A/H3N2 (-66%); none was statistically significant. Conclusions Type- and subtype-specific assessment of influenza VE is needed to identify variations that cannot be differentiated from a measure of VE against all influenza. Type- and subtype-specific influenza VE estimates in Victoria in 2007 and 2008 were generally consistent with strain circulation data. PMID:21669006

  18. Modelisation numerique d'un actionneur plasma de type decharge a barriere dielectrique par la methode de derive-diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jacques

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is a proposed device for active for control in order to improve the performances of aircraft and turbomachines. Essentially, these actuators are made of two electrodes separated by a layer of dielectric material and convert electricity directly into flow. Because of the high costs associated with experiences in realistic operating conditions, there is a need to develop a robust numerical model that can predict the plasma body force and the effects of various parameters on it. Indeed, this plasma body force can be affected by atmospheric conditions (temperature, pressure, and humidity), velocity of the neutral flow, applied voltage (amplitude, frequency, and waveform), and by the actuator geometry. In that respect, the purpose of this thesis is to implement a plasma model for DBD actuator that has the potential to consider the effects of these various parameters. In DBD actuator modelling, two types of approach are commonly proposed, low-order modelling (or phenomenological) and high-order modelling (or scientific). However a critical analysis, presented in this thesis, showed that phenomenological models are not robust enough to predict the plasma body force without artificial calibration for each specific case. Moreover, there are based on erroneous assumptions. Hence, the selected approach to model the plasma body force is a scientific drift-diffusion model with four chemical species (electrons, positive ions, negative ions, and neutrals). This model was chosen because it gives consistent numerical results comparatively with experimental data. Moreover, this model has great potential to include the effect of temperature, pressure, and humidity on the plasma body force and requires only a reasonable computational time. This model was independently implemented in C++ programming language and validated with several test cases. This model was later used to simulate the effect of the plasma body force on the laminar

  19. True Chemical Abundances of Galaxies in the Nearby Universe: A Comparison of Abundance Methods, Interstellar Processes, and Galaxy Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Danielle Amanda

    2013-12-01

    Peeples et al. (2008) identified low-mass, high oxygen abundance outliers from the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationship. We present new MMT spectroscopy of four of these dwarf galaxy outliers. We re-examined these anomalous spectra and compared to the parameter space for which standard strong-line methods are calibrated. We discuss the physical nature of these galaxies that leads to their unusual spectra (and previous classification as outliers), finding their low excitation, elevated N/O, and strong Balmer absorption are consistent with the properties expected from galaxies evolving past the "Wolf-Rayet galaxy" phase. To address the issue of securing the low-luminosity end of the M-Z relationship, we present MMT spectroscopic observations of HII regions in 42 low-luminosity galaxies in the Spitzer LVL survey. Direct oxygen abundances were determined based on the temperature sensitive [O III] lambda4363 line, measured at a strength of 4sigma or greater, for 31 of the 42 galaxies in our sample. Combining our results with previous direct abundance studies, we present a further refined sample, requiring reliable distance determinations. We characterize the direct L-Z and M-Z relationships at low-luminosity using the resulting 38 object sample. We show that the luminosity of a low-luminosity galaxy is often a better indicator of metallicity than strong-line methods. Additionally, our results provide the first direct estimates of oxygen abundance for 19 local volume dwarf galaxies. Properties of the ISM of spiral galaxies are known to show radial variations. Motivated by the need to place gradients on the same scale for comparisons amongst galaxies, we present direct oxygen abundance gradients of the nearby spiral galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 2403. A bi-modal N/O gradient pattern is measured for NGC 628. Notably, the N/O ratio plateaus beyond R25, demonstrating that primary nitrogen production is the dominant mechanism in the outer disk. The outer disk beyond R 25 was not

  20. Development of method to remove weld scallop and ceramic backing material of wedge type and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sung-Koo; Yang, Jong-Soo; Kim, Ho-Kyung

    2015-06-01

    The weld scallop has been used for joining T-bars. There are a lot of weld scallops in shipbuilding. It is difficult to perform scallop welding due to the inconvenient welding position. This results in many problems such as porosity, slag inclusion, etc. In this study, a new method is devised to remove weld scallops by incorporating a Ceramic Backing Material (CBM). The weld scallop is removed by an elongation of the v groove. In order to insert a CBM into the groove without a weld scallop, a wedge-shaped CBM is developed. The top side of the developed CBM is similar to the shape of a general back bead. The bottom surface has a saw-toothed shape for cutting at a suitable length. This can be attached to the root side of a face plate using adhesive tape, just like a general CBM. Welding experiments in normal and abnormal conditions are carried out and the possibility of burn-through is examined. This CBM's applicability to shipbuilding is verified.

  1. Characterization of Sr-substituted W-type hexagonal ferrites synthesized by sol-gel autocombustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mukhtar; Grössinger, R.; Kriegisch, M.; Kubel, F.; Rana, M. U.

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic and microwave characterization of single phase hexaferrites of entirely new composition Ba1-xSrxCo2AlFe15O27 (x=0.2-1.0) for application in a microwave absorber, have been reported. The samples synthesized by sol-gel method were investigated by differential thermal analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray diffractometer, field emission gun scanning electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer. Platelet grains exhibit well defined hexagonal shape which is a better shape for microwave absorption. M-H loops for a selected sample were measured for a temperature range of 4.2-400 K. Moreover M-H loops for all Sr-substituted samples were also measured at room temperature up to a maximum applied field of 9 T. Saturation magnetization values were calculated by the law of approach to saturation. The room temperature coercivity for all the samples is found to be a few hundred oersteds which is necessary for electromagnetic materials and makes these ferrites ideal for microwave devices, security, switching and sensing applications. The complex permittivity, permeability and reflection losses of a selected ferrite-epoxy composite were also investigated over a frequency range of 0.5-13 GHz.

  2. Correcting for cell-type effects in DNA methylation studies: reference-based method outperforms latent variable approaches in empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Hattab, Mohammad W; Shabalin, Andrey A; Clark, Shaunna L; Zhao, Min; Kumar, Gaurav; Chan, Robin F; Xie, Lin Ying; Jansen, Rick; Han, Laura K M; Magnusson, Patrik K E; van Grootheest, Gerard; Hultman, Christina M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Aberg, Karolina A; van den Oord, Edwin J C G

    2017-01-30

    Based on an extensive simulation study, McGregor and colleagues recently recommended the use of surrogate variable analysis (SVA) to control for the confounding effects of cell-type heterogeneity in DNA methylation association studies in scenarios where no cell-type proportions are available. As their recommendation was mainly based on simulated data, we sought to replicate findings in two large-scale empirical studies. In our empirical data, SVA did not fully correct for cell-type effects, its performance was somewhat unstable, and it carried a risk of missing true signals caused by removing variation that might be linked to actual disease processes. By contrast, a reference-based correction method performed well and did not show these limitations. A disadvantage of this approach is that if reference methylomes are not (publicly) available, they will need to be generated once for a small set of samples. However, given the notable risk we observed for cell-type confounding, we argue that, to avoid introducing false-positive findings into the literature, it could be well worth making this investment.Please see related Correspondence article: https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10/1186/s13059-017-1149-7 and related Research article: https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-016-0935-y.

  3. Exhaled breath condensate appears to be an unsuitable specimen type for the detection of influenza viruses with nucleic acid-based methods

    PubMed Central

    St. George, Kirsten; Fuschino, Meghan E.; Mokhiber, Katharine; Triner, Wayne; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate is an airway-derived specimen type that has shown significant promise in the diagnosis of asthma, cancer, and other disorders. The presence of human genomic DNA in this sample type has been proven, but there have been no reports on its utility for the detection of respiratory pathogens. The suitability of exhaled breath condensate for the detection of influenza virus was investigated, as an indication of its potential as a specimen type for respiratory pathogen discovery work. Matched exhaled condensates and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 18 adult volunteers. Eleven cases were positive for influenza A virus, and one was positive for influenza B virus. All swab samples tested positive in real-time amplification assays, but only one exhaled condensate, an influenza A positive sample with a very high viral load, tested positive in the real-time RT-PCR assay. Most of the positive nasopharyngeal swab samples inoculated for virus culture also tested positive, whereas influenza virus was not grown from any of the exhaled condensate specimens. It was concluded that influenza viruses are not readily detectable with culture or nucleic acid-based techniques in this sample type, and that exhaled breath condensate may not be suitable for respiratory pathogen investigations with molecular methods. PMID:19733195

  4. Exhaled breath condensate appears to be an unsuitable specimen type for the detection of influenza viruses with nucleic acid-based methods.

    PubMed

    St George, Kirsten; Fuschino, Meghan E; Mokhiber, Katharine; Triner, Wayne; Spivack, Simon D

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate is an airway-derived specimen type that has shown significant promise in the diagnosis of asthma, cancer, and other disorders. The presence of human genomic DNA in this sample type has been proven, but there have been no reports on its utility for the detection of respiratory pathogens. The suitability of exhaled breath condensate for the detection of influenza virus was investigated, as an indication of its potential as a specimen type for respiratory pathogen discovery work. Matched exhaled condensates and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 18 adult volunteers. Eleven cases were positive for influenza A virus, and one was positive for influenza B virus. All swab samples tested positive in real-time amplification assays, but only one exhaled condensate, an influenza A positive sample with a very high viral load, tested positive in the real-time RT-PCR assay. Most of the positive nasopharyngeal swab samples inoculated for virus culture also tested positive, whereas influenza virus was not grown from any of the exhaled condensate specimens. It was concluded that influenza viruses are not readily detectable with culture or nucleic acid-based techniques in this sample type, and that exhaled breath condensate may not be suitable for respiratory pathogen investigations with molecular methods.

  5. Comparison of sample types and analytical methods for the detection of highly campylobacter-colonized broiler flocks at different stages in the poultry meat production chain.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Duarte, Alexandra; Baré, Julie; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Dierick, Katelijne; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-05-01

    Exclusion of broiler batches, highly colonized with Campylobacter (>7.5 log10 colony-forming units/g), from the fresh poultry meat market might decrease the risk of human campylobacteriosis. The objective of this study was to compare different sample types (both at the farm and the slaughterhouse) and methods (direct culture, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], propidium monoazide [PMA]-qPCR) applied for the quantification of the Campylobacter colonization level. In addition, the applicability of the lateral flow-based immunoassay, Singlepath(®) Direct Campy Poultry test (Singlepath(®) test), was evaluated as a rapid method for the qualitative detection of Campylobacter in highly colonized broiler batches. Campylobacter counts differed significantly between sample types collected at farm level (cecal droppings, feces, boot swabs) and at slaughterhouse level (cecal content, fecal material from crates). Furthermore, comparison of Campylobacter counts obtained by different methods (direct culture, qPCR, PMA-qPCR) in cecal droppings revealed significant differences, although this was not observed for cecal-content samples. Evaluation of the Singlepath(®) test on cecal droppings and cecal-content samples revealed an acceptable level of sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, cecal droppings and cecal content are proposed as the most representative sample types for quantification of Campylobacter colonization level of broilers at farm and slaughterhouse, respectively. Direct culture and qPCR are equally sensitive for quantification of Campylobacter in fresh cecal-content samples. PMA treatment before qPCR inhibits the signal from dead Campylobacter cells. Consequently, when samples are extensively stored and/or transported, qPCR is preferred to direct culture and PMA-qPCR. Furthermore, the Singlepath(®) test offers a convenient alternative method for rapid detection of Campylobacter in highly colonized broiler batches.

  6. Using the hydrothermal method to grow p-type ZnO nanowires on Al-doped ZnO thin film to fabricate a homojunction diode.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yung-Kuan; Hung, Meng-Chun; Su, Shun-Lung; Li, Sheng-Kai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the hydrothermal method is used to grow phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires on Si/SiO2 substrates deposited with Al-doped ZnO thin film. This structure forms a homogeneous p-n junction. In this study, we are the pioneers to use ammonium hypophosphite (NH4H2PO2) as a source of phosphorus to prepare the precursor solution. Ammonium hypophosphite of different concentration levels is used to observe its effects on the growth of nanowires. The results show that the precursor solution prepared from ammonium hypophosphite can produce good crystalline ZnO nanowires while there is no linear relationship between the amounts and concentration levels of phosphorus doped into the nanowires. Whether the phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires have the characteristics of a p-type semiconductor is indirectly verified by measuring whether the p-n junction made up of Al-doped ZnO thin film and phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires shows rectifying behavior. I-V measurements are made on the specimens. The results show good rectifying behavior, proving that the phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires and Al-doped AZO films have p-type and n-type semiconductor properties, constituting a good p-n junction. This result also proves that ammonium hypophosphite is a better source of phosphorus in the hydrothermal method to synthesize phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires.

  7. Life Course Socioeconomic Transition and its Association with Early Onset Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol for a Sequential Exploratory Mixed Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Raman, V Kutty; Nochikattil, Santhosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of early onset type 2 diabetes (Diabetes below the age of 45 years) is increasing worldwide. Transition in socio-economic position–i.e. Life Course Socio-Economic Transition (LSET) - may contribute to the development of early onset T2D through complex processes involving economic and occupational opportunities as well as individual life style choices. Aim To develop and validate the life course socioeconomic transition questionnaire and to know the association between life courses socioeconomic transition and early onset type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods This study follows sequential exploratory mixed method study design. It consists of one qualitative strand followed by two quantitative strands. Qualitative strand consist of in- depth interview among the community dwellers to develop a tool for measuring LSET. Two quantitative strands consist of the validation of the questionnaire by conducting cross-sectional survey among 200 randomly selected community dwellers and a hospital based case control study using the same questionnaire. Results Those who have a history of lower SEP during his childhood period and enjoying higher SEP during his adulthood period have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes at their younger age (18-45 years). Conclusion This study will help to develop a validated life course socioeconomic transition questionnaire and application of that tool in an epidemiological study. PMID:27504317

  8. Application of neural network method to detect type of uranium contamination by estimation of activity ratio in environmental alpha spectra.

    PubMed

    Einian, M R; Aghamiri, S M R; Ghaderi, R

    2016-01-01

    The discrimination of the composition of environmental and non-environmental materials by the estimation of the (234)U/(238)U activity ratio in alpha-particle spectrometry is important in many applications. If the interfering elements are not completely separated from the uranium, they can interfere with the determination of (234)U. Thickness as a result of the existence of iron in the source preparation phase and their alpha lines can broaden the alpha line of (234)U in alpha spectra. Therefore, the asymmetric broadening of the alpha line of (234)U and overlapping of peaks make the analysis of the alpha particle spectra and the interpretation of the results difficult. Applying Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to a spectrometry system is a good idea because it eliminates limitations of classical approaches by extracting the desired information from the input data. In this work, the average of a partial uranium raw spectrum, were considered. Each point that its slope was of the order of 0-1% per 10 channels, was used as input to the multi-layer feed forward error-back propagation network. The network was trained by an alpha spectrum library which has been developed in the present work. The training data in this study was actual spectral data with any reasonable thickness and interfering elements. According to the results, the method applied to estimate the activity ratio in this work, can examine the alpha spectrum for peaks which would not be expected for a source of given element and provide the clues about composition of uranium contamination in the environmental samples in a fast screening and classifying procedures.

  9. A sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of microbial transglutaminase in different types of restructured meat.

    PubMed

    Jira, Wolfgang; Schwägele, Fredi

    2017-04-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS-method for the detection of microbial transglutaminase (TG) from Streptomyces mobaraensis in different types of restructured meat (pork, beef, chicken, and turkey) was developed using six tryptic marker peptides (8-11 amino acids). Meat binding experiments were performed with two technical TG mixtures with and without caseinate. After optimization of the conditions of extraction and tryptic digestion, restructured meat and blank values (total samples: 62) were analyzed in a raw and heated state. By investigation of samples pre-treated with oil marinade, emulsion marinade, seasoning salt as well as breadcrumbs, only very little effects of the type of pre-treatment on the detectability of TG were found. Using four marker peptides, no false-positive or false-negative results were obtained. The limit of detection (LOD) was about a factor of 10 below the recommended amount of transglutaminase for raw as well as heated restructured meat.

  10. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of a novel immune-type receptor from Ictalurus punctatus and phasing by selenium anomalous dispersion methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrov, David A. Hernández Prada, José A.; Haire, Robert N.; Magis, Andrew T.; Bailey, Kate; Litman, Gary W.

    2007-12-01

    A highly diversified novel immune-type receptor from catfish, NITR10, was crystallized to reveal novel mechanisms of immune recognition. X-ray diffraction data from crystals of a novel immune-type receptor (NITR10 from the catfish Ictalurus punctatus) were collected to 1.65 Å resolution and reduced to the primitive hexagonal lattice. Native and selenomethionine derivatives of NITR10 crystallized under different conditions yielded P3{sub 1}21 crystals. SeMet NITR10 was phased to a correlation coefficient of 0.77 by SAD methods and experimental electron-density maps were calculated to 1.65 Å. Five NITR10 molecules are predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit based on the Matthews coefficient.

  11. A comparison of DNA collection and retrieval from two swab types (cotton and nylon flocked swab) when processed using three QIAGEN extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Robert J; Dagnall, Kathryn E; Ames, Carole E

    2012-05-01

    The Metropolitan Police Service currently uses cotton swabs to retrieve DNA for forensic profiling. Recently, a new nylon flocked swab type has become available from Copan (MicroRheologics, Brescia, Italy) that it is claimed, offers increased sample recovery and release yields. If true, the flocked swab may have important applications in DNA evidence retrieval. This study examines the DNA retrieval capability of cotton and nylon flocked swabs when extracted using three common extraction platforms (QIAcube, BioRobot EZ1 and manually processed QIAamp DNA investigator kit). Results indicate that both swab types are capable of recovering high percentages of DNA (>50%); however, the extraction platform selected was shown to have a significant effect upon DNA retrieval. Across all experiments, the cotton swab combined with the spin-column extractions was shown to be most effective, with the nylon swab and BioRobot EZ1 combination being the least effective. These findings illustrate the importance of extraction method selection.

  12. [Investigation of HPV-DNA in cervical smear samples by two different methods: MY09/11 consensus PCR and type-specific real-time PCR].

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Fatih; Gümral, Ramazan; Sener, Kenan; Yiğit, Nuri; Dede, Murat; Yapar, Mehmet; Kubar, Ayhan

    2012-10-01

    Cervical cancer that has been proven to be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer deaths in women in developing countries. Cervical cancers can be detected in the early stages by screening programs since a long latency period exists between the beginning of HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer. HPV-DNA testing is widely used throughout the world and today is an important part of cervical cancer screening programs. In this study, we analyzed the presence of HPV-DNA in 356 cervical smear samples by two different methods which are MY09/11 consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) and type-specific Rt-PCR. All samples were also tested by type-specific PCR, regardless of consensus PCR results. PCR analysis were performed using the type- specific primers and TaqMan probes that were designed for a total of 13 different HPV types; two low risk HPV and 11 high risk HPV types. A total of 142 different isolates, 95 being high risk HPV isolates, 39 low risk HPV isolates and eight unidentified isolates, were determined in 109 (30.6%) smear samples that were defined as HPV-DNA positive by at least one of the two methods. Frequencies of detection of high risk HPV types in HPV-positive samples were as follows respectively: HPV-16; 32 (33.7%), HPV-52; 12 (12.6%), HPV-58; 11 (11.6%), HPV-18; 7 (7.4%), HPV-31; 7 (7.4%), HPV-35; 7 (7.4%), HPV-68; 6 (6.3%), HPV-33; 4 (4.2%), HPV-82; 4 (4.2%), HPV-39; 3 (3.2%) and HPV-45; 2 (2.1%). Various cytologic atypia were reported in 84 (23.6%) smear samples according to the simultaneously performed cytopathologic examination. Single HPV type was detected in 72 (71.3%) and multiple HPV types were detected in 29 (28.7%) of 101 smear samples with the exception of the unidentified isolates by type-specific RtPCR. HPV-18, HPV-33 and HPV-35 had higher detection rates of 7.4, 3.7 and 3.0 fold in mixed infections than single ones

  13. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Rapid Method for Predicting the Age of Male and Female Wild-Type and Wolbachia Infected Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Milali, Masabho P.; Henry, Michael; Wirtz, Robert A.; Hugo, Leon E.; Dowell, Floyd E.; Devine, Gregor J.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method. Calibrations were developed using spectra collected from their heads and thoraces using partial least squares (PLS) regression. A highly significant correlation was found between the true and predicted ages of mosquitoes. The coefficients of determination for wild-type females and males across all age groups were R2 = 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The coefficients of determination for the age of wMel and wMelPop infected females were 0.71 and 0.80, respectively (P< 0.001 in both instances). The age of wild-type female Ae. aegypti could be identified as < or ≥ 8 days old with an accuracy of 91% (N = 501), whereas female Ae. aegypti infected with wMel and wMelPop were differentiated into the two age groups with an accuracy of 83% (N = 284) and 78% (N = 229), respectively. Our results also indicate NIRS can distinguish between young and old male wild-type, wMel and wMelPop infected Ae. aegypti with accuracies of 87% (N = 253), 83% (N = 277) and 78% (N = 234), respectively. We have demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a predictor of the age of female and male wild-type and Wolbachia infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. After field validation, the tool has the potential to offer a cheap and rapid alternative for surveillance of dengue and Zika vector control programs. PMID:27768689

  14. Response to: Correcting for cell-type effects in DNA methylation studies: reference-based method outperforms latent variable approaches in empirical studies.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Kevin; Labbe, Aurélie; Greenwood, Celia M T

    2017-01-30

    We thank Hattab and colleagues for their correspondence and their investigation of cell-type mixture correction methods in methyl-CG binding domain sequencing. Here, we speculate on why surrogate variable analysis (SVA) performed differently between their two data sets, and poorly in one of them.Please see related Correspondence article: https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10/1186/s13059-017-1148-8 and related Research article: https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-016-0935-y.

  15. Application of the Cluster Variation Method to Anisotropic Polarization Fluctuations in KD 2PO 4-Type Crystals above and below the Transition Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Koh; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    1998-01-01

    The cluster variation method (CVM) in the cactus approximation is applied to a pseudo-spin Ising Hamiltonian of the Slater-Takagi model for KD2PO4-type hydrogen-bonded ferroelectrics to calculate the wave-number dependent susceptibility χ( q), mainly focussing on the ferroelectric phase.The strong anisotropy of polarization fluctuations along the easy z-axis is shown to appear not only in the paraelectric phase but also in the ferroelectric phase when the ice-rule limit is approached. An analytical expression of the spontaneous polarization is fully utilized for calculations on χ( q) below the transition temperature.

  16. A simplified method in comparison with comprehensive interaction incremental dynamic analysis to assess seismic performance of jacket-type offshore platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolfaghari, M. R.; Ajamy, A.; Asgarian, B.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of seismic reassessment procedures in oil platform codes is to determine the reliability of a platform under extreme earthquake loading. Therefore, in this paper, a simplified method is proposed to assess seismic performance of existing jacket-type offshore platforms (JTOP) in regions ranging from near-elastic to global collapse. The simplified method curve exploits well agreement between static pushover (SPO) curve and the entire summarized interaction incremental dynamic analysis (CI-IDA) curve of the platform. Although the CI-IDA method offers better understanding and better modelling of the phenomenon, it is a time-consuming and challenging task. To overcome the challenges, the simplified procedure, a fast and accurate approach, is introduced based on SPO analysis. Then, an existing JTOP in the Persian Gulf is presented to illustrate the procedure, and finally a comparison is made between the simplified method and CI-IDA results. The simplified method is very informative and practical for current engineering purposes. It is able to predict seismic performance elasticity to global dynamic instability with reasonable accuracy and little computational effort.

  17. Method for enhancing low frequency output of impulsive type seismic energy sources and its application to a seismic energy source for use while drilling

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Robert P; Stokes, Robert H; Glowka, David A

    2014-12-02

    A method for operating an impulsive type seismic energy source in a firing sequence having at least two actuations for each seismic impulse to be generated by the source. The actuations have a time delay between them related to a selected energy frequency peak of the source output. One example of the method is used for generating seismic signals in a wellbore and includes discharging electric current through a spark gap disposed in the wellbore in at least one firing sequence. The sequence includes at least two actuations of the spark gap separated by an amount of time selected to cause acoustic energy resulting from the actuations to have peak amplitude at a selected frequency.

  18. Molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and surveillance of invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae, a review

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Odile B.; Brueggemann, Angela B.; Caugant, Dominique A.; van der Ende, Arie; Frosch, Matthias; Gray, Stephen; Heuberger, Sigrid; Krizova, Paula; Olcen, Per; Slack, Mary; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Maiden, Martin C. J

    2014-01-01

    Invasive disease caused by the encapsulated bacteria Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite the introduction of successful conjugate polysaccharide vaccines that target disease-associated strains. In addition, resistance, or more accurately reduced susceptibility, to therapeutic antibiotics is spreading in populations of these organisms. There is therefore a continuing requirement for the surveillance of vaccine and non-vaccine antigens and antibiotic susceptibilities among isolates from invasive disease, which is only partially met by conventional methods. This need can be met with molecular and especially nucleotide sequence-based typing methods, which are fully developed in the case of N. meningitidis and which could be more widely deployed in clinical laboratories for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. PMID:21622526

  19. The End of Amnesia: A New Method for Measuring the Metallicity of Type Ia Supernova Progenitors Using Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badenes, Carles; Bravo, Eduardo; Hughes, John P.

    2008-06-01

    We propose a new method to measure the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using Mn and Cr lines in the X-ray spectra of young supernova remnants. We show that the Mn-to-Cr mass ratio in Type Ia supernova ejecta is tightly correlated with the initial metallicity of the progenitor, as determined by the neutron excess of the white dwarf material before thermonuclear runaway. We use this correlation, together with the flux of the Cr and Mn Kα X-ray lines in the Tycho supernova remnant recently detected by Suzaku, to derive a metallicity of log (Z) = - 1.32+ 0.67-0.33 for the progenitor of this supernova, which corresponds to log (Z/Z⊙) = 0.60+ 0.31-0.60 according to the latest determination of the solar metallicity by Asplund and coworkers. The uncertainty in the measurement is large, but metallicities much smaller than the solar value can be confidently discarded. We discuss the implications of this result for future research on Type Ia supernova progenitors.

  20. Comparison of two DNA sequence-based typing schemes for the Fusarium solani Species Complex and proposal of a new consensus method.

    PubMed

    Debourgogne, Anne; Gueidan, Cécile; de Hoog, Sybren; Lozniewski, Alain; Machouart, Marie

    2012-10-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a widely used approach for differentiating microbial isolates presenting many advantages such as easy access through online databases and straightforward interpretation. For the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), three gene regions have been widely used to investigate phylogenetic relationships at the interspecific level (ITS-nuLSU, EF1a, RPB2) and a nomenclature system has been proposed for the different known haplotypes. More recently, a MLST scheme was proposed for this species complex based on the polymorphisms of five housekeeping genes (ACC, ICL, GDP, MDP, SOD). Here, we compare the phylogenetic resolution and sequence discriminatory powers of these two sets of loci on 50 epidemiologically unrelated FSSC strains. Although the widely used gene set offers better phylogenetic resolution, the newly developed gene set is slightly better at discriminating isolates using a MLST method. A consensus scheme of eight loci is proposed for typing FSSC strains combining the advantages of the two previous gene sets and offering the best typing efficiency.