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Sample records for jahipiirkonna kasutusiguse load

  1. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  2. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  3. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  4. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  5. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  6. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  7. Load management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ian

    The development of the Electrical Load Management System (ELMS) for the Boeing 777 aircraft is reviewed. The discussion covers the overall design of the system, its principal components, and the functions it provides. Some of the additional system drivers, such as autoland electrical system partitioning and dispatch reliability, are outlined, and their effect on the system architecture is examined. The key technologies used in the development of the ELMS include smart high power contactors, ARING 629 data buses, the Motorola 68020 processor combined with Ada software, dedicated ASICs, and modular architecture for improved maintainability.

  8. Fatigue failure load indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imig, L. A.; Davis, W. T.; Davis, D. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An indicator for recording the load at which a fatigue specimen breaks during the last cycle of a fatigue test is described. A load cell is attached to the specimen which is alternately subjected to tension and compression loads. The output of the load cell which is proportional to the load on the specimen is applied to the input of a peak detector. Each time the specimen is subjected to a compression load, means are provided for applying a positive voltage to the rest of the peak detector to reset it. During the last cycle of the tension load the peak detector measures the maximum load on the specimen. Means are provided for disconnecting the load cell from the peak detector when there is a failure in the specimen.

  9. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  10. Taking a Load Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, John

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the snow -load capacity of school roofs and how understanding this data aids in planning preventive measures and easing fear of roof collapse. Describes how to determine snow-load capacity, and explains the load-bearing behavior of flat versus sloped roofs. Collapse prevention measures are highlighted. (GR)

  11. Load Induced Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005d`) was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus—a phenomenon of load induced blindness. PMID:18823196

  12. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  13. Phalange Tactile Load Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A tactile load cell that has particular application for measuring the load on a phalange in a dexterous robot system. The load cell includes a flexible strain element having first and second end portions that can be used to mount the load cell to the phalange and a center portion that can be used to mount a suitable contact surface to the load cell. The strain element also includes a first S-shaped member including at least three sections connected to the first end portion and the center portion and a second S-shaped member including at least three sections coupled to the second end portion and the center portion. The load cell also includes eight strain gauge pairs where each strain gauge pair is mounted to opposing surfaces of one of the sections of the S-shaped members where the strain gauge pairs provide strain measurements in six-degrees of freedom.

  14. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  15. Dynamic localized load balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, Sergey I.; Heiner, Andreas P.

    2003-08-01

    Traditionally dynamic load balancing is applied in resource-reserved connection-oriented networks with a large degree of managed control. Load balancing in connectionless networks is rather rudimentary and is either static or requires network-wide load information. This paper presents a fully automated, traffic driven dynamic load balancing mechanism that uses local load information. The proposed mechanism is easily deployed in a multi-vendor environment in which only a subset of routers supports the function. The Dynamic Localized Load Balancing (DLLB) mechanism distributes traffic based on two sets of weights. The first set is fixed and is inverse proportional to the path cost, typically the sum of reciprocal bandwidths along the path. The second weight reflects the utilization of the link to the first next hop along the path, and is therefore variable. The ratio of static weights defines the ideal load distribution, the ratio of variable weights the node-local load distribution estimate. By minimizing the difference between variable and fixed ratios the traffic distribution, with the available node-local knowledge, is optimal. The above mechanism significantly increases throughput and decreases delay from a network-wide perspective. Optionally the variable weight can include load information of nodes downstream to prevent congestion on those nodes. The latter function further improves network performance, and is easily implemented on top of the standard OSPF signaling. The mechanism does not require many node resources and can be implemented on existing router platforms.

  16. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  17. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  18. Electronic Load Bank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    Electronic load-bank circuit provides pulsed or continuous low-resistance load to imitate effect of short circuit on Ni/H2 or other electrochemical power cells. Includes safety/warning feature and taps for measurement of cell-output voltage and current.

  19. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Design analysis of a microbial load monitor system flight engineering model was presented. Checkout of the card taper and media pump system was fabricated as well as the final two incubating reading heads, the sample receiving and card loading device assembly, related sterility testing, and software. Progress in these areas was summarized.

  20. Strip and load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The method of taking batch data files and loading these files into the ADABAS data base management system (DBMS) is examined. This strip and load process allows the user to quickly become productive. Techniques for data fields and files definition are also included.

  1. CRITICAL LOADS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...

  2. Combining ascent loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbolt, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Criteria and guidelines are presented for combining loads that develop during the ascent phase of a space flight. The primary load-caring structure is discussed including the basic tank and interconnecting members, engine support mounts and connections to tank structure, transition structures between stages, payload shrouds, and the basic support points at separation planes.

  3. Load induced blindness.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, James S P; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-10-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of perceptual load in a letter-search task and assessed its effect on the conscious perception of a search-irrelevant shape stimulus appearing in the periphery, using a direct measure of awareness (present/absent reports). Detection sensitivity (d') was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus--a phenomenon of load induced blindness.

  4. Load Induced Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  5. Transportation and handling loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrem, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices are presented for the prediction and verification of transportation and handling loads for the space vehicle structure and for monitoring these loads during transportation and handling of the vehicle or major vehicle segments. Elements of the transportation and handling systems, and the forcing functions and associated loads are described. The forcing functions for common carriers and typical handling devices are assessed, and emphasis is given to the assessment of loads at the points where the space vehicle is supported during transportation and handling. Factors which must be considered when predicting the loads include the transportation and handling medium; type of handling fixture; transport vehicle speed; types of terrain; weather (changes in pressure of temperature, wind, etc.); and dynamics of the transportation modes or handling devices (acceleration, deceleration, and rotations of the transporter or handling device).

  6. Booster Interface Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steve; Wood, Bill; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between shock waves and the wake shed from the forward booster/core attach hardware results in unsteady pressure fluctuations, which can lead to large buffeting loads on the vehicle. This task investigates whether computational tools can adequately predict these flows, and whether alternative booster nose shapes can reduce these loads. Results from wind tunnel tests will be used to validate the computations and provide design information for future Space Launch System (SLS) configurations. The current work combines numerical simulations with wind tunnel testing to predict buffeting loads caused by the boosters. Variations in nosecone shape, similar to the Ariane 5 design (fig. 1), are being evaluated with regard to lowering the buffet loads. The task will provide design information for the mitigation of buffet loads for SLS, along with validated simulation tools to be used to assess future SLS designs.

  7. Lightening the Load

    PubMed Central

    Remington, Anna M.; Swettenham, John G.; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enhanced perceptual capacity, leading to the superior performance and increased distractor processing previously reported. Using a signal-detection paradigm, we test this directly and demonstrate that, under higher levels of load, perceptual sensitivity was reduced in typical adults but not in adults with ASD. These findings confirm our hypothesis and offer a promising solution to the previous discrepancies by suggesting that increased distractor processing in ASD results not from a filtering deficit but from enhanced perceptual capacity. PMID:22428792

  8. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  9. Local load shedding

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M.; Thorne, D.K. )

    1988-08-01

    Equipment overloads in an underground transmission network are caused by unscheduled outages. Repairs or replacements of damaged cables and/or transformers in urban areas are inherently difficult and time-consuming. Therefore, for overloads greatly in excess of short-time ratings, speed of load shedding is of paramount importance. Under such conditions, the system operator is faced with: recognizing the problem, determining the course of action and shedding the correct amount of load at the right locations. These tasks are difficult to perform, particularly under pressure of time. Reliance on pre-specified load shedding lists is not satisfactory since the load shedding lists do not necessarily match the amounts and locations of the required loads to be shed. Clearly, there has been a need for a local load shedding scheme, which in the first order of importance, would relieve the overloaded equipment within the time limits imposed by the equipment short-time ratings and in the second order of importance, would ''minimize'' the amount of load to be curtailed. This paper describes an approach which meets the dual objective, providing a practical solution to a difficult engineering/operating problem.

  10. Cable load sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  11. A loaded thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of the performance of a thermoacoustic engine driving a dissipative load are presented. The effect of the load can be explained qualitatively using a simple low-amplitude approximation and quantitatively by invoking a more accurate low-amplitude numerical solution. The heater power {ital @};DQ and hot-end temperature {ital T}{sub {ital H}} are found to be simple functions of the load impedance and the unloaded values of {ital @};DQ and {ital T}{sub {ital H}}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Acoustical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.

  12. Dynamic load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joncas, K. P.

    1972-01-01

    Concepts and techniques for identifying and simulating both the steady state and dynamic characteristics of electrical loads for use during integrated system test and evaluation are discussed. The investigations showed that it is feasible to design and develop interrogation and simulation equipment to perform the desired functions. During the evaluation, actual spacecraft loads were interrogated by stimulating the loads with their normal input voltage and measuring the resultant voltage and current time histories. Elements of the circuits were optimized by an iterative process of selecting element values and comparing the time-domain response of the model with those obtained from the real equipment during interrogation.

  13. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  14. Statistical load data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandijk, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    A recorder system has been installed on two operational fighter aircrafts. Signal values from a c.g.-acceleration transducer and a strain-gage installation at the wing root were sampled and recorded in digital format on the recorder system. To analyse such load-time histories for fatigue evaluation purposes, a number of counting methods are available in which level crossings, peaks, or ranges are counted. Ten different existing counting principles are defined. The load-time histories are analysed to evaluate these counting methods. For some of the described counting methods, the counting results might be affected by arbitrarily chosen parameters such as the magnitude of load ranges that will be neglected and other secondary counting restrictions. Such influences might invalidate the final counting results entirely. The evaluation shows that for the type of load-time histories associated with most counting methods, a sensible value of the parameters involved can be found.

  15. IT and Building Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-09-30

    The article discusses available technologies for reducing IT energy consumption and the commensurate cooling load in commercial buildings. This article addresses the energy savings and market potential of these strategies as well.

  16. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading densityThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Burkhard , L., D. Hubin-Barrows, N. Billa, T. Highland , R. Hockett , D. Mount , and T. Norberg-King. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading. ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY. Springer, New York, NY, USA, 71(7): 70-77, (2016).

  17. LOADING MACHINE FOR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Simon, S.L.

    1959-07-01

    An apparatus is described for loading or charging slugs of fissionable material into a nuclear reactor. The apparatus of the invention is a "muzzle loading" type comprising a delivery tube or muzzle designed to be brought into alignment with any one of a plurality of fuel channels. The delivery tube is located within the pressure shell and it is also disposed within shielding barriers while the fuel cantridges or slugs are forced through the delivery tube by an externally driven flexible ram.

  18. Lumbosacral loads in bedmaking.

    PubMed

    Milburn, P D; Barrett, R S

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the introduction of larger and heavier beds which were lower to the floor increased the physical stress on employees responsible for room cleaning and bedmaking in the hospitality industry. More specifically, this study assessed the effect of bed size (single, double and king) and bed height (460 and 560 mm) on dynamic and static estimates of L5/S1 compression force and static L5/S1 shear force for six simulated components of the overall bedmaking task. Results confirmed the view that static models severely underestimate the loads on the lumbar spine under inertial lifting conditions, and also indicated that: (i) tasks with the greatest hand loads were not necessarily associated with the greatest spinal loads due to differences in the way each task was performed; (ii) L5/S1 loads produced during bedmaking may exceed recommended safe lifting limits for certain task-size height combinations; and (iii) the use of larger and heavier beds in the hospitality industry imposes increased loads on the lumbar spine. The investigation of alternative work practices designed to minimise loads on the lumbar spine is recommended.

  19. Composite Load Model Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong

    2007-09-30

    The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

  20. E-2C Loads Calibration in DFRC Flight Loads Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Lawrence S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: a) Safely and efficiently perform structural load tests on NAVAIR E-2C aircraft to calibrate strain gage instrumentation installed by NAVAIR; b) Collect load test data and derive loads equations for use in NAVAIR flight tests; and c) Assist flight test team with use of loads equations measurements at PAX River.

  1. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts are made to provide a total design of a Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) system flight engineering model. Activities include assembly and testing of Sample Receiving and Card Loading Devices (SRCLDs), operator related software, and testing of biological samples in the MLM. Progress was made in assembling SRCLDs with minimal leaks and which operate reliably in the Sample Loading System. Seven operator commands are used to control various aspects of the MLM such as calibrating and reading the incubating reading head, setting the clock and reading time, and status of Card. Testing of the instrument, both in hardware and biologically, was performed. Hardware testing concentrated on SRCLDs. Biological testing covered 66 clinical and seeded samples. Tentative thresholds were set and media performance listed.

  2. Shuttle car loading system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A system is described for loading newly mined material such as coal, into a shuttle car, at a location near the mine face where there is only a limited height available for a loading system. The system includes a storage bin having several telescoping bin sections and a shuttle car having a bottom wall that can move under the bin. With the bin in an extended position and filled with coal the bin sections can be telescoped to allow the coal to drop out of the bin sections and into the shuttle car, to quickly load the car. The bin sections can then be extended, so they can be slowly filled with more while waiting another shuttle car.

  3. Elastomeric load sharing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isabelle, Charles J. (Inventor); Kish, Jules G. (Inventor); Stone, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An elastomeric load sharing device, interposed in combination between a driven gear and a central drive shaft to facilitate balanced torque distribution in split power transmission systems, includes a cylindrical elastomeric bearing and a plurality of elastomeric bearing pads. The elastomeric bearing and bearing pads comprise one or more layers, each layer including an elastomer having a metal backing strip secured thereto. The elastomeric bearing is configured to have a high radial stiffness and a low torsional stiffness and is operative to radially center the driven gear and to minimize torque transfer through the elastomeric bearing. The bearing pads are configured to have a low radial and torsional stiffness and a high axial stiffness and are operative to compressively transmit torque from the driven gear to the drive shaft. The elastomeric load sharing device has spring rates that compensate for mechanical deviations in the gear train assembly to provide balanced torque distribution between complementary load paths of split power transmission systems.

  4. Truck loading rack blending

    SciTech Connect

    Boubenider, E.

    1995-12-01

    Blending, the combining of two or more components to make a single product, has become widely used in most loading rack applications. Blending should not be confused with additive injection, which is the injection of very small doses of enhancers, detergents and dyes into a product stream. Changes in the environmental protection laws in the early 90`s have put increasing demands on marketing terminals with regards to reformulated fuels and environmental protection concerns. As a result of these new mandates, terminals have turned to blending at the loading rack as an economical and convenient means in meeting these new requirements. This paper will discuss some of these mandates and how loading rack blending is used for different applications. Various types of blending will also be discussed along with considerations for each method.

  5. Estimating turbine limit load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    A method for estimating turbine limit-load pressure ratio from turbine map information is presented and demonstrated. It is based on a mean line analysis at the last-rotor exit. The required map information includes choke flow rate at all speeds as well as pressure ratio and efficiency at the onset of choke at design speed. One- and two-stage turbines are analyzed to compare the results with those from a more rigorous off-design flow analysis and to show the sensitivities of the computed limit-load pressure ratios to changes in the key assumptions.

  6. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  7. Transfer Mechanisms for Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassisi, V.

    1986-01-01

    Soft hydraulic system gently maneuvers loads. Upper and lower load-transfer mechanisms attach through mounting holes in vertical beam adjustable or gross positioning. Fine positioning of load accomplished by hydraulic cylinders that move trunnion support and trunnion clamp through short distances. Useful in transferring large loads in railroads, agriculture, shipping, manufacturing, and even precision assembly of large items.

  8. LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1960-08-16

    A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

  9. Fuel Load (FL)

    Treesearch

    Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fuel Load method (FL) is used to sample dead and down woody debris, determine depth of the duff/ litter profile, estimate the proportion of litter in the profile, and estimate total vegetative cover and dead vegetative cover. Down woody debris (DWD) is sampled using the planar intercept technique based on the methodology developed by Brown (1974). Pieces of dead...

  10. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  11. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  12. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOEpatents

    Scavone, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  13. Load measurement system with load cell lock-out mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thang; Carroll, Monty; Liu, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    In the frame work of the project Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX), a Load Measurement System was developed and fabricated to measure the impingement force of Shuttle Reaction Control System (RCS) jets. The Load Measurement System is a force sensing system that measures any combination of normal and shear forces up to 40 N (9 lbf) in the normal direction and 22 N (5 lbf) in the shear direction with an accuracy of +/- 0.04 N (+/- 0.01 lbf) Since high resolution is required for the force measurement, the Load Measurement System is built with highly sensitive load cells. To protect these fragile load cells in the non-operational mode from being damaged due to flight loads such as launch and landing loads of the Shuttle vehicle, a motor driven device known as the Load Cell Lock-Out Mechanism was built. This Lock-Out Mechanism isolates the load cells from flight loads and re-engages the load cells for the force measurement experiment once in space. With this highly effective protection system, the SPIFEX load measurement experiment was successfully conducted on STS-44 in September 1994 with all load cells operating properly and reading impingement forces as expected.

  14. Load theory behind the wheel; perceptual and cognitive load effects.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M

    2017-09-01

    Perceptual Load Theory has been proposed as a resolution to the longstanding early versus late selection debate in cognitive psychology. There is much evidence in support of Load Theory but very few applied studies, despite the potential for the model to shed light on everyday attention and distraction. Using a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual and cognitive load on drivers' visual search was assessed. The findings were largely in line with Load Theory, with reduced distractor processing under high perceptual load, but increased distractor processing under high cognitive load. The effect of load on driving behaviour was also analysed, with significant differences in driving behaviour under perceptual and cognitive load. In addition, the effect of perceptual load on drivers' levels of awareness was investigated. High perceptual load significantly increased inattentional blindness and deafness, for stimuli that were both relevant and irrelevant to driving. High perceptual load also increased RTs to hazards. The current study helps to advance Load Theory by illustrating its usefulness outside of traditional paradigms. There are also applied implications for driver safety and roadway design, as the current study suggests that perceptual and cognitive load are important factors in driver attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, E.L.

    1999-01-26

    This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the plutonium unattractive for recovery or theft. The envisioned process remotely installs cans containing plutonium-ceramic pucks into storage magazines. Magazines are then remotely loaded into the DWPF canister through the canister neck with a robotic arm and locked into a storage rack inside the canister, which holds seven magazines. Finally, the canister is processed through DWPF and filled with high-level waste glass, thereby surrounding the product cans. This paper covers magazine and rack development and canister loading concepts.

  16. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  17. 69. BUILDING NO. 542A, LOADING & UNLOADING DECKS, LOADING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. BUILDING NO. 542-A, LOADING & UNLOADING DECKS, LOADING AND UNLOADING RAMP LOOKING NORTHEAST. BUILDING NO. 550, GENERAL STOREHOUSE, IN BACKGROUND LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  18. 32. VAL, DETAIL SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM, PROJECTILE LOADING CAR, LAUNCHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VAL, DETAIL SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM, PROJECTILE LOADING CAR, LAUNCHER SLAB AND UNDERSIDE OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Load regulating latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A load regulating mechanical latch is described that has a pivotally mounted latch element having a hook-shaped end with a strike roller-engaging laterally open hook for engaging a stationary strike roller. The latch element or hook is pivotally mounted in a clevis end of an elongated latch stem that is adapted for axial movement through an opening in a support plate or bracket mounted to a structural member. A coil spring is disposed over and around the extending latch stem and the lower end of the coil spring engages the support bracket. A thrust washer is removably attached to the other end of the latch stem and engages the other end of the coil spring and compresses the coil spring thereby preloading the spring and the latch element carried by the latch stem. The hook-shaped latch element has a limited degree of axial travel for loading caused by structural distortion which may change the relative positions of the latch element hook and the strike roller. Means are also provided to permit limited tilt of the latch element due to loading of the hook.

  20. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  1. Buffet Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Hopkins, M. A.; Henderson, D.; Zimcik, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    High performance aircraft are, by their very nature, often required to undergo maneuvers involving high angles of attack. Under these conditions unsteady vortices emanating from the wing and the fuselage will impinge on the twin fins (required for directional stability) causing excessive buffet loads, in some circumstances, to be applied to the aircraft. These loads result in oscillatory stresses, which may cause significant amounts of fatigue damage. Active control is a possible solution to this important problem. A full-scale test was carried out on an F/A-18 fuselage and fins using piezoceramic actuators to control the vibrations. Buffet loads were simulated using very powerful electromagnetic shakers. The first phase of this test was concerned with the open loop system identification whereas the second stage involved implementing linear time invariant control laws. This paper looks at some of the problems encountered as well as the corresponding solutions and some results. It is expected that flight trials of a similar control system to alleviate buffet will occur as early as 2001.

  2. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  3. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  4. Microbial Load Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. F.; Royer, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) is an automated and computerized system for detection and identification of microorganisms. Additionally, the system is designed to enumerate and provide antimicrobic susceptibility profiles for medically significant bacteria. The system is designed to accomplish these tasks in a time of 13 hours or less versus the traditional time of 24 hours for negatives and 72 hours or more for positives usually required for standard microbiological analysis. The MLM concept differs from other methods of microbial detection in that the system is designed to accept raw untreated clinical samples and to selectively identify each group or species that may be present in a polymicrobic sample.

  5. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  6. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  7. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  8. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  9. Cooling loads in laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, C.K.; Cook, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for a laboratory must be designed with consideration for safety, air cleanliness, and space temperature. The primary safety concern is to ensure proper coordination between fume hood exhaust and makeup air supply. Air cleanliness is maintained by properly filtering supply air, by delivering adequate room air changes, and by ensuring proper pressure relationships between the laboratory and adjacent spaces. Space temperature is maintained by supplying enough cooling air to offset the amount of heat generated in the room. Each of these factors must be considered, and the one that results in the largest ventilation rate is used to establish the supply and exhaust airflows. The project described in this paper illustrates a case where cooling load is the determining factor in the sizing of the air systems.

  10. Offshore tanker loading system

    SciTech Connect

    Baan, J. de; Heijst, W.J. van.

    1994-01-04

    The present invention relates to an improved flexible loading system which provides fluid communication between a subsea pipeline and a surface vessel including a hose extending from the subsea pipeline to a first buoyancy tank, a second hose extending from the first buoyancy tank to a central buoyancy tank, a second buoyancy tank, means connecting said second buoyancy tank to the sea floor and to the central buoyancy tank whereby the forces exerted on said central buoyant tank by said second hose and said connecting means are balanced to cause said central buoyancy tank to maintain a preselected position, a riser section extending upwardly from said central buoyancy tank and means on the upper termination for engagement by a vessel on the surface to raise said upper termination onto the vessel to complete the communication for moving fluids between the subsea pipeline and the vessel. In one form the means for connecting between the sea floor to the second buoyancy tank includes an anchor on the sea floor and lines extending from the anchor to the second buoyancy tank and from the second buoyancy tank to the central buoyancy tank. In another form of the invention the means for connecting is a third hose extending from a second subsea pipeline to the second buoyancy tank and a fourth hose extending from the second buoyancy tank to the central buoyancy tank. The central buoyancy tank is preferred to be maintained at a level below the water surface which allows full movement of the vessel while connected to the riser section. A swivel may be positioned in the riser section and a pressure relief system may be included in the loading system to protect it from sudden excess pressures. 17 figs.

  11. Development of fatigue loading spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.M.; Watanabe, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    The present work on fatigue-loading spectra encompasses the current status of standardized stress-time histories, European approaches to standard loading spectrum development, transport aircraft airframe fatigue test spectra, the TURBISTAN fatigue-loading standard for fighter-aircraft engine disks, an automated procedure for the creation of flight-by-flight spectra, and the development of a wave-action standard history for fatigue testing relevant to tubular structures in the North Sea. Also treated is the use of the TURBISTAN mission spectra to evaluate fatigue crack growth in a rotating disk, fatigue-spectra development for airborne stores, a simplified analysis of fatigue-loading spectra, variable-amplitude load models for fatigue-damage crack growth, the tracking time service histories for multiaxis fatigue problems, and the compilation of procedures for fatigue crack propagation testing under complex load sequences.

  12. Variable response load limiting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, Dwight D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An energy absorbing device used as a load limiting member in a structure to control its response to applied loads is described. It functions by utilizing a spool assembly having flanged ends and an interior cavity of sufficiently large diameter to cause it to deform plastically at a prescribed load. In application, the spool is utilized as a pivot point for the legs of an airplane seat. When properly designed and integrated into the seat arrangement the spool will twist about its axis, deforming plastically when the impact load exceeds the spool yield value. Through this deformation, the spool absorbs the kinetic energy of the movement of the seat at a substantially constant rate, thereby controlling the level of loads transmitted to the seat occupant. By proper sizing and collection of materials, it is possible to control load response in a predictable manner.

  13. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  14. Structural dynamics payload loads estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for the prediction of loads on large space structures are discussed. Existing approaches to the problem of loads calculation are surveyed. A full scale version of an alternate numerical integration technique to solve the response part of a load cycle is presented, and a set of short cut versions of the algorithm developed. The implementation of these techniques using the software package developed is discussed.

  15. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  16. System Measures Loads In Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.

    1994-01-01

    Improved technique for ultrasonic nondestructive measurement of loads in bolts involves use of pulsed phase-locked loop interferometer. Provides for correction of errors and for automatic readout of loads in bolts. Actual bolt load measured, using transducers rebonded after bolts tightened. Calibration block and thermometer added. Technique applicable to critical fasteners in aerospace applications, nuclear reactors, petroleum and other chemical processing plants, steel bridges, and other structures.

  17. Ratcheting caused by moving loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübel, Hartwig; Vollrath, Bastian

    2017-06-01

    Progressive deformation (ratcheting) can occur as a response to variable loads as soon as the elastic limit is exceeded. If this is the case, strains and displacements accumulate in the event of cyclic loading in each load cycle. Widely known as triggers for ratcheting and already being considered in some design codes are configurations, in which a structure is subjected to at least two different types of load, namely a constant load (the primary load) and a superimposed cyclic load. In this paper, another mechanism that generates ratcheting is introduced. It can be attributed solely to the effect of a single load. In the simplest case, this can be explained by the successive activation of (an infinite number of) plastic hinges if a load of constant magnitude is moved in space. The increments of strains and displacements can decrease or increase from cycle to cycle, when the material is hardening, or if elastic foundation is present, or if the equilibrium condition is formulated for the deformed system (second-order theory) or if "large" rotations are taken into account (third-order theory).

  18. High-Power Rf Load

    DOEpatents

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Vlieks, Arnold E.

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  19. In vitro loading of apoferritin.

    PubMed

    de Silva, D; Miller, D M; Reif, D W; Aust, S D

    1992-03-01

    This study compared the effect of loading apoferritin either with ferrous ammonium sulfate in various buffers or with ceruloplasmin and chelated ferrous iron. It was shown that loading of apoferritin with ferrous ammonium sulfate was dependent on buffer and pH, and was directly related to the rate of iron autoxidation. The ceruloplasmin-dependent loading of apoferritin, however, was unaffected by these factors. Isoelectric focusing and amino acid analysis of the differently loaded ferritins showed that ferrous ammonium sulfate loading of apoferritin resulted in the depletion of the basic amino acids, lysine and histidine, probably as a result of protein oxidation. No significant differences in amino acid composition was noted for ceruloplasmin-loaded ferritin. Furthermore, ferritin loaded with ferrous ammonium sulfate released more iron than either native or ceruloplasmin-loaded ferritin when either paraquat or EDTA was used as an iron mobilizing agent. We suggest that the loading of apoferritin with ferrous ammonium sulfate occurred as a result of iron autoxidation and may result in oxidation of amino acids and loss of integrity of the protein, and that ceruloplasmin may act as a catalyst for the incorporation of iron into apoferritin in a manner more closely related to that occurring in vivo.

  20. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  1. Libra: Scalable Load Balance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    Libra is a tool for scalable analysis of load balance data from all processes in a parallel application. Libra contains an instrumentation module that collects model data from parallel applications and a parallel compression mechanism that uses distributed wavelet transforms to gather load balance model data in a scalable fashion. Data is output to files, and these files can be viewed in a GUI tool by Libra users. The GUI tool associates particular load balance data with regions for code, emabling users to view the load balance properties of distributed "slices" of their application code.

  2. Residential-appliance load characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of residential photovoltaic systems in combination with energy efficient appliances is examined. The load characteristics are presented for several types of major residential appliances. Load characteristics consist of the average energy use of each appliance, the power demand while the appliance is operating, and a typical use schedule. Potential energy conserving features are investigated for each appliance and used to identify a best available model and maximum feasible energy efficient appliance. Load characteristics of these energy conserving designs are then compared with the load characteristics of a standard model. The feasibility of converting appliances to dc power for use with photovoltaic systems is also discussed.

  3. Estimating Nitrogen Loads, BMPs, and Target Loads Exceedance Risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wabash River (WR) watershed, IN, drains two-thirds of the state’s 92 counties and has primarily agricultural land use. The nutrient and sediment loads of the WR significantly increase loads of the Ohio River ultimately polluting the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this study...

  4. Estimating Nitrogen Loads, BMPs, and Target Loads Exceedance Risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wabash River (WR) watershed, IN, drains two-thirds of the state’s 92 counties and has primarily agricultural land use. The nutrient and sediment loads of the WR significantly increase loads of the Ohio River ultimately polluting the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this study...

  5. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  6. Load sensing surgical instruments.

    PubMed

    Jacq, C; Maeder, T; Ryser, P

    2009-12-01

    Force and pressure sensing technology applied to smart surgical instruments as well as implants allow to give a direct feedback of loads to the surgeon lead to better reliability and success of surgical operations. A common technology used for sensors is low-cost piezoresistive thick-film technology. However, the standard thick-film firing conditions degrade the properties of medical alloys. In order to avoid this problem, the solution is to decrease the firing temperature of thick films. This work presents the development and characterisation of low-firing thick-film systems (dielectrics, resistors and conductors), formulated to achieve chemical and thermal expansion compatibility with an austenitic stainless steel medical alloy. Adherence tests and results on electrical properties of these systems: resistance, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) are presented. It was found that the main issue in these systems lies in mastering the materials interactions during firing, especially at the silver-based resistor terminations. The interaction of silver, resistor and dielectric tends to give rise to highly resistive zones at the terminations, affecting reliability. This can be circumvented by post-firing the resistor terminations at a moderate temperature.

  7. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  8. Robust Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-26

    dimension, Hurst exponent ) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to evaluate changes in working memory load during the performance of a cognitive task...dimension, Hurst exponent ) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to evaluate changes in working memory load during the performance of a cognitive task with...approximate entropies, wavelet-based complexity measures, correlation dimension, Hurst exponent ) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to evaluate changes

  9. Perceptual Load Alters Visual Excitability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, David; Thorne, Jeremy D.; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-01-01

    Increasing perceptual load reduces the processing of visual stimuli outside the focus of attention, but the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Here we tested an account attributing the effects of perceptual load to modulations of visual cortex excitability. In contrast to stimulus competition accounts, which propose that load…

  10. Cerebrovascular Injury in Blast Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    TITLE: Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kenneth L. Monson, PhD...SUBTITLE Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...and pH control. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Blast brain injury; cerebrovascular injury and dysfunction; shock tube 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  11. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  12. Umbilical cable recovery load analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao

    2013-06-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  13. Cognitive Load Theory: How Many Types of Load Does It Really Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive load theory has been traditionally described as involving three separate and additive types of load. Germane load is considered as a learning-relevant load complementing extraneous and intrinsic load. This article argues that, in its traditional treatment, germane load is essentially indistinguishable from intrinsic load, and therefore…

  14. Accommodating the load

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Cushla J.; Casane, Didier

    2013-01-01

    the salamanders. The lungfish and salamanders, therefore, may accommodate their large load of TEs because these TEs have accumulated gradually over a long period of time and have been subject to inactivation and decay. PMID:24616835

  15. Space Shuttle fatigue loads spectra for prelaunch and liftoff loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldish, Judith; Ortasse, Raphael

    1994-01-01

    Fatigue loads spectra for the prelaunch and liftoff flight segments of the Space Shuttle were developed. A variety o methods were used to determine the distributions of several important parameters, such as time of exposure on the launch, pad, month of launch, and wind speed. Also, some lessons learned that would be applicable to development of fatigue loads spectra for other reusable space vehicles are presented.

  16. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  17. IPLS: Interactive Pallet Loading System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    AD-AI01 410 FLOR IDA UNIV GAINESVILLE DEPT OF INDUSTRIAL AND SYS--ETC F/6 15/5 IPLS. INTERACTIVE PALLET LOADING SYSTEM.(U) .JN 81 T J HODGSON. N0OCIA...76-C 0096 UNCLASSIFIEDRR69L * unuuuu L~EhEEEE / IPL SINTERACTIVE PALLET LOADING SYSTEM Research Report No. 8]-9 by Thorn J. Hodgson June, 1981...COVEREo IPLS: INTERACTIVE PALLET LOADING SyS Technical / j ’.l e P a t . | - f F O M IN G O R G . R E P O R T N U M B E R--81-9 7. AuTmo, .. s

  18. Maximizing TDRS Command Load Lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Aaron J.

    2002-01-01

    The GNC software onboard ISS utilizes TORS command loads, and a simplistic model of TORS orbital motion to generate onboard TORS state vectors. Each TORS command load contains five "invariant" orbital elements which serve as inputs to the onboard propagation algorithm. These elements include semi-major axis, inclination, time of last ascending node crossing, right ascension of ascending node, and mean motion. Running parallel to the onboard software is the TORS Command Builder Tool application, located in the JSC Mission Control Center. The TORS Command Builder Tool is responsible for building the TORS command loads using a ground TORS state vector, mirroring the onboard propagation algorithm, and assessing the fidelity of current TORS command loads onboard ISS. The tool works by extracting a ground state vector at a given time from a current TORS ephemeris, and then calculating the corresponding "onboard" TORS state vector at the same time using the current onboard TORS command load. The tool then performs a comparison between these two vectors and displays the relative differences in the command builder tool GUI. If the RSS position difference between these two vectors exceeds the tolerable lim its, a new command load is built using the ground state vector and uplinked to ISS. A command load's lifetime is therefore defined as the time from when a command load is built to the time the RSS position difference exceeds the tolerable limit. From the outset of TORS command load operations (STS-98), command load lifetime was limited to approximately one week due to the simplicity of both the onboard propagation algorithm, and the algorithm used by the command builder tool to generate the invariant orbital elements. It was soon desired to extend command load lifetime in order to minimize potential risk due to frequent ISS commanding. Initial studies indicated that command load lifetime was most sensitive to changes in mean motion. Finding a suitable value for mean motion

  19. Structural load control during construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulas, Martin

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: examples of high transient loadings on large space structures; energy absorbing/load limiting strut research objectives; scope of research on energy absorbing struts to date; energy characteristics of cantilevered trusses with a tip load; ten bay long resilient truss example; stored energy characteristics of one meter deep truss; energy absorbing potential for 10-bay 5-meter deep truss; schematic of energy absorbing strut; linear load and motion control actuator; rigid body response of a solar array to the shuttle thruster pressure impingement; solar array piecewise linear response; solar array characteristics; solar array tip deflection and required actuator stroke; solar array response from finite element analysis; 12 bay energy absorbing test bed dynamics; and new AERO-Lab with 12-bay test beam.

  20. Flight Loads and Environments Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Daniel; Kern, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the design of a lightweight non-intrusive force measurement device (FMD) to reduce the cost per effective payload (PL) mass into orbit (CPMO) by improving launch vehicle (LV) loads and environments.

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

  2. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1995-08-22

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  3. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, James F.

    1995-08-22

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure's contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host's species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes.

  4. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  5. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, James F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure's contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host's species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes.

  6. Essentials of filoviral load quantification.

    PubMed

    Cnops, Lieselotte; van Griensven, Johan; Honko, Anna N; Bausch, Daniel G; Sprecher, Armand; Hill, Charles E; Colebunders, Robert; Johnson, Joshua C; Griffiths, Anthony; Palacios, Gustavo F; Kraft, Colleen S; Kobinger, Gary; Hewlett, Angela; Norwood, David A; Sabeti, Pardis; Jahrling, Peter B; Formenty, Pierre; Kuhn, Jens H; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative measurement of viral load is an important parameter in the management of filovirus disease outbreaks because viral load correlates with severity of disease, survival, and infectivity. During the ongoing Ebola virus disease outbreak in parts of Western Africa, most assays used in the detection of Ebola virus disease by more than 44 diagnostic laboratories yielded qualitative results. Regulatory hurdles involved in validating quantitative assays and the urgent need for a rapid Ebola virus disease diagnosis precluded development of validated quantitative assays during the outbreak. Because of sparse quantitative data obtained from these outbreaks, opportunities for study of correlations between patient outcome, changes in viral load during the course of an outbreak, disease course in asymptomatic individuals, and the potential for virus transmission between infected patients and contacts have been limited. We strongly urge the continued development of quantitative viral load assays to carefully evaluate these parameters in future outbreaks of filovirus disease.

  7. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  8. Controller for thermostatically controlled loads

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Zhang, Yu; Du, Pengwei; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2016-06-07

    A system and method of controlling aggregated thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs) for demand response is disclosed. A targeted load profile is formulated and a forecasted load profile is generated. The TCAs within an "on" or "off" control group are prioritized based on their operating temperatures. The "on" or "off" status of the TCAs is determined. Command signals are sent to turn on or turn off the TCAs.

  9. Load-Responsive Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    New circuit controls voltage applied to a three-phase induction motor in response to magnitude of current, so as to reduce power consumption when the motor is idling or operating at less than full load. Control circuit decreases rms applied voltage to match decreases in motor load over entire torque range. This considerably decreases power consumption in motors operating at a fraction of their rated torques.

  10. Structural assessment of accident loads

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

  11. Drug Loading of Mesoporous Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Anne; Coffer, Jeff; Wang, Mengjia

    2011-03-01

    The nanostructuring of crystalline solids with low aqueous solubilities by their incorporation into mesoporous host materials is one route to improve the bioavailability of such solids. Earlier studies suggest that mesoporous Si (PSi), with pore widths in the range of 5-50 nm, is a candidate for such an approach. In this presentation, we describe efforts to load curcumin into free-standing microparticles of PSi. Curcumin is a compound extracted from turmeric root, which is an ingredient of curry. Curucmin has shown activity against selected cancer cell lines, bacteria, and other medical conditions. However, curcumin has a very low bioavailability due to its extremely low water solubility (0.6 μ g/mL). Incorporation of curcumin was achieved by straightforward loading of the molten solid at 185circ; C. Loading experiments were performed using PSi particles of two different size ranges, 45-75 μ m and 150-250 μ m. Longer loading times and ratio of curcumin to PSi leads to a higher percentage of loaded curcumin in both PSi particle sizes (as determined by weight difference). The extent of curcumin crystallinity was assessed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The solubility and release kinetics of loaded curcumin from the PSi was determined by extraction into water at 37circ; C, with analysis using UV-VIS spectrometry. NSF-REU and TCU.

  12. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  13. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... coefficient of friction of 0.8 applied to the main gear and its supporting structure. (b) Unequal tire loads... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel...

  14. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... coefficient of friction of 0.8 applied to the main gear and its supporting structure. (b) Unequal tire loads... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel...

  15. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... coefficient of friction of 0.8 applied to the main gear and its supporting structure. (b) Unequal tire loads... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel...

  16. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... coefficient of friction of 0.8 applied to the main gear and its supporting structure. (b) Unequal tire loads... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel...

  17. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... coefficient of friction of 0.8 applied to the main gear and its supporting structure. (b) Unequal tire loads... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel...

  18. 14 CFR 23.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design loads must be based on applicable test data. Emergency Landing Conditions ...

  19. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  20. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  1. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  2. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  3. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  4. Calibration set up for load cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, T. V. Govinda; Venkatesh, C. S.; Shivashankar, N.

    1989-05-01

    The planning, designing, fabrication, and calibration of 30, 50, and 100 ton tension load cells and 30 ton shear load cells are described. The tension load cells are for monitoring the force developed by earth moving vehicles and the shear load cells are for monitoring the load that tipplers unload form platform to ground. The shear load cells were incorporated into a rotary wagon tippler.

  5. Guidelines for transmission line structural loading

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This guide provides methods for the selection of design loads and load factors. This is accomplished by the presentation of a Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) procedure. The basic formula for wind force is discussed. This include basic wind speed, terrain and height coefficients, gust response factors, and pressure coefficients. Information is also provided on ice loads, tornadoes, hurricanes, longitudinal loads, construction, and maintenance loads.

  6. Analyzing Static Loading of Complex Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallear, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Critical loading conditions determined from analysis of each structural element. Automated Thrust Structures Loads and Stresses (ATLAS) system is series of programs developed to analyze elements of complex structure under static-loading conditions. ATLAS calculates internal loads, beam-bending loads, column- and web-buckling loads, beam and panel stresses, and beam-corner stresses. Programs written in FORTRAN IV and Assembler for batch execution.

  7. Rate of loading parameters for vertically loaded piles in clay

    SciTech Connect

    Briaud, J.L.; Felio, G.Y.; Garland, E.

    1984-05-01

    The analysis of 152 laboratory tests and 32 pile load tests confirms that for clays, the faster the rate of loading, the higher the undrained shear strength and the higher the pile capacity. The data shows that the gain in undrained shear strength due to increasing rate of loading increases with increasing water content, plasticity index, liquidity index, overconsolidation ratio but with decreasing undrained shear strength. A simple model is proposed to quantify the rate of loading effects on undrained shear strength. The viscous exponent n which is the main parameter of the model can be measured by conventional laboratory tests or possibly by cone penetrometer testing, or as a last resort by the proposed empirical correlations to index properties. This model is used to develop rate dependent t-z curves and a computer program to predict the response of a pile subjected to a certain rate of vertical loading. The model and the program are checked by comparing the predicted and measured behavior of two piles.

  8. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Marusich, R.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-06

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads.

  9. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  10. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.; Lloyd, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

  11. The DEMO wall load challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Bachmann, C.; Barbato, L.; Barrett, T.; Beckers, M.; Biel, W.; Boccaccini, L.; Carralero, D.; Coster, D.; Eich, T.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Firdaouss, M.; Graves, J.; Horacek, J.; Kovari, M.; Lanthaler, S.; Loschiavo, V.; Lowry, C.; Lux, H.; Maddaluno, G.; Maviglia, F.; Mitteau, R.; Neu, R.; Pfefferle, D.; Schmid, K.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Snicker, A.; Subba, F.; Varje, J.; Zohm, H.

    2017-04-01

    For several reasons the challenge to keep the loads to the first wall within engineering limits is substantially higher in DEMO compared to ITER. Therefore the pre-conceptual design development for DEMO that is currently ongoing in Europe needs to be based on load estimates that are derived employing the most recent plasma edge physics knowledge. An initial assessment of the static wall heat load limit in DEMO infers that the steady state peak heat flux limit on the majority of the DEMO first wall should not be assumed to be higher than 1.0 MW m‑2. This compares to an average wall heat load of 0.29 MW m‑2 for the design {\\tt {EU}}{\\tt {~}}{\\tt {DEMO1}}{\\tt {~2015}} assuming a perfect homogeneous distribution. The main part of this publication concentrates on the development of first DEMO estimates for charged particle, radiation, fast particle (all static) and disruption heat loads. Employing an initial engineering wall design with clear optimization potential in combination with parameters for the flat-top phase (x-point configuration), loads up to 7 MW m‑2 (penalty factor for tolerances etc not applied) have been calculated. Assuming a fraction of power radiated from the x-point region between 1/5 and 1/3, peaks of the total power flux density due to radiation of 0.6–0.8 MW m‑2 are found in the outer baffle region. This first review of wall loads, and the associated limits in DEMO clearly underlines a significant challenge that necessitates substantial engineering efforts as well as a considerable consolidation of the associated physics basis.

  12. A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.

    2011-04-01

    Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.

  13. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  14. Probabilistic load simulation: Code development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, J. F.; Ho, H.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of the Composite Load Spectra (CLS) project is to develop generic load models to simulate the composite load spectra that are included in space propulsion system components. The probabilistic loads thus generated are part of the probabilistic design analysis (PDA) of a space propulsion system that also includes probabilistic structural analyses, reliability, and risk evaluations. Probabilistic load simulation for space propulsion systems demands sophisticated probabilistic methodology and requires large amounts of load information and engineering data. The CLS approach is to implement a knowledge based system coupled with a probabilistic load simulation module. The knowledge base manages and furnishes load information and expertise and sets up the simulation runs. The load simulation module performs the numerical computation to generate the probabilistic loads with load information supplied from the CLS knowledge base.

  15. Probabilistic load simulation: Code development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, J. F.; Ho, H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Composite Load Spectra (CLS) project is to develop generic load models to simulate the composite load spectra that are included in space propulsion system components. The probabilistic loads thus generated are part of the probabilistic design analysis (PDA) of a space propulsion system that also includes probabilistic structural analyses, reliability, and risk evaluations. Probabilistic load simulation for space propulsion systems demands sophisticated probabilistic methodology and requires large amounts of load information and engineering data. The CLS approach is to implement a knowledge based system coupled with a probabilistic load simulation module. The knowledge base manages and furnishes load information and expertise and sets up the simulation runs. The load simulation module performs the numerical computation to generate the probabilistic loads with load information supplied from the CLS knowledge base.

  16. Load Diffusion in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, Cornelius O.; Simmonds, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    This research has been concerned with load diffusion in composite structures. Fundamental solid mechanics studies were carried out to provide a basis for assessing the complicated modeling necessary for large scale structures used by NASA. An understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of load diffusion in composite subcomponents is essential in developing primary composite structures. Analytical models of load diffusion behavior are extremely valuable in building an intuitive base for developing refined modeling strategies and assessing results from finite element analyses. The decay behavior of stresses and other field quantities provides a significant aid towards this process. The results are also amendable to parameter study with a large parameter space and should be useful in structural tailoring studies.

  17. Scientific ballooning payload termination loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's high altitude balloon borne scientific payloads are typically suspended from a deployed flat circular parachute. At flight termination, the recovery train is pyrotechnically separated at the parachute apex and balloon nadir interface. The release of elastic energy stored in the parachute at zero initial vertical velocity in the rarefied atmosphere produces high canopy opening forces that subject the gondola to potentially damaging shock loads. Data from terminations occurring at altitudes to 40 km with payloads up to 2500 kg on parachutes up to 40 m in diameter are presented. Measured loads are markedly larger than encountered via packed parachute deployment for similar canopy loadings. Canopy inflation is significantly suppressed in the early stages and then accelerated during final blossoming. Data interpretation and behavioral phenomena are discussed along with proposed shock attenuation techniques.

  18. Fifty years of genetic load

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses the radiation effects on Drosophila. It was originally thought that irradiating Drosophila would decrease the average fitness of the population, thereby leading to information about the detrimental effects of mutations. Surprisingly, the fitness of the irradiated population turned out to be higher than that of the control population. The original motivation for the experiment was as a test of genetic load theory. The average fitness of a population is depressed by deleterious alleles held in the population by the balance between mutation and natural selection. The depression is called the genetic load of the population. The load dose not depend on the magnitude of the deleterious effect of alleles, but only on the mutation rate.

  19. Symplastic phloem loading in poplar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cankui; Han, Lu; Slewinski, Thomas L; Sun, Jianlei; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Turgeon, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Sap is driven through phloem sieve tubes by an osmotically generated pressure gradient between source and sink tissues. In many plants, source pressure results from thermodynamically active loading in which energy is used to transfer sucrose (Suc) from mesophyll cells to the phloem of leaf minor veins against a concentration gradient. However, in some species, almost all trees, correlative evidence suggests that sugar migrates passively through plasmodesmata from mesophyll cells into the sieve elements. The possibility of alternate loading mechanisms has important ramifications for the regulation of phloem transport and source-sink interactions. Here, we provide experimental evidence that, in gray poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba), Suc enters the phloem through plasmodesmata. Transgenic plants were generated with yeast invertase in the cell walls to prevent Suc loading by this route. The constructs were driven either by the constitutive 35S promoter or the minor vein-specific galactinol synthase promoter. Transgenic plants grew at the same rate as the wild type without symptoms of loading inhibition, such as accumulation of carbohydrates or leaf chlorosis. Rates of photosynthesis were normal. In contrast, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants, which have limited numbers of plasmodesmata between mesophyll and phloem, displayed typical symptoms of loading inhibition when transformed with the same DNA constructs. The results are consistent with passive loading of Suc through plasmodesmata in poplar. We also noted defense-related symptoms in leaves of transgenic poplar when the plants were abruptly exposed to excessively high temperatures, adding to evidence that hexose is involved in triggering the hypersensitive response.

  20. Load and Rate of Change of Load Detection System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting and recording the level and rate of change of landing loads in the struts of aircraft landing...to a minimum pressure to record the level and rate of change of pressure detected by the sensor.

  1. Method for loading resin beds

    DOEpatents

    Notz, Karl J.; Rainey, Robert H.; Greene, Charles W.; Shockley, William E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H.sup.+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145.degree.-200.degree. C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145.degree. C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO.sub.3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate.

  2. Analysis of high load dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, S. T.; Buono, D. F.; Hibner, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    High load damping requirements for modern jet engines are discussed. The design of damping systems which could satisfy these requirements is also discusseed. In order to evaluate high load damping requirements, engines in three major classes were studied; large transport engines, small general aviation engines, and military engines. Four damper concepts applicable to these engines were evaluated; multi-ring, cartridge, curved beam, and viscous/friction. The most promising damper concept was selected for each engine and performance was assessed relative to conventional dampers and in light of projected damping requirements for advanced jet engines.

  3. Material behavior under complex loading

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, H.J.; Raule, G.; Rodig, M.

    1984-09-01

    Studies of material behavior under complex loading form a bridge between standard material testing methods and the stress analysis calculations for reactor components at high temperatures. The aim of these studies is to determine the influence of typical load change sequences on material properties, to derive the equations required for stress analyses, to carry out tests under multiaxial conditions, and to investigate the structural deformation mechanisms of creep buckling and ratcheting. The present state of the investigations within the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor materials program is described, with emphasis on the experimental apparatus, the scope of the program, and the initial results obtained.

  4. 46 CFR 122.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loading doors. 122.335 Section 122.335 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 122.335 Loading doors. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, the master of a vessel fitted with loading doors shall assure that all loading doors are closed and secured during the...

  5. PRB rail loadings shatter record

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-09-15

    Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

  6. Vehicle load-equalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creasy, W. K.

    1976-01-01

    System uses cables and associated pulleys to form closed-loop suspension system for terrain compensation. Loop causes reactions at each of three wheels in response to loading at remaining wheel. Simplicity of design should be of interest to designers and manufacturers of construction equipment and off-road vehicles.

  7. Fracture load of ceramic restorations after fatigue loading.

    PubMed

    Baladhandayutham, Balasudha; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2015-08-01

    A clinician must decide what ceramic coping and veneer material to prescribe based on the amount of tooth reduction possible and the desired esthetic outcome of the restoration. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture strength of monolithic and bilayered lithium disilicate (IPS e.max) and zirconia (LAVA) crowns at clinically relevant thicknesses after load cycling. Crowns (n=8) were fabricated from 6 groups: 1.2-mm monolithic lithium disilicate, 1.5-mm monolithic lithium disilicate, 1.5-mm bilayered lithium disilicate with hand-layered veneer, 0.6 mm monolithic zirconia, 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia with hand-layered veneer, and 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia with milled veneer (dimension represents thickness at the occlusal pit). Crowns were cemented to identical milled resin dies with resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Cemented crowns were stored at 37°C for 24 hours and load cycled for 200,000 cycles at 25 N at a rate of 40 cycles/minute. The ultimate fracture load for each specimen was measured in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA and Tukey honest significant difference post hoc analysis (α=.05). Mean ±SD fracture load values were 1465 ±330 N for monolithic lithium disilicate (1.2-mm thickness) and 2027 ±365 N (1.5-mm thickness) and 1732 ±315 N for bilayered hand-veneered lithium disilicate (1.5-mm thickness). Fracture loads were 1669 ±311 N for monolithic zirconia crowns (0.6mm thickness), 2625 ±300 N for zirconia milled-veneered (1.2-mm thickness), and 2655 ±590N for zirconia hand-veneered crowns (1.2mm thickness). One-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference among the groups (P<.01). Veneered zirconia crowns showed the highest fracture strength, 1.2-mm hand veneered zirconia was similar to that of 1.5-mm monolithic zirconia, and all other groups were not statistically different. Crowns of 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia had higher fracture loads than 0.6-mm zirconia or 1.2-mm lithium

  8. Strain-Gage Loads Calibration Parametric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Stauf, Rick

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents a parametric study of various aircraft wing-load test features that affect the quality of the resultant derived shear, bending-moment, and torque strain-gage load equations. The effect of the following on derived strain-gage equation accuracy are compared: single-point loading compared with distributed loading, variation in applied test load magnitude, number of applied load cases, and wing-box-only compared with control-surface loading. The subject of this study is an extensive wing-load calibration test of the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 airplane. Selected subsets of the available test data were used to derive load equations using the linear regression method. Results show the benefit of distributed loading and the diminishing-return benefits of test load magnitudes and number of load cases. The use of independent check cases as a quality metric for the derived load equations is shown to overcome blind extrapolating beyond the load data used to derive the load equations.

  9. Interactions Between Modality of Working Memory Load and Perceptual Load in Distractor Processing.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Hideya; Olid, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated interactions between working memory load and perceptual load. The load theory (Lavie, Hirst, de Fockert, & Viding, 2004 ) claims that perceptual load decreases distractor interference, whereas working memory load increases interference. However, recent studies showed that effects of working memory might depend on the relationship between modalities of working memory and task stimuli. Here, we examined whether the relationship between working memory load and perceptual load would remain the same across modalities. The results of Experiment 1 showed that verbal working memory load did not affect a compatibility effect for low perceptual load, whereas it increased the compatibility effect for high perceptual load. In Experiment 2, the compatibility effect remained the same regardless of visual working memory load. These results suggest that the effects of working memory load and perceptual load depend on the relationship between the modalities of working memory and stimuli.

  10. Use of Flexible Body Coupled Loads in Assessment of Day of Launch Flight Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Yunis, Isam; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    A Day of Launch flight loads assessment technique that determines running loads calculated from flexible body coupled loads was developed for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The technique was developed to quantify DOL flight loads in terms of structural load components rather than the typically used q-alpha metric to provide more insight into the DOL loads. In this technique, running loads in the primary structure are determined from the combination of quasi-static aerodynamic loads and dynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads are calculated as a function of time using trajectory parameters passed from the DOL trajectory simulation and are combined with precalculated dynamic loads using a load combination equation. The potential change in aerodynamic load due to wind variability during the countdown is included in the load combination. In the event of a load limit exceedance, the technique allows the identification of what load component is exceeded, a quantification of how much the load limit is exceeded, and where on the vehicle the exceedance occurs. This technique was used to clear the Ares I-X FTV for launch on October 28, 2009. This paper describes the use of coupled loads in the Ares I-X flight loads assessment and summarizes the Ares I-X load assessment results.

  11. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free...

  14. Efficient load measurements using singular value decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Kung; Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1988-01-01

    Various basic research was performed on efficient load measurement estimation techniques for aircraft structure analysis. An overview is presented of the load measurement problem. Two basic equivalent approaches to load measurement evaluations were considered. Under approach 1, the load values are modeled as depending linearly on the measured values. Under approach 2, the measured values depend linearly on the load values. By using the modern Singular Value Decomposition method, it was shown that under all conditions of the number of loads and number of gages, approach 1 is equivalent to approach 2. By using the conventional normal equation (linear regression) approach, approach 1 is only valid when the number of loads is equal to or greater than the number of gages, while approach 2 is the reverse. Furthermore, except for the case of the number of loads equals the number of gages, the load prediction formulas under the two approaches are not equivalent.

  15. Walking with a Backpack using Load Distribution and Dynamic Load Compensation Reduces Metabolic Cost and Adaptations to Loads.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon-Hyuk; Stegall, Paul; Zhang, Haohan; Agrawal, Sunil

    2016-11-09

    In this study, we showed a way of reducing the metabolic cost of walking with a backpack using load distribution and dynamic load compensation, provided by a wearable upper body device. This device distributes the backpack load between the shoulders and the pelvis, senses the vertical motion of the pelvis, and provides gait synchronized compensatory forces to reduce the dynamic loads from a backpack. It was hypothesized that by reducing dynamic loads from a backpack during load carriage, the users gait and postural adaptation, muscular effort and metabolic cost would be reduced. This hypothesis was supported by biomechanical and physiological measurements on a group of young healthy subjects, as they walked on a treadmill under 4 different conditions: unloaded; with a backpack, loaded with 25% of their body weight, supported on the shoulders; with the same load distributed between the shoulders and the pelvis; and with dynamic load compensation in addition to load distribution. The results showed reductions in gait and postural adaptations, muscle activity, vertical and braking ground reaction forces, and metabolic cost while carrying the same backpack load with the device. We conclude that the device can potentially reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injuries and muscle fatigue associated with carrying heavy backpack loads while reducing the metabolic cost of loaded walking.

  16. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  17. Thermal loading of natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackman, Alan P.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The impact of thermal loading on the temperature regime of natural streams is investigated by mathematical models, which describe both transport (convection-diffusion) and decay (surface dissipation) of waste heat over 1-hour or shorter time intervals. The models are derived from the principle of conservation of thermal energy for application to one- and two-dimensional spaces. The basic concept in these models is to separate water temperature into two parts, (1) excess temperature due to thermal loading and (2) natural (ambient) temperature. This separation allows excess temperature to be calculated from the models without incoming radiation data. Natural temperature may either be measured in prototypes or calculated from the model. If use is made of the model, however, incoming radiation is required as input data. Comparison of observed and calculated temperatures in seven natural streams shows that the models are capable of predicting transient temperature regimes satisfactorily in most cases. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Auditory perceptual load: A review.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sandra; Spence, Charles; Dalton, Polly

    2017-02-08

    Selective attention is a crucial mechanism in everyday life, allowing us to focus on a portion of incoming sensory information at the expense of other less relevant stimuli. The circumstances under which irrelevant stimuli are successfully ignored have been a topic of scientific interest for several decades now. Over the last 20 years, the perceptual load theory (e.g. Lavie, 1995) has provided one robust framework for understanding these effects within the visual modality. The suggestion is that successful selection depends on the perceptual demands imposed by the task-relevant information. However, less research has addressed the question of whether the same principles hold in audition and, to date, the existing literature provides a mixed picture. Here, we review the evidence for and against the applicability of perceptual load theory in hearing, concluding that this question still awaits resolution.

  19. OA-7 Cargo Module Loading

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-07

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians and engineers load thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials aboard a Cygnus spacecraft's pressurized cargo module (PCM) for the Orbital ATK CRS-7 mission to the International Space Station. Scheduled to launch on March 19, 2017, the commercial resupply services mission will lift off atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  20. OA-7 Cargo Module Loading

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-07

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials are prepared for loading aboard a Cygnus spacecraft's pressurized cargo module (PCM) for the Orbital ATK CRS-7 mission to the International Space Station. Scheduled to launch on March 19, 2017, the commercial resupply services mission will lift off atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  1. Efficient Solutions in Load Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    The current load planning capability is achieved through a conference and the use of a trim and stability tool. In order to make this process more...mathematical modelling of combustion processes , especially concentrating on spontaneous ignition. Jane works in the Amphibious and Mine Warfare...directives, (b) amphibious planning process and (c) mounting, embarkation and landing planning. It is with stage (c) that this paper is concerned. "Plans

  2. On Combinations of Random Loads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    NPS55-80-006 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL NM ’Monterey, California 00 •2• • TD -E E C AN : JUN 16 1980 i ON COMBINATIONS OF RANDOM LOADS by D. P. Gaver...of MKn is close to that of Mn for K large. PROPOSITION (3.3). Let F and G be as in (3.5), and u be such that (un)-c L(un) n as n ÷ (3.6) Then lim HKn

  3. Structural dynamics payload loads estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a full scale payload integration method which reduces the cost of a load cycle and is capable of land long very large systems is discussed. The method solves the coupled booster/payload system equations and does not involve additional approximations as compared to the standard transient analysis. The method is cost effective and directly applicable to the shuttle payload design case.

  4. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  5. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  6. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  7. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  8. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six-component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This rotating balance was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher-frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  9. Dielectrically Loaded HTS Spiral Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, J.; Hanna, D.; Vlasov, Y. A.; Larkins, G. L.; Moeckly, B. H.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work is to fabricate, test, and study a dielectrically loaded high temperature superconductor (HTS) spiral antenna that would operate in the frequency band of 10 MHz to 200 MHz. The antenna is formed by depositing and patterning a YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) thin film on top of 4-inch-diameter sapphire and Yittria Stabilized ZrO2 substrates. The presence of the HTS material guarantees low conductor loss in the antenna. A thick epitaxial layer of strontium titanate (STO) is then deposited on top of the YBCO for high dielectric constant loading. This set-up can be simulated using the Fidelity software routine, a Finite Difference Time Domain based program from Zeland, Inc. We have simulated the performance of this antenna structure, first in free space and then after loading with the dielectric slabs. Important parameters such as feed point impedance and antenna gain are studied for different simulation conditions. The dielectric ensures reduced feed point impedance as well as improvement of the low frequency response of the antenna.

  10. Maximum holding endurance time: Effects of load and load's center of gravity height.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Manual holding task is a potential risk to the development of musculoskeletal injuries since it is prone to induce localized muscle fatigue. Maximum holding endurance time is a significant parameter for the design of manual holding task. This study aimed to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Fifteen young and healthy males were recruited as participants. A factorial design was used to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Four levels of load (15% , 30% , 45% and 60% of the participant's maximum holding capacity) and two levels of load's COG height in box (0 cm and 40 cm high from the handle position) were examined. Maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load and/or increasing load's COG height. The effect of load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load. Load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height significantly affected maximum holding endurance time. Practitioners should realize the effects of load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time when setting the working conditions of holding tasks.

  11. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  12. ESTIMATING URBAN WET-WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads in urban watersheds emanating from wet-weather flow discharge. Equations for pollutant loading estimates will focus on the effects of wastewater characteristics, sewer flow carrying velocity, and sewer-solids depositi...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  17. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

  18. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  19. 14 CFR 23.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... supporting structure must be designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and slipstream effects, in... surfaces and supporting structures must be designed for combined vertical and horizontal surface loads... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing...

  20. 14 CFR 23.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... supporting structure must be designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and slipstream effects, in... surfaces and supporting structures must be designed for combined vertical and horizontal surface loads... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing...

  1. 14 CFR 23.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supporting structure must be designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and slipstream effects, in... surfaces and supporting structures must be designed for combined vertical and horizontal surface loads... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing...

  2. 14 CFR 23.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... supporting structure must be designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and slipstream effects, in... surfaces and supporting structures must be designed for combined vertical and horizontal surface loads... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing...

  3. 14 CFR 23.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... supporting structure must be designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and slipstream effects, in... surfaces and supporting structures must be designed for combined vertical and horizontal surface loads... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing...

  4. 46 CFR 122.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessel fitted with loading doors shall assure that all loading doors are closed and secured during the... shell, and the boundaries of enclosed superstructures that are continuous with the shell of the vessel....

  5. 46 CFR 122.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessel fitted with loading doors shall assure that all loading doors are closed and secured during the... shell, and the boundaries of enclosed superstructures that are continuous with the shell of the vessel....

  6. 46 CFR 122.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vessel fitted with loading doors shall assure that all loading doors are closed and secured during the... shell, and the boundaries of enclosed superstructures that are continuous with the shell of the vessel....

  7. 46 CFR 122.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vessel fitted with loading doors shall assure that all loading doors are closed and secured during the... shell, and the boundaries of enclosed superstructures that are continuous with the shell of the vessel....

  8. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...

  9. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...

  10. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...

  11. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...

  12. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  17. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  18. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  19. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  20. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  1. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  2. Electronic load for testing power generating devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E. B.; Stepfer, G.

    1968-01-01

    Instrument tests various electric power generating devices by connecting the devices to the input of the load and comparing their outputs with a reference voltage. The load automatically adjusts until voltage output of the power generating device matches the reference.

  3. 14 CFR 23.425 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Balancing Surfaces § 23.425 Gust loads. (a) Each horizontal surface, other than a main wing, must be designed for loads resulting from— (1) Gust velocities specified in § 23.333(c) with flaps retracted; and...

  4. 14 CFR 23.425 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Balancing Surfaces § 23.425 Gust loads. (a) Each horizontal surface, other than a main wing, must be designed for loads resulting from— (1) Gust velocities specified in § 23.333(c) with flaps retracted; and...

  5. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... authorized external load as demonstrated under § 27.25 and this section. (f) The fatigue evaluation of § 27.... For rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for human external cargo, the fatigue evaluation of §...

  6. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... authorized external load as demonstrated under § 27.25 and this section. (f) The fatigue evaluation of § 27.... For rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for human external cargo, the fatigue evaluation of §...

  7. Bearingless Tail Rotor Loads and Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    190 122 Effect of Collective on Torsion Bending Loads for a Cyclic Sweep in Hover. . . . . . . . . . 191 123 Effect of Advance Ratio on Flap...Bending Loads for 63 - 6 5 0. * . . . . . . . . . . *.. 192 15 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSyJJ•. (continued) 124 Effect of Advance Ratio on Chord Bending Loads...for 63 = - 6 5 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 125 Effect of Advance Ratio on Torsion Bending Loads for 63 = - 6 5 .. . . . . . . .. 194 126

  8. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  9. Spinning reserve from hotel load response

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Brendan; Kueck, John; Laughner, Theo; Morris, Keith

    2008-12-15

    Even though preliminary tests were not conducted during times of highest system or hotel loading during the summer, they showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22 to 37 percent depending on the outdoor temperature and time of day. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator's command to shed load was issued and the load drop was very rapid. (author)

  10. Control load envelope shaping by live twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarzanin, F. J., Jr.; Mirick, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Rotor control systems experience a rapid load growth resulting from retreating blade stall during flight conditions of high blade loading or airspeeds. An investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of changing blade torsional properties over the rotor flight envelope. The results of this study show that reducing the blade stiffness to introduce more blade live twist significantly reduces the large retreating blade control loads, while expanding the flight envelope and reducing retreating blade stall loads.

  11. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  16. Baby Carriage: Infants Walking with Loads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garciaguirre, Jessie S.; Adolph, Karen E.; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining balance is a central problem for new walkers. To examine how infants cope with the additional balance control problems induced by load carriage, 14-month-olds were loaded with 15% of their body weight in shoulder-packs. Both symmetrical and asymmetrical loads disrupted alternating gait patterns and caused less mature footfall patterns.…

  17. Load Bearing Equipment for Bone and Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Griffith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise on ISS has proven effective in maintaining bone mineral density and muscle mass. Exploration missions require exercise with similar high loads using equipment with less mass and volume and greater safety and reliability than resistance exercise equipment used on ISS (iRED, ARED, FWED). Load Bearing Equipment (LBE) uses each exercising person to create and control the load to the partner.

  18. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  19. Properly Evaluating load-following products

    SciTech Connect

    Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

    2009-01-15

    The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

  20. 2 MW CW RF load for gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Ives, R.; Marsden, David; Mizuhara, Max; Collins, George; Neilson, Jeff; Borchard, Philipp

    2011-07-01

    Final design and assembly are in progress for a 2MW CW RF load for gyrotrons. Such loads are required for testing high power gyrotrons for electron cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas. The research is building on experience with a 1 MW load to increase the power capability, reduce backscattered RF power, and improve the mechanical design. (author)

  1. Modeling nutrient loads to the northern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volf, Goran; Atanasova, Nataša; Kompare, Boris; Ožanić, Nevenka

    2013-11-01

    Simulation of nutrient loads was done for entire NA watershed consisting of 17 individual watersheds.Po River watershed is dominating the nutrient loads to the NA.Agricultural areas and WWTP were identified as the major sources of nutrients to the NA.Proper management decisions were defined to reduce the nutrient loads.

  2. Baby Carriage: Infants Walking with Loads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garciaguirre, Jessie S.; Adolph, Karen E.; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining balance is a central problem for new walkers. To examine how infants cope with the additional balance control problems induced by load carriage, 14-month-olds were loaded with 15% of their body weight in shoulder-packs. Both symmetrical and asymmetrical loads disrupted alternating gait patterns and caused less mature footfall patterns.…

  3. Neuroimaging of Cognitive Load in Instructional Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on cognitive load measurement in learning and neuroimaging, and describes a mapping between the main elements of cognitive load theory and findings in functional neuroanatomy. It is argued that these findings may lead to the improved measurement of cognitive load using neuroimaging. The paper describes how…

  4. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  5. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  6. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  7. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  8. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  9. 14 CFR 27.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gust loads. 27.341 Section 27.341 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.341 Gust loads. The rotorcraft...

  10. 14 CFR 27.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gust loads. 27.341 Section 27.341 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.341 Gust loads. The rotorcraft...

  11. 14 CFR 27.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gust loads. 27.341 Section 27.341 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.341 Gust loads. The rotorcraft...

  12. 14 CFR 27.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gust loads. 27.341 Section 27.341 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.341 Gust loads. The rotorcraft...

  13. 46 CFR 114.122 - Load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load lines. 114.122 Section 114.122 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 114.122 Load lines. A vessel of 24... line assignment, certification, and marking in subchapter E (Load Lines) of this chapter. ...

  14. 46 CFR 175.122 - Load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load lines. 175.122 Section 175.122 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 175.122 Load lines. A vessel of 24 meters (79 feet) in length or more, the keel of which was laid or... than a domestic voyage is subject to load line assignment, certification, and marking under suchapter E...

  15. 14 CFR 23.441 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Maneuvering loads. (a) At speeds up to V A, the vertical surfaces must be designed to withstand the following conditions. In computing the loads, the yawing velocity may be assumed to be zero: (1) With the airplane in... category airplanes, the loads imposed by the following additional maneuver must be substantiated at speeds...

  16. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  17. 14 CFR 27.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gust loads. 27.341 Section 27.341 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.341 Gust loads. The...

  18. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their...

  19. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their...

  20. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier for...

  1. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier for...

  2. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier for...

  3. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier for...

  4. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier for...

  5. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their...

  6. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their...

  7. Standard Errors for Rotated Factor Loadings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Claud O.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    Beginning with the results of Girschick on the asymptotic distribution of principal component loadings and those of Lawley on the distribution of unrotated maximum likelihood factor loadings, the asymptotic distributions of the corresponding analytically rotated loadings is obtained. The principal difficulty is the fact that the transformation…

  8. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  9. Structural dynamics payload loads estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Present analytical techniques by which design loads are predicted are very costly and time consuming. Chapter I presents the standard techniques used to analyze payload/booster systems. They are full scale methods in the sense that they all require the solution of the coupled equations of motion of the payload/booster system. Chapter II identifies several short cut methodologies. These already existing techniques do not require the solution of the coupled system equations. The potentials and shortcomings of each of these methods are discussed. Chapter III covers the favored methods accompanied by recommendations for further development, refinement, and demonstrations. An outline of a new approach is also included.

  10. Automated Loads Analysis System (ATLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Stephen; Frere, Scot; O’Reilly, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is a generalized solution that can be used for launch vehicles. ATLAS is used to produce modal transient analysis and quasi-static analysis results (i.e., accelerations, displacements, and forces) for the payload math models on a specific Shuttle Transport System (STS) flight using the shuttle math model and associated forcing functions. This innovation solves the problem of coupling of payload math models into a shuttle math model. It performs a transient loads analysis simulating liftoff, landing, and all flight events between liftoff and landing. ATLAS utilizes efficient and numerically stable algorithms available in MSC/NASTRAN.

  11. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  12. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.; Steffen, Jim M.

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  13. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOEpatents

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  14. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  15. Electric load management and energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kheir, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electric load management and energy conservation relate heavily to the major problems facing power industry at present. The three basic modes of energy conservation are identified as demand reduction, increased efficiency and substitution for scarce fuels. Direct and indirect load management objectives are to reduce peak loads and have future growth in electricity requirements in such a manner to cause more of it to fall off the system's peak. In this paper, an overview of proposed and implemented load management options is presented. Research opportunities exist for the evaluation of socio-economic impacts of energy conservation and load management schemes specially on the electric power industry itself.

  16. Novel Musculoskeletal Loading and Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Meghan E.

    2017-01-01

    Ground based and ISS (International Space Station) exercise research have shown that axial loading via two-point loading at the shoulders and load quality (i.e. consistent load and at least 1:1 concentric to eccentric ratio) are extremely important to optimize musculoskeletal adaptations to resistance exercise. The Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED) is on ISS now and is the "state of the art" for resistance exercise capabilities in microgravity; however, the ARED is far too large and power consuming for exploration vehicles. The single cable exercise device design selected for MPCV (Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle), does not readily allow for the two-point loading at the shoulders.

  17. Electric load management and energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kheir, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electric load management and energy conservation relate heavily to the major problems facing power industry at present. The three basic modes of energy conservation are identified as demand reduction, increased efficiency and substitution for scarce fuels. Direct and indirect load management objectives are to reduce peak loads and have future growth in electricity requirements in such a manner to cause more of it to fall off the system's peak. In this paper, an overview of proposed and implemented load management options is presented. Research opportunities exist for the evaluation of socio-economic impacts of energy conservation and load management schemes specially on the electric power industry itself.

  18. 77 FR 53884 - Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability...\\ Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards, 139 FERC ] 61,098... 20426. This filing is accessible on-line at http://www.ferc.gov , using the ``eLibrary'' link and...

  19. 14 CFR 29.511 - Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements Ground Loads § 29.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units. (a) In dual-wheel gear units, 60 percent of the total ground reaction for the gear unit must be applied to one wheel and... specified load for the gear unit must be applied to either wheel except that the vertical ground...

  20. Concurrent Working Memory Load Can Facilitate Selective Attention: Evidence for Specialized Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soojin; Kim, Min-Shik; Chun, Marvin M.

    2007-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent working memory load impairs selective attention and increases distractor interference (N. Lavie, A. Hirst, J. W. de Fockert, & E. Viding, see record 2004-17825-003). Here, the authors present new evidence that the type of concurrent working memory load determines whether load impairs selective attention or not.…

  1. Detection of Unexpected High Correlations between Balance Calibration Loads and Load Residuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.; Volden, T.

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm was developed for the assessment of strain-gage balance calibration data that makes it possible to systematically investigate potential sources of unexpected high correlations between calibration load residuals and applied calibration loads. The algorithm investigates correlations on a load series by load series basis. The linear correlation coefficient is used to quantify the correlations. It is computed for all possible pairs of calibration load residuals and applied calibration loads that can be constructed for the given balance calibration data set. An unexpected high correlation between a load residual and a load is detected if three conditions are met: (i) the absolute value of the correlation coefficient of a residual/load pair exceeds 0.95; (ii) the maximum of the absolute values of the residuals of a load series exceeds 0.25 % of the load capacity; (iii) the load component of the load series is intentionally applied. Data from a baseline calibration of a six-component force balance is used to illustrate the application of the detection algorithm to a real-world data set. This analysis also showed that the detection algorithm can identify load alignment errors as long as repeat load series are contained in the balance calibration data set that do not suffer from load alignment problems.

  2. Phloem loading: an integrated approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.

    1986-01-01

    This study focuses on the regulation of sucrose transport across the plasmalemma. Initially, we re-examined the use of leaf discs to study the kinetics of phloem loading using Allium cepa leaves. All tissues exhibited the same linear plus saturable profile as Beta vulgaris, except fructose uptake into the inner parenchyma and bundle-sheath cells; in this case the response was linear. These results indicate that all tissues of the leaf retrieve exogenous sucrose such that kinetics from leaf discs cannot be taken to represent phloem loading per se. We continued our study by investigating the influence of internal sugars on sugar transport across the plasmalemma. We found that if internal sugars were manipulated by heat-girdling techniques or DCMU treatment there was no appreciable change in sucrose influx. However, longer term heat-girdling decreased sucrose uptake. These data indicate that carbohydrate partitioning among the chloroplast, cytosol, and vacuole modulates cytosolic sugar levels. One interesting discovery was that leaves excised from the plant and allowed to undergo their normal day/night cycle do not transfer (/sup 14/C) sucrose to their minor veins.

  3. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Olson, David M.; Severson, Emily M.; Verstraeten, Barbara S. E.; Ng, Jane W. Y.; McCreary, J. Keiko; Metz, Gerlinde A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk. PMID:26694355

  4. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  5. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  6. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOEpatents

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  7. Engineering Tenofovir Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jianing; Sturgis, Timothy F.; Youan, Bi-Botti C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to engineer a model anti-HIV microbicide (Tenofovir) loaded chitosan based nanoparticles (NPs). Box-Behnken design allowed to assess the influence of formulation variables on the size of NPs and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE%) that were analyzed by dynamic light scattering and UV spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of the NPs on vaginal epithelial cells and Lactobacillus crispatus viability and their mucoadhesion to porcine vaginal tissue were assessed by cytotoxicity assays and fluorimetry, respectively. In the optimal aqueous conditions, the EE% and NPs size was 5.83% and 207.97nm, respectively. With 50% (v/v) ethanol/water as alternative solvent, these two responses increased to 20% and 602 nm, respectively. Drug release from medium (281 nm) and large size (602 nm)-sized NPs fitted the Higuchi (r2=0.991) and first-order release (r2=0.999) models, respectively. These NPs were not cytotoxic to both the vaginal epithelial cell line and Lactobacillus for 48 hours. When the diameter of the NPs decreased from 900 nm to 188 nm, the mucoadhesion increased from 6% to 12%. However, the combinatorial effect of EE% × mucoadhesion for larger size NPs was the highest. Overall, large-size, microbicide loaded chitosan NPs appeared to be promising nanomedicines for the prevention of HIV transmission. PMID:21704704

  8. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Jon; Booten, Chuck

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  9. High payload six-axis load sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jansen, John F.; Lind, Randall F.

    2003-01-01

    A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

  10. Effect of loading parameter on fretting fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowser, Md. Arefin; Chowdhury, Mohammad Asaduzzaman; Shah, Quazi Md. Zobaer

    2017-06-01

    Fretting fatigue has become one of the major concern in the recent few decades since developed designs both structure's and complex engineering are facing with fatigue accompanied by friction. In this study, load factors as normal and bending forces influence on stress distribution along contact surface as well as fatigue life has been experimented by FEM analysis. Fatigue life is influenced prominently by variable fretting loads than variable tensile loadings. Maximum Von mises Stress and strain shows uniform horizontal straight line is found for maximum loading while for both type of bending, minimum loads yield the same character. It has been observed that stress distribution is more uniform for varying bending loads when variable fretting loads yield stress singularity nearer to the tip of contact between fretting pad and beam.

  11. Wound healing in immediately loaded implants.

    PubMed

    Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-06-01

    The orthopedic field has accumulated ample evidence that bone formation is related to functional loading and in general to physical activity. However, despite evidence that immediately loaded implants can be predictably successful, many clinicians still use the classical (delayed loading) treatment protocol. This paper examines the effects of loading on dental implants and discusses the advantages of immediate loading. The role of loading on augmented alveolar ridges is also addressed and provides evidence that early bone resorption may be controlled when bone is functionally loaded. Similar data are emerging for advanced augmentation techniques in order to control crestal bone loss. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Suspending loads decreases load stability but may slightly improve body stability.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Jeffrey; Potwar, Karna; Seipel, Justin

    2017-02-08

    Here, we seek to determine how compliantly suspended loads could affect the dynamic stability of legged locomotion. We theoretically model the dynamic stability of a human carrying a load using a coupled spring-mass-damper model and an actuated spring-loaded inverted pendulum model, as these models have demonstrated the ability to correctly predict other aspects of locomotion with a load in prior work, such as body forces and energetic cost. We report that minimizing the load suspension natural frequency and damping ratio significantly reduces the stability of the load mass but may slightly improve the body stability of locomotion when compared to a rigidly attached load. These results imply that a highly-compliant load suspension could help stabilize body motion during human, animal, or robot load carriage, but at the cost of a more awkward (less stable) load.

  13. Load research manual. Volume 2: Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    This manual will assist electric utilities and state regulatory authorities in investigating customer electricity demand as part of cost-of-service studies, rate design, marketing research, system design, load forecasting, rate reform analysis, and load management research. Load research procedures are described in detail. Research programs at three utilities are compared: Carolina Power and Light Company, Long Island Lighting Company, and Southern California Edison Company. A load research bibliography and glossaries of load research and statistical terms are also included.

  14. Common source-multiple load vs. separate source-individual load photovoltaic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of system performance is made for two possible system setups: (1) individual loads powered by separate solar cell sources; and (2) multiple loads powered by a common solar cell source. A proof for resistive loads is given that shows the advantage of a common source over a separate source photovoltaic system for a large range of loads. For identical loads, both systems perform the same.

  15. Artificial neural network based hourly load forecasting for decentralized load management

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, J.K.; Sinha, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    Decentralized load management is an essential part of the power system operation. Forecasting load demand at the substation level is generally more difficult and less accurate compared to forecasting total system load demand. In this paper, Multi-Layered Feed Forward (MLFF) neural network is used to predict the bus-load demand at the substation level. The MLFF network is trained using Back-Propagation (BP) algorithm with adaptive learning technique. The algorithm is tested for two systems having different load patterns.

  16. Impedance matching between ventricle and load.

    PubMed

    Piene, H

    1984-01-01

    Impedance matching in the cardiovascular system is discussed in light of two models of ventricle and load: a Thevenin equivalent consisting of a hydromotive pressure source and an internal, source resistance and compliance in parallel; and a time-varying compliance filled from a constant pressure source and ejecting into a load of three components, a central resistor, a compliance, and a peripheral resistance. According to the Thevenin analog, the energy source and the load are matched when the load resistance is T/t times the internal source resistance (T is total cycle length, t is systolic time interval). Both from this model and from the variable compliance model it appears that optimum matching between source and load depends on the compliance of the Windkessel, as low compliance shifts the matching load resistance to a low value. Animal experiments (isolated cat hearts) indicated that both left and right ventricles at normal loads work close to their maxima of output hydraulic power, and, according to experiments in the right ventricle, maximum power output is related to load resistance and compliance as predicted by the above models. From an experimentally determined relationship among instantaneous ventricular pressure and volume (right ventricle of isolated cat hearts), an optimum load impedance was calculated on the basis of the assumption that the ratio between stroke work and static, potential energy developed in the ventricular cavity is maximum. The optimum load impedance found by this procedure closely resembles the normal input impedance of the cat lung vessel bed.

  17. Phosphorous Loading in Lake Champlain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, H.; Halliday, B.; Lane, T.

    2016-12-01

    Phosphate movement from different sources into Lake Champlain is a problem. Excess phosphate generates algae growth causing eutrophication. This excessive growth known as algae blooms leads to poor water quality (State of Lake Report, 2015). Phosphate moves primarily by attachment to soil particles (Busman, Lamb, 09). Historically its movement has been limited to spring, summer and fall. Spring runoff is thought to contribute the most phosphate to Lake Champlain (Jensen, Tiessen, 11). With changes in global and local temperatures effecting weather patterns and the winter season, does phosphate continue to move into Lake Champlain during the winter months? Water samples from two tributaries to Lake Champlain were collected biweekly year around for the past three years. These samples were then tested for total suspended solids and phosphate levels. The results indicate that phosphate loading occurs throughout the year even during the winter months.

  18. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  19. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Pierce, K.L.; Obradovich, J.D.; Long, W.D.

    1973-01-01

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming . The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  20. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

    1973-05-18

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  1. High voltage load resistor array

    DOEpatents

    Lehmann, Monty Ray

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  2. Load limiting parachute inflation control

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Hinnerichs, T.; Parker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Excessive deceleration forces experienced during high speed deployment of parachute systems can cause damage to the payload and the canopy fabric. Conventional reefing lines offer limited relief by temporarily restricting canopy inflation and limiting the peak deceleration load. However, the open-loop control provided by existing reefing devices restrict their use to a specific set of deployment conditions. In this paper, the sensing, processing, and actuation that are characteristic of adaptive structures form the basis of three concepts for active control of parachute inflation. These active control concepts are incorporated into a computer simulation of parachute inflation. Initial investigations indicate that these concepts promise enhanced performance as compared to conventional techniques for a nominal release. Furthermore, the ability of each controller to adapt to off-nominal release conditions is examined.

  3. Allostatic load and biological anthropology.

    PubMed

    Edes, Ashley N; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality. Following allostasis theory, allostatic load represents accumulated physiological and somatic damage secondary to stressors and senescent processes experienced over the lifespan. ALIs estimate this wear-and-tear using a composite of biomarkers representing neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. Across samples, ALIs are associated significantly with multiple individual characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, DNA variation) of interest within biological anthropology. They also predict future outcomes, including aspects of life history variation (e.g., survival, lifespan), mental and physical health, morbidity and mortality, and likely health disparities between groups, by stressor exposures, ethnicity, occupations, and degree of departure from local indigenous life ways and integration into external and commodified ones. ALIs also may be applied to similar stress-related research areas among nonhuman primates. Given the reports from multiple research endeavors, here we propose ALIs may be useful for assessing stressors, stress responses, and stress-related dysfunction, current and long-term cognitive function, health and well-being, and risk of early mortality across many research programs within biological anthropology. © 2017 American

  4. Self loading wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, E.; Spector, G.

    1987-08-25

    A self loading wood burning stove is described which comprises: (a) a fire box having an air intake vent for supplying a flow of combustible air therin an an exhaust conduit in flow communication with the fire box for exhausting combustion gases therefrom: (b) a storage bin for retaining a plurality of logs, the storage bin having a generally zig-zag vertically arranged compartment for holding a zig-zag row of the logs, the storage bin having a log entry opening at upper portion and a pair of pivotable doors at lower portion for dispensing the logs individually therefrom; and (c) means for delivering the logs from the doors of the storage bin to the fire box of the stove, wherein the delivering means comprises: (d) a conveyor for receiving the logs from the doors of the storage bin and conducting the logs upwardly in a substantially angular fashion; and (e) means for placing the logs from the conveyor into upper portion of the fire box; wherein the conveyor comprises: (f) a plurality of rollers; (g) an endless belt formed around the rollers, the belt having a plurality of push lugs; and (h) a motor to driven one of the rollers to operate the belt so that the push lug will drive the log upwardly; wherein the placing means comprises: (i) a housing having a plurality of legs mounted to the upper portion of the fire box, the housing having a log guide roller in rotatable contact with the belt of the conveyor and a pair of spring loaded trap doors that are opened by weight of the log so that log will far therethrough; and (j) the first box having an inclined top and a pivotable top door that is opened by weight of the log so that the log will roll therein.

  5. A Study on a Centralized Under-Voltage Load Shedding Scheme Considering the Load Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiyu; Liu, Junyong

    Under-voltage load shedding is an important measure for maintaining voltage stability.Aiming at the optimal load shedding problem considering the load characteristics,firstly,the traditional under-voltage load shedding scheme based on a static load model may cause the analysis inaccurate is pointed out on the equivalent Thevenin circuit.Then,the dynamic voltage stability margin indicator is derived through local measurement.The derived indicator can reflect the voltage change of the key area in a myopia linear way.Dimensions of the optimal problem will be greatly simplified using this indicator.In the end,mathematical model of the centralized load shedding scheme is built with the indicator considering load characteristics.HSPPSO is introduced to slove the optimal problem.Simulation results on IEEE-39 system show that the proposed scheme display a good adaptability in solving the under-voltage load shedding considering dynamic load characteristics.

  6. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  7. Multi-load Groups Coordinated Load Control Strategy Considering Power Network Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng; Zhao, Binchao; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guohui; Wang, Xin

    2017-05-01

    Loads with energy storage property can actively participate in power balance for power systems, this paper takes air conditioner as a controllable load example, proposing a multi-load groups coordinated load control strategy considering power network constraints. Firstly, two load control modes considering recovery of load diversity are designed, blocking power oscillation of aggregated air conditioners. As the same time, air conditioner temperature setpoint recovery control strategy is presented to avoid power recovery peak. Considering inherent characteristics of two load control modes, an coordinated load control mode is designed by combining the both. Basing on this, a multi-load groups coordinated load control strategy is proposed. During the implementing of load control, power network constraints should be satisfied. An indice which can reflect the security of power system operating is defined. By minimizing its value through optimization, the change of air conditioning loads’ aggregated power on each load bus can be calculated. Simulations are conducted on an air conditioners group and New England 10-generator 39-bus system, verifying the effectiveness of the proposed multi-load groups coordinated load control strategy considering power network constraints.

  8. Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricci, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.

  9. Combined loading criterial influence on structural performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchta, B. J.; Sealey, D. M.; Howell, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the influence of combined loading criteria on the space shuttle structural performance. The study consisted of four primary phases: Phase (1) The determination of the sensitivity of structural weight to various loading parameters associated with the space shuttle. Phase (2) The determination of the sensitivity of structural weight to various levels of loading parameter variability and probability. Phase (3) The determination of shuttle mission loading parameters variability and probability as a function of design evolution and the identification of those loading parameters where inadequate data exists. Phase (4) The determination of rational methods of combining both deterministic time varying and probabilistic loading parameters to provide realistic design criteria. The study results are presented.

  10. Physical work load in physical education teachers.

    PubMed

    Sandmark, H; Wiktorin, C; Hogstedt, C; Klenell-Hatschek, E K; Vingard, E

    1999-10-01

    The main objective was to measure and quantify exposure to physical work load in physical education teachers. A further aim was to establish the reproducibility of a three-week test-retest interval of self-reported physical load and to evaluate the agreement between registered and self-rated physical load. Thirty teachers, both female and male, volunteered to participate in the study. The physical load on the lower extremities, as well as the back and the cardio-vascular strain was recorded during one working day. The results indicate that the physical work load in this occupational group is considerable due to the load on the lower extremities. The demands of the cardio-vascular system are also relatively high in comparison to other occupational groups. The teachers could assess their activity quite well regarding heavy lifting and time spent sitting.

  11. The Palletized Load System: Just Another Truck?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-19

    APPROVAL Student: Major Daniel V. Sulka, US Amy Title of Monograph: The Palletized Load System.... Just Another Truck? __________••._________ , Monograph...Director. Graduate Philip J. Brookes, PHD Degree Program Accepted this _ day of _ _ ,_1991 -- • . , , i I II I__ _ 1991 ABSTRACT THE PALLETIZED LOAD...SYSTEM.... JUST ANOTHER TRUCK? by Major Daniel V. Sulka, USA, 61 pages. This monograph examines the Palletized Load System to determine if it will

  12. Dispersion Characteristics of a Dielectric Loaded Waveguide,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-30

    NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANOAODS-1963-A ., ’I A NSWC TR 84-338 00 In ’DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A SDIELECTRIC LOADED WAVEGUIDE By H. CROSBY J. CHOE Y...4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A DIELECTRIC LOADED WAVEGUIDE S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES S. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide it necessary and Identify by block number) Dielectric Loaded Waveguide ) " Resonant Cavity) a

  13. A no-load RF calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The described device can be used to measure the output of any dc powered RF source. No dummy load is required for the measurements. The device is, therefore, called the 'no-load calorimeter' (NLC). The NLC measures the power actually fed to the antenna or another useful load. It is believed that the NLC can compete successfully with directional coupler type systems in measuring the output of high-power RF sources.

  14. Robust Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement (RMCLM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-26

    Eye Activity for Cognitive Load Measurement with Emotion Interference,” Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 2012. b) Papers published in...Signals for CLM 4. Eye Activity for CLM with Emotion Interference 5. Linguistic and Grammatical Features for CLM 6. Conclusions and Future Work...Cognitive Load Measurement with Emotion Interference Attachment F Multimodal Behaviour and Interaction as Indicators of Cognitive Load Attachment G

  15. Load transfer in composite bolted joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Perry, J. C.; Lightfoot, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    The study deals with composite bolted joints, specifically those required to transmit primary loads. Consideration is given to the ultimate load capacity of quasi-isotropic bolted joint specimens as a function of the width of the joint, the diameter of the bolt, the joint thickness, and the number of bolts. Emphasis is placed on the effect of adding a second bolt, in tandem, on the load capacity of the joint.

  16. Balancing Loads Among Parallel Data Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Heuristic algorithm minimizes amount of memory used by multiprocessor system. Distributes load of many identical, short computations among multiple parallel digital data processors, each of which has its own (local) memory. Each processor operates on distinct and independent set of data in larger shared memory. As integral part of load-balancing scheme, total amount of space used in shared memory minimized. Possible applications include artificial neural networks or image processors for which "pipeline" and vector methods of load balancing inappropriate.

  17. Foot Marching, Load Carriage, and Injury Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    tasks such as patrolling that require Soldiers to carry heavy loads of equipment and supplies. These are often referred to as “load-carriage” injuries...3 Heavy loads carried or worn on the body have been shown to increase the energy cost of locomotion, lead to more rapid fatigue, alter the mechanics...In combination with lifting, wearing heavy gear, including armor, has even been identified as one of the most frequent causes of non-battle

  18. Compressive strength of axially loaded composite cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollar, Laszlo P.; Springer, George C.; Spingarn, Jay; McColskey, J. D.

    1993-10-01

    Tests were performed to measure the failure loads of axially compressed glass-fiber-reinforced and graphite-fiber-reinforced composite cylinders. The data were compared with the results of a previous model, which was based on a three-dimensional stress analysis and the Tsai-Wu quadratic first-ply failure criterion. This model predicted the failure loads for glass-fiber-reinforced composites with good accuracy, but less accurately for failure loads of graphite-epoxy composites.

  19. Simplified Methodology for Calculating Building Heating Loads.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    an inexpensive, accurate, and reliable simplified methodology , termed the "Modified Bin Method ", for 2 calculating building heating loads. In doing so...I AD-AI01 725 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGMT-PATTERSON AFB OH F/6 13/1 SIMPLIFIED METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATING BUILDING HEATING LOADS.(U) NOV 80 S 0...University The Graduate School ," Department of Architectural Engineering 4, Simplified Methodology for Calculating Building Heating Loads, -A /. ’.- A

  20. NASA Dryden Flight Loads Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sefic, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Loads Research Facility (NASA) and the associated equipment for simulating the loading and heating of aircraft or their components are described. Particular emphasis is placed on various fail-safe devices which are built into the equipment to minimize the possibility of damage to flight vehicles. The equipment described includes the ground vibration and moment of inertia equipment, the data acquisition system, and the instrumentation available in the facility for measuring load, position, strain, temperature, and acceleration.

  1. Safety Harness For Work Under Suspended Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunoo, Su Young

    1994-01-01

    Safety device protects worker under suspended engine or other heavy load. Mechanically linked with load so if load should fall, worker yanked safely away. Worker wears chest-plate vest with straps crossing eye on back. Lower safety cable connected to eye extends horizontally away from worker to nearby wall, wrapped on pulley and extends upward to motion amplifier or reducer. Safety cables transform any sudden downward motion of overhanging load into rapid sideways motion of worker. Net catches worker, preventing worker from bumping against wall.

  2. Mutational load analysis of unrelated individuals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary genetic models predict that the cumulative effect of rare deleterious mutations across the genome—known as mutational load burden—increases the susceptibility to complex disease. To test the mutational load burden hypothesis, we adopted a two-tiered approach: assessing the impact of whole-exome minor allele load burden and then conducting individual-gene screening. For our primary analysis, we examined various minor allele frequency (MAF) thresholds and weighting schemes to examine the overall effect of minor allele load on affection status. We found a consistent association between minor allele load and affection status, but this effect did not markedly increase within rare and/or functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our follow-up analysis considered minor allele load in individual genes to see whether only one or a few genes were driving the overall effect. Examining our most significant result—minor allele load of nonsynonymous SNPs with MAF < 2.4%—we detected no significantly associated genes after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. After moderately significant genes (p < 0.05) were removed, the overall effect of rare nonsynonymous allele load remained significant. Overall, we did not find clear support for mutational load burden on affection status; however, these results are ultimately dependent on and limited by the nature of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 simulation. PMID:22373138

  3. 14 CFR 23.423 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing and Balancing Surfaces § 23.423 Maneuvering loads. Each horizontal surface and its supporting structure, and...

  4. 14 CFR 23.423 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing and Balancing Surfaces § 23.423 Maneuvering loads. Each horizontal surface and its supporting structure, and...

  5. 14 CFR 23.423 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing and Balancing Surfaces § 23.423 Maneuvering loads. Each horizontal surface and its supporting structure, and...

  6. 14 CFR 23.423 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing and Balancing Surfaces § 23.423 Maneuvering loads. Each horizontal surface and its supporting structure, and...

  7. 14 CFR 23.423 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing and Balancing Surfaces § 23.423 Maneuvering loads. Each horizontal surface and its supporting structure, and...

  8. Fuel loads in U.S. cities.

    PubMed

    Bush, B; Anno, G; McCoy, R; Gaj, R; Small, R D

    1991-02-01

    Sources of burnable material within U.S. cities are analyzed. Based on a detailed evaluation of construction practices, storage of burnable contents, building function and layout, and density of buildings in city districts, we derive urban fuel load densities in terms of land use type and geographic location. Residential building fuel loads vary regionally from 123 to 150 kg m-2; nonresidential building classes have loads from 39 to 273 kg m-2. The results indicate that average U.S. urban area fuel loads range from 14 to 21 kg m-2.

  9. Truss-core corrugation for compressive loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Randall C. (Inventor); Jackson, Robert (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A corrugated panel structure for supporting compressive loads is described which includes curved cap strips separated by truss-core web segments. The truss-core web segments are formed from first and second flat panels with a corrugated filler in between them. The corrugated filler extends in the direction of the compressive load. As a result, all components of the panel structure have a compressive load carrying capability resulting in a high strength-to-weight ratio when the compressive load is limiting. Application to rocket and aircraft structures is suggested.

  10. Wheelchair caster loading during frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, Gina E; van Roosmalen, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Many wheelchair users are required or choose to use their wheelchairs as a motor vehicle seat during transport. It is therefore key that the wheelchair components be designed to tolerate crash-level loading conditions. Casters are particularly prone to failure under crash loading conditions. Our study evaluated wheelchair caster loading during 20g/48 kph frontal sled impact testing using an 85-kg surrogate wheelchair base (SWCB) with casters positioned on a load-measuring platform. A Hybrid III 50th percentile male test dummy was seated in the SWCB, which simulated a power wheelchair and was secured using four-point tiedowns. Various rear securement point heights and wheelchair seating systems were used to study their effect on caster loading. Caster normal loading was found to vary from 769 to 7,209 N depending on rear securement location and integrity of the seating system. Dynamic sled impact test results showed that normal loading of the front wheelchair casters was influenced by wheelchair seating system integrity and rear wheelchair securement height. Shear loading varied from 781 to 1,589 N and did not appear to be dependent on seat integrity or rear securement height. The load/time histories measured during dynamic impact testing can be used to guide the development of transit-safe caster design.

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  12. Backscattering by loaded and unloaded dihedral corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona, Paolo; Ferrara, Giuseppe; Gennarelli, Claudio

    1987-10-01

    An accurate mathematical model for the backscattering from a loaded dihedral corner has been developed. Such a model employs a generalization of physical optics (PO) to loaded surfaces which takes into account the lighting of each face by the rays diffracted by the edge of the other one. The inclusion of the currents due to such diffracted fields in the PO current distribution has been found relevant in order to improve the accuracy of the solution. Moreover the solution is uniform with respect to the loading impedance; as it coincides with the previously obtained solution for the perfectly conducting case, when the loading impedance approaches zero.

  13. Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Loading Tool (MDMLT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Lenox Allen; Hale, Elizabeth; Martella, Robert; Gyorfi, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the MDMLT is to improve the reliability and speed of loading multiplexers/demultiplexers (MDMs) in the Software Development and Integration Laboratory (SDIL) by automating the configuration management (CM) of the loads in the MDMs, automating the loading procedure, and providing the capability to load multiple or all MDMs concurrently. This loading may be accomplished in parallel, or single MDMs (remote). The MDMLT is a Web-based tool that is capable of loading the entire International Space Station (ISS) MDM configuration in parallel. It is able to load Flight Equivalent Units (FEUs), enhanced, standard, and prototype MDMs as well as both EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) and SSMMU (Solid State Mass Memory Unit) (MASS Memory). This software has extensive configuration management to track loading history, and the performance improvement means of loading the entire ISS MDM configuration of 49 MDMs in approximately 30 minutes, as opposed to 36 hours, which is what it took previously utilizing the flight method of S-Band uplink. The laptop version recently added to the MDMLT suite allows remote lab loading with the CM of information entered into a common database when it is reconnected to the network. This allows the program to reconfigure the test rigs quickly between shifts, allowing the lab to support a variety of onboard configurations during a single day, based on upcoming or current missions. The MDMLT Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) supports a Web-based command and control interface to the user. An interface to the SDIL File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server is supported to import Integrated Flight Loads (IFLs) and Internal Product Release Notes (IPRNs) into the database. An interface to the Monitor and Control System (MCS) is supported to control the power state, and to enable or disable the debug port of the MDMs to be loaded. Two direct interfaces to the MDM are supported: a serial interface (debug port) to

  14. Automated load management for spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the results of a study undertaken by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to design and implement the load management techniques for autonomous spacecraft power systems, such as the Autonomously Managed Power System Test Facility. Attention is given to four load-management criteria, which encompass power bus balancing on multichannel power systems, energy balancing in such systems, power quality matching of loads to buses, and contingency load shedding/adding. Full implementation of these criteria calls for the addition of a second power channel.

  15. Truss-core corrugation for compressive loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Randall C.; Jackson, Robert

    1988-09-01

    A corrugated panel structure for supporting compressive loads is described which includes curved cap strips separated by truss-core web segments. The truss-core web segments are formed from first and second flat panels with a corrugated filler in between them. The corrugated filler extends in the direction of the compressive load. As a result, all components of the panel structure have a compressive load carrying capability resulting in a high strength-to-weight ratio when the compressive load is limiting. Application to rocket and aircraft structures is suggested.

  16. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  17. Shuttle propellant loading instrumenation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, J.

    1975-01-01

    A continuous capacitance sensor was developed and an analog signal conditioner was evaluated to demonstrate the acceptability of these items for use in the space shuttle propellant loading system. An existing basic sensor concept was redesigned to provide capability for cryogenic operation, to improve performance, and to minimize production costs. Sensor development verification consisted of evaluation of sensor linearity, cryogenic performance, and stability during vibration. The signal conditioner evaluation consisted mainly of establishing the effects of the variations in temperature and cable parameters and evaluating the stability. A sensor linearity of 0.04 in. was achieved over most of the sensor length. The sensor instability caused by vibration was 0.04 percent. The cryogenic performance data show a maximum instability of 0.19 percent at liquid hydrogen temperature; a theoretical calibration can be computed a within 1 percent. The signal conditioner evaluation showed that, with temperature compensation, all error sources typically contribute much less than 1 percent. An estimate of the accuracy achievable with the sensor and signal conditioner shows an rss estimate of 0.75 in. for liquid oxygen and 1.02 in. for liquid hydrogen. These are approximately four times better than the shuttle requirements. Comparison of continuous sensor and discrete sensor performance show the continuous sensor to be significantly better when there is surface activity due to sloshing, boiling, or other disturbances.

  18. Assessing Phosphorus Loading in Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    Hari K. Pant Lehman College of the City University of New York, Department of Environmental, Geographic and Geological Sciences, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468; hari.pant@lehman.cuny.edu Depending on ecosystem's resilience, hydro-climatic changes brought upon by global climate change may cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in freshwater wetlands. Thus, the studies of the influence of expected global climate change and its impacts on P stability in wetlands are in critical need to help manage, or increase the resilience of freshwater wetland ecosystems against undesirable changes. The objectives of this study were to assess P sorption in sediments, and help to estimate potential internal loading of P to the water column from the sediments. Sediment samples were collected from freshwater wetlands that are located within Pelham Bay Park, Bronx, New York. Although P sorption maxima (Smax) of the sediments were high in general (up to 1667 mg kg-1), the equilibrium P concentrations (EPC0) were also fairly high (0.09 -0.24 mg L-1), indicating substantial amounts of P may remain available for biological uptake in the water columns. High percentages of hysteretic P (>96%), as indicated by P retained values (Pr), along with a significant correlation between Smax and oxalate-extractable Fe (r = 0.89), suggest that changes in sediment/water chemistry such as redox status/acidity could cause massive P release to the water columns.

  19. Measuring training load in sports.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Michael Ian; Borresen, Jill

    2010-09-01

    The principle of training can be reduced to a simple "dose-response" relationship. The "response" in this relationship can be measured as a change in performance or the adaptation of a physiological system. The "dose" of training, or physiological stress associated with the training load, is more difficult to measure as there is no absolute "gold standard" which can be used in the field, making it difficult to validate procedures. Attempts have been made to use heart rate as a marker of intensity during training, but the theoretical attractiveness of this method is not supported by the accuracy and the practicality of using this method during training or competition. The session RPE, based on the product of training duration and perceived intensity is more practical and can be used in a variety of sports. However, the score depends on a subjective assessment, and the intersubject comparisons may be inaccurate. The demands of different sports vary and therefore the methods of assessing training need to vary accordingly. The time has come to reach consensus on assessing training accurately in different sports. There is a precedent for this consensus approach with scientists having already done so for the assessment of physical activity, and for defining injuries in rugby, football and cricket. Standardizing these methods has resulted in the quality of research in these areas increasing exponentially.

  20. Storage tanks under earthquake loading

    SciTech Connect

    Rammerstorfer, F.G.; Scharf, K. ); Fisher, F.D. )

    1990-11-01

    This is a state-of-the-art review of various treatments of earthquake loaded liquid filled shells by the methods of earthquake engineering, fluid dynamics, structural and soil dynamics, as well as the theory of stability and computational mechanics. Different types of tanks and different possibilities of tank failure will be discussed. The authors will emphasize cylindrical above-ground liquid storage tanks with vertical axis. But many of the treatments are also valid for other tank configurations. For the calculation of the dynamically activated pressure due to an earthquake a fluid-structure-soil interaction problem must be solved. The review will describe the methods, proposed by different authors, to solve this interaction problem. To study the dynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks, one must distinguish between anchored and unanchored tanks. In the case of an anchored tank, the tank bottom edge is fixed to the foundation. If the tank is unanchored, partial lifting of the tank's bottom may occur, and a strongly nonlinear problem has to be solved. They will compare the various analytical and numerical models applicable to this problem, in combination with experimental data. An essential aim of this review is to give a summary of methods applicable as tools for an earthquake resistant design, which can be used by an engineer engaged in the construction of liquid storage tanks.

  1. Wind loading on solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L. M.

    1985-06-01

    The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors were reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, were compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, were estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

  2. Behaviour of glass plates under wind loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavanski, Eri

    Glazing damage during strong windstorms has been considered to result mainly from windborne debris. However, recent windstorm damage reports have revealed the necessity of studying fluctuating wind loads, which appear to be another factor contributing to this damage. From an experimental point of view, studies on this topic have been limited to the application of rather simple loading patterns. Moreover, there is an uncertainty surrounding both load resistance and design load used in the current North American window glass design codes. It is of concern that these regulations may not offer sufficient accuracy on account of the limited understanding of time-dependent glass strength derived from the technology available at the time of codification. Unprecedented full-scale glass breakage tests under realistic wind pressure loading were conducted to investigate these issues. The obtained results revealed significant new information about the behavior of glass plates under fluctuating loads. Along with these tests, a numerical simulation using the Monte-Carlo technique was also performed with a subtle modification of the initial glass strength. This adjustment resulted in better correspondence with test results. Using the test and numerical simulation results, the current window glass design method was examined. The calculation methods of LR, and the reference time conversion used in the codes, were found to require further investigation. By creating a particular wind pressure time history, the practice of using peak pressures from ASCE7-05 as the design load was investigated. The results showed that there are cases when the current practice may underestimate the design load because of the duration of windstorms. KEYWORDS: Glass, Fluctuating load, Full-scale test, Load resistance, Design load, Static fatigue, Numerical simulation, Monte-Carlo technique, Brown's integral.

  3. Load Balancing Using Time Series Analysis for Soft Real Time Systems with Statistically Periodic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailperin, Max

    1993-01-01

    This thesis provides design and analysis of techniques for global load balancing on ensemble architectures running soft-real-time object-oriented applications with statistically periodic loads. It focuses on estimating the instantaneous average load over all the processing elements. The major contribution is the use of explicit stochastic process models for both the loading and the averaging itself. These models are exploited via statistical time-series analysis and Bayesian inference to provide improved average load estimates, and thus to facilitate global load balancing. This thesis explains the distributed algorithms used and provides some optimality results. It also describes the algorithms' implementation and gives performance results from simulation. These results show that our techniques allow more accurate estimation of the global system load ing, resulting in fewer object migration than local methods. Our method is shown to provide superior performance, relative not only to static load-balancing schemes but also to many adaptive methods.

  4. Concurrent working memory load can facilitate selective attention: evidence for specialized load.

    PubMed

    Park, Soojin; Kim, Min-Shik; Chun, Marvin M

    2007-10-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent working memory load impairs selective attention and increases distractor interference (N. Lavie, A. Hirst, J. W. de Fockert, & E. Viding). Here, the authors present new evidence that the type of concurrent working memory load determines whether load impairs selective attention or not. Working memory load was paired with a same/different matching task that required focusing on targets while ignoring distractors. When working memory items shared the same limited-capacity processing mechanisms with targets in the matching task, distractor interference increased. However, when working memory items shared processing with distractors in the matching task, distractor interference decreased, facilitating target selection. A specialized load account is proposed to describe the dissociable effects of working memory load on selective processing depending on whether the load overlaps with targets or with distractors.

  5. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Torcellini, Paul; Bonnema, Eric; Sheppy, Michael; Pless, Shanti

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  6. Field guide for identifying fuel loading models

    Treesearch

    Pamela G. Sikkink; Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane

    2009-01-01

    This report details a procedure for identifying fuel loading models (FLMs) in the field. FLMs are a new classification system for predicting fire effects from on-site fuels. Each FLM class represents fuel beds that have similar fuel loadings and produce similar emissions and soil surface heating when burned using computer simulations. We describe how to estimate fuel...

  7. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Equipment Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.

    1998-05-01

    This report lists the operations required to complete the Can Loading steps on the Pu Immobilization Plant Flow Sheets and evaluates the equipment options to complete each operation. This report recommends the most appropriate equipment to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations.

  8. 14 CFR 23.441 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from VA to VD/MD. When computing the tail loads— (1) The airplane must be yawed to the largest... Maneuvering loads. (a) At speeds up to V A, the vertical surfaces must be designed to withstand the following conditions. In computing the loads, the yawing velocity may be assumed to be zero: (1) With the airplane...

  9. 10 CFR 434.512 - Internal loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Internal loads. 434.512 Section 434.512 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.512 Internal loads. 512.1The systems...

  10. 10 CFR 434.512 - Internal loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Internal loads. 434.512 Section 434.512 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.512 Internal loads. 512.1The systems...

  11. 10 CFR 434.512 - Internal loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Internal loads. 434.512 Section 434.512 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.512 Internal loads. 512.1 The systems...

  12. 10 CFR 434.512 - Internal loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Internal loads. 434.512 Section 434.512 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.512 Internal loads. 512.1The systems...

  13. 10 CFR 434.512 - Internal loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal loads. 434.512 Section 434.512 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.512 Internal loads. 512.1The systems...

  14. SSME-HAS dynamic load simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The space shuttle main engine propellant valve actuators (SSME) were designed to simulate the loads reflected into the SSME by the chamber coolant valve, the fuel preburner, and the oxidizer. The design, and functional description are included along with a list of the drawings. The load fixture control transform, friction torque, and flow calculations are reported.

  15. 14 CFR 23.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... In addition: (1) A vertical load factor equal to 1.0 must be considered acting at the center of... main gear must be reacted as follows: (i) A reaction with a maximum value equal to the vertical reaction must be applied at the axle of the wheel to which the load is applied. Enough airplane inertia...

  16. 14 CFR 23.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... In addition: (1) A vertical load factor equal to 1.0 must be considered acting at the center of... main gear must be reacted as follows: (i) A reaction with a maximum value equal to the vertical reaction must be applied at the axle of the wheel to which the load is applied. Enough airplane inertia...

  17. 14 CFR 23.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... In addition: (1) A vertical load factor equal to 1.0 must be considered acting at the center of... main gear must be reacted as follows: (i) A reaction with a maximum value equal to the vertical reaction must be applied at the axle of the wheel to which the load is applied. Enough airplane inertia...

  18. 14 CFR 23.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... In addition: (1) A vertical load factor equal to 1.0 must be considered acting at the center of... main gear must be reacted as follows: (i) A reaction with a maximum value equal to the vertical reaction must be applied at the axle of the wheel to which the load is applied. Enough airplane inertia...

  19. 14 CFR 23.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... In addition: (1) A vertical load factor equal to 1.0 must be considered acting at the center of... main gear must be reacted as follows: (i) A reaction with a maximum value equal to the vertical reaction must be applied at the axle of the wheel to which the load is applied. Enough airplane inertia...

  20. 14 CFR 31.21 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loads. 31.21 Section 31.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.21 Loads. Strength requirements are specified in terms...

  1. 14 CFR 31.21 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loads. 31.21 Section 31.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.21 Loads. Strength requirements are specified in terms...

  2. 14 CFR 31.21 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loads. 31.21 Section 31.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.21 Loads. Strength requirements are specified in terms...

  3. 14 CFR 31.21 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loads. 31.21 Section 31.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.21 Loads. Strength requirements are specified in terms...

  4. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Steven R.

    1990-01-01

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

  5. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, S.R.

    1990-03-20

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

  6. 14 CFR 23.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loads. 23.301 Section 23.301 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... to determine load intensities and distribution on canard and tandem wing configurations must...

  7. Calculating Dynamics Of Helicopters And Slung Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, Luigi; Kanning, Gerd

    1991-01-01

    General equations derived for numerical simulations of motions of multiple-lift, slung-load systems consisting of two or more lifting helicopters and loads slung from them by various combinations of spreader bars, cables, nets, and attaching hardware. Equations readily programmable for efficient computation of motions and lend themselves well to analysis and design of control strategies for stabilization and coordination.

  8. Loading Appleworks into the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to loading AppleWorks V2.0 into the Apple IIGS computer provides instructions for energizing the computer and monitor, inserting the disk, using the Apple-control-reset function, and loading the program. Seven sample screen displays are included. (MES)

  9. Using Electroencephalography to Measure Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonenko, Pavlo; Paas, Fred; Grabner, Roland; van Gog, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Application of physiological methods, in particular electroencephalography (EEG), offers new and promising approaches to educational psychology research. EEG is identified as a physiological index that can serve as an online, continuous measure of cognitive load detecting subtle fluctuations in instantaneous load, which can help explain effects of…

  10. Nutrient Load Estimates for Lake Erie 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of phosphorus loads to Lake Erie is in progress for multiple uses in the Lake Erie ECOFORE Program. Emphasis is being placed on phosphorus loadings in 1976, 2005, and 2007 for model calibration and other purposes. This presentation focuses on an overview of temporal ...

  11. 46 CFR 153.806 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loading information. 153.806 Section 153.806 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Inspection § 153.806 Loading information. Each tankship must have a manual containing information that...

  12. Perceptual Load Modulates Object-Based Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Atchley, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Two experimental series are reported using both reaction time (RT) and a data-limited perceptual report to examine the effects of perceptual load on object-based attention. Perceptual load was manipulated across 3 levels by increasing the complexity of perceptual judgments. Data from the RT-based experiments showed object-based effects when the…

  13. Estimating Fuel Bed Loadings in Masticated Areas

    Treesearch

    Sharon Hood; Ros Wu

    2006-01-01

    Masticated fuel treatments that chop small trees, shrubs, and dead woody material into smaller pieces to reduce fuel bed depth are used increasingly as a mechanical means to treat fuels. Fuel loading information is important to monitor changes in fuels. The commonly used planar intercept method however, may not correctly estimate fuel loadings because masticated fuels...

  14. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Demand loads. 169.689 Section 169.689 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads....

  15. 14 CFR 125.383 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplane; (3) The maximum allowable takeoff and landing weights for that flight; (4) The center of gravity limits; (5) The center of gravity of the loaded airplane, except that the actual center of gravity need... that ensures that the center of gravity of the loaded airplane is within approved limits. In those...

  16. 14 CFR 125.383 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplane; (3) The maximum allowable takeoff and landing weights for that flight; (4) The center of gravity limits; (5) The center of gravity of the loaded airplane, except that the actual center of gravity need... that ensures that the center of gravity of the loaded airplane is within approved limits. In those...

  17. 14 CFR 125.383 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplane; (3) The maximum allowable takeoff and landing weights for that flight; (4) The center of gravity limits; (5) The center of gravity of the loaded airplane, except that the actual center of gravity need... that ensures that the center of gravity of the loaded airplane is within approved limits. In those...

  18. 14 CFR 125.383 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplane; (3) The maximum allowable takeoff and landing weights for that flight; (4) The center of gravity limits; (5) The center of gravity of the loaded airplane, except that the actual center of gravity need... that ensures that the center of gravity of the loaded airplane is within approved limits. In those...

  19. 14 CFR 125.383 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplane; (3) The maximum allowable takeoff and landing weights for that flight; (4) The center of gravity limits; (5) The center of gravity of the loaded airplane, except that the actual center of gravity need... that ensures that the center of gravity of the loaded airplane is within approved limits. In those...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loading information. 23.1589 Section 23.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information Airplane Flight Manual and Approved Manual Material § 23.1589 Loading information. The following...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loading information. 23.1589 Section 23.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information Airplane Flight Manual and Approved Manual Material § 23.1589 Loading information. The following...

  2. Fifty years of genetic load: An odyssey

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is an engaging, personalized account of attempts in population genetics to develop a useful quantitative theory of genetic load. The author concludes that genetic loads do not tell us anything about real populations because of the conceptual ambiguities and the oversimplified view of differential reproductive success.

  3. Nutrient Load Estimates for Lake Erie 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of phosphorus loads to Lake Erie is in progress for multiple uses in the Lake Erie ECOFORE Program. Emphasis is being placed on phosphorus loadings in 1976, 2005, and 2007 for model calibration and other purposes. This presentation focuses on an overview of temporal ...

  4. Helicopter Fatigue Load and Life Determination Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    Coy, George J. Roth DAAJO2-74-C-0031 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK _ UiAREA & WOK UNIT NUMBERS...23 Transformation of Data Points to Endurance Values . 24 Statistics of Transformed Stresses ......... 27 Endurance Limit Stress for...29 Illustrated Loading Distribution .... .......... .. 37 Duplicate Flight Record Distributions .......... ... 37 Ś Stress vs Load Level

  5. Macrophyte Community Response to Nitrogen Loading and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Empirical determination of nutrient loading thresholds that negatively impact seagrass communities have been elusive due to the multitude of factors involved. Using a mesocosm system that simulated Pacific Northwest estuaries, we evaluated macrophyte metrics across gradients of NO3 loading (0, 1.5, 3 and 6x ambient) and temperature (10 and 20 °C). Macroalgal growth, biomass, and C:N responded positively to increased NO3 load and floating algal mats developed at 20 ºC. Zostera japonica metrics, including C:N, responded more to temperature than to NO3 loading. Z. marina biomass exhibited a negative temperature effect and in some cases a negative NO3 effect, while growth rate increased with temperature. Shoot survival decreased at 20 ºC but was not influenced by NO3 loading. Wasting disease index exhibited a significant temperature by NO3 interaction consistent with increased disease susceptibility. Community shifts observed were consistent with the nutrient loading hypothesis at 20 ºC, but there was no evidence of other eutrophication symptoms due to the short residence time. The Nutrient Pollution Index tracked the NO3 gradient at 10 ºC but exhibited no response at 20 ºC. We suggest that systems characterized by cool temperatures, high NO3 loads, and short residence time may be resilient to many symptoms of eutrophication. Estuarine systems characterized by cool temperatures, high nutrient loads and rapid flushing may be resilient to some symptoms

  6. A review of research in rotor loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1988-01-01

    The research accomplished in the area of rotor loads over the last 13 to 14 years is reviewed. The start of the period examined is defined by the 1973 AGARD Milan conference and the 1974 hypothetical rotor comparison. The major emphasis of the review is research performed by the U.S. Army and NASA at their laboratories and/or by the industry under government contract. For the purpose of this review, two main topics are addressed: rotor loads prediction and means of rotor loads reduction. A limited discussion of research in gust loads and maneuver loads is included. In the area of rotor loads predictions, the major problem areas are reviewed including dynamic stall, wake induced flows, blade tip effects, fuselage induced effects, blade structural modeling, hub impedance, and solution methods. It is concluded that the capability to predict rotor loads has not significantly improved in this time frame. Future progress will require more extensive correlation of measurements and predictions to better understand the causes of the problems, and a recognition that differences between theory and measurement have multiple sources, yet must be treated as a whole. There is a need for high-quality data to support future research in rotor loads, but the resulting data base must not be seen as an end in itself. It will be useful only if it is integrated into firm long-range plans for the use of the data.

  7. Cardboard Activity Is "Loaded" with Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity that uses simple paperboard from the back of a pad of paper to illustrate some basic construction principles as students experiment with conducting load tests. The author describes the steps in conducting a load test as well as adding a strut support system. The important lesson here is that…

  8. 14 CFR 23.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to determine load intensities and distribution on canard and tandem wing configurations must be... must be taken into account. (d) Simplified structural design criteria may be used if they result in design loads not less than those prescribed in §§ 23.331 through 23.521. For airplane...

  9. 14 CFR 23.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to determine load intensities and distribution on canard and tandem wing configurations must be... must be taken into account. (d) Simplified structural design criteria may be used if they result in design loads not less than those prescribed in §§ 23.331 through 23.521. For airplane...

  10. 14 CFR 23.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to determine load intensities and distribution on canard and tandem wing configurations must be... must be taken into account. (d) Simplified structural design criteria may be used if they result in design loads not less than those prescribed in §§ 23.331 through 23.521. For airplane...

  11. 14 CFR 23.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to determine load intensities and distribution on canard and tandem wing configurations must be... must be taken into account. (d) Simplified structural design criteria may be used if they result in design loads not less than those prescribed in §§ 23.331 through 23.521. For airplane...

  12. Using Electroencephalography to Measure Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonenko, Pavlo; Paas, Fred; Grabner, Roland; van Gog, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Application of physiological methods, in particular electroencephalography (EEG), offers new and promising approaches to educational psychology research. EEG is identified as a physiological index that can serve as an online, continuous measure of cognitive load detecting subtle fluctuations in instantaneous load, which can help explain effects of…

  13. Cardboard Activity Is "Loaded" with Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity that uses simple paperboard from the back of a pad of paper to illustrate some basic construction principles as students experiment with conducting load tests. The author describes the steps in conducting a load test as well as adding a strut support system. The important lesson here is that…

  14. Electrical Load Profile Analysis Using Clustering Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damayanti, R.; Abdullah, A. G.; Purnama, W.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.

    2017-03-01

    Data mining is one of the data processing techniques to collect information from a set of stored data. Every day the consumption of electricity load is recorded by Electrical Company, usually at intervals of 15 or 30 minutes. This paper uses a clustering technique, which is one of data mining techniques to analyse the electrical load profiles during 2014. The three methods of clustering techniques were compared, namely K-Means (KM), Fuzzy C-Means (FCM), and K-Means Harmonics (KHM). The result shows that KHM is the most appropriate method to classify the electrical load profile. The optimum number of clusters is determined using the Davies-Bouldin Index. By grouping the load profile, the demand of variation analysis and estimation of energy loss from the group of load profile with similar pattern can be done. From the group of electric load profile, it can be known cluster load factor and a range of cluster loss factor that can help to find the range of values of coefficients for the estimated loss of energy without performing load flow studies.

  15. Strengthening under Load: Experimental and Numerical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vild, M.; Bajer, M.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents experimental and numerical research of strengthening of columns under load using welded plates. Three sets of three columns each were tested. All columns were 3 m long. The load from loading cylinders was transmitted through knife-edge bearings, which ensured pinned boundary condition perpendicular to the weaker axis. Set (A) comprised columns with welded T shaped cross-section. Set (B) comprised columns with welded monosymmetric I shaped cross-section. Both sets (A) and (B) had been loaded monotonically until collapse occurred. Set (C) contained columns with T shaped cross-section with the same dimensions as the columns in set (A). The columns from set (C) were first loaded to 70 kN. The force was being held constant and the second flange was being welded to the web under load. After the welding process was finished and the specimen cooled, the column was loaded to failure. The average forces at collapse of column sets (A), (B) and (C) were 143 kN, 308 kN and 323 kN, respectively. It was unexpected that the columns strengthened under load (C) had higher average resistance than the columns welded without preload (B). It could be caused by the residual stress and distortion caused by welding. The study includes the results of finite element models of the problem created in ANSYS software. The results from the experiments and numerical simulations were compared.

  16. 14 CFR 27.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loads. 27.301 Section 27.301 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.301 Loads. (a) Strength...

  17. 14 CFR 27.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loads. 27.301 Section 27.301 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.301 Loads. (a) Strength...

  18. 14 CFR 27.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loads. 27.301 Section 27.301 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.301 Loads. (a) Strength...

  19. 14 CFR 27.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loads. 27.301 Section 27.301 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.301 Loads. (a) Strength...

  20. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Demand loads. 169.689 Section 169.689 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads....

  1. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Demand loads. 169.689 Section 169.689 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads....

  2. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  3. 14 CFR 31.21 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loads. 31.21 Section 31.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.21 Loads. Strength requirements are specified in terms...

  4. 14 CFR 27.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loads. 27.301 Section 27.301 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.301 Loads. (a)...

  5. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  6. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  7. 14 CFR 25.511 - Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... gear unit using four or more wheels per unit, must be considered; and (2) The ground reactions must be... multiple-wheel units. 25.511 Section 25.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Loads § 25.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units. (a) General. Multiple-wheel...

  8. Diluting the Burden of Load: Perceptual Load Effects Are Simply Dilution Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsal, Yehoshua; Benoni, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    The substantial distractor interference obtained for small displays when the target appears alone is reduced in large displays when the target is embedded among neutral letters. This finding has been interpreted as reflecting low-load and high-load processing, respectively, thereby supporting the theory of perceptual load (Lavie & Tsal, 1994).…

  9. Load-balancing algorithms for climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, I. T.; Toonen, B. R.

    Implementations of climate models on scalable parallel computer systems can suffer from load imbalances due to temporal and spatial variations in the amount of computation required for physical parameterizations such as solar radiation and convective adjustment. We have developed specialized techniques for correcting such imbalances. These techniques are incorporated in a general-purpose, programmable load-balancing library that allows the mapping of computation to processors to be specified as a series of maps generated by a programmer-supplied load-balancing module. The communication required to move from one map to another is performed automatically by the library, without programmer intervention. In this paper, we describe the load-balancing problem and the techniques that we have developed to solve it. We also describe specific load-balancing algorithms that we have developed for PCCM2, a scalable parallel implementation of the community climate model, and present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms on parallel computers.

  10. Highly Loaded Composite Strut Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. C.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Barnard, Ansley; Phelps, James E.; McKeney, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Highly loaded composite struts from a proposed truss-based Altair lunar lander descent stage concept were selected for development under NASA's Advanced Composites Technology program. Predicted compressive member forces during launch and ascent of over -100,000 lbs were much greater than the tensile loads. Therefore, compressive failure modes, including structural stability, were primary design considerations. NASA's industry partner designed and built highly loaded struts that were delivered to NASA for testing. Their design, fabricated on a washout mandrel, had a uniform-diameter composite tube with composite tapered ends. Each tapered end contained a titanium end fitting with facing conical ramps that are overlaid and overwrapped with composite materials. The highly loaded struts were loaded in both tension and compression, with ultimate failure produced in compression. Results for the two struts tested are presented and discussed, along with measured deflections, strains and observed failure mechanisms.

  11. Combined mechanical loading of composite tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derstine, Mark S.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Bowles, David E.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical/experimental investigation was performed to study the effect of material nonlinearities on the response of composite tubes subjected to combined axial and torsional loading. The effect of residual stresses on subsequent mechanical response was included in the investigation. Experiments were performed on P75/934 graphite-epoxy tubes with a stacking sequence of (15/0/ + or - 10/0/ -15), using pure torsion and combined axial/torsional loading. In the presence of residual stresses, the analytical model predicted a reduction in the initial shear modulus. Experimentally, coupling between axial loading and shear strain was observed in laminated tubes under combined loading. The phenomenon was predicted by the nonlinear analytical model. The experimentally observed linear limit of the global shear response was found to correspond to the analytically predicted first ply failure. Further, the failure of the tubes was found to be path dependent above a critical load level.

  12. Using Bench Press Load to Predict Upper Body Exercise Loads in Physically Active Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Del P.; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A.; Smith, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01). The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01). Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01) predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key points The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations. 6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. PMID:24149723

  13. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01). The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01). Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01) predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  14. Quantifying Training Loads in Contemporary Dance.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Annie C; Wallace, Lee; Coutts, Aaron J

    2017-07-01

    To describe the training demands of contemporary dance and determine the validity of using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) to monitor exercise intensity and training load in this activity. In addition, the authors examined the contribution of training (ie, accelerometry and heart rate) and non-training-related factors (ie, sleep and wellness) to perceived exertion during dance training. Training load and ActiGraphy for 16 elite amateur contemporary dancers were collected during a 49-d period, using heart-rate monitors, accelerometry, and sRPE. Within-individual correlation analysis was used to determine relationships between sRPE and several other measures of training intensity and load. Stepwise multiple regressions were used to determine a predictive equation to estimate sRPE during dance training. Average weekly training load was 4283 ± 2442 arbitrary units (AU), monotony 2.13 ± 0.92 AU, strain 10677 ± 9438 AU, and average weekly vector magnitude load 1809,707 ± 1015,402 AU. There were large to very large within-individual correlations between training-load sRPE and various other internal and external measures of intensity and load. The stepwise multiple-regression analysis also revealed that 49.7% of the adjusted variance in training-load sRPE was explained by peak heart rate, metabolic equivalents, soreness, motivation, and sleep quality (y = -4.637 + 13.817%HRpeak + 0.316 METS + 0.100 soreness + 0.116 motivation - 0.204 sleep quality). The current findings demonstrate the validity of the sRPE method for quantifying training load in dance, that dancers undertake very high training loads, and a combination of training and nontraining factors contribute to perceived exertion in dance training.

  15. High power s-band vacuum load

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael; Dudas, Alan; Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2016-12-29

    Through a combination of experimentation and calculation the components of a novel room temperature dry load were successfully fabricated. These components included lossy ceramic cylinders of various lengths, thicknesses, and percent of silicon carbide (SiC). The cylinders were then assembled into stainless steel compression rings by differential heating of the parts and a special fixture. Post machining of this assembly provided a means for a final weld. The ring assemblies were then measured for S-parameters, individually and in pairs using a low-cost TE10 rectangular to TE01 circular waveguide adapter specially designed to be part of the final load assembly. Matched pairs of rings were measured for assembly into the final load, and a sliding short designed and fabricated to assist in determining the desired short location in the final assembly. The plan for the project was for Muons, Inc. to produce prototype loads for long-term testing at SLAC. The STTR funds for SLAC were to upgrade and operate their test station to ensure that the loads would satisfy their requirements. Phase III was to be the sale to SLAC of loads that Muons, Inc. would manufacture. However, an alternate solution that involved a rebuild of the old loads, reduced SLAC budget projections, and a relaxed time for the replacement of all loads meant that in-house labor will be used to do the upgrade without the need for the loads developed in this project. Consequently, the project was terminated before the long term testing was initiated. However, SLAC can use the upgraded test stand to compare the long-term performance of the ones produced in this project with their rebuilt loads when they are available.

  16. A method for determining crack opening load from load-displacement data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carman, C. Davis; Turner, C. Christopher; Hillberry, Ben M.

    1988-01-01

    The fatigue crack opening load is determined as the tangent point on the ascending load-displacement data between the curved portion and the upper linear region. A model for the 'unzipping' behavior of the crack indicates that the curved portion of the load-deflection curve is second order. The opening load is determined by a nonlinear, least squares fit of the data to the model, which optimally locates the tangent point of the two curves. The method provided consistent results for determining opening load P(op) for 7475-T731 aluminum using data from a crack tip opening gage.

  17. Medial knee joint loading during stair ambulation and walking while carrying loads.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michelle; Boyer, Elizabeth R; Gillette, Jason C; Mirka, Gary A

    2013-03-01

    Carrying loads while walking or using stairs is a common activity of daily living. Knee osteoarthritis is associated with increased external knee adduction moment (KAM) during walking, so understanding how the additional challenges of stairs and carrying loads impact these moments is of value. Sixteen healthy individuals performed three types of MOTION (walking, stair ascent, stair descent) under three LOAD conditions (no load, carrying a 13.6kg front load, carrying 13.6kg load in a backpack). Three-dimensional gait analysis was used to measure KAM. Results of ANOVA showed a significant main effect of both MOTION and LOAD on peak KAM (p<0.001), but no significant MOTION×LOAD interaction (p=0.250). Peak KAM during stair ascent was about two-times those seen in stair descent (p<0.001) and was significantly higher than those seen in walking (p<0.001). Conditions with LOAD generated significantly greater KAM as compared to the no-LOAD conditions (p<0.001). These findings suggest that carrying a load of moderate magnitude while climbing stairs significantly increases the peak KAM - a risk factor associated with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heat Load Estimator for Smoothing Pulsed Heat Loads on Supercritical Helium Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoa, C.; Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Bonnay, P.; Michel, F.

    Superconducting magnets for fusion are subjected to large variations of heat loads due to cycling operation of tokamaks. The cryogenic system shall operate smoothly to extract the pulsed heat loads by circulating supercritical helium into the coils and structures. However the value of the total heat loads and its temporal variation are not known before the plasma scenario starts. A real-time heat load estimator is of interest for the process control of the cryogenic system in order to anticipate the arrival of pulsed heat loads to the refrigerator and finally to optimize the operation of the cryogenic system. The large variation of the thermal loads affects the physical parameters of the supercritical helium loop (pressure, temperature, mass flow) so those signals can be used for calculating instantaneously the loads deposited into the loop. The methodology and algorithm are addressed in the article for estimating the heat load deposition before it reaches the refrigerator. The CEA patented process control has been implemented in a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and has been successfully validated on the HELIOS test facility at CEA Grenoble. This heat load estimator is complementary to pulsed load smoothing strategies providing an estimation of the optimized refrigeration power. It can also effectively improve the process control during the transient between different operating modes by adjusting the refrigeration power to the need. This way, the heat load estimator participates to the safe operation of the cryogenic system.

  19. The effect of load distribution within military load carriage systems on the kinetics of human gait.

    PubMed

    Birrell, Stewart A; Haslam, Roger A

    2010-07-01

    Military personnel carry their equipment in load carriage systems (LCS) which consists of webbing and a Bergen (aka backpack). In scientific terms it is most efficient to carry load as close to the body's centre of mass (CoM) as possible, this has been shown extensively with physiological studies. However, less is known regarding the kinetic effects of load distribution. Twelve experienced load carriers carried four different loads (8, 16, 24 and 32 kg) in three LCS (backpack, standard and AirMesh). The three LCS represented a gradual shift to a more even load distribution around the CoM. Results from the study suggest that shifting the CoM posteriorly by carrying load solely in a backpack significantly reduced the force produced at toe-off, whilst also decreasing stance time at the heavier loads. Conversely, distributing load evenly on the trunk significantly decreased the maximum braking force by 10%. No other interactions between LCS and kinetic parameters were observed. Despite this important findings were established, in particular the effect of heavy load carriage on maximum braking force. Although the total load carried is the major cause of changes to gait patterns, the scientific testing of, and development of, future LCS can modify these risks. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diluting the burden of load: perceptual load effects are simply dilution effects.

    PubMed

    Tsal, Yehoshua; Benoni, Hanna

    2010-12-01

    The substantial distractor interference obtained for small displays when the target appears alone is reduced in large displays when the target is embedded among neutral letters. This finding has been interpreted as reflecting low-load and high-load processing, respectively, thereby supporting the theory of perceptual load (Lavie & Tsal, 1994). However, a possible alternative interpretation of this effect is that the distractor is similarly processed in both displays, yet its interference in the large ones is diluted by the presence of the neutral letters. We separated the effects of load and dilution by introducing dilution displays. They contained as many letters as the high-load displays but were clearly distinguished from the target, thus allowing for a low-load processing mode. Distractor interference obtained under both the low-load and high-load conditions disappeared under the dilution condition. Hence, the display size effect traditionally misattributed to perceptual load is fully accounted for by dilution. Furthermore, when dilution is controlled for, it is high load not low load producing greater interference.

  1. Effect of Internal Clearance on Load Distribution and Life of Radially Loaded Ball and Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of internal clearance on radially loaded deepgroove ball and cylindrical roller bearing load distribution and fatigue life was determined for four clearance groups defined in the bearing standards. The analysis was extended to negative clearance (interference) conditions to produce a curve of life factor versus internal clearance. Rolling-element loads can be optimized and bearing life maximized for a small negative operating clearance. Life declines gradually with positive clearance and rapidly with increasing negative clearance. Relationships were found between bearing life and internal clearance as a function of ball or roller diameter, adjusted for load. Results are presented as life factors for radially loaded bearings independent of bearing size or applied load. In addition, a modified Stribeck Equation is presented that relates the maximum rolling-element load to internal bearing clearance.

  2. Wash load and bed-material load transport in the Yellow River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, C.T.; Simoes, F.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    It has been the conventional assumption that wash load is supply limited and is only indirectly related to the hydraulics of a river. Hydraulic engineers also assumed that bed-material load concentration is independent of wash load concentration. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the Yellow River sediment transport data to determine whether the above assumptions are true and whether wash load concentration can be computed from the original unit stream power formula and the modified unit stream power formula for sediment-laden flows. A systematic and thorough analysis of 1,160 sets of data collected from 9 gauging stations along the Middle and Lower Yellow River confirmed that the method suggested by the conjunctive use of the two formulas can be used to compute wash load, bed-material load, and total load in the Yellow River with accuracy. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering ?? ASCE.

  3. An Under-frequency Load Shedding Scheme with Continuous Load Control Proportional to Frequency Deviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changgang; Sun, Yanli; Yu, Yawei

    2017-05-01

    Under frequency load shedding (UFLS) is an important measure to tackle with frequency drop caused by load-generation imbalance. In existing schemes, loads are shed by relays in a discontinuous way, which is the major reason leading to under-shedding and over-shedding problems. With the application of power electronics technology, some loads can be controlled continuously, and it is possible to improve the UFSL with continuous loads. This paper proposes an UFLS scheme by shedding loads continuously. The load shedding amount is proportional to frequency deviation before frequency reaches its minimum during transient process. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is analysed with analytical system frequency response model. The impacts of governor droop, system inertia, and frequency threshold on the performance of the proposed UFLS scheme are discussed. Cases are demonstrated to validate the proposed scheme by comparing it with conventional UFLS schemes.

  4. Pneumatic load compensating or controlling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A pneumatic load compensating or controlling system for restraining a load with a predetermined force or applying a predetermined force to the load is described; it includes a source of pressurized air, a one-way pneumatic actuator operatively connected to a load, and a fluid conduit fluidically connecting the actuator with the source of pressurized air. The actuator is of the piston and cylinder type, and the end of the fluid conduit is connected to the upper or lower portion of the cylinder whereby the actuator alternatively and selectively restrains the load with a predetermined force or apply a predetermined force to the load. Pressure regulators are included within the system for variably selectively adjusting the pressurized fluid to predetermined values as desired or required; a pressure amplifier is included within the system for multiplying the pressurized values so as to achieve greater load forces. An accumulator is incorporated within the system as a failsafe operating mechanism, and visual and aural alarm devices, operatively associated with pressure detecting apparatus, readily indicate the proper or improper functioning of the system.

  5. Citraturic response to oral citric acid load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Alpern, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible that some orally administered citrate may appear in urine by escaping oxidation in vivo. To determine whether this mechanism contributes to the citraturic response to potassium citrate, we measured serum and urinary citrate for 4 hours after a single oral load of citric acid (40 mEq.) in 6 normal subjects. Since citric acid does not alter acid-base balance, the effect of absorbed citrate could be isolated from that of alkali load. Serum citrate concentration increased significantly (p less than 0.05) 30 minutes after a single oral dose of citric acid and remained significantly elevated for 3 hours after citric acid load. Commensurate with this change, urinary citrate excretion peaked at 2 hours and gradually decreased during the next 2 hours after citric acid load. In contrast, serum and urinary citrate remained unaltered following the control load (no drug). Differences of the citratemic and citraturic effects between phases were significant (p less than 0.05) at 2 and 3 hours. Urinary pH, carbon dioxide pressure, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide and ammonium did not change at any time after citric acid load, and did not differ between the 2 phases. No significant difference was noted in serum electrolytes, arterialized venous pH and carbon dioxide pressure at any time after citric acid load and between the 2 phases. Thus, the citraturic and citratemic effects of oral citric acid are largely accountable by provision of absorbed citrate, which has escaped in vivo degradation.

  6. Aircraft subfloor response to crash loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental and analytical study of the dynamic response to crash loadings of five different load-limiting subfloors for general aviation aircraft. These subfloors provide a high-strength structural floor platform to retain the seats and a crushable zone to absorb energy and limit vertical loads. Experimental static load-deflection data and dynamic deceleration response data for the five subfloors indicated that the high-strength floor platform performed well in that structural integrity and residual strength was maintained throughout the loading cycle. The data also indicated that some of the subfloor crush zones were more effective than others in providing nearly constant load for a range of displacement. The analytical data was generated by characterizing the nonlinear crush zones of the subfloor with static load-deflection data and using the DYCAST nonlinear finite element computer program. Comparisons between experimental and analytical data showed good correlation for the subfloors in which the static deformation mode closely approximated the dynamic deformation mode.

  7. Citraturic response to oral citric acid load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Alpern, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible that some orally administered citrate may appear in urine by escaping oxidation in vivo. To determine whether this mechanism contributes to the citraturic response to potassium citrate, we measured serum and urinary citrate for 4 hours after a single oral load of citric acid (40 mEq.) in 6 normal subjects. Since citric acid does not alter acid-base balance, the effect of absorbed citrate could be isolated from that of alkali load. Serum citrate concentration increased significantly (p less than 0.05) 30 minutes after a single oral dose of citric acid and remained significantly elevated for 3 hours after citric acid load. Commensurate with this change, urinary citrate excretion peaked at 2 hours and gradually decreased during the next 2 hours after citric acid load. In contrast, serum and urinary citrate remained unaltered following the control load (no drug). Differences of the citratemic and citraturic effects between phases were significant (p less than 0.05) at 2 and 3 hours. Urinary pH, carbon dioxide pressure, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide and ammonium did not change at any time after citric acid load, and did not differ between the 2 phases. No significant difference was noted in serum electrolytes, arterialized venous pH and carbon dioxide pressure at any time after citric acid load and between the 2 phases. Thus, the citraturic and citratemic effects of oral citric acid are largely accountable by provision of absorbed citrate, which has escaped in vivo degradation.

  8. Rolling maneuver load alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    1992-01-01

    Rolling Maneuver Load Alleviation (RMLA) was demonstrated on the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind tunnel model in the LaRC Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The design objective was to develop a systematic approach for developing active control laws to alleviate wing incremental loads during roll maneuvers. Using linear load models for the AFW wind-tunnel model which were based on experimental measurements, two RMLA control laws were developed based on a single-degree-of-freedom roll model. The RMLA control laws utilized actuation of outboard control surface pairs to counteract incremental loads generated during rolling maneuvers and roll performance. To evaluate the RMLA control laws, roll maneuvers were performed in the wind tunnel at dynamic pressures of 150, 200, and 250 psf and Mach numbers of .33, .38, and .44, respectively. Loads obtained during these maneuvers were compared to baseline maneuver loads. For both RMLA controllers, the incremental torsion moments were reduced by up to 60 percent at all dynamic pressures and performance times. Results for bending moment load reductions during roll maneuvers varied. In addition, in a multiple function test, RMLA and flutter suppression system control laws were operated simultaneously during roll maneuvers at dynamic pressures 11 percent above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure.

  9. A comprehensive picture of phloem loading strategies

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, Emilie A.; Turgeon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms of phloem loading in the minor veins of leaves are known for only a few species. We propose that there are a limited number of loading strategies for the primary photoassimilates, sucrose and sugar alcohols. These strategies can be predicted based on thermodynamic and anatomical considerations and identified by autoradiography of veins following uptake of 14C-labeled compounds, analysis of leaf solute composition and concentrations, and plasmodesmatal counting. Experiments on 45 dicotyledonous species identified the predicted loading patterns. Over 50-fold differences in concentrations of sucrose and sugar alcohols in leaves were measured. The cumulative concentrations of transport compounds in leaves correlated with loading mechanisms, a previously unrecognized association. Comparisons of solute concentrations and osmotic potentials of whole leaves suggest that sucrose and sugar alcohols are more concentrated in the cytosol than in the vacuoles of mesophyll cells, thus increasing the driving force for passive loading in species that employ this strategy. Passive loading is more widespread than previously thought, especially in trees. The results indicate that plants have exploited all thermodynamically feasible and structurally compatible loading strategies and that these strategies can be identified with straightforward protocols. PMID:19666555

  10. A comprehensive picture of phloem loading strategies.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Emilie A; Turgeon, Robert

    2009-08-18

    Mechanisms of phloem loading in the minor veins of leaves are known for only a few species. We propose that there are a limited number of loading strategies for the primary photoassimilates, sucrose and sugar alcohols. These strategies can be predicted based on thermodynamic and anatomical considerations and identified by autoradiography of veins following uptake of (14)C-labeled compounds, analysis of leaf solute composition and concentrations, and plasmodesmatal counting. Experiments on 45 dicotyledonous species identified the predicted loading patterns. Over 50-fold differences in concentrations of sucrose and sugar alcohols in leaves were measured. The cumulative concentrations of transport compounds in leaves correlated with loading mechanisms, a previously unrecognized association. Comparisons of solute concentrations and osmotic potentials of whole leaves suggest that sucrose and sugar alcohols are more concentrated in the cytosol than in the vacuoles of mesophyll cells, thus increasing the driving force for passive loading in species that employ this strategy. Passive loading is more widespread than previously thought, especially in trees. The results indicate that plants have exploited all thermodynamically feasible and structurally compatible loading strategies and that these strategies can be identified with straightforward protocols.

  11. Visual perceptual load induces inattentional deafness.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, James S P; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we establish a new phenomenon of "inattentional deafness" and highlight the level of load on visual attention as a critical determinant of this phenomenon. In three experiments, we modified an inattentional blindness paradigm to assess inattentional deafness. Participants made either a low- or high-load visual discrimination concerning a cross shape (respectively, a discrimination of line color or of line length with a subtle length difference). A brief pure tone was presented simultaneously with the visual task display on a final trial. Failures to notice the presence of this tone (i.e., inattentional deafness) reached a rate of 79% in the high-visual-load condition, significantly more than in the low-load condition. These findings establish the phenomenon of inattentional deafness under visual load, thereby extending the load theory of attention (e.g., Lavie, Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 25, 596-616, 1995) to address the cross-modal effects of visual perceptual load.

  12. Realistic loading conditions for upper body bending.

    PubMed

    Rohlmann, A; Zander, T; Rao, M; Bergmann, G

    2009-05-11

    Different modes of load applications are used to simulate flexion and extension of the upper body. It is not clear which loading modes deliver realistic results and allow the comparison of different studies. In a numerical study, a validated finite element model of the lumbar spine, ranging from the vertebra L1 to the disc L5-S1 was employed. Each of six different loading modes was studied for simulating flexion and extension, including pure moments, an eccentric axial force, using a wedged fixture, and applying upper body weight plus follower load plus muscle forces. Intersegmental rotations, intradiscal pressures and facet joint contact forces were calculated. Where possible, results were compared to data measured in vivo. The results of the loading modes studied show a large variance for some values. Outcome measures such as flexion angle and intradiscal pressure differed at a segment by up to 44% and 88%, respectively, related to their maximum values. Intradiscal pressure is mainly determined by the magnitude of the applied compressive force. For flexion maximum contact forces between 0 and 69 N are predicted in each facet joint for different loading modes. For both flexion and extension, applying upper body weight plus follower load plus muscle forces as well as a follower load together with a bending moment delivers results which agreed well with in vivo data from the literature. Choosing an adequate loading mode is important in spine biomechanics when realistic results are required for intersegmental rotations, intradiscal pressure and facet joint contact forces. Only then will results of different studies be comparable.

  13. Standardized Loads Acting in Knee Implants

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Georg; Bender, Alwina; Graichen, Friedmar; Dymke, Jörn; Rohlmann, Antonius; Trepczynski, Adam; Heller, Markus O.; Kutzner, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The loads acting in knee joints must be known for improving joint replacement, surgical procedures, physiotherapy, biomechanical computer simulations, and to advise patients with osteoarthritis or fractures about what activities to avoid. Such data would also allow verification of test standards for knee implants. This work analyzes data from 8 subjects with instrumented knee implants, which allowed measuring the contact forces and moments acting in the joint. The implants were powered inductively and the loads transmitted at radio frequency. The time courses of forces and moments during walking, stair climbing, and 6 more activities were averaged for subjects with I) average body weight and average load levels and II) high body weight and high load levels. During all investigated activities except jogging, the high force levels reached 3,372–4,218N. During slow jogging, they were up to 5,165N. The peak torque around the implant stem during walking was 10.5 Nm, which was higher than during all other activities including jogging. The transverse forces and the moments varied greatly between the subjects, especially during non-cyclic activities. The high load levels measured were mostly above those defined in the wear test ISO 14243. The loads defined in the ISO test standard should be adapted to the levels reported here. The new data will allow realistic investigations and improvements of joint replacement, surgical procedures for tendon repair, treatment of fractures, and others. Computer models of the load conditions in the lower extremities will become more realistic if the new data is used as a gold standard. However, due to the extreme individual variations of some load components, even the reported average load profiles can most likely not explain every failure of an implant or a surgical procedure. PMID:24465856

  14. A novel dual-frequency loading system for studying mechanobiology of load-bearing tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunqiu; Qiu, Lulu; Gao, Lilan; Guan, Yinjie; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Xizheng; Chen, Qian

    2016-12-01

    In mechanobiological research, an appropriate loading system is an essential tool to mimic mechanical signals in a native environment. To achieve this goal, we have developed a novel loading system capable of applying dual-frequency loading including both a low-frequency high-amplitude loading and a high-frequency low-amplitude loading, according to the mechanical conditions experienced by bone and articular cartilage tissues. The low-frequency high-amplitude loading embodies the main force from muscular contractions and/or reaction forces while the high-frequency low-amplitude loading represents an assistant force from small muscles, ligaments and/or other tissue in order to maintain body posture during human activities. Therefore, such dual frequency loading system may reflect the natural characteristics of complex mechanical load on bone or articular cartilage than the single frequency loading often applied during current mechanobiological experiments. The dual-frequency loading system is validated by experimental tests using precision miniature plane-mirror interferometers. The dual-frequency loading results in significantly more solute transport in articular cartilage than that of the low-frequency high-amplitude loading regiment alone, as determined by quantitative fluorescence microscopy of tracer distribution in articular cartilage. Thus, the loading system can provide a new method to mimic mechanical environment in bone and cartilage, thereby revealing the in vivo mechanisms of mechanosensation, mechanotransduction and mass-transport, and improving mechanical conditioning of cartilage and/or bone constructs for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of loading parameters for murine axial tibial loading: Stimulating cortical bone formation while reducing loading duration.

    PubMed

    Sun, David; Brodt, Michael D; Zannit, Heather M; Holguin, Nilsson; Silva, Matthew J

    2017-09-09

    Classic studies in bone mechanobiology have established the importance of loading parameters on the anabolic response. Most of these early studies were done using loading methods not currently in favor, and using non-murine species. Our objective was to re-examine the effects of several loading parameters on the response of cortical bone using the contemporary murine axial tibial compression model. We subjected tibias of 5-month old, female C57Bl/6 mice to cyclic (4 Hz) mechanical loading and examined bone formation responses using dynamic and static histomorphometry. First, using a reference protocol of 1200 cycles/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks, we confirmed the significant influence of peak strain magnitude on periosteal mineralizing surface (Ps.MS/BS) and bone formation rate (Ps.BFR/BS) (p < 0.05, ANOVA). There was a significant induction of periosteal lamellar bone at a lower threshold of approx. -1000 μϵ and a transition from lamellar-woven bone near -2000 μϵ. In contrast, on the endocortical surface, bone formation indices did not exhibit a load magnitude-dependent response and no incidence of woven bone. Next, we found that reducing daily cycle number from 1200 to 300 to 60 did not diminish the bone formation response (p > 0.05). On the other hand, reducing the daily frequency of loading from 5 consecutive days/week to 3 alternate days/week significantly diminished the periosteal response, from a loading-induced increase in Ps.MS/BS of 38% (loaded vs. control) for 5 days/week to only 15% for 3 days/week (p < 0.05). Finally, we determined that reducing the study duration from 2 to 1 weeks of loading did not affect bone formation outcomes. In conclusion, cyclic loading to -1800 μϵ peak strain, at 4 Hz and 60 cycles/day for 5 consecutive days (1 week) induces an increase in periosteal lamellar bone formation with minimal incidence of woven bone in 5-month old C57Bl/6 female mice. Our results provide a basis for reduction of loading

  16. Electric power distribution and load transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Michael P. (Inventor); Parkinson, Gerald W. (Inventor); Grant, Ross M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A power distribution system includes a plurality of power sources and load transfer units including transistors and diodes connected in series and leading to a common power output, each of the transistors being controller switchable subject to voltage levels of the respective input and output sides of said transistors, and the voltage and current level of said common power output. The system is part of an interconnection scheme in which all but one of the power sources is connected to a single load transfer unit, enabling the survival of at least a single power source with the failure of one of the load transfer units.

  17. Electric power distribution and load transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Michael P. (Inventor); Parkinson, Gerald W. (Inventor); Grant, Ross M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A power distribution system includes a plurality of power sources and load transfer units including transistors and diodes connected in series and leading to a common power output, each of the transistors being controller switchable subject to voltage levels of the respective input and output sides of said transistors, and the voltage and current level of said common power output. The system is part of an interconnection scheme in which all but one of the power sources is connected to a single load transfer unit, enabling the survival of at least a single power source with the failure of one of the load transfer units.

  18. The global atmospheric loading of dust aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, J. F.; Ridley, D. A.; Haustein, K.; Miller, R. L.; Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust is one of the most ubiquitous aerosols in the atmosphere, with important effects on human health and the climate system. But despite its importance, the global atmospheric loading of dust has remained uncertain, with model results spanning about a factor of five. Here we constrain the particle size-resolved atmospheric dust loading and global emission rate, using a novel theoretical framework that uses experimental constraints on the optical properties and size distribution of dust to eliminate climate model errors due to assumed dust properties. We find that most climate models underestimate the global atmospheric loading and emission rate of dust aerosols.

  19. Dielectric Loaded Broadband Gyro-TWT System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-31

    A•wov•] f~ •ubic re] ease ;a AD-A277 889 -4 LLV t Final Report 01 Jan 92 - 31 Dec 93 DIELECTRIC LOADED BROADBAND GYRO- TWT SYSTEM Professor N. C...Loaded Broadband Gyro- TWT System" CONTRACT / GRANT NO.: F49620-92-J-O 175 CONTRACT / GRANT VALUE: $89,816 Acce’son For CONTRACT / GRANT PERIOD OF... Broadband Dielectric-Loaded Gyro- TWT Amplifier," submitted for publication to Physics Review Letters, October, 1993. A. Gover, F.V. Hartemann, G.P. Le

  20. Optimal airframe synthesis for gust loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, P.

    1986-01-01

    An optimization capability for sizing airframe structures that are subjected to a combination of deterministic and random flight loads was established. The random vibration environment introduces the need for selecting a statistical process that best describes the random loads and permits computation of the dynamic response parameters of interest. Furthermore, it requires a formulation of design constraints that would minimize the conservativeness in the design and retain computational viability. The random loads are treated as a stationary, homogeneous process with a Gaussian probability distribution. The formulation of the analysis problem, the structure of the optimization programming system and a representative numerical example are discussed.

  1. Highly Loaded Composite Strut Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Phelps, James E.; McKenney, Martin J.; Jegley, Dawn C.

    2011-01-01

    Highly loaded composite struts, representative of structural elements of a proposed truss-based lunar lander descent stage concept, were selected for design, development, fabrication and testing under NASA s Advanced Composites Technology program. The focus of this paper is the development of a capability for experimental evaluation of the structural performance of these struts. Strut lengths range from 60 to over 120 inches, and compressive launch and ascent loads can exceed -100,000 lbs, or approximately two times the corresponding tensile loads. Allowing all possible compressive structural responses, including elastic buckling, were primary considerations for designing the test hardware.

  2. Strength of concrete structures under dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpyak, O. G. Galyautdinov, Z. R. Kokorin, D. N.

    2016-01-15

    The use of elastic supports is one the efficient methods of decreasing the dynamic loading. The paper describes the influence of elastic supports on the stress-strain state of steel concrete structures exposed to one-time dynamic loading resulting in failure. Oblique bending beams on elastic supports and their elastic, elastoplastic, and elastoplastic consolidation behavior are considered in this paper. For numerical calculations the developed computer program is used based on the finite element method. Research findings prove high efficiency of elastic supports under dynamic loading conditions. The most effective behavior of elastic supports is demonstrated at the elastoplastic stage. A good agreement is observed between the theoretical and experimental results.

  3. Acoustic loading effects on oscillating rod bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study of the interaction between an infinite acoustic medium and a cluster of circular rods is described. The acoustic field due to oscillating rods and the acoustic loading on the rods are first solved in a closed form. The acoustic loading is then used as a forcing function for rod responses, and the acousto-elastic couplings are solved simultaneously. Numerical examples are presented for several cases to illustrate the effects of various system parameters on the acoustic reaction force coefficients. The effect of the acoustic loading on the coupled eigenfrequencies are discussed.

  4. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  5. Application of expert system to load composition rate estimation algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, J.Y.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.O.; Singh, C.

    1999-08-01

    A load model is needed for the power system analysis including load flow and stability studies. The load model representation needs the load composition rate indicating the portion of several typical load groups. This paper proposes a refined load composition rate estimation algorithm with input data which are relative coefficients, limit values, and the energy portion of load groups. An expert system is constructed with the consideration of the uncertainty of input data. The load composition rates in several customers in the power system are obtained and the results of case studies show that a reasonable load composition rate is achieved.

  6. National Launch System cycle 1 loads and models data book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, F.; Brunty, J.; Ernsberger, G.; Mcghee, D.; Gagliano, L.; Harrington, F.; Meyer, D.; Blades, E.

    1992-01-01

    This document contains preliminary cycle 1 loads for the National Launch System (NLS) 1 and 2 vehicles. The loads provided and recommended as design loads represent the maximum load expected during prelaunch and flight regimes, i.e., limit loads, except that propellant tank ullage pressure has not been included. Ullage pressure should be added to the loads book values for cases where the addition results in higher loads. The loads must be multiplied by the appropriate factors of safety to determine the ultimate loads for which the structure must be capable.

  7. 14 CFR 29.337 - Limit maneuvering load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factor. 29.337... Limit maneuvering load factor. The rotorcraft must be designed for— (a) A limit maneuvering load factor... load factor not less than 2.0 and any negative limit maneuvering load factor of not less than −0.5 for...

  8. 14 CFR 29.337 - Limit maneuvering load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factor. 29.337... Limit maneuvering load factor. The rotorcraft must be designed for— (a) A limit maneuvering load factor... load factor not less than 2.0 and any negative limit maneuvering load factor of not less than −0.5 for...

  9. 14 CFR 23.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factors. 23.337... Flight Loads § 23.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) The positive limit maneuvering load factor n... airplanes; or (3) 6.0 for acrobatic category airplanes. (b) The negative limit maneuvering load factor may...

  10. 14 CFR 23.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factors. 23.337... Flight Loads § 23.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) The positive limit maneuvering load factor n... airplanes; or (3) 6.0 for acrobatic category airplanes. (b) The negative limit maneuvering load factor may...

  11. Load control system. [for space shuttle external tank ground tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosse, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The load control system developed for the shuttle external structural tests is described. The system consists of a load programming/display module, and a load control module along with the following hydraulic system components: servo valves, dump valves, hydraulic system components, and servo valve manifold blocks. One load programming/display subsystem can support multiple load control subsystem modules.

  12. Load Theory of Selective Attention and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavie, Nilli; Hirst, Aleksandra; de Fockert, Jan W.; Viding, Essi

    2004-01-01

    A load theory of attention in which distractor rejection depends on the level and type of load involved in current processing was tested. A series of experiments demonstrates that whereas high perceptual load reduces distractor interference, working memory load or dual-task coordination load increases distractor interference. These findings…

  13. Load Balancing Using Time Series Analysis for Soft Real Time Systems with Statistically Periodic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailperin, M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis provides design and analysis of techniques for global load balancing on ensemble architectures running soft-real-time object-oriented applications with statistically periodic loads. It focuses on estimating the instantaneous average load over all the processing elements. The major contribution is the use of explicit stochastic process models for both the loading and the averaging itself. These models are exploited via statistical time-series analysis and Bayesian inference to provide improved average load estimates, and thus to facilitate global load balancing. This thesis explains the distributed algorithms used and provides some optimality results. It also describes the algorithms' implementation and gives performance results from simulation. These results show that the authors' techniques allow more accurate estimation of the global system loading, resulting in fewer object migrations than local methods. The authors' method is shown to provide superior performance, relative not only to static load-balancing schemes but also to many adaptive load-balancing methods. Results from a preliminary analysis of another system and from simulation with a synthetic load provide some evidence of more general applicability.

  14. Load Balancing Using Time Series Analysis for Soft Real Time Systems with Statistically Periodic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailperin, M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis provides design and analysis of techniques for global load balancing on ensemble architectures running soft-real-time object-oriented applications with statistically periodic loads. It focuses on estimating the instantaneous average load over all the processing elements. The major contribution is the use of explicit stochastic process models for both the loading and the averaging itself. These models are exploited via statistical time-series analysis and Bayesian inference to provide improved average load estimates, and thus to facilitate global load balancing. This thesis explains the distributed algorithms used and provides some optimality results. It also describes the algorithms' implementation and gives performance results from simulation. These results show that the authors' techniques allow more accurate estimation of the global system loading, resulting in fewer object migrations than local methods. The authors' method is shown to provide superior performance, relative not only to static load-balancing schemes but also to many adaptive load-balancing methods. Results from a preliminary analysis of another system and from simulation with a synthetic load provide some evidence of more general applicability.

  15. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOEpatents

    Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.

    1997-02-04

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.

  16. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOEpatents

    Buescher, Jr., Brent J.; Lloyd, W. Randolph; Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.

    1997-01-01

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen.

  17. Success of immediate loading implants compared to conventionally-loaded implants: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Al-Sawai, Abdul-Aziz; Labib, Hussein

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic literature review was to compare the clinical performance between conventionally- (delayed) and immediately-loaded implants. A literature search of studies published between 1995 and 2012 was performed using several electronic databases and the following key words: "immediate loading", "dental implants", "immediate function", "early loading", "oral implants", "immediate restoration", and "systematic review" was performed. The electronic search was supplemented with hand-searching in dental journals and cross-referencing within the selected articles. Studies were considered for inclusion if they analyzed the success of the immediate loading protocol for implants, with emphasis given to randomized, controlled clinical trials. Among the clinical studies extracted from the literature, 120 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. These studies included trials that involved yielded consistent results of success rates of immediately-loaded implants comparable to those known from conventionally-loaded implants, which were subjected to the immediate loading protocol or other loading protocols. According to the findings, there is evidence to suggest that immediate loading protocols demonstrate high implant survival rates and could be cautiously recommended for certain clinical situations. However, studies with a high level of evidence, especially randomized, controlled trials, performed over a longer timeframe are required to show a clear benefit over conventional and other loading types.

  18. Loads for pulsed power cylindrical implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.E.; Armijo, E.V.; Barthell, B.L.; Bartos, J.J.; Bush, H.; Foreman, L.R.; Garcia, F.P.; Gobby, P.L.; Gomez, V.M.; Gurule, V.A.

    1994-07-01

    Pulse power can be used to generate high energy density conditions in convergent hollow cylindrical geometry through the use of appropriate electrode configuration and cylindrical loads. Cylindrically symmetric experiments are conducted with the Pegasus-H inductive store, capacitor energized pulse power facility at Los Alamos using both precision machined cylindrical liner loads and low mass vapor deposited cylindrical foil loads. The liner experiments investigate solid density hydrodynamic topics. Foil loads vaporize from Joule heating to generate an imploding cylindrical plasma which can be used to simulate some fluxes associated with fusion energy processes. Similar experiments are conducted with {open_quotes}Procyon{close_quotes} inductive store pulse power assemblies energized by explosively driven magnetic flux compression.

  19. Small Molecule Inhibition of RISC Loading

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Argonaute proteins are the core components of the microRNP/RISC. The biogenesis and function of microRNAs and endo- and exo- siRNAs are regulated by Ago2, an Argonaute protein with RNA binding and nuclease activities. Currently, there are no in vitro assays suitable for large-scale screening of microRNP/RISC loading modulators. We describe a novel in vitro assay that is based on fluorescence polarization of TAMRA-labeled RNAs loaded to human Ago2. Using this assay, we identified potent small-molecule inhibitors of RISC loading, including aurintricarboxylic acid (IC50 = 0.47 μM), suramin (IC50 = 0.69 μM), and oxidopamine HCL (IC50 = 1.61 μM). Small molecules identified by this biochemical screening assay also inhibited siRNA loading to endogenous Ago2 in cultured cells. PMID:22026461

  20. 30 CFR 57.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an... electric detonators. If greater levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an... electric detonators. If greater levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an... electric detonators. If greater levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an... electric detonators. If greater levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an... electric detonators. If greater levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be...

  5. 14 CFR 25.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... towing fittings and must act parallel to the ground. In addition— (1) A vertical load factor equal to 1.0...) A reaction with a maximum value equal to the vertical reaction must be applied at the axle of...

  6. 14 CFR 25.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... towing fittings and must act parallel to the ground. In addition— (1) A vertical load factor equal to 1.0...) A reaction with a maximum value equal to the vertical reaction must be applied at the axle of...

  7. 14 CFR 25.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... towing fittings and must act parallel to the ground. In addition— (1) A vertical load factor equal to 1.0...) A reaction with a maximum value equal to the vertical reaction must be applied at the axle of...

  8. 14 CFR 25.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... towing fittings and must act parallel to the ground. In addition— (1) A vertical load factor equal to 1.0...) A reaction with a maximum value equal to the vertical reaction must be applied at the axle of...

  9. 14 CFR 25.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... towing fittings and must act parallel to the ground. In addition— (1) A vertical load factor equal to 1.0...) A reaction with a maximum value equal to the vertical reaction must be applied at the axle of...

  10. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, Bernard; Bravo, Richard; Yinger, Robert; Chassin, Dave; Huang, Henry; Lu, Ning; Hiskens, Ian; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  11. Designing divertor targets for uniform power load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekeyser, W.; Reiter, D.; Baelmans, M.

    2015-08-01

    Divertor design for next step fusion reactors heavily relies on 2D edge plasma modeling with codes as e.g. B2-EIRENE. While these codes are typically used in a design-by-analysis approach, in previous work we have shown that divertor design can alternatively be posed as a mathematical optimization problem, and solved very efficiently using adjoint methods adapted from computational aerodynamics. This approach has been applied successfully to divertor target shape design for more uniform power load. In this paper, the concept is further extended to include all contributions to the target power load, with particular focus on radiation. In a simplified test problem, we show the potential benefits of fully including the radiation load in the design cycle as compared to only assessing this load in a post-processing step.

  12. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  13. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  14. 46 CFR 185.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... doors are closed and secured during the entire voyage. (b) Loading doors, other than bow visors, may be... the collision bulkhead, the side shell, and the boundaries of enclosed superstructures that are continuous with the shell of the vessel....

  15. 46 CFR 185.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... doors are closed and secured during the entire voyage. (b) Loading doors, other than bow visors, may be... the collision bulkhead, the side shell, and the boundaries of enclosed superstructures that are continuous with the shell of the vessel....

  16. 46 CFR 185.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... doors are closed and secured during the entire voyage. (b) Loading doors, other than bow visors, may be... the collision bulkhead, the side shell, and the boundaries of enclosed superstructures that are continuous with the shell of the vessel....

  17. 46 CFR 185.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... doors are closed and secured during the entire voyage. (b) Loading doors, other than bow visors, may be... the collision bulkhead, the side shell, and the boundaries of enclosed superstructures that are continuous with the shell of the vessel....

  18. 46 CFR 185.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... doors are closed and secured during the entire voyage. (b) Loading doors, other than bow visors, may be... the collision bulkhead, the side shell, and the boundaries of enclosed superstructures that are continuous with the shell of the vessel....

  19. Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads

    SciTech Connect

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site.

  20. Radiopure metal-loaded liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Rosero, Richard; Yeh, Minfang

    2015-08-17

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  1. Biaxial fatigue loading of notched composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. H.; Walrath, D. E.; Sims, D. F.; Weed, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    Thin-walled, 2.54-cm diameter tubular specimens of graphite/epoxy were fatigue cycled in combinations of axial, torsional, and internal pressure loading. Two different four-ply layup configurations were tested: (0-90)s and (+ or- 45)s; each tube contained a 0.48-cm diameter circular hole penetrating one wall midway along the tube length. S-N curves were developed to characterize fatigue behavior under pure axial, torsional, or internal pressure loading, as well as combined loading fatigue. A theory was developed based on a plane stress model which enabled the S-N curve for combined stress states to be predicted from the S-N data for the uniaxial loading modes. Correlation of the theory with the experimental data proved to be remarkably good.

  2. Sandwich moulding using sequenced screw loading.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Sequenced screw loading is an alternative method for injection moulding two materials. This article explains the process and outlines the advantages it offers product designers. Benefits can include reduced cycle times and product cost.

  3. Oscillations of end loaded cantilever beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho-Stadler, E.; Elejalde-García, M. J.; Llanos-Vázquez, R.

    2015-09-01

    This article presents several simple experiments based on changing transverse vibration frequencies in a cantilever beam, when acted on by an external attached mass load at the free end. By using a mechanical wave driver, available in introductory undergraduate laboratories, we provide various experimental results for end loaded cantilever beams that fit reasonably well into a linear equation. The behaviour of the cantilever beam’s weak-damping resonance response is studied for the case of metal resonance strips. As the mass load increases, a more pronounced decrease occurs in the fundamental frequency of beam vibration. It is important to note that cantilever construction is often used in architectural design and engineering construction projects but current analysis also predicts the influence of mass load on the sound generated by musical free reeds with boundary conditions similar to a cantilever beam.

  4. Quantum load balancing in ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanpour, M.; Shariat, S.; Barnaghi, P.; Hoseinitabatabaei, S. A.; Vahid, S.; Tafazolli, R.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a novel approach in targeting load balancing in ad hoc networks utilizing the properties of quantum game theory. This approach benefits from the instantaneous and information-less capability of entangled particles to synchronize the load balancing strategies in ad hoc networks. The quantum load balancing (QLB) algorithm proposed by this work is implemented on top of OLSR as the baseline routing protocol; its performance is analyzed against the baseline OLSR, and considerable gain is reported regarding some of the main QoS metrics such as delay and jitter. Furthermore, it is shown that QLB algorithm supports a solid stability gain in terms of throughput which stands a proof of concept for the load balancing properties of the proposed theory.

  5. Radiation load to the SNAP CCD

    SciTech Connect

    N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov

    2003-08-14

    Results of an express Monte Carlo analysis with the MARS14 code of radiation load to the CCD optical detectors in the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) mission presented for realistic radiation environment over the satellite orbit.

  6. Biaxial fatigue loading of notched composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. H.; Walrath, D. E.; Sims, D. F.; Weed, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    Thin walled, 2.54-cm (1-in.) diameter tubular specimens of T300/934 graphite/epoxy were fabricated and fatigue cycled in combinations of axial, torsional, and internal pressure loading. Two different four-ply layup configurations were tested: (0/90)S and (+ or - 45)S; all tubes contained a 0.48-cm (3/16-in.) diameter circular hole penetrating one wall midway along the tube length. S-N curves were developed to characterize fatigue behavior under pure axial, torsional, or internal pressure loading, as well as combined loading fatigue. A theory was developed based on the Hill plane stress model which enabled the S-N curve for combined stress states to be predicted from the S-N data for the uniaxial loading modes. Correlation of the theory with the experimental data proved to be remarkably good.

  7. Biaxial fatigue loading of notched composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. H.; Walrath, D. E.; Sims, D. F.; Weed, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    Thin-walled, 2.54-cm diameter tubular specimens of graphite/epoxy were fatigue cycled in combinations of axial, torsional, and internal pressure loading. Two different four-ply layup configurations were tested: (0-90)s and (+ or- 45)s; each tube contained a 0.48-cm diameter circular hole penetrating one wall midway along the tube length. S-N curves were developed to characterize fatigue behavior under pure axial, torsional, or internal pressure loading, as well as combined loading fatigue. A theory was developed based on a plane stress model which enabled the S-N curve for combined stress states to be predicted from the S-N data for the uniaxial loading modes. Correlation of the theory with the experimental data proved to be remarkably good.

  8. Load balancing techniques for scalable web servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryhni, Haakon; Klovning, Espen; Kure, Oivind

    1998-10-01

    Scalable web servers can be built using a Network of Workstations (NOW) where server capability can be added by adding new workstations as the workload increases. The task of load balancing Hyper Text Transfer Protocol traffic to scalable web servers is the topic of this paper. We present a classification framework for scalable web servers, and present simulations of a clustered web server. The cluster communication is modeled using a detailed, verified model of TCP/IP processing over Asynchronous Transfer Mode. The simulator is a trace driven discrete even simulator, and the traces are obtained from the proxy server of a large Internet Service Provider in Norway. Various load balancing schemes are simulated for Robin load balancing policy implemented in a modified router gives better average response time and better load balancing than the Rotating Nameserver method used in current scalable web servers.

  9. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy

  10. Radiopure Metal-Loaded Liquid Scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Rosero, Richard; Yeh, Minfang

    2015-03-18

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  11. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  12. Highly Loaded Low Pressure Turbine (LPT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Milt; Dalsania, Vithal

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate aspirated and non-aspirated aerodynamics on highly loaded LPT design. The objective is to increase stage loading by 30 to 50 percent without loss of efficiency for an existing low pressure turbine design. A study conducted on a NASA highly loaded multistage fan drive turbine (NASA CR-1964) indicated that end-wall bleed at the hub is a more significant parameter compared to aspirated airfoil. Based on this study, a 3-stage LPT is redesigned to 2-stage LIT with and without end-wall bleed. Both aerodynamic design and mechanical design are completed. In addition to end-wall bleed, exit guide vanes are designed with aspirated airfoils to reduce the losses. The LPT is redesigned with all constraints necessary for practical application. The benefit of the high-performance, highly loaded LPT shows up in reduced stage and part count, reduced size and weight, and reduced cost.

  13. Reactive power optimization using fuzzy load representation

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Rahman, K.H.; Shahidehpour, S.M. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a mathematical formulation for the optimal voltage/reactive power control problem taking into account linguistic declaration of system load values. The fuzzy set theory which is based on the feasibility rather than the frequency of occurrence of an outcome is considered, and possibility distributions are assigned to load values and bus voltages. The objective is to minimize power losses considering various load conditions. The problem is decomposed into four subproblems via the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition for reducing the dimensions of the problem. A second Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition divides each subproblem into several areas leading to a considerable reduction in the dimensions of subproblems. An illustrative example demonstrates the applicability of the approach. The fuzzy approach provides a global solution for the system behavior under various load conditions.

  14. Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, Scott N; Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Kundu, S.; Hiskens, I.

    2011-01-04

    As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

  15. 46 CFR 153.806 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Testing and... enables the master to load and ballast the tankship while keeping structural stresses within design limits. ...

  16. 46 CFR 153.806 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Testing and... enables the master to load and ballast the tankship while keeping structural stresses within design limits. ...

  17. 46 CFR 153.806 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Testing and... enables the master to load and ballast the tankship while keeping structural stresses within design limits. ...

  18. Passive load control for large wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-05-01

    Wind energy research activities at Sandia National Laboratories focus on developing large rotors that are lighter and more cost-effective than those designed with current technologies. Because gravity scales as the cube of the blade length, gravity loads become a constraining design factor for very large blades. Efforts to passively reduce turbulent loading has shown significant potential to reduce blade weight and capture more energy. Research in passive load reduction for wind turbines began at Sandia in the late 1990's and has moved from analytical studies to blade applications. This paper discusses the test results of two Sandia prototype research blades that incorporate load reduction techniques. The TX-100 is a 9-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling with the use of off-axis carbon in the skin. The STAR blade is a 27-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling by sweeping the blade in a geometric fashion.

  19. 29 CFR 1918.33 - Deck loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Employees giving signals to crane operators shall not be permitted to walk over deck loads from rail to coaming unless there is a safe route of passage. If it is necessary to stand or walk at the outboard...

  20. 29 CFR 1918.33 - Deck loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Employees giving signals to crane operators shall not be permitted to walk over deck loads from rail to coaming unless there is a safe route of passage. If it is necessary to stand or walk at the outboard...

  1. 29 CFR 1918.33 - Deck loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Employees giving signals to crane operators shall not be permitted to walk over deck loads from rail to coaming unless there is a safe route of passage. If it is necessary to stand or walk at the outboard...

  2. 29 CFR 1918.33 - Deck loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Employees giving signals to crane operators shall not be permitted to walk over deck loads from rail to coaming unless there is a safe route of passage. If it is necessary to stand or walk at the outboard...

  3. 29 CFR 1918.33 - Deck loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Employees giving signals to crane operators shall not be permitted to walk over deck loads from rail to coaming unless there is a safe route of passage. If it is necessary to stand or walk at the outboard...

  4. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... authorization is requested. (ii) Be protected against electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external and... elements that would result in a hazard to the rotorcraft. For rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for...

  5. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... authorization is requested. (ii) Be protected against electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external and... elements that would result in a hazard to the rotorcraft. For rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for...

  6. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... authorization is requested. (ii) Be protected against electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external and... elements that would result in a hazard to the rotorcraft. For rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for...

  7. Radio frequency power load and associated method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A radio frequency power load and associated method. A radio frequency power load apparatus includes a container and a fluid having an ion source therein, the fluid being contained in the container. Two conductors are immersed in the fluid. A radio frequency transmission system includes a radio frequency transmitter, a radio frequency amplifier connected to the transmitter and a radio frequency power load apparatus connected to the amplifier. The apparatus includes a fluid having an ion source therein, and two conductors immersed in the fluid. A method of dissipating power generated by a radio frequency transmission system includes the steps of: immersing two conductors of a radio frequency power load apparatus in a fluid having an ion source therein; and connecting the apparatus to an amplifier of the transmission system.

  8. Distracted and confused?: selective attention under load.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Nilli

    2005-02-01

    The ability to remain focused on goal-relevant stimuli in the presence of potentially interfering distractors is crucial for any coherent cognitive function. However, simply instructing people to ignore goal-irrelevant stimuli is not sufficient for preventing their processing. Recent research reveals that distractor processing depends critically on the level and type of load involved in the processing of goal-relevant information. Whereas high perceptual load can eliminate distractor processing, high load on "frontal" cognitive control processes increases distractor processing. These findings provide a resolution to the long-standing early and late selection debate within a load theory of attention that accommodates behavioural and neuroimaging data within a framework that integrates attention research with executive function.

  9. Viral load distribution in SARS outbreak.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chung-Ming; Cheng, Vincent C C; Hung, Ivan F N; Chan, Kin-Sang; Tang, Bone S F; Tsang, Thomas H F; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2005-12-01

    An unprecedented community outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in the Amoy Gardens, a high-rise residential complex in Hong Kong. Droplet, air, contaminated fomites, and rodent pests have been proposed to be mechanisms for transmitting SARS in a short period. We studied nasopharyngeal viral load of SARS patients on admission and their geographic distribution. Higher nasopharyngeal viral load was found in patients living in adjacent units of the same block inhabited by the index patient, while a lower but detectable nasopharyngeal viral load was found in patients living further away from the index patient. This pattern of nasopharyngeal viral load suggested that airborne transmission played an important part in this outbreak in Hong Kong. Contaminated fomites and rodent pests may have also played a role.

  10. Biaxial load effects in fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, H.; Lee, J. D.; Eftis, J.

    1977-01-01

    It is found that the standard expressions for elastic stress and displacement in the crack-tip region (i.e., the so-called singular solution) cannot be considered to be approximations that are acceptable in a completely general sense. This conclusion is best illustrated by the instance of a biaxially loaded infinite sheet with a flat horizontal central crack, where the effect of load applied parallel to the plane of the crack appears entirely in the second terms of the series representations for local stresses and displacements. An elastoplastic finite-element analysis of the same biaxially loaded finite specimen geometry shows that the global energy release rate, the J-integral, the plastic stress and strain intensity factors (in the sense of Hilton and Hutchinson), and the size of the crack border region plastic yield, all have pronounced biaxial load dependence.

  11. Static load bearing exercises of individuals with transfemoral amputation fitted with an osseointegrated implant: Loading compliance.

    PubMed

    Vertriest, Sofie; Coorevits, Pascal; Hagberg, Kerstin; Brånemark, Rickard; Häggström, Eva Elisabet; Vanderstraeten, Guy; Frossard, Laurent Alain

    2017-08-01

    Load-bearing exercises are performed by transfemoral amputees fitted with an osseointegrated implant to facilitate bone remodelling. This study presents the loading compliance comparing loads prescribed and applied on the three axes of the implant during static load-bearing exercises with a specific emphasis on axial and vectorial comparisons. Cohort study. A total of 11 fully rehabilitated unilateral transfemoral amputees fitted with an osseointegrated implant performed five trials in four loading conditions using a static standing frame. The load prescribed was monitored using a vertical single-axis strain gauge connected to an electronic display. The tri-axial forces applied on the implant were measured directly with an instrumented pylon including a six-channel transducer. The analysis included 'axial' and 'vectorial' comparisons corresponding to the difference between the force applied on the long axis of the implant and the load prescribed as well as the resultant of the three components of the load applied and the load prescribed, respectively. The results demonstrated that axial and vectorial differences were significant in all conditions ( p < 0.05), except for the vectorial difference for the 40 kg condition ( p = 0.182). The significant lack of axial compliance led to systematic underloading of the long axis of the implant. Clinical relevance This study contributes to a better understanding of the load applied on an osseointegrated implant during the static load-bearing exercises that could contribute to improve the design of apparatus to monitor loading exercises as well as clinical guidelines for the loading progression during rehabilitation.

  12. Buckling tests on eccentrically loaded beam columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassens, J

    1941-01-01

    Formulas are obtained for computing the buckling load of rods eccentrically loaded at each end, the computation being extended in particular to the inelastic range. The test results are graphically presented on three sets of curves. Two of these, at least for the elastic range, are independent of the material tested. The third set, which is independent of the material, possesses greater clearness and is therefore used for comparing the test results with the theoretical.

  13. Fatigue life estimates for helicopter loading spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosrovaneh, A. K.; Dowling, N. E.; Berens, A. P.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    Helicopter loading histories applied to notch metal samples are used as examples, and their fatigue lives are calculated by using a simplified version of the local strain approach. This simplified method has the advantage that it requires knowing the loading history in only the reduced form of ranges and means and number of cycles from the rain-flow cycle counting method. The calculated lives compare favorably with test data.

  14. Mechanical Predictors of Discomfort during Load Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Wettenschwiler, Patrick D.; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Stämpfli, Rolf; Rossi, René M.; Ferguson, Stephen J.; Annaheim, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort during load carriage is a major issue for activities using backpacks (e.g. infantry maneuvers, children carrying school supplies, or outdoor sports). It is currently unclear which mechanical parameters are responsible for subjectively perceived discomfort. The aim of this study was to identify objectively measured mechanical predictors of discomfort during load carriage. We compared twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt. The pressure distribution under the hip belt and the shoulder strap, as well as the tensile force in the strap and the relative motion of the backpack were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate possible predictors of discomfort. The results demonstrate that static peak pressure, or alternatively, static strap force is a significant (p<0.001) predictor of discomfort during load carriage in the shoulder and hip region, accounting for 85% or more of the variation in discomfort. As an additional finding, we discovered that the regression coefficients of these predictors are significantly smaller for the hip than for the shoulder region. As static peak pressure is measured directly on the body, it is less dependent on the type of load carriage system than static strap force. Therefore, static peak pressure is well suited as a generally applicable, objective mechanical parameter for the optimization of load carriage system design. Alternatively, when limited to load carriage systems of the type backpack with hip belt, static strap force is the most valuable predictor of discomfort. The regionally differing regression coefficients of both predictors imply that the hip region is significantly more tolerant than the shoulder region. In order to minimize discomfort, users should be encouraged to shift load from the shoulders to the hip region wherever possible, at the same time likely decreasing the risk of low back pain or injury

  15. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  16. Automatic Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement (AMCLM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    classification of cognitive load in different luminance conditions and under various emotional stimuli. All together, we had carried out 4 sets of user...and Emotional Changes”, Proc. SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’11), Vancouver, Canada, May 2011, pp. 1627-1632. • Xu, J...cognitive load in different luminance conditions and under various emotional stimuli. All together, we had carried out four sets of user experiments to

  17. Disruptions, loads, and dynamic response of ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.; Riemer, B.; Sayer, R.; Strickler, D.; Barabaschi, P.; Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Shimizu, K.; Williamson, D.

    1995-12-31

    Plasma disruptions and the resulting electromagnetic loads are critical to the design of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This paper describes the status of plasma disruption simulations and related analysis, including the dynamic response of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components, stresses and deflections in the vacuum vessel, and reaction loads in the support structures.

  18. Automatic load sharing in inverter modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, S.

    1979-01-01

    Active feedback loads transistor equally with little power loss. Circuit is suitable for balancing modular inverters in spacecraft, computer power supplies, solar-electric power generators, and electric vehicles. Current-balancing circuit senses differences between collector current for power transistor and average value of load currents for all power transistors. Principle is effective not only in fixed duty-cycle inverters but also in converters operating at variable duty cycles.

  19. An Experimental Study of Load Balancing Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Our implementation is based on a modified C shell7 implemented at Berkeley by Harry Rubin and Venkat Rangan for the Berkeley UNIX 4.3 BSD system...loads. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are grateful to Harry Rubin and Venkat Rangan for making their load balancing C shell available to us. Sincere...Introduction to the C Shell." Computer Science Division. University of California. Berkeley, November 1980. ,Joy831 W Joy, E. Cooper, R. Fabry. S . Leffler, K

  20. Time Urgency, Load and Managerial Decision Making,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    AD-A95 969 MILTON S HERSHEY M4EDICAL CENTER HERSHEY PA DEPT OF BE-ETC F/G 5/10 TIME URGENCY , LOAD AND MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING. (U)AA: FEB 81 S...input, output, managers, planning, problem solving, retaliatory behavior, simulation, strategy, time urgency , Type A 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on revere...intermediate information load stressor levels. ILL. The present research cottsiders time urgency as an additional variable. Time urgency has been shown