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Sample records for jacobsen syndrome jbs

  1. PX-RICS-deficient mice mimic autism spectrum disorder in Jacobsen syndrome through impaired GABAA receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tsutomu; Arima-Yoshida, Fumiko; Sakaue, Fumika; Nasu-Nishimura, Yukiko; Takeda, Yasuko; Matsuura, Ken; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N; Grossfeld, Paul D; Manabe, Toshiya; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2016-03-16

    Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) is a rare congenital disorder caused by a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. A subset of patients exhibit social behavioural problems that meet the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the underlying molecular pathogenesis remains poorly understood. PX-RICS is located in the chromosomal region commonly deleted in JBS patients with autistic-like behaviour. Here we report that PX-RICS-deficient mice exhibit ASD-like social behaviours and ASD-related comorbidities. PX-RICS-deficient neurons show reduced surface γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) levels and impaired GABAAR-mediated synaptic transmission. PX-RICS, GABARAP and 14-3-3ζ/θ form an adaptor complex that interconnects GABAAR and dynein/dynactin, thereby facilitating GABAAR surface expression. ASD-like behavioural abnormalities in PX-RICS-deficient mice are ameliorated by enhancing inhibitory synaptic transmission with a GABAAR agonist. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of PX-RICS in cognition and suggest a causal link between PX-RICS deletion and ASD-like behaviour in JBS patients.

  2. PX-RICS-deficient mice mimic autism spectrum disorder in Jacobsen syndrome through impaired GABAA receptor trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tsutomu; Arima-Yoshida, Fumiko; Sakaue, Fumika; Nasu-Nishimura, Yukiko; Takeda, Yasuko; Matsuura, Ken; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N.; Grossfeld, Paul D.; Manabe, Toshiya; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2016-01-01

    Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) is a rare congenital disorder caused by a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. A subset of patients exhibit social behavioural problems that meet the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the underlying molecular pathogenesis remains poorly understood. PX-RICS is located in the chromosomal region commonly deleted in JBS patients with autistic-like behaviour. Here we report that PX-RICS-deficient mice exhibit ASD-like social behaviours and ASD-related comorbidities. PX-RICS-deficient neurons show reduced surface γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) levels and impaired GABAAR-mediated synaptic transmission. PX-RICS, GABARAP and 14-3-3ζ/θ form an adaptor complex that interconnects GABAAR and dynein/dynactin, thereby facilitating GABAAR surface expression. ASD-like behavioural abnormalities in PX-RICS-deficient mice are ameliorated by enhancing inhibitory synaptic transmission with a GABAAR agonist. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of PX-RICS in cognition and suggest a causal link between PX-RICS deletion and ASD-like behaviour in JBS patients. PMID:26979507

  3. Mice Haploinsufficient for Ets1 and Fli1 Display Middle Ear Abnormalities and Model Aspects of Jacobsen Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carpinelli, Marina R; Kruse, Elizabeth A; Arhatari, Benedicta D; Debrincat, Marlyse A; Ogier, Jacqueline M; Bories, Jean-Christophe; Kile, Benjamin T; Burt, Rachel A

    2015-07-01

    E26 transformation-specific 1 (ETS1) and friend leukemia integration 1 (FLI1) are members of the ETS family of transcription factors, of which there are 28 in humans. Both genes are hemizygous in Jacobsen syndrome, an 11q contiguous gene deletion disorder involving thrombocytopenia, facial dysmorphism, growth and mental retardation, malformation of the heart and other organs, and hearing impairment associated with recurrent ear infections. To determine whether any of these defects are because of hemizygosity for ETS1 and FLI1, we characterized the phenotype of mice heterozygous for mutant alleles of Ets1 and Fli1. Fli1(+/-) mice displayed mild thrombocytopenia, as did Ets1(+/-)Fli1(+/-) animals. Fli1(+/-) and Ets1(+/-)Fli1(+/-) mice also displayed craniofacial abnormalities, including a small middle ear cavity, short nasal bone, and malformed interface between the nasal bone process and cartilaginous nasal septum. They exhibited hearing impairment, otitis media, fusions of ossicles to the middle ear wall, and deformed stapes. Hearing impairment was more penetrant and stapes malformations were more severe in Ets1(+/-)Fli1(+/-) mice than in Fli1(+/-) mice, indicating partial functional redundancy of these transcription factors during auditory development. Our findings indicate that the short nose, otitis media, and hearing impairment in Jacobsen syndrome are likely because of hemizygosity for ETS1 and FLI1. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Looking at J.B.S. Haldane.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2004-03-01

    J.B.S. Haldane's photographs reveal that this eminent geneticist was also a militant political agitator. Deeply engaged in left-wing British politics, Haldane eventually joined the Communist party, but found it increasingly difficult to reconcile his scientific beliefs with his Marxist commitments. During the controversy over Stalin's rejection of genetics in favour of Trofim Lysenko's agricultural reforms, Haldane's activities were critically interpreted from various different perspectives.

  5. Joubert syndrome: genotyping a Northern European patient cohort.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Hester Y; Monroe, Glen R; van der Zwaag, Bert; Duran, Karen J; de Kovel, Carolien G; van Roosmalen, Mark J; Harakalova, Magdalena; Nijman, Ies J; Kloosterman, Wigard P; Giles, Rachel H; Knoers, Nine V A M; van Haaften, Gijs

    2016-02-01

    Joubert syndrome (JBS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to the group of ciliary diseases. JBS is genetically heterogeneous, with >20 causative genes identified to date. A molecular diagnosis of JBS is essential for prediction of disease progression and genetic counseling. We developed a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach for parallel sequencing of 22 known JBS genes plus 599 additional ciliary genes. This method was used to genotype a cohort of 51 well-phenotyped Northern European JBS cases (in some of the cases, Sanger sequencing of individual JBS genes had been performed previously). Altogether, 21 of the 51 cases (41%) harbored biallelic pathogenic mutations in known JBS genes, including 14 mutations not previously described. Mutations in C5orf42 (12%), TMEM67 (10%), and AHI1 (8%) were the most prevalent. C5orf42 mutations result in a purely neurological Joubert phenotype, in one case associated with postaxial polydactyly. Our study represents a population-based cohort of JBS patients not enriched for consanguinity, providing insight into the relative importance of the different JBS genes in a Northern European population. Mutations in C5orf42 are relatively frequent (possibly due to a Dutch founder mutation) and mutations in CEP290 are underrepresented compared with international cohorts. Furthermore, we report a case with heterozygous mutations in CC2D2A and B9D1, a gene associated with the more severe Meckel-Gruber syndrome that was recently published as a potential new JBS gene, and discuss the significance of this finding.

  6. Obituary: Theodore Siegumfeldt Jacobsen, 1901-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Robert Paul; Wallerstein, George

    2003-12-01

    Theodor Jacobsen, oldest member of the American Astronomical Society, died in Seattle on 17 July 2003 at the age of 102. His astronomical career, which began in the 1920's, coincided with the rise of astronomy in the University of Washington from a one-man activity within mathematics to today's major astronomical department of more than 30 faculty and other research personnel. Born on 6 February 1901 in Copenhagen, Denmark, he immigrated with his parents, brother and three sisters to the USA in 1917. Even while he was still in Denmark, his interest in astronomy was sparked at age 7 by a gift from his parents of a two-inch telescope. As early as 1921, in the midst of his undergraduate studies in chemistry at Stanford, he wrote to Director W. W. Campbell of Lick Observatory, inquiring how he should prepare for a career in astronomy and whether one could make a living at it. Campbell encouraged him to learn as much physics and mathematics as possible with the outcome that, on completion of his BA degree at Stanford, Jacobsen became a University of California Berkeley graduate student and was appointed a Lick Observatory fellow in the period 1923 to 1926. Following completion of his PhD thesis, entitled ``A Redetermination of the Radial Velocity Curves of Certain Cepheid Variable Stars" (LOB, 379, 1926), he was appointed as ``assistant" at Lick, a position roughly equivalent to that of ``instructor" in a modern University environment. Inquiries concerning whether Lick could recommend ``a promising young man to take over teaching some astronomy and math" from then President Spencer of the University of Washington were received by Lick's acting director Robert Aitken in 1928. They were looking for a Berkeley PhD, said Spencer, and Aitken responded with an enthusiastic recommendation of Theodor Jacobsen, who then took up his duties in Seattle with the beginning of the fall term 1928. Jacobsen succeeded H. Zanstra (of Zanstra mechanism fame) in the Dept. of Mathematics

  7. Deletion of ETS-1, a gene in the Jacobsen syndrome critical region, causes ventricular septal defects and abnormal ventricular morphology in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Maoqing; Coldren, Chris; Liang, Xingqun; Mattina, Teresa; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Benson, D. Woodrow; Ivy, Dunbar; Perryman, M.B.; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann; Grossfeld, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Congenital heart defects comprise the most common form of major birth defects, affecting 0.7% of all newborn infants. Jacobsen syndrome (11q-) is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by deletions in distal 11q. We have previously determined that a wide spectrum of the most common congenital heart defects occur in 11q-, including an unprecedented high frequency of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). We identified an ∼7 Mb ‘cardiac critical region’ in distal 11q that contains a putative causative gene(s) for congenital heart disease. In this study, we utilized chromosomal microarray mapping to characterize three patients with 11q- and congenital heart defects that carry interstitial deletions overlapping the 7 Mb cardiac critical region. We propose that this 1.2 Mb region of overlap harbors a gene(s) that causes at least a subset of the congenital heart defects that occur in 11q-. We demonstrate that one gene in this region, ETS-1 (a member of the ETS family of transcription factors), is expressed in the endocardium and neural crest during early mouse heart development. Gene-targeted deletion of ETS-1 in mice in a C57/B6 background causes, with high penetrance, large membranous ventricular septal defects and a bifid cardiac apex, and less frequently a non-apex-forming left ventricle (one of the hallmarks of HLHS). Our results implicate an important role for the ETS-1 transcription factor in mammalian heart development and should provide important insights into some of the most common forms of congenital heart disease. PMID:19942620

  8. Expanding the mutational spectrum in Johanson-Blizzard syndrome: identification of whole exon deletions and duplications in the UBR1 gene by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis.

    PubMed

    Sukalo, Maja; Schäflein, Eva; Schanze, Ina; Everman, David B; Rezaei, Nima; Argente, Jesús; Lorda-Sanchez, Isabel; Deshpande, Charu; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Kleger, Alexander; Zenker, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (JBS, MIM #243800) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, nasal wing hypoplasia, hypodontia, and other abnormalities. JBS is caused by mutations of the UBR1 gene (MIM *605981), encoding a ubiquitin ligase of the N-end rule pathway. Molecular findings in a total of 65 unrelated patients with a clinical diagnosis of JBS who were previously screened for UBR1 mutations by Sanger sequencing were reviewed and cases lacking a disease-causing UBR1 mutation on either one or both alleles were included in this study. In order to discover mutations that are not detectable by Sanger sequencing, we designed a probe set for multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of the UBR1 gene and analyzed the copy number status of all 47 UBR1 exons. Our previous studies using Sanger sequencing could detect mutations in 93.1% of 130 disease-associated UBR1 alleles. Six patients with a highly suggestive clinical diagnosis of JBS and unsolved genotype were included in this study. MLPA analysis detected six alleles harboring exon deletions/duplications, thereby raising the mutation detection rate in the entire cohort to 97.7% (127/130 alleles). We conclude that single or multi-exon deletions or duplications account for a substantial proportion of JBS-associated UBR1 mutations. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prevalence by Computed Tomographic Angiography of Coronary Plaques in South Asian and White Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Low and High Risk Using Four Cardiovascular Risk Scores (UKPDS, FRS, ASCVD, and JBS3).

    PubMed

    Gobardhan, Sanjay N; Dimitriu-Leen, Aukelien C; van Rosendael, Alexander R; van Zwet, Erik W; Roos, Cornelis J; Oemrawsingh, Pranobe V; Kharagjitsingh, Aan V; Jukema, J Wouter; Delgado, Victoria; Schalij, Martin J; Bax, Jeroen J; Scholte, Arthur J H A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between various cardiovascular (CV) risk scores and coronary atherosclerotic burden on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in South Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus and matched whites. Asymptomatic type 2 diabetic South Asians and whites were matched for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Ten-year CV risk was estimated using different risk scores (United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study [UKPDS], Framingham Risk Score [FRS], AtheroSclerotic CardioVascular Disease [ASCVD], and Joint British Societies for the prevention of CVD [JBS3]) and categorized into low- and high-risk groups. The presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) and obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD; ≥50% stenosis) was assessed using coronary CTA. Finally, the relation between coronary atherosclerosis on CTA and the low- and high-risk groups was compared. UKPDS, FRS, and ASCVD showed no differences in estimated CV risk between 159 South Asians and 159 matched whites. JBS3 showed a significant greater absolute CV risk in South Asians (18.4% vs 14.2%, p <0.01). Higher presence of CAC score >0 (69% vs 55%, p <0.05) and obstructive CAD (39% vs 27%, p <0.05) was observed in South Asians. South Asians categorized as high risk, using UKPDS, FRS, and ASCVD, showed more CAC and CAD compared than whites. JBS3 showed no differences. In conclusion, asymptomatic South Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus more frequently showed CAC and obstructive CAD than matched whites in the population categorized as high-risk patients using UKPDS, FRS, and ASCVD as risk estimators. However, JBS3 seems to correlate best to CAC and CAD in both ethnicity groups compared with the other risk scores. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mutations in the human UBR1 gene and the associated phenotypic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sukalo, Maja; Fiedler, Ariane; Guzmán, Celina; Spranger, Stephanie; Addor, Marie-Claude; McHeik, Jiad N; Oltra Benavent, Manuel; Cobben, Jan M; Gillis, Lynette A; Shealy, Amy G; Deshpande, Charu; Bozorgmehr, Bita; Everman, David B; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Liebelt, Jan; Keller, Klaus-Michael; Bertola, Débora Romeo; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Bergmann, Carsten; Liu, Zhifeng; Düker, Gesche; Rezaei, Nima; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Oğur, Gönül; Alrajoudi, Abdullah; Venegas-Vega, Carlos A; Verbeek, Nienke E; Richmond, Erick J; Kirbiyik, Ozgür; Ranganath, Prajnya; Singh, Ankur; Godbole, Koumudi; Ali, Fouad A M; Alves, Crésio; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M; Witt, Heiko; Zenker, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (JBS) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, typical facial features, dental anomalies, hypothyroidism, sensorineural hearing loss, scalp defects, urogenital and anorectal anomalies, short stature, and cognitive impairment of variable degree. This syndrome is caused by a defect of the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR1, which is part of the proteolytic N-end rule pathway. Herein, we review previously reported (n = 29) and a total of 31 novel UBR1 mutations in relation to the associated phenotype in patients from 50 unrelated families. Mutation types include nonsense, frameshift, splice site, missense, and small in-frame deletions consistent with the hypothesis that loss of UBR1 protein function is the molecular basis of JBS. There is an association of missense mutations and small in-frame deletions with milder physical abnormalities and a normal intellectual capacity, thus suggesting that at least some of these may represent hypomorphic UBR1 alleles. The review of clinical data of a large number of molecularly confirmed JBS cases allows us to define minimal clinical criteria for the diagnosis of JBS. For all previously reported and novel UBR1 mutations together with their clinical data, a mutation database has been established at LOVD. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Jacobsen syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... varies among affected individuals, with most affected people missing 5 million to 16 million DNA building blocks ( ... translocation can have a chromosomal rearrangement with some missing genetic material and some extra genetic material. Individuals ...

  12. Exploration of Differences in Types of Sleep Disturbance and Severity of Sleep Problems between Individuals with Cri du Chat Syndrome, Down's Syndrome, and Jacobsen Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Anneke P. H. M.; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) seems to vary between genetic syndromes associated with ID. Different types of sleep disturbances may indicate underlying causes of sleep problems and these types of sleep disturbances may vary between different genetic syndromes. We examined and compared five types…

  13. Junction barrier Schottky rectifier with an improved P-well region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Ting; Cao, Fei; Shao, Lei; Chen, Yu-Xian

    2012-12-01

    A junction barrier Schottky (JBS) rectifier with an improved P-well on 4H—SiC is proposed to improve the VF—IR trade-off and the breakdown voltage. The reverse current density of the proposed JBS rectifier at 300 K and 800 V is about 3.3×10-8 times that of the common JBS rectifier at no expense of the forward voltage drop. This is because the depletion layer thickness in the P-well region at the same reverse voltage is larger than in the P+ grid, resulting in a lower spreading current and tunneling current. As a result, the breakdown voltage of the proposed JBS rectifier is over 1.6 kV, that is about 0.8 times more than that of the common JBS rectifier due to the uniform electric field. Although the series resistance of the proposed JBS rectifier is a little larger than that of the common JBS rectifier, the figure of merit (FOM) of the proposed JBS rectifier is about 2.9 times that of the common JBS rectifier. Based on simulating the values of susceptibility of the two JBS rectifiers to electrostatic discharge (ESD) in the human body model (HBM) circuits, the failure energy of the proposed JBS rectifier increases 17% compared with that of the common JBS rectifier.

  14. [Back school: a simple way to improve pain and postural behaviour].

    PubMed

    Jordá Llona, M; Pérez Bocanegra, E; García-Mifsud, M; Jimeno Bernad, R; Ortiz Hernández, R; Castells Ayuso, P

    2014-08-01

    Non-specific back pain in children and adolescents has a high prevalence. The aim of this study is to show a Juvenile Back School (JBS) programme and its results in our hospital. A total of 139 patients referred to a Juvenile Back School for advice due to of pain, deformity or back asymmetry were included in a prospective observational study. age, gender, pain, correct postures, sports activities, adherence to JBS and appreciation of these parameters by their parents. VARIABLES were measured with a numerical pain scale and with a survey completed in the first session and 3 months after finishing the JBS. A total of 119 patients finished the study (78 female and 41 male).The average was 13.97±2.29 years (9-20). Three months after JBS, the median pain intensity was reduced from 3 to 0 (P<.0001). There was an improvement in patient postures from 21% to 83% (P<.0001). Patients did not increase their sport activity after the JBS, although its regular practice was linked with pain improvement after JBS (P<.02).Performing exercises did not lead to a decrease in pain. There was a poor correlation between parents and children in the evaluation of post-JBS pain. A back school programme could probably contribute to reduce non-specific back pain and improve postural behaviour in young people. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of structural relationship among the occupational dysfunction on the psychological problem in healthcare workers: a study using structural equation modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kyougoku, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the hypothetical model based on structural relationship with the occupational dysfunction on psychological problems (stress response, burnout syndrome, and depression) in healthcare workers. Method. Three cross sectional studies were conducted to assess the following relations: (1) occupational dysfunction on stress response (n = 468), (2) occupational dysfunction on burnout syndrome (n = 1,142), and (3) occupational dysfunction on depression (n = 687). Personal characteristics were collected through a questionnaire (such as age, gender, and job category, opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships) as well as the Classification and Assessment of Occupational Dysfunction (CAOD). Furthermore, study 1 included the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18), study 2 used the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS), and study 3 employed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and path analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis were used in all of the studies. EFA and CFA were used to measure structural validity of four assessments; CAOD, SRS-18, JBS, and CES-D. For examination of a potential covariate, we assessed the correlation of the total and factor score of CAOD and personal factors in all studies. Moreover, direct and indirect effects of occupational dysfunction on stress response (Study 1), burnout syndrome (Study 2), and depression (Study 3) were also analyzed. Results. In study 1, CAOD had 16 items and 4 factors. In Study 2 and 3, CAOD had 16 items and 5 factors. SRS-18 had 18 items and 3 factors, JBS had 17 items and 3 factors, and CES-D had 20 items and 4 factors. All studies found that there were significant correlations between the CAOD total score and the personal factor that included opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure

  16. Analysis of structural relationship among the occupational dysfunction on the psychological problem in healthcare workers: a study using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Mutsumi; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the hypothetical model based on structural relationship with the occupational dysfunction on psychological problems (stress response, burnout syndrome, and depression) in healthcare workers. Method. Three cross sectional studies were conducted to assess the following relations: (1) occupational dysfunction on stress response (n = 468), (2) occupational dysfunction on burnout syndrome (n = 1,142), and (3) occupational dysfunction on depression (n = 687). Personal characteristics were collected through a questionnaire (such as age, gender, and job category, opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships) as well as the Classification and Assessment of Occupational Dysfunction (CAOD). Furthermore, study 1 included the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18), study 2 used the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS), and study 3 employed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and path analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis were used in all of the studies. EFA and CFA were used to measure structural validity of four assessments; CAOD, SRS-18, JBS, and CES-D. For examination of a potential covariate, we assessed the correlation of the total and factor score of CAOD and personal factors in all studies. Moreover, direct and indirect effects of occupational dysfunction on stress response (Study 1), burnout syndrome (Study 2), and depression (Study 3) were also analyzed. Results. In study 1, CAOD had 16 items and 4 factors. In Study 2 and 3, CAOD had 16 items and 5 factors. SRS-18 had 18 items and 3 factors, JBS had 17 items and 3 factors, and CES-D had 20 items and 4 factors. All studies found that there were significant correlations between the CAOD total score and the personal factor that included opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure

  17. Constitutional 11q14-q22 chromosome deletion syndrome in a child with neuroblastoma MYCN single copy.

    PubMed

    Passariello, Annalisa; De Brasi, Daniele; Defferrari, Raffaella; Genesio, Rita; Tufano, Maria; Mazzocco, Katia; Capasso, Maria; Migliorati, Roberta; Martinsson, Tommy; Siani, Paolo; Nitsch, Lucio; Tonini, Gian Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Constitutional 11q deletion is a chromosome imbalance possibly found in MCA/MR patients analyzed for chromosomal anomalies. Its role in determining the phenotype depends on extension and position of deleted region. Loss of heterozygosity of 11q (region 11q23) is also associated with neuroblastoma, the most frequent extra cranial cancer in children. It represents one of the most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities observed in the tumor of patients with high-risk disease even if germline deletion of 11q in neuroblastoma is rare. Hereby, we describe a 18 months old girl presenting with trigonocephaly and dysmorphic facial features, including hypotelorism, broad depressed nasal bridge, micrognathia, synophrys, epicanthal folds, and with a stage 4 neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification, carrying a germline 11q deletion (11q14.1-q22.3), outside from Jacobsen syndrome and from neuroblastoma 11q critical regions. The role of 11q deletion in determining the clinical phenotype and its association with neuroblastoma development in the patient are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome. A review of 55 paediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Santos, Saturnino; Sgambatti, Luciano; Bueno, Antonio; Albi, Gustavo; Suárez, Alicia; Domínguez, Maria Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is the commonest congenital anomaly found with imaging techniques in paediatric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Our aim was to describe clinical and audiological findings in paediatric hearing loss associated to EVA. Retrospective review of 55 children with imaging-technique EVA findings from 2000 to 2009. Subjective and/or objective audiological tests were analysed and audiological findings related to clinical features were described. Thirty-seven patients (67.27%) showed bilateral EVA and 18 (32.72%) were unilateral. Hearing loss was bilateral in 46 (83.63%) patients and unilateral in 9 (16.36%). Mean age at diagnosis was 3.78 years. Fifty-three (96.36%) children showed SNHL (28 bilateral and profound), while 2 (3.63%) patients had mixed hearing loss. There were 3 cases of hearing loss progression, 2 fluctuations, 2 of them were asymmetric and 2 patients suffered from vestibular symptoms. Concomitant image findings were 6 cochlear hypoplasia, 2 enlarged internal auditory canals, 1 enlarged vestibule and 1 hypoplastic lateral semicircular canal. Six clinical syndromes were found (2 cases of Down's, and 1 each of Jacobsen, Pendred, Waardenburg and branchio-oto-renal). One child was positive for GJB2 mutation. Familial hearing loss was demonstrated on 12 (21.8%) cases. The clinical picture of hearing loss associated to EVA is characterised by great variability. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained mixed hearing loss. Familial and syndromic findings have to be taken into consideration in the diagnostic evaluations of such patients. Knowledge about the natural history of this illness is needed so as to give parents prognostic information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Circles and Parallels: Democratic Governance in a Small School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, T. Elijah

    2017-01-01

    This article is an inquiry into the work of educators at the James Baldwin School (JBS), a New York City public school with an explicit commitment to democracy in its mission and core values. The author was founding principal at JBS for the first six years, has stayed in touch, and recently went back to talk with faculty about how their work has…

  20. Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.

    1999-09-01

    Literature Cited

    1. Jacobsen, J. J.; Moore, J. W. Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 1 [CD-ROM]; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1998, SP 18.

    2. Jacobsen, J. J.; Moore, J. W. Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 2 [CD-ROM]; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1998, SP 21.

    3. Moore, J. W.; Jacobsen, J. J.; Hunsberger, L. R.; Gammon, S. D.; Jetzer, K. H.; Zimmerman, J. ChemDemos Videodisc; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1994, SP 8.

    4. Moore, J. W.; Jacobsen, J. J.; Jetzer, K. H.; Gilbert, G.; Mattes, F.; Phillips, D.; Lisensky, G.; Zweerink, G. ChemDemos II; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1996, SP 14.

    5. Jacobsen, J. J.; Jetzer, K. H.; Patani, N.; Zimmerman, J. Titration Techniques Videodisc; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1995, SP9.

  1. Compact modeling of SiC Schottky barrier diode and its extension to junction barrier Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Dondee; Herrera, Fernando; Zenitani, Hiroshi; Miura-Mattausch, Mitiko; Yorino, Naoto; Jürgen Mattausch, Hans; Takusagawa, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Jun; Hara, Masafumi

    2018-04-01

    A compact model applicable for both Schottky barrier diode (SBD) and junction barrier Schottky diode (JBS) structures is developed. The SBD model considers the current due to thermionic emission in the metal/semiconductor junction together with the resistance of the lightly doped drift layer. Extension of the SBD model to JBS is accomplished by modeling the distributed resistance induced by the p+ implant developed for minimizing the leakage current at reverse bias. Only the geometrical features of the p+ implant are necessary to model the distributed resistance. Reproduction of 4H-SiC SBD and JBS current-voltage characteristics with the developed compact model are validated against two-dimensional (2D) device-simulation results as well as measurements at different temperatures.

  2. A Measurement of Charged and Neutral Elementary Particles Emitted from Antiproton Annihilation at Rest in Heavy Nuclei

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    ithbothourmeaureentfor steinslid. A.. Myklebost. K.. Olsen. J.M.. Breivik . F.O.. Jacobsen, carbon and the prediction for oxygen. T_. Sorensen. S.O.: CERN preprint EP...M., Fujitani. T., Iwahori, L,. Kawaguti. .Koba~ashi, steinslid, A.. Myklebost, K., Olsen. J.M., Breivik , F.O.. Jacobsen, M., Kurokawa, S., Nagashima

  3. Cardiovascular risk assessment of South Asians in a religious setting: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Rao, N; Eastwood, S V; Jain, A; Shah, M; Leurent, B; Harvey, D; Robertson, L; Walters, K; Persaud, J W; Mikhailidis, D P; Nair, D R

    2012-03-01

    South Asians in the UK have high cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Therefore, this population is likely to benefit from screening programmes. To address this issue, an initiative was set up between the Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust, H.E.A.R.T. UK and two Hindu temples in North London to provide screening for CVD risk factors in the community. A total of 434 individuals of Gujarati Indian origin were screened. Measurements included anthropometry, blood pressure and lipid profiles. Three different scoring systems: Framingham, Joint British Societies' 2 and QRISK2 were used to estimate CVD risk. At least one modifiable CVD risk factor was present in 92% of the individuals screened; 52% were hypertensive, 40% were obese, 75% had central adiposity and 10% had total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio > 6. In addition, 37% of a subset of 104 individuals with a fasting sample fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome. Overall, 15% of participants screened had a 10-year CV risk score > 20% using QRISK2. The three risk score calculators showed moderate agreement: QRISK2 and JBS2 (kappa 0.61, 95% CI 0.54-0.67), QRISK2 and Framingham (kappa 0.63, 95% CI 0.57-0.70) and JBS2 and Framingham (kappa 0.70, 95% CI 0.64-0.75). A high prevalence of modifiable risk factors for CVD was detected in the population screened. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. 76 FR 49398 - Non-Discrimination in Compensation; Compensation Data Collection Tool

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... 1998). \\8\\ See O'Neill, June E., ``The Gender Gap in Wages, Circa 2000,'' American Economic Review (May 2003). \\9\\ Jacobsen, Joyce P., The Economics of Gender (2007). \\10\\ Jacobsen, supra; see also, e.g... practices and potential equal employment- related issues. OFCCP is issuing this Advanced Notice of Proposed...

  5. Evaluation of combinations of putative anti-biofilm agents and antibiotics to eradicate biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Belfield, Katherine; Bayston, Roger; Hajduk, Nadzieja; Levell, Georgia; Birchall, John P; Daniel, Matija

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate potential anti-biofilm agents for their ability to enhance the activity of antibiotics for local treatment of localized biofilm infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro biofilm models were developed. The putative antibiotic enhancers N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, sodium salicylate, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I, dispersin B, hydrogen peroxide and Johnson's Baby Shampoo (JBS) were tested for their anti-biofilm activity alone and their ability to enhance the activity of antibiotics for 7 or 14 days, against 5 day old biofilms. The antibiotic enhancers were paired with rifampicin and clindamycin against S. aureus and gentamicin and ciprofloxacin against P. aeruginosa. Isolates from biofilms that were not eradicated were tested for antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic levels 10× MIC and 100× MIC significantly reduced biofilm, but did not consistently eradicate it. Antibiotics at 100× MIC with 10% JBS for 14 days was the only treatment to eradicate both staphylococcal and pseudomonal biofilms. Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I significantly reduced staphylococcal biofilm. Emergence of resistance of surviving isolates was minimal and was often associated with the small colony variant phenotype. JBS enhanced the activity of antibiotics and several other promising anti-biofilm agents were identified. Antibiotics with 10% JBS eradicated biofilms produced by both organisms. Such combinations might be useful in local treatment of localized biofilm infections. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A de novo 11q23 deletion in a patient presenting with severe ophthalmologic findings, psychomotor retardation and facial dysmorphism.

    PubMed

    Şimşek-Kiper, Pelin Özlem; Bayram, Yavuz; Ütine, Gülen Eda; Alanay, Yasemin; Boduroğlu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    Distal 11q deletion, previously known as Jacobsen syndrome, is caused by segmental aneusomy for the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 11. Typical clinical features include facial dysmorphism, mild-to-moderate psychomotor retardation, trigonocephaly, cardiac defects, and thrombocytopenia. There is a significant variability in the range of clinical features. We report herein a five-year-old girl with severe ophthalmological findings, facial dysmorphism, and psychomotor retardation with normal platelet function, in whom a de novo 11q23 deletion was detected, suggesting that distal 11q monosomy should be kept in mind in patients presenting with dysmorphic facial features and psychomotor retardation even in the absence of hematological findings.

  7. Understanding Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fremont, Oliver T; Chan, James C M

    2012-02-01

    We aim to review the clinical features of two renal tubular disorders characterized by sodium and potassium wasting: Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome. Selected key references concerning these syndromes were analyzed, together with a PubMed search of the literature from 2000 to 2011. The clinical features common to both conditions and those which are distinct to each syndrome were presented. The new findings on the genetics of the five types of Bartter syndrome and the discrete mutations in Gitelman syndrome were reviewed, together with the diagnostic workup and treatment for each condition. Patients with Bartter syndrome types 1, 2 and 4 present at a younger age than classic Bartter syndrome type 3. They present with symptoms, often quite severe in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome type 3 present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. The severe, steady-state hypokalemia in Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome may abruptly become life-threatening under certain aggravating conditions. Clinicians need to be cognizant of such renal tubular disorders, and promptly treat at-risk patients.

  8. A charge-based model of Junction Barrier Schottky rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre-Rey, Alvaro D.; Mudholkar, Mihir; Quddus, Mohammed T.; Salih, Ali

    2018-06-01

    A new charge-based model of the electric field distribution for Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes is presented, based on the description of the charge-sharing effect between the vertical Schottky junction and the lateral pn-junctions that constitute the active cell of the device. In our model, the inherently 2-D problem is transformed into a simple but accurate 1-D problem which has a closed analytical solution that captures the reshaping and reduction of the electric field profile responsible for the improved electrical performance of these devices, while preserving physically meaningful expressions that depend on relevant device parameters. The validation of the model is performed by comparing calculated electric field profiles with drift-diffusion simulations of a JBS device showing good agreement. Even though other fully 2-D models already available provide higher accuracy, they lack physical insight making the proposed model an useful tool for device design.

  9. The developmental trajectory of disruptive behavior in Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rice, Lauren J; Gray, Kylie M; Howlin, Patricia; Taffe, John; Tonge, Bruce J; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of verbal aggression, physical aggression, and temper tantrums in four genetic syndrome groups. Participants were part of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study (ACAD), which collected information from a cohort of individuals with an intellectual disability at five time points over 18 years. Data were examined from a total of 248 people with one of the four following syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, or Williams syndrome. Changes in behaviors were measured using validated items from the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC). The results indicate that, while verbal aggression shows no evidence of diminishing with age, physical aggression, and temper tantrums decline with age before 19 years for people with Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, and William syndrome; and after 19 years for people with Prader-Willi syndrome. These findings offer a somewhat more optimistic outlook for people with an intellectual disability than has previously been suggested. Research is needed to investigate the mechanisms predisposing people with PWS to persistence of temper tantrums and physical aggression into adulthood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Essah, P A; Nestler, J E

    2006-03-01

    Much overlap is present between the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the metabolic syndrome. This article reviews the existing data regarding the prevalence, characteristics, and treatment of the metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS is approximately 43-47%, a rate 2-fold higher than that for women in the general population. High body mass index and low serum HDL cholesterol are the most frequently occurring components of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS. The pathogenic link between the metabolic syndrome and PCOS is most likely insulin resistance. Therefore, the presence of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS suggests a greater degree of insulin resistance compared to PCOS without the metabolic syndrome. Obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, and vascular abnormalities are all common metabolic abnormalities present in PCOS. Lifestyle modification has proven benefit and pharmacological therapy with insulin-sensitizing agents has potential benefit in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS.

  11. Mayr, mathematics and the study of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Crow, James F

    2009-01-01

    In 1959 Ernst Mayr challenged the relevance of mathematical models to evolutionary studies and was answered by JBS Haldane in a witty and convincing essay. Fifty years on, I conclude that the importance of mathematics has in fact increased and will continue to do so. PMID:19291256

  12. A Rare Variant of Wallenberg’s Syndrome: Opalski syndrome

    PubMed Central

    KK, Parathan; P, Chitrambalam; Aiyappan, Senthil Kumar; N, Deepthi

    2014-01-01

    Lateral Medullary Syndrome (LMS) is a well-documented vascular syndrome of the posterior circulation territory. This syndrome is easily localised because of characteristic presentation, unique territory of blood supply and very small area of involvement. We present a case of Wallenberg’s syndrome which did not have all the classical components of the syndrome, like Horner’s syndrome. Opalski syndrome is a rare variant of Wallenberg syndrome, where lateral medullary syndrome is associated with ipsilateral hemiparesis. This case report highlights how differential involvement of the lateral part of medulla can result in varied presentation. PMID:25177595

  13. Duane Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), is a congenital and non-progressive ... Is Duane syndrome congenital (present from birth)? Duane retraction syndrome is present from birth, even if it ...

  14. Standard cardiovascular disease risk algorithms underestimate the risk of cardiovascular disease in schizophrenia: evidence from a national primary care database.

    PubMed

    McLean, Gary; Martin, Julie Langan; Martin, Daniel J; Guthrie, Bruce; Mercer, Stewart W; Smith, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction algorithms are widely in the general population, their utility for patients with schizophrenia is unknown. A primary care dataset was used to compare CVD risk scores (Joint British Societies (JBS) score), cardiovascular risk factors, rates of pre-existing CVD and age of first diagnosis of CVD for schizophrenia (n=1997) relative to population controls (n=215,165). Pre-existing rates of CVD and the recording of risk factors for those without CVD were higher in the schizophrenia cohort in the younger age groups, for both genders. Those with schizophrenia were more likely to have a first diagnosis of CVD at a younger age, with nearly half of men with schizophrenia plus CVD diagnosed under the age of 55 (schizophrenia men 46.1% vs. control men 34.8%, p<0.001; schizophrenia women 28.9% vs. control women 23.8%, p<0.001). However, despite high rates of CVD risk factors within the schizophrenia group, only a very small percentage (3.2% of men and 7.5% of women) of those with schizophrenia under age 55 were correctly identified as high risk for CVD according to the JBS risk algorithm. The JBS2 risk score identified only a small proportion of individuals with schizophrenia under the age of 55 as being at high risk of CVD, despite high rates of risk factors and high rates of first diagnosis of CVD within this age group. The validity of CVD risk prediction algorithms for schizophrenia needs further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Seckel syndrome: an overdiagnosed syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E; Pembrey, M

    1985-01-01

    Five children in whom a diagnosis of Seckel syndrome had previously been made were re-examined in the genetic unit. One child had classical Seckel syndrome, a sib pair had the features of the syndrome with less severe short stature, and in two children the diagnosis was not confirmed. Seckel syndrome is only one of a group of low birth weight microcephalic dwarfism and careful attention should be paid to fulfillment of the major criteria defined by Seckel before the diagnosis is made. There remains a heterogeneous group of low birth weight microcephalic dwarfism yet to be defined. Images PMID:4040172

  16. Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviour Profiles in Williams syndrome: Cross Syndrome Comparisons with Prader-Willi and Down syndromes.

    PubMed

    Royston, R; Oliver, C; Moss, J; Adams, D; Berg, K; Burbidge, C; Howlin, P; Nelson, L; Stinton, C; Waite, J

    2018-01-01

    This study describes the profile of repetitive behaviour in individuals with Williams syndrome, utilising cross-syndrome comparisons with people with Prader-Willi and Down syndromes. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire was administered to caregivers of adults with Williams (n = 96), Prader-Willi (n = 103) and Down (n = 78) syndromes. There were few group differences, although participants with Williams syndrome were more likely to show body stereotypies. Individuals with Williams syndrome also showed more hoarding and less tidying behaviours than those with Down syndrome. IQ and adaptive ability were negatively associated with repetitive questioning in people with Williams syndrome. The profile of repetitive behaviour amongst individuals with Williams syndrome was similar to the comparison syndromes. The cognitive mechanisms underlying these behaviours in genetic syndromes warrant further investigation.

  17. [Association Budd Chiari syndrome, antiphospholipid syndrome and Grave's disease].

    PubMed

    Mouelhi, Leila; Chaieb, Mouna; Debbeche, Radhouane; Salem, Mohamed; Sfar, Imene; Trabelsi, Sinda; Gorgi, Yosr; Najjar, Taoufik

    2009-02-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is revealed by Budd Chiari syndrome in 5% of the cases. Antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by venous or arterial thrombosis, foetal loss and positivity of antiphospholipid antibodies, namely lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I. Anticardiolipin antibodies was reported in auto-immune thyroid disorders, particularly in Grave's disease. Antiphospholipid syndrome associated to Grave's disease was reported in only three cases. To describe a case report of association of Grave's disease and antiphospholipid syndrome. We report the first case of Grave's disease associated with antiphospholipid syndrome, revealed by Budd Chiari syndrome. Our observation is particular by the fact that it is about a patient presenting a Grave's disease associated with antiphospholipid syndrome revealed by Budd Chiari syndrome. This triple association has never been reported in literature. Although association between antiphospholipid syndrome and Grave's disease was previously described, further studies evaluating the coexistence of these two affections in the same patient would be useful.

  18. Wells syndrome and its relationship to Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ratzinger, Gudrun; Zankl, Julia; Zelger, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

      Wells syndrome has been described as an inflammatory disorder based on typical clinical appearance combined with the histopathological presence of eosinophilic infiltrates and flame figures in the absence of vasculitis. Churg-Strauss syndrome, on the other hand, is primarily a diffuse, necrotizing vasculitis but is also typically displaying eosinophils and flame figures. Despite several parallels, the present understanding of these two diseases excludes any pathogenetic relationship.   We describe the clinical course and histopathological appearance of three patients who had initially been diagnosed with Wells syndrome that developed into Churg-Strauss syndrome during the course of their disease.   The clinical presentation of all three patients led to the diagnosis of Wells syndrome by independent specialists. Histopathology showed an eosinophilic infiltrate and flame figures next to features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Detailed examination revealed asthma bronchiale and additional symptoms indicating Churg-Strauss syndrome. The initial diagnosis of Wells syndrome had to be revised to Churg-Strauss syndrome.   We conclude that Wells syndrome could be the starting point of a pathogenetic process that might reach its maximum in Churg-Strauss syndrome. As a clinical consequence, patients with Wells syndrome should be evaluated and followed for Churg-Strauss syndrome. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaviarasan, P K; Prasad, P V S; Shradda; Viswanathan, P

    2005-01-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with skin fragility. It is characterized by blistering in infancy, photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. The syndrome involves the skin and mucous membrane with radiological changes. The genetic defect has been identified on the short arm of chromosome 20. This report describes an 18-year-old patient with classical features like blistering and photosensitivity in childhood and the subsequent development of poikiloderma. The differential diagnosis of Kindler syndrome includes diseases like Bloom syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, epidermolysis bullosa, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. Our patient had classical cutaneous features of Kindler syndrome with phimosis as a complication.

  20. "Syndrome in syndrome": Wernicke syndrome due to afferent loop syndrome. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    D'Abbicco, D; Praino, S; Amoruso, M; Notarnicola, A; Margari, A

    2011-01-01

    Wernicke syndrome is a rare neurological pathology due to a deficit in vitamin B1. The syndrome is common among alcohol abusers, patients with malignant tumor or gastrointestinal diseases, those who undergo hemodialysis or long-term peritoneal dialysis, pregnant women with hyperemesis, women who breast-feed, patients with hyperthyroidism or anorexia nervosa or gastric or jejunal-ileal bypass surgery for obesity, patients submitted to gastric surgery or prolonged total parenteral nutrition or prolonged intravenous therapy. We report a case of Wernicke syndrome due to afferent loop syndrome characterized by incoercible vomiting.

  1. Fanconi syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    De Toni-Fanconi syndrome ... Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown. Common causes of Fanconi syndrome in ...

  2. [Kenny-Caffey syndrome and its related syndromes].

    PubMed

    Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Kitanaka, Sachiko

    2015-11-01

    Kenny-Caffey syndrome (KCS) is a very rare dysmorphologic syndrome characterized by proportionate short stature, cortical thickening and medullary stenosis of tubular bones, delayed closure of anterior fontanelle, eye abnormalities, and hypoparathyroidism. Two types of KCS were known: the autosomal recessive form (KCS type 1), which is caused by mutations of the TBCE gene, and the autosomal dominant form (KCS type 2), which is caused by mutations of the FAM111A gene. TBCE mutation also causes hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome, and FAM111A mutation also causes gracile bone dysplasia. These two diseases can be called as KCS-related syndromes. In this article, we review the clinical manifestations of KCS and discuss its related syndromes.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment.

  4. West syndrome in a patient with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Fuyu; Kuroda, Yukiko; Naruto, Takuya; Ohashi, Ikuko; Takano, Kyoko; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is a rare recognizable malformation syndrome defined by characteristic facial features, profound developmental delay, severe growth failure, and multiple congenital anomalies. The causative gene of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome, SETBP1, has been identified, but limited cases have been confirmed by molecular analysis. We present a 9-month-old girl affected by West syndrome with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Congenital severe hydronephrosis, typical facial features, and multiple anomalies suggested a clinical diagnosis of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Hypsarrhythmia occurred at 7 months of age and was temporarily controlled by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy during 5 weeks. SETBP1 mutational analysis showed the presence of a recurrent mutation, p.Ile871Thr. The implications in management of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lai-Cheong, Joey E; McGrath, John A

    2010-01-01

    Kindler syndrome (MIM173650) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by poikiloderma, trauma-induced skin blistering, mucosal inflammation, and photosensitivity. Loss-of-function mutations in the FERMT1 gene are the cause of Kindler syndrome. Kindler syndrome is categorized as a subtype of epidermolysis bullosa (EB). During infancy and childhood, there is clinical overlap between Kindler syndrome and dystrophic EB. Unlike other forms of EB, Kindler syndrome is characterized by impaired actin cytoskeleton-extracellular matrix interactions and a variable plane of blister formation at or close to the dermal-epidermal junction. This article reviews clinicopathologic and molecular features of Kindler syndrome and discusses patient management.

  6. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome in adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Key points Adults with Down syndrome are predisposed to obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) due to overlap between the Down syndrome phenotype and OSAHS risk factors. The prevalence of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome is estimated at 35–42%. This is up to ten-times higher than in the general adult population. Symptoms of OSAHS, including behavioural and emotional disturbances as well as standard symptoms such as sleepiness, should be monitored as part of regular health surveillance in adults with Down syndrome. There is evidence that the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in adults with Down syndrome and comorbid OSAHS can lead to significant improvements in subjective sleepiness, behaviour and cognitive function, though further large-scale trials are required. Educational aims To discuss the relationship between the phenotypic features of Down syndrome and the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). To examine the prevalence of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome. To review recent research into the effectiveness of treatment of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterised by repeated cycles of upper airway obstruction during sleep, leading to diurnal symptoms. Individuals with Down syndrome are predisposed to OSAHS due to overlap between the Down syndrome phenotype and OSAHS risk factors. Recent large studies using subjective and objective measures estimate that OSAHS affects around 40% of adults with Down syndrome, in contrast to 2–4% of the general adult population. The “double-hit” of comorbid Down syndrome and OSAHS may accelerate cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome. However, with the appropriate care and support, OSAHS can be treated effectively in this group using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, improving daytime function and behaviour

  7. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hill, Elizabeth A

    2016-12-01

    Adults with Down syndrome are predisposed to obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) due to overlap between the Down syndrome phenotype and OSAHS risk factors.The prevalence of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome is estimated at 35-42%. This is up to ten-times higher than in the general adult population.Symptoms of OSAHS, including behavioural and emotional disturbances as well as standard symptoms such as sleepiness, should be monitored as part of regular health surveillance in adults with Down syndrome.There is evidence that the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in adults with Down syndrome and comorbid OSAHS can lead to significant improvements in subjective sleepiness, behaviour and cognitive function, though further large-scale trials are required. To discuss the relationship between the phenotypic features of Down syndrome and the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS).To examine the prevalence of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome.To review recent research into the effectiveness of treatment of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterised by repeated cycles of upper airway obstruction during sleep, leading to diurnal symptoms. Individuals with Down syndrome are predisposed to OSAHS due to overlap between the Down syndrome phenotype and OSAHS risk factors. Recent large studies using subjective and objective measures estimate that OSAHS affects around 40% of adults with Down syndrome, in contrast to 2-4% of the general adult population. The "double-hit" of comorbid Down syndrome and OSAHS may accelerate cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome. However, with the appropriate care and support, OSAHS can be treated effectively in this group using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, improving daytime function and behaviour. Symptoms of OSAHS should be routinely

  8. Cushing syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, and prednisolone ...

  9. [Cockett's syndrome, May-Thurner syndrome, or iliac vein compression syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gil Martín, A R; Carreras Aja, M; Arrieta Ardieta, I; Labayen Azparren, I

    2014-01-01

    Iliac vein compression syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome or Cockett's syndrome) is a rare clinical entity in which the left common iliac vein is compressed when it passes between the right common iliac artery and the spine. The sustained compression and trauma caused by the pulsatile force of the artery on the vein damage the intima and lead to the formation of membranes or bands in the vascular lumen that hinder or obstruct the flow of blood in the vein, favoring thrombus formation. The current treatment strategy of choice is endovascular vein patch angioplasty and stenting with the aim of improving the caliber of the lumen and enabling normal venous drainage. We present two cases of May-Thurner syndrome and review the clinical and CT findings. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. LEOPARD syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple lentigines syndrome; Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines ... Genetics Home Reference -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...

  11. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Irritable Bowel Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Irritable Bowel Syndrome What's in ... intestinal disorder called irritable bowel syndrome. What Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common intestinal ...

  12. A Chinese patient with pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Lin, Cheng-He; Zheng, Hua; Lin, Zhen-Lan

    2014-07-01

    To observe clinical manifestations, behavioral characteristics, and effects of rehabilitation on a patient with pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect caused by right thalamic hemorrhage. Assessment of pusher syndrome was made by the Scale for Contraversive pushing (SCP), and unilateral spatial neglect syndrome was diagnosed using line cancellation, letter and star cancellation, line bisection tests and copy and continuation of graphic sequence test. Behavioral therapy, occupational therapy, reading training and traditional Chinese medicine methods were adopted for treatment of pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect. The patient showed typical pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect symptoms. The pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect symptoms were significantly improved following rehabilitation treatments. Pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect syndrome occurred simultaneously after right thalamic hemorrhage. Early rehabilitation therapy can reduce the symptoms of pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect syndrome and improve motor function.

  13. Aarskog syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Aarskog disease; Aarskog-Scott syndrome; AAS; Faciodigitogenital syndrome; Gaciogenital dysplasia ... Aarskog syndrome is a genetic disorder that is linked to the X chromosome. It affects mainly males, but females ...

  14. Malabsorption Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods you eat. If you have a malabsorption syndrome, your small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from foods. Causes of malabsorption syndromes include Celiac disease Lactose intolerance Short bowel syndrome. ...

  15. [XYY syndrome (diplo-Y syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Braun-Scharm, H; Schroeder-Kurth, T M

    1986-01-01

    A case is reported of a 12-year-old boy with the XYY syndrome and unusual clinical symptoms. In addition, past research on the XYY syndrome and the current state of knowledge is reviewed, with special emphasis on psychopathology, psychiatry and genetic counseling.

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder, where the main clinical features include menstrual irregularities, sub-fertility, hyperandrogenism, and hirsutism. The prevalence of PCOS depends on ethnicity, environmental and genetic factors, as well as the criteria used to define it. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic disorders which include mainly abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. These associated disorders directly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2), coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and endometrial cancer. Many patients with PCOS have features of metabolic syndrome such as visceral obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. These place patients with PCOS under high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), Type 2 diabetes (DMT2) and gynecological cancer, in particular, endometrial cancer. Metabolic syndrome is also increased in infertile women with PCOS. The aim of this review is to provide clear and up to date information about PCOS and its relationship with metabolic syndrome, and the possible interaction between different metabolic disorders.

  17. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia clefting syndrome (EEC syndrome).

    PubMed

    Koul, Monika; Dwivedi, Rahul; Upadhyay, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia- clefting syndrome (also k/a. split hand- split foot malformation /split hand-split foot ectodermal dysplasia- cleft syndrome/ectodermal dysplasia cleft lip/cleft palate syndrome) a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia, is an autosomal dominant disorder inherited as a genetic trait and characterized by a triad of (i) ectrodactyly, (ii) ectodermal dysplasia and, (iii) & facial clefts.

  18. Williams syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Williams syndrome may show: A flattened nasal bridge with small upturned nose Long ridges in the ... Alternative Names Williams-Beuren syndrome Images Low nasal bridge Chromosomes and DNA References Morris CA. Williams syndrome. ...

  19. Exogenous Cushing syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Cushing syndrome - corticosteroid induced; Corticosteroid-induced Cushing syndrome; Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the hormone ...

  20. Targets to treat metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. Areas Covered This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Expert Opinion Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics. PMID:26488852

  1. Concurrent Van der Woude syndrome and Turner syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Los, Evan; Baines, Hayley; Guttmann-Bauman, Ines

    2017-01-01

    Most cases of Van der Woude syndrome are caused by a mutation to interferon regulatory factor 6 on chromosome 1. Turner syndrome is caused by complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome in girls. We describe a unique case of the two syndromes occurring concurrently though apparently independently in a girl with Van der Woude syndrome diagnosed at birth and Turner syndrome at 14 years 9 months. Short stature was initially misattributed to Van der Woude syndrome and pituitary insufficiency associated with clefts before correctly diagnosing Turner syndrome. We discuss the prevalence of delayed diagnosis of Turner syndrome, the rarity of reports of concurrent autosomal chromosome mutation and sex chromosome deletion, as well as the need to consider the diagnosis of Turner syndrome in all girls with short stature regardless of prior medical history.

  2. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood vessels, ... A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, and ...

  3. Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviour Profiles in Williams Syndrome: Cross Syndrome Comparisons with Prader-Willi and Down Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royston, R.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Adams, D.; Berg, K.; Burbidge, C.; Howlin, P.; Nelson, L.; Stinton, C.; Waite, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study describes the profile of repetitive behaviour in individuals with Williams syndrome, utilising cross-syndrome comparisons with people with Prader-Willi and Down syndromes. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire was administered to caregivers of adults with Williams (n = 96), Prader-Willi (n = 103) and Down (n = 78) syndromes. There were…

  4. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Also known as Pickwickian Syndrome What ... your neck is larger than normal. Complications of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome When left untreated, OHS can cause ...

  5. Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the signs and symptoms of Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Marfan syndrome is different from Loeys-Dietz syndrome in that the gene mutation which causes Marfan syndrome is in fibrillin-1 (FBN-1), a protein ...

  6. Refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernández López, M T; López Otero, M J; Alvarez Vázquez, P; Arias Delgado, J; Varela Correa, J J

    2009-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a complex syndrome that occurs as a result of reintroducing nutrition (oral, enteral or parenteral) to patients who are starved or malnourished. Patients can develop fluid-balance abnormalities, electrolyte disorders (hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia), abnormal glucose metabolism and certain vitamin deficiencies. Refeeding syndrome encompasses abnormalities affecting multiple organ systems, including neurological, pulmonary, cardiac, neuromuscular and haematological functions. Pathogenic mechanisms involved in the refeeding syndrome and clinical manifestations have been reviewed. We provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of refeeding syndrome. The most important steps are to identify patients at risk, reintroduce nutrition cautiously and correct electrolyte and vitamin deficiencies properly.

  7. Pre-Menstrual Syndrome in Women with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Linda; Cunningham, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) may be higher in women with Down syndrome due to syndrome specific characteristics in biochemistry, psychopathology and lifestyle. Recognition of PMS may be difficult for women with intellectual disabilities and their carers. Method: A daily diary, used to diagnose PMS with typical women, was…

  8. Protective Role of Angiogenin Against Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Protective Role of Angiogenin Against Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15...protective role against hematopoietic syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) and is able to attenuate the effect of residual bone marrow

  9. Rodding Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Translational Approach to Brittle Bone Disease 1 st edition. New York, NY: Elsevier Academic Press. Jacobsen, S, ... A Translational Approach to Brittle Bone Disease 1 st edition. New York, NY: Elsevier Academic Press. Zionts ...

  10. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  11. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Danlos syndrome care at Mayo Clinic Symptoms Classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Signs and symptoms of the most common form ... but few or none of the skin symptoms. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vascular type People who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, ...

  12. The short arm deletion syndrome of chromosome 4 (4p- syndrome).

    PubMed

    Zellweger, H; Bardach, J; Bordwell, J; Williams, K

    1975-01-01

    Partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p-) represents another (rare) cause of cleft lip and cleft palate. Further characteristic manifestations of the syndrome (also called Wolf or Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome) are growth failure, microcephaly, prominent glabella, hypertelorism, beaked nose, poorly differentiated and low set ears, cardiac and renal malformation and hypospadias. Life expectancy is often shortened. The 4p- syndrome has many features in common with another deletion syndrome, the cri-du-chat syndrome, and also with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. The latter is a hereditary condition with normal karyotype. The cri-du-chat syndrome is characterized by a peculiar high-pitched, mewing cry and can be differentiated from the Wolf syndrome by the different staining characteristics (banding) of chromosomes 4 and 5.

  13. Fournier gangrene associated with hyper IgE syndrome (Job syndrome).

    PubMed

    Hori, Junichi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Osanai, Hiroaki; Hori, Masako

    2008-04-01

    We report a case of a 32-year-old man with hyper IgE syndrome (Job syndrome) who developed Fournier gangrene due to infectious multiple atheromas of the scrotal skin that progressed to the right groin and thigh. The patient required surgical debridement and subsequent skin grafting. This is a rare case of Fournier gangrene associated with hyper IgE syndrome (Job syndrome). When a patient without diabetes mellitus has repeated infections and atopic-like dermatitis, Job syndrome should be considered.

  14. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Down syndrome increases as a woman gets older. Down syndrome cannot be cured. Early treatment programs can help improve skills. They may include ... occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and treatment, many ... Down syndrome live happy, productive lives. NIH: National Institute of ...

  15. TAFRO Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Takuro; Sato, Yasuharu

    2018-02-01

    TAFRO syndrome is a newly recognized variant of idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) that involves a constellation of syndromes: thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), fever (F), reticulin fibrosis (R), and organomegaly (O). Thrombocytopenia and severe anasarca accompanied by relatively low serum immunoglobulin levels are characteristic clinical findings of TAFRO syndrome that are not present in iMCD-not otherwise specified (iMCD-NOS). Lymph node biopsy is recommended to exclude other diseases and to diagnose TAFRO syndrome, which reveals characteristic histopathological findings similar to hyaline vascular-type CD. TAFRO syndrome follows a more aggressive course, compared with iMCD-NOS, and there is no standard treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and characteristics of children with Usher syndrome and CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-09-01

    Individuals with Usher syndrome or CHARGE syndrome are faced with a number of difficulties concerning hearing, vision, balance, and language development. The aim of the study is to describe the developmental characteristics of children with Usher syndrome and CHARGE syndrome, respectively. Data about the developmental characteristics of 26 children with Usher syndrome and 17 children with CHARGE syndrome was obtained. Associations between deafblindness (dual sensory loss), motor development (age of walking), language abilities, and intellectual outcome of these children were explored for each group independently. Both groups of children face a number of difficulties associated with vision, hearing, language, balance and intellectual outcome. Intellectual disability and/or language delay was found among 42% of the children with Usher syndrome and among 82% of the children with CHARGE syndrome. Intellectual disability was associated with language delay and age of walking for both groups. Even though Usher and CHARGE are two different genetic syndromes, both groups are challenged with a number of similar developmental delays. Clinicians need to be aware of several developmental issues in order to offer adequate support to children with Usher or CHARGE syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pregnancy outcome in joint hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, Heléne E K; Stephansson, Olof; Johansson, Kari; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2017-01-01

    An increased risk of preterm birth in women with joint hypermobility syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is suspected. In this nationwide cohort study from 1997 through 2011, women with either joint hypermobility syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or both disorders were identified through the Swedish Patient Register, and linked to the Medical Birth Register. Thereby, 314 singleton births to women with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome before delivery were identified. These births were compared with 1 247 864 singleton births to women without a diagnosis of joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. We used logistic regression, adjusted for maternal age, smoking, parity, and year of birth, to calculate adjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was not associated with any of our outcomes: preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio = 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.2), preterm premature rupture of membranes (adjusted odds ratio = 0.8; 95% confidence interval 0.3-2.2), cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio = 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.7-1.2), stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio = 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.2-7.9), low Apgar score (adjusted odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval 0.7-3.6), small for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio = 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.4-1.8) or large for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval 0.6-2.1). Examining only women with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (n = 62), we found a higher risk of induction of labor (adjusted odds ratio = 2.6; 95% confidence interval 1.4-4.6) and amniotomy (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval 2.0-7.1). No excess risks for adverse pregnancy outcome were seen in joint hypermobility syndrome. Women with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome do not seem to be at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. © 2016 Nordic Federation of

  18. [Poland's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Slezak, R; Sasiadek, M

    2000-08-01

    Poland's syndrome consists of the variable clinical features, but always includes unilateral aplasia of the chest wall muscles and ipsilateral anomalies of upper extremity. The incidence of Poland's syndrome, reported by different authors ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:100,000 and is observed more frequently in males than in females with the right side of the body affected more often than the left. The etiology of this syndrome is still discussed. However most of described cases were sporadic, rare familial incidence of Poland's syndrome were also presented. Therefore different etiologic factors of the Poland's syndrome are taken into account: genetic, vascular compromise during early stages of embriogenesis but also teratogenic effect of environmental xenobiotics (e.g. cigarette smoking by pregnant women). The authors present also the case of 20-years old man with inherited bilateral syndactyly with the right side aplasia of major pectoralis muscle and face asymmetry. The familial history was negative in respect to the features, associated with Poland's syndrome.

  19. [Gardner syndrome--parent alienation syndrome (PAS). Diagnosis or family reality?].

    PubMed

    Namysłowska, Irena; Heitzman, Janusz; Siewierska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The authors present characteristics of Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) proposed by Gardner as well as data, which may help to differentiate that syndrome with real psychological, physical and sexual abuse. The consequences of Gardner Syndrome for legal decisions in the court cases of child custody and the critique of this syndrome in forensic and psychiatric literature are also discussed, and several questions posed. Authors propose to treat Gardner Syndrome not as as a child disorder but as a specific, dynamic family situation, which occurs sometimes, during divorce and fight about child custody.

  20. Protective Role of Angiogenin Against Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0207 TITLE: “Protective Role of Angiogenin Against Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome ...SUBTITLE Protective Role of Angiogenin Against Hematopoietic Syndrome 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER of the Acute Radiation Syndrome 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...hematopoietic syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) and is able to attenuate the effect of residual bone marrow damage (RBMD) after

  1. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  2. Lethal pallister-killian syndrome: Phenotypic similarity with fryns syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ignacio Rodriquez, J.; Garcia, I.; Alvarez, J.

    1994-11-01

    The Pallister-Killian syndrome is a sporadic multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by {open_quotes}coarse{close_quotes} face, profound mental retardation, and epilepsy. Chromosomes of peripheral lymphocytes are usually normal, but tissue cultures show varying degrees of mosaicism for isochromosome 12p. In babies who die neonatally of severe malformations, including diaphragmatic hernia, and who also have a {open_quotes}coarse{close_quotes} face, acral hypoplasia, and other internal anomalies, Fryns syndrome is more likely to be suspected than Pallister-Killian syndrome, especially if karyotyping is unavailable or if peripheral lumphocytes have a normal chromosome constitution. An initial diagnosis of Fryns syndrome had to be modified in 3 successive newbornmore » infants since chromosome analysis or in situ hybridization with a chromosome 12 probe on kidney tissue demonstrated the mosaic aneuploidy characteristic of Pallister-Killian syndrome. These 3 patients confirm that a similar pattern of malformations can be present in both conditions at birth. It consists of {open_quotes}coarse{close_quotes} face, acral hypoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia, and other defects. Newborn infants who present this phenotype, but lack a conclusively normal chromosome test, may not have Fryns syndrome. A diagnosis of Fryns syndrome should be made carefully to avoid the risk of inappropriate genetic counseling. 31 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.« less

  3. Marfan Syndrome (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome. What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is named after Antoine Marfan, the French ... immediately. What's Life Like for Teens With Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome affects people differently, so life is not ...

  4. Swyer-James syndrome associated with Noonan syndrome: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y M; Huang, W L; Hwang, J J; Ko, Y L; Lien, W P

    1995-12-01

    A 28-year-old man with Noonan syndrome associated with unilateral hyperlucent lung is reported. He had the typical craniofacial appearance and short stature of Noonan syndrome; he had mild mental retardation, atrophic testis, mild funnel chest and kyphosis. cardiovascular abnormalities included asymmetric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a significantly different caliber of the left and right pulmonary arteries. The unilateral hyperlucent lung was shown to result from acquired nondestructive emphysema caused by nonvalvular obstruction of the bronchi (Swyer-James syndrome or Macleod's syndrome). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of Noonan syndrome associated with Swyer-James syndrome.

  5. Divorce in families of children with Down Syndrome or Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Vivian Renne Gerber; Alves, Bianca dos Santos; Negrão, Juliana; Maria, Juliana Negrão; Schwartzman, José Salomão; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá; Brunoni, Decio

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the impact in the stability and management of the marriage of parents of a child with Down or Rett Syndrome. Morbidity of the syndromes and the marital status of the couples before and after the birth of the affected children were considered variables. The divorce rate in families with Down syndrome was 10%, similar to the Brazilian rate population. In Rett Syndrome, the divorce rate was significantly higher, 23.5%. The higher morbidity of Rett Syndrome, and the moment of diagnosis could be relevant factors for the increased divorce rate related to this syndrome.

  6. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gorlin-goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pandeshwar, Padma; Jayanthi, K; Mahesh, D

    2012-01-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) (the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome-NBCCS) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused due to mutations in the PTCH (patched) gene found on chromosome arm 9q. The syndrome, characterized by increased predisposition to develop basal cell carcinoma and associated multiorgan anomalies, has a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. GGS is a multidisciplinary problem, early diagnosis of which allows introduction of secondary prophylaxis and following an appropriate treatment to delay the progress of the syndrome. The following report emphasizes the need for awareness of the diagnostic criteria of this syndrome in cases with no typical skin lesions.

  8. Syndromes with supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Lubinsky, Mark; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

    2016-10-01

    While most supernumerary teeth are idiopathic, they can be associated with a number of Mendelian syndromes. However, this can also be a coincidental finding, since supernumerary teeth occur in 6% or more of the normal population. To better define this relationship, we analyzed the evidence for specific associations. We excluded conditions with a single affected patient reported, supernumerary teeth adjacent to clefts or other forms of alveolar disruption (as secondary rather than primary findings), and natal teeth, which can involve premature eruption of a normal tooth. Since, the cause of supernumerary teeth shows considerable heterogeneity, certain findings are less likely to be coincidental, such as five or more supernumerary teeth in a single patient, or locations outside of the premaxilla. We found only eight genetic syndromes with strong evidence for an association: cleidocranial dysplasia; familial adenomatous polyposis; trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I; Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome; Nance-Horan syndrome; Opitz BBB/G syndrome; oculofaciocardiodental syndrome; and autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. There is also suggestive evidence of an association with two uncommon disorders, Kreiborg-Pakistani syndrome (craniosynostosis and dental anomalies), and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosisnigricans. An association of a Mendelian disorder with a low frequency manifestation of supernumerary teeth is difficult to exclude without large numbers, but several commonly cited syndromes lacked evidence for clear association, including Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, Fabry disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Apert and Crouzon syndromes, Zimmermann-Laband syndrome, and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the…

  10. Fluency Disorders in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of…

  11. [Münchhausen syndrome].

    PubMed

    Robert, J C; Cremniter, D; Lejonc, J L

    1991-04-20

    Münchhausen's syndrome is characterized by fictitious illnesses associated with hospital peregrination, pseudologia fantastica with a mythomanic discourse that includes strongly structured medical elements, passivity and dependance at examinations, and aggressiveness. The whole picture is so typical that the syndrome can easily be recognized. Cases of Münchhausen's syndrome by proxy (Meadow's syndrome) have been reported during the last few years; the condition concerns children suffering from diseases which are entirely due to their parents and can be compared with the battered child syndrome. In terms of nosology, among pathomimias Münchhausen's syndrome figures as a borderline state. Since it is impossible to establish positive relations with these patients, treatment fails in almost every case.

  12. The Source for Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Hoge, Debra Reichert

    Designed for practicing speech-language pathologists, this book discusses different syndrome disabilities, pertinent speech-language characteristics, and goals and strategies to begin intervention efforts at a preschool level. Chapters address: (1) Angelman syndrome; (2) Asperger syndrome; (3) Down syndrome; (4) fetal alcohol syndrome; (5) fetal…

  13. The 22q13.3 Deletion Syndrome (Phelan-McDermid Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, K.; McDermid, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, also known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is a contiguous gene disorder resulting from deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22. In addition to normal growth and a constellation of minor dysmorphic features, this syndrome is characterized by neurological deficits which include global developmental delay, moderate to severe intellectual impairment, absent or severely delayed speech, and neonatal hypotonia. In addition, more than 50% of patients show autism or autistic-like behavior, and therefore it can be classified as a syndromic form of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The differential diagnosis includes Angelman syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, fragile X syndrome, and FG syndrome. Over 600 cases of 22q13.3 deletion syndrome have been documented. Most are terminal deletions of ∼100 kb to >9 Mb, resulting from simple deletions, ring chromosomes, and unbalanced translocations. Almost all of these deletions include the gene SHANK3 which encodes a scaffold protein in the postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses, connecting membrane-bound receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. Two mouse knockout models and cell culture experiments show that SHANK3 is involved in the structure and function of synapses and support the hypothesis that the majority of 22q13.3 deletion syndrome neurological defects are due to haploinsufficiency of SHANK3, although other genes in the region may also play a role in the syndrome. The molecular connection to ASD suggests that potential future treatments may involve modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:22670140

  14. Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld's syndrome) - An update.

    PubMed

    Watad, A; Quaresma, M; Brown, S; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Rodríguez-Pint, I; Cervera, R; Perricone, C; Shoenfeld, Y

    2017-06-01

    Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) has been widely described in many studies conducted thus far. The syndrome incorporates five immune-mediated conditions, all associated with previous exposure to various agents such as vaccines, silicone implants and several others. The emergence of ASIA syndrome is associated with individual genetic predisposition, for instance those carrying HLA-DRB1*01 or HLA-DRB4 and results from exposure to external or endogenous factors triggering autoimmunity. Such factors have been demonstrated as able to induce autoimmunity in both animal models and humans via a variety of proposed mechanisms. In recent years, physicians have become more aware of the existence of ASIA syndrome and the relationship between adjuvants exposure and autoimmunity and more cases are being reported. Accordingly, we have created a registry that includes at present more than 300 ASIA syndrome cases that have been reported by different physicians worldwide, describing various autoimmune conditions induced by diverse adjuvants. In this review, we have summarized the updated literature on ASIA syndrome and the knowledge accumulated since 2013 in order to elucidate the association between the exposure to various adjuvant agents and its possible clinical manifestations. Furthermore, we especially referred to the relationship between ASIA syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

  15. Neuroligins Provide Molecular Links Between Syndromic and Non-Syndromic Autism

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sandeep K.; Eroglu, Cagla

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a common and heritable neuropsychiatric disorder that can be categorized into two types: syndromic and non-syndromic, the former of which are associated with other neurological disorders or syndromes. Molecular and functional links between syndromic and non-syndromic autism genes were lacking until studies aimed at understanding role of trans-synaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin, which is associated with non-syndromic autism, provided important connections. Here, we integrate data from these studies into a model of how neuroligin functions to control synaptic connectivity in the central nervous system and how neuroligin dysfunction may participate in the pathophysiology of autism. Understanding the complex functional interactions between neuroligins and other autism-associated proteins at the synapse is crucial to understand the pathology of autism. This understanding might bring us closer to development of therapeutic approaches for autism. PMID:23838185

  16. Project Career: An individualized postsecondary approach to promoting independence, functioning, and employment success among students with traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Minton, Deborah; Elias, Eileen; Rumrill, Phillip; Hendricks, Deborah J; Jacobs, Karen; Leopold, Anne; Nardone, Amanda; Sampson, Elaine; Scherer, Marcia; Gee Cormier, Aundrea; Taylor, Aiyana; DeLatte, Caitlin

    2017-09-14

    Project Career is a five-year interdisciplinary demonstration project funded by NIDILRR. It provides technology-driven supports, merging Cognitive Support Technology (CST) evidence-based practices and rehabilitation counseling, to improve postsecondary and employment outcomes for veteran and civilian undergraduate students with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Provide a technology-driven individualized support program to improve career and employment outcomes for students with TBI. Project staff provide assessments of students' needs relative to assistive technology, academic achievement, and career preparation; provide CST training to 150 students; match students with mentors; provide vocational case management; deliver job development and placement assistance; and maintain an electronic portal regarding accommodation and career resources. Participating students receive cognitive support technology training, academic enrichment, and career preparatory assistance from trained professionals at three implementation sites. Staff address cognitive challenges using the 'Matching Person with Technology' assessment to accommodate CST use (iPad and selected applications (apps)). JBS International (JBS) provides the project's evaluation. To date, 117 students participate with 63% report improved life quality and 75% report improved academic performance. Project Career provides a national model based on best practices for enabling postsecondary students with TBI to attain academic, employment, and career goals.

  17. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome components in patients with acute coronary syndromes].

    PubMed

    Zaliūnas, Remigijus; Slapikas, Rimvydas; Luksiene, Dalia; Slapikiene, Birute; Statkeviciene, Audrone; Milvidaite, Irena; Gustiene, Olivija

    2008-01-01

    Many studies report that the components of the metabolic syndrome--arterial hypertension, abdominal obesity, diabetes mellitus, and atherogenic dyslipidemia--are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the prevalence of different components of the metabolic syndrome and frequency of their combinations and acute hyperglycemia among patients with acute coronary syndromes. The study population consisted of 2756 patients (1670 men and 1086 women with a mean age of 63.3+/-11.3 years) with acute coronary syndromes: Q-wave myocardial infarction was present in 41.8% of patients; non-Q-wave MI, in 30.7%; and unstable angina pectoris, in 27.5%. The metabolic syndrome was found in 59.6% of the patients according to modified NCEP III guidelines. One component of the metabolic syndrome was found in 13.5% of patients; two, in 23.0%; and none, in 3.9%. Less than one-third (29.2%) of the patients had three components of the metabolic syndrome, and 30.4% of the patients had four or five components. Arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity were the most common components of the metabolic syndrome (82.2% and 65.8%, respectively). Nearly half of the patients had hypertriglyceridemia and decreased level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (55.0% and 51.1%, respectively), and 23.9% of patients had diabetes mellitus. Acute hyperglycemia (> or =6.1 mmol/L) without known diabetes mellitus was found in 38.1% of cases. The combination of arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity was reported in 57.8% of patients in the case of combinations of two-five metabolic syndrome components. More than half of patients with acute coronary syndromes had three or more components of the metabolic syndrome, and arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity were the most prevalent components of the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Are Numerical Impairments Syndrome Specific? Evidence from Williams Syndrome and Down's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Sarah J.; Girelli, Luisa; Butterworth, Brian; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2006-01-01

    Background: Several theorists maintain that exact number abilities rely on language-relevant processes whereas approximate number calls on visuo-spatial skills. We chose two genetic disorders, Williams syndrome and Down's syndrome, which differ in their relative abilities in verbal versus spatial skills, to examine this hypothesis. Five…

  19. Reye syndrome - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Reye syndrome ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Reye Syndrome : National Reye's Syndrome Foundation, Inc. -- www.reyessyndrome.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  20. Toxic shock syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  1. Eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis - a spectrum ranging from Wells' syndrome to Churg-Strauss syndrome?

    PubMed

    Ratzinger, Gudrun; Zankl, Julia; Eisendle, Klaus; Zelger, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Wells' syndrome is defined as an inflammatory disorder with the histopathological presence of eosinophilic infiltrates and flame figures in the absence of vasculitis. Eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis shows eosinophilic infiltrates in combination with vasculitic changes. And Churg Strauss Syndrome comprises all three characteristics - eosinophilic infiltrates, vasculitis and flame figures. To determine whether these three diseases are distinct entities or different manifestations of a similar clinicopathologic process. Histopathological samples and clinical courses of 17 patients with eosinophilic infiltrates, flame figures and clinical features of Wells' syndrome were re-evaluated. Histopathologically, we focused on the presence or absence of vasculitic features. Clinically, we included only patients who were diagnosed with Wells' syndrome at least once in the course of their disease. 4 patients were finally diagnosed with Wells' syndrome, 5 with eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis and 6 with Churg Strauss syndrome. Further, we had one case of an overlap between Wells' syndrome and eosinophilic vasculitis and one case of Wegener granulomatosis. Vasculitic features were found in the samples of all patients. Histologically, we find vasculitic features in typical presentations of Wells' syndrome. Clinically, we find typical features of Wells' syndrome in patients finally diagnosed with eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis or Churg Strauss syndrome. Furthermore, we have observed and formerly reported 3 patients with progression from Wells' syndrome to Churg Strauss syndrome. Thus, we assume that eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis might form a bridge between Wells' syndrome and Churg Strauss syndrome.

  2. Management of moyamoya syndrome in patients with Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mihir; Choudhri, Omar A; Feroze, Abdullah H; Do, Huy M; Grant, Gerald A; Steinberg, Gary K

    2016-06-01

    A few isolated reports have described an association between Noonan syndrome and cerebrovascular abnormalities, including moyamoya syndrome. These reports have been limited to pediatric patients presenting with recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIA) or headaches. Management has primarily been pharmacologic, with only one prior report of surgical revascularization to our knowledge. We report four cases of Noonan syndrome patients presenting with headaches and/or sensorimotor strokes in childhood that caused unilateral sensorimotor impairment. Cerebral angiography and MRI revealed bilateral moyamoya syndrome. All patients underwent successful bilateral extracranial-to-intracranial revascularization. The first patient was a 10-year-old girl who presented following a hemorrhagic stroke and recovered well after indirect bypass. The second patient was an adult with a history of childhood stroke whose symptoms progressed in adulthood. She underwent a direct bypass and improved, but continued to experience TIA at her 4 year follow-up. The third patient was a 7-year-old girl with headaches and a new onset TIA who failed pharmacological therapy and subsequently underwent bilateral indirect bypass. The fourth patient was a 24-year-old woman with worsening headaches and an occluded left middle cerebral artery from unilateral moyamoya syndrome. A left sided direct bypass was completed given delayed MRI perfusion with poor augmentation. To our knowledge these are the first reported surgical cases of combined Noonan and moyamoya syndrome. These cases highlight the need to recognize moyamoya syndrome in patients with Noonan syndrome. Early surgical revascularization should be pursued in order to prevent symptom progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome: the worrisome twosome?

    PubMed

    Shah, D; Rasool, S

    2016-01-01

    By virtue of insulin resistance being the common etiology for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome, the cardiometabolic risks of these two syndromes are shared. The usual concerns of a PCOS patient are cosmetic or reproductive. However, there are more serious concerns past the reproductive age. Early treatment of insulin resistance, hypertension and hyperlipidemia reduces the long-term risk. This review highlights the unhealthy association of metabolic syndrome with PCOS and emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis, patient education and long-term follow-up beyond the reproductive age into menopause to prevent the long-term serious co-morbidities.

  4. Fat embolism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul D; Yaekoub, Abdo Y; Matta, Fadi; Kleerekoper, Michael

    2008-12-01

    To assess the incidence and risk factors for fat embolism syndrome. Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) were analyzed using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. From 1979 through 2005 among 928,324,000 patients discharged from short-stay hospitals in the United States, 41,000 (0.004%) had fat embolism syndrome. Among 21,538,000 patients with an isolated fracture of the femur (any site), tibia, fibula, pelvis, ribs, humerus, radius, or ulna, 25,000 (0.12%) developed fat embolism syndrome. Patients with multiple fractures of the femur (excluding neck) more often had fat embolism syndrome than those with isolated fractures (1.29% versus 0.54%). The incidence of fat embolism syndrome was lower with isolated fractures of the tibia or fibula (0.30%) and even lower with isolated fractures of the neck of the femur (0.06%). The incidence of fat embolism was too low to calculate with isolated fractures of the pelvis, ribs, humerus, radius, or ulna. Nonorthopedic conditions rarely, if ever, were accompanied by fat embolism syndrome. The fat embolism syndrome was more frequent in men (relative risk 5.71). Children, aged 0 to 9 years rarely had fat embolism syndrome. The fat embolism syndrome most commonly affected patients aged 10 to 39 years. The incidence of the fat embolism syndrome depends on the bone involved, whether fractures are isolated or multiple, the age of the patient and the gender. It rarely occurs as a result of medical conditions.

  5. Recurrent Fever Syndromes in Patients After Recovery From Kawasaki Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tremoulet, Adriana H.; Burns, Jane C.; Bastian, John F.; Hoffman, Hal M.

    2011-01-01

    The recurrence of fever in a child with a history of Kawasaki syndrome (KS) poses a dilemma for clinicians who must consider the possibility of recurrent KS. In this report we present the cases of 4 patients who presented with classical symptoms of KS, were successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, and later experienced a reappearance of inflammatory symptoms in a pattern consistent with a recurrent fever syndrome. The association of these syndromes within the same patient suggests that some patients may have a genetic propensity toward altered immune responses and autoinflammatory syndromes. We propose that these 2 syndromes exist within a family of febrile disorders related to innate immune dysregulation. PMID:21220401

  6. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Steven Q; Spikes, Leslie; Patel, Saurin; Faruqi, Ibrahim

    2010-03-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, also known as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, is a recently described infectious syndrome found throughout the Americas. Although infection is sporadic and uncommon compared with other atypical pneumonia syndromes, its high mortality rate warrants the maintenance of a high index of suspicion in rural settings. Because no specific therapies are available for the disease, prevention and early recognition play an important role in reducing mortality from the disease. This article reviews the nature of the viruses that cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, the epidemiology and ecology of disease transmission, and disease recognition, treatment, and prevention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; George, Reeba; Dixit, R.; Gupta, R. C.; Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is an often overlooked cause of breathlessness in trauma wards. Presenting in a wide range of clinical signs of varying severity, fat embolism is usually diagnosed by a physician who keeps a high degree of suspicion. The clinical background, chronology of symptoms and corroborative laboratory findings are instrumental in a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. There are a few diagnostic criteria which are helpful in making a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Management is mainly prevention of fat embolism syndrome, and organ supportive care. Except in fulminant fat embolism syndrome, the prognosis is usually good. PMID:23661916

  8. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or rheumatic (ru-MAT-ik) disorders, such as lupus . ("Rheumatic" refers to disorders that affect the joints, ... aCL syndrome Antiphospholipid syndrome aPL syndrome Hughes syndrome Lupus anticoagulant syndrome Causes Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) occurs ...

  9. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record No. 905 (Sky Research, Inc.) EM61 MKII/Towed Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    day timeframe. 3.6 DEMONSTRATOR’S FIELD PERSONNEL Geophysicist: Craig Hyslop Geophysicist: John Jacobsen Geophysicist: Rob Mehl 3.7...Practical Nonparametric Statistics, W.J. Conover, John Wiley & Sons, 1980 , pages 144 through 151. F-1 (Page F-2 Blank) APPENDIX F

  10. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid Record No. 904 (Sky Research, Inc.). EM61 MKII/Towed Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    DEMONSTRATOR’S FIELD PERSONNEL Geophysicist: Craig Hyslop Geophysicist: John Jacobsen Geophysicist: Rob Mehl 3.7 DEMONSTRATOR’S FIELD SURVEYING...Yuma Proving Ground Soil Survey Report, May 2003. 5. Practical Nonparametric Statistics, W.J. Conover, John Wiley & Sons, 1980 , pages 144 through

  11. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 906 (Sky Research, Inc.)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    DEMONSTRATOR’S FIELD PERSONNEL Geophysicist: Craig Hyslop Geophysicist: John Jacobsen Geophysicist: Rob Mehl 3.7 DEMONSTRATOR’S FIELD...Practical Nonparametric Statistics, W.J. Conover, John Wiley & Sons, 1980 , pages 144 through 151. APPENDIX F. ABBREVIATIONS F-1 (Page F-2

  12. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Moguls Scoring Record Number 907 (Sky Research, Inc.)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    day timeframe. 3.6 DEMONSTRATOR’S FIELD PERSONNEL Geophysicist: Craig Hyslop Geophysicist: John Jacobsen Geophysicist: Rob Mehl...Conover, John Wiley & Sons, 1980 , pages 144 through 151. APPENDIX F. ABBREVIATIONS F-1 (Page F-2 Blank) ADST = Aberdeen Data Services Team

  13. Proteus syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Ritha de Cássia Capelato; Estrella, Mariani Paulino Soriano; do Amaral, Danielle Mechereffe; Barbosa, Angela Marques; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2017-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by disproportionate overgrowth of limbs, multiple hamartomas, and vascular malformations. The cerebriform connective tissue nevi, also called cerebriform plantar hyperplasia, are present in most patients, and is the main characteristic of the syndrome. If present, even alone, they can be considered as a pathognomonic sign. This article reports a classic case of Proteus syndrome in a 2-year-old male patient who began to show a discrete asymmetry of the right hemibody in relation to the left one after birth, which increased over the months. He also showed cerebriform plantar hyperplasia and Port-wine stains, among other alterations. PMID:29166516

  14. Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  15. Fluency disorders in genetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of these syndromes indicated clients diagnosed with these syndromes do show evidence of nonfluency patterns, but not all would be considered stuttering. Many of the syndromes are marked by degrees of mental retardation that probably contribute to a higher than average prevalence of stuttering, as well as a higher than average prevalence of other fluency disorders (when compared to the population at large). An in-depth analysis of the available data indicates that some of these genetic syndromes show patterns of stuttering that may be indicative of only that syndrome (or similar syndromes) that can be differentially diagnosed from developmental stuttering. Among these patterns are the word-final nonfluencies noted in Prader-Willi syndrome; the presence of stuttering in the absence of secondary behaviors noted in Prader-Willi syndrome and; the presence of palilalia, word-final and word-medial nonfluencies, and word-medial and word-final nonfluencies in Tourette syndrome. Implications for future research are discussed in light of these findings. The reader will be able to: (1) describe the various different genetic syndromes that are associated with fluency disorders; (2) describe the types of nonfluencies that are associated with the major types of genetic syndromes that have fluency disorders; (3) describe the behaviors that may assist in differentially diagnosing different types of speech characteristics associated with various genetic syndromes.

  16. Learning about WAGR Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... children who have WAGR syndrome may have normal intelligence. Other symptoms of WAGR syndrome may also include: ... mild. Some individuals with WAGR syndrome have normal intelligence. Children with WAGR syndrome should be referred for ...

  17. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  18. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxic shock syndrome results from toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria, but the condition may also be ... a skin or wound infection. Causes Most commonly, Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria cause toxic shock syndrome. The syndrome ...

  19. Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other FAQs Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs Basic information for topics, such as " ... been diagnosed with Turner syndrome. Now what? Is Turner syndrome inherited? Turner syndrome is usually not inherited, but ...

  20. Bardet-Biedl syndrome and Usher syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) and Usher syndrome (USH) are the most prevalent syndromic forms of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), together they make up almost a quarter of the patients with RP. BBS is defined by the association of retinopathy, obesity, hypogonadism, renal dysfunction, postaxial polydactyly and mental retardation. This clinically complex syndrome is genetically heterogeneous with linkage to more than 6 loci, and 4 genes have been cloned so far. Recent molecular data present evidence that, in some instances, the clinical manifestation of BBS requires recessive mutations in 1 of the 6 BBS loci plus one or two additional mutations in a second BBS locus (tri- or tetra-allelic inheritance). USH is characterized by the combination of congenital or early-onset sensorineural deafness, RP, and variable degrees of vestibular dysfunction. Each of the three clinical types is genetically heterogeneous: 7 loci have been mapped for type 1, three loci for type 2, and two loci for type 3. Currently, 6 USH genes (MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH2A, USH3) have been identified. Pathogenetically, mutations of the USH1 genes seem to result in defects of auditory and retinal sensory cells, the USH 2 phenotype is caused by defects of extracellular matrix or cell surface receptor proteins, and USH3 may be due to synaptic disturbances. The considerable contribution of syndromic forms of RP requires interdisciplinary approaches to the clinical and diagnostic management of RP patients.

  1. Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alan S; Ritchie, Coleman; Likhari, Sunaina

    2014-08-01

    Patients with Munchausen syndrome purposefully injure themselves, often with the injection of foreign materials, to gain hospital admission and the attention associated with having a difficult-to-identify condition. Munchausen syndrome by proxy occurs when a child's caregiver, typically the mother, injures the child for the same reasons. Cases of Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy with primary cutaneous involvement appear to be rarely described in the literature suggesting either that diagnosis is not made readily or that it is, in fact, an uncommon disorder. At the center of both conditions is significant psychological pathology and treatment is difficult as many patients with Munchausen syndrome when confronted with these diagnostic possibilities simply leave the hospital. Little is known about the long-term outcome or prognosis of these patients. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. National Down Syndrome Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... individuals with Down syndrome. Help us fix the law and end #LawSyndrome. Law Syndrome affects 100% of people with Down syndrome. It’s a series of antiquated laws that impede the pursuit of a career or ...

  3. Angelman Syndrome: Genetic Mechanisms and Relationship to Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arabella

    1994-01-01

    Research points to two distinct regions within the Prader-Willi chromosome region: one for Prader Willi syndrome and one for Angelman syndrome. Genetic mechanisms in Angelman syndrome are complex, and at present, three mechanisms are recognized: maternal deletion, paternal uniparental disomy, and a nondeleted nondisomic form. (Author/JDD)

  4. Dangerous triplet: Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and Kounis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Erol, Nurdan; Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen; Kounis, Nicholas G

    2014-12-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Oral contraceptives constitute first-line treatment, particularly when symptomatic hyperandrogenism is present. However, these drugs are associated with cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions that pose problem in differential diagnosis and therapy. We present a 14 year-old female with polycystic ovary syndrome taking oral contraceptive and suffering from recurrent coronary ischemic attacks with increased eosinophils, and troponin levels suggesting Kounis syndrome.

  5. ["Refuse hoarding syndrome"].

    PubMed

    Jürgens, A

    2000-01-01

    The "litter hoarding syndrome" is described only occasionally during the past decades. It seems to be rather unknown in the psychiatric literature. In the course of the syndrome the patients gather more and more litter in their homes until it becomes unhabitable. Physicians and social psychiatric services are often confronted with this manifestation of a psychiatric illness. Because of the dramatic development, the extent and the specific circumstances this paper reports case of a young female patient with the litter hoarding syndrome. The term "litter hoarding syndrome" was first coined by Dettmering [3] during a lecture on 25.1.1984 in the Psychiatric Clinic of the Eppendorf University Hospital in Hamburg. In 1985 Klosterkötter et al. [7] described the "diogenes syndrome" which offered some nosological similarities. With the exception of this publications an the PhD thesis by Pastenaci [11] only a few reports have been published during the last 28 years throughout the world and no epidemiological data about the syndrome can be found. Based on this case some ideas about differential diagnosis and syndrome classification shall be presented.

  6. Psychological Well-Being of Mothers of Youth with Fragile X Syndrome: Syndrome Specificity and within-Syndrome Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, P.; Abbeduto, L.; Murphy, M.; Richmond, E.; Giles, N.; Bruno, L.; Schroeder, S.; Anderson, J.; Orsmond, G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research on parental well-being has focused largely on Down syndrome and autism; however, fragile X syndrome is likely to pose different challenges for parents compared with these other diagnostic conditions. Moreover, there is considerable variability among youth with fragile X syndrome; for example, 25% to 33% of affected youth meet…

  7. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pandeshwar, Padma; Jayanthi, K.; Mahesh, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) (the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome—NBCCS) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused due to mutations in the PTCH (patched) gene found on chromosome arm 9q. The syndrome, characterized by increased predisposition to develop basal cell carcinoma and associated multiorgan anomalies, has a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. GGS is a multidisciplinary problem, early diagnosis of which allows introduction of secondary prophylaxis and following an appropriate treatment to delay the progress of the syndrome. The following report emphasizes the need for awareness of the diagnostic criteria of this syndrome in cases with no typical skin lesions. PMID:23082255

  8. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly

    2013-02-01

    Pain in the tongue or oral tissues described as "burning" has been referred to by many terms including burning mouth syndrome. When a burning sensation in the mouth is caused by local or systemic factors, it is called secondary burning mouth syndrome and when these factors are treated the pain will resolve. When burning mouth syndrome occurs in the absence of identified risk indicators, the term primary burning mouth syndrome is utilized. This article focuses on descriptions, etiologic theories, and management of primary burning mouth syndrome, a condition for which underlying causative agents have been ruled out. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, N. K.; Tilak Raj, T. N.; Mukunda, K. S.; Rajashekar Reddy, V.

    2012-01-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient. PMID:23633824

  10. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome).

    PubMed

    Kiran, N K; Tilak Raj, T N; Mukunda, K S; Rajashekar Reddy, V

    2012-10-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  11. [Klinefelter's syndrome associated with mixed connective tissue disease (Sharp's syndrome) and thrombophilia with postthrombotic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kasten, Robert; Pfirrmann, Gudrun; Voigtländer, Volker

    2005-08-01

    A 43-year-old male with eunuchoid body proportions and a history of deep venous thromboses in the right leg presented with recurrent ulcers in the right perimalleolar region for 6 years. Karyotyping revealed a 47 XXY Klinefelter's syndrome, while serologic testing showed protein S deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia and positive lupus anticoagulant. He also had mixed connective tissue disease (Sharp's syndrome) with acrosclerosis, proximal finger edema, Raynaud's phenomenon, and high titers of ANA and U1-RNP-antibodies, as well as osteoporosis. There is evidence that patients with Klinefelter's syndrome are prone to develop connective tissue diseases and thrombophilia as a result of low androgen levels. Substitution of testosterone in Klinefelter's syndrome can have a favorable therapeutic effect on the associated connective tissue disease, thrombophilia and osteoporosis.

  12. Turner Syndrome (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Turner Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Turner Syndrome What's in this ... en español El síndrome de Turner What Is Turner Syndrome? Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic condition found ...

  13. Fragile X syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Martin-Bell syndrome; Marker X syndrome ... Fragile X syndrome is caused by a change in a gene called FMR1 . A small part of the gene ... repeated several times in one area of the X chromosome. The more repeats, the more likely the ...

  14. [PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF THE CARDIORENAL SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Balint, I; Vučak, J; Bašić-Marković, N; Klarić, D; Šakić, V Amerl

    2016-12-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome, a complex pathophysiological disorder of both the heart and kidneys, is a condition in which acute or chronic damage to one organ can lead to acute or chronic dysfunction of the other organ. Depending on primary organ dysfunction and disease duration, there are five different types of cardiorenal syndrome. Type 1 cardiorenal syndrome (acute cardiorenal syndrome) is defined as acute kidney injury caused by sudden decrease in heart function. Type 2 cardiorenal syndrome (chronic cardiorenal syndrome) refers to chronic kidney disease linked to chronic heart failure. Type 3 cardiorenal syndrome (acute renocardial syndrome) is caused by acute kidney injury that leads to heart failure. Type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (chronic renocardial syndrome) includes chronic heart failure due to chronic kidney disease. Type 5 cardiorenal syndrome (secondary cardiorenal syndrome) is reversible or irreversible condition marked by simultaneous heart and kidney insufficiency, as a result of multiorgan disease such as sepsis, diabetes mellitus, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, etc. The pathophysiological patterns of cardiorenal syndrome are extremely complicated. Despite numerous publications, perplexed physiological, biochemical and hormonal disturbances as parts of the main pathogenic mechanisms of cardiorenal syndrome remain obscure. Even though there are guidelines for the treatment of patients with heart failure and chronic kidney disease, similar guidelines for the treatment of cardiorenal syndrome are lacking. In everyday practice, it is crucial to diagnose cardiorenal syndrome and use all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures available to prevent or alleviate kidney and heart failure.

  15. Strategic Choice: Making Better Decisions through Better Understanding of Institutions and Their Environments. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the North East Association for Institutional Research (15th, Providence, Rhode Island, October 23-25, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North East Association for Institutional Research.

    The 1988 annual conference of the North East Association for Institutional Research focused on strategic choice. Selected papers included: "Fact Books: Paper-Based or Electronic?" (T. Gusler); "Electronic Factbooks" (J. Jacobsen); "A Comparative Analysis of Community College Administrators' and Adult Evening Credit Course…

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Alagille syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition Alagille-Watson Syndrome Alagille's syndrome arteriohepatic dysplasia (AHD) cardiovertebral syndrome ... hypoplasia hepatofacioneurocardiovertebral syndrome paucity of interlobular bile ducts Watson-Miller syndrome Related Information How are genetic conditions ...

  17. Klinefelter's syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome: a rare combination.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, W M A; de Vries, B B A; Duffels, S J H; Egger, J I M; Noordam, C; Tuinier, S

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a review is presented of the rare combination of Klinefelter's syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and a second case of this combination with a uniparental disomy (UPD) etiology of PWS is described. Patients outlined in all other 8 reports and the present case have a PWS phenotype. Virtually no information is available on the behavioral and psychopathological phenotype in this combination. The latter may be explained by the observation that psychiatric syndromes are especially prevalent in PWS patients with a UPD. It is concluded that instability in mood and behavior in this and other syndromes should be preferentially treated with mood stabilizing agents. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Could metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophy, and aging be mesenchymal stem cell exhaustion syndromes?

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Eduardo; Díaz Aquino, Vanina; Zambón, Daniel; Marin, Gustavo Horacio; Mártire, Karina; Roque, Gustavo; Ichim, Thomas; Riordan, Neil H; Patel, Amit; Sturla, Flavio; Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Rubén; Núñez, Luis; Soratti, Carlos; Ibar, Ricardo; van Leeuwen, Michiel; Tau, José María; Drago, Hugo; Maceira, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important and complex diseases of modern society is metabolic syndrome. This syndrome has not been completely understood, and therefore an effective treatment is not available yet. We propose a possible stem cell mechanism involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. This way of thinking lets us consider also other significant pathologies that could have similar etiopathogenic pathways, like lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and aging. All these clinical situations could be the consequence of a progressive and persistent stem cell exhaustion syndrome (SCES). The main outcome of this SCES would be an irreversible loss of the effective regenerative mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) pools. In this way, the normal repairing capacities of the organism could become inefficient. Our point of view could open the possibility for a new strategy of treatment in metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and even aging: stem cell therapies.

  19. Could Metabolic Syndrome, Lipodystrophy, and Aging Be Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exhaustion Syndromes?

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla, Eduardo; Díaz Aquino, Vanina; Zambón, Daniel; Marin, Gustavo Horacio; Mártire, Karina; Roque, Gustavo; Ichim, Thomas; Riordan, Neil H.; Patel, Amit; Sturla, Flavio; Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Rubén; Núñez, Luis; Soratti, Carlos; Ibar, Ricardo; van Leeuwen, Michiel; Tau, José María; Drago, Hugo; Maceira, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important and complex diseases of modern society is metabolic syndrome. This syndrome has not been completely understood, and therefore an effective treatment is not available yet. We propose a possible stem cell mechanism involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. This way of thinking lets us consider also other significant pathologies that could have similar etiopathogenic pathways, like lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and aging. All these clinical situations could be the consequence of a progressive and persistent stem cell exhaustion syndrome (SCES). The main outcome of this SCES would be an irreversible loss of the effective regenerative mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) pools. In this way, the normal repairing capacities of the organism could become inefficient. Our point of view could open the possibility for a new strategy of treatment in metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and even aging: stem cell therapies. PMID:21716667

  20. Piriformis syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Pseudosciatica; Wallet sciatica; Hip socket neuropathy; Pelvic outlet syndrome; Low back pain - piriformis ... Sciatica is the main symptom of piriformis syndrome. Other symptoms include: Tenderness or a dull ache in ...

  1. Is the metabolic syndrome a "small baby" syndrome?: the bogalusa heart study.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Srinivasan, Sathanur; Chen, Wei; Berenson, Gerald S

    2012-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been called a "small baby syndrome," but other analyses suggest that postnatal growth is more important than birthweight, or that large babies are also at risk. The aim of this analysis was to examine whether there was a relationship between both low and high birthweight and metabolic syndrome, using multiple definitions of metabolic syndrome, and to determine whether this relationship varied by body size across the life course. Data from the Bogalusa Heart Study, a study of cardiovascular disease in children and young adults, were linked to birth certificate data. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, the International Diabetes Foundation, and the World Health Organization (WHO) definition. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) was defined as birthweight <10(th) percentile by sex for gestational age and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) as birthweight >90(th) percentile. Birthweight-for-gestational-age was also examined as a continuous predictor. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between birth size and metabolic syndrome. Higher birthweight-for-gestational-age was associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome, especially by the WHO definition. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), categorized birthweight was associated with metabolic syndrome, with the protective associations with LGA being stronger than the positive associations with SGA. Among the individual components of metabolic syndrome, higher waist circumference was associated with both SGA and LGA after BMI was controlled for. Effects of SGA and BMI at any age were largely independent rather than interactive. SGA is associated with some, but not all, components of metabolic syndrome. The relationship between SGA and metabolic syndrome is partially confounded by later BMI.

  2. Felty syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Felty's syndrome ... The cause of Felty syndrome is unknown. It is more common in people who have had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for a long time. People with ...

  3. Unusual headache syndromes.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Luiz P

    2013-01-01

    Some headache syndromes have few cases reported in the literature. Their clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, and treatment may have not been completely defined. They may not actually be uncommon but rather under-recognized and/or underreported. A literature review of unusual headache syndromes, searching PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, was performed. After deciding which disorders to study, relevant publications in scientific journals, including original articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, and letters or correspondences to the editors were searched. This paper reviewed the clinical characteristics, the pathogenesis, the diagnosis, and the treatment of five interesting and unusual headache syndromes: exploding head syndrome, red ear syndrome, neck-tongue syndrome, nummular headache, and cardiac cephalgia. Recognizing some unusual headaches, either primary or secondary, may be a challenge for many non-headache specialist physicians. It is important to study them because the correct diagnosis may result in specific treatments that may improve the quality of life of these patients, and this can even be life saving. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  4. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prosdócimo, Ana Cláudia Giaxa; Lucina, Luciane Boreki; Marcia, Olandoski; Jobs, Priscila Megda João; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Baldanzi, Fernanda Fachin; Costantini, Costantino Ortiz; Benevides-Pereira, Ana Maria Teresa; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Burnout Syndrome is the extreme emotional response to chronic occupational stress, manifesting as physical and mental exhaustion. Although associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, no study so far has evaluated whether the Burnout Syndrome could be a prevalent factor in non-elderly individuals active in the labor market, admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). To evaluate the prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome in non-elderly, economically active patients, hospitalized with ACS. Cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary and private cardiology center, with economically active patients aged <65 years, hospitalized with diagnosis of ACS. The Burnout Syndrome was evaluated with the Burnout Syndrome Inventory (BSI), which assesses workplace conditions and four dimensions that characterize the syndrome: emotional exhaustion (EE), emotional distancing (EmD), dehumanization (De) and professional fulfillment (PF). The Lipp's Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults (LSSI) was applied to evaluate global stress. Of 830 patients evaluated with suspected ACS, 170 met the study criteria, 90% of which were men, overall average age was 52 years, and 40.5% had an average income above 11 minimum wages. The prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 4.1%. When we evaluated each dimension individually, we found high EE in 34.7%, high De in 52.4%, high EDi in 30.6%, and low PF in 5.9%. The overall prevalence of stress was 87.5%. We found a low prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in an economically active, non-elderly population among patients admitted for ACS in a tertiary and private hospital.

  5. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in Patients Admitted with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prosdócimo, Ana Cláudia Giaxa; Lucina, Luciane Boreki; Marcia, Olandoski; Jobs, Priscila Megda João; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Baldanzi, Fernanda Fachin; Costantini, Costantino Ortiz; Benevides-Pereira, Ana Maria Teresa; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Background Burnout Syndrome is the extreme emotional response to chronic occupational stress, manifesting as physical and mental exhaustion. Although associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, no study so far has evaluated whether the Burnout Syndrome could be a prevalent factor in non-elderly individuals active in the labor market, admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Objective To evaluate the prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome in non-elderly, economically active patients, hospitalized with ACS. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary and private cardiology center, with economically active patients aged <65 years, hospitalized with diagnosis of ACS. The Burnout Syndrome was evaluated with the Burnout Syndrome Inventory (BSI), which assesses workplace conditions and four dimensions that characterize the syndrome: emotional exhaustion (EE), emotional distancing (EmD), dehumanization (De) and professional fulfillment (PF). The Lipp’s Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults (LSSI) was applied to evaluate global stress. Results Of 830 patients evaluated with suspected ACS, 170 met the study criteria, 90% of which were men, overall average age was 52 years, and 40.5% had an average income above 11 minimum wages. The prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 4.1%. When we evaluated each dimension individually, we found high EE in 34.7%, high De in 52.4%, high EDi in 30.6%, and low PF in 5.9%. The overall prevalence of stress was 87.5%. Conclusion We found a low prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in an economically active, non-elderly population among patients admitted for ACS in a tertiary and private hospital. PMID:25517388

  6. Gorlin-goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Dn; Raval, N; Patadiya, H; Tarsariya, V

    2014-03-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) (the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused due to mutations in the patched gene found on chromosome arm 9 q. It shows high penetrance and variable expressivity; is characterized by basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, palmar and/or plantar pits and ectopic calcifications of the falx cerebri. Until date, very few cases of GGS have been reported in India. Early diagnosis and treatment as well as genetic counseling are essential for this syndrome. A rare case report of a patient with characteristic features of GGS diagnosed at a rural dental college of Gujarat, India is presented here. This case report draws attention of the valuable role of dentist in diagnosis and early management of this syndrome.

  7. Does wastewater discharge have relations with increase of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome?

    PubMed

    Choi, Intae

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether water and air pollutants have a relationship with an increase in the genetic disorders Turner syndrome and Down syndrome, which are caused by congenital chromosomal abnormalities, and to generate a hypothesis about the genetic health effects of environmental pollutants. A panel regression based on random effect was conducted on Korea's metropolitan councils from 2012 to 2014. The dependent variable was the number of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases, and the main independent variables were those regarding the water and air pollution. Air pollutants did not have a significant impact on the number of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases; however, the increase in number of wastewater discharge companies did have a significant relationship with the number of cases. The more the number of wastewater discharge companies, the more the number Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases were observed. Therefore, scientific investigation on water and air pollutants in relation with genetic health effects needs to be performed.

  8. Angelman Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... heads, jerky movements, protruding tongues, and bouts of laughter." Infants with Angelman syndrome appear normal at birth, ... heads, jerky movements, protruding tongues, and bouts of laughter." Infants with Angelman syndrome appear normal at birth, ...

  9. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... with blood clotting. If you have a myelodysplastic syndrome, the stem cells do not mature into healthy ... lead to infection, anemia, or easy bleeding. Myelodysplastic syndromes often do not cause early symptoms and are ...

  10. Reye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome has occurred in children who were given aspirin when they had chickenpox or the flu. Reye syndrome has become very rare. This is because aspirin is no longer recommended for routine use in ...

  11. The Disuse Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bortz II, Walter M.

    1984-01-01

    Our cultural sedentariness, recently acquired, lies at the base of much human ill-being. Physical inactivity predictably leads to deterioration of many body functions. A number of these effects coexist so frequently in our society that they merit inclusion in a specific syndrome, the disuse syndrome. The identifying characteristics of the syndrome are cardiovascular vulnerability, obesity, musculoskeletal fragility, depression and premature aging. The syndrome is experimentally reproducible and, significantly, the clinical features are subject to both preventive and restitutive efforts that happily are cheap, safe, accessible and effective. PMID:6516349

  12. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and develop normally at first. ...

  13. Mathematics Teacher Educators Focusing on Equity: Potential Challenges and Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vomvoridi-Ivanovic, Eugenia; McLeman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Teacher education is critical in preparing teachers to implement equitable instructional practices and thus contributes to improving educational and social conditions for underserved children and youths (Jacobsen, Mistele, & Srirman, 2012; Zeichner, 2009). Although the preparation of teachers to work with diverse student populations has been…

  14. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

    2011-06-14

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Moyamoya syndrome in a patient with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Oh, Moon-Yeon; Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2015-03-01

    Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair is one of the RASopathies characterized by Noonan syndrome-like features with unique ectodermal abnormalities. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the SHOC2 gene. We encountered a patient with moyamoya syndrome associated with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair presenting with transient ischemic attacks. A 6-year-old girl was diagnosed with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair because of profound short stature and ectodermal anomalies such as sparse and easily pluckable hair. A heterozygous mutation of c.4A>G (p.S2G) in the SHOC2 gene was identified, and recombinant human growth hormone therapy was initiated at 8 years of age. At age 10, she manifested recurrent left hemiplegia. Moreover, cerebrovascular imaging revealed occlusion or narrowing of both internal carotid arteries and both middle cerebral arteries with distal moyamoya-like vessels. She is treated with aspirin and calcium channel blocker. We describe the first case of Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair associated with moyamoya syndrome, although it has been reported to be associated with a few cases of other RASopathies, including Noonan, cardiofaciocutaneous, and Costello syndromes. This report emphasizes the associations between cerebrovascular anomalies and Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as tobacco, benzene and pesticides, or to heavy metals, such as lead. Types of myelodysplastic syndromes The ... and industrial chemicals, such as benzene. Exposure to heavy metals. Heavy metals linked to myelodysplastic syndromes include lead ...

  17. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  18. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone that ... your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...

  19. Usher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder that causes ... and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from birth ...

  20. Reye Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Reye syndrome is a rare illness that can affect the blood, liver, and brain of someone who has recently ... a viral illness, seek medical attention immediately. Reye syndrome can lead to a coma and brain death, ...

  1. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, DN; Raval, N; Patadiya, H; Tarsariya, V

    2014-01-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) (the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused due to mutations in the patched gene found on chromosome arm 9 q. It shows high penetrance and variable expressivity; is characterized by basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, palmar and/or plantar pits and ectopic calcifications of the falx cerebri. Until date, very few cases of GGS have been reported in India. Early diagnosis and treatment as well as genetic counseling are essential for this syndrome. A rare case report of a patient with characteristic features of GGS diagnosed at a rural dental college of Gujarat, India is presented here. This case report draws attention of the valuable role of dentist in diagnosis and early management of this syndrome. PMID:24761254

  2. Aicardi Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aicardi Syndrome Foundation P.O. Box 3202 St. Charles IL St. Charles, IL 60174 web@aicardisyndrome.org http://www.aicardisyndrome. ... Aicardi Syndrome Foundation P.O. Box 3202 St. Charles IL St. Charles, IL 60174 web@aicardisyndrome.org ...

  3. A new familial intrauterine growth retardation syndrome the "3-M syndrome".

    PubMed

    Spranger, J; Opitz, J M; Nourmand, A

    1976-09-01

    Two pairs of siblings are described with proportionate dwarfism due to skeletal hypoplasia of prenatal onset. The head size was normal for age and disproportionately large for height. The patients had a characteristic face different from that seen in the Silver-Russell syndrome. The family data are in accordance with autosomal recessive inheritance. In spite of some similarities, the bulk of clinical and genetic evidence suggests that the described intrauterine growth retardation syndrome is different from the Silver-Russell syndrome and presents an apparently "new" entity which has been designated 3-M syndrome.

  4. Are ECG abnormalities in Noonan syndrome characteristic for the syndrome?

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, R; Noordam, C; Noonan, J A; Croonen, E A; van der Burgt, C J A M; Draaisma, J M T

    2008-12-01

    Of all patients with Noonan syndrome, 50-90% have one or more congenital heart defects. The most frequent occurring are pulmonary stenosis (PS) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The electrocardiogram (ECG) of a patient with Noonan syndrome often shows a characteristic pattern, with a left axis deviation, abnormal R/S ratio over the left precordium, and an abnormal Q wave. The objective of this study was to determine if these ECG characteristics are an independent feature of the Noonan syndrome or if they are related to the congenital heart defect. A cohort study was performed with 118 patients from two university hospitals in the United States and in The Netherlands. All patients were diagnosed with definite Noonan syndrome and had had an ECG and echocardiography. Sixty-nine patients (58%) had characteristic abnormalities of the ECG. In the patient group without a cardiac defect (n = 21), ten patients had a characteristic ECG abnormality. There was no statistical relationship between the presence of a characteristic ECG abnormality and the presence of a cardiac defect (p = 0.33). Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had more ECG abnormalities in total (p = 0.05), without correlation with a specific ECG abnormality. We conclude that the ECG features in patients with Noonan syndrome are characteristic for the syndrome and are not related to a specific cardiac defect. An ECG is very useful in the diagnosis of Noonan syndrome; every child with a Noonan phenotype should have an ECG and echocardiogram for evaluation.

  5. Zellweger Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institutes of Health (NIH), conduct research exploring the molecular and genetic basis of Zellweger syndrome and the other PBDs, ... Institutes of Health (NIH), conduct research exploring the molecular and genetic basis of Zellweger syndrome and the other PBDs, ...

  6. Skin symptoms in four ectodermal dysplasia syndromes including two case reports of Rapp-Hodgkin-Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knaudt, Björn; Volz, Thomas; Krug, Markus; Burgdorf, Walter; Röcken, Martin; Berneburg, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The skin, hair and nail changes in four distinct ectodermal dysplasia syndromes are compared and reviewed. These syndromes comprise Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome; ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate syndrome; ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate syndrome and Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome. A comprehensive overview of the dermatological signs and symptoms in these syndromes was generated from the database of the Ectodermal Dysplasia Network Germany, the clinical findings in the patients seen in our department and an extensive review of the literature. The findings included abnormalities of skin, sweating, hair and nails. These clinical findings are discussed in relation to the underlying molecular defects known to play a role in these four ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.

  7. Postural tachycardia syndrome and other forms of orthostatic intolerance in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roma, Maria; Marden, Colleen L; De Wandele, Inge; Francomano, Clair A; Rowe, Peter C

    2018-03-05

    To review the association between orthostatic intolerance syndromes and both joint hypermobility and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and to propose reasons for identifying hereditary connective tissue disorders in those with orthostatic intolerance in the context of both clinical care and research. We searched the published peer-reviewed medical literature for papers reporting an association between joint hypermobility or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and orthostatic intolerance. We identified 10 relevant papers. Although methodological variability between studies introduces some limitations, the published literature consistently identifies a significantly higher prevalence of orthostatic intolerance symptoms in patients with joint hypermobility or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome than in healthy controls, and a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular and autonomic abnormalities both at rest and during orthostatic challenge. Postural tachycardia syndrome is the most commonly recognized circulatory disorder. The severity of orthostatic symptoms in those with EDS correlates with impairments in quality of life. There is a strong association between several forms of cardiovascular dysfunction, most notably postural tachycardia syndrome, and joint hypermobility or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. We propose that recognition of joint hypermobility and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome among those with orthostatic intolerance syndromes has the potential to improve clinical care and the validity of research findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Confirmation that RIPK4 mutations cause not only Bartsocas-Papas syndrome but also CHAND syndrome.

    PubMed

    Busa, Tiffany; Jeraiby, Mohammed; Clémenson, Alix; Manouvrier, Sylvie; Granados, Viviana; Philip, Nicole; Touraine, Renaud

    2017-11-01

    CHAND syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by curly hair, ankyloblepharon, and nail dysplasia. Only few patients were reported to date. A homozygous RIPK4 mutation was recently identified by homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing in three patients from an expanded consanguineous kindred with a clinical diagnosis of CHAND syndrome. RIPK4 was previously known to be implicated in Bartsocas-Papas syndrome, the autosomal recessive form of popliteal pterygium syndrome. We report here two cases of RIPK4 homozygous mutations in a fetus with severe Bartsocas-Papas syndrome and a patient with CHAND syndrome. The patient with CHAND syndrome harbored the same mutation as the one identified in the family previously reported. We thus confirm the implication of RIPK4 gene in CHAND syndrome in addition to Bartsocas-Papas syndrome and discuss genotype/phenotype correlations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Myelodysplastic Syndrome Occurring in a Patient with Gorlin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mull, Jamie L; Madden, Lisa M; Bayliss, Susan J

    2016-07-01

    We report a case of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) occurring in an African American boy with Gorlin syndrome with a novel PTCH1 mutation. Before developing MDS, the patient had been treated with chemotherapy and radiation for a medulloblastoma. He received a bone marrow transplant for the MDS and eventually died of treatment complications. Secondary hematologic malignancies are a known complication of certain chemotherapeutics, although whether a patient with Gorlin syndrome has a greater propensity for the development of such malignancies is unclear. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mirror Syndrome assocciated with Patau Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pais, Ana Sofia; Areia, Ana Luísa Fialho Amaral de; Franco, Sofia Margarida Perienes; Fonseca, Etelvina Morais Ferreira; Moura, José Paulo Achando Silva

    2018-05-16

    Mirror syndrome is an unusual pathological condition in which maternal edema in pregnancy is seen in association with severe fetal and/or placental hydrops. The disease can be life-threatening for both the mother and the fetus. The pathogenesis is poorly understood, and may be confused with preeclampsia, even though distinguishing features can be identified. We report a rare case of mirror syndrome with maternal pulmonary edema associated with fetal hydrops due to Patau syndrome. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  11. Basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome): genetic insights, diagnostic challenges, and unmet milestones.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Maryam; Chen, Harold; Guo, Grace; Legan, Zachary; Ghali, Ghali

    2018-01-31

    In this article, we present three clinical case reports on Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome). Gorlin syndrome is an inherited medical condition with challenges that manifest in multiple body systems and complicate early diagnosis. We examine the epidemiology of the disease and benefits of genetic testing, molecular pathophysiology, and advancement in the molecular-based therapy of Basal Cell Nevus syndrome. The goal of this paper is to shed light on both unmet challenges and advancements in the management of Gorlin syndrome and to provide a new clinical perspective and guidance for future research. Furthermore, the FDA approved Hedgehog pathway inhibitors Vismodegib and Sonidegib designed for advanced basal cell carcinoma have opened a new door for treatment that may ultimately decrease the number of surgeries for a patient with Gorlin syndrome. The role of these agents in syndromic odontogenic keratocyst has not been studied extensively, but one study found that hedgehog pathway inhibitors decrease the size of syndromic odontogenic keratocyst. Ideal surgical treatment that balances low recurrence rates with low impact on one's quality of life for syndromic odontogenic keratocyst is another unanswered question for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Per survey studies, treatment options practiced for syndromic odontogenic keratocyst range from marsupialization to segmental osteotomy. Future studies performed should take a comprehensive long-term approach with at least three years of follow-up in order to determine the most appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Mintzer, David M.; Billet, Shira N.; Chmielewski, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications. PMID:19960059

  13. Numerical Magnitude Processing Impairments in Genetic Syndromes: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison of Turner and 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Wel, Anke; Swillen, Ann; De Smedt, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Cross-syndrome comparisons offer an important window onto understanding heterogeneity in mathematical learning disabilities or dyscalculia. The present study therefore investigated symbolic numerical magnitude processing in two genetic syndromes that are both characterized by mathematical learning disabilities: Turner syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion…

  14. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  15. Postthrombotic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rondina MT. Contemporary issues in the prevention and management of postthrombotic syndrome. Ann Pharmacother . 2009 ; 43 : 1824 –1835. OpenUrl CrossRef PubMed ↵ Kahn SR, Ginsberg JS. Relationship between deep venous thrombosis and the postthrombotic syndrome. ...

  16. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment.

  17. Duane retraction syndrome type 1 with Usher syndrome type 2: an unreported association.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Bhawna Piplani; Khurana, Aruj Kumar; Grover, Sumit

    2015-05-07

    Duane retraction syndrome is characterized by globe retraction and palpebral fissure narrowing on adduction, with restriction of abduction, adduction, or both. Usher syndrome type 2 consists of congenital bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. The authors present a case with a yet unreported association between Duane retraction syndrome type 1 and Usher syndrome type 2. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Rare case of nephrotic syndrome: Schimke syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Anna Kelly Krislane de Vasconcelos; Torres, Luiz Fernando Oliveira; Silva, Ana Corina Brainer Amorim da; Dantas, Adrianna Barros Leal; Zuntini, Káthia Liliane da Cunha Ribeiro; Aguiar, Lia Cordeiro Bastos

    2016-01-01

    Schimke syndrome corresponds to dysplasia of bone and immunity, associated with progressive renal disease secondary to nephrotic syndrome cortico-resistant, with possible other abnormalities such as hypothyroidism and blond marrow aplasia. It is a rare genetic disorder, with few reports in the literature. The most frequent renal involvement is nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and progressive renal failure. The objective of this study was to report a case of Schimke syndrome, diagnostic investigation and management of the case. Resumo A síndrome Schimke corresponde à displasia imuno-óssea, associada à doença renal progressiva secundária à síndrome nefrótica córtico-resistente, podendo haver outras anormalidades como hipotireoidismo e aplasia de medula óssea. Trata-se de uma patologia genética rara, com poucos relatos na literatura. O acometimento renal mais frequente é uma síndrome nefrótica por glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal e falência renal progressiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de síndrome de Schimke, investigação diagnóstica e condução do caso.

  19. Syndromic Disorders with Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Şıklar, Zeynep; Berberoğlu, Merih

    2014-01-01

    Short stature is one of the major components of many dysmorphic syndromes. Growth failure may be due to a wide variety of mechanisms, either related to the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor axis or to underlying unknown pathologies. In this review, the relatively more frequently seen syndromes with short stature (Noonan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Silver-Russell syndrome and Aarskog-Scott syndrome) were discussed. These disorders are associated with a number of endocrinopathies, as well as with developmental, systemic and behavioral issues. At present, GH therapy is used in most syndromic disorders, although long-term studies evaluating this treatment are insufficient and some controversies exist with regard to GH dose, optimal age to begin therapy and adverse effects. Before starting GH treatment, patients with syndromic disorders should be evaluated extensively. PMID:24637303

  20. Learning about Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the mothers of infants with Down syndrome. Intelligence in individuals with Down syndrome ranges from low ... is not possible to tell the level of intelligence a baby with Down syndrome will have. All ...

  1. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    If you have Tourette syndrome, you make unusual movements or sounds, called tics. You have little or no control over them. Common tics are throat- ... spin, or, rarely, blurt out swear words. Tourette syndrome is a disorder of the nervous system. It ...

  2. Brugada Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... A telltale abnormality — called a type 1 Brugada ECG pattern — is detected by an electrocardiogram (ECG) test. Brugada syndrome is much more common in ... syndrome is an abnormal pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called a type 1 Brugada ECG pattern. You ...

  3. Facts about Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra chromosome. What is Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra chromosome. Chromosomes are small “packages” ...

  4. [The refeeding syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lambers, Wietske M; Kraaijenbrink, Bastiaan; Siegert, Carl E H

    2015-01-01

    The refeeding syndrome may occur during reintroduction of carbohydrates in malnourished patients. This syndrome is characterized by reduced plasma electrolyte levels, hypophosphataemia being most prevalent. The symptoms can vary from minor symptoms to severe neurological or cardiac symptoms. The pathophysiological mechanism comprises an increase in insulin levels, resulting in shifts of phosphate, potassium and magnesium into the intracellular environment, as well as fluid retention and relative deficiency of vitamin B1. There is growing interest in the screening and treatment of patients with malnutrition, due to which the incidence of refeeding syndrome is probably increasing. Currently, there is no single definition of this syndrome and therefore there is no solid scientific basis for screening and treatment. In this article we describe the rationale for screening and additional laboratory investigations. A prospective, controlled trial is important to define the clinical relevance of the refeeding syndrome and optimize its treatment.

  5. Relationships among personality traits, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome scores: The Kakegawa cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ohseto, Hisashi; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Igarashi, Yuko; Takahashi, Satomi; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shigihara, Michiko; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Miyashita, Masako; Mizuno, Satoshi; Nagai, Masato; Matsubara, Hiroko; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome and the presence of metabolic syndrome components are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between personality traits and metabolic syndrome remains controversial, and few studies have been conducted in East Asian populations. We measured personality traits using the Japanese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Revised Short Form) and five metabolic syndrome components-elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose-in 1322 participants aged 51.1±12.7years old from Kakegawa city, Japan. Metabolic syndrome score (MS score) was defined as the number of metabolic syndrome components present, and metabolic syndrome as having the MS score of 3 or higher. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome components and multiple regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and MS scores adjusted for age, sex, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, and family history of CVD and diabetes mellitus. We also examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome presence by multiple logistic regression analyses. "Extraversion" scores were higher in those with metabolic syndrome components (elevated waist circumference: P=0.001; elevated triglycerides: P=0.01; elevated blood pressure: P=0.004; elevated fasting glucose: P=0.002). "Extraversion" was associated with the MS score (coefficient=0.12, P=0.0003). No personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Higher "extraversion" scores were related to higher MS scores, but no personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Leypoldt, F; Wandinger, K-P

    2014-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are immune-mediated erroneous attacks on the central or peripheral nervous systems, or both, directed originally against the tumour itself. They have been known for more than 40 years, but recently the discovery of new subgroups of paraneoplastic encephalitis syndromes with a remarkably good response to immune therapy has ignited new clinical and scientific interest. Knowledge of these subgroups and their associated autoantibodies is important in therapeutic decision-making. However, the abundance of new autoantibodies and syndromes can be confusing. This review paper summarizes current knowledge and new developments in the field of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, their classification, pathophysiology and treatment. PMID:23937626

  7. Down Syndrome - Genetics and Cardiogenetics.

    PubMed

    Plaiasu, Vasilica

    2017-09-01

    During the last years, Down syndrome has been the focus of special attention. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by distinct physical features and some degree of cognitive disability. Patients with Down syndrome also present many other congenital anomalies. The mapping for phenotypes to specific regions of chromosome 21 permits to identify which genes (or small regions) contribute to the phenotypic features of Down syndrome and thus, to understand its pathogenesis. Mainly there are three cytogenetic forms of Down syndrome: free trisomy 21, mosaic trisomy 21 and robertsonian translocation trisomy 21. Prenatal and postnatal testing has become commonly used to diagnose different cases presenting the same pathology. Early clinical diagnosis is extremely important for patient prognosis. Lately, advances in Down syndrome research have been registered, but little is known about cardiovascular phenotype in Down syndrome. About half of patients with Down syndrome have congenital heart disease, and atrioventricular septal defects are the most common defects found. Basic research on Down syndrome is now rapidly accelerating, using new genomic technologies. There were many studies performed to identify a correlation between genotype and phenotype in Down syndrome.

  8. [Williams-Beuren syndrome (Williams syndrome). Case report].

    PubMed

    Miklós, Györgyi; Fekete, György; Haltrich, Irén; Tóth, Miklós; Reismann, Péter

    2017-11-01

    Williams syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, that occurs equally in all ethnic groups and both sexes. The diagnosis might be missed during childhood in mild cases. However, establishing the diagnosis is important, not only to find the cause of intellectual disability but to look for cardiovascular, endocrine, psychiatry, urology and other conditions, which can occur at any age in the patients' lifetime. This case report presents the story of 47-year-old woman, who was admitted with haematemesis. During her stay on the ward, in the light of the distinctive facial features, mental retardation, and social behaviour patterns, the possibility of Williams syndrome emerged. Later, the diagnosis was confirmed by genetic analysis. This female is the oldest living patient with Williams syndrome in Hungary. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(47): 1883-1888.

  9. Sjogren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. Symptoms The two main symptoms of Sjogren's syndrome are: Dry eyes. Your eyes might burn, itch or feel gritty — ... mouth is dry. Yeast infections. People with Sjogren's syndrome are much ... Vision problems. Dry eyes can lead to light sensitivity, blurred vision and ...

  10. Serotonin syndrome versus neuroleptic malignant syndrome: a challenging clinical quandary

    PubMed Central

    Dosi, Rupal; Ambaliya, Annirudh; Joshi, Harshal; Patell, Rushad

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome are two drug toxidromes that have often overlapping and confusing clinical pictures. We report a case of a young man who presented with alteration of mental status, autonomic instability and neuromuscular hyperexcitability following ingestion of multiple psychiatric and antiepileptic medications. The patient satisfied criteria for serotonin syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and based on the characteristic clinical features, laboratory findings and clinical course it was concluded that the patient had both toxidromes. The patient was managed with cyproheptadine and supportive measures, and recovered over the course of 3 weeks. A brief review of literature highlighting the diagnostic clues as well as the importance of recognising and distinguishing the often missed and confounding diagnoses follows. PMID:24957740

  11. Cross Syndrome Comparison of Sleep Problems in Children with Down Syndrome and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2013-01-01

    Based on previous findings of frequent sleep problems in children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS), the present study aimed to expand our knowledge by using parent report and actigraphy to define sleep problems more precisely in these groups. Twenty-two school-aged children with DS, 24 with WS and 52 typically developing (TD)…

  12. Re-examining Nelson's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Nadine E; Ananthakrishnan, Sonia

    2015-08-01

    Nelson's syndrome is a rare complication that can occur during the course of management of Cushing's disease. This article summarizes the recent literature on the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of this potentially life-threatening outcome. Nelson's syndrome, with rising adrenocorticotropin hormone levels and corticotroph tumor progression on diagnostic imaging, can develop following treatment of refractory Cushing's disease with total bilateral adrenalectomy with/without radiotherapy. However, data showing that radiotherapy prevents Nelson's syndrome is inconsistent. In addition to the treatment of Nelson's syndrome with neurosurgery with/without adjuvant radiotherapy, selective somatostatin analogs and dopamine agonists, as well as other novel agents, have been used with increasing frequency in treating cases of Nelson's syndrome with limited benefit. The risk-benefit profile of each of these therapies is still not completely understood. Consensus guidelines on the evaluation and management of Nelson's syndrome are lacking. This article highlights areas in the surveillance of Cushing's disease patients, and diagnostic criteria and treatment regimens for Nelson's syndrome that require further research and review by experts in the field.

  13. Laugier-Hunziker-Baran syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yago, Kaori; Tanaka, Yoichi; Asanami, Soichiro

    2008-08-01

    Laugier-Hunziker-Baran syndrome represents a rare acquired pigmentary disorder which has no relevance to internal disorders and has no familial association. There are few reports on histopathologic studies of this syndrome concerning Japanese individuals. The differential diagnosis of oral and pigmented lesions between Laugier-Hunziker-Baran syndrome and other disorders, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in particular, requires our utmost consideration. Biopsy specimens of 2 cases were taken from pigmented maculae on the lower lips, buccal mucosa, tongue, and palate. Similar histopathologic findings were observed for all locations. The histopathologic examination showed that there was an accumulation of melanin in the basal layer as well as an increase in the number of melanophages in the subepithelial area. Oral scientists and clinicians must be familiar with Laugier-Hunziker-Baran syndrome, because this syndrome is probably more common than is generally recognized.

  14. Acute nephritic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Appel GB, Radhakrishnan J. Glomerular disorders and nephrotic syndromes. In: Goldman L, ...

  15. [Hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome].

    PubMed

    Drenth, J P; Denecker, N E; Prieur, A M; Van der Meer, J W

    1995-09-16

    The hyper-IgD syndrome is a rare entity characterized by early onset of attacks of periodic fever. All patients have an elevated serum IgD (> 100 U/ml). Symptoms during attacks include joint involvements (arthralgias/arthritis), abdominal complaints (vomiting, pain, diarrhoea), skin lesions, swollen lymph nodes, and headache. In 1992 an International hyper-IgD study group was established, and to date the diagnosis has been made in 60, mainly European patients; 14 come from France. The disorder occurs in families and is transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance. Linkage studies indicate that the gene encoding for familial Mediterranean fever is different from the gene for the hyper-IgD syndrome. In children the hyper-IgD syndrome should be distinguished from two other periodic febrile disorders. CINCA (chronic inflammatory, neurological, cutaneous and articular syndrome) and FAPA (periodic fever, adenopathies, pharyngitis, and aphtous stomatitis) share some symptoms with the hyper-IgD syndrome but in these syndromes serum IgD is normal. The pathogenesis remains to be elucidated but during attacks all patients have an acute-phase response with elevated C-reactive protein concentrations. During the febrile episodes, the inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 TNF alpha, IFN gamma are increased together with natural occurring inhibitors such as IL-1ra and sTNFr. There is no therapy for the syndrome and patients will experience attacks during their entire life although frequency and severity tend to diminish with age.

  16. The cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, A; Allanson, J; Jadico, S K; Kavamura, M I; Noonan, J; Opitz, J M; Young, T; Neri, G

    2006-01-01

    The cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a condition of sporadic occurrence, with patients showing multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation. It is characterised by failure to thrive, relative macrocephaly, a distinctive face with prominent forehead, bitemporal constriction, absence of eyebrows, hypertelorism, downward‐slanting palpebral fissures often with epicanthic folds, depressed nasal root and a bulbous tip of the nose. The cutaneous involvement consists of dry, hyperkeratotic, scaly skin, sparse and curly hair, and cavernous haemangiomata. Most patients have a congenital heart defect, most commonly pulmonic stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The developmental delay usually is moderate to severe. The syndrome is caused by gain‐of‐function mutations in four different genes BRAF, KRAS, mitogen‐activated protein/extracellular signal‐regulated kinase MEK1 and MEK2, all belonging to the same RAS–extracellular signal‐regulated kinase (ERK) pathway that regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. The CFC syndrome is a member of a family of syndromes that includes the Noonan and Costello syndromes, presenting with phenotypic similarities. Noonan syndrome is caused by mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP‐2 gene (PTPN11), with a few people having a mutation in KRAS. Costello syndrome is caused by mutations in HRAS. The protein products of these genes also belong to the RAS–ERK pathway. Thus, the clinical overlap of these three conditions, which often poses a problem of differential diagnosis, is explained by their pathogenetic relatedness. PMID:16825433

  17. What Is Usher Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and usually appears during adolescence or early adulthood. Balance may also be affected in people with Usher syndrome. Symptoms and disease progression vary from person to person. There are three general categories of Usher syndrome. People with Usher syndrome ...

  18. DRESS syndrome with thrombotic microangiopathy revealing a Noonan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bobot, Mickaël; Coen, Matteo; Simon, Clémentine; Daniel, Laurent; Habib, Gilbert; Serratrice, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: The life-threatening drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome occurs most commonly after exposure to drugs, clinical features mimic those found with other serious systemic disorders. It is rarely associated with thrombotic microangiopathy. Patient concerns: We describe the unique case of a 44-year-old man who simultaneously experienced DRESS syndrome with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) after a 5 days treatment with fluindione. Diagnoses: Clinical evaluation leads to the discovery of an underlying lymphangiomatosis, due to a Noonan syndrome. Intervetions: The anticoagulant was withdrawn, and corticosteroids (1 mg/kg/day) and acenocoumarol were started. Outcomes: Clinical improvement ensued. At follow-up the patient is well. Lessons: The association of DRESS with TMA is a rare condition; we believe that the presence of the underlying Noonan syndrome could have been the trigger. Moreover, we speculate about the potential interrelations between these entities. PMID:29642153

  19. A Cross-Syndrome Study of the Development of Holistic Face Recognition in Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annaz, Dagmara; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Thomas, Michael S. C.

    2009-01-01

    We report a cross-syndrome comparison of the development of holistic processing in face recognition in school-aged children with developmental disorders: autism, Down syndrome, and Williams syndrome. The autism group was split into two groups: one with high-functioning children and one with low-functioning children. The latter group has rarely…

  20. Comparison of metabolic syndrome with growing epidemic syndrome Z in terms of risk factors and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Uyar, Meral; Davutoğlu, Vedat; Aydın, Neriman; Filiz, Ayten

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to compare metabolic syndrome with syndrome Z growing epidemic in terms of risk factors, demographic variables, and gender differences in our large cohort at southeastern area in Turkey. Data of patients admitted to sleep clinic in University of Gaziantep from January 2006 to January 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. ATP III and JNC 7 were used for defining metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Data of 761 patients were evaluated. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, pulmonary hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in patients with syndrome Z than in patients without metabolic syndrome. Age, waist/neck circumferences, BMI, triglyceride, glucose, and Epworth sleepiness scale score were detected higher, whereas the minimum oxygen saturation during sleep was lower in patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome was more common in sleep apneic subjects than in controls (58 versus 30 %). Female sleep apneics showed higher rate of metabolic syndrome than those of males (74 versus 52 %). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy were detected higher in males with syndrome Z than in males without metabolic syndrome. Snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness were detected higher in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Systemic/pulmonary hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Complaints of headache and systemic/pulmonary hypertension were more common among females than males with syndrome Z. Female syndrome Z patients had lower minimum oxygen saturation than male patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome in sleep apneic patients is more prevalent than in controls. All metabolic syndrome parameters were significantly different among obstructive sleep apneic patients with respect to gender with more severe

  1. Horner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at birth Tumor of the hormonal and nervous systems (neuroblastoma) Unknown causes In some cases the cause of Horner syndrome cannot be identified. This is known as idiopathic Horner syndrome. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of this site ...

  2. Is chronic fatigue syndrome synonymous with effort syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, S D; King, J C; Wilkinson, J B; Nixon, P G

    1990-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), including myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and postviral syndrome (PVS), is a term used today to describe a condition of incapacity for making and sustaining effort, associated with a wide range of symptoms. None of the reviews of CFS has provided a proper consideration of the effort syndrome caused by chronic habitual hyperventilation. In 100 consecutive patients, whose CFS had been attributed to ME or PVS, the time course of their illness and the respiratory psychophysiological studies were characteristic of chronic habitual hyperventilation in 93. It is suggested that the labels 'CFS', 'ME' or 'PVS' should be withheld until chronic habitual hyperventilation - for which conventional rehabilitation is available - has been definitively excluded. PMID:2125315

  3. Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Sousa Filho, Daniel de; Kanomata, Elton Yoji; Feldman, Ricardo Jonathan; Maluf Neto, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    The Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy are factitious disorders characterized by fabrication or induction of signs or symptoms of a disease, as well as alteration of laboratory tests. People with this syndrome pretend that they are sick and tend to seek treatment, without secondary gains, at different care facilities. Both syndromes are well-recognized conditions described in the literature since 1951. They are frequently observed by health teams in clinics, hospital wards and emergency rooms. We performed a narrative, nonsystematic review of the literature, including case reports, case series, and review articles indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed from 1951 to 2015. Each study was reviewed by two psychiatry specialists, who selected, by consensus, the studies to be included in the review. Although Munchausen syndrome was first described more than 60 years ago, most of studies in the literature about it are case reports and literature reviews. Literature lacks more consistent studies about this syndrome epidemiology, therapeutic management and prognosis. Undoubtedly, these conditions generate high costs and unnecessary procedures in health care facilities, and their underdiagnose might be for lack of health professional's knowledge about them, and to the high incidence of countertransference to these patients and to others, who are exposed to high morbidity and mortality, is due to symptoms imposed on self or on others.

  4. Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Daniel; Kanomata, Elton Yoji; Feldman, Ricardo Jonathan; Maluf, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy are factitious disorders characterized by fabrication or induction of signs or symptoms of a disease, as well as alteration of laboratory tests. People with this syndrome pretend that they are sick and tend to seek treatment, without secondary gains, at different care facilities. Both syndromes are well-recognized conditions described in the literature since 1951. They are frequently observed by health teams in clinics, hospital wards and emergency rooms. We performed a narrative, nonsystematic review of the literature, including case reports, case series, and review articles indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed from 1951 to 2015. Each study was reviewed by two psychiatry specialists, who selected, by consensus, the studies to be included in the review. Although Munchausen syndrome was first described more than 60 years ago, most of studies in the literature about it are case reports and literature reviews. Literature lacks more consistent studies about this syndrome epidemiology, therapeutic management and prognosis. Undoubtedly, these conditions generate high costs and unnecessary procedures in health care facilities, and their underdiagnose might be for lack of health professional's knowledge about them, and to the high incidence of countertransference to these patients and to others, who are exposed to high morbidity and mortality, is due to symptoms imposed on self or on others. PMID:29364370

  5. [Refeeding syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ševela, Stanislav; Novák, František; Kazda, Antonín; Brodská, Helena

    Despite being known more than 60 years, refeeding syndrome (RS) still bears many uncertainties. For example, its definition is not clear and definite, and the attitude to it varies from the complete neglect to over-prevention.The term "refeeding syndrome" refers to electrolyte and metabolic changes occurring in malnourished patients after the readministration of nutrition. These changes concern especially to phosphates and ions. Potassium, magnesium, naturism and fluids balance are involved. The changes lead to cell energetic metabolism and electric potential disturbances, with related clinical symptoms.Fully developed refeeding syndrome is quite rare; nevertheless it can be fatal for the patient. However, even its development can lead to many complications increasing the patient's morbidity and the length of stay in the hospital. Yet the refeeding syndrome is more or less predictable and if kept in mind also preventable.The aim of this article is to get the reader to know more about this metabolic phenomenon and possible attitudes towards it.

  6. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Gregory R.

    1994-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a neuropathy resulting from compression of the median nerve as it passes through a narrow tunnel in the wrist on its way to the hand. The lack of precise objective and clinical tests, along with symptoms that are synonymous with other syndromes in the upper extremity, cause carpal tunnel syndrome to appear to be a rare entity in athletics. However, it should not be ruled out as a possible etiology of upper extremity paralysis in the athlete. More typically, carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common peripheral entrapment neuropathy encountered in industry. Treatment may include rest and/or splinting of the involved wrist, ice application, galvanic stimulation, or iontophoresis to reduce inflammation, and then transition to heat modalities and therapeutic exercises for developing flexibility, strength, and endurance. In addition, an ergonomic assessment should be conducted, resulting in modifications to accommodate the carpal tunnel syndrome patient. ImagesFig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7. PMID:16558255

  7. Sotos syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baujat, Geneviève; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth condition characterized by cardinal features including excessive growth during childhood, macrocephaly, distinctive facial gestalt and various degrees of learning difficulty, and associated with variable minor features. The exact prevalence remains unknown but hundreds of cases have been reported. The diagnosis is usually suspected after birth because of excessive height and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), advanced bone age, neonatal complications including hypotonia and feeding difficulties, and facial gestalt. Other inconstant clinical abnormalities include scoliosis, cardiac and genitourinary anomalies, seizures and brisk deep tendon reflexes. Variable delays in cognitive and motor development are also observed. The syndrome may also be associated with an increased risk of tumors. Mutations and deletions of the NSD1 gene (located at chromosome 5q35 and coding for a histone methyltransferase implicated in transcriptional regulation) are responsible for more than 75% of cases. FISH analysis, MLPA or multiplex quantitative PCR allow the detection of total/partial NSD1 deletions, and direct sequencing allows detection of NSD1 mutations. The large majority of NSD1 abnormalities occur de novo and there are very few familial cases. Although most cases are sporadic, several reports of autosomal dominant inheritance have been described. Germline mosaicism has never been reported and the recurrence risk for normal parents is very low (<1%). The main differential diagnoses are Weaver syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedeman syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome and 22qter deletion syndrome. Management is multidisciplinary. During the neonatal period, therapies are mostly symptomatic, including phototherapy in case of jaundice, treatment of the feeding difficulties and gastroesophageal reflux, and detection and treatment of hypoglycemia. General pediatric follow-up is important during the first years of life to allow detection

  8. Asperger syndrome, violent thoughts and clinically isolated syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vanderbruggen, N; Van Geit, N; Bissay, V; Zeeuws, D; Santermans, L; Baeken, C

    2010-12-01

    A young man, 23 years old, with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), presented violent thoughts during a neurological consultation. He was diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome based on a psychiatric and (neuro)psychological examination. Possible risk factors for acting-out and the implications for treatment, if CIS would evolve to MS, are discussed based on a review of the literature.

  9. Simultaneous Occurrence of Duane Retraction Syndrome with Marfan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Mihir; Manurung, Florence; Mithiya, Bhavesh

    2011-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue, while Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) is a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder (CCDD) which can be transmitted as autosomal dominant disorder in 5–10% of patients. In this paper, we present an 8-year-old girl who presented with left eye DRS and bilateral subluxation of the lens associated with MFS in absence of familial involvement. To our knowledge this is the first case report of DRS with MFS. The occurrence of these syndromes together is very rare and appears to be coincidental. PMID:22606474

  10. Peeling skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ilknur, Turna; Demirtaşoğlu, Melda; Akarsu, Sevgi; Lebe, Banu; Güneş, Ali Tahsin; Ozkan, Sebnem

    2006-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin. To date, several cases have been described with different clinical features called peeling skin syndrome. Previous reports describe two types (type A and type B) of peeling skin syndrome, both of which show generalized desquamation, sparing palms and soles. We report a 23-year old man who has been classified as neither type A nor type B, and whose history, clinical features and histopathological findings led to a diagnosis of peeling skin syndrome. In addition, the desquamation pattern in our patient was different from that of both types because our case's palms and soles were involved too.

  11. The Capgras syndrome in paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Silva, J A; Leong, G B

    1992-01-01

    Capgras syndrome is characterized by a delusion of impostors who are thought to be physically similar but psychologically distinct from the misidentified person. This syndrome is generally thought to be relatively rare. Most of our knowledge about Capgras syndrome derives from single case studies and small series of cases usually from diagnostically heterogeneous groups. In this article, a series of 31 patients suffering from both paranoid schizophrenia and Capgras syndrome is described. Issues pertaining to the phenomenology of Capgras syndrome, the possible relation between Capgras syndrome and other delusional misidentification syndromes, and a neurobiological hypothesis aimed at explaining Capgras syndrome are discussed.

  12. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face and Cayler syndromes is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the microdeletion region and the physical and neuropsychiatric phenotype of the syndrome. Velocardiofacial syndrome has a wide spectrum of more than 200 physical manifestations including palate and cardiac anomalies. Yet, the most challenging manifestations of VCFS are the learning disabilities and neuropsychiatric disorders. As VCFS is relatively common and as up to one third of the subjects with VCFS develop schizophrenia like psychotic disorder the syndrome is the most commonly known genetic risk factor to schizophrenia. Identifying the genetic, cognitive and psychiatric risk factors for VCFS-schizophrenia is under the focus of intensive research. PMID:20111667

  13. SAPHO syndrome associated spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Misawa, Haruo; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Takahata, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2008-01-01

    The concept of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome has been well clarified, after Chamot et al. suggested this peculiar disorder in 1987. The most commonly affected site in SAPHO syndrome is the anterior chest, followed by the spine. However, the clinical course and taxonomic concept of SAPHO spinal lesions are poorly understood. This study was performed to analyze: (1) the detailed clinical course of spinal lesions in SAPHO syndrome, and (2) the relationship between SAPHO syndrome with spinal lesions and seronegative spondyloarthropathy. Thirteen patients with spondylitis in SAPHO syndrome were analyzed. The features of spinal lesions were a chronic onset with a slight inflammatory reaction, and slowly progressing non-marginal syndesmophytes at multi spinal levels, besides the coexistence of specific skin lesions. SAPHO syndrome, especially spinal lesions related to palmoplantar pustulosis, can be recognized as a subtype of seronegative spondyloarthropathy. PMID:18642032

  14. The Source for Syndromes 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Hoge, Debra Reichert

    Designed for practicing speech-language pathologists, this book discusses different lesser-known syndrome disabilities, pertinent speech-language characteristics, and goals and strategies to begin intervention efforts at a preschool level. Chapters address: (1) Apert syndrome; (2) Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome; (3) CHARGE syndrome; (4) Cri-du-Chat…

  15. Eagle's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves; Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira, Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo, Igor Teixeira; Nascimento, Luiz Augusto; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical. PMID:25992033

  16. An Examination of Principal Technology Proficiency as It Relates to Leadership Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Shawn L.

    2014-01-01

    Research is limited when it comes to measuring principals' technology use as it relates to their leadership behaviors. Increasingly, principals are required to assume leadership responsibilities in areas with which they are unfamiliar and for which they have received little training (Flanagan & Jacobsen, 2003). Based on the requirement for…

  17. 78 FR 5148 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ..., except federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joe Jacobsen, FAA, Airplane and Flight Crew... protection features include limitations on angle-of- attack, normal load factor, bank angle, pitch angle, and... characteristics, and High angle-of-attack. Section Sec. 25.143, however, does not adequately ensure that the novel...

  18. Review of the refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Michael D; Btaiche, Imad F; Sacks, Gordon S

    2005-12-01

    Refeeding syndrome describes a constellation of metabolic disturbances that occur as a result of reinstitution of nutrition to patients who are starved or severely malnourished. Patients can develop fluid and electrolyte disorders, especially hypophosphatemia, along with neurologic, pulmonary, cardiac, neuromuscular, and hematologic complications. We reviewed literature on refeeding syndrome and the associated electrolyte abnormalities, fluid disturbances, and associated complications. In addition to assessing scientific literature, we also considered clinical experience and judgment in developing recommendations for prevention and treatment of refeeding syndrome. The most important steps are to identify patients at risk for developing refeeding syndrome, institute nutrition support cautiously, and correct and supplement electrolyte and vitamin deficiencies to avoid refeeding syndrome. We provide suggestions for the prevention of refeeding syndrome and suggestions for treatment of electrolyte disturbances and complications in patients who develop refeeding syndrome, according to evidence in the literature, the pathophysiology of refeeding syndrome, and clinical experience and judgment.

  19. Heterogeneity in Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, M J; Delleman, J W

    1977-01-01

    Heterogeneity of Waardenburg syndrome is demonstrated in a review of 1,285 patients from the literature and 34 previously unreported patients in five families in the Netherlands. The syndrome seems to consist of two genetically distinct entities that can be differentiated clinically: type I, Waardenburg syndrome with dystopia canthorum; and type II, Waardenburg syndrome without dystopia canthorum. Both types have an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The incidence of bilateral deafness in the two types of the syndrome was found in one-fourth with type I and about half of the patients with type II. This difference has important consequences for genetic counseling. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:331943

  20. Management of postpolio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thorsteinsson, G

    1997-07-01

    Recent research has shed light on the pathogenesis of the postpolio syndrome and has helped explain its symptoms and the rationale for management. The aim of this article is to familiarize physicians with this syndrome. The history, acute infection, definition, and diagnosis are discussed, as well as the various symptoms and their management. People with postpolio syndrome can educate health professionals about this condition and can help others inflicted with this syndrome. Thus far, no cure is available. A correct diagnosis is important, and the physician must realize that severe comorbidities tend to afflict people with this syndrome. Numerous management options are available to help these people enjoy a high quality of life.

  1. Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome Updated:Apr 13,2017 What are the symptoms ... Syndrome? This content was last reviewed August 2016. Metabolic Syndrome • Home • About Metabolic Syndrome • Why Metabolic Syndrome Matters • ...

  2. [Bilateral "crocodile tears syndrome" associated with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome--case report].

    PubMed

    Owecki, Michał K; Kapelusiak-Pielok, Magdalena; Kowal, Piotr; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral crocodile tears syndrome (CTS) in the course of Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is characterised by a triad of recurrent orofacial swelling, relapsing facial paralysis, and fissured tongue. The classic triad is infrequent and oligosymptomatic variants are seen more frequently. CTS is a rare complication of facial nerve paralysis characterised by inappropriate lacrimation on the side of the palsy in response to salivary stimuli. It results from aberrant reinnervation of the lacrimal gland by salivary parasympathetic fibres. The therapeutic approach for an acute bout of Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome consists mainly of steroid administration. CTS management is composed of anticholinergic drugs and surgical procedures. Botulin toxin injection into the lacrimal gland is the most modern therapeutic option. In the case presented CTS developed in a 50-year-old man after 5 incidents of facial palsy due to Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. The case deserves attention due to the rarity of the observed symptoms and signs.

  3. Mathematics learning disability in girls with Turner syndrome or fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Melissa M; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Gerner, Gwendolyn; Henry, Anne E

    2006-07-01

    Two studies were carried out to examine the persistence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of mathematics learning disability (MLD) in girls with Turner syndrome or fragile X during the primary school years (ages 5-9 years). In Study 1, the rate of MLD for each syndrome group exceeded the rate observed in a grade-matched comparison group, although the likelihood of MLD persisting through the primary school years was comparable for all three groups. In Study 2, formal and informal math skills were compared across the syndrome groups, a normative group, and children from the normative group who had MLD. Few differences were observed between the Turner syndrome and normative groups. Despite having rote counting and number representation skills comparable to those in the normative group, girls with fragile X had difficulty with counting rules (e.g., cardinality, number constancy). However, this difficulty did not distingush them from the MLD group. Overall, counting skills appear to distinguish the Turner syndrome and fragile X groups, suggesting that the specificity of math deficits emerges earlier for fragile X than Turner syndrome.

  4. Prevalence of Semicircular Canal Hypoplasia in Patients With CHARGE Syndrome: 3C Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wineland, Andre; Menezes, Maithilee D; Shimony, Joshua S; Shinawi, Marwan S; Hullar, Timothy E; Hirose, Keiko

    2017-02-01

    CHARGE syndrome refers to a syndrome involving coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae, retardation of growth and development, genitourinary disorders, and ear anomalies. However, Verloes revised the characteristics of CHARGE syndrome in 2005 to define this syndrome more broadly. Deficiency of the semicircular canals is now a major criterion for CHARGE syndrome. To characterize patients with CHARGE syndrome at our center using Verloes' criteria and to reevaluate the nomenclature for this condition. We performed a medical chart review of patients with CHARGE syndrome and reviewed their temporal bone imaging studies at a tertiary care children's hospital affiliated with Washington University in St Louis. Two authors independently reviewed each imaging study (A.W. and K.H.). Radiologic studies, physical findings, genetic tests, and other diagnostic tests were included. Patients with no temporal bone imaging studies were excluded. Eighteen children were included in this study; 13 children (72%) were male, and the mean (median; range) age of patients at the time of inner ear imaging studies was 2 years (4.5 years; 8 months to 8 years). Coloboma was present in 13 patients (72%) and choanal atresia in 5 (28%); semicircular canal anomalies were present in all patients. Additionally, 13 patients (72%) were diagnosed as having hindbrain anomalies, 17 (94%) as having endocrine disorders, 17 (94%) as having mediastinal organ malformations, and all as having middle or external ear abnormalities and development delay. Cleft lip and cleft palate were found in 6 of 14 patients (43%) who did not have choanal atresia. We tested 16 patients for mutations in the CHD7 gene; 10 were positive (63%) for mutations, 4 (25%) were negative, and 2 (13%) were inconclusive. Semicircular canal anomalies were the most consistent finding in our patients with CHARGE syndrome. Given the high prevalence of semicircular canal hypoplasia and importance of imaging for diagnosing CHARGE syndrome, we

  5. Psychosomatic syndromes and anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of the role of some psychosomatic factors as alexithymia, mood intolerance, and somatization in both pathogenesis and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN), few studies have investigated the prevalence of psychosomatic syndromes in AN. The aim of this study was to use the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) to assess psychosomatic syndromes in AN and to evaluate if psychosomatic syndromes could identify subgroups of AN patients. Methods 108 AN inpatients (76 AN restricting subtype, AN-R, and 32 AN binge-purging subtype, AN-BP) were consecutively recruited and psychosomatic syndromes were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DCPR. Participants were asked to complete psychometric tests: Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory–2, and Temperament and Character Inventory. Data were submitted to cluster analysis. Results Illness denial (63%) and alexithymia (54.6%) resulted to be the most common syndromes in our sample. Cluster analysis identified three groups: moderate psychosomatic group (49%), somatization group (26%), and severe psychosomatic group (25%). The first group was mainly represented by AN-R patients reporting often only illness denial and alexithymia as DCPR syndromes. The second group showed more severe eating and depressive symptomatology and frequently DCPR syndromes of the somatization cluster. Thanatophobia DCPR syndrome was also represented in this group. The third group reported longer duration of illness and DCPR syndromes were highly represented; in particular, all patients were found to show the alexithymia DCPR syndrome. Conclusions These results highlight the need of a deep assessment of psychosomatic syndromes in AN. Psychosomatic syndromes correlated differently with both severity of eating symptomatology and duration of illness: therefore, DCPR could be effective to achieve tailored treatments. PMID:23302180

  6. Dysmobility syndrome: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hill, Keith D; Farrier, Kaela; Russell, Melissa; Burton, Elissa

    2017-01-01

    A new term, dysmobility syndrome, has recently been described as a new approach to identify older people at risk of poor health outcomes. The aim was to undertake a systematic review of the existing research literature on dysmobility syndrome. All articles reporting dysmobility syndrome were identified in a systematic review of Medline (Proquest), CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and Scopus databases. Key characteristics of identified studies were extracted and summarized. The systematic review identified five papers (three cross-sectional, one case control, and one longitudinal study). No intervention studies were identified. Prevalence of dysmobility syndrome varied between studies (22%-34% in three of the studies). Dysmobility syndrome was shown to be associated with reduced function, increased falls and fractures, and a longitudinal study showed its significant association with mortality. Early research on dysmobility syndrome indicates that it may be a useful classification approach to identify older people at risk of adverse health outcomes and to target for early interventions. Future research needs to standardize the optimal mix of measures and cut points, and investigate whether balance performance may be a more useful factor than history of falls for dysmobility syndrome.

  7. Prostatitis Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. Curtis

    1991-01-01

    The many prostatitis syndromes remain a frustrating enigma to family physicians as well as specialists. An understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of these syndromes and a rigorous diagnostic plan to properly classify the patients at first presentation are essential to a successful treatment outcome. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21229071

  8. A Rare Case of Acute Coronary Syndrome in a Patient With Turner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kemaloglu, Tugba; Ozer, Nihat; Fikri Yapici, Mehmet

    2016-05-01

    In Turner syndrome, cardiovascular complications are the most important causes of early mortality. Congenital cardiovascular abnormalities are found in approximately one third of Turner syndrome patients. Developments in diagnosis and treatment have decreased the rate of mortality related to these abnormalities. In recent years, many papers have mentioned that coronary artery disease developing at early ages in patients with Turner syndrome causes sudden deaths. The patient, a 27-year-old female was admitted to the emergency room with chest pain at rest. She was diagnosed with Turner Syndrome in her teenage years due to amenorrhea. Patients with ECG changes and cardiac enzyme elevations were treated with acute coronary syndrome. The young woman with Turner Syndrome have several risk factors for early Coronary Artery Disease development. In such cases, dramatic results like sudden death or heart attack at an early age may occur in cases of insufficient follow-up and treatment.

  9. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Overview Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods ...

  10. Perinatal features of the RASopathies: Noonan syndrome, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome and Costello syndrome.

    PubMed

    Myers, Angela; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Curry, Cynthia; Esplin, Edward D; Fisher, Jamie; Homeyer, Margaret; Manning, Melanie A; Muller, Eric A; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Seaver, Laurie H; Hintz, Susan R; Hudgins, Louanne

    2014-11-01

    The RASopathies are a family of developmental disorders caused by heritable defects of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. While the postnatal presentation of this group of disorders is well known, the prenatal and neonatal findings are less widely recognized. We report on the perinatal presentation of 10 patients with Noonan syndrome (NS), nine with Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFCS) and three with Costello syndrome (CS), in conjunction with the results of a comprehensive literature review. The majority of perinatal findings in NS, CS, and CFCS are shared: polyhydramnios; prematurity; lymphatic dysplasia; macrosomia; relative macrocephaly; respiratory distress; hypotonia, as well as cardiac and renal anomalies. In contrast, fetal arrhythmia and neonatal hypoglycemia are relatively specific to CS. NS, CS, and CFCS should all be considered as a possible diagnosis in pregnancies with a normal karyotype and ultrasound findings of a RASopathy. Recognition of the common perinatal findings of these disorders should facilitate both their prenatal and neonatal diagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Rett syndrome and menstruation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Amy; Marshal, Michael P; Sucato, Gina S; Murray, Pamela J

    2012-04-01

    Describe the experience that girls with Rett syndrome have with menstruation including menstrual hygiene, dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and attempts at treatment. Anonymous web-based survey. Convenience sample recruited from Rett syndrome LISTSERV in July of 2009. Mothers of girls with Rett syndrome between the ages of 10-25 who have had at least one menses. Prevalence, frequency, and severity of dysmenorrhea and PMS; hygiene concerns; and treatments attempts and perceived effectiveness. Dysmenorrhea and PMS are common problems among young women with Rett syndrome. Despite their frequency and severity they do not routinely limit activities. Multiple treatment attempts are common. Hormonal contraception is used mostly for menstrual cycle control with oral contraceptive pills the most commonly used method. Young women with Rett syndrome have standard symptoms of dysmenorrhea and PMS as well as autism spectrum specific PMS symptoms. Hormonal contraception is commonly used for menstrual management. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Congenital sensorineural deafness and associated syndromes].

    PubMed

    Moatti, L; Garabedian, E N; Lacombe, H; Spir-Jacob, C

    1990-01-01

    The etiology of perceptive deafness, especially the congenital variety, requires investigation. The presence of a variety of signs associated with deafness constitutes an "associated syndrome" and helps to define a possible genetic origin. These syndromes only represent a small percentage of overall causes of deafness in children, since at most they account for only 10% of cases. Certain syndromes are encountered more often or are well known, others are extremely rare or have only been described recently. The authors report six of these very rare syndromes discovered among their patients: a KID syndrome, a Leopard syndrome, a Norrie syndrome, a Jervell and Lange Nielsen syndrome, a recently described entity called CEE with deafness and an External Neuro-Cochleo-Pancreatic syndrome which would not appear to have been previously described.

  13. The association between the metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score and pulmonary function in non-smoking adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun; Gi, Mi Young; Cha, Ju Ae; Yoo, Chan Uk; Park, Sang Muk

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the association of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score with the predicted forced vital capacity and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s) values in Korean non-smoking adults. We analysed data obtained from 6684 adults during the 2013-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjustment for related variables, metabolic syndrome ( p < 0.001) and metabolic syndrome score ( p < 0.001) were found to be inversely associated with the predicted forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values. The odds ratios of restrictive pulmonary disease (the predicted forced vital capacity < 80.0% with forced expiratory volume in 1 s/FVC ⩾ 70.0%) by metabolic syndrome score with metabolic syndrome score 0 as a reference group showed no significance for metabolic syndrome score 1 [1.061 (95% confidence interval, 0.755-1.490)] and metabolic syndrome score 2 [1.247 (95% confidence interval, 0.890-1.747)], but showed significant for metabolic syndrome score 3 [1.433 (95% confidence interval, 1.010-2.033)] and metabolic syndrome score ⩾ 4 [1.760 (95% confidence interval, 1.216-2.550)]. In addition, the odds ratio of restrictive pulmonary disease of the metabolic syndrome [1.360 (95% confidence interval, 1.118-1.655)] was significantly higher than those of non-metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were inversely associated with the predicted forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values in Korean non-smoking adults. In addition, metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were positively associated with the restrictive pulmonary disease.

  14. Meigs Syndrome Superimposed on Gorlin Syndrome in a 14-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Keita; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Murakami, Hideki; Watanabe, Kazushi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2016-10-01

    Meigs syndrome is a rare complication associated with ovarian fibromas. Although ovarian fibromas are rare in children, they are common in women with Gorlin syndrome after puberty. A 14-year-old girl with Gorlin syndrome was admitted to our hospital for ablation of basal cell carcinoma. A chest x-ray revealed pleural effusion. Ultrasonography revealed bilateral multinodular ovarian masses. Meigs syndrome associated with ovarian fibromas was considered. A laparotomy revealed bilateral ovarian masses, which were resected. Microscopically, the masses were composed of mitotically active fibroma and areas resembling hemangiopericytoma and luteinized thecoma. The pleural effusion disappeared soon after the surgery. Physicians should consider the possibility that pleural effusion might precede the diagnosis of ovarian fibroma in patients with Gorlin syndrome. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome). Case report.

    PubMed

    Fini, G; Belli, E; Mici, E; Virciglio, P; Moricca, L M; D'Itri, L; Leonardi, A; Malavenda, M S; Krizzuk, D; Merola, R; Maturo, A; Pasta, V

    2013-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) comprises multiple basal cell carcinomas, keratocysts of the jaw, palmar/plantar pits, spine and rib anomalies, calcifications of the falx cerebri etc. The diagnosis is made according to clinical criteria (Kimonis Criteria) and genetic ones. We studied one family where father and then his sun resulted affected by each syndrome. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare disease diagnosed according to clinical criteria sometimes difficult to integrate. The family case we presented shows how you can get diagnosis even in older age and after numerous surgeries. Patients should be given special attention and therefore should be monitorized and need multidisciplinary treatments continued in time, even a trivial change of signs and symptoms may be an important indicator of a precipitating event which puts the patient's life under threat.

  16. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome). Case report

    PubMed Central

    FINI, G.; BELLI, E.; MICI, E.; VIRCIGLIO, P.; MORICCA, L.M.; D’ITRI, L.; LEONARDI, A.; MALAVENDA, M.S.; KRIZZUK, D.; MEROLA, R.; MATURO, A.; PASTA, V.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) comprises multiple basal cell carcinomas, keratocysts of the jaw, palmar/plantar pits, spine and rib anomalies, calcifications of the falx cerebri etc. The diagnosis is made according to clinical criteria (Kimonis Criteria) and genetic ones. We studied one family where father and then his sun resulted affected by each syndrome. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare disease diagnosed according to clinical criteria sometimes difficult to integrate. The family case we presented shows how you can get diagnosis even in older age and after numerous surgeries. Patients should be given special attention and therefore should be monitorized and need multidisciplinary treatments continued in time, even a trivial change of signs and symptoms may be an important indicator of a precipitating event which puts the patient’s life under threat. PMID:23837959

  17. A rare cause of acute coronary syndrome: Kounis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Almeida, João; Ferreira, Sara; Malheiro, Joana; Fonseca, Paulo; Caeiro, Daniel; Dias, Adelaide; Ribeiro, José; Gama, Vasco

    2016-12-01

    Kounis syndrome is an acute coronary syndrome in the context of a hypersensitivity reaction. The main pathophysiological mechanism appears to be coronary vasospasm. We report the case of a patient with a history of allergy to quinolones, who was given ciprofloxacin before an elective surgical procedure and during drug administration developed symptoms and electrocardiographic changes suggestive of ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. The drug was suspended and coronary angiography excluded epicardial coronary disease. Two hours after withdrawal of the drug the symptoms and ST elevation had resolved completely. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Dwarfism with gloomy face: a new syndrome with features of 3-M syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Le Merrer, M; Brauner, R; Maroteaux, P

    1991-01-01

    Nine children with primordial dwarfism are described and a new syndrome is delineated. The significant features of this syndrome include facial dysmorphism with gloomy face and very short stature, but no radiological abnormality or hormone deficiency. Mental development is normal. The mode of inheritance seems to be autosomal recessive because of consanguinity in three of the four sibships. Some overlap with the 3-M syndrome is discussed but the autonomy of the gloomy face syndrome seems to be real. Images PMID:2051454

  19. Metabolic syndrome and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Ilaria; Cannon, Christopher P; Braunwald, Eugene; Goodrich, Erica L; Im, KyungAh; Lukas, Mary Ann; O'Donoghue, Michelle L

    2018-05-01

    Background The incremental prognostic value of assessing the metabolic syndrome has been disputed. Little is known regarding its prognostic value in patients after an acute coronary syndrome. Design and methods The presence of metabolic syndrome (2005 International Diabetes Federation) was assessed at baseline in SOLID-TIMI 52, a trial of patients within 30 days of acute coronary syndrome (median follow-up 2.5 years). The primary endpoint was major coronary events (coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction or urgent coronary revascularization). Results At baseline, 61.6% ( n = 7537) of patients met the definition of metabolic syndrome, 34.7% (n = 4247) had diabetes and 29.3% had both ( n = 3584). The presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk of major coronary events (adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.29, p < 0.0001) and recurrent myocardial infarction (adjHR 1.30, p < 0.0001). Of the individual components of the definition, only diabetes (adjHR 1.48, p < 0.0001) or impaired fasting glucose (adjHR 1.21, p = 0.002) and hypertension (adjHR 1.46, p < 0.0001) were associated with the risk of major coronary events. In patients without diabetes, metabolic syndrome was numerically but not significantly associated with the risk of major coronary events (adjHR 1.13, p = 0.06). Conversely, diabetes was a strong independent predictor of major coronary events in the absence of metabolic syndrome (adjHR 1.57, p < 0.0001). The presence of both diabetes and metabolic syndrome identified patients at highest risk of adverse outcomes but the incremental value of metabolic syndrome was not significant relative to diabetes alone (adjHR 1.07, p = 0.54). Conclusions After acute coronary syndrome, diabetes is a strong and independent predictor of adverse outcomes. Assessment of the metabolic syndrome provides only marginal incremental value once the presence or absence of diabetes is established.

  20. Sensory Impairment and Head Circumference in Fragile X Syndrome, Down Syndrome and Idiopathic Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Jeremy; Patton, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Eighteen boys with fragile X syndrome were compared with 42 with idiopathic intellectual disability, and 45 with Down syndrome. Boys with Down syndrome had more sensory problems and smaller head circumferences than normal. Head circumferences of boys with fragile X syndrome and with idiopathic intellectual disability were larger than normal.…

  1. [Locomotive syndrome and frailty. Locomotive syndrome due to the underlying disease of degenerative arthritis].

    PubMed

    Chosa, Etsuo

    2012-04-01

    Japan became a superaging society. We have been putting a new focus on locomotive syndrome and frailty. The prevention and treatment of locomotive syndromes, such as osteoarthritis, degenerative spondylosis, lumbar canal stenosis, osteoporosis, upper extremity diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and many other disorders of the locomotive organs are important. Because, the locomotive syndrome results in deterioration of the exercise function and loss of mental and physical health. The aim of locomotive syndrome exercises are: to reduce pain, to restore and improve joint function. We need to take a comprehensive approach to locomotive syndrome, including lifestyle modification, muscle exercise, stretching and therapeutic exercise.

  2. Prune belly syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat or help prevent urinary tract infections. Support Groups The following resources can provide more information on prune belly syndrome: Prune Belly Syndrome Network -- www.prunebelly.org National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...

  3. Marfan syndrome (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder of connective tissue which causes skeletal defects typically recognized in a tall, lanky person. A person with Marfan syndrome may exhibit long limbs and spider-like fingers, ...

  4. Dubin-Johnson syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000242.htm Dubin-Johnson syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) is a disorder passed down through ...

  5. Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandra Madhur; Kumar, Shrawan; Meghwani, Manoj K; Agrawal, Ravi P

    2014-01-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  6. Congenital hypoventilation syndrome and Hirschsprung's disease - Haddad syndrome: A neonatal case presentation.

    PubMed

    Jaiyeola, P; El-Metwally, D; Viscardi, R; Greene, C; Woo, H

    2015-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is an uncommon cause of apnea in the newborn characterized by the occurrence of apnea predominantly during sleep. Haddad syndrome is CCHS with Hirschsprung's disease. We report a newborn with Haddad syndrome that had a family history of spinal muscular atrophy and discuss aspects of CCHS and important considerations in the evaluation of apnea in the term newborn.

  7. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ashton, G H S

    2004-03-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive skin fragility disorder characterized by blistering in infancy, followed by photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. Ultrastructural examination reveals marked basement membrane reduplication and variable levels of cleavage at the dermal-epidermal junction. The molecular pathology underlying Kindler syndrome has recently been shown to involve loss-of-function mutations in a novel gene, KIND1, encoding kindlin-1. Immunofluorescence, gene expression and cell biology studies have shown that kindlin-1 is expressed mainly in basal keratinocytes and plays a role in the attachment of the actin cytoskeleton via focal contacts to the extracellular matrix. Thus, Kindler syndrome is the first genodermatosis caused by a defect in actin-extracellular matrix linkage rather than the classic keratin-extracellular matrix linkage underlying the pathology of other inherited skin fragility disorders such as epidermolysis bullosa. This article reviews the clinical features as well as the molecular and cellular pathology of Kindler syndrome and highlights the importance of the new protein, kindlin-1, in cell-matrix adhesion and its intriguing link to photosensitivity.

  8. Clinicopathological comparison of colorectal and endometrial carcinomas in patients with Lynch-like syndrome versus patients with Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mas-Moya, Jenny; Dudley, Beth; Brand, Randall E; Thull, Darcy; Bahary, Nathan; Nikiforova, Marina N; Pai, Reetesh K

    2015-11-01

    Screening for DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas identifies patients at risk for Lynch syndrome. Some patients with MMR-deficient tumors have no evidence of a germline mutation and have been described as having Lynch-like syndrome. We compared the clinicopathological features of colorectal and endometrial carcinomas in patients with Lynch-like syndrome and Lynch syndrome. Universal screening identified 356 (10.6%) of 3352 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 72 (33%) of 215 patients with endometrial carcinoma with deficient DNA MMR. Sixty-six patients underwent germline mutation analysis with 45 patients (68%) having evidence of a germline MMR gene mutation confirming Lynch syndrome and 21 patients (32%) having Lynch-like syndrome with no evidence of a germline mutation. Most patients with Lynch-like syndrome had carcinoma involving the right colon compared to patients with Lynch syndrome (93% versus 45%; P < .002). All patients with colorectal carcinomas demonstrating isolated loss of MSH6 expression had Lynch syndrome confirmed by germline mutation analysis. Synchronous or metachronous Lynch syndrome-associated carcinoma was more frequently identified in patients with Lynch syndrome compared to Lynch-like syndrome (38% versus 7%; P = .04). There were no significant differences in clinicopathological variables between patients with Lynch-like syndrome and Lynch syndrome with endometrial carcinoma. In summary, 32% of patients with MMR deficiency concerning Lynch syndrome will have Lynch-like syndrome. Our results demonstrate that patients with Lynch-like syndrome are more likely to have right-sided colorectal carcinoma, less likely to have synchronous or metachronous Lynch syndrome-associated carcinoma, and less likely to demonstrate isolated loss of MSH6 expression within their tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic syndrome in young people.

    PubMed

    Poyrazoglu, Sukran; Bas, Firdevs; Darendeliler, Feyza

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity is on the increase, and consequently metabolic syndrome is also becoming a serious health problem in children and adolescents all over the world. This review attempts to summarize the recent literature on metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. To date, a standard definition of metabolic syndrome for the pediatric population is not available. Recently, the International Diabetes Federation has proposed a new set of criteria to define metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents aged 6-16 years. The relationships between obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome may be explained by the pattern of lipid partitioning. Fatty liver plays a central role in the insulin-resistant state in obese adolescents. Although insulin resistance has been proposed as the central factor leading to the abnormalities observed in metabolic syndrome, most definitions of metabolic syndrome use impaired fasting glucose as a marker. Nutrition impairment during both prenatal and early postnatal life can cause metabolic disturbances leading to insulin-resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in children and adolescents is on the increase. Therefore, the emphasis in all studies and programs related to metabolic syndrome should be focused on prevention, early detection of metabolic risk factors and interventions that will have a significant impact on future adult health.

  10. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jindal, A; Duggal, L; Jain, N; Malhotra, S

    2008-01-01

    A 33-year-old male presented with a history of fever and cough and was diagnosed to have pulmonary tuberculosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). He was started on antituberculosis therapy (ATT) followed by highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART) after one week. He developed an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) leading to an exacerbation of the tuberculosis disease. After HAART was stopped his condition improved dramatically.

  11. Usher syndrome type III can mimic other types of Usher syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Ronald J E; Fields, Randall R; Huygen, Patrick L M; Deutman, August F; Kimberling, William J; Cremers, Cor W R J

    2003-06-01

    Clinical and genetic characteristics are presented of 2 patients from a Dutch Usher syndrome type III family who have a new homozygous USH3 gene mutation: 149-152delCAGG + insTGTCCAAT. One individual (IV:1) is profoundly hearing impaired and has normal vestibular function and retinitis punctata albescens (RPA). The other individual is also profoundly hearing impaired, but has well-developed speech, vestibular areflexia, and retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento (RPSP). These findings suggest that Usher syndrome type III can be clinically misdiagnosed as either Usher type I or II; that Usher syndrome patients who are profoundly hearing impaired and have normal vestibular function should be tested for USH3 mutations; and that RPA and RPSP can occur as fundoscopic manifestations of pigmentary retinopathy in Usher syndrome.

  12. [Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gvozdenović, Ljiljana; Pasternak, Janko; Milovanović, Stanislav; Ivanov, Dejan; Milić, Sasa

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is now recognized as a toxin-mediated, multisystem illness. It is characterized by an early onset of shock with multiorgan failure and continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, caused by group A Streptococcus pyogenes. The symptoms for staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are similar. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was not well described until 1993, when children who had suffered from varicella presented roughly 2-4 weeks later with a clinical syndrome highly suggestive of toxic shock syndrome. It is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches and rash. It can rapidly progress to severe and intractable hypotension and multisystem dysfunction. Almost every organ system can he involved. Complications of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome may include kidney failure, liver failure (and even death. Crystalloids and inotropic agents are used to treat the hypovolemic shock aggressively, with close monitoring of the patient's mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure. An immediate and aggressive management of hypovolemic shock is essential in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Targeted antibiotics are indicated: penicillin or a beta-lactam antibiotic is used for treating group A streptococci, and clindamycin has emerged as a key portion of the standard treatment.

  13. L'analyse structurale en traduction poetique (Structural Analysis in Poetic Translation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larose, Robert; Slote, Daniel

    1978-01-01

    Mallarme's translation of the third stanza of Poe's "Israfel" is used to illustrate this method, based on that of Jacobsen and Levi-Strauss. The categories for analysis are divided into formal and semantic properties, each of which is subdivided into phonology, morphology, lexicology and syntax. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  14. Malignant vasovagal syndrome in two patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, N M; Bennett, D H

    2004-01-01

    The presence of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in patients presenting with syncope suggests that tachyarrhythmia may be the cause. However, the symptoms require careful evaluation. Two young patients presented with syncope and were found to have WPW syndrome on their ECG. In both patients symptoms were suggestive of vasovagal syncope. During tilt testing, both the patients developed their typical symptoms with a fall in blood pressure and heart rate confirming the diagnosis of malignant vasovagal syndrome. PMID:15020537

  15. Seckel syndrome and moyamoya.

    PubMed

    Codd, Patrick J; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2009-04-01

    Seckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth delay, microcephaly with mental retardation, and facial dysmorphisms including micrognathia, a recessed forehead, and a large beaked nose. Occurring in 1 in 10,000 children without sex preference, it is the most common primordial microcephalic osteodysplastic dwarfism and has been associated with a variety of congenital brain malformations and intracranial aneurysms. Moyamoya syndrome is an idiopathic, chronic, progressive cerebrovascular disorder marked by stenosis of the intracranial internal carotid arteries and concurrent development of hypertrophied collateral vessels. These tortuous arterial collaterals appear radiographically as "puffs of smoke," giving the syndrome its name. In this report, the authors describe the case of a 16-year-old girl with coincident Seckel and moyamoya syndromes. To their knowledge, this is the first reported case of such an association being treated with surgical revascularization. The patient presented with persistent headaches and a 2-year history of progressive hand, arm, and face numbness. Imaging studies revealed multiple completed cerebral infarcts, global ischemic changes, and vascular anatomy consistent with moyamoya syndrome. Bilateral pial synangioses successfully revascularized each hemisphere with resolution of the patient's symptoms. The patient died 1 year later of complications related to treatment of a rapidly progressing intracranial aneurysm. This report documents the first case associating moyamoya and Seckel syndromes. In addition, the report reveals the rapid development of an intracranial aneurysm in a patient with this syndrome. When coupled with previous reports of other types of cerebrovascular disease in patients with Seckel syndrome or other primordial dwarfisms, the authors' findings are important because they suggest that physicians treating patients with dwarfism should consider the diagnosis of

  16. [Cotard syndrome].

    PubMed

    Simovici, G; Bauer, A

    1996-01-01

    We describe a schizophrenic paranoid patient, who developed a unique clinical state that fits the Cotard syndrome. The article deals with the course of the disease, the clinical characteristics, the difficulties of treatment. The process of diagnosis and its difficulties, and the rareness of the symptoms are emphasized. Various etiological causes of the syndrome are discussed.

  17. Poland syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Chandra Madhur; Kumar, Shrawan; Meghwani, Manoj K.; Agrawal, Ravi P.

    2014-01-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India. PMID:24959021

  18. Kleine-Levin Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... between Kleine-Levin syndrome and certain mood disorders, lithium and carbamazepine may be prescribed and, in some ... between Kleine-Levin syndrome and certain mood disorders, lithium and carbamazepine may be prescribed and, in some ...

  19. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... a passing cramp? It could be carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ... three times more likely to have carpal tunnel syndrome than men. Early diagnosis and treatment are important ...

  20. Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tunnel Syndrome Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Close Popup Figures Figure 1 - ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  1. Extracolonic Manifestations of Lynch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bansidhar, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Lynch syndrome has classically been defined by several predominant malignancies. Initial clinical criteria for diagnosis of Lynch syndrome would miss 40% of affected individuals. As time has passed, our understanding of Lynch syndrome has evolved and will continue to do so. The number of cancer types that are included in the Lynch phenotype is growing. This has allowed clinicians to redefine Lynch syndrome, at risk populations, screening needs, and diagnostic criteria. Inclusion of extracolonic malignancies and alternative genetic pathways gives new insight into the true prevalence and penetrance of Lynch syndrome. PMID:23730225

  2. Optic disc dysplasia in poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maxfield, Steven D; Strominger, Mitchell B

    2014-06-01

    To report optic disc dysplasia in a case of Poland syndrome. Non-interventional case report. A 2-year-old boy with Poland syndrome was referred for ophthalmic evaluation after abnormal optic discs were found on exam. Physical exam at birth revealed right-sided aplasia of the pectoralis major muscle, symbrachydactyly, hypoplastic scapula, and an abnormal third rib. On dilated examination the optic nerve heads were dysplastic. The findings included multiple cilioretinal vessels, situs inversus, inferotemporal excavation, and surrounding pigmentary disturbances. Only one case of optic disc anomaly has been reported in Poland syndrome and was described as morning glory syndrome. The optic discs in our patient do not fit well with other optic disc excavation syndromes but are most reminiscent of those in papillorenal syndrome. As both Poland syndrome and papillorenal syndrome share vascular dysfunction as a possible etiology, this case adds to the literature of vascular dysgenesis in Poland syndrome.

  3. Case report of a patient with 'one-and-a-half plus syndrome: nine syndrome'.

    PubMed

    Uthman, Muhammad; Kamran, Mehreen

    2018-01-01

    This case talks about 'One-and-a-half plus syndrome', a clinical syndrome affecting binocular vision and facial nerve. One-and-a-half plus syndrome is a less known clinical syndrome which constitutes of a conjugate horizontal gaze palsy in one direction and an internuclear ophthalmoplegia in the other direction. Despite the known association between ischemia, autoimmune disorders, multiple sclerosis, with mono neuritis multiplex resulting in extra ocular movement disorder, one-and-a-half plus syndrome is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of eye ball movement disorders, as many clinicians are not able to diagnose such a case as ' the eyes don't see what the mind doesn't know'. Our report aims to raise awareness about connective tissue disorders presenting as neuro-ophthalmological syndrome, as early recognition can accelerate diagnosis and decrease the morbidity.

  4. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in a patient with 47(XXX) syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chiappedi, Matteo; de Vincenzi, Silvia; Dolci, Roberta; De Luca, Sara; Bejor, Maurizio

    2011-11-05

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a comorbidity between Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and 47 (XXX) syndrome. The clinical picture of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome is well described, while 47 (XXX) syndrome is much more rare and has a broader spectrum of possible phenotypic presentations. An Italian Caucasian girl was referred at the age of 11 to our Rehabilitation Center for anxiety and learning difficulties. The girl had already been diagnosed as having 47(XXX) syndrome; she had some rather typical features of the chromosomal abnormality, but she also showed a high level of anxiety and the presence of motor and vocal tics. When an accurate history was taken, a diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome emerged. The possible interaction between peculiar features of these two syndromes in terms of neuropsychological and affective functioning is both interesting for the specific case and to hypothesize models of rehabilitation for patients with one or both syndromes. Executive functions are specifically reduced in both syndromes, therefore it might be hard to discriminate the contribution of each one to the general impairment; the same applies to anxiety. Moreover, mental retardation (with a significantly lower verbal cognitive functioning) poses relevant problems when suggesting cognitive behavioral or psychoeducational rehabilitative approaches.

  5. 4H Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome? 4H syndrome is short for hypomyelination, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypodontia. Hypomyelination means that there is lack ... myelin in the central nervous system. In hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, normal puberty development is absent because the central ...

  6. Gorlin syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome): update and literature review.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsunori; Miyashita, Toshiyuki

    2014-10-01

    Gorlin syndrome, also called nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disease characterized by developmental anomalies such as palmar pits and rib anomaly, and tumorigenesis such as medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma. This syndrome is mainly caused by a mutation of PTCH1, a human homologue of Drosophila patched, including frameshift, missense, or nonsense mutations. Genotype-phenotype correlation has not been established. PTCH1 is a member of hedgehog signaling, which is a highly conserved pathway in vertebrates, composed of hedgehog, SMO, and GLI proteins as well as PTCH1. Given that hedgehog signaling regulates cell growth and development, disorder of this pathway gives rise to not only developmental anomalies but also diverse tumors such as those seen in Gorlin syndrome. We recently reported, for the first time, a nationwide survey of Gorlin syndrome in Japan, noting that the frequency was 1/235,800 in the Japanese population, and that the frequency of basal cell carcinomas was significantly lower in Japan than in the USA and Europe, suggesting that ethnicity and genetic background contribute to these differences. Given that many clinical trials using newly discovered molecular inhibitors are still ongoing, these agents should become the new therapeutic options for hedgehog pathway-dependent tumors in patients with or without Gorlin syndrome. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Noonan syndrome - a new survey.

    PubMed

    Tafazoli, Alireza; Eshraghi, Peyman; Koleti, Zahra Kamel; Abbaszadegan, Mohammadreza

    2017-02-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with vast heterogeneity in clinical and genetic features. Various symptoms have been reported for this abnormality such as short stature, unusual facial characteristics, congenital heart abnormalities, developmental complications, and an elevated tumor incidence rate. Noonan syndrome shares clinical features with other rare conditions, including LEOPARD syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair, and Costello syndrome. Germline mutations in the RAS-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signal transduction pathway are responsible for NS and other related disorders. Noonan syndrome diagnosis is primarily based on clinical features, but molecular testing should be performed to confirm it in patients. Due to the high number of genes associated with NS and other RASopathy disorders, next-generation sequencing is the best choice for diagnostic testing. Patients with NS also have higher risk for leukemia and specific solid tumors. Age-specific guidelines for the management of NS are available.

  8. Central Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord. This syndrome can be caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, tumors, epilepsy, brain or spinal cord trauma, or ... cord. This syndrome can be caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, tumors, epilepsy, brain or spinal cord trauma, or ...

  9. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... including rotator cuff injuries, cervical disc disorders, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, complex regional pain syndrome, and tumors of the ... including rotator cuff injuries, cervical disc disorders, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, complex regional pain syndrome, and tumors of the ...

  10. Os Trigonum Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually triggered by an injury, such as an ankle sprain. The syndrome is also frequently caused by repeated ... other conditions, such as an Achilles tendon injury, ankle sprain or talus fracture. Diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome ...

  11. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome and Sjogren's syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kosrirukvongs, Panida; Ngowyutagon, Panotsom; Pusuwan, Pawana; Koolvisoot, Ajchara; Nilganuwong, Surasak

    2012-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis has manifestations in various organs including ophthalmic involvement. The present study evaluates prevalence of dry eye and secondary Sjogren's syndrome using salivary scintigraphy which has not been used in previous reports. To evaluate the prevalence of secondary Sjogren's syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, including clinical characteristics and dry eye, compared with non-Sjogren's syndrome. Descriptive cross sectional study Sixty-one patients with rheumatoid arthritis were recruited at Siriraj Hospital during March 2009-September 2010 and filled in the questionnaires about dry eye for Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) with a history taking of associated diseases, medications, duration of symptoms of dry eyes and dry mouth. The Schirmer I test without anesthesia, tear break-up time, rose bengal staining score, severity of keratitis and salivary scintigraphy were measured and analyzed. Prevalence of secondary Sjogren's syndrome and dry eye were 22.2% (95% CI 15.4 to 30.9) and 46.7% (95% CI 38.0 to 55.6), respectively. Dry eye interpreted from OSDI, Schirmer 1 test, tear break-up time and rose bengal staining was 16.4%, 46.7%, 82% and 3.3% respectively. Fifty-two percent of patients had a history of dry eye and dry mouth with mean duration 27.4 and 29.8 months, respectively. Superficial punctate keratitis and abnormal salivary scintigraphy were found in 58.2% and 77.8%. Duration of rheumatoid arthritis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate were not correlated with secondary Sjogren's syndrome. Dry eye from OSDI with secondary Sjogren's syndrome (33.3%) compared with non-Sjogren's syndrome (9.5%) was significant difference (p = 0.008). Adjusted odds ratio for secondary Sjogren's syndrome in OSDIL score > 25 was 13.8 (95% CI 2.6 to 73.8, p = 0.002) compared to OSDI score < 25. Awareness and detection of dry eye syndrome and secondary Sjogren's syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis was crucial for evaluation of their severity and proper

  12. Waardenburg syndrome with familial unilateral renal agenesis: a new syndrome variant?

    PubMed

    Webb, Katie M; Smith, Alisha J; Dansby, Linda M; Diskin, Charles J

    2015-06-01

    A 64-year-old man with Waardenburg syndrome presented with anuria and was subsequently discovered by renal ultrasound to have unilateral renal agenesis. The patient is one of three generations with incidental finding of renal agenesis also marked by the presence of Waardenburg syndrome. To our knowledge, there has been no mention elsewhere in the scientific literature of a variant of Waardenburg syndrome with associated renal agenesis. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  13. Kounis syndrome and ziprasidone.

    PubMed

    Hamera, Leonard; Khishfe, Basem F

    2017-03-01

    Kounis syndrome (KS), described by Kounis and Zavras in 1991, is the manifestation of an allergic reaction preceding and leading to an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). There are three variants of Kounis Syndrome. Here we describe a novel case report of a type 1 variant secondary to Ziprasidone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic syndrome and risk of acute coronary syndromes in patients younger than 45 years of age.

    PubMed

    Milionis, Haralampos J; Kalantzi, Kallirroi J; Papathanasiou, Athanasios J; Kosovitsas, Athanasios A; Doumas, Michael T; Goudevenos, John A

    2007-06-01

    There is a paucity of data with regard to the association of the metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular risk in young adults. We investigated the association of the metabolic syndrome with acute coronary syndrome in adults aged 45 years or younger. A total of 136 consecutive patients (128 men and eight women; mean age, 41.2+/-3.7 years) presenting with a first-ever acute coronary syndrome, and 136 age-matched and sex-matched controls were evaluated. The diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome was established according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the patients' group compared with the control group (40.4 versus 23.5%; P=0.003). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that smoking, positive family history of premature coronary artery disease, and the metabolic syndrome were associated with odds ratios 4.46 (95% confidence interval, 2.30-8.66; P<0.001), 3.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.71-5.66; P<0.001), and 1.97 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.56; P=0.02) higher odds, respectively, of having an acute coronary syndrome, after taking into account the matching for age and sex and controlling for potential confounders. Moreover, a 10-mg/dl increase in total cholesterol was associated with 1.06 higher odds of having an acute coronary syndrome. Analysis of interaction showed that smoking and a positive family history of premature coronary artery disease in young individuals with metabolic syndrome had an incremental effect on the odds of suffering an acute coronary syndrome (odds ratio, 7.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.42-20.96; P<0.001). The metabolic syndrome is highly associated with acute coronary syndrome in patients younger than 45 years of age, indicating the need for early and intensive preventive measures.

  15. Epilepsy in fragile-X-syndrome mimicking panayiotopoulos syndrome: Description of three patients.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Paolo; Casellato, Susanna; Fabbro, Franco; Negrin, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Fragile-X-syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. Epilepsy is reported to occur in 10-20% of individuals with Fragile-X-syndrome. A frequent seizure/electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern resembles that of benign rolandic epilepsy. We describe the clinical features, EEG findings and evolution in three patients affected by Fragile-X-syndrome and epilepsy mimicking Panayiotopoulos syndrome. Age at seizure onset was between 4 and about 7 years. Seizures pattern comprised a constellation of autonomic symptoms with unilateral deviation of the eyes and ictal syncope. Duration of the seizures could be brief or lengthy. Interictal EEGs revealed functional multifocal abnormalities. The evolution was benign in all patients with seizures remission before the age of 14. This observation expands the spectrum of benign epileptic phenotypes present in Fragile-X-syndrome and may be quite helpful in guiding anticonvulsant management and counseling families as to expectations regarding seizure remission. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Anterior horn syndrome: A rare manifestation of primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zahlane, Safaa; Louhab, Nissrine; El Mellakh, Meriem; Kissani, Najib

    2016-07-01

    The authors report an exceptional case of an anterior horn syndrome associated with Sjögren's syndrome in a 58-year-old patient with a flaccid tetraparesis revealed by asymmetric atrophy and diffuse fasciculations associated with xerostomia and xerophthalmia. The electroneuromyography objectified a diffuse anterior horn syndrome. The brain MRI and spinal cord were normal. Laboratory tests revealed positive anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibody. The salivary glands biopsy objectified lymphocytic sialadenitis grade 3 of Chisholm. The Schirmer's test was abnormally low. Diagnosis of anterior horn syndrome as part of Sjögren's syndrome was retained. The methylprednisolone bolus allowed partial clinical improvement after 12 months of evolution. Therefore, in patients with isolated anterior horn involvement, a correct diagnosis of the underlying SS is often delayed or overlooked entirely; in these instances, standard clinicoserological assessment is recommendable. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bogduk, N

    1980-11-15

    Low back pain, referred pain in the lower limbs, and spasm of the back, gluteal, and hamstring muscles are clinical features which can be induced in normal volunteers by stimulating structures which are innervated by the lumbar dorsal rami. Conversely, they can be relieved in certain patients by selective interruption of conduction along dorsal rami. These facts permit the definition of a lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, which can be distinguished from the intervertebral disc syndrome and other forms of low back pain. The distinguishing feature is that, in lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, all the clinical features are exclusively mediated by dorsal rami and do not arise from nerve-root compression. The pathophysiology, pathology, and treatment of this syndrome are described. Recognition of this syndrome, and its treatment with relatively minor procedures, can obviate the need for major surgery which might otherwise be undertaken.

  18. [Psychopharmacology and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Guerreiro, Diogo F; Coentre, Ricardo; Coentre, Rui; Góis, C; Figueira, Luísa

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome consists in a group of metabolic changes, being the most important problem insulin resistence. Other important components of this syndrome are abdominal obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia /hypercholestrolemia. It was demonstrated that psychiatric patients have a greater risk to develop metabolic syndrome with a prevalence of 41%. Prevalence of this syndrome in psychiatric male patients is 138% higher than in general population and in female patients 251% higher. Some of the factors that can explain this increase of metabolic risk in psychiatric patients are psychiatric drugs. We preformed a systematic review of literature published until June, 2007, by means of MEDLINE. Studies reviewed include clinical cases, reviews, analytic and observational studies. We selected 72 articles. Authors pretend to understand the mechanisms, by which, different psychiatric drugs can influence metabolic syndrome, and strategies for prevention of this situation.

  19. Cushing syndrome: update on testing.

    PubMed

    Raff, Hershel

    2015-03-01

    Endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing syndrome) is one of the most enigmatic diseases in clinical medicine. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome depend on proper laboratory evaluation. In this review, an update is provided on selected critical issues in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome: the use of late-night salivary cortisol in initial diagnosis and for postoperative surveillance, and the use of prolactin measurement to improve the performance of inferior petrosal sinus sampling to distinguish Cushing disease from ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome during differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Clinical characteristics of Rett Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Abbes, Zeineb; Bouden, Asma; Halayem, Soumaya; Othman, Sami; Bechir Halayem, Mohamed

    2011-10-01

    Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder, one of the least commonly occurring autism spectrum disorders (ASD),affecting mainly females. To describe features and molecular specificities of Rett syndrome. To identify articles for this review, a Pubmed search was conducted using the following keywords: Rett syndrome, regression,mutation, stereotypes. This syndrome is characterized by cognitive impairment,communication dysfunction, stereotypic movement disorder, and growth failure. It is generally caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene. Rett Syndrome has a prevalence ranging from 10-20 000 females. Specific treatment is not available, but patients need a careful planning for long-term care, with multidisciplinary approaches.

  1. Poland's syndrome and military personnel.

    PubMed

    Phaltankar, P M; Langdon, J; Clasper, J

    2003-12-01

    We describe three cases of undiagnosed Poland's syndrome in Army personnel and discuss their fitness according to the PULHHEEMS system. This syndrome has variable clinical features that include unilateral chest wall and upper limb abnormalities. The syndrome is not hereditary and is of unknown origin. If the syndrome was diagnosed prior to enlistment the potential recruit would normally be graded P8, and unfit to enlist. However, these individuals had managed to pass routine medical examination as well as successfully complete basic training. The suitability of continuation in the army of personnel with Poland's syndrome is discussed.

  2. Bertolotti's syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Raj; Carlisle, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A case report and literature review is presented. To review relevant data for the management of Bertolotti's syndrome and to determine whether the transverse process-ilium articulation may be a pain generator. Bertolotti's syndrome is associated with axial low back pain secondary to arthritic changes; the pain generator in the disorder is unclear. We present a case report of symptomatic Bertolotti's syndrome managed with intra-articular steroid injections. A patient with Bertolotti's syndrome had significant relief of axial pain after steroid injection of the ilium-transverse process articulation. Steroid therapy may be a non-surgical alternative for the treatment of symptomatic Bertolotti's syndrome.

  3. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) happens when a woman's ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. PCOS causes cysts ( ... PCOS are at higher risk of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and high blood pressure. PCOS is ...

  5. Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Guillain-Barre syndrome is a rare disorder that causes your immune system to attack your peripheral nervous system (PNS). The PNS ... your brain. No one knows what causes the syndrome. Sometimes it is triggered by an infection, surgery, ...

  6. Diabetic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... for treatment. Don't wait until your blood sugar is high enough to cause diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. You have ... prevent diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. Know the symptoms of high blood sugar. Be alert for the warning symptoms of high ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: WAGR syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs and symptoms of WAGR syndrome can include childhood-onset obesity, inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), and kidney failure. When WAGR syndrome includes childhood-onset obesity, it is often referred to as WAGRO syndrome. ...

  8. Loin pain hematuria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taba Taba Vakili, Sahar; Alam, Tausif; Sollinger, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Loin pain hematuria syndrome is a rare disease with a prevalence of ∼0.012%. The most prominent clinical features include periods of severe intermittent or persistent unilateral or bilateral loin pain accompanied by either microscopic or gross hematuria. Patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome initially present with hematuria, flank pain, or most often both hematuria and flank pain. Kidney biopsies from patients with loin pain hematuria typically reveal only minor pathologic abnormalities. Further, loin pain hematuria syndrome is not associated with loss of kidney function or urinary tract infections. Loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated hematuria and pain are postulated to be linked to vascular disease of the kidney, coagulopathy, renal vasospasm with microinfarction, hypersensitivity, complement activation on arterioles, venocalyceal fistula, abnormal ureteral peristalsis, and intratubular deposition of calcium or uric acid microcrystals. Many patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome also meet criteria for a somatoform disorder, and analgesic medications, including narcotics, commonly are used to treat loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated pain. Interventional treatments include renal denervation, kidney autotransplantation, and nephrectomy; however, these methods should be used only as a last resort when less invasive measures have been tried unsuccessfully. In this review article, we discuss and critique current clinical practices related to loin pain hematuria syndrome pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. DOORS syndrome: phenotype, genotype and comparison with Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    PubMed

    Campeau, Philippe M; Hennekam, Raoul C

    2014-09-01

    DOORS syndrome (Deafness, Onychodystrophy, Osteodystrophy, mental Retardation, Seizures) is characterized mainly by sensorineural deafness, shortened terminal phalanges with small nails of hands and feet, intellectual deficiency, and seizures. Half of the patients with all clinical features have mutations in TBC1D24. We review here the manifestations of patients clinically diagnosed with DOORS syndrome. In this cohort of 32 families (36 patients) we detected 13 individuals from 10 families with TBC1D24 mutations. Subsequent whole exome sequencing in the cohort showed the same de novoSMARCB1 mutation (c.1130G>A), known to cause Coffin-Siris syndrome, in two patients. Distinguishing features include retinal anomalies, Dandy-Walker malformation, scoliosis, rocker bottom feet, respiratory difficulties and absence of seizures, and 2-oxoglutaric aciduria in the patients with the SMARCB1 mutation. We briefly discuss the heterogeneity of the DOORS syndrome phenotype and the differential diagnosis of this condition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. SKIV2L Mutations Cause Syndromic Diarrhea, or Trichohepatoenteric Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Alexandre; Charroux, Bernard; Martinez-Vinson, Christine; Roquelaure, Bertrand; Odul, Egritas; Sayar, Ersin; Smith, Hilary; Colomb, Virginie; Andre, Nicolas; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Goulet, Olivier; Lacoste, Caroline; Sarles, Jacques; Royet, Julien; Levy, Nicolas; Badens, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Syndromic diarrhea (or trichohepatoenteric syndrome) is a rare congenital bowel disorder characterized by intractable diarrhea and woolly hair, and it has recently been associated with mutations in TTC37. Although databases report TTC37 as being the human ortholog of Ski3p, one of the yeast Ski-complex cofactors, this lead was not investigated in initial studies. The Ski complex is a multiprotein complex required for exosome-mediated RNA surveillance, including the regulation of normal mRNA and the decay of nonfunctional mRNA. Considering the fact that TTC37 is homologous to Ski3p, we explored a gene encoding another Ski-complex cofactor, SKIV2L, in six individuals presenting with typical syndromic diarrhea without variation in TTC37. We identified mutations in all six individuals. Our results show that mutations in genes encoding cofactors of the human Ski complex cause syndromic diarrhea, establishing a link between defects of the human exosome complex and a Mendelian disease. PMID:22444670

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Bartter syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Bartter syndrome Bartter syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Bartter syndrome is a group of very similar kidney disorders ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Turner syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Turner syndrome Turner syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Turner syndrome is a chromosomal condition that affects development in ...

  13. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in the setting of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome].

    PubMed

    Grundig, H; Sinikovic, B; Günther, J; Jungehülsing, M

    2013-09-01

    Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease associated with a high rate of spontaneous mutation. Diagnosis is based on clinically defined major and minor criteria. The disease is caused by a gene mutation locating to chromosome 9q22-31. We report on a young Goltz-Gorlin syndrome patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Due to intolerance to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy and in order to avoid a tracheotomy, we opted for an alternative therapy comprising interdisciplinary multi-level surgery.

  14. Restless Legs Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Legs Syndrome Condition Restless Legs Syndrome Share Print Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. Treatment5. Questions Overview ... twitch when you try and sleep (also called periodic limb movements of sleep or PLMS). Diagnosis How ...

  15. [Evaluation of the primary caregiver syndrome when caring for elderly adults with immobility syndrome].

    PubMed

    Morales-Cariño, Elizabeth María; Jiménez-Herrera, Blanca L; Serrano-Miranda, Tirzo A

    2012-01-01

    Caregiver syndrome may develop in caregivers of elderly adults. To evaluate the repercussions of the immobility syndrome present in elderly adults on their primary caregivers as well as to determine the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of the elderly adult and caregiver. The study population included patients over 65 recruited in the Geriatric Rehabilitation Department, with the diagnosis of immobility syndrome and that required a primary caregiver. A questionnaire including socio-demographic variables was applied to all patients and caregivers, and the Zarit scale was also applied to caregivers in order to determine the presence of caregiver syndrome. Analysis was performed with descriptive statistical methods; Student's t test and Fisher's test were used for comparisons between strata. 75 patients and their caregivers were evaluated; patient average age was 75.9 years and 85.3% were female. 50.7% (38 cases) had mild immobility. The average caregiver's age was 50.6%, 70.7% were female and 57.3% were the patient's daughter. Caregiver syndrome was detected in 60% of them: 57.7% had mild symptoms and in 42.2%, symptoms were moderate to severe. No statistically significant association was established between the development of caregiver syndrome and the degree of patient immobility. Caregivers of patients with immobility syndrome are at high risk of developing caregiver syndrome, thus underscoring the need to include primary caregiver support programs.

  16. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in a patient with 47(XXX) syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a comorbidity between Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and 47 (XXX) syndrome. The clinical picture of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome is well described, while 47 (XXX) syndrome is much more rare and has a broader spectrum of possible phenotypic presentations. Case presentation An Italian Caucasian girl was referred at the age of 11 to our Rehabilitation Center for anxiety and learning difficulties. The girl had already been diagnosed as having 47(XXX) syndrome; she had some rather typical features of the chromosomal abnormality, but she also showed a high level of anxiety and the presence of motor and vocal tics. When an accurate history was taken, a diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome emerged. Conclusions The possible interaction between peculiar features of these two syndromes in terms of neuropsychological and affective functioning is both interesting for the specific case and to hypothesize models of rehabilitation for patients with one or both syndromes. Executive functions are specifically reduced in both syndromes, therefore it might be hard to discriminate the contribution of each one to the general impairment; the same applies to anxiety. Moreover, mental retardation (with a significantly lower verbal cognitive functioning) poses relevant problems when suggesting cognitive behavioral or psychoeducational rehabilitative approaches. PMID:22054059

  17. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a common reproductive syndrome with long-term metabolic consequences.

    PubMed

    Yau, T Tl; Ng, N Yh; Cheung, L P; Ma, R Cw

    2017-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. Although traditionally viewed as a reproductive disorder, there is increasing appreciation that it is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome may present to clinicians via a variety of different routes and symptoms. Although the impact on reproduction predominates during the reproductive years, the increased cardiometabolic problems are likely to become more important at later stages of the life course. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have an approximately 2- to 5-fold increased risk of dysglycaemia or type 2 diabetes, and hence regular screening with oral glucose tolerance test is warranted. Although the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome are still evolving and are undergoing revision, the diagnosis is increasingly focused on the presence of hyperandrogenism, with the significance of polycystic ovarian morphology in the absence of associated hyperandrogenism or anovulation remaining uncertain. The management of women with polycystic ovary syndrome should focus on the specific needs of the individual, and may change according to different stages of the life course. In view of the clinical manifestations of the condition, there is recent debate about whether the current name is misleading, and whether the condition should be renamed as metabolic reproductive syndrome.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: otopalatodigital syndrome type 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type II Other Diagnosis and Management Resources ( ... syndrome FPO OPD syndrome, type 2 oto-palato-digital syndrome, type II Taybi syndrome Related Information How ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: otopalatodigital syndrome type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type I Other Diagnosis and Management Resources ( ... syndrome FPO OPD syndrome, type 1 oto-palato-digital syndrome, type I Taybi syndrome Related Information How ...

  20. The metabolic syndrome in a Congolese population and its implications for metabolic syndrome definitions.

    PubMed

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Kasiam Lasi On'kin, J B; Nge Okwe, A; Kangola Kabangu, N

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome defined by International cut-off values are limited to detect people at high cardiometabolic risk in Central Africans in comparison with metabolic syndrome defined by ethnic-specific definition. We examined the relationship between metabolic syndromes, diabetes control, abdominal obesity, HDL-cholesterol groups and atherosclerotic complications. A representative sample of type-2 diabetic central Africans from Kinshasa were studied. Outcome measures included control of diabetes, atherosclerosis, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, metabolic syndromes and atherosclerosis. Of 1266 type-2 diabetic patients (48.8%), (61.8%), (27.1%) and (81%) had uncontrolled diabetes, atherosclerotics, metabolic syndrome (IDF/Europe), and metabolic syndrome (IDF/local) respectively. There was a significant U-shaped relationship between atherosclerotics complications, insulin resistance, delta postprandial glycaemia and HDL-cholesterol stratification. There was also a significant U-shaped relationship between cardiometabolic risk (P<0.01) and atherosclerotic complications. Type-2 diabetic Central Africans exhibit very high rates of uncontrolled diabetes, atherosclerotic complications and metabolic syndrome. Both, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, low and very high HDL-cholesterol levels are cardiometabolic risk factors. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common tumors in children with this syndrome. Causes Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is caused by a defect ... Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine . 10th ed. ... MA. Hypoglycemia. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  2. Molecular genetics of syndromic and non-syndromic forms of parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Luís; Stevenson, Mark; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2017-12-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) may occur as part of a complex hereditary syndrome or an isolated (i.e., non-syndromic) non-hereditary (i.e., sporadic) endocrinopathy. Studies of hereditary and syndromic forms of PC, which include the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT), multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and MEN2), and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), have revealed some genetic mechanisms underlying PC. Thus, cell division cycle 73 (CDC73) germline mutations cause HPT-JT, and CDC73 mutations occur in 70% of sporadic PC, but in only ∼2% of parathyroid adenomas. Moreover, CDC73 germline mutations occur in 20%-40% of patients with sporadic PC and may reveal unrecognized HPT-JT. This indicates that CDC73 mutations are major driver mutations in the etiology of PCs. However, there is no genotype-phenotype correlation and some CDC73 mutations (e.g., c.679_680insAG) have been reported in patients with sporadic PC, HPT-JT, or FIHP. Other genes involved in sporadic PC include germline MEN1 and rearranged during transfection (RET) mutations and somatic alterations of the retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) and tumor protein P53 (TP53) genes, as well as epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation and histone modifications, and microRNA misregulation. This review summarizes the genetics and epigenetics of the familial syndromic and non-syndromic (sporadic) forms of PC. © 2017 The Authors. Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cardiac involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome associated with Sneddon syndrome: a challenging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Ana; Paiva, Luís; Morgadinho, Ana; Trigo, Emília; Botelho, Ana; Costa, Marco; Leitão-Marques, António

    2014-02-01

    Sneddon syndrome is a rare clinical entity characterized by the association of ischemic cerebrovascular disease and livedo reticularis. The authors report a case of stroke and myocardial infarction in a 39-year-old man with Sneddon syndrome and antiphospholipid syndrome who subsequently met some criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus, highlighting the complexity of cardiovascular involvement in systemic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-occurring Down syndrome and SUCLA2-related mitochondrial depletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Couser, Natario L; Marchuk, Daniel S; Smith, Laurie D; Arreola, Alexandra; Kaiser-Rogers, Kathleen A; Muenzer, Joseph; Pandya, Arti; Gucsavas-Calikoglu, Muge; Powell, Cynthia M

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 5 (MIM 612073) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in the beta subunit of the succinate-CoA ligase gene located within the 13q14 band. We describe two siblings of Hispanic descent with SUCLA2-related mitochondrial depletion syndrome (encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria); the older sibling is additionally affected with trisomy 21. SUCLA2 sequencing identified homozygous p.Arg284Cys pathogenic variants in both patients. This mutation has previously been identified in four individuals of Italian and Caucasian descent. The older sibling with concomitant disease has a more severe phenotype than what is typically described in patients with either SUCLA2-related mitochondrial depletion syndrome or Down syndrome alone. The younger sibling, who has a normal female chromosome complement, is significantly less affected compared to her brother. While the clinical and molecular findings have been reported in about 50 patients affected with a deficiency of succinate-CoA ligase caused by pathogenic variants in SUCLA2, this report describes the first known individual affected with both a mitochondrial depletion syndrome and trisomy 21. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nakalanga Syndrome: Clinical Characteristics, Potential Causes, and Its Relationship with Recently Described Nodding Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Föger, Kathrin; Gora-Stahlberg, Gina; Sejvar, James; Ovuga, Emilio; Jilek-Aall, Louise; Schmutzhard, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Nakalanga syndrome is a condition that was described in Uganda and various other African countries decades ago. Its features include growth retardation, physical deformities, endocrine dysfunction, mental impairment, and epilepsy, amongst others. Its cause remains obscure. Nodding syndrome is a neurological disorder with some features in common with Nakalanga syndrome, which has been described mainly in Uganda, South Sudan, and Tanzania. It has been considered an encephalopathy affecting children who, besides head nodding attacks, can also present with stunted growth, delayed puberty, and mental impairment, amongst other symptoms. Despite active research over the last years on the pathogenesis of Nodding syndrome, to date, no convincing single cause of Nodding syndrome has been reported. In this review, by means of a thorough literature search, we compare features of both disorders. We conclude that Nakalanga and Nodding syndromes are closely related and may represent the same condition. Our findings may provide new directions in research on the cause underlying this neurological disorder. PMID:28182652

  6. Infections in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Toma, Andréa; Fenaux, Pierre; Dreyfus, François; Cordonnier, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes are associated with a risk of severe infections. While neutropenia is likely to be the main predisposing factor, several other immune defects have been reported, including impaired neutrophil function, B-, T- and NK-cell defects and the possible consequences of iron overload due to red blood cell transfusions. The advanced age of most patients, their frequent comorbidities, and the fact that drugs such as hypomethylating agents and lenalidomide, which are effective in myelodysplastic syndromes but can transiently worsen neutropenia, may increase the risk of infection and their severity in this context. The majority of infections in myelodysplastic syndromes are bacterial, while the incidence of fungal infections is not well known and viral infections seem to be rare. No prophylactic measures against infections have demonstrated efficacy in myelodysplastic syndromes. However, pending more data, we propose here some recommendations for the management of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. In the future, an important contribution can be made by prospective trials testing the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to infection in these patients, especially in the context of the new drugs available for myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:22733024

  7. RAAS inhibition and cardiorenal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, Macaulay Amechi C

    2014-01-01

    The consensus conference on cardio-renal syndromes (2008) defined 'cardio-renal syndromes' as 'disorders of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other' and identified five subtypes of the syndromes. Various pathophysiologic mechanisms underlie cardiorenal syndrome including hemodynamic derangements, reduced cardiac output leading to impaired renal perfusion, reduced stroke volume, raised atrial filling pressures, elevated atrial pressures, sodium and water retention, venous congestion, right ventricular dysfunction and venous hypertension causing increased renal venous pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, various neurohormonal adaptations including activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, adaptive activation of the sympathetic nervous system, cytokine release and oxidative stress. Although there are standardized clinical guidelines for the management of heart failure, and chronic kidney disease, respectively, there are no similar consensus clinical guidelines for the management of the cardiorenal syndromes. RAAS inhibition is advocated in treating systolic heart failure. There is evidence that RAAS inhibition is also useful in cardiorenal syndrome. However, RAAS inhibition, while potentially useful in the management of cardiorenal syndrome, is not the 'magic bullet', is sometimes limited by adverse renal events, is not applicable to all patients, and must be applied by physicians with due diligence and caution. Nevertheless, a more comprehensive multidisciplinary multipronged approach to managing patients with cardiorenal syndrome is even more pragmatic and commonsense given the multiple mechanisms and pathogenetic pathways implicated in the causation and perpetuation of cardiorenal syndrome.

  8. DRESS syndrome with thrombotic microangiopathy revealing a Noonan syndrome: Case report.

    PubMed

    Bobot, Mickaël; Coen, Matteo; Simon, Clémentine; Daniel, Laurent; Habib, Gilbert; Serratrice, Jacques

    2018-04-01

    The life-threatening drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome occurs most commonly after exposure to drugs, clinical features mimic those found with other serious systemic disorders. It is rarely associated with thrombotic microangiopathy. We describe the unique case of a 44-year-old man who simultaneously experienced DRESS syndrome with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) after a 5 days treatment with fluindione. Clinical evaluation leads to the discovery of an underlying lymphangiomatosis, due to a Noonan syndrome. The anticoagulant was withdrawn, and corticosteroids (1 mg/kg/day) and acenocoumarol were started. Clinical improvement ensued. At follow-up the patient is well. The association of DRESS with TMA is a rare condition; we believe that the presence of the underlying Noonan syndrome could have been the trigger. Moreover, we speculate about the potential interrelations between these entities.

  9. Audiological findings in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tokgoz-Yilmaz, Suna; Turkyilmaz, Meral Didem; Cengiz, Filiz Basak; Sjöstrand, Alev Pektas; Kose, Serdal Kenan; Tekin, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate audiologic properties of patients with Noonan syndrome and compare these findings with those of unaffected peers. The study included 17 children with Noonan syndrome and 20 typically developing children without Noonan syndrome. Pure tone and speech audiometry, immitancemetric measurement, otoacoustic emissions measurement and auditory brainstem response tests were applied to all (n = 37) children. Hearing thresholds of children with Noonan syndrome were higher (poorer) than those observed unaffected peers, while the hearing sensitivity of the both groups were normal limits (p = 0.013 for right, p = 0.031 for left ear). Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions amplitudes of the children with Noonan syndrome were lower than the children without Noonan syndrome (p = 0.005 for right, p = 0.002 for left ear). Middle ear pressures and auditory brainstem response values were within normal limits and there was no difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). General benefit of the present study is to characterize the audiologic findings of children with Noonan syndrome, which is beneficial in clinics evaluating children with Noonan syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Glomeruloid hemangioma and POEMS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hernández Aragüés, I; Pulido Pérez, A; Ciudad Blanco, C; Parra Blanco, V; Suárez Fernández, R

    2017-03-01

    POEMS syndrome is a paraneoplastic manifestation associated with hematopoietic disorders such as multiple myeloma and Castleman disease. POEMS is an acronym for the main clinical features of the syndrome, namely, Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, M protein, and Skin abnormalities. Glomeruloid hemangiomas are considered to be a specific clinical marker of POEMS syndrome. However, while they are not pathognomonic, their presence should raise suspicion of this syndrome or alert clinicians to its possible future development, as these lesions can appear years before the onset of the syndrome. We report the cases of 2 women with plasma cell dyscrasias and sudden onset of lesions with a vascular appearance and histologic findings consistent with glomeruloid hemangioma. Recognition of this vascular tumor is important for the early diagnosis of POEMS syndrome. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome, Androgens, and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Moulana, Mohadetheh; Lima, Roberta; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is one of the constellation of factors that make up the definition of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is also associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in men and women is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with reductions in testosterone levels. In women, obesity and metabolic syndrome is associated with increases in androgen levels. In men reductions in androgen levels is associated with inflammation. Androgen supplements reduce inflammation in men. In women, increases in androgens are associated with increases in inflammatory cytokines, and reducing androgens reduces inflammation. In this review the possibility that androgens may have different effects on metabolic syndrome and its sequelae in males and females will be discussed. PMID:21274756

  12. Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nassi, Rossella; Ladu, Cristina; Vezzosi, Chiara; Mannelli, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a rare condition in the general population and is even less common during pregnancy with only a few cases reported in literature. The diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome may be difficult during pregnancy because the typical features of the disorder and pregnancy may overlap. However, Cushing's syndrome results in increased fetal and maternal complications, and diagnosis and treatment are critical. This report describes a case of 26-year-old female at the 19th week of pregnancy with symptoms and signs of hypercortisolism, where ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed and treated by robotic laparoscopic adrenalectomy at the 21th week of gestation.

  13. [Tall stature: some classical syndromes].

    PubMed

    Gusbin, N; Verloes, A; Daly, A; Beckers, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the findings of XYY syndrome in the setting of encountering an individual with this particular condition in the endocrinology clinic. XYY syndrome is a relatively frequent if unfamiliar condition, which is characterized by taller than average height. The extra Y chromosome may play a role in determining the height of these individuals. From this case, a differential diagnosis of tall stature is outlined, in addition to a description of the principal syndromes associated with gigantism. These primarily include Klinefelter syndrome, Marfan syndrome, androgen resistance and growth hormone excess. These various entities are described from the point of view of their symptomatology, biology, pathophysiology and therapeutic characteristics.

  14. [Asthenic syndrome in patients with burnout syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chutko, L S; Surushkina, S Iu; Rozhkova, A V; Nikishena, I S; Iakovenko, E A

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the results of a survey of 103 patients aged 25 to 45 years with burnout syndrom. The results showed that most patients with the syndrome of burnout have clinical manifestations of asthenia, varying degrees of severity. According to psychological and psychophysiological examination in this group of patients were found attention and memory dysfunction. This study evaluated the efficacy of memoplant in the treatment of this pathology. The high efficiency of memoplant (improvement in 69.7% of cases) was detected, confirmed by the data of the clinical, psychological and neuropsychological research.

  15. Shaken Baby Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Child Abuse × What research is being done? The National ... baby syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Child Abuse See More About Research The National Institute ...

  16. Syndrome in question: Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Pauline Lyrio; Souza, João Basílio de; Abreu, Karina Demoner de; Brezinscki, Marisa Simon; Pignaton, Christine Chambo

    2016-01-01

    The Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an uncommon disorder caused by a mutation in Patched, tumor suppressor gene. It is mainly characterized by numerous early onset basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic cysts of jaw and skeletal abnormalities. Due to the wide clinical spectrum, treatment and management of its modalities are not standardized and should be individualized and monitored by a multidisciplinary team. We report a typical case in a 30-year-old man with multiple basal cell carcinomas, keratotic pits of palmar creases and bifid ribs, with a history of several corrective surgeries for keratocystic odontogenic tumors, among other lesions characteristic of the syndrome.

  17. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Priya Shirish; Deshmukh, Vijay; Golgire, Someshwar

    2012-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an uncommon autosomal dominant inherited disorder, which is characterized by multiple odontogenic Keratocysts and basal cell carcinomas, skeletal, dental, ophthalmic, and neurological abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications of the falx cerebri, and facial dysmorphism. Pathogenesis of the syndrome is attributed to abnormalities in the long arm of chromosome 9 (q22.3-q31) and loss or mutations of human patched gene (PTCH1 gene). Diagnosis is based upon established major and minor clinical and radiological criteria and ideally confirmed by deoxyribo nucleic acid analysis. We report a case of a 9-year-old girl presenting with three major and one minor feature of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Radiologic findings of the syndrome are easily identifiable on Orthopantomogram, chest X-ray, and Computed tomography scans. These investigations prompt an early verification of the disease, which is very important to prevent recurrence and better survival rates from the coexistent diseases.

  18. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ramesh Chander; Mahajan, Vikram; Sharma, Nand Lal; Sharma, Ashok K

    2003-09-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare genodermatosis characterized by acral bullae and photosensitivity. The photosensitivity improves with advancing age and results in progressive poikiloderma and cutaneous atrophy, and many additional features have also been described. This report describes two male Kindler syndrome patients with classical features of acral blistering and photosensitivity in childhood, and subsequent development of poikiloderma, leukokeratosis of oro-ano-genital mucosae, phimosis and meatal stenosis. The first patient had additional ophthalmic features of chronic simple conjunctivitis caused by persistent irritation, multiple stromal nebular corneal opacities and thickened corneal nerves. The second patient showed skeletal changes, namely a dome-shaped skull (turri-cephaly), bifid fourth rib, missing fifth rib, short fourth and fifth metacarpals and mandibular abnormalities. This is the first report of such ophthalmic and skeletal features of Kindler syndrome.

  19. Refeeding syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Swagata; Mishra, Padmini; Dash, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a fifty-year-old male who was admitted with a three month history of increasing weakness, prostration, decreasing appetite and inability to swallow. The patient was a chronic alcoholic, unemployed, and of very poor socioeconomic background. The patient was initially investigated for upper GI malignancy, Addisons disease, bulbar palsy and other endocrinopathies. Concurrent management was started for severe electrolyte abnormalities and enteral nutritional supplementation was begun. By the fourth day of feeding patient developed severe hypophosphatemia and other life-threatening features suggesting refeeding syndrome. The patient was managed for the manifestations of refeeding syndrome. A final diagnosis of chronic alcoholic malnutrition with refeeding syndrome was made. Refeeding of previously starving patients may lead to a variety of complications including sudden death. PMID:19742256

  20. [Case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome caused by Fisher syndrome].

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Katsunori; Ando, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Osamu

    2018-01-26

    This report presents a case of a 71-year-old woman with Fisher syndrome who had posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) before the initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment. She had symptoms of common cold 2 weeks before the onset of PRES. On the day of the onset, she began to stagger while walking. On day 2, she developed hypertension, vision impairment, and limb weakness and was admitted to the hospital. On day 3, she was provided steroid pulse therapy. On day 4, she developed convulsions and right imperfection single paralysis and was transferred to the our hospital. During the transfer, the patient was conscious. Her blood pressure was high at 198/107 mmHg. She had mild weakness in her limbs and face, light perception in both eyes, dilation of both pupils, total external ophthalmoplegia, no tendon reflexes, and limb and trunk ataxia. We diagnosed PRES because of the high signal intensities observed on T 2 -weighted MRI on both sides of the parietal and occipital lobes. We also diagnosed Fisher syndrome because of a positive anti-GQ1b immunoglobulin G antibody test and albuminocytologic dissociation in the cerebrospinal fluid. PRES showed prompt improvement with antihypertensive therapy, whereas Fisher syndrome slowly improved over a course of 2 months. This case is the first report of PRES without IVIg suggesting that Fisher syndrome induces hypertension and causes PRES.

  1. Genetics of Prader-Willi syndrome and Prader-Will-Like syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a human imprinting disorder resulting from genomic alterations that inactivate imprinted, paternally expressed genes in human chromosome region 15q11-q13. This genetic condition appears to be a contiguous gene syndrome caused by the loss of at least 2 of a number of genes expressed exclusively from the paternal allele, including SNRPN, MKRN3, MAGEL2, NDN and several snoRNAs, but it is not yet well known which specific genes in this region are associated with this syndrome. Prader-Will-Like syndrome (PWLS) share features of the PWS phenotype and the gene functions disrupted in PWLS are likely to lie in genetic pathways that are important for the development of PWS phenotype. However, the genetic basis of these rare disorders differs and the absence of a correct diagnosis may worsen the prognosis of these individuals due to the endocrine-metabolic malfunctioning associated with the PWS. Therefore, clinicians face a challenge in determining when to request the specific molecular test used to identify patients with classical PWS because the signs and symptoms of PWS are common to other syndromes such as PWLS. This review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge relating to the genetics of PWS and PWLS, with an emphasis on identification of patients that may benefit from further investigation and genetic screening. PMID:27777904

  2. Genetics of Prader-Willi syndrome and Prader-Will-Like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Chong Kun

    2016-09-01

    The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a human imprinting disorder resulting from genomic alterations that inactivate imprinted, paternally expressed genes in human chromosome region 15q11-q13. This genetic condition appears to be a contiguous gene syndrome caused by the loss of at least 2 of a number of genes expressed exclusively from the paternal allele, including SNRPN , MKRN3 , MAGEL2 , NDN and several snoRNAs , but it is not yet well known which specific genes in this region are associated with this syndrome. Prader-Will-Like syndrome (PWLS) share features of the PWS phenotype and the gene functions disrupted in PWLS are likely to lie in genetic pathways that are important for the development of PWS phenotype. However, the genetic basis of these rare disorders differs and the absence of a correct diagnosis may worsen the prognosis of these individuals due to the endocrine-metabolic malfunctioning associated with the PWS. Therefore, clinicians face a challenge in determining when to request the specific molecular test used to identify patients with classical PWS because the signs and symptoms of PWS are common to other syndromes such as PWLS. This review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge relating to the genetics of PWS and PWLS, with an emphasis on identification of patients that may benefit from further investigation and genetic screening.

  3. Oral mucosal manifestations in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome and dry mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olewicz-Gawlik, Anna; Polańska, Adriana; Nowak-Gabryel, Michalina; Kocięcki, Jarosław; Witmanowski, Henryk; Sokalski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the most important symptoms of Sjögren syndrome is xerostomia. The oral cavity deprived of saliva and its natural lubricative, protective and antibacterial properties is prone to a number of unfavourable consequences. Aim To present the most important lesions on the oral mucosa in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome and in dry mouth syndrome. Material and methods The study group comprised 55 patients including 52 women and 3 men aged 20–72 years (average: 28.25 years). Results Basing on the accepted criteria, primary Sjögren syndrome was diagnosed in 22 (40%) patients, secondary Sjögren syndrome in 18 (32.7%) patients, and dry mouth syndrome in 15 (27.27%) patients. The physical examination and the examination of the mouth were performed and history was elicited from every patient. Conclusions The most common pathologies appearing on the oral mucosa in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome are angular cheilitis, cheilitis, increased lip dryness as well as non-specific ulcerations, aphthae and aphthoid conditions. PMID:26985175

  4. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(s) mimicking child abuse: Is there an impact on clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by increased fragility of various non-ossified tissues. It is usually ascertained due to abnormal skin texture, scarring complications, vascular fragility, or chronic symptoms, such as fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. Sometimes, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome remains undetected until the patient, usually in the pediatric age, shows extensive or severe mucocutaneous injuries after only minor traumas. In this scenario, the misdiagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with child abuse is a possibility, as occasionally reported in the literature. Recently, more attention was posed by lay people between the possible association of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and bone fragility. Literature and personal experience show a strong association between Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, generalized joint hypermobility and reduced bone mass density in older children and adults, especially fertile women. The existence of a true increased risk of fracture in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is still a matter of debate in children and adults with little and conflicting evidence. In case of suspected child abuse, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is certainly on the differential for bruising, especially in EDS types with marked cutaneous and capillary involvement. In suspected child abuse cases, careful examination of the index case and her/his extended family is routine, as well as exclusion of other disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta. The hypothesis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome as an alternative explanation for infantile fractures remains speculative. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome, Burning Mouth Syndrome, Cold Stimulus Headache, and HaNDL: Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Valença, Marcelo M; de Oliveira, Daniella A; Martins, Hugo André de L

    2015-10-01

    Unusual headache syndromes are not as infrequent in clinical practice as was generally believed. About three fourths of the classified headache disorders found in the ICHD-II can be considered rare. The aim of this narrative review was to perform a literature review of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and treatment of the following unusual headache disorders: Alice in Wonderland syndrome, burning mouth syndrome, cold stimulus headache, and the syndrome of transient headache and neurologic deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. A literature review was performed using PubMed for each of the abovementioned headache disorders. The unusual headache syndromes as a distinct group of disorders are not as infrequent in clinical practice as was generally believed. Some of them, albeit considered as unusual, may occur with relative frequency, such as cold stimulus headache and burning mouth syndrome. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  6. [Gorlin-Goltz syndrome--a case report].

    PubMed

    Debski, Tomasz; Jethon, Józef

    2010-06-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) (the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome-NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations found on chromosome 9. The syndrome is characterized by increased predisposition to develop a basal cell carcinoma and associated with multiorgan anomalies. To present a case of GGS and explain modern standards of care for patients with this syndrome. Authors report the case of a 36-year-old patient who was admitted to the Plastic Surgery Clinic due to numerous basal cell carcinomas. Previously patient underwent an orthopaedic, neurologic, dermatologic, stomatologic and surgery treatment due to particular anomalies which characterize this syndrome. Comprehensive interview and broadening of the diagnostics enabled to diagnose GGS and to introduce the appropriate treatment. GGS is a multidisciplinary problem and widespread knowledge of this syndrome could accelerate the diagnosis process. Early diagnosis of GGS allows to introduce the secondary prophylaxis and to apply the appropriate treatment to slow the progress of the syndrome.

  7. Differences in manifestations of Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meester, Josephina A N; Verstraeten, Aline; Schepers, Dorien; Alaerts, Maaike; Van Laer, Lut; Loeys, Bart L

    2017-11-01

    Many different heritable connective tissue disorders (HCTD) have been described over the past decades. These syndromes often affect the connective tissue of various organ systems, including heart, blood vessels, skin, joints, bone, eyes, and lungs. The discovery of these HCTD was followed by the identification of mutations in a wide range of genes encoding structural proteins, modifying enzymes, or components of the TGFβ-signaling pathway. Three typical examples of HCTD are Marfan syndrome (MFS), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS). These syndromes show some degree of phenotypical overlap of cardiovascular, skeletal, and cutaneous features. MFS is typically characterized by cardiovascular, ocular, and skeletal manifestations and is caused by heterozygous mutations in FBN1 , coding for the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibrillin-1. The most common cardiovascular phenotype involves aortic aneurysm and dissection at the sinuses of Valsalva. LDS is caused by mutations in TGBR1/2 , SMAD2/3 , or TGFB2/3 , all coding for components of the TGFβ-signaling pathway. LDS can be distinguished from MFS by the unique presence of hypertelorism, bifid uvula or cleft palate, and widespread aortic and arterial aneurysm and tortuosity. Compared to MFS, LDS cardiovascular manifestations tend to be more severe. In contrast, no association is reported between LDS and the presence of ectopia lentis, a key distinguishing feature of MFS. Overlapping features between MFS and LDS include scoliosis, pes planus, anterior chest deformity, spontaneous pneumothorax, and dural ectasia. EDS refers to a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous connective tissue disorders and all subtypes are characterized by variable abnormalities of skin, ligaments and joints, blood vessels, and internal organs. Typical presenting features include joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and tissue fragility. Up to one quarter of the EDS patients show aortic aneurysmal

  8. Differences in manifestations of Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Loeys-Dietz syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Meester, Josephina A. N.; Verstraeten, Aline; Schepers, Dorien; Alaerts, Maaike; Van Laer, Lut

    2017-01-01

    Many different heritable connective tissue disorders (HCTD) have been described over the past decades. These syndromes often affect the connective tissue of various organ systems, including heart, blood vessels, skin, joints, bone, eyes, and lungs. The discovery of these HCTD was followed by the identification of mutations in a wide range of genes encoding structural proteins, modifying enzymes, or components of the TGFβ-signaling pathway. Three typical examples of HCTD are Marfan syndrome (MFS), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS). These syndromes show some degree of phenotypical overlap of cardiovascular, skeletal, and cutaneous features. MFS is typically characterized by cardiovascular, ocular, and skeletal manifestations and is caused by heterozygous mutations in FBN1, coding for the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibrillin-1. The most common cardiovascular phenotype involves aortic aneurysm and dissection at the sinuses of Valsalva. LDS is caused by mutations in TGBR1/2, SMAD2/3, or TGFB2/3, all coding for components of the TGFβ-signaling pathway. LDS can be distinguished from MFS by the unique presence of hypertelorism, bifid uvula or cleft palate, and widespread aortic and arterial aneurysm and tortuosity. Compared to MFS, LDS cardiovascular manifestations tend to be more severe. In contrast, no association is reported between LDS and the presence of ectopia lentis, a key distinguishing feature of MFS. Overlapping features between MFS and LDS include scoliosis, pes planus, anterior chest deformity, spontaneous pneumothorax, and dural ectasia. EDS refers to a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous connective tissue disorders and all subtypes are characterized by variable abnormalities of skin, ligaments and joints, blood vessels, and internal organs. Typical presenting features include joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and tissue fragility. Up to one quarter of the EDS patients show aortic aneurysmal

  9. Serial Manifestation of Acute Kidney Injury and Nephrotic Syndrome in a Patient with TAFRO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ito, Seigo; Uchida, Takahiro; Itai, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Aoi; Yamagata, Akira; Matsubara, Hidehito; Imakiire, Toshihiko; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Kumagai, Hiroo; Oshima, Naoki

    2018-06-06

    A 76-year-old woman suddenly developed anasarca and a fever, and an examination revealed thrombocytopenia, reticulin fibrosis, and acute kidney injury, yielding the diagnosis of TAFRO syndrome. Renal replacement therapy and steroid treatment were soon started. Her proteinuria was minor at first; however, once the kidney function improved, nephrotic syndrome occurred. A kidney biopsy showed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis-like glomerulopathy with massive macrophage infiltration. Although kidney dysfunction is often observed in TAFRO syndrome patients, its detailed mechanism is unclear. This case suggests that TAFRO syndrome involves both acute kidney injury with minor proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome, and these disorders can develop serially in the same patient.

  10. Williams-Beuren's Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Hassan; Babazadeh, Kazem; Fattahi, Saeid; Mokhtari-Esbuie, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare familial multisystem disorder occurring in 1 per 20,000 live births. It is characterized by congenital heart defects (CHD), skeletal and renal anomalies, cognitive disorder, social personality disorder and dysmorphic facies. We present a case of Williams syndrome that presented to us with heart murmur and cognitive problem. A 5-year-old girl referred to pediatric cardiologist because of heart murmurs. She had a systolic murmur (2-3/6) in right upper sternal border with radiation to right cervical region. She also had a bulge forehead. Angiography showed mild supra valvular aortic stenosis and mild multiple peripheral pulmonary stenosis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed and the result was: 46.XX, ish del (7q11.2) (ELN X1) (7q22 X2) ELN deletion compatible with Williams syndrome. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis is associated with Noonan syndrome, Alagille syndrome, Cutis laxa, Ehler-Danlos syndrome, and Silver-Russel syndrome. The patient had peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, but no other signs of these syndromes were present, and also she had a supravalvular aortic stenosis which was not seen in other syndromes except Williams syndrome. Conclusion. According to primary symptoms, paraclinical and clinical finding such as dysmorphic facies, cognitive disorder and congenital heart defect, Williams syndrome was the first diagnosis. We suggest a more attention for evaluating heart murmur in childhood period, especially when the patient has abnormal facial features or mental problem.

  11. Williams-Beuren's Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Hassan; Babazadeh, Kazem; Fattahi, Saeid; Mokhtari-Esbuie, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare familial multisystem disorder occurring in 1 per 20,000 live births. It is characterized by congenital heart defects (CHD), skeletal and renal anomalies, cognitive disorder, social personality disorder and dysmorphic facies. We present a case of Williams syndrome that presented to us with heart murmur and cognitive problem. A 5-year-old girl referred to pediatric cardiologist because of heart murmurs. She had a systolic murmur (2-3/6) in right upper sternal border with radiation to right cervical region. She also had a bulge forehead. Angiography showed mild supra valvular aortic stenosis and mild multiple peripheral pulmonary stenosis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed and the result was: 46.XX, ish del (7q11.2) (ELN X1) (7q22 X2) ELN deletion compatible with Williams syndrome. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis is associated with Noonan syndrome, Alagille syndrome, Cutis laxa, Ehler-Danlos syndrome, and Silver-Russel syndrome. The patient had peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, but no other signs of these syndromes were present, and also she had a supravalvular aortic stenosis which was not seen in other syndromes except Williams syndrome. Conclusion. According to primary symptoms, paraclinical and clinical finding such as dysmorphic facies, cognitive disorder and congenital heart defect, Williams syndrome was the first diagnosis. We suggest a more attention for evaluating heart murmur in childhood period, especially when the patient has abnormal facial features or mental problem. PMID:22927862

  12. Churg-Strauss syndrome masquerading as an acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllis, Andreas S; Sakadakis, Eleftherios A; Papafilippaki, Argyro; Katsimbri, Pelagia; Panou, Fotios; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria; Lekakis, Ioannis

    2015-02-01

    Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS) is a rare vasculitis with multiorgan involvement. Cardiac manifestations are common causing serious complications. We report a case of CSS masquerading as a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction with heart failure. CSS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an acute coronary syndrome(ACS)with normal coronary arteries when history of asthma, peripheral eosinophilia and multisystemic involvement is present.

  13. Red ear syndrome.

    PubMed

    Purdy, R Allan; Dodick, David W

    2007-08-01

    The red ear syndrome is a rare syndrome originally described by Lance in 1994. It involves pain in and around the ear and associated autonomic phenomena, the most significant of which is cutaneous erythema of the ear ipsilateral to the pain and obvious to the patient and examiner during the attack. It may well represent an auriculo-autonomic cephalgia and/or be part of the group of disorders recognized as trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. As a syndrome, it still lacks specificity in regard to etiology, mechanisms, and treatment but is important to recognize clinically because of its associations.

  14. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Robin R.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonary, cerebral and cutaneous dysfunction and confirmed by the demonstration of arterial hypoxemia in the absence of other disorders. Treatment of fat embolism syndrome consists of general supportive measures, including splinting, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and the administration of oxygen. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilatory assistance can be indicated. The role of corticosteroids remains controversial. Early stabilization of long bone fractures has been shown to decrease the incidence of pulmonary complications. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the exact method of fracture fixation plays a minor role in the development of pulmonary dysfunction. As more is learned about the specifics of the various triggers for the development of fat embolism syndrome, it is hoped that the prospect of more specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of this disorder will become a reality. PMID:9336522

  15. Interstitial inflammation in Alport syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jedlicka, Jan; Soleiman, Afschin; Draganovici, Dan; Mandelbaum, Jana; Ziegler, Urs; Regele, Heinz; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Gross, Oliver; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Segerer, Stephan

    2010-04-01

    The Alport syndrome is a hereditary glomerular disease linked to structural abnormalities of collagen IV. In a mouse model of Alport syndrome, the interstitial lymphocyte influx was important for disease progression. CXCR3 is a chemokine receptor involved in lymphocyte recruitment to the kidney. We hypothesized that CXCR3-positive T cells might be involved in human Alport syndrome. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies from 17 patients with Alport syndrome, 10 with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, and 11 healthy donor kidneys. We investigated the expression of the alpha5 chain of collagen IV to confirm the morphologic diagnosis, the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and CD3-positive T cells. Alport syndrome biopsies demonstrated a complete loss of the alpha5 chain of collagen IV from the glomerular basement membrane and the morphologic features consistent with Alport syndrome on electron microscopy. A prominent number of CXCR3-positive cells were found in the tubulointerstitium. Most of the CXCR3-positive cells were CD3-positive T cells, demonstrated by double-labeling in selected biopsies. The number of CXCR3-positive cells in kidneys with Alport syndrome correlated with serum creatinine (P < .05) and with morphologic features of a progressive disease (eg, interstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, and tubular atrophy). The severity of interstitial CXCR3-positive cell influx was similar in Alport syndrome as compared to immunoglobulin A nephropathy. The noninflammatory glomerular lesion of Alport syndrome is associated with prominent interstitial accumulation of CD3- and CXCR3-positive lymphocytes. The degree of infiltration correlated with renal function. We speculate that targeting T lymphocytes, for example, by CXCR3 blocking agents, might be a novel approach to inhibit disease progression in patients with Alport syndrome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Calcineurin-inhibitor pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prommer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    There has been increased recognition of calcineurin, a phosphoprotein serine/threonine phosphatase enzyme, in the regulation of many physiologic systems. Calcineurin mediates activation of lymphocytes, which play a role in immune response. Widely distributed in the central nervous system, calcinuerin also plays an important role in sensory neural function, via its role in the regulation of newly discovered 2-pore potassium channels, which greatly influence neuronal resting membrane potentials. Calcinuerin inhibition is the mechanism of action of immunomodulatory drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, which are widely used in transplantation medicine to prevent rejection. While important for immunosuppression, the use of calcineurin inhibitors has been associated with the development of a new pain syndrome called the calcineurin pain syndrome, which appears to be an untoward complication of the interruption of the physiologic function of calcineurin. This is a narrative review focusing on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, characterization of a newly recognized pain syndrome associated with the use of calcineurin inhibitors. The use of immunosuppressants however is associated with several well-known toxicities to which the calcineurin pain syndrome can be added. The development of this syndrome most likely involves altered nociceptive processing due to the effect of calcineurin inhibition on neuronal firing, as well as effects of calcineurin on vascular tone. The most striking aspect of the treatment of this syndrome is the response to calcium channel blockers, which suggest that the effects of calcineurin inhibition on vascular tone play an important role in the development of the calcineurin pain syndrome. The calcineurin syndrome is a newly recognized complication associated with the use of calcineurin inhibitors. There is no standard therapy at this time but anecdotal reports suggest the effectiveness of calcium channel blockers.

  17. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine

    2015-04-01

    Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies encompass entities with a vascular anomaly as the predominant feature vs those syndromes with predominant somatic overgrowth and a vascular anomaly as a more minor component. The focus of this article is to categorize these syndromes phenotypically, including updated clinical criteria, radiologic features, evaluation, management issues, pathophysiology, and genetic information. A literature review was conducted in PubMed using key words "overgrowth syndromes and vascular anomalies" as well as specific literature reviews for each entity and supportive genetic information (e.g., somatic mosaicism). Additional searches in OMIM and Gene Reviews were conducted for each syndrome. Disease entities were categorized by predominant clinical features, known genetic information, and putative affected signaling pathway. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, often with variable clinical expression, due to germline or somatic mutations. Overgrowth can be focal (e.g., macrocephaly) or generalized, often asymmetrically (and/or mosaically) distributed. All germ layers may be affected, and the abnormalities may be progressive. Patients with overgrowth syndromes may be at an increased risk for malignancies. Practitioners should be attentive to patients having syndromes with overgrowth and vascular defects. These patients require proactive evaluation, referral to appropriate specialists, and in some cases, early monitoring for potential malignancies. Progress in identifying vascular anomaly-related overgrowth syndromes and their genetic etiology has been robust in the past decade and is contributing to genetically based prenatal diagnosis and new therapies targeting the putative causative genetic mutations. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive and behavioral heterogeneity in genetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, Luiz F L; Steiner, Carlos E; Celeri, Eloisa H R V; Banzato, Claudio E M; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    this study aimed to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles, as well as the psychiatric symptoms and disorders in children with three different genetic syndromes with similar sociocultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. thirty-four children aged 6 to 16 years, with Williams-Beuren syndrome (n=10), Prader-Willi syndrome (n=11), and Fragile X syndrome (n=13) from the outpatient clinics of Child Psychiatry and Medical Genetics Department were cognitively assessed through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). Afterwards, a full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), verbal IQ, performance IQ, standard subtest scores, as well as frequency of psychiatric symptoms and disorders were compared among the three syndromes. significant differences were found among the syndromes concerning verbal IQ and verbal and performance subtests. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that vocabulary and comprehension subtest scores were significantly higher in Williams-Beuren syndrome in comparison with Prader-Willi and Fragile X syndromes, and block design and object assembly scores were significantly higher in Prader-Willi syndrome compared with Williams-Beuren and Fragile X syndromes. Additionally, there were significant differences between the syndromes concerning behavioral features and psychiatric symptoms. The Prader-Willi syndrome group presented a higher frequency of hyperphagia and self-injurious behaviors. The Fragile X syndrome group showed a higher frequency of social interaction deficits; such difference nearly reached statistical significance. the three genetic syndromes exhibited distinctive cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric patterns. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. [Diagnostics of keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome (KID- syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Markova, T G; Brazhkina, N B; Bliznets, E V; Poliakov, A V; Tavartkiladze, G A

    2012-01-01

    The combination of pre-lingual and sensorinerual deafness with skin hyperkeratinization is a relatively rare pathology. Only 11 families affected by this disorder were described in the literature during the last 30 years (from 1975 to 2002). To date, there are no more than 50 cases of this condition known in the world. Modern molecular methods revealed in all such patients a mutation in the GJB2 gene as the primary cause of the disease. We studied a 4 year-old girl with bilateral congenital grade IV sensorineural deafness. Her unusual appearance drew attention aas early as the primary examination; the patient had the deep-set eyes and dry skin over the entire body, she presented with hypotrichosis of the scalp, thin and light-blond hair. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the GJB2 gene revealed the substitution of guanine-148 by adenine that led to D50N amino acid substitution. This dominant mutation proved to be the cause of keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome (KID-syndrome). A review of the literature concerning molecular diagnostics and clinical features of this syndrome is presented. The results of molecular-genetic investigations provided the data on pathogenesis of different variants of sensorineural deafness and the associated genotype-phenotype relationships that may be used as a basis for the further development of the methods for the prevention and treatment of KID-syndrome.

  20. The Othello Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Famuyiwa, Oluwole O.; Ekpo, Micheal

    1983-01-01

    A case of the Othello syndrome is presented. In its classical form the syndrome is rare, but as with other allied paranoid states, its medicosocial implications are great. Rational management should include pharmacotherapy, conjoint family therapy after symptom remission, and long-term individual psychotherapy. PMID:6827614

  1. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Priya Shirish; Deshmukh, Vijay; Golgire, Someshwar

    2012-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an uncommon autosomal dominant inherited disorder, which is characterized by multiple odontogenic Keratocysts and basal cell carcinomas, skeletal, dental, ophthalmic, and neurological abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications of the falx cerebri, and facial dysmorphism. Pathogenesis of the syndrome is attributed to abnormalities in the long arm of chromosome 9 (q22.3-q31) and loss or mutations of human patched gene (PTCH1 gene). Diagnosis is based upon established major and minor clinical and radiological criteria and ideally confirmed by deoxyribo nucleic acid analysis. We report a case of a 9-year-old girl presenting with three major and one minor feature of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Radiologic findings of the syndrome are easily identifiable on Orthopantomogram, chest X-ray, and Computed tomography scans. These investigations prompt an early verification of the disease, which is very important to prevent recurrence and better survival rates from the coexistent diseases. PMID:22363371

  2. Exploding head syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150 y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mazabraud syndrome associated with McCune-Albright syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Biazzo, Alessio; Di Bernardo, Andrea; Parafioriti, Antonina; Confalonieri, Norberto

    2017-08-23

    Mazabraud syndrome is a very rare benign disorder characterized by the association of monostotic or polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and one or multiple intramuscular myxomas. McCune -Albright syndrome is a rare benign disorder characterized by the association of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, cafè-au-lait skin pigmentations and endocrine dysfunction, such as precocious puberty, diabetes mellitus, goiter and breast fibroadenomatosis. The association of Mazabraud syndrome and McCune-Albright in the same patient is an anecdotal event. We report the case of a 28-year-old girl with Mazabraud syndrome associated with McCune-Albright syndrome. Our literature review shows that in these patients there is a higher risk of malignant transformation of fibrous dysplasia into osteosarcoma, confirming previous reports. Conversely, no malignant transformation has been reported for myxomas in isolated Mazabraud syndrome or in the association with McCune-Albright syndrome. We conclude that these patients should be scheduled to a close and long-term follow-up.

  4. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion related to Guillain-Barré syndrome after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Çakırgöz, Mensure Yılmaz; Duran, Esra; Topuz, Cem; Kara, Deniz; Turgut, Namigar; Türkmen, Ülkü Aygen; Turanç, Bülent; Dolap, Mustafa Önder; Hancı, Volkan

    2014-01-01

    Guillain-Barré Syndrome is one of the most common causes of acute polyneuropathy in adults. Recently, the occurrence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome after major and minor surgical operations has been increasingly debated. In Guillain-Barré syndrome, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and dysautonomy are generally observed after maximal motor deficit. A 44-year-old male patient underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. After the development of a severe headache, nausea, diplopia, and attacks of hypertension in the early postoperative period, a computer tomography of the brain was normal. Laboratory tests revealed hyponatremia linked to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, the patient's fluids were restricted, and furosemide and 3% NaCl treatment was initiated. On the second day postoperative, the patient developed numbness moving upward from the hands and feet, loss of strength, difficulty swallowing and respiratory distress. Guillain-Barré syndrome was suspected, and the patient was moved to intensive care. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed 320 mg/dL protein, and acute motor-sensorial axonal neuropathy was identified by electromyelography. Guillain-Barré syndrome was diagnosed, and intravenous immune globulin treatment (0.4 g/kg/day, 5 days) was initiated. After 10 days in the intensive care unit, at which the respiratory, hemodynamic, neurologic and laboratory results returned to normal, the patient was transferred to the neurology service. Our case report indicates that although syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and autonomic dysfunction are rarely the initial characteristics of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the possibility of postoperative syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion should be kept in mind. The presence of secondary hyponatremia in this type of clinical presentation may delay diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia

  5. [Guillain-Barré syndrome in a patient with primary sicca syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pryszmont, M; Sierakowski, S; Popławska, T; Domysławska, I; Pryszmont, J; Pawlak-Tumiel, B

    2000-01-01

    At the age of 23 the patient showed the first signs of dryness syndrome. Those symptoms developed progressively and during a few years primary Sjögren syndrome was noted. In the 37th year of life suddenly the patient developed very severe Gullian-Barré syndrome with involvement of the peripheral and central nervous system and with a considerable autonomic component. After treatment the patient improved, however mild symptoms of central and peripheral nervous system destruction remained. Those symptoms are still present and the patient is under the care of the Neurology and Rheumatology Clinic.

  6. Language and Literacy in Turner Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.

    2009-01-01

    Language problems can be associated with specific genetic syndromes, such as Klinefelter syndrome and fragile X syndrome, even in the absence of intellectual and developmental disabilities. Turner syndrome, a relatively common genetic disorder, is caused by the complete or partial absence of 1 of the 2 X chromosomes typically present in women. The…

  7. Burnout syndrome prevalence in physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, Blanca; López-Arza, María Victoria González; Montanero-Fernández, Jesús; Varela-Donoso, Enrique; Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; Mingote-Adán, José Carlos

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate burnout syndrome in its three aspects, jointly as well as independently, in physiotherapists from the Extremadura region (Spain). Analytic descriptive epidemiological transversal trial in primary care and institutional practice, with physiotherapists practicing in Extremadura who met the inclusion criteria, after having signed an informed consent form. Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional accomplishment were the outcomes measured. Physiotherapists from Extremadura show a 65.23 point level of burnout syndrome, according to the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. Therefore, they are positioned in the middle of the rating scale for the syndrome, and very near to the high level at starting score of 66 points. Physiotherapists in Extremadura present moderate scores for the three dimensions of burnout syndrome, namely, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional accomplishment. For this reason, they are in the moderate level of the syndrome and very near to the high level, which starts at a score of 66 points. No relation between burnout syndrome and age has been found in our study.

  8. [Burnout syndrome among family physicians].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cruz, Juan; Mugártegui-Sánchez, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    burnout syndrome is a state of physical and emotional exhaustion that can occur among workers who interact directly with others. This could affect job performance. The objective was to determine the prevalence of this syndrome and its associated factors among family physicians. a cross-sectional survey applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory was conducted in a selected convenience non-probability sampling of family physicians. Central tendency and dispersion measures were used in determining the prevalence of burnout syndrome; the associated factors were analysed by χ(2) test. there were 59 cases of burnout syndrome, 36 had involvement in a single component, 15 in 2 and 8 were affected in 3 components; we observed that 35 % of positive cases reported doing an average of 10 extra shifts a month (p = 0.013). Having a second job was associated with positive cases of burnout syndrome. the results are consistent with similar studies. Working extra shifts or having a second job were the related factors most associated to this syndrome.

  9. Endocrine manifestations of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Whooten, Rachel; Schmitt, Jessica; Schwartz, Alison

    2018-02-01

    To summarize the recent developments in endocrine disorders associated with Down syndrome. Current research regarding bone health and Down syndrome continues to show an increased prevalence of low bone mass and highlights the importance of considering short stature when interpreting dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The underlying cause of low bone density is an area of active research and will shape treatment and preventive measures. Risk of thyroid disease is present throughout the life course in individuals with Down syndrome. New approaches and understanding of the pathophysiology and management of subclinical hypothyroidism continue to be explored. Individuals with Down syndrome are also at risk for other autoimmune conditions, with recent research revealing the role of the increased expression of the Autoimmune Regulatory gene on 21st chromosome. Lastly, Down-syndrome-specific growth charts were recently published and provide a better assessment of growth. Recent research confirms and expands on the previously known endocrinopathies in Down syndrome and provides more insight into potential underlying mechanisms.

  10. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  11. Psychiatric disorders associated with Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bratek, Agnieszka; Koźmin-Burzyńska, Agnieszka; Górniak, Eliza; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Cushing's syndrome is the term used to describe a set of symptoms associated with hypercortisolism, which in most cases is caused by hypophysial microadenoma over-secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone. This endocrine disorder is often associated with psychiatric comorbidities. The most important include mood disorders, psychotic disorders, cognitive dysfunctions and anxiety disorders. The aim of this article was to review the prevalence, symptoms and consequences of psychiatric disorders in the course of Cushing's syndrome. We therefore performed a literature search using the following keywords: Cushing's syndrome and psychosis, Cushing's syndrome and mental disorders, Cushing's syndrome and depression, Cushing's syndrome and anxiety. The most prevalent psychiatric comorbidity of Cushing's syndrome is depression. Psychiatric manifestations can precede the onset of full-blown Cushing's syndrome and therefore be misdiagnosed. Despite the fact that treatment of the underlying endocrine disease in most cases alleviates psychiatric symptoms, the loss of brain volume persists. It is important to be alert to the symptoms of hypercortisolism in psychiatric patients to avoid misdiagnosis and enable them receiving adequate treatment.

  12. Pseudo Gitelman Syndrome Associated With Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Masato; Sayo, Akira; Mayama, Michinori; Oguchi, Hidenori

    2015-10-01

    Gitelman syndrome is a rare inherited renal tubulopathy associated with metabolic alkalosis and electrolyte disorders. Pseudo Gitelman syndrome presents with the same clinical characteristics as Gitelman syndrome, yet without genetic mutations in SLC12A3. A 32-year-old woman with no remarkable medical and family history developed hypokalemia at 32 weeks of gestation. Laboratory findings were consistent with Gitelman syndrome and potassium supplementation was initiated. The patient delivered a healthy neonate at 40 weeks of gestation and the electrolyte disorders drastically improved. After delivery, genomic analysis revealed no evidence of mutations in SLC12A3, and pseudo Gitelman syndrome was finally diagnosed. Pseudo Gitelman syndrome, presenting with Gitelman syndrome-like renal tubulopathy without mutations in SLC12A3, can cause a temporary electrolyte imbalance based on the physiologic changes of pregnancy. Although pregnant women with isolated hypokalemia need not be evaluated for Gitelman or pseudo Gitelman syndrome, if it is accompanied by metabolic alkalosis, hypocalciuria, hypomagnesia, and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system without hypertension, this evaluation should be considered.

  13. [On establishing comparative reference system for syndrome classification study from the thinking characteristics of syndrome differentiation dependent therapy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Hu, Yi-yang; Ni, Li-qiang

    2006-05-01

    To create a comparative referential system for syndrome classification study by viewing from the thinking characteristics of TCM on syndrome differentiation dependent therapy (SDDT), through analyzing the thinking process of SDDT, and the basic features of disease, syndrome and prescription, combining the basic principles of modern evidence-based medicine and feasibility of establishing integrative disease-syndrome animal model. The practice of creating a comparative referential system based on clinical efficacy of prescription was discussed around syndrome pathogenesis and its relationship with disease and prescription, which was one of the important scientific problems in TCM syndrome study. The authors hold that, it may be one of the available approaches for the present study on integration of disease with syndrome by way of insisting on the thinking pathway of stressing the characteristics of TCM and intermerging with modern scientific design; on taking the efficacy of prescription as the comparative reference system to accumulate and improve unceasingly according to the TCM method of syndrome diagnosis inferred from effect of prescription with reverse thought (i.e., to differentiate syndrome from the effect of prescription), and thus build up the syndrome diagnostic standard on the solid clinical and scientific base.

  14. An Overview of Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.

    This booklet presents information regarding the history, incidence, and effects of Down Syndrome. The first chapter, presenting an historical perspective of the condition, provides information on counseling parents of Down Syndrome children, and the chromosome structures seen in Down Syndrome patients. The next chapter discusses medical aspects in…

  15. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  16. [metabonomics research on coronary heart disease patients of phlegm turbidity syndrome and qi deficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Chen, Ze-qi; Wang, Dong-sheng

    2015-02-01

    To study the correlation between Chinese medical types of coronary heart disease (CHD) [i.e., phlegm turbidity syndrome (PTS) and qi deficiency syndrome (QDS)] and their metabolites. Recruited were 65 CHD patients including 37 cases of PTS and 28 cases of QDS. Serum endogenous metabolites in the two syndrome types were determined by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer-computer (GC/MS), and their differences between their metabolic profiles analyzed. More than 100 chromatographic peaks were totally scanned. Chromatograms obtained was matched with mass spectrum bank, and finally we got the category contribution value of 46 kinds of substances. Results of MCTree analysis showed patients of PTS and patients of QDS could be effectively distinguished. Compounds contributing to identify the two syndromes were sequenced as serine, valine, 2 hydroxy propionic acid. Comparison of metabolites showed contents of serine and 2 hydroxy propionic acid were higher in patients of PTS than in patients of QDS (P<0.05). The differences in the metabonomics of CHD TCM syndrome types could provide material bases for TCM syndrome differentiation of CHD, indicating that metabonomics technologies might become a new research method for TCM syndrome typing.

  17. [Prevention of the refeeding syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martínez Núñez, Maria E; Hernández Muniesa, B

    2010-01-01

    The refeeding syndrome can be defined as the metabolic alterations developed by the rapid nutrition repletion (oral, enteral as well as parenteral feeding) of severaly malnourished patients. Refeeding syndrome is a potentially fatal clinical condition and it is often underdiagnosed on non-specialized nutrition units. The most important key for its prevention is to identify patients at high risk for developing refeeding syndrome, before nutrition repletion. The present case describes the steps to prevent the refeeding syndrome as well as the clinical recommendations to restart nutrition support.

  18. Brugada Syndrome in a Patient with Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: Sudden Death Risk Amplified.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Jason; Malhotra, Divyanshu; Goud, Aditya; Dahagam, Chanukya; Everett, George

    2017-04-19

    The vast majority of sudden cardiac arrests occur in patients with structural heart disease and in approximately 10% of the cases, it can occur in those with structurally normal hearts. Brugada syndrome is an autosomal dominant sodium channelopathy that has been implicated in sudden deaths. Given their low prevalence, our knowledge about Brugada syndrome is still evolving. Apart from schizophrenia, there have been no reports of associated medical conditions. We recently encountered a patient with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who was also found to have Brugada syndrome. Both these conditions share some common clinical presentations including a propensity for sudden death.

  19. Marfan Syndrome: A Clinical Update.

    PubMed

    Bitterman, Adam D; Sponseller, Paul D

    2017-09-01

    Marfan syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can affect many organ systems. Affected patients present with orthopaedic manifestations of the syndrome during all phases of life. Pain caused by musculoskeletal abnormalities often requires definitive orthopaedic treatment. Orthopaedic surgeons must understand the phenotypes of Marfan syndrome so they can recognize when screening is warranted and can appropriately address the skeletal manifestations. Through medical advancements, patients with Marfan syndrome are living longer and more active lives. Knowledge of the latest diagnostic criteria for the disorder, as well as of advances in understanding the skeletal phenotype, clinical trials of medication therapy, and lifestyle considerations is important for orthopaedic surgeons who treat these patients because these clinicians often are the first to suspect Marfan syndrome and recommend screening.

  20. Maternal uniparental disomy 14 syndrome demonstrates prader-willi syndrome-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Kana; Kagami, Masayo; Tanaka, Touju; Kubota, Masaya; Kurosawa, Kenji; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Uetake, Kimiaki; Tohyama, Jun; Ogata, Tsutomu; Saitoh, Shinji

    2009-12-01

    To delineate the significance of maternal uniparental disomy 14 (upd(14)mat) and related disorders in patients with a Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)-like phenotype. We examined 78 patients with PWS-like phenotype who lacked molecular defects for PWS. The MEG3 methylation test followed by microsatellite polymorphism analysis of chromosome 14 was performed to detect upd(14)mat or other related abnormalities affecting the 14q32.2-imprinted region. We identified 4 patients with upd(14)mat and 1 patient with an epimutation in the 14q32.2 imprinted region. Of the 4 patients with upd(14)mat, 3 had full upd(14)mat and 1 was mosaic. Upd(14)mat and epimutation of 14q32.2 represent clinically discernible phenotypes and should be designated "upd(14)mat syndrome." This syndrome demonstrates a PWS-like phenotype particularly during infancy. The MEG3 methylation test can detect upd(14)mat syndrome defects and should therefore be performed for all undiagnosed infants with hypotonia.

  1. Prenatal findings and the genetic diagnosis of fetal overgrowth disorders: Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, Sotos syndrome, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2012-06-01

    With the advent of prenatal sonography, fetal overgrowth can be easily detected. Prenatal-onset overgrowth can be secondary to normal variants of familial tall stature, familial rapid maturation, diabetic macrosomia, and congenital nesidioblastosis, or prenatal-onset overgrowth can be primary due to pathological overgrowth disorders. This article provides a comprehensive review of the prenatal findings and the genetic diagnosis of some of the pathological prenatal-onset overgrowth disorders, such as Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, Sotos syndrome, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Hypertriglyceridemia thalassemia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mili; Ali, Wahid; Singh, Brijendra Bahadur; Verma, Nishant; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2018-06-14

    Hypertriglyceridemia thalassemia syndrome is a rare entity with an unknown pathogenetic link. We report a case of an 8-month-old female with thalassemia major and increased triglyceride (TG) levels. The clinical features were as in classical thalassemia except for a white discoloration of the plasma. After exclusion of familial triglyceridemia and secondary causes (hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, drugs etc.), a diagnosis of hypertriglyceridemia thalassemia syndrome was made. The high levels of TG in these patients are associated with oxidative stress and higher risk of acute pancreatitis and coronary diseases. An early recognition is thus essential. In our patient, the levels reduced after a transfusion therapy similar to previous reports.

  3. Syndrome in question*

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzo, Juliano; Nazar, Fernanda Luca; Tubone, Mariana Quirino; Escobar, Gabriela Fortes; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is an inherited disease characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentation changes and minor facial malformations. It has four clinical variants. We report the case of a girl who, like her mother, was affected by this syndrome. The diagnosis was made after detection and treatment of deafness. PMID:26375234

  4. Down Syndrome. ERIC Digest #457.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfredini, Dianne

    This information sheet briefly describes the history of the identification of Down Syndrome, its prenatal diagnosis, characteristics of individuals with Down Syndrome, its causes, its rate of occurrence and recurrence, its impact on child development, and recommended content of education programs for children with Down Syndrome. A list of seven…

  5. Prevalence and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome in Nigerians living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward; Akinboro, Adeolu Oludayo; Akinyemi, Suliat Omolola; Adepeju, Akinlawon Adetiloye; Akinremi, Oluwaseun Akinsanmi; Alao, Christiana Adeola; Popoola, Adetoun Adedayo

    2012-10-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa bears an inordinate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Reports have shown increased prevalence of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors referred to as metabolic syndrome in treatment-naïve patients and patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In view of the fact that metabolic syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder with substantial variability in the prevalence and component traits within and across populations and the dearth of publications on the prevalence and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Nigeria, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome among an HIV-infected outpatient population using the National Cholesterol Education Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) definitions. We also sought to determine if HAART use and CD4 count level were associated with metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 291 (95 men, 196 women) consecutive PLWHA. Anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile values were determined. The prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome according to the ATP III, IDF, and JIS criteria were 12.7%, 17.2%, and 21.0%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with female gender (all definitions), body mass index (all definitions), increasing age, and CD4 count (IDF definition). There was no significant association between metabolic syndrome and HAART. The concordance [kappa coefficient (κ)] between the definitions of metabolic syndrome varied between 0.583 and 0.878. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied with the criteria used and metabolic syndrome correlates with traditional cardiovascular risk factors rather than HAART-related factors.

  6. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verit, Fatma Ferda

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in clomiphene citrate (CC) resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. 58 CC resistant PCOS patients, 52 CC responders, 53 fertile PCOS and 53 age and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory fertile women were evaluated for metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 41.4% in CC resistants, in 23.1% of CC responders, in 11.3% of PCOS fertiles and 0% of controls (p < 0.0001). Waist circumference (WC) > 88 cm was 44.8%, systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥ 130 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg were 27.6%, TG (triglyceride) ≥150 mg/dL was 36.2%, HDL(high density lipoprotein) < 50 mg/dL was 63.8%, fasting glucose levels ≥ 100 mg/dL was 20.7% in CC resistant PCOS women. There were positive associations between CC resistance and WC >88 cm, BP ≥ 130 ≥ 85 mmHg, TG ≥ 150 mg/dL, HDL < 50 mg/dL, fasting glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL, and presence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.05, for all). Moreover, WC > 88 cm, and HDL < 50 mg/dL were independent variables that were associated by CC resistance by multivariate regression analysis. CC resistant PCOS patients have high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. These women have an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease.

  7. Racial and ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components of metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a regional cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jessica L; Kar, Sujata; Vanky, Eszter; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Piltonen, Terhi; Puurunen, Johanna; Tapanainen, Juha S; Maciel, Gustavo Arantes Rosa; Hayashida, Sylvia Asaka Yamashita; Soares, Jose Maria; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Dokras, Anuja

    2017-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder and its presentation varies with race and ethnicity. Reproductive-age women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome; however, it is not clear if prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of its components differs based on race and ethnicity. Moreover, the majority of these women do not undergo routine screening for metabolic syndrome. We sought to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of its components in women with polycystic ovary syndrome in the United States with women in India, Brazil, Finland, and Norway. This is a cross-sectional study performed in 1089 women with polycystic ovary syndrome from 1999 through 2016 in 5 outpatient clinics in the United States, India, Brazil, Finland, and Norway. Polycystic ovary syndrome was defined by the Rotterdam criteria. Main outcome measures were: metabolic syndrome prevalence, blood pressure, body mass index, fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting triglycerides, and fasting glucose. Data from all sites were reevaluated for appropriate application of diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome, identification of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype, and complete metabolic workup. The US White women with polycystic ovary syndrome were used as the referent group. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between race and metabolic syndrome prevalence and its components and to adjust for potential confounders, including age and body mass index. The median age of the entire cohort was 28 years. Women from India had the highest mean Ferriman-Gallwey score for clinical hyperandrogenism (15.6 ± 6.5, P < .001). The age-adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was highest in US Black women at 4.52 (95% confidence interval, 2.46-8.35) compared with US White women. When adjusted for age and body mass index, the prevalence was similar in the 2 groups. Significantly more Black

  8. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male infant who presented with chronic anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding initially. Panendoscopy and abdominal computed tomography showed multiple polyposis throughout the entire alimentary tract leading to intussusception. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell (RBC) bleeding scan revealed the possibility of gastrointestinal tract bleeding in the jejunum. Histopathological examination on biopsy samples showed Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was excluded, whereas the diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome was established. Results: Enteroscopic polypectomy is the mainstay of the treatment. However, polyps recurred and occupied the majority of the gastrointestinal tract in 6 months. Supportive management was given. The patient expired for severe sepsis at the age of 18 months. Conclusion: Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited disease, so it is not possible to prevent it. Concerning of its poor outcome and high mortality rate, it is important that we should increase awareness and education of the parents at its earliest stages. PMID:27631205

  9. Attention in Williams Syndrome and Down's Syndrome: Performance on the New Early Childhood Attention Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckenridge, Kate; Braddick, Oliver; Anker, Shirley; Woodhouse, Margaret; Atkinson, Janette

    2013-01-01

    Attentional problems are commonly reported as a feature of the behavioural profile in both Williams syndrome (WS) and Down's syndrome (DS). Recent studies have begun to investigate these impairments empirically, acknowledging the need for an approach that considers cross-syndrome comparisons and developmental changes across the different component…

  10. Viewing Social Scenes: A Visual Scan-Path Study Comparing Fragile X Syndrome and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tracey A.; Porter, Melanie A.; Langdon, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Williams syndrome (WS) are both genetic disorders which present with similar cognitive-behavioral problems, but distinct social phenotypes. Despite these social differences both syndromes display poor social relations which may result from abnormal social processing. This study aimed to manipulate the location of…

  11. Six controversial issues on subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Albani, Adriana; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Campo, Michela; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Marcelli, Giorgia; Morelli, Valentina; Zampetti, Benedetta; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2017-05-01

    Subclinical Cushing's syndrome is a condition of hypercortisolism in the absence of signs specific of overt cortisol excess, and it is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, fragility fractures, cardiovascular events and mortality. The subclinical Cushing's syndrome is not rare, being estimated to be between 0.2-2 % in the adult population. Despite the huge number of studies that have been published in the recent years, several issues remain controversial for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome screening, diagnosis and treatment. The Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome Group was founded in 2012 for bringing together the leading Italian experts in the hypercortisolism-related diseases. This document represents the Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome viewpoint regarding the following controversial issues on Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS): (1) Who has to be screened for subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (2) How to screen the populations at risk? (3) How to diagnose subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma? (4) Which consequence of subclinical Cushing's syndrome has to be searched for? (5) How to address the therapy of choice in AI patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (6) How to follow-up adrenal incidentaloma patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome surgically or conservatively treated? Notwithstanding the fact that most studies that faced these points may have several biases (e.g., retrospective design, small sample size, different criteria for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome diagnosis), we believe that the literature evidence is sufficient to affirm that the subclinical Cushing's syndrome condition is not harmless and that the currently available diagnostic tools are reliable for identifying the majority of individuals with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

  12. Asperger's syndrome in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mandy; Dillo, Wolfgang; Emrich, Hinderk M; Ohlmeier, Martin D

    2009-01-01

    Asperger's syndrome is one of the autism spectrum disorders. Affected individuals display considerably impaired capacity for social interaction, unusual special interests, and a tendency towards ritualized behavior. The etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of Asperger's syndrome in adulthood are outlined on the basis of a selective literature review via Medline and information in relevant reference books. Furthermore, the authors report their personal experience at a special clinic for adults. Asperger's syndrome in adulthood can be diagnosed by thorough anamnesis, heteroanamnesis-with emphasis on childhood-and painstaking clinical examination. The considerable psychosocial impairments affect the patients' professional, social, and private lives. The precise etiology is still unknown, but a multifactorial origin with genetic, neurobiological, and psychosocial components appears probable. Although no specific, empirically tested treatment concepts have yet been established, psychotherapeutic elements (structuring and directive interventions) seem to be helpful, together with pharmacotherapy-if indicated-in the presence of comorbidity. Asperger's syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of adults who display the corresponding symptoms. The etiopathogenesis and treatment of Asperger's syndrome in adulthood should be further investigated.

  13. Psychiatric aspects of Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kelly, W F

    1996-07-01

    Patients with Cushing's syndrome were studied (n = 209, 78% females). Control patients had pituitary adenomas secreting growth hormone or prolactin. Age at diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome was 8-74 (mean 39) years. Duration of symptoms was 0.2-9 (median 2.0) years. Adverse life events within the 2 years preceding the onset of Cushing's syndrome were not significantly commoner than in controls. Depressive illnesses were associated with the presence of adverse life events (p < 0.001). Depressive illness was more common in females (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the severity of depression in the different types of Cushing's syndrome. Pathological anxiety had been diagnosed in 26 patients (12%), mania or hypomania in six patients (3%) and confusion in three patients (1%). Psychotic illness had been diagnosed in 16 patients (8%) and was more common in adrenal carcinomas (p < 0.01). Significant psychiatric illness, usually depressive, preceded the onset of all symptoms and signs of Cushing's syndrome in 25 patients (12%); 23 of these developed pituitary Cushing's disease, and two adrenal adenomas. When Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed, significant psychiatric illness, usually depression, was present or had been a feature of Cushing's syndrome in 120 (57%) patients.

  14. Effects of Sampling Context on Spontaneous Expressive Language in Males with Fragile X Syndrome or Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea; Abbeduto, Leonard; Brown, W. Ted

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the impact of sampling context on multiple aspects of expressive language in males with fragile X syndrome in comparison to males with Down syndrome or typical development. Method Participants with fragile X syndrome (n = 27), ages 10 to 17 years, were matched groupwise on nonverbal mental age to adolescents with Down syndrome (n = 15) and typically developing 3- to 6-year-olds (n = 15). Language sampling contexts were an interview-style conversation and narration of a wordless book, with scripted examiner behavior. Language was assessed in terms of amount of talk, MLU of communication unit (MLCU), lexical diversity, fluency, and intelligibility. Results Participants with fragile X syndrome had lower MLCU and lexical diversity than participants with typical development. Participants with Down syndrome produced yet lower MLCU. A differential effect of context among those with fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and typical development emerged for the number of attempts per minute, MLCU, and fluency. For participants with fragile X syndrome, autism symptom severity related to the number of utterances produced in conversation. Aspects of examiner behavior related to participant performance. Conclusions Sampling context characteristics should be considered when assessing expressive language in individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities. PMID:22232386

  15. [Kniest's syndrome (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kniest, W; Leiber, B

    1977-12-01

    The clinical picture of the Kniest's syndrome is described. The syndrome is a rare hereditary condition with generalized bone dysplasia, disproportional dwarfism, conduction deafness and severe myopia, retinal detachment, cataract and amaurosis.

  16. [Pseudo-Bartter syndrome--2 cases].

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, Lucyna; Jaroszyński, Andrzej; Baranowicz-Gaszczyk, Iwona; Borowicz, Ewa; Ksiazek, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Bartter syndrome represents the group of renal disturbances characterized by hypokaliemia and metabolic alkalosis. Some diseases could display hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis without primary tubular dysfunction. These disorders are called pseudo-Bartter syndrome. In this paper we present 2 cases of pseudo-Bartter syndrome related among to other things to overuse of diuretic drugs.

  17. Mortality in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Kavanagh, Sophie J.; Smith, Arabella; Evans, Elizabeth J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Taffe, John

    2006-01-01

    Persons with Prader-Willi syndrome have been known to have a high mortality rate. However, intellectual disability, which usually accompanies Prader-Willi syndrome, is also associated with a higher mortality rate than in the general population. In this study, the death rates in a longitudinal cohort of people with Prader-Willi syndrome are…

  18. Genetic syndromes associated with overgrowth in childhood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Overgrowth syndromes comprise a diverse group of conditions with unique clinical, behavioral and molecular genetic features. While considerable overlap in presentation sometimes exists, advances in identification of the precise etiology of specific overgrowth disorders continue to improve clinicians' ability to make an accurate diagnosis. Among them, this paper introduces two classic genetic overgrowth syndromes: Sotos syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Historically, the diagnosis was based entirely on clinical findings. However, it is now understood that Sotos syndrome is caused by a variety of molecular genetic alterations resulting in haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene at chromosome 5q35 and that Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is caused by heterogeneous abnormalities in the imprinting of a number of growth regulatory genes within chromosome 11p15 in the majority of cases. Interestingly, the 11p15 imprinting region is also associated with Russell-Silver syndrome which is a typical growth retardation syndrome. Opposite epigenetic alterations in 11p15 result in opposite clinical features shown in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Russell-Silver syndrome. Although the exact functions of the causing genes have not yet been completely understood, these overgrowth syndromes can be good models to clarify the complex basis of human growth and help to develop better-directed therapies in the future. PMID:24904861

  19. Self Concept in People with Williams Syndrome and Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plesa-Skwerer, Daniela; Sullivan, Kate; Joffre, Kristen; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This study explored self concepts in matched groups of adolescents and adults with Williams syndrome (WS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), using Damon and Hart's [Self-understanding in Childhood and Adolescence, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1988] semi-structured interview. The main findings were that the WS participants were more…

  20. [Münchausen syndrome by proxy].

    PubMed

    Berent, Dominika; Florkowski, Antoni; Gałecki, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Münchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP), is a psychiatric disorder, a particular form of child abuse. An impaired emotional relationship exists mainly between the mother and her child. According to the variety of victims' symptoms, all medicine doctors may deal with this syndrome in every day clinical practice. Still insufficient knowledge about the syndrome and its' rare consideration in the differential diagnosis result in only severe, potentially lethal cases recognition. For many years the rest remains a source of a long-term physical and mental injuries in victims. About 30 years from the first attempt to precisely point the signalling symptoms for a proper diagnosis, we present the current knowledge on epidemiology, aetiology, diagnostic criteria, advised management and psychological portrait of the mother with the syndrome and her child, the syndrome's victim.

  1. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Gidding, Corrie E; Loeffen, Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Mensenkamp, Arjen; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. An 8-year-old girl was diagnosed with CMMR-D syndrome after she developed a brain tumour at the age of 4 and a T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma at the age of 6. She had multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and died of myelodysplastic syndrome at the age of 11. In children with cancer CMMR-D syndrome can be recognized particularly if there are multiple primary malignancies and skin hyperpigmentations and hypopigmentations. The parents of these children are at high risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer (Lynch syndrome), amongst others.

  2. [A patient with Noonan syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bins, A; Gortzak, R A Th

    2013-12-01

    Noonan syndrome is a relatively common autosomal dominant genetic disorder which is characterised by typical facial features, congenital heart diseases and small stature. In 50% of the cases the syndrome is caused by a mutation on the PTPN11-gen. The expression of symptoms associated with Noonan syndrome can be very mild in nature and facial features usually become less pronounced with age, which can sometimes make a correct diagnosis more difficult. Despite a wide range of associated symptoms most adults with Noonan syndrome can be self-sustaining, with a good quality of life. It is important that the dentist is well-informed about this syndrome due to the heart diseases and bleeding disorders which can be present with these patients and may influence a dentist's choice of therapy when invasive treatment is indicated.

  3. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Areias, Cristina Maria; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Melo, Paulo; Andrade, David

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption. PMID:21876971

  4. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Areias, Cristina Maria; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Melo, Paulo; Andrade, David

    2011-01-01

    Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  5. Lynch syndrome and Lynch syndrome mimics: The growing complex landscape of hereditary colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carethers, John M; Stoffel, Elena M

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) was previously synonymous with Lynch syndrome; however, identification of the role of germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes has made it possible to differentiate Lynch syndrome from other conditions associated with familial colorectal cancer (CRC). Broadly, HNPCC may be dichotomized into conditions that demonstrate defective DNA MMR and microsatellite instability (MSI) vs those conditions that demonstrate intact DNA MMR. Conditions characterized by MMR deficient CRCs include Lynch syndrome (germline MMR mutation), Lynch-like syndrome (biallelic somatic MMR mutations), constitutional MMR deficiency syndrome (biallelic germline MMR mutations), and sporadic MSI CRC (somatic biallelic methylation of MLH1). HNPCC conditions with intact DNA MMR associated with familial CRC include polymerase proofreading associated polyposis and familial colorectal cancer type X. Although next generation sequencing technologies have elucidated the genetic cause for some HNPCC conditions, others remain genetically undefined. Differentiating between Lynch syndrome and the other HNPCC disorders has profound implications for cancer risk assessment and surveillance of affected patients and their at-risk relatives. Clinical suspicion coupled with molecular tumor analysis and testing for germline mutations can help differentiate the clinical mimicry within HNPCC and facilitate diagnosis and management. PMID:26309352

  6. Lynch syndrome and Lynch syndrome mimics: The growing complex landscape of hereditary colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Carethers, John M; Stoffel, Elena M

    2015-08-21

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) was previously synonymous with Lynch syndrome; however, identification of the role of germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes has made it possible to differentiate Lynch syndrome from other conditions associated with familial colorectal cancer (CRC). Broadly, HNPCC may be dichotomized into conditions that demonstrate defective DNA MMR and microsatellite instability (MSI) vs those conditions that demonstrate intact DNA MMR. Conditions characterized by MMR deficient CRCs include Lynch syndrome (germline MMR mutation), Lynch-like syndrome (biallelic somatic MMR mutations), constitutional MMR deficiency syndrome (biallelic germline MMR mutations), and sporadic MSI CRC (somatic biallelic methylation of MLH1). HNPCC conditions with intact DNA MMR associated with familial CRC include polymerase proofreading associated polyposis and familial colorectal cancer type X. Although next generation sequencing technologies have elucidated the genetic cause for some HNPCC conditions, others remain genetically undefined. Differentiating between Lynch syndrome and the other HNPCC disorders has profound implications for cancer risk assessment and surveillance of affected patients and their at-risk relatives. Clinical suspicion coupled with molecular tumor analysis and testing for germline mutations can help differentiate the clinical mimicry within HNPCC and facilitate diagnosis and management.

  7. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000085.htm Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in some ...

  8. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  9. Noonan syndrome – a new survey

    PubMed Central

    Tafazoli, Alireza; Eshraghi, Peyman; Koleti, Zahra Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with vast heterogeneity in clinical and genetic features. Various symptoms have been reported for this abnormality such as short stature, unusual facial characteristics, congenital heart abnormalities, developmental complications, and an elevated tumor incidence rate. Noonan syndrome shares clinical features with other rare conditions, including LEOPARD syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair, and Costello syndrome. Germline mutations in the RAS-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signal transduction pathway are responsible for NS and other related disorders. Noonan syndrome diagnosis is primarily based on clinical features, but molecular testing should be performed to confirm it in patients. Due to the high number of genes associated with NS and other RASopathy disorders, next-generation sequencing is the best choice for diagnostic testing. Patients with NS also have higher risk for leukemia and specific solid tumors. Age-specific guidelines for the management of NS are available. PMID:28144274

  10. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic

  11. Urinary Peptides in Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solaas, K. M.; Skjeldal, O.; Gardner, M. L. G.; Kase, B. F.; Reichelt, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    A study found a significantly higher level of peptides in the urine of 53 girls with Rett syndrome compared with controls. The elevation was similar to that in 35 girls with infantile autism. Levels of peptides were lower in girls with classic Rett syndrome than those with congenital Rett syndrome. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  12. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Naoki; Kita, Nobuyuki; Bandoh, Shuji; Tadokoro, Akira; Ishii, Tomoya; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Matsunaga, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are signs or symptoms that occur as a result of organ or tissue damage at locations remote from the site of the primary tumor or metastases. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer can impair various organ functions and include neurologic, endocrine, dermatologic, rheumatologic, hematologic, and ophthalmological syndromes, as well as glomerulopathy and coagulopathy (Trousseau’s syndrome). The histological type of lung cancer is generally dependent on the associated syndrome, the two most common of which are humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy in squamous cell carcinoma and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in small cell lung cancer. The symptoms often precede the diagnosis of the associated lung cancer, especially when the symptoms are neurologic or dermatologic. The proposed mechanisms of paraneoplastic processes include the aberrant release of humoral mediators, such as hormones and hormone-like peptides, cytokines, and antibodies. Treating the underlying cancer is generally the most effective therapy for paraneoplastic syndromes, and treatment soon after symptom onset appears to offer the best potential for symptom improvement. In this article, we review the diagnosis, potential mechanisms, and treatments of a wide variety of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer. PMID:25114839

  13. Second-Impact Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Sarah; Battin, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Sports-related injuries are among the more common causes of injury in adolescents that can result in concussion and its sequelae, postconcussion syndrome and second-impact syndrome (SIS). Students who experience multiple brain injuries within a short period of time (hours, days, or weeks) may suffer catastrophic or fatal reactions related to SIS.…

  14. Lynch syndrome-related small intestinal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Jun, Sun-Young; Lee, Eui-Jin; Kim, Mi-Ju; Chun, Sung Min; Bae, Young Kyung; Hong, Soon Uk; Choi, Jene; Kim, Joon Mee; Jang, Kee-Taek; Kim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Gwang Il; Jung, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ghilsuk; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2017-03-28

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and is associated with increased risk of malignancies in multiple organs. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas are common initial manifestations of Lynch syndrome. To define the incidence and characteristics of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas, meticulous familial and clinical histories were obtained from 195 patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma, and MMR protein immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, MLH1 methylation, and germline mutational analyses were performed. Lynch syndrome was confirmed in eight patients (4%), all of whom had synchronous/metachronous malignancies without noticeable familial histories. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas were the first clinical manifestation in 37% (3/8) of Lynch syndrome patients, and second malignancies developed within 5 years in 63% (5/8). The patients with accompanying Lynch syndrome were younger (≤50 years; P=0.04) and more likely to have mucinous adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and tended to survive longer (P=0.11) than those with sporadic cases. A meticulous patient history taking, MMR protein immunolabeling, and germline MMR gene mutational analysis are important for the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas. Identifying Lynch syndrome in patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma can be beneficial for the early detection and treatment of additional Lynch syndrome-related cancers, especially in patients who are young or have mucinous adenocarcinomas.

  15. Lynch syndrome-related small intestinal adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sun-Young; Lee, Eui-Jin; Kim, Mi-Ju; Chun, Sung Min; Bae, Young Kyung; Hong, Soon Uk; Choi, Jene; Kim, Joon Mee; Jang, Kee-Taek; Kim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Gwang Il; Jung, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ghilsuk; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2017-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and is associated with increased risk of malignancies in multiple organs. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas are common initial manifestations of Lynch syndrome. To define the incidence and characteristics of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas, meticulous familial and clinical histories were obtained from 195 patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma, and MMR protein immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, MLH1 methylation, and germline mutational analyses were performed. Lynch syndrome was confirmed in eight patients (4%), all of whom had synchronous/metachronous malignancies without noticeable familial histories. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas were the first clinical manifestation in 37% (3/8) of Lynch syndrome patients, and second malignancies developed within 5 years in 63% (5/8). The patients with accompanying Lynch syndrome were younger (≤50 years; P=0.04) and more likely to have mucinous adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and tended to survive longer (P=0.11) than those with sporadic cases. A meticulous patient history taking, MMR protein immunolabeling, and germline MMR gene mutational analysis are important for the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas. Identifying Lynch syndrome in patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma can be beneficial for the early detection and treatment of additional Lynch syndrome-related cancers, especially in patients who are young or have mucinous adenocarcinomas. PMID:28206961

  16. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Şereflican, Betül; Tuman, Bengü; Şereflican, Murat; Halıcıoğlu, Sıddıka; Özyalvaçlı, Gülzade; Bayrak, Seval

    2017-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare multisystemic disease inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. It is characterized by numerous basal cell carcinoma of the skin, jaw cysts, and skeletal anomalies such as frontal bossing, vertebral anomalies, palmoplantar pits, and falx cerebri calcification. There is a tendency to tumors including medullablastoma, fibroma, rabdomyoma, leiomyosarcoma etc.. The diagnosis is based on major and minor clinical and radiologic criteria. Early diagnosis and treatment are of utmost importance in reducing the severity of long-term sequelae of this syndrome. In this article, we present a 15-year-old boy who was admitted to our clinic with brown-black papules and plaques on his scalp and was thought to have Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. He had a history of medulloblastoma that was treated with surgical resection followed by cranial radiotherapy and unilateral retinoblastoma. We present this case, because association of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and retinoblastoma has not been described previously in the literature and we aimed to draw attention to radiation-induced basal cell carcinomas. PMID:29062253

  17. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Şereflican, Betül; Tuman, Bengü; Şereflican, Murat; Halıcıoğlu, Sıddıka; Özyalvaçlı, Gülzade; Bayrak, Seval

    2017-09-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare multisystemic disease inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. It is characterized by numerous basal cell carcinoma of the skin, jaw cysts, and skeletal anomalies such as frontal bossing, vertebral anomalies, palmoplantar pits, and falx cerebri calcification. There is a tendency to tumors including medullablastoma, fibroma, rabdomyoma, leiomyosarcoma etc.. The diagnosis is based on major and minor clinical and radiologic criteria. Early diagnosis and treatment are of utmost importance in reducing the severity of long-term sequelae of this syndrome. In this article, we present a 15-year-old boy who was admitted to our clinic with brown-black papules and plaques on his scalp and was thought to have Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. He had a history of medulloblastoma that was treated with surgical resection followed by cranial radiotherapy and unilateral retinoblastoma. We present this case, because association of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and retinoblastoma has not been described previously in the literature and we aimed to draw attention to radiation-induced basal cell carcinomas.

  18. Familial intrahepatic cholestatic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Riely, C A

    1987-05-01

    This discussion has illustrated the enormous variety found within the category of familial intrahepatic cholestasis. It has also demonstrated how much more there is to learn about these fascinating disorders, which may be examples of experiments in nature on bile formation. This analysis should be recognized to be the author's own, and there is much debate about this classification. For example, some workers in this field contend that North American Indian cholestasis is in reality Byler's syndrome. Such an identity seems unlikely, given the differences between the two syndromes (Table 2). This is a field that is changing rapidly. Recently, a new cholestatic syndrome, bearing some similarities to benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, but dissimilar in several ways, has been reported. There is evidence that cholestasis of pregnancy may be inherited as an autosomal dominant, sex-limited trait. If further studies confirm a genetic etiology, this syndrome would be the most common form of familial intrahepatic cholestasis. The assessment of any individual case remains difficult, particularly early in the course. Table 2 can serve as a guide to the differential diagnosis of these conditions. When faced with a neonate with jaundice, all of the usual causes must be ruled out first. The pattern of bile acids in serum is useful for ruling out Zellweger's syndrome. A good family history and physical examination, particularly of the heart, are important. An ophthalmologic examination by a specialist, often under anesthesia, and a spine radiograph can be useful in confirming a diagnosis of Alagille's syndrome. A liver biopsy, carefully interpreted with input from the clinician, is useful in pointing toward one direction or another. Often a firm conclusion cannot be reached, or is reached prematurely, so the clinician would be advised to inform the parents of all diagnostic possibilities in order to avoid false hopes or unwarranted depression. The diagnostic pitfalls to be

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Saethre-Chotzen syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saethre-Chotzen syndrome Johns Hopkins Collaboration for Craniofacial Development and Disorders MalaCards: saethre-chotzen syndrome Orphanet: Saethre-Chotzen syndrome Seattle Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (4 ...

  20. Discriminating Down Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome Based on Language Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Sterling, Audra M.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the receptive and expressive language profiles of verbally expressive children and adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS) and those with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and examined the extent to which these profiles reliably differentiate the diagnostic groups. A total of twenty-four verbal participants with DS (mean age: 12 years),…

  1. Syndrome by Any Other Name. . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Drew

    2008-01-01

    The word "syndrome" is one of those words that has slipped into one's vocabulary with few realizing what exactly it means or all the implications it carries. The word "syndrome" can be defined as "a group of signs and symptoms that occur together and characterize a particular abnormality or condition." Typically, a syndrome will be defined by…

  2. A Journey with Klinefelter Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cover, Virginia Isaacs

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience having a son with Klinefelter Syndrome. Klinefelter Syndrome, also known as 47,XXY, is estimated to occur in 1 out of 600 males, making it the most common chromosomal disorder. Babies with Klinefelter Syndrome rarely have any physical differences that are detectable, which is the reason that so few…

  3. Clival Malformations in CHARGE Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, E S; Whitehead, M T

    2018-06-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a multisystemic congenital disorder, most commonly including coloboma, heart malformations, choanal atresia, developmental delay, and genital and ear anomalies. The diagnostic criteria for CHARGE syndrome have been refined with time. However, limited reports describe skull base and craniocervical junction abnormalities. Recently, a coronal clival cleft has been identified in association with CHARGE syndrome. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of clival pathology in CHARGE syndrome. In this retrospective study, the CT/MR imaging data base at a single academic children's hospital was queried for the phrase "CHARGE syndrome" during a 17-year period (2001-2017). Electronic medical records were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis. Images were assessed for skull base anomalies, specifically clival hypoplasia and dysplasia. The search yielded 42 examinations (21 CTs and 21 MRIs) from 15 distinct patients (mean age, 4.1 ± 5.6 years; range, 2 days to 19 years). CHARGE syndrome diagnosis was confirmed either by clinical and genetic testing ( n = 6) or by clinical diagnosis only ( n = 9). A coronal clival cleft was identified in 87% of patients (37 examinations, n = 13 patients), either partial (53%) or complete (33%). Clival hypoplasia without clefting was present in all 5 examinations from the remaining 2 patients. Clival pathology is universal in CHARGE syndrome. Coronal clival clefts are extremely common, representing a useful additional diagnostic finding. Detection of a clival cleft should alert the radiologist to examine the palate, choana, eyes, ears, and olfactory centers for other signs of CHARGE syndrome. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. Down syndrome, RASopathies, and other rare syndromes.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Christian P; Izraeli, Shai

    2017-04-01

    In this article we discuss the occurrence of myeloid neoplasms in patients with a range of syndromes that are due to germline defects of the RAS signaling pathway and in patients with trisomy 21. Both RAS mutations and trisomy 21 are common somatic events contributing to leukemogenis. Thus, the increased leukemia risk observed in children affected by these conditions is biologically highly plausible. Children with myeloid neoplasms in the context of these syndromes require different treatments than children with sporadic myeloid neoplasms and provide an opportunity to study the role of trisomy 21 and RAS signaling during leukemogenesis and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Candidate gene association studies in syndromic and non-syndromic cleft lip and palate

    SciTech Connect

    Daack-Hirsch, S.; Basart, A.; Frischmeyer, P.

    1994-09-01

    Using ongoing case ascertainment through a birth defects registry, we have collected 219 nuclear families with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate and 111 families with a collection of syndromic forms. Syndromic cases include 24 with recognized forms and 72 with unrecognized syndromes. Candidate gene studies as well as genome-wide searches for evidence of microdeletions and isodisomy are currently being carried out. Candidate gene association studies, to date, have made use of PCR-based polymorphisms for TGFA, MSX1, CLPG13 (a CA repeat associated with a human homologue of a locus that results in craniofacial dysmorphogenesis in the mouse) and an STRP foundmore » in a Van der Woude syndrome microdeletion. Control tetranucleotide repeats, which insure that population-based differences are not responsible for any observed associations, are also tested. Studies of the syndromic cases have included the same list of candidate genes searching for evidence of microdeletions and a genome-wide search using tri- and tetranucleotide polymorphic markers to search for isodisomy or structural rearrangements. Significant associations have previously been identified for TGFA, and, in this report, identified for MSX1 and nonsyndromic cleft palate only (p = 0.04, uncorrected). Preliminary results of the genome-wide scan for isodisomy has returned no true positives and there has been no evidence for microdeletion cases.« less

  6. Genetics Home Reference: uncombable hair syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Uncombable hair syndrome Uncombable hair syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Uncombable hair syndrome is a condition that is characterized by ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Peters plus syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Peters plus syndrome Peters plus syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Peters plus syndrome is an inherited condition that is ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Dubin-Johnson syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Dubin-Johnson syndrome Dubin-Johnson syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Dubin-Johnson syndrome is a condition characterized by jaundice, which ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: triple X syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Triple X syndrome Triple X syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Triple X syndrome , also called trisomy X or 47,XXX, ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome is a disorder characterized by eye ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Russell-Silver syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Russell-Silver syndrome Russell-Silver syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Russell-Silver syndrome is a growth disorder characterized by ...

  12. Long-term results of silicone expander for moderate and severe Brown syndrome (Brown syndrome "plus").

    PubMed

    Stager, D R; Parks, M M; Stager, D R; Pesheva, M

    1999-12-01

    The treatment of Brown syndrome has been undergoing an evolution toward more effective procedures with fewer operative interventions. Dr Kenneth Wright has introduced a procedure of superior oblique muscle tenotomy with a silicone expander to reduce the incidence of overcorrection. There was a retrospective study of 20 eyes of 19 consecutive patients with moderate or severe Brown syndrome (Brown syndrome "plus"). Follow-up ranged from 12 to 72 months. The expander, which varies 6 to 10 mm in length, was placed in all patients in the tenotomized superior oblique muscle tendon 5 mm nasal to the nasal border of the superior rectus muscle using 7-0 or 8-0 Prolene suture without violating the inner layer of the intermuscular septum. The intermuscular septum was closed over the silicone expander. One hundred percent of patients had resolution of the down shoot in adduction and some or full ability to elevate the eye in adduction. Twenty percent of patients required reoperation (12.5% using 5-8 mm expanders) for overcorrection. Restriction of downgaze was not seen postoperatively. Patients often show an undercorrection 1 to 6 months postoperatively and improve or occasionally overcorrect at 1 to 2 years postoperatively. One patient with a 10-mm expander extruded the implant. Placement of a 5- to 8-mm silicone expander in the tenotomized superior oblique muscle tendon is an effective means of correcting Brown syndrome with a low rate of reoperation. Initial undercorrection should not discourage the surgeon because improvement may continue for up to 3 years. The goal of treatment should be to convert a moderate or severe Brown syndrome (Brown syndrome plus) to a mild Brown syndrome ("true" Brown syndrome). This technique reduces the need for either simultaneous or subsequent inferior oblique muscle weakening and represents an advance in the treatment of Brown syndrome.

  13. Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tagra, Sunita; Talwar, Amrita Kaur; Walia, Rattan Lal Singh; Sidhu, Puneet

    2006-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare inherited and genetically heterogenous disorder of neural crest cell development. Four distinct subtypes showing marked interfamilial and intrafamilial variability have been described. We report a girl showing constellation of congenital hearing impairment with 110 dB and 105 dB loss in right and left ear respectively, hypoplastic blue iridis, white forelock, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal root. Other affected relatives of the family, with variable features of the syndrome, have been depicted in the pedigree.

  14. Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Srivastava, Rohit

    2005-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a rare, progressive, neurodevelopmental disorder that has been reported only in the girl child. We describe the case of a 6.9-year-old girl with Rett syndrome. She had normal development till the age of 2 years. However, over the next 4–5 months, she lost her acquired, purposeful hand skills; expressive and receptive language; and reciprocal social interaction; and gradually developed a broad-based gait and typical midline stereotyped hand movements (mouthing, rubbing). PMID:20711295

  15. Noonan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Amy E; Allanson, Judith E; Tartaglia, Marco; Gelb, Bruce D

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a genetic multisystem disorder characterised by distinctive facial features, developmental delay, learning difficulties, short stature, congenital heart disease, renal anomalies, lymphatic malformations, and bleeding difficulties. Mutations that cause Noonan syndrome alter genes encoding proteins with roles in the RAS–MAPK pathway, leading to pathway dysregulation. Management guidelines have been developed. Several clinically relevant genotype–phenotype correlations aid risk assessment and patient management. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease could help development of pharmacogenetic treatments. PMID:23312968

  16. Turner syndrome and meningioma: support for a possible increased risk of neoplasia in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pier, Danielle B; Nunes, Fabio P; Plotkin, Scott R; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Kim, James C; Shih, Helen A; Brastianos, Priscilla; Lin, Angela E

    2014-01-01

    Neoplasia is uncommon in Turner syndrome, although there is some evidence that brain tumors are more common in Turner syndrome patients than in the general population. We describe a woman with Turner syndrome (45,X) with a meningioma, in whom a second neoplasia, basal cell carcinomas of the scalp and nose, developed five years later in the absence of therapeutic radiation. Together with 7 cases of Turner syndrome with meningioma from a population-based survey in the United Kingdom, and 3 other isolated cases in the literature, we review this small number of patients for evidence of risk factors related to Turner syndrome, such as associated structural anomalies or prior treatment. We performed histological and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of 22q (NF2 locus) analyses of the meningeal tumor to search for possible molecular determinants. We are not able to prove causation between these two entities, but suggest that neoplasia may be a rare associated medical problem in Turner syndrome. Additional case reports and extension of population-based studies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Down Syndrome (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body ... people who have it. What's Life Like for Kids With Down Syndrome? Many kids with Down syndrome ...

  18. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedlackova syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an…

  19. [Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-12-23

    Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Reversible splenial lesion syndrome after blood transfusion presents callosal disconnection syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xinxin; Su, Wen; Chen, Haibo

    2018-06-01

    Reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) is a reversible condition with an excellent prognosis in most patients. The clinical features include altered states of consciousness, delirium, headache, and seizures, but no callosal disconnection syndromes have been described in RESLES. We presented a 57-year-old patient with alien hand syndrome, autotopagnosia, gait disorders, and left ideomotor apraxia after blood transfusion. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a few regions with high signal intensity in the genu, body, and splenium of the right corpus callosum on diffusion weighted images. Cerebrovascular examination was unremarkable. He was diagnosed with RESLES and callosal disconnection syndrome. The patient received symptomatic and supportive treatment in our hospital. He recovered to baseline on following up of 6 months and abnormalities on brain MRI completely disappeared. Neurologists should be aware of the symptoms of callosal disconnection syndrome in RESLES. In addition, caution should be taken when transfusing blood products in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding.

  1. [Clinical study of area of Jiangsu province of polycystic ovarian syndrome correlation distribution of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome type and improper diet].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Gao, Yue-Ping

    2014-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most popular diseases in obstetrics and gynecology research at internal and abroad at present, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)in the clinical treatment of the disease have the advantage. Clinical epidemiological study of descriptive research method this research adopts investigation, observation of TCM syndromes and improper diet through 401 cases in Jiangsu Province confirmed PCOS patients, to explore the relationship between TCM syndrome type distribution and improper diet factors, and to provide the clinical basis for further etiology of this disease research. TCM syndrome type distribution of the disease is kidney deficiency, phlegm stagnation syndrome, qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome, syndrome of dampness heat of liver channel and is composed of 4 basic syndromes and formed complex syndrome, and the composite and syndrome type (60.85%); combined with the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine dialectical, Pure empirical syndrome this disease (46.88%), followed by the actual card (45.39%), pure deficiency is rare. Improper diet factors associated with the disease, in which improper diet with different TCM syndrome type distribution significantly related. Stagnation of phlegm dampness syndrome is the main syndrome of the disease type, improper diet factors and every syndrome PCOS type distribution is as follows: the partial eclipse fatness greasy with basic syndromes of phlegm dampness stagnation of kidney deficiency syndrome, the nephrasthenia syndrome is less; eating spicy stimulation by basic syndromes of stagnation of Qi and blood stasis; eating cold people the basic certificate type of qi stagnation and blood stasis; The diet of patients are more prone to stagnation of phlegm dampness syndrome.

  2. Genetic modifiers of Velo- cardio- facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2009-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans, is characterized by craniofacial, parathyroid and thymic defects as well as cardiac outflow tract malformations. Most patients have a similar hemizygous 3 million base pair deletion on 22q11.2. Studies in mouse have shown that Tbx1, a T- box containing transcription factor present on the deleted region, is likely responsible for the etiology of the syndrome. Furthermore, mutations in TBX1 have been found in rare non-deleted patients. Despite having the same sized deletion, most VCFS/DGS patients exhibit significant clinical variability. Stochastic, environmental and genetic factors likely modify the phenotype of patients with the disorder. Here, we review mouse genetics studies which may help identify genetic modifiers for VCFS/DGS. PMID:18636633

  3. Orthostatic intolerance and chronic fatigue syndrome associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rowe, P C; Barron, D F; Calkins, H; Maumenee, I H; Tong, P Y; Geraghty, M T

    1999-10-01

    To report chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) associated with both Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and orthostatic intolerance. Case series of adolescents referred to a tertiary clinic for the evaluation of CFS. All subjects had 2-dimensional echocardiography, tests of orthostatic tolerance, and examinations by both a geneticist and an ophthalmologist. Twelve patients (11 female), median age 15.5 years, met diagnostic criteria for CFS and EDS, and all had either postural tachycardia or neurally mediated hypotension in response to orthostatic stress. Six had classical-type EDS and 6 had hypermobile-type EDS. Among patients with CFS and orthostatic intolerance, a subset also has EDS. We propose that the occurrence of these syndromes together can be attributed to the abnormal connective tissue in dependent blood vessels of those with EDS, which permits veins to distend excessively in response to ordinary hydrostatic pressures. This in turn leads to increased venous pooling and its hemodynamic and symptomatic consequences. These observations suggest that a careful search for hypermobility and connective tissue abnormalities should be part of the evaluation of patients with CFS and orthostatic intolerance syndromes.

  4. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Severe Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I (Hurler Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Braunlin, Elizabeth; Steinberger, Julia; DeFor, Todd; Orchard, Paul; Kelly, Aaron S

    2018-06-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation is a life-saving procedure, but one associated with increasing long-term cardiovascular risk requiring frequent long-term follow-up. This therapy has significantly lengthened survival in mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (Hurler syndrome), a disease with known coronary artery involvement. Metabolic syndrome-a constellation of central obesity, high blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose-is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, and occurs when any 3 or more of these 5 components is present within a single individual. The incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components is poorly defined after transplantation for Hurler syndrome. Chart review of all long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation for Hurler syndrome ≥9 years of age for factors comprising the metabolic syndrome: obesity, high blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose. Sixty-three patients were evaluated, 20 of whom had components of the metabolic syndrome available for review. There was no significant difference in age at transplantation, sex, number of transplants, pretransplant radiation, or percent engraftment between those with and without these data. Median follow-up after transplantation for the 20 patients with data was 14.3 years. Only 1 (5%) patient of this group fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Fifty-three percent of the patients had 1 or more components of metabolic syndrome: the most common was high blood pressure occurring in 40%. Metabolic syndrome is uncommon in this cohort of long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation for Hurler syndrome but almost half of the patients had 1 or more components of the syndrome, with high blood pressure being the most common. Further studies are needed to develop guidelines in this diagnosis as well as other nonmalignant diseases of children

  5. Gorlin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Álvarez, I; González-Sarmiento, R; Fernández-López, E

    2018-04-01

    Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Of particular importance is the PTCH1 gene. The disease is characterized by the development of multiple basal cell carcinomas at young ages. These tumors may present with other skin manifestations such as palmoplantar pits and with extracutaneous manifestations such as odontogenic keratocysts and medulloblastoma. Although the dermatologist may be key for recognizing clinical suspicion of the syndrome, a multidisciplinary team is usually necessary for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Skin treatment may be complicated due to the large number of basal cell carcinomas and the extent of involvement. In recent years, new drugs that inhibit targets in the sonic hedgehog pathway have been developed. Although these agents appear promising options for patients with Gorlin syndrome, their efficacy is limited by adverse effects and the development of resistance. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhambhani, Vikas; Muenke, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a common genetic disorder that causes multiple congenital abnormalities and a large number of potential health conditions. Most affected individuals have characteristic facial features that evolve with age; a broad, webbed neck; increased bleeding tendency; and a high incidence of congenital heart disease, failure to thrive, short stature, feeding difficulties, sternal deformity, renal malformation, pubertal delay, cryptorchidism, developmental or behavioral problems, vision problems, hearing loss, and lymphedema. Familial recurrence is consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, but most cases are due to de novo mutations. Diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical features, but may be missed in mildly affected patients. Molecular genetic testing can confirm diagnosis in 70% of cases and has important implications for genetic counseling and management. Most patients with Noonan syndrome are intellectually normal as adults, but some may require multidisciplinary evaluation and regular follow-up care. Age-based Noonan syndrome-specific growth charts and treatment guidelines are available.

  7. Discourse Skills of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Martin, Gary E.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Harris, Adrianne A.; Foreman, Jamila; Nelson, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the conversational discourse skills of boys who have fragile X syndrome with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with those of boys with Down syndrome and boys who are typically developing. Method: Participants were boys who have fragile X syndrome with (n = 26) and without (n = 28) ASD, boys with Down syndrome…

  8. Gain-of-Function Mutations in RIT1 Cause Noonan Syndrome, a RAS/MAPK Pathway Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Yoko; Niihori, Tetsuya; Banjo, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Seiji; Kurosawa, Kenji; Ogata, Tsutomu; Takada, Fumio; Yano, Michihiro; Ando, Toru; Hoshika, Tadataka; Barnett, Christopher; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kawame, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Okutani, Takahiro; Nagashima, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Funayama, Ryo; Nagashima, Takeshi; Nakayama, Keiko; Inoue, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Yusuke; Ogura, Toshihiko; Matsubara, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    RAS GTPases mediate a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Recent studies have revealed that germline mutations and mosaicism for classical RAS mutations, including those in HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS, cause a wide spectrum of genetic disorders. These include Noonan syndrome and related disorders (RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase [RAS/MAPK] pathway syndromes, or RASopathies), nevus sebaceous, and Schimmelpenning syndrome. In the present study, we identified a total of nine missense, nonsynonymous mutations in RIT1, encoding a member of the RAS subfamily, in 17 of 180 individuals (9%) with Noonan syndrome or a related condition but with no detectable mutations in known Noonan-related genes. Clinical manifestations in the RIT1-mutation-positive individuals are consistent with those of Noonan syndrome, which is characterized by distinctive facial features, short stature, and congenital heart defects. Seventy percent of mutation-positive individuals presented with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; this frequency is high relative to the overall 20% incidence in individuals with Noonan syndrome. Luciferase assays in NIH 3T3 cells showed that five RIT1 alterations identified in children with Noonan syndrome enhanced ELK1 transactivation. The introduction of mRNAs of mutant RIT1 into 1-cell-stage zebrafish embryos was found to result in a significant increase of embryos with craniofacial abnormalities, incomplete looping, a hypoplastic chamber in the heart, and an elongated yolk sac. These results demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome and show a similar biological effect to mutations in other RASopathy-related genes. PMID:23791108

  9. Morvan syndrome: a rare cause of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Demirbas, Seref; Aykan, Musa Baris; Zengin, Haydar; Mazman, Semir; Saglam, Kenan

    2017-01-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) accounts for an important part of hyponatremia cases. The causes of SIADH can be detected almost always. As a rare disorder, Morvan Syndrome can be defined by the sum of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, autonomic instability and neuropsychiatric features. Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels (Anti - VGKC-Ab) including contactin associated protein-like 2 antibodies (CASPR2-Ab) and leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1 antibodies (LGI1-Ab) were previously known for the potential association with this condition. We present a Morvan Syndrome in a patient who presented with various neuropsychiatric symptoms and SIADH.

  10. Association of Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Bartter's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A C V; Alekya, V; Krishna, M S V V; Alekya, K; Aruna, M; Reddy, M H K; Sangeetha, B; Ram, R; Kumar, V S

    2017-01-01

    Bartter's syndrome is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemia, hypochloremia, metabolic alkalosis, and hyperreninemia with normal blood pressure. Bartter's syndrome is associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of hereditary disorders that affect dental enamel. AI could be part of several syndromes. The enamel renal syndrome is the association of AI and nephrocalcinosis. We report two patients of AI with Bartter's syndrome.

  11. Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome: an X-linked encephalo-tropho-schisis syndrome. 1988.

    PubMed

    Neri, G; Marini, R; Cappa, M; Borrelli, P; Opitz, J M

    2013-11-01

    The following paper by Professor GiovanniNeri and colleagues was originally published in 1988, American Journal of Medical Genetics 30:287–299. This paper represented a seminal work at the time of publication as it not only reported a new family with a disorder that had been called the “gigantism-dysplasia syndrome”, but also suggested naming the condition the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. This eponym has clearly stood “the test of time”, and that designation is now widely accepted. This paper is graciously republished by Wiley-Blackwell in the Special Festschrift issue honoring Professor Neri. We report on another family with the so-called "gigantism-dysplasia syndrome", an X-linked condition characterized by pre-and postnatal overgrowth, characteristic face with apparent coarseness, dysplastic changes in several tissues, and mild intellectual impairment. This condition has been called the Golabi-Rosen syndrome; however, we agree that is the same entity as that described, in a milder form, by Simpson et al. in 1975 and by Behmel et al. in 1984. Therefore, we suggest that this entity be designated the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. The manifestations in affected individuals suggest that this condition represents an X-linked encephalo-tropho-schisis syndrome. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Three patients with hemophagocytic syndrome who developed acute organic brain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shinno, Hideto; Hikasa, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Tatsuo; Fujita, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Osamu; Takebayashi, Minoru; Uchida, Youzou; Nishiura, Tetsuo; Horiguchi, Jun

    2006-01-01

    We describe three patients with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) who developed acute organic brain syndrome. All three presented with high-grade fever and twilight state, and were admitted to our hospital. After admission, delirium developed in all three. As delirium improved, various other psychiatric symptoms, including hallucinations, agitation, hypoactivity, affective lability and insomnia, were noted. When treated with steroid hormones, immunoglobulin and neuroleptics, all patients demonstrated improvement in their psychiatric symptoms, as well as in their general condition and laboratory findings. Ultimately, they all recovered and were discharged. It needs to be noted that organic brain syndrome might be observed at the onset of HPS. Consequently, early diagnosis and treatment for psychiatric symptoms, as well as for HPS, are crucial.

  13. KSC-20161214-JBS-MH-01-0001-L_1011_Pegasus_XL_CYGNSS-3139565_HEVC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-14

    The Orbital ATK L-1011 Stargazer aircraft is at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Attached beneath the Stargazer is the Orbital ATK Pegasus XL with NASA's Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) on board. CYGNSS was processed and prepared for its mission at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. CYGNSS is scheduled for its airborne launch aboard the Pegasus XL rocket from the Skid Strip on Dec. 15. CYGNSS will make frequent and accurate measurements of ocean surface winds throughout the life cycle of tropical storms and hurricanes. The data that CYGNSS provides will enable scientists to probe key air-sea interaction processes that take place near the core of storms, which are rapidly changing and play a critical role in the beginning and intensification of hurricanes.

  14. Recycling and Mantle Stirring Determined by 142Nd/144Nd Isotopic Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, S. B.; Ranen, M. C.

    2004-12-01

    It is now well established that 146Sm was live in the early solar system with an initial uniform 146Sm/144Sm ratio of ~0.008. Harper and Jacobsen (1992) discovered that a sample from Isua (~3.8 Ga old) had a positive 142Nd/144Nd anomaly of 33 ppm when compared to normal terrestrial and chondritic Nd. Furthermore, Jacobsen and Harper (1996) reported results from other Isua as well as Acasta (~4 Ga old) samples. Three other Isua samples had a possible small range (about -15 to +15), while two Acasta samples had no anomalies (normal to within 5 ppm). The presence of 142Nd anomalies at Isua has recently been confirmed by two other groups (Boyet et al. 2003; Caro et al. 2003). The available data demonstrate both the existence of early depleted mantle and that the early mantle was isotopically heterogeneous. As discussed by Jacobsen and Harper (1996), the recycling rate can be determined by tracing the decay of the average 142Nd/144Nd value of the depleted mantle. In addition, by using the 142Nd/144Nd heterogeneity in the depleted mantle through time we can determine the stirring rate of the mantle (Kellogg, Jacobsen and O'Connell, 2002) as a function of time. For this project our goal is to obtain a resolution in 142Nd/144Nd measurements of ~1 ppm. We have thus compared results obtained for the Nd isotope composition and 142Nd enriched standards for three different TIMS instruments: The Finnigan MAT 262 at Harvard, the Isoprobe-T and Finnigan TRITON mass spectrometers in GV Instrument's and Thermo Electron's demo laboratories in Manchester and Bremen, respectively. The Finnigan TRITON was designed in response to a request from the senior author for such an instrument. The results obtained so far demonstrate that all three instruments yield the same 142Nd/144Nd, 143Nd/144Nd and 145Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios to within a few ppm, while 148Nd/144Nd and 150Nd/144Nd ratios agree to within 10-20 ppm, when all ratios are normalized to 146Nd/144Nd using the exponential law. Due to

  15. Radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Snehal S.; Paulino, Arnold C.; Mai, Wei Y.

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: The moyamoya syndrome is an uncommon late complication after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English-language articles, with radiation, radiotherapy, and moyamoya syndrome used as search key words, yielded 33 articles from 1967 to 2002. Results: The series included 54 patients with a median age at initial RT of 3.8 years (range, 0.4 to 47). Age at RT was less than 5 years in 56.3%, 5 to 10 years in 22.9%, 11 to 20 years in 8.3%, 21 to 30 years in 6.3%, 31 to 40 years in 2.1%, and 41 to 50 years in 4.2%.more » Fourteen of 54 patients (25.9%) were diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). The most common tumor treated with RT was low-grade glioma in 37 tumors (68.5%) of which 29 were optic-pathway glioma. The average RT dose was 46.5 Gy (range, 22-120 Gy). For NF-1-positive patients, the average RT dose was 46.5 Gy, and for NF-1-negative patients, it was 58.1 Gy. The median latent period for development of moyamoya syndrome was 40 months after RT (range, 4-240). Radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome occurred in 27.7% of patients by 2 years, 53.2% of patients by 4 years, 74.5% of patients by 6 years, and 95.7% of patients by 12 years after RT. Conclusions: Patients who received RT to the parasellar region at a young age (<5 years) are the most susceptible to moyamoya syndrome. The incidence for moyamoya syndrome continues to increase with time, with half of cases occurring within 4 years of RT and 95% of cases occurring within 12 years. Patients with NF-1 have a lower radiation-dose threshold for development of moyamoya syndrome.« less

  16. [Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Quartier, P; Rodrigues, F; Georgin-Lavialle, S

    2018-04-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are linked to one single gene mutations, however they are associated with 3 syndromes, which are, from the mildest to the most severe phenotype familial cold urticaria, Muckle-Wells syndrome and chronic, infantile, neurologic, cutaneous, articular (CINCA) syndrome also called neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). Autosomic dominant inheritance is present in most cases but in CINCA/NOMID syndrome where neomutations are more common. Mutations in the gene encoding cryopyrin, NLRP3, are associated with deregulation of caspase-1 activity, excessive interleukin-1 production and an autoinflammatory syndrome, which in familial cold urticaria and Muckle-Wells syndrome may be triggered or worsened by exposure to coldness. More and more mutations are described and even somatic mutations that can explain some clinical signs beginning in adulthood. Patients disclose a pseudo-urticarial rash, arthralgia, headaches, sometimes fever, biological inflammation but also, in severe forms of the disease, neurologic inflammation with central deafness, ophthalmologic inflammation, chronic meningitis. Some CINCA/NOMID patients also develop growth cartilage pseudo-tumoral hypertrophy. Natural disease history is usually benign in familial cold urticarial but severe in the other forms, particularly regarding neuro-sensorial involvement. In addition, secondary AA amyloidosis may develop in all forms in the absence of control of chronic inflammation. Anti-interleukin-1 treatment with anakinra, rilonacept or canakinumab induces in most cases complete remission, however sequelae may be present, particularly if central deafness or cartilage bone hypertrophy have already developed. This treatment is also important to prevent secondary amyloidosis or stabilize and even sometimes allow improvement of amyloidosis lesions. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights

  17. Simulator Adaptation Syndrome Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-16

    SIMULATOR ADAPTATION SYNDROME LITERATURE REVIEW 1517 N. Main Street | Royal Oak, MI 48067 Tel...Simulator Adaptation Syndrome Literature Review 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...describe simulator sickness as a syndrome because it has many complex contributing causes and manifests itself with many potential symptoms. A good

  18. The post-pulmonary infarction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sklaroff, H J

    1979-12-01

    Following pulmonary infarction, three patients developed the classical signs and symptoms of the Dressler syndrome associated with persistent left pleural effusion. Each responded dramatically to corticosteroid therapy. While the pathogenesis of this "Post-Pulmonary Infarction syndrome," like the Dressler syndrome, is unclear, the response to corticosteroid therapy is both dramatic and diagnostic and may spare the patient prolonged discomfort and unnecessary diagnostic procedures.

  19. Understanding COPD-overlap syndromes.

    PubMed

    Poh, Tuang Yeow; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; Chan, Adrian Kwok Wai; Yii, Anthony Chau Ang; Yong, Valerie Fei Lee; Tiew, Pei Yee; Koh, Mariko Siyue; Chotirmall, Sanjay Haresh

    2017-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease accounts for a large burden of lung disease. It can 'overlap' with other respiratory diseases including bronchiectasis, fibrosis and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). While COPD alone confers morbidity and mortality, common features with contrasting clinical outcomes can occur in COPD 'overlap syndromes'. Areas covered: Given the large degree of heterogeneity in COPD, individual variation to treatment is adopted based on its observed phenotype, which in turn overlaps with features of other respiratory disease states such as asthma. This is coined asthma-COPD overlap syndrome ('ACOS'). Other examples of such overlapping clinical states include bronchiectasis-COPD ('BCOS'), fibrosis-COPD ('FCOS') and OSA-COPD ('OCOS'). The objective of this review is to highlight similarities and differences between the COPD-overlap syndromes in terms of risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis and potential treatment differences. Expert commentary: As a consequence of COPD overlap syndromes, a transition from the traditional 'one size fits all' treatment approach is necessary. Greater treatment stratification according to clinical phenotype using a precision medicine approach is now required. In this light, it is important to recognize and differentiate COPD overlap syndromes as distinct disease states compared to individual diseases such as asthma, COPD, fibrosis or bronchiectasis.

  20. Eye Development Genes and Known Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Slavotinek, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) are significant eye defects because they can have profound effects on visual acuity. A/M is associated with non-ocular abnormalities in an estimated 33–95% of cases and around 25% of patients have an underlying genetic syndrome that is diagnosable. Syndrome recognition is important for targeted molecular genetic testing, prognosis and for counseling regarding recurrence risks. This review provides clinical and molecular information for several of the commonest syndromes associated with A/M: Anophthalmia-Esophageal-Genital syndrome, caused by SOX2 mutations, Anophthalmia and pituitary abnormalities caused by OTX2 mutations, Matthew-Wood syndrome caused by STRA6 mutations, Oculocardiafaciodental syndrome and Lenz microphthalmia caused by BCOR mutations, Microphthalmia Linear Skin pigmentation syndrome caused by HCCS mutations, Anophthalmia, pituitary abnormalities, polysyndactyly caused by BMP4 mutations and Waardenburg anophthalmia caused by mutations in SMOC1. In addition, we briefly discuss the ocular and extraocular phenotypes associated with several other important eye developmental genes, including GDF6, VSX2, RAX, SHH, SIX6 and PAX6. PMID:22005280

  1. [The syndrome of Cotard: an overview].

    PubMed

    Van den Eynde, F; Debruyne, H; Portzky, M; De Saedeleer, S; Audenaert, K

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing controversy about whether psychiatric illnesses should be divided into categories. One of the reasons is that such a categorial system, by its very nature, cannot provide a detailed description of specific psychopathological symptoms. A patient with Cotard's syndrome, for instance, is characterised by a nihilistic delusion relating to his own body and the syndrome does not fit into any one category. We report on a case of Cotard's syndrome encountered at our clinic. To provide an overview of the characteristics of Cotard's syndrome, including its history, phenomenology, pathogenesis and treatment. A Medline search was conducted for the period 1980-2006 using the search term 'Cotard$'. This resulted in 68 publications, of which 18 were not used. Cross-references were used as well. Cotard's syndrome cannot be fitted unambiguously into any one category of the current classification system. Current evidence regarding Cotard's syndrome is based mainly on case studies and therefore no clarity can be obtained about the various aspects of the syndrome, such as prevalence, pathogenesis, treatment.

  2. Research on culture-bound syndromes: new directions.

    PubMed

    Guarnaccia, P J; Rogler, L H

    1999-09-01

    The unprecedented inclusion of culture-bound syndromes in DSM-IV provides the opportunity for highlighting the need to study such syndromes and the occasion for developing a research agenda to study them. The growing ethnic and cultural diversity of the U.S. population presents a challenge to the mental health field to develop truly cross-cultural approaches to mental health research and services. In this article, the authors provide a critique of previous analyses of the relationship between culture-bound syndromes and psychiatric diagnoses. They highlight the problems in previous classificatory exercises, which tend to focus on subsuming the culture-bound syndromes into psychiatric categories and fail to fully investigate these syndromes on their own terms. A detailed research program based on four key questions is presented both to understand culture-bound syndromes within their cultural context and to analyze the relationship between these syndromes and psychiatric disorders. Results of over a decade of research on ataques de nervios, a Latino-Caribbean cultural syndrome, are used to illustrate this research program. The four questions focus on the nature of the phenomenon, the social-cultural location of sufferers, the relationship of culture-bound syndromes to psychiatric disorders, and the social and psychiatric history of the syndrome in the life course of the sufferer.

  3. Dermatologic findings in 16 patients with Cockayne syndrome and cerebro-oculo-facial-skeletal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frouin, Eric; Laugel, Vincent; Durand, Myriam; Dollfus, Hélène; Lipsker, Dan

    2013-12-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) and cerebro-oculo-facial-skeletal (COFS) syndrome are autosomal recessive diseases that belong to the family of nucleotide excision repair disorders. Our aim was to describe the cutaneous phenotype of patients with these rare diseases. A systematic dermatologic examination of 16 patients included in a European study of CS was performed. The patients were aged 1 to 28 years. Six patients (38%) had mutations in the Cockayne syndrome A (CSA) gene, and the remaining had Cockayne syndrome B (CSB) gene mutations. Fourteen patients were classified clinically as having CS and 2 as having COFS syndrome. Photosensitivity was present in 75% of the patients and was characterized by sunburn after brief sun exposure. Six patients developed symptoms after short sun exposure through a windshield. Six patients had pigmented macules on sun-exposed skin, but none developed a skin neoplasm. Twelve patients (75%) displayed cyanotic acral edema of the extremities. Eight patients had nail dystrophies and 7 had hair anomalies. The dermatologic findings of 16 cases of CS and COFS syndrome highlight the high prevalence of photosensitivity and hair and nail disorders. Cyanotic acral edema was present in 75% of our patients, a finding not previously reported in CS.

  4. Comparing the Broad Socio-Cognitive Profile of Youth with Williams Syndrome and 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, O.; Feldman, R.; Burg-Malki, M.; Keren, M.; Geva, R.; Diesendruck, G.; Gothelf, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have assessed the socio-cognitive profile in Williams syndrome (WS) and, independently, in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Yet, a cross-syndrome comparison of these abilities between individuals with these two syndromes with known social deficits has not been conducted. Methods: Eighty-two children participated…

  5. [Paraneoplastic syndromes. Associated with lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Carrillo, Francisco Javier; Chávez-Mac Gregor, Mariana; Green-Renner, Dan; Green-Schneeweiss, León

    2003-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are disorders of host organ function occurring at a site remote from the primary tumor and its metastases. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with primary lung cancer are not uncommon, have diverse initial manifestations, and epitomize the systemic nature of human malignant disease. The spectrum of clinical features in patients with paraneoplastic syndromes is very wide. Although diagnosis is often one of exclusion, improved understanding of the pathogenesis involved in some of these syndromes has provided another means of recognizing these disorders and perhaps treating affected patients. In this update, we review paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer, potential mechanisms, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  6. Relationship between chronic nonurological associated somatic syndromes and symptom severity in urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes: baseline evaluation of the MAPP study.

    PubMed

    Krieger, John N; Stephens, Alisa J; Landis, J Richard; Clemens, J Quentin; Kreder, Karl; Lai, H Henry; Afari, Niloofar; Rodríguez, Larissa; Schaeffer, Anthony; Mackey, Sean; Andriole, Gerald L; Williams, David A

    2015-04-01

    We used MAPP data to identify participants with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes only or a chronic functional nonurological associated somatic syndrome in addition to urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes. We characterized these 2 subgroups and explored them using 3 criteria, including 1) MAPP eligibility criteria, 2) self-reported medical history or 3) RICE criteria. Self-reported cross-sectional data were collected on men and women with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes, including predominant symptoms, symptom duration and severity, nonurological associated somatic syndrome symptoms and psychosocial factors. Of 424 participants with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes 162 (38%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome, including irritable bowel syndrome in 93 (22%), fibromyalgia in 15 (4%), chronic fatigue syndrome in 13 (3%) and multiple syndromes in 41 (10%). Of 233 females 103 (44%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome compared to 59 of 191 males (31%) (p = 0.006). Participants with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome had more severe urological symptoms and more frequent depression and anxiety. Of 424 participants 228 (54%) met RICE criteria. Of 228 RICE positive participants 108 (47%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome compared to 54 of 203 RICE negative patients (28%) with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome (p < 0.001). Nonurological associated somatic syndromes represent important clinical characteristics of urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes. Participants with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome have more severe symptoms, longer duration and higher rates of depression and anxiety. RICE positive patients are more likely to have a nonurological associated somatic syndrome and more severe symptoms. Because nonurological associated somatic syndromes are more common in women, future studies must account for this potential confounding factor in urological chronic pelvic pain

  7. [Refeeding syndrome: practical issues].

    PubMed

    Buzzi, M; Limonta, A; Pichard, C; Stirnemann, J

    2015-10-14

    The refeeding syndrome is frequent and potentially deadly, still it is underdiagnosed. It is defined by clinical and biological manifestations that are seen upon refeeding of malnourished patients. It is the consequence of the transition from catabolism to anabolism. Ions intracellular shift caused by insulin and B1 vitamin deficiency are fundamental in the development of this syndrome. Riskconditions are well summarized by the NICE criteria. To avoid refeeding syndrome, it is fundamental to find and correct any electrolytic deficiency and to give thiamine before starting a slow and progressive oral, enteral or parenteral refeeding.

  8. Iliotibial band friction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy. PMID:21063495

  9. [Norrie syndrome (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Valckenberg, P; Scholz, W

    1977-10-01

    The Norrie syndrome, an x-chromosomal linked, recessive genetic disease, is described using ophthalmologic and genetic examinations of a family in three generations. The main symptom of this syndrome is retinal detachment with hemorrhages, which generally leads to blindness in early childhood. In addition to this, in 25--35% of the cases mental retardation and hearing problems are found. Special significance is to be attached to the differential diagnosis of this syndrome because the vascular proliferation on the retina is a non-specific, secondary reaction in children, which also occurs symptomatically in several other diseases.

  10. Nephrotic syndrome and AA amyloidosis revealing adult-onset cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Enríquez, R; Sirvent, A E; Padilla, S; Noguera-Pons, R; Andrada, E; Ardoy, F; Millán, I; Amorós, F

    2013-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is due to gain-of-function mutations in the cryopyrin gene, which determines an overactive inflammatory response. AA amyloidosis is a complication of this syndrome. A 53-year-old man was referred to us because of lower limb edema. Past history: at the age of 20, he complained of arthralgia/arthritis and bilateral hypoacusis. At the age of 35, he presented posterior uveitis, several episodes of conjunctivitis, and progressive loss of visual acuity. Laboratory tests disclosed nephrotic syndrome, and renal biopsy showed AA amyloidosis. He was given anakinra with improvement of arthritis. A genetic study revealed the p.D303N mutation in the cryopyrin gene, and he was diagnosed as having AA amyloidosis due to CAPS. Twenty-one months after starting anakinra, the arthritis has disappeared, although nephrotic-range proteinuria persisted. It is important to be aware of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome because it can cause irreversible complications, and there is effective therapy.

  11. Charles Bonnet syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Schadlu, Anita P; Schadlu, Ramin; Shepherd, J Banks

    2009-05-01

    The aging of the population and the resultant increase in the number of patients with low vision due to age-related macular degeneration and other ocular diseases necessitate an increase in awareness of the Charles Bonnet syndrome among ophthalmic care providers. The clinical features of Charles Bonnet syndrome have been described by several different authors as formed visual hallucinations due to disturbances of the visual system in patients who are otherwise mentally normal. Theories regarding the causes underlying the Charles Bonnet syndrome are multifaceted and offer insight into the function of the visual system. The incidence of the Charles Bonnet syndrome varies among different population groups, but is underdiagnosed in most settings. Recent case reports of treatment options involve varied pharmacologic interventions, but visual improvement and patient reassurance remain the mainstays of treatment. As Charles Bonnet syndrome becomes more prevalent as the population ages, all physicians who care for low vision or elderly patients should be aware of its clinical characteristics and treatment options. Understanding of this syndrome by caregivers will lead to decreased anxiety among the patients who experience it. Further exploration of treatment options will be necessary in the future.

  12. Tics and Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Nausea and Vomiting Home Diseases and Conditions Tics and Tourette Syndrome Condition Tics and Tourette Syndrome Share Print Table of Contents1. ... little or no control over. These are called tics. Several different tics can happen at the same ...

  13. Cleft-palate lateral synechia syndrome: insight into the phenotypic spectrum of Fryns syndrome?

    PubMed

    Jaeger, April; Kapur, Raj; Whelan, Michael; Leung, Eric; Cunningham, Michael

    2003-06-01

    In 1972, Fuhrmann et al. (Humangenetik 1972;14:196-203) described a novel syndrome consisting of cleft palate (CP) and lateral synechiae (LS) between the palate and the floor of the mouth. This constellation of malformations, since denoted as cleft-palate lateral synechiae syndrome (CPLS), is a rare syndrome; only five cases have been reported since the original description. Because of the paucity of recognized cases, little is known regarding the phenotypic spectrum of this presumably autosomal dominant condition. We report two unrelated patients who presented with remarkably similar phenotypic features, including multiple intraoral synechiae (filiforme intraalveolar bands), cleft palate, micrognathia, and redundant lower lip tissue. Their phenotypic findings indicate a diagnosis of CPLS; however, case 3 (the monozygotic twin of case 2) had classic phenotypic features of Fryns syndrome. This report presents two new cases of CPLS, and suggests that the CPLS phenotype may represent the mild end of the Fryns syndrome phenotypic spectrum. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the Birth Defects Research (Part A) website (http://www.interscience.wiley.com/ jpages/1542-0752/suppmat/67/fig5.xls).

  14. Fragile X syndrome and fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Deborah A; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Fragile X-associated disorders encompass several conditions, which are caused by expansion mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited etiology of intellectual disability and results from a full mutation or >200 CGG repeats in FMR1. It is associated with developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, and seizures. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in premutation carriers of 55-200 CGG repeats in FMR1 and is characterized by kinetic tremor, gait ataxia, parkinsonism, executive dysfunction, and neuropathy. Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency also occurs in premutation carrier women and manifests with infertility and early menopause. The diseases constituting fragile X-associated disorders differ mechanistically, due to the distinct molecular properties of premutation versus full mutations. Fragile X syndrome occurs when there is a lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) due to FMR1 methylation and silencing. In fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome, a toxic gain of function is postulated with the production of excess CGG repeat-containing FMR1 mRNA, abnormal translation of the repeat sequence leading to production of polyglycine, polyalanine, and other polypeptides and to outright deficits in translation leading to reduced FMRP at larger premutation sizes. The changes in underlying brain chemistry due to FMR1 mutations have led to therapeutic studies in these disorders, with some progress being made in fragile X syndrome. This paper also summarizes indications for testing, genetic counseling issues, and what the future holds for these disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute radiation syndrome and chronic radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip; Giannoula, Evanthia; Fountos, George P

    2013-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) or sickness or poisoning or toxicity is induced after a whole body exposure of men to high doses of radiation between 1-12Gy. First symptoms are from the gastrointestinal system, which together with bone marrow are the most sensitive parts of our body. Chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) may be induced by smaller than 1Gy radiation doses or after a mild form of ARS. Prophylaxis and treatment suggestions are described. In cases of ARS, a large part of the exposed population after proper medical care may survive, while without medical care this part of the population will be lost. Prophylaxis may also save another part of the population.

  16. Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome: Case series of rare syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Preetha; Balaji, S M

    2017-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by profound overgrowth of hair and gums, as well as other variable features. Gingival fibromatosis is characterized by a large increase in the gingival dimension which extends above the dental crowns, covering them partially or completely. They were found to have a genetic origin, may also occur in isolation or be part of a syndrome, or acquired origin, due to specific drugs administered systemically. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with continuing excessive growth of terminal hair without androgenic stimulation. It has informally been called werewolf syndrome because the appearance is similar to that of a werewolf. Various syndromes have been associated with these features such as epilepsy, mental retardation, cardiomegaly, or osteochondrodysplasia. As so far very few cases have been reported in literature, we are reporting a series of three cases with management of the same. The excess gingival tissues, in these cases, were removed by conventional gingivectomy under general anesthesia. The postoperative result was uneventful and the patient's appearance improved significantly. Good esthetic result was achieved to allow patient to practice oral hygiene measures. Though this is not a serious condition clinically, psychosocial trauma cannot be neglected owing to the cosmetic disfigurement it produces.

  17. Metabolic syndrome in Turner syndrome and relation between body composition and clinical, genetic, and ultrasonographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Calcaterra, Valeria; Brambilla, Paola; Maffè, Gabriella Carnevale; Klersy, Catherine; Albertini, Riccardo; Introzzi, Francesca; Bozzola, Elena; Bozzola, Mauro; Larizza, Daniela

    2014-04-01

    An increased relative risk of diabetes, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and hypertension have been reported in Turner syndrome (TS) patients. No data are currently available on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in TS subjects. We evaluated the frequency of metabolic syndrome in obese and nonobese patients with TS. We evaluated 85 TS patients (27.05 ± 11.17 years). Obesity was defined as standard deviation score body mass index (SDS-BMI) ≥ 2 or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) in adult patients. We classified metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Hepatic ultrasound was performed in all girls. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 4.7% (12.5% obese and 4.3% nonobese, P=0.16) and associated with visceral adiposity (P=0.008). Abnormalities in glucose metabolism and hypertension were not associated with genetic or therapeutic factors. The karyotype 45,X was associated with atherogenic profile. Pathological waist circumference was more frequent in girls treated with estro-progestin (P=0.03). Evidence of fatty liver was associated with metabolic syndrome (P=0.03) and insulin resistance (P=0.05). Elevated liver enzymes were found in 15 subjects and were not related to treatment or ultrasound abnormalities. Prevalence of each component of metabolic syndrome in TS patients is partially influenced by genetic makeup and treatment. Hepatosteatosis was associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, but not to elevated liver enzymes.

  18. Phenotypic variability in gap junction syndromic skin disorders: experience from KID and Clouston syndromes' clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Anna; Niepokój, Katarzyna; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Giza, Aleksandra; Mordasewicz-Goliszewska, Maria; Bal, Jerzy; Obersztyn, Ewa

    2015-08-01

    Connexins belong to the family of gap junction proteins which enable direct cell-to-cell communication by forming channels in adjacent cells. Mutations in connexin genes cause a variety of human diseases and, in a few cases, result in skin disorders. There are significant differences in the clinical picture of two rare autosomal dominant syndromes: keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome and hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Clouston syndrome), which are caused by GJB2 and GJB6 mutations, respectively. This is despite the fact that, in both cases, malfunctioning of the same family proteins and some overlapping clinical features (nail dystrophy, hair loss, and palmoplantar keratoderma) is observed. KID syndrome is characterized by progressive vascularizing keratitis, ichthyosiform erythrokeratoderma, and neurosensory hearing loss, whereas Clouston syndrome is characterized by nail dystrophy, hypotrichosis, and palmoplantar keratoderma. The present paper presents a Polish patient with sporadic KID syndrome caused by the mutation of p.Asp50Asn in GJB2. The patient encountered difficulties in obtaining a correct diagnosis. The other case presented is that of a family with Clouston syndrome (caused by p.Gly11Arg mutation in GJB6), who are the first reported patients of Polish origin suffering from this disorder. Phenotype diversity among patients with the same genotypes reported to date is also summarized. The conclusion is that proper diagnosis of these syndromes is still challenging and should always be followed by molecular verification.

  19. Waardenburg syndrome presenting with constipation since birth.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Sharma, S B; Mathur, P; Agrawal, L D

    2014-12-01

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome is Waardenburg syndrome associated with Hirschsprung's disease. A 10-day-old full-term male neonate of Waardenburg syndrome presented with constipation since birth along with features of small bowel obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy revealed distended proximal jejunal and ileal loops along with microcolon; an ileostomy was performed. Postoperatively patient developed sepsis and died. Histopathology confirmed total colonic aganglionosis. Suspect familial Shah-Waardenburg syndrome in a neonate of Waardenburg syndrome presenting with constipation since birth or intestinal obstruction.

  20. Gain-of-function mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome, a RAS/MAPK pathway syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yoko; Niihori, Tetsuya; Banjo, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Seiji; Kurosawa, Kenji; Ogata, Tsutomu; Takada, Fumio; Yano, Michihiro; Ando, Toru; Hoshika, Tadataka; Barnett, Christopher; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kawame, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Okutani, Takahiro; Nagashima, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Funayama, Ryo; Nagashima, Takeshi; Nakayama, Keiko; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Watanabe, Yusuke; Ogura, Toshihiko; Matsubara, Yoichi

    2013-07-11

    RAS GTPases mediate a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Recent studies have revealed that germline mutations and mosaicism for classical RAS mutations, including those in HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS, cause a wide spectrum of genetic disorders. These include Noonan syndrome and related disorders (RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase [RAS/MAPK] pathway syndromes, or RASopathies), nevus sebaceous, and Schimmelpenning syndrome. In the present study, we identified a total of nine missense, nonsynonymous mutations in RIT1, encoding a member of the RAS subfamily, in 17 of 180 individuals (9%) with Noonan syndrome or a related condition but with no detectable mutations in known Noonan-related genes. Clinical manifestations in the RIT1-mutation-positive individuals are consistent with those of Noonan syndrome, which is characterized by distinctive facial features, short stature, and congenital heart defects. Seventy percent of mutation-positive individuals presented with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; this frequency is high relative to the overall 20% incidence in individuals with Noonan syndrome. Luciferase assays in NIH 3T3 cells showed that five RIT1 alterations identified in children with Noonan syndrome enhanced ELK1 transactivation. The introduction of mRNAs of mutant RIT1 into 1-cell-stage zebrafish embryos was found to result in a significant increase of embryos with craniofacial abnormalities, incomplete looping, a hypoplastic chamber in the heart, and an elongated yolk sac. These results demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome and show a similar biological effect to mutations in other RASopathy-related genes. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wagh, Arati; Stone, Neil J

    2004-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is intended to identify patients who have increased risk of diabetes and/or a cardiac event due to the deleterious effects of weight gain, sedentary lifestyle, and/or an atherogenic diet. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III definition uses easily measured clinical findings of increased abdominal circumference, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated fasting blood glucose and/or elevated blood pressure. Three of these five are required for diagnosis. The authors also note that other definitions of metabolic syndrome focus more on insulin resistance and its key role in this syndrome. This review focuses on how treatment might affect each of the five components. Abdominal obesity can be treated with a variety of lower calorie diets along with regular exercise. Indeed, all of the five components of the metabolic syndrome are improved by even modest amounts of weight loss achieved with diet and exercise. For those with impaired fasting glucose tolerance, there is good evidence that a high fiber, low saturated fat diet with increased daily exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes by almost 60%. Of note, subjects who exercise the most, gain the most benefit. Metformin has also been shown to be helpful in these subjects. Thiazolidinedione drugs may prove useful, but further studies are needed. Although intensified therapeutic lifestyle change will help the abnormal lipid profile, some patients may require drug therapy. This review also discusses the use of statins, fibrates, and niacin. Likewise, while hypertension in the metabolic syndrome benefits from therapeutic lifestyle change, physicians should also consider angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor drugs or angiotensin receptor blockers, due to their effects on preventing complications of diabetes, such as progression of diabetic nephropathy and due to their effects on regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Aspirin

  2. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

    PubMed

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status), socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift), and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration) of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2). The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2), followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64), workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93) and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24). On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73). CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  3. [Locomotive syndrome and frailty. Lumbar canal stenosis as an underlying disorder in the locomotive syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yoshihito

    2012-04-01

    Lumbar canal stenosis most commonly affects the elderly population by entrapment of the cauda equine roots surrounding the spinal canal often associated with pain in the back and lower extremities, difficulty ambulating. The locomotive syndrome refers to high-risk conditions under requiring care services, and lumbar canal stenosis is an important underlying disease. As one of the key capacities of frailty identified muscluloskeletal function, the locomotive syndrome is considered to musculoskeletal frail syndrome. Surgical treatment should be recommended to take the pressure off the nerves in the lumbar spine when the conservative treatments failed, and several studies revealed that the surgery generally resulted in a preferable outcome in the lumbar canal stenosis patients. Among lumbar canal stenosis patients treated with surgery, locomotive syndrome was contained 44% and many of which were seen in thin females. The patients with locomotive syndrome had lower muscle volume both in the extremities and the trunk than those without locomotive syndrome, and surgical results were poorer in the activity of daily life whereas the pain relief was adequately obtained. Treatment of the lumbar canal stenosis should be attended to locomotive frailty, and muscle strengthening training should be incorporated into pre and postoperative therapy.

  4. Relationship between two blood stasis syndromes and inflammatory factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cai-Yun; Liu, Jing-Hua; Liu, Jian-Xun; Shi, Da-Zhuo; Xu, Zhen-Ye; Wang, Shao-Ping; Jia, Min; Zhao, Fu-Hai; Jiang, Yue-Rong; Ma, Qin; Peng, Hong-Yu; Lu, Yuan; Zheng, Ze; Ren, Feng-Xue

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory factors and two Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome types of qi stagnation and blood stasis (QSBS) and qi deficiency and blood stasis (QDBS) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Sixty subjects with ACS, whose pathogenesis changes belongs to qi disturbance blood stasis syndrome, were divided into 2 groups: 30 in the QSBS group and 30 in the QDBS group. The comparative analysis on them was carried out through comparing general information, coronary angiography and inflammatory factors including intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2). Compared with the QSBS group, Lp-PLA2 and YKL-40 levels in the QDBS group showed no-significant difference (P>0.05); ICAM-1 was significantly higher in the QDBS group than in the QSBS group in the pathological processes of qi disturbance and blood stasis syndrome of ACS (P<0.05). Inflammatory factor ICAM-1 may be an objective basis for syndrome typing of QSBS and QDBS, which provides a research direction for standardization research of CM syndrome types.

  5. Combating Training-Stress Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the nature and ramifications of various training stress syndromes (overtraining, under-recovery, distress, staleness, and burnout) that can accompany inappropriate training practices, examining the interventions that players and coaches can use to combat these syndromes (including physical, psychological, and performance interventions),…

  6. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other major and minor traumas — such as surgery, heart attacks, infections and even sprained ankles — can also lead to complex regional pain syndrome. It's not well-understood why these injuries can trigger complex regional pain syndrome. Not everyone who has ...

  7. Streptococcal Toxic Shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Vidya; Sankaranarayan, Shuba; Sivaraman, Rajakumar Padur; Prabaharan, Krithika

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcal Toxic Shock syndrome (STSS) is a serious complication caused by exotoxins of Group A Streptococcus (GAS). It presents with fulminant shock and rash, is rapidly progressive with Multi-Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) and requires aggressive therapy with fluids, antibiotics and source control.

  8. What Causes Rett Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome. Human Molecular Genetics , Jul 15;14(14), 1935–1946. Retrieved June ... Dragich, J., & Schanen, C. (2003). Rett Syndrome: Clinical-Molecular Correlates. In G. Fisch (Ed.), Genetics and neurobehavioral disorders (pp. 391–418). Totowa, NJ: ...

  9. Morvan syndrome: a rare cause of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

    PubMed Central

    DEMIRBAS, SEREF; AYKAN, MUSA BARIS; ZENGIN, HAYDAR; MAZMAN, SEMIR; SAGLAM, KENAN

    2017-01-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) accounts for an important part of hyponatremia cases. The causes of SIADH can be detected almost always. As a rare disorder, Morvan Syndrome can be defined by the sum of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, autonomic instability and neuropsychiatric features. Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels (Anti – VGKC-Ab) including contactin associated protein-like 2 antibodies (CASPR2-Ab) and leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1 antibodies (LGI1-Ab) were previously known for the potential association with this condition. We present a Morvan Syndrome in a patient who presented with various neuropsychiatric symptoms and SIADH. PMID:28781533

  10. Hypophosphatemia in a Malnourished Child: When Renal Fanconi Syndrome Does Not Stand for Refeeding Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Runde, Joseph; Rivera-Rivera, Edgardo; Pompeii-Wolfe, Cecelia; Clardy, Christopher; Sentongo, Timothy

    2018-05-10

    Refeeding syndrome is diagnosed based on the onset of multiple laboratory abnormalities (most commonly hypophosphatemia) and clinical signs in the setting of nutrition rehabilitation of malnourished patients. Because definitions are not uniform, a broad differential diagnosis should always include renal tubular dysfunction. Our report details a 3 year-old child with undiagnosed renal tubular dysfunction who presented with the clinical picture of refeeding syndrome with refractory electrolyte abnormalities. A diagnosis of renal Fanconi syndrome was made after urinalysis that revealed glucosuria and urine electrolyte losses. Thus, urinalysis can aid in making a positive diagnosis of refeeding syndrome. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  11. Reiter's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Savant, S S; Fernandez, J C; Dhurandhar, M W; Fernandez, R J

    1979-01-01

    A case of Reiter's syndrome occurring in a young mate aged 20 years having extensive skin lesions of keratoderina blenoffhagica is presented along with a review of literature. Although urethritis was absent, other clinical and histopathological features of the cutaneous lesions led us to the diagnosis. The-possible relationship of postural psoriasis to Reiter's syndrome is discussed. Failure of the patient to respond satisfactorily to steroids, antibiotics etc, prompted the use of rnethotrexate in the case. The result was dramatic, as the patient completely recovered within ten days of starting treatment.

  12. [Elsberg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristine Esbjerg; Knudsen, Troels Bygum

    2013-12-16

    A syndrome involving acute urinary retention in combination with sacral radiculitis and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis was first described by the American neurosurgeon Charles Elsberg in 1931. In many instances the aetiology is herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivation from sensory neurons. In this case report we present a 34-year-old pregnant woman with previous undiagnosed sensory lumbosacral symptoms. She was hospitalized with HSV-2 meningitis and lumbosacral radiculitis but no genital rash. A week after the onset of symptoms she developed acute urinary retention, thus indicating Elsberg syndrome.

  13. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jawa, Deepti Singh; Sircar, Keya; Somani, Rani; Grover, Neeraj; Jaidka, Shipra; Singh, Sanjeet

    2009-07-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by the presence of multiple odontogenic keratocysts along with various cutaneous, dental, osseous, ophthalmic, neurological, and sex organ abnormalities. Early diagnosis is essential as it may progress to aggressive basal cell carcinomas and neoplasias. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome has rarely been reported from India. We report here one such patient, diagnosed at a rural hospital.

  14. Unmasking Diogenes Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Kashinath; Gopinath, Hima; Kini, Hema; Kumar, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Diogenes syndrome is characterized by extreme self-neglect, social withdrawal, and poor personal and domestic hygiene. We report a case of Diogenes syndrome presenting with dermatitis passivata. An unusual “mask” of dirt resembling a carapace, onset of neglect after awareness of a breast lump and resumption of personal grooming and social activities after removal of the lump and counseling were seen. PMID:26120158

  15. [Practical update of Tsaktubo syndrome].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Gil, Iván J; Mejía-Rentería, Hernán D; Martínez-Losas, Pedro

    2016-03-04

    Takotsubo syndrome, apical ballooning or «broken heart» syndrome, is a growing diagnostic entity which clinically mimics an acute coronary syndrome. Included into the stress cardiomyopathy group of cardiopathies, this condition is characterized by the absence of potentially responsible coronary lesions, while displaying a transient abnormal ventricular motion, usually affecting various coronary territories. It is generally observed in postmenopausal women and frequently seen in the presence of a stressful situation, both physical and emotional. With a prevalence of 1.2% among patients undergoing a cardiac catheterization with a suspected diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes, Takotsubo syndrome usually has a good prognosis. However, complications can occur in the acute phase, generally heart failure, which can even lead to death. In this review we discuss the latest available information on this disease and present it in a practical and useful way for the attending physician. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Joubert syndrome and related disorders].

    PubMed

    Paprocka, Justyna; Jamroz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum plays a role not only in motor control but also in motor learning and cognition. Joubert syndrome is a rare heterogeneous inherited genetic disorder characterized by ataxia, hypotonia, developmental delay, and at least one of the following features: neonatal respiratory disturbances or abnormal eye movement. The estimated frequency of Joubert syndrome in the United States is around 1 : 100 000. The term Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD) has been recently coined to describe all disorders presenting with molar tooth sign on brain neuroimaging. Joubert syndrome is believed to be a representative of a new group of disorders named ciliopathies. The identification of seven causal genes (NPHP1, AHI1, CEP290, RPGRIP1L, TMEM67/MKS3, ARL13B, CC2D2A) has led to substantial progress in the understanding of the genetic basis of Joubert syndrome. The authors focus on clinical presentation of JSRD, differential diagnosis and molecular background.

  17. Pendred syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Kopp, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder that is classically defined by the combination of sensorineural deafness/hearing impairment, goiter, and an abnormal organification of iodide with or without hypothyroidism. The hallmark of the syndrome is the impaired hearing, which is associated with inner ear malformations such as an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). The thyroid phenotype is variable and may be modified by the nutritional iodine intake. Pendred syndrome is caused by biallelic mutations in the SLC26A4/PDS gene, which encodes the multifunctional anion exchanger pendrin. Pendrin has affinity for chloride, iodide, and bicarbonate, among other anions. In the inner ear, pendrin functions as a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger that is essential for maintaining the composition and the potential of the endolymph. In the thyroid, pendrin is expressed at the apical membrane of thyroid cells facing the follicular lumen. Functional studies have demonstrated that pendrin can mediate iodide efflux in heterologous cells. This, together with the thyroid phenotype observed in humans (goiter, impaired iodine organification) suggests that pendrin could be involved in iodide efflux into the lumen, one of the steps required for thyroid hormone synthesis. Iodide efflux can, however, also occur in the absence of pendrin suggesting that other exchangers or channels are involved. It has been suggested that Anoctamin 1 (ANO1/TMEM16A), a calcium-activated anion channel, which is also expressed at the apical membrane of thyrocytes, could participate in mediating apical efflux. In the kidney, pendrin is involved in bicarbonate secretion and chloride reabsorption. While there is no renal phenotype under basal conditions, severe metabolic alkalosis has been reported in Pendred syndrome patients exposed to an increased alkali load. This review provides an overview on the clinical spectrum of Pendred syndrome, the functional data on pendrin with a focus on its potential role in

  18. Recognizing and preventing refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is an uncommon but potentially fatal phenomenon that can occur in patients receiving parenteral, enteral, or oral feedings after a period of sustained malnutrition or starvation. This syndrome is characterized by hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia. The purpose of this article was to bring an acute awareness of refeeding syndrome to the critical care nurse. The recognition, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, potential life threatening complications, and treatment are presented.

  19. Insulin resistance syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Ten, Svetlana; Maclaren, Noel

    2004-06-01

    The insulin resistance syndrome (syndrome X, metabolic syndrome) has become the major health problem of our times. Associated obesity, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes conspire to shorten life spans, while hyperandrogenism with polycystic ovarian syndrome affect the quality of life and fertility of increasing numbers of women. Whereas a growing number of single genetic diseases affecting satiety or energy metabolism have been found to produce the clinical phenotype, strong familial occurrences, especially in racially prone groups such as those from the Indian subcontinent, or individuals of African, Hispanic, and American Indian descents, together with emerging genetic findings, are revealing the polygenetic nature of the syndrome. However, the strong lifestyle factors of excessive carbohydrate and fat consumption and lack of exercise are important keys to the phenotypic expression of the syndrome. The natural history includes small for gestational age birth weight, excessive weight gains during childhood, premature pubarche, an allergic diathesis, acanthosis nigricans, striae compounded by gynecomastia, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis, premature atherosclerosis, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and focal glomerulonephritis appearing increasingly through adolescence into adulthood. Type 2 diabetes, which develops because of an inherent and/or an acquired failure of an insulin compensatory response, is increasingly seen from early puberty onward, as is atheromatous disease leading to coronary heart disease and stroke. A predisposition to certain cancers and Alzheimer's disease is also now recognized. The looming tragedy from growing numbers of individuals affected by obesity/insulin resistance syndrome requires urgent public health approaches directed at their early identification and intervention during childhood. Such measures include educating the public on the topic, limiting the consumption of sucrose

  20. PDGFRA-mutant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Riccardo; Martini, Maurizio; Cenci, Tonia; Carbone, Arnaldo; Lanza, Paola; Biondi, Alberto; Rindi, Guido; Cassano, Alessandra; Larghi, Alberto; Persiani, Roberto; Larocca, Luigi M

    2015-07-01

    Germline PDGFRA mutations cause multiple heterogeneous gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors. In its familial form this disease, which was formerly termed intestinal neurofibromatosis/neurofibromatosis 3b (INF/NF3b), has been included among familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) because of its genotype, described when GIST was the only known PDGFRA-mutant gastrointestinal tumor. Shortly afterwards, however, inflammatory fibroid polyps also revealed PDGFRA mutations. Subsequently, gastrointestinal CD34+ 'fibrous tumors' of uncertain classification were described in a germline PDGFRA-mutant context. Our aim was to characterize the syndrome produced by germline PDGFRA mutations and establish diagnostic criteria and management strategies for this hitherto puzzling disease. We studied a kindred displaying multiple gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors, comparing it with published families/individuals with possible analogous conditions. We identified a novel inherited PDGFRA mutation (P653L), constituting the third reported example of familial PDGFRA mutation. In adult mutants we detected inflammatory fibroid polyps, gastric GISTs and gastrointestinal fibrous tumors of uncertain nosology. We demonstrate that the syndrome formerly defined as INF/NF3b (exemplified by the family reported herein) is simplistically considered a form of familial GIST, because inflammatory fibroid polyps often prevail. Fibrous tumors appear variants of inflammatory fibroid polyps. 'INF/NF3b' and 'familial GIST' are misleading terms which we propose changing to 'PDGFRA-mutant syndrome'. In this condition, unlike KIT-dependent familial GIST syndromes, if present, GISTs are stomach-restricted and diffuse Cajal cell hyperplasia is not observed. This restriction of GISTs to the stomach in PDGFRA-mutant syndrome: (i) focuses oncological concern on gastric masses, as inflammatory fibroid polyps are benign; (ii) supports a selective role of gastric environment for PDGFRA mutations to elicit GISTs

  1. The dysmetabolic syndrome: epidemiology and etiology.

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, H P

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common metabolic disorder that results from the increasing prevalence of obesity. It also refers to a clustering of specific cardiovascular disease risk factors whose underlying pathophysiology is thought to be related to insulin resistance with an excessive flux of fatty acids implicated. Opinions have varied as to whether the metabolic syndrome should be defined to indicate mainly insulin resistance, the metabolic consequences of obesity, risk of cardiovascular disease, or simply a collection of statistically related factors. Based on these different viewpoints 4 definition sets of the metabolic syndrome are formulated. The pros and cons of each of them are extensively discussed. A major role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome is ascribed to the occurrence of insulin resistance. Data are provided that insulin resistance can worsen the expression of this syndrome, but cannot have a primary role. Therefore, insulin resistance is not the main player of the metabolic syndrome, but central obesity is. Free fatty acid induced insulin resistance is found and induced by central obesity. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of abnormalities in which each of them deserves its own (maximal) treatment to diminish the risk for cardiovascular disease.

  2. OLMSTED SYNDROME: REPORT OF TWO CASES

    PubMed Central

    Tharini, G K; Hema, N; Jayakumar, S; Parveen, B

    2011-01-01

    Olmsted syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder with symmetrical, diffuse, transgredient, mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma and periorificial hyperkeratosis. Olmsted syndrome in a female patient is particularly rare, and we report two unrelated female patients of Olmsted syndrome, who presented with perioral hyperkeratosis and palmoplantar keratoderma. One of our patients also had woolly hair from birth and flexion contracture of a digit, while the other had pseudoainhum. There was no cardiac involvement. Hence, the diagnosis of Olmsted syndrome was made. PMID:22121289

  3. Sjogren's Syndrome Information Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sjögren's Syndrome Information Page Sjögren's Syndrome Information Page What research is being done? The goals ... the U.S. and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Related Information Patient Organizations Arthritis Foundation National Eye Institute (NEI) ...

  4. Cushing Syndrome: Other FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... N., & Hofeldt, F. D. (1990). Cushing’s syndrome in pregnancy. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 45 (2), 87-93. PMID 2405312 . Lindsay, J. R., Jonklaas, J., Oldfield, E. H., & Nieman, L. K. (2005). Cushing’s syndrome during pregnancy: Personal experience and review of the literature. Journal ...

  5. Sjögren syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... affect the salivary glands and look like Sjögren syndrome ... Dry eyes and dry mouth are the most common symptoms of this syndrome. Eye symptoms: Itching eyes Feeling that something is in the eye Mouth and throat symptoms: Difficulty swallowing or eating dry ...

  6. Thrombomodulin Mutations in Atypical Hemolytic–Uremic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Delvaeye, Mieke; Noris, Marina; De Vriese, Astrid; Esmon, Charles T.; Esmon, Naomi L.; Ferrell, Gary; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Plaisance, Stephane; Claes, Bart; Lambrechts, Diether; Zoja, Carla; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Conway, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The hemolytic–uremic syndrome consists of the triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. The common form of the syndrome is triggered by infection with Shiga toxin–producing bacteria and has a favorable outcome. The less common form of the syndrome, called atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome, accounts for about 10% of cases, and patients with this form of the syndrome have a poor prognosis. Approximately half of the patients with atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome have mutations in genes that regulate the complement system. Genetic factors in the remaining cases are unknown. We studied the role of thrombomodulin, an endothelial glycoprotein with anticoagulant, antiinflammatory, and cytoprotective properties, in atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome. METHODS We sequenced the entire thrombomodulin gene (THBD) in 152 patients with atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome and in 380 controls. Using purified proteins and cell-expression systems, we investigated whether thrombomodulin regulates the complement system, and we characterized the mechanisms. We evaluated the effects of thrombomodulin missense mutations associated with atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome on complement activation by expressing thrombomodulin variants in cultured cells. RESULTS Of 152 patients with atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome, 7 unrelated patients had six different heterozygous missense THBD mutations. In vitro, thrombomodulin binds to C3b and factor H (CFH) and negatively regulates complement by accelerating factor I–mediated inactivation of C3b in the presence of cofactors, CFH or C4b binding protein. By promoting activation of the plasma procarboxypeptidase B, thrombomodulin also accelerates the inactivation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Cultured cells expressing thrombomodulin variants associated with atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome had diminished capacity to inactivate C3b and to activate procarboxypeptidase B and were

  7. Alport syndrome and Pierson syndrome: Diseases of the glomerular basement membrane.

    PubMed

    Funk, Steven D; Lin, Meei-Hua; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2018-04-16

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is an important component of the kidney's glomerular filtration barrier. Like all basement membranes, the GBM contains type IV collagen, laminin, nidogen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. It is flanked by the podocytes and glomerular endothelial cells that both synthesize it and adhere to it. Mutations that affect the GBM's collagen α3α4α5(IV) components cause Alport syndrome (kidney disease with variable ear and eye defects) and its variants, including thin basement membrane nephropathy. Mutations in LAMB2 that impact the synthesis or function of laminin α5β2γ1 (LM-521) cause Pierson syndrome (congenital nephrotic syndrome with eye and neurological defects) and its less severe variants, including isolated congenital nephrotic syndrome. The very different types of kidney diseases that result from mutations in collagen IV vs. laminin are likely due to very different pathogenic mechanisms. A better understanding of these mechanisms should lead to targeted therapeutic approaches that can help people with these rare but important diseases. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Obese Youth.

    PubMed

    Platt, Adrienne M

    2015-07-01

    School nurses are well aware of the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States, as one in three youth are overweight or obese. Co-morbidities found in overweight or obese adults were not commonly found in youth three decades ago but are now increasingly "normal" as the obesity epidemic continues to evolve. This article is the second of six related articles discussing the co-morbidities of childhood obesity and discusses the complex association between obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Insulin resistance increases up to 50% during puberty, which may help to explain why youth are more likely to develop co-morbidities as teens. Treatment of these disorders is focused on changing lifestyle habits, as a child cannot change his or her pubertal progression, ethnicity, or family history. School nurses and other personnel can assist youth with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome by supporting their efforts to make changes, reinforcing that insulin resistance is not necessarily type 2 diabetes even if the child is taking medication, and intervening with negative peer pressure. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS): Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... with this disorder. Some can work in sheltered environments. Scientists do not know what increases the risk for Prader-Willi syndrome. The genetic error that leads to Prader-Willi syndrome occurs randomly, usually very early in fetal development. The syndrome is usually not hereditary. 3 Cassidy, S. ...

  10. Pheochromocytoma presenting with Takotsubo syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marcovitz, Pamela A; Czako, Peter; Rosenblatt, Solomon; Billecke, Scott S

    2010-10-01

    The clinical presentation of Takotsubo syndrome, or apical ballooning syndrome, resembles an extensive anterolateral myocardial infarction with chest pain symptoms and electrocardiographic ST-elevation or T-wave inversion noted in most patients. However, coronary arteries are invariably found to be normal or to display minimal atherosclerotic disease despite modest elevation of cardiac enzymes. Since most cases of Takotsubo syndrome occur after intense physical and/or emotional stress, catecholamine surge appears to be a common underlying mechanism. We present a case of Takotsubo syndrome, which presented with unusual symptoms and was found to be caused by pheochromocytoma. A sudden rise in blood pressure moments after completion of echocardiographic stress testing aided in uncovering the diagnosis. ©2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Courties, Alice; Sellam, Jérémie; Berenbaum, Francis

    2017-03-01

    Interest in the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype is increasing. Here, we summarize recently published significant findings. Meta-analyses confirmed an association between type 2 diabetes and osteoarthritis and between cardiovascular diseases and osteoarthritis. Recent advances in the study of metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis have focused on a better understanding of the role of metabolic diseases in inducing or aggravating joint damage. In-vivo models of obesity, diabetes, or dyslipidemia have helped to better decipher this association. They give emerging evidence that, beyond the role of common pathogenic mechanisms for metabolic diseases and osteoarthritis (i.e., low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress), metabolic diseases have a direct systemic effect on joints. In addition to the impact of weight, obesity-associated inflammation is associated with osteoarthritis severity and may modulate osteoarthritis progression in mouse models. As well, osteoarthritis synovium from type 2 diabetic patients shows insulin-resistant features, which may participate in joint catabolism. Finally, exciting data are emerging on the association of gut microbiota and circadian rhythm and metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis. The systemic role of metabolic syndrome in osteoarthritis pathophysiology is now better understood, but new avenues of research are being pursued to better decipher the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype.

  12. [Pätau syndrome without trisomy karyotype? Danger of restricted thinking in syndrome diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Rode, G; Duda, V

    1991-01-01

    By means of a case-report the problems of an uncritical usage of the terminus "syndrom" are pointed out. The report concerns with a newborn child clinically showing nearly all morphological characteristics of the "Pätau-Syndrom" without having a chromosomal aberration.

  13. Headache in Behçet's syndrome: review of literature and NYU Behçet's syndrome center experience.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, Vijay; Wong, Ericka; Crystal, Sara C; Robbins, Matthew S; Filopoulos, Maria; Lipton, Richard B; Yazici, Yusuf; Kister, Ilya

    2014-09-01

    Headache, a common and disabling symptom in Behçet's syndrome, may be associated with a variety of neurologic syndromes and ocular inflammation, or may present as an isolated feature. Our objective is to describe the various neurologic and ocular syndromes of Behçet's syndrome of which headache is a symptom, and to review the features of isolated headaches in Behçet's. We also report results of a study of headache in Behçet's syndrome patients who are followed at NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, the first study of its kind in North American patients, and the first to document prevalence of both episodic and chronic daily headache in Behçet's.

  14. Severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in an adult patient with Laron syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dagan, Y; Abadi, J; Lifschitz, A; Laron, Z

    2001-08-01

    A 68 year old patient with Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone (GH) resistance-insensitivity due to a molecular defect of the GH receptor) and severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is described. Treatment with continuous positive air pressure therapy resulted in improved nocturnal sleep, daytime alertness and cognitive functions. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  16. Posterior impingement syndromes of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justin C; Calder, James D F; Healy, Jeremiah C

    2008-06-01

    Acute, or repetitive, compression of the posterior structures of the ankle may lead to posterior ankle impingement (PAI) syndrome, posteromedial ankle impingement (PoMI) syndrome, or Haglund's syndrome. The etiology of each of these conditions is quite different. Variations in posterior ankle osseous and soft tissue anatomy contribute to the etiology of PAI and Haglund's syndromes. The presence of an os trigonum or Stieda process is classically associated with PAI syndrome, whereas a prominent posterosuperior tubercle of the os calcis or Haglund's deformity is the osseous predisposing factor in Haglund's syndrome. PoMI has no defined predisposing anatomical variants but typically follows an inversion-supination injury of the ankle joint. This article discusses the biomechanics, clinical features, imaging, and management of each of these conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the optimal tool in posterior ankle assessment, and this review focuses on the MRI findings of each of the conditions just listed.

  17. Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology and clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, Yehuda

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a relatively new definition, designed to help the health care practitioner to easily identify people at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. With the obesity epidemic, we are witnessing an epidemic of multiple-risk patients. Insulin resistance is the perceived pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and defines its clinical presentation. Hypertension, dyslipedemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, fatty liver disease, pre-diabetes, sleep and breathing disorder, certain cancers, and cognitive impairment are many of the presentations of the syndrome; patients with any of these conditions are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The metabolic syndrome helps identify people at risk to allow early intervention for prevention. Lifestyle modification is the most important part of the management of people with the syndrome. Lately medications--though none approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)--have been recommended by major medical societies when lifestyle modification is not enough or when it fails.

  18. Bilaterally cleft lip, limb defects, and haematological manifestations: Roberts syndrome versus TAR syndrome.

    PubMed

    Urban, M; Opitz, C; Bommer, C; Enders, H; Tinschert, S; Witkowski, R

    1998-09-23

    We report on a 13-year-old patient followed since birth. He is the only offspring of young, non-consanguineous German parents. His mother has an isolated left cleft of lip and a cleft palate. At birth, our patient presented with bilaterally cleft lip/cleft palate, phocomelia of upper limbs with normal hands, and mild symmetrical deficiencies of the long bones of the lower limbs. Haematological evaluation demonstrated a leukaemoid reaction during a urinary tract infection as well as intermittent thrombocytopenia and episodes of marked eosinophilia during the first two years of life. Intellectual development has been normal. Comparison with two similar cases from the literature suggests a non-random phenotypic overlap of Roberts syndrome (MIM 268300) and TAR syndrome (MIM 274000). Such clinical constellations may be key observations to understand the genetic relationship of Roberts syndrome and TAR syndrome in future phenotype-genotype correlations.

  19. Corneal clouding in Alport syndrome.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Martina C; Eter, Nicole; Holz, Frank G; Loeffler, Karin U

    2011-03-01

    Alport syndrome is a hereditary basement membrane disease that typically involves the kidney, the cochlea, and the eyes. Characteristic ocular problems include posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, lenticonus, and dot-and-fleck retinopathy. A 48-year-old male patient with Alport syndrome presented with corneal and retinal changes. In 2003, he was diagnosed with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy and received a corneal transplant in his left eye in 2007 because of progressive deterioration in visual acuity. At this time, a lamellar macular hole was diagnosed in his right eye. The removed corneal button was examined by light and electron microscopy and by immunohistochemistry. Histology revealed not only endothelial changes but also a marked irregular thickening of the epithelial basement membrane and of Bowman layer. Alcian blue staining demonstrated an accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in the Bowman layer. The presented changes underline the great variation of ocular disorders related to Alport syndrome. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports describing histologic corneal findings in Alport syndrome. Only a few cases with accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in the Bowman layer have been described previously, none of them being associated with Alport syndrome. Besides, anterior corneal alterations and corneal clouding seem to be uncommon in patients suffering from Alport syndrome.

  20. Further delineation of Malan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Priolo, Manuela; Schanze, Denny; Tatton-Brown, Katrin; Mulder, Paul A; Tenorio, Jair; Kooblall, Kreepa; Acero, Inés Hernández; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Arias, Pedro; Bernardini, Laura; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Cole, Trevor; Coubes, Christine; Dapia, Irene; Davies, Sally; Di Donato, Nataliya; Elcioglu, Nursel H; Fahrner, Jill A; Foster, Alison; González, Noelia García; Huber, Ilka; Iascone, Maria; Kaiser, Ann-Sophie; Kamath, Arveen; Liebelt, Jan; Lynch, Sally Ann; Maas, Saskia M; Mammì, Corrado; Mathijssen, Inge B; McKee, Shane; Menke, Leonie A; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Montgomery, Tara; Neubauer, Dorothee; Neumann, Thomas E; Pintomalli, Letizia; Pisanti, Maria Antonietta; Plomp, Astrid S; Price, Sue; Salter, Claire; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Sarda, Pierre; Segovia, Mabel; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Smithson, Sarah; Suri, Mohnish; Valdez, Rita Maria; Van Haeringen, Arie; Van Hagen, Johanna M; Zollino, Marcela; Lapunzina, Pablo; Thakker, Rajesh V; Zenker, Martin; Hennekam, Raoul C

    2018-06-13

    Malan syndrome is an overgrowth disorder described in a limited number of individuals. We aim to delineate the entity by studying a large group of affected individuals. We gathered data on 45 affected individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis through an international collaboration and compared data to the 35 previously reported individuals. Results indicate that height is > 2 SDS in infancy and childhood but in only half of affected adults. Cardinal facial characteristics include long, triangular face, macrocephaly, prominent forehead, everted lower lip, and prominent chin. Intellectual disability is universally present, behaviorally anxiety is characteristic. Malan syndrome is caused by deletions or point mutations of NFIX clustered mostly in exon 2. There is no genotype-phenotype correlation except for an increased risk for epilepsy with 19p13.2 microdeletions. Variants arose de novo, except in one family in which mother was mosaic. Variants causing Malan and Marshall-Smith syndrome can be discerned by differences in the site of stop codon formation. We conclude that Malan syndrome has a well recognizable phenotype that usually can be discerned easily from Marshall-Smith syndrome but rarely there is some overlap. Differentiation from Sotos and Weaver syndrome can be made by clinical evaluation only. © 2018 The Authors. Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.