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Sample records for jakobsons guntis dilevs

  1. Roman Jakobson's Semiotic Theory of Communication. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Richard L.

    For most of the 20th century, Roman Jakobson's name will have been synonymous with the definition of communication as a human science, i.e., communicology. Jakobson is the modern source of most of what communication scholars theorize about and practice as human communication, and he will be the source of how communication scholars shall come to…

  2. Communicative Competence vs. Communicative Cognizance: Jakobson's Model Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James W.

    1984-01-01

    Jakobson's communication model, grounded in semiotic theory, provides an excellent point of departure for developing specific pedagogical approaches to the constituent elements of all communicative acts, verbal or nonverbal. True communication occurs only when students and teachers are cognizant of the features and functions of communication as…

  3. Psychopathology and the essence of language: the interpretation of aphasia by Kurt Goldstein and Roman Jakobson.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Janette

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the research on aphasia carried out by the linguist Roman Jakobson and the neuropsychiatrist Kurt Goldstein. The linguistic theory of aphasia advocated by Jakobson in the 1950s and 1960s is based on clinical case studies reported by Goldstein at the beginning of the 1930s. However, Jakobson used Goldstein's clinical observations without taking into account his theoretical work on language pathology. In particular, Jakobson fed the symptoms described by Goldstein into a structuralist model, allowing him to predict different types of aphasia deductively. Goldstein, however, saw the clinical manifestations of aphasia as a particular way of being in the world. By studying the changes associated with the patient's reaction to the disease, Goldstein wanted to reach an understanding of language functioning in the normal subject. He distinguished between an instrumental use and a symbolic use of language, the latter mainly characteristic of language use in the normal subject. Only a symbolic use reveals the essence of language by showing its intimate nature, the psychic link tying the subject to the world.

  4. Taxonomy of the subgenus Euleptarthrus Jakobson (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Osoriinae, Priochirus) of China with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2013-02-08

    Three new species of subgenus Euleptarthrus Jakobson, 1908 of the genus Priochirus Sharp, 1887 are described from China: P. (E.) trifurcus Wu & Zhou sp. nov. from Xizang, P. (E.) deltodontus Wu & Zhou sp. nov. from Yunnan and P. (E.) curtidentatus Wu & Zhou sp. nov. from Xizang and Yunnan. Diagnoses are also given for two species previously described from China, P. (E.) chinensis Bernhauer, 1933 and P. (E.) subbrevicornis Bernhauer, 1934. An updated version of the key to all Chinese species of the subgenus Euleptarthrus is provided. Important morphological characters are illustrated.

  5. Communicative Competence vs. Communicative Cognizance: Jakobson's Model Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James W.

    The term "communicative competence" has been in currency for approximately 10 years and is generally used to refer to teaching strategies which substitute real-life situations and contexts for meaningless mechanical and structural exercises. In essence, it attempts to put content and contact into the speech act. However, early proponents…

  6. Language Design, Computers and Brains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-29

    writings of the members of the Prague Linguistic School, principally those of Roman Jakobson , who was the first to propose the extension of the...markedness concept from phonology to the lexicon and to grammar. Jakobson’s first formulation and justification of the theory was given in Jakobson , 1932...Jakobson’s term is "gleichberechtigt"); instead Jakobson tried to show that the relations are hierarchical, with one of the categories, the unmarked one

  7. Integrating Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse DARPA Natural Language Understanding Program. Volume 3. Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    Theory. Linguistic Inquiry 18.3, 1987, pp. 369-411. [Jakobson57] Roman Jakobson , Shifters, Verbal Categories and the Russian Verb. In Selected Writings...Montague Grammar: The Semantics of Verbs and Times in Generative Semantics and in Montague’s PTQ. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. Jakobson , Roman . 1971 [1957...8217Taste ( Jakobson , 1957) refers to the semantic effect of the presence or absence or the perfect amilary. ’Aspect is both part of the inherent meaning of a

  8. Cyber-Argus: Modeling C2 Impacts of Cyber Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    12.665288. [22] JAKOBSON , G. Extending Situation Modeling with Inference of Plausible Future Cyber Situations. In: Cognitive Methods in Situation...Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2011. p. 48-55. [23] JAKOBSON , G. Mission Cyber Security Situation Assessment Using Impact Dependency Graphs. In...2011. p. 1-8. 19th ICCRTS - # 096 Page 22 of 24 [24] LEWIS, L.; JAKOBSON , G.; BUFORD, J. Enabling Cyber Situation Awareness, Impact Assessment, and

  9. Engage in the Arctic Now or Risk Being Left Out in the Cold: Establishing a JIATF-High North

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    www.janes.com> [accessed 1 March 2010]. 8 Linda Jakobson , “China Prepares for an Ice-Free Arctic,” SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security, no. 2010/2...investment will pay off. 41 Ibid 4. 42 Ibid 2. 43 Jakobson . 44 Christensen, 3. 16...2010]. Howard, Roger. The Arctic Gold Rush: New Race for Tomorrow’s Natural Resources. New York: Continuum Books, 2009. Jakobson , Linda. “China

  10. The Dragon Eyes the Top of the World: Arctic Policy Debate and Discussion in China (China Maritime Study, Number 8)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    regions. Linda Jakobson speculates that “the notion that China has rights in the Arctic can be expected to be repeated in articles by Chinese...an active, preemptive, and vigilant role in Arctic affairs.43 Linda Jakobson has already pointed out Li’s contention that “whoever has control over...future Arctic activities,” Linda Jakobson noted in early 2010.103 It seems that China respects, in principle, the UN’s continental shelf system. But

  11. Semi-Direct Speech: Manambu and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.

    2008-01-01

    Every language has some way of reporting what someone else has said. To express what Jakobson [Jakobson, R., 1990. "Shifters, categories, and the Russian verb. Selected writings". "Word and Language". Mouton, The Hague, Paris, pp. 130-153] called "speech within speech", the speaker can use their own words, recasting…

  12. The Unified Command Plan: Operational Command and Control in the Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    Linda Jakobson , “China Prepares for an Ice-Free Arctic,” SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security, No. 2010/2 (March 2010), p.1. 16 CONCLUSION... Jakobson , Linda. “China Prepares for an Ice-Free Arctic,” SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security, No. 2010/2 (March 2010). Jane’s Intelligence Review

  13. Form und Sinn: Sprachwissenschaftliche Betrachtungen (Form and Meaning: Linguistic Observations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobson, Roman

    This collection of 14 papers and articles by Roman Jakobson contains works written and published between 1931 and 1970 which deal either with global aspects of language or with specific grammatical issues. The collection emphasizes Jakobson's concern for finding the links between form and meaning in language. The text is entirely in German with…

  14. Semi-Direct Speech: Manambu and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.

    2008-01-01

    Every language has some way of reporting what someone else has said. To express what Jakobson [Jakobson, R., 1990. "Shifters, categories, and the Russian verb. Selected writings". "Word and Language". Mouton, The Hague, Paris, pp. 130-153] called "speech within speech", the speaker can use their own words, recasting…

  15. Form und Sinn: Sprachwissenschaftliche Betrachtungen (Form and Meaning: Linguistic Observations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobson, Roman

    This collection of 14 papers and articles by Roman Jakobson contains works written and published between 1931 and 1970 which deal either with global aspects of language or with specific grammatical issues. The collection emphasizes Jakobson's concern for finding the links between form and meaning in language. The text is entirely in German with…

  16. The Jakobsonian One-Stem Analysis of the Russian Verb: Adaptations and Pedagogical Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Billie D.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of one-stem verb theory since Roman Jakobson's 1948 study of Russian conjugation is outlined, and adaptations of his one-stem conjugation methodology for current classroom use are discussed and compared. (MSE)

  17. The Jakobsonian One-Stem Analysis of the Russian Verb: Adaptations and Pedagogical Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Billie D.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of one-stem verb theory since Roman Jakobson's 1948 study of Russian conjugation is outlined, and adaptations of his one-stem conjugation methodology for current classroom use are discussed and compared. (MSE)

  18. Applications of the Schur Basis to Quantum Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-10

    2006), 717–721. 17. A. Gamburd, D. Jakobson , and P. Sarnak, Spectra of elements in the group ring of SU(2), J. Eur. Math. Soc. 1 (1999), 51–85. 18. C...9604028 26. A. Gamburd, D. Jakobson and P. Sarnak. Spectra of elements in the group ring of SU(2). J. Eur. Math. Soc., vol. 1, pp. 51–85, 1999. Appendix A

  19. Working Papers in Speech Recognition, 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    du roman ’Eugene Onegm’ iMjolrant la liaison dec epreuve en chair;," Bulletin de ’Academie Imneri^e des Sciences de St. Peieiibourg, VII, 1913. [4...as having a ternary value (+, -, or 0). Other than being ternary, as opposed to binary, these features be»r some resemblance to the the JaKobson ...Waverly Press, Baltimore. Jakobson , R., G Fant, and M. Halle (1951), Preliminariet to Speech Anal/sit, MIT. Postal, P. (1968a), Aspects of Phonological

  20. Regularity and other properties of absolutely continuous invariant measures for the quadratic family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychlik, Marek; Sorets, Eugene

    1992-11-01

    In the current paper we study in more detail some properties of the absolutely continuous invariant measures constructed in the course of the proof of Jakobson's Theorem. In particular, we show that the density of the invariant measure is continuous at Misiurewicz points. From this we deduce that the Lyapunov exponent is also continuous at these points (our considerations apply just to the parameters constructed in the proof of Jakobson's Theorem). Other properties, like the positivity of the Lyapunov exponent, uniqueness of the absolutely continuous invariant measure and exactness of the corresponding dynamical system, are also proved.

  1. Metaphor and Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Russell

    1994-01-01

    Describes in some detail the structure of metaphor and metonymy, reviewing three main structures of metaphor--supposition, extension, and apposition--and proposing a comprehensive definition of metaphor taking all three structures into account. Draws on Roman Jakobson when explaining Jacques Lacan's claim that condensation is metaphor and…

  2. Les Traits acoustiques (Acoustic Features)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Mario

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the theory of distinctive features advanced by Roman Jakobson, Gunnar Fant and Morris Halle in "Preliminaries to Speech Analysis." The notion of binarism, the criterion of distinctiveness and the definition of features are discussed. Questions leading to further research are raised. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  3. Contact de langues et fonction poetique du changement linguistique (Language Contact and the Poetic Function of Linguistic Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablonka, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Following Roman Jakobson, this article attempts to outline the affinity between linguistic change induced by language contact and conflict, and the poetic function of language. This phenomenon can be observed by studying the discourses of trilingual speakers in the Aosta Valley in Northern Italy. The problematic position of French is reflected and…

  4. A Government-Binding Based Parser for Warlpiri, a Free-Word Order Language.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-22

    Warlpiri are being taught a written system that uses Roman characters. There is also a standard orthography for the phonetne that do not appear in English... Jakobson . editor. Structure of Language and itsq .11ithematical k l... Proceedings of the Twelfth Symnpositim In A1 phi~~ .11011( iatics. lpa’s 56Y 68

  5. The Elephants Teach: Creative Writing since 1880

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David Gershom

    2006-01-01

    When Vladimir Nabokov was up for a chair in literature at Harvard, the linguist Roman Jakobson protested: "What's next? Shall we appoint elephants to teach zoology?" That anecdote, with which D. G. Myers begins "The Elephants Teach", perfectly frames the issues this book tackles. Myers explores more than a century of debate over how writing should…

  6. The Regression Hypothesis as a Framework for First Language Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijzer, Merel

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to explain first language attrition in emigrant populations, this paper investigates the explanatory power of a framework that has--until now--received little attention: the regression hypothesis (Jakobson, 1941). This hypothesis predicts that the order of attrition is the reverse of the order of acquisition. The regression…

  7. The Elephants Teach: Creative Writing since 1880

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David Gershom

    2006-01-01

    When Vladimir Nabokov was up for a chair in literature at Harvard, the linguist Roman Jakobson protested: "What's next? Shall we appoint elephants to teach zoology?" That anecdote, with which D. G. Myers begins "The Elephants Teach", perfectly frames the issues this book tackles. Myers explores more than a century of debate over how writing should…

  8. Essais de Stylistique (Essays on Stylistics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiraud, Pierre

    This French text of selected articles, lectures, and writings from Bally to Jakobson presents a typology of literary styles, complementing an introductory book on the theory and readings in stylistics by dealing with the problems and methods of stylistic analysis. Seeking to arrive at a description of the inner structure of literary texts, it…

  9. Gender Signalling in Russian: A Contrastive Analysis of Native Speakers and Artificial Neural Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Edna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two surveys conducted in the Soviet Union are reported that demonstrate the complicated interrelationship between linguistic form and meaning. They support Jakobson and Gorbacevic on gender signalling, particularly when the speaker is not certain of the noun in question. (Contains 44 references.) (LB)

  10. Differential Vulnerability of Global Motion, Global Form, and Biological Motion Processing in Full-Term and Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, N. M.; Jakobson, L. S.; Maurer, D.; Lewis, T. L.

    2009-01-01

    Young children born very prematurely show elevated thresholds for global motion and global form [Atkinson, J. & Braddick, O. (2007). "Visual and visuocognitive development in children born very prematurely." "Progress in Brain Research, 164." 123-149; MacKay, T. L., Jakobson, L. S., Ellemberg, D., Lewis, T. L., Maurer, D., & Casiro, O. (2005).…

  11. One-to-One Tutoring for Reading in Grade One: Is It Beneficial for All Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incorvaia, Aubrey

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders among school-age children, occurring in 3 percent to 12 percent of adolescents in the United States (Jakobson & Kirkas, 2007; Shulman, 2008). Recognizing and understanding the disorder is complicated by the fact that between 10 percent and 20 percent of people…

  12. Metaphor and Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Russell

    1994-01-01

    Describes in some detail the structure of metaphor and metonymy, reviewing three main structures of metaphor--supposition, extension, and apposition--and proposing a comprehensive definition of metaphor taking all three structures into account. Draws on Roman Jakobson when explaining Jacques Lacan's claim that condensation is metaphor and…

  13. Analysis and Remediation of Aphasia in the U.S.S.R.: The Contribution of A. R. Luria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Frances M.

    1981-01-01

    The paper surveys contribution of A. Luria to aphasiology, emphasizing unique extent to which he integrated theory and therapeutic practice. Luria's view of primary defects underlying main forms of aphasia is summarized; this is followed by brief account of his application of certain notions of structural linguists, including R. Jakobson's…

  14. Phonological Development in Urdu Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Farhat

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study that examined phonological features of a group of 10 Urdu speaking children (20 to 30 months) to determine if a general theory of language learning can be deduced on the basis of Jakobson's theory of language universals. Addresses the question of how far such a theory is applicable to Urdu speaking children acquiring their native…

  15. Les Traits acoustiques (Acoustic Features)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Mario

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the theory of distinctive features advanced by Roman Jakobson, Gunnar Fant and Morris Halle in "Preliminaries to Speech Analysis." The notion of binarism, the criterion of distinctiveness and the definition of features are discussed. Questions leading to further research are raised. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  16. Essais de Stylistique (Essays on Stylistics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiraud, Pierre

    This French text of selected articles, lectures, and writings from Bally to Jakobson presents a typology of literary styles, complementing an introductory book on the theory and readings in stylistics by dealing with the problems and methods of stylistic analysis. Seeking to arrive at a description of the inner structure of literary texts, it…

  17. Note on the Acquisition of Affricates and Fricatives. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menn, Lise

    This paper attempts to demonstrate that children do not necessarily acquire fricatives before affricates. It begins with a summary and explanation of relevant parts of R. Jakobson's general theory of phonological acquisition. In part 2, an account of one child's acquisition of English affricates and fricatives is presented. In the period studied,…

  18. The Regression Hypothesis as a Framework for First Language Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijzer, Merel

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to explain first language attrition in emigrant populations, this paper investigates the explanatory power of a framework that has--until now--received little attention: the regression hypothesis (Jakobson, 1941). This hypothesis predicts that the order of attrition is the reverse of the order of acquisition. The regression…

  19. Are There Linguistic Prerequisites for Contact-Induced Language Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Sarah Grey

    Observation of language change caused by language contact tend not to support theories put forth by Meillet, Jakobson, Weinreich, and others that there are linguistic prerequisites for such change. A theory of the social factors that determine what kinds of language change will take place as a result of contact begins with the recognition of two…

  20. Gender Signalling in Russian: A Contrastive Analysis of Native Speakers and Artificial Neural Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Edna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two surveys conducted in the Soviet Union are reported that demonstrate the complicated interrelationship between linguistic form and meaning. They support Jakobson and Gorbacevic on gender signalling, particularly when the speaker is not certain of the noun in question. (Contains 44 references.) (LB)

  1. Two Kinds of Disorders in the Comprehension of Grammatical Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luria, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Considering Jakobson's theory that speech disorders involve defects in paradigmatic or in syntagmatic operations, and that these two categories result in different defects, this question was examined: does the syntagmatic group suffer from defects not only in contextual generation of active speech but also in comprehension of grammatical…

  2. Learning Science through Talking Science in Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems,…

  3. Analysis and Remediation of Aphasia in the U.S.S.R.: The Contribution of A. R. Luria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Frances M.

    1981-01-01

    The paper surveys contribution of A. Luria to aphasiology, emphasizing unique extent to which he integrated theory and therapeutic practice. Luria's view of primary defects underlying main forms of aphasia is summarized; this is followed by brief account of his application of certain notions of structural linguists, including R. Jakobson's…

  4. Two Kinds of Disorders in the Comprehension of Grammatical Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luria, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Considering Jakobson's theory that speech disorders involve defects in paradigmatic or in syntagmatic operations, and that these two categories result in different defects, this question was examined: does the syntagmatic group suffer from defects not only in contextual generation of active speech but also in comprehension of grammatical…

  5. Learning Science through Talking Science in Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems,…

  6. Syllabic constraints in the phonological errors of an aphasic patient.

    PubMed

    Romani, C; Calabrese, A

    1998-08-01

    The Sonority Dispersion Principle (Clements, 1990) states that the sharper the rise in sonority between the beginning of the syllable and the nucleus, the better the syllable. So far evidence in favour of this principle has been derived mainly from the distributional properties of syllable types and, to a lesser extent, from language acquisition. The case of DB, presented in this study, provides strong evidence that the Sonority Dispersion Principle also applies to an explanation of aphasic errors and revives Jakobson's idea that the same principles of complexity can explain the distribution of syllables, language acquisition, and language loss (Jakobson, 1941, 1968). Although some evidence that sonority constraints aphasic errors has been presented before, this is the first study reporting systematic effects of sonority-based complexity in aphasia.

  7. Transnistria: The Hot Nature of a Frozen Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    and the European security paradigm. In seeking to answer the primary research 1Max Jakobson , “Collective Security in Europe Today,” in Order and...Romanian language, the modern form of Dacian Latin.”30 In 106 A.D., a portion of Dacia was conquered by the Roman Empire and transformed into a Roman ...province. The Roman occupation lasted until Aurelian withdrew from Dacia in 271 A.D. Throughout this period the Romans began a Romanization process

  8. Topological and metric properties of a one-dimensional dynamical system in laser physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakvetadze, G. S.

    2002-08-01

    The iterates of the real rational function s_{a,b}(x)=b-ax/(1+x^2) are studied in their dependence on the parameters a,b\\in\\mathbb R. The parameter ranges corresponding to regular and chaotic dynamical behaviour of the system are determined. In particular, an analogue of Jakobson's theorem is proved for a two-parameter family of one-dimensional maps close to a certain map with a neutral fixed point.

  9. It cuts both ways: an analysis of the psychological discourse on self-injury from a linguistic point of view.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Vered

    2014-10-01

    This article proposes an analysis of the phenomenon of self-injury through the prism of current linguistic theories. The author uses the clinical distinctions made by Roman Jakobson between metonymic and metaphoric aphasia to suggest that the psychological community and those who harm themselves are participating in separate "language games." While the clinical "language game" is characterized by the dominance of metaphor and a conception stressing the hierarchy between metaphor and metonymy, the "language game" of self-mutilators is dominated by metonymy. The author explores the clinical implications of understanding the language game of those who injure themselves as metonymic.

  10. Computable conditions for the occurrence of non-uniform hyperbolicity in families of one-dimensional maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzzatto, Stefano; Takahasi, Hiroki

    2006-07-01

    We formulate and prove a Jakobson-Benedicks-Carleson-type theorem on the occurrence of non-uniform hyperbolicity (stochastic dynamics) in families of one-dimensional maps, based on computable starting conditions and providing explicit, computable, lower bounds for the measure of the set of selected parameters. As a first application of our results we show that the set of parameters corresponding to maps in the quadratic family fa(x) = x2 - a which have an absolutely continuous invariant probability measure is at least 10-5000.

  11. Semantic field in aphasia: an experimental investigation on comprehension of the relations of class and property.

    PubMed

    Bisiacchi, P; Denes, G; Semenza, C

    1976-01-01

    A multiple choice test was devised in order to assess some aspects of the aphasic's semantic field; patient's task was to match a given picture with one out of three alternatives: one of them was linked by a class relationship, one was linked by a property relationship and the last was an unrelated item. Results clearly show that Broca's aphasics make their choice according to class criteria whereas Wernicke's and controls make their choice according to property criteria. Results are discussed in the light of Jakobson linguistic hypothesis which postulates that Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia are subdued by a contiguity and similarity disorder.

  12. A linguistic model of informed consent.

    PubMed

    Marta, J

    1996-02-01

    The current disclosure model of informed consent ignores the linguistic complexity of any act of communication, and the increased risk of difficulties in the special circumstances of informed consent. This article explores, through linguistic analysis, the specificity of informed consent as a speech act, a communication act, and a form of dialogue, following on the theories of J.L. Austin, Roman Jakobson, and Mikhail Bakhtin, respectively. In the proposed model, informed consent is a performative speech act resulting from a series of communication acts which together constitute a dialogic, polyphonic, heteroglossial discourse. It is an act of speech that results in action being taken after a conversation has happened where distinct individuals, multiple voices, and multiple perspectives have been respected, and convention observed and recognized. It is more meaningful and more ethical for both patient and physician, in all their human facets including their interconnectedness.

  13. Learning science through talking science in elementary classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara

    2014-03-01

    Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems, both drawings and spoken responses provide rich evidence of their understanding of the connections between science drawings and verbal explanations. In this forum contribution, we present several theoretical connections between everyday language and science communication and argue that building communication skills in science are essential. We also discuss how young participants should be valued and supported in research. Finally we discuss the need for multimodal research methods when the research participants are young.

  14. Decay of random correlation functions for unimodal maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladi, Viviane; Benedicks, Michael; Maume-Deschamps, Véronique

    2000-10-01

    Since the pioneering results of Jakobson and subsequent work by Benedicks-Carleson and others, it is known that quadratic maps tfa( χ) = a - χ2 admit a unique absolutely continuous invariant measure for a positive measure set of parameters a. For topologically mixing tfa, Young and Keller-Nowicki independently proved exponential decay of correlation functions for this a.c.i.m. and smooth observables. We consider random compositions of small perturbations tf + ωt, with tf = tfa or another unimodal map satisfying certain nonuniform hyperbolicity axioms, and ωt chosen independently and identically in [-ɛ, ɛ]. Baladi-Viana showed exponential mixing of the associated Markov chain, i.e., averaging over all random itineraries. We obtain stretched exponential bounds for the random correlation functions of Lipschitz observables for the sample measure μωof almost every itinerary.

  15. Nodal domains on isospectral quantum graphs: the resolution of isospectrality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, Ram; Shapira, Talia; Smilansky, Uzy

    2006-11-01

    We present and discuss isospectral quantum graphs which are not isometric. These graphs are the analogues of the isospectral domains in {\\bb R}^{2} which were introduced recently in Gordon et al (1992 Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 27 134-8), Chapman (1995 Am. Math. Mon. 102 124), Buser et al (1994 Int. Math. Res. Not. 9 391-400), Okada and Shudo (2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 5911-22), Jakobson et al (2006 J. Comput. Appl. Math. 194 141-55) and Levitin et al (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 2073-82)) all based on Sunada's construction of isospectral domains (Sunada T 1985 Ann. Math. 121 196-86). After presenting some of the properties of these graphs, we discuss a few examples which support the conjecture that by counting the nodal domains of the corresponding eigenfunctions one can resolve the isospectral ambiguity.

  16. Large Deviation Principle for Benedicks-Carleson Quadratic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yong Moo; Takahasi, Hiroki

    2012-11-01

    Since the pioneering works of Jakobson and Benedicks & Carleson and others, it has been known that a positive measure set of quadratic maps admit invariant probability measures absolutely continuous with respect to Lebesgue. These measures allow one to statistically predict the asymptotic fate of Lebesgue almost every initial condition. Estimating fluctuations of empirical distributions before they settle to equilibrium requires a fairly good control over large parts of the phase space. We use the sub-exponential slow recurrence condition of Benedicks & Carleson to build induced Markov maps of arbitrarily small scale and associated towers, to which the absolutely continuous measures can be lifted. These various lifts together enable us to obtain a control of recurrence that is sufficient to establish a level 2 large deviation principle, for the absolutely continuous measures. This result encompasses dynamics far from equilibrium, and thus significantly extends presently known local large deviations results for quadratic maps.

  17. Perturbing Misiurewicz Parameters in the Exponential Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, Neil

    2015-04-01

    In one-dimensional real and complex dynamics, a map whose post-singular (or post-critical) set is bounded and uniformly repelling is often called a Misiurewicz map. In results hitherto, perturbing a Misiurewicz map is likely to give a non-hyperbolic map, as per Jakobson's Theorem for unimodal interval maps. This is despite genericity of hyperbolic parameters (at least in the interval setting). We show the contrary holds in the complex exponential family Misiurewicz maps are Lebesgue density points for hyperbolic parameters. As a by-product, we also show that Lyapunov exponents almost never exist for exponential Misiurewicz maps. The lower Lyapunov exponent is -∞ almost everywhere. The upper Lyapunov exponent is non-negative and depends on the choice of metric.

  18. Grammar in Art

    PubMed Central

    Segel, Edward; Boroditsky, Lera

    2010-01-01

    Jakobson (1959) reports: “The Russian painter Repin was baffled as to why Sin had been depicted as a woman by German artists: he did not realize that ‘sin’ is feminine in German (die Sünde), but masculine in Russian (rpex).” Does the grammatical gender of nouns in an artist's native language indeed predict the gender of personifications in art? In this paper we analyzed works in the ARTstor database (a digital art library containing over a million images) to measure this correspondence. This analysis provides a measure of artists’ real-world behavior. Our results show a clear correspondence between grammatical gender in language and personified gender in art. Grammatical gender predicted personified gender in 78% of the cases, significantly more often than if the two factors were independent. This analysis offers a new window on an age-old question about the relationship between linguistic structure and patterns in culture and cognition. PMID:21833297

  19. Does agrammatic speech constitute a regression to child language? A three-way comparison between agrammatic, child, and normal ellipsis.

    PubMed

    Kolk, H

    2001-06-01

    When children are in the process of learning their mother tongue, they show frequent use of nonfinite clauses, even though they produce finite clauses at the same time, thereby demonstrating the availability of the functional domain associated with finiteness. In this study the hypothesis was tested that this behavior results from an overuse of the normal elliptical repertoire that has also been observed in agrammatic aphasia. The purpose of this overuse is prevention of computational overload. In support of the hypothesis it was found that children behaved very similar to aphasics and normal adults with respect to the following parameters: (a) distribution of types of ellipsis, (b) elaboration of ellipses, (c) word order, (d) subject omission, (e) frequency of weak subject pronouns, and (f) verb type (eventivity). The results also support the Jackson/Jakobson regression hypothesis, at least at the grammatical level.

  20. Agrammatism in aphasiology.

    PubMed

    Goodglass, H

    1997-01-01

    Agrammatism is a pattern of syntactically defective speech that is frequently observed as a prominent feature in Broca's aphasia. It may range in severity from one-word utterances, completely lacking in grammatical organization, to mildly 'telegraphic' speech. First described in the early 19th century, it was originally interpreted by Pick as being due to economy of effort in finding words. Beginning with Jakobson, in 1956, there have been a succession of efforts to give an account of it in terms of linguistic theory. While the theories are still controversial, they have led to much more detailed and systematic description of the linguistic output in agrammatic speech. Cross linguistic comparisons have revealed that the features of agrammatism are not fixed, but are conditioned by the grammatical structure of the speaker's language.

  1. The phonological representation of affricates: Evidence from Korean and other languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunsoon

    1997-11-01

    This work is concerned with the formal representation of affricates. For this we examine phonological patterns of affricates with simple stops and fricatives from a wide range of languages. Our cross-linguistic survey of affricates provides strong evidence in support of the view that in languages where affricates are all strident, affricates are strident stops, as first proposed by Jakobson, Fant and Halle (1963). Thus affricates pattern with simple stops by (-continuant), and with fricatives by (+strident), not by (+continuant). Under the stop- analysis of affricates, simple stops are distinct from affricates by (-strident) when the language in question has only strident affricates. We also propose that sonorant consonants are specified for (-continuant,- strident) if they phonologically function like simple stops, and that the airstream feature (strident) as well as (continuant) is structurally located higher than Place features in a nonlinear model of feature organization. As a case study we narrow our focus to one language, Korean, examining Korean affricates in both phonetic and phonological aspects. We first determine, from our own articulatory and acoustic experiments of four native speakers, that Korean affricates are alveolar in intervocalic position. From the phonetic study and our proposed model of affricates, we propose that Korean affricates are specified for (-continuant, +strident), with no secondary vocalic feature (coronal) like other obstruents in Korean. Phonological behavior of affricates in Korean Umlaut and Affrication provides evidence for our proposed representation of affricates, and also for our phonetic study.

  2. Large eddy simulation of dilute bubbly turbulent flows for aerating hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajit, Mohammad; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-11-01

    We have proposed a formulation for the large eddy simulation of dilute bubbly flows by converting the governing equations to a more loosely-coupled form. This formulation provides an efficient numerical procedure for two-way coupling of bubbly flows at low gas holdups. Subgrid-scale turbulence modeling is based on the dynamic procedure of Germano for the liquid phase and the Jakobson approach for the gas phase. Wall-modeling is implemented using the method of Cabot & Moin. Our approach is employed to simulate flow over aerating hydrofoils at different angles of attack. A structured body-fitted C-grid is employed for domain discretization. Validation of our computational code, for C-grids, is carried out by simulating single-phase flows over a NACA0012 airfoil (20° AOA) with laminar flow and an E387 airfoil (6° AOA) with turbulent flow. Comparisons with available computational and experimental data in terms of time averaged drag coefficient, lift coefficient, separation bubble length, and reattachment point proves the validity of our computational code. The aerating hydrofoil simulation utilizes a NACA0015 hydrofoil, for which experiments were carried out at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. Comparisons between computational and experimental datasets show promising results. This work is supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy and the Hydro Reasearch Foundation.

  3. Lost and found: the Plecoptera types of Blanchard and Mabille, with further contributions to the stoneflies of Chile.

    PubMed

    Murányi, Dávid; Gamboa, Maribet; Vera, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Types of five of the six Plecoptera species described by Émile Blanchard and the holotype of the single stonefly described by Jules François Mabille were discovered in the National Museum Prague, Czech Republic. The identity of P. myrmidon Mabille, 1891 and P. pictetii Blanchard, 1854 are confirmed as Potamoperla myrmidon and Pictetoperla gayi (Pictet, 1841), respectively. Perla virescentipennis Blanchard, 1851 is considered as Diamphipnopsis virescentipennis comb. n., with Diamphipnosis samali Illies, 1960 syn. n. as a junior subjective synonym, and Diamphipnoa chillanae nom. n. is proposed for D. virescentipennis sensu Illies 1960. Lectotypes are designated for three species: Nemoura rufescens Blanchard, 1851 is redescribed as Austronemoura rufescens (Blanchard, 1851) comb. n., with Perla infuscata Blanchard, 1851 syn. n. and Perla blanchardi Jakobson & Bianchi, 1905 syn. n. designated as junior subjective synonyms, whereas Perla stictica Blanchard, 1851 is treated as Neonemura stictica (Blanchard, 1851) comb. n., nomen dubium. Paralectotypes of these three species belong to further four taxa. Due to the missing syntypes, Perla lineatocollis Blanchard, 1851 is treated as a nomen dubium of uncertain suborder assignment. Specimens of the Blanchard collections that cannot regarded as types are enumerated belonging to six species. Recent collections of 15 species from Chile are also reported.

  4. Motion-defined form processing in extremely premature children.

    PubMed

    Jakobson, L S; Frisk, V; Downie, A L S

    2006-01-01

    Children born extremely prematurely are at risk for a variety of problems with motion analysis, including problems with motion-defined (MD) form recognition [Downie, A. L. S., Jakobson, L. S., Frisk, V., & Ushycky, I. (2003). Periventricular brain injury, visual motion processing, and reading and spelling abilities in children who were extremely-low-birthweight. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 440-449]. The aims of the present study were (1) to examine the impact of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and mild periventricular brain injury (PVBI) on MD form processing in this population; (2) to assess relationships between MD form recognition in these children and their performance in several other areas of visual competence. To this end, a battery of visual and visuomotor tests was administered to 43, 5- and 6-year old, extremely premature children, all of whom had escaped severe PVBI. A group of full-term controls was also studied. Relative to controls, premature children displayed clear deficits in MD form recognition and these deficits were related to the presence of ROP and/or mild PVBI, rather than to a history of prematurity per se. Regression analyses revealed significant associations in premature children between MD form processing deficits and problems with visual search, stereopsis, visuoconstructive and graphomotor skills, motor development, and Performance IQ. The results suggest that assessment of sensitivity to MD forms may be useful in the early identification of preterm children at greatest risk for visual problems associated with dorsal stream dysfunction.

  5. Simulations of the LEDA LEBT H^+ Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. V., Jr.; Sherman, J. D.; Stevens, R. R., Jr.; Young, L. M.

    1997-05-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) Low-Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) system matches a 75-keV, >=130-mA, >=85%-H^+-fraction hydrogen beam into a 6.7-MeV RFQ.(L.M. Young, Proc. 1994 Intl. LINAC Conf. (Tsukuba, Japan) 178.) Two LEBT solenoid lenses produce the desired phase-space orientation and two steering-magnet pairs provide the desired beam position and angle at the RFQ match point. The LEBT residual gas produces 96-98% beam neutralization. LEDA LEBT input-beam parameters are derived from TRACE(K. R. Crandall, "TRACE: An Interactive Beam-Transport Program," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-5332 (October, 1973).) and SCHAR(R. J. Hayden and M. J. Jakobson, "The Space-Charge Computer Program SCHAR," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30 (1983) 2540.) simulations of LEDA prototype injector beam-emittance measurements. Solenoid-location studies verify that the proposed LEBT design(L. Hansborough, "Mech. Eng. of a Proton Injector for LEDA," this conf.) gives a near-optimum match to the RFQ. The desired RFQ transmission (>=90%) and output emittance (<=0.22 π mm mrad, transverse) result when PARMTEQM transports the SCHAR-generated optimum beam through the LEDA RFQ.

  6. Fifty years of progress in acoustic phonetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Kenneth N.

    2004-10-01

    Three events that occurred 50 or 60 years ago shaped the study of acoustic phonetics, and in the following few decades these events influenced research and applications in speech disorders, speech development, speech synthesis, speech recognition, and other subareas in speech communication. These events were: (1) the source-filter theory of speech production (Chiba and Kajiyama; Fant); (2) the development of the sound spectrograph and its interpretation (Potter, Kopp, and Green; Joos); and (3) the birth of research that related distinctive features to acoustic patterns (Jakobson, Fant, and Halle). Following these events there has been systematic exploration of the articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual bases of phonological categories, and some quantification of the sources of variability in the transformation of this phonological representation of speech into its acoustic manifestations. This effort has been enhanced by studies of how children acquire language in spite of this variability and by research on speech disorders. Gaps in our knowledge of this inherent variability in speech have limited the directions of applications such as synthesis and recognition of speech, and have led to the implementation of data-driven techniques rather than theoretical principles. Some examples of advances in our knowledge, and limitations of this knowledge, are reviewed.

  7. Optimal partition choice for invariant measure approximation for one-dimensional maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Rua

    2004-09-01

    The problem of finding absolutely continuous invariant measures (ACIMs) for a dynamical system can be formulated as a fixed point problem for a Markov operator (the Perron-Frobenius operator). This is an infinite-dimensional problem. Ulam's method replaces the Perron-Frobenius operator by a sequence of finite rank approximations whose fixed points are relatively easy to compute numerically. This paper concerns the optimal choice of Ulam approximations for one-dimensional maps; an adaptive partition selection is used to tailor the approximations to the structure of the invariant measure. The main idea is to select a partition which equally distributes the square root of the derivative of the invariant density amongst the bins of the partition. The results are illustrated for the logistic map where the ACIMs may have inverse square root singularities in their density functions. O(log n/n) convergence rates can be expected, whereas a non-adaptive algorithm yields O(n-1/2) at best. Studying the convergence of the adaptive algorithm allows an estimate to be made of the measure of the Jakobson parameter set (those logistic maps which admit an ACIM).

  8. Analysis and remediation of aphasia in the U.S.S.R: the contribution of A. R. Luria.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, F M

    1981-11-01

    This paper surveys the contribution of A. R. Luria to aphasiology, emphasising the unique extent to which he integrated theory and therapeutic practice. The influence exerted by two prominent Russian figures, Pavlov and Vygotskii, is discussed. Luria's view of the primary defects underlying the main forms of aphasia is summarised; this is followed by a brief account of his application of certain notions of structural linguistics, including Jakobson's interpretations of the breakdown of language following brain damage. Examples are given of the wide range of simple tests included in Luria's neuropsychological investigations. The factual part of the article culminates in some examples of his methods of restoring higher cortical functions, in particular, verbal skills. The summary criticises certain aspects of Luria's analysis as being too mechanistic and simplistic, and cites criticisms of details from other workers, but considers many of his insights and the total coherence of his view of cortical functioning and cortical disturbance to be still of the utmost importance for clinicians undertaking aphasia therapy. The need for therapists everywhere to develop language rehabilitation with as systematic a basis as Luria's is stressed.

  9. On the Relation between the General Affective Meaning and the Basic Sublexical, Lexical, and Inter-lexical Features of Poetic Texts—A Case Study Using 57 Poems of H. M. Enzensberger

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Susann; Aryani, Arash; Kraxenberger, Maria; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Conrad, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The literary genre of poetry is inherently related to the expression and elicitation of emotion via both content and form. To explore the nature of this affective impact at an extremely basic textual level, we collected ratings on eight different general affective meaning scales—valence, arousal, friendliness, sadness, spitefulness, poeticity, onomatopoeia, and liking—for 57 German poems (“die verteidigung der wölfe”) which the contemporary author H. M. Enzensberger had labeled as either “friendly,” “sad,” or “spiteful.” Following Jakobson's (1960) view on the vivid interplay of hierarchical text levels, we used multiple regression analyses to explore the specific influences of affective features from three different text levels (sublexical, lexical, and inter-lexical) on the perceived general affective meaning of the poems using three types of predictors: (1) Lexical predictor variables capturing the mean valence and arousal potential of words; (2) Inter-lexical predictors quantifying peaks, ranges, and dynamic changes within the lexical affective content; (3) Sublexical measures of basic affective tone according to sound-meaning correspondences at the sublexical level (see Aryani et al., 2016). We find the lexical predictors to account for a major amount of up to 50% of the variance in affective ratings. Moreover, inter-lexical and sublexical predictors account for a large portion of additional variance in the perceived general affective meaning. Together, the affective properties of all used textual features account for 43–70% of the variance in the affective ratings and still for 23–48% of the variance in the more abstract aesthetic ratings. In sum, our approach represents a novel method that successfully relates a prominent part of variance in perceived general affective meaning in this corpus of German poems to quantitative estimates of affective properties of textual components at the sublexical, lexical, and inter-lexical level

  10. Aharonov-Bohm Hamiltonians, isospectrality and minimal partitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnaillie-Noël, V.; Helffer, B.; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, T.

    2009-05-01

    The spectral analysis of Aharonov-Bohm Hamiltonians with flux \\frac12 leads surprisingly to a new insight on some questions of isospectrality appearing for example in Jakobson et al (2006 J. Comput. Appl. Math. 194 141-55) and Levitin et al (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 2073-82) and of minimal partitions (Helffer et al 2009 Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Anal. Non Linéaire 26 101-38). We will illustrate this point of view by discussing the question of spectral minimal 3-partitions for the rectangle \\big]{-}\\frac a2,\\frac a2\\big[\\times \\big]{-}\\frac b2,\\frac b2\\big[ , with 0 < a <= b. It has been observed in Helffer et al (2009 Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Anal. Non Linéaire 26 101-38) that when 0<\\frac ab < \\sqrt{\\vphantom{A^A}\\smash{\\\\frac 38}} the minimal 3-partition is obtained by the three nodal domains of the third eigenfunction corresponding to the three rectangles \\big]{-}\\frac a2,\\frac a2\\big[\\times \\big] {-}\\frac b2,-\\frac b6\\big[, \\big]{-}\\frac a2,\\frac a2\\big[\\times \\big]{-}\\frac b6,\\frac b6\\big[ and \\big]{-}\\frac a2,\\frac a2\\big[\\times \\big] \\frac b6, \\frac b2\\big[ . We will describe a possible mechanism of transition for increasing \\frac ab between these nodal minimal 3-partitions and non-nodal minimal 3-partitions at the value \\sqrt{\\vphantom{A^A}\\smash{\\\\frac 38}} and discuss the existence of symmetric candidates for giving minimal 3-partitions when \\sqrt{\\vphantom{A^A}\\smash{\\\\frac 38}} <\\frac ab \\leq 1 . Numerical analysis leads very naturally to nice questions of isospectrality which are solved by the introduction of Aharonov-Bohm Hamiltonians or by going on the double covering of the punctured rectangle.

  11. Understanding Grammars through Diachronic Change

    PubMed Central

    Madariaga, Nerea

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I will vindicate the importance of syntactic change for the study of synchronic stages of natural languages, according to the following outline. First, I will analyze the relationship between the diachrony and synchrony of grammars, introducing some basic concepts: the notions of I-language/E-language, the role of Chomsky's (2005) three factors in language change, and some assumptions about language acquisition. I will briefly describe the different approaches to syntactic change adopted in generative accounts, as well as their assumptions and implications (Lightfoot, 1999, 2006; van Gelderen, 2004; Biberauer et al., 2010; Roberts, 2012). Finally, I will illustrate the convenience of introducing the diachronic dimension into the study of at least certain synchronic phenomena with the help of a practical example: variation in object case marking of several verbs in Modern Russian, namely, the verbs denoting avoidance and the verbs slušat'sja “obey” and dožidat'sja “expect,” which show two object case-marking patterns, genitive case in standard varieties and accusative case in colloquial varieties. To do so, I will review previous descriptive and/or functionalist accounts on this or equivalent phenomena (Jakobson, 1984 [1936]; Clancy, 2006; Nesset and Kuznetsova, 2015a,b). Then, I will present a formal—but just synchronic—account, applying Sigurðsson (2011) hypothesis on the expression of morphological case to this phenomenon. Finally, I will show that a formal account including the diachronic dimension is superior (i.e., more explanative) than purely synchronic accounts. PMID:28824474

  12. On the Relation between the General Affective Meaning and the Basic Sublexical, Lexical, and Inter-lexical Features of Poetic Texts-A Case Study Using 57 Poems of H. M. Enzensberger.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Susann; Aryani, Arash; Kraxenberger, Maria; Jacobs, Arthur M; Conrad, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The literary genre of poetry is inherently related to the expression and elicitation of emotion via both content and form. To explore the nature of this affective impact at an extremely basic textual level, we collected ratings on eight different general affective meaning scales-valence, arousal, friendliness, sadness, spitefulness, poeticity, onomatopoeia, and liking-for 57 German poems ("die verteidigung der wölfe") which the contemporary author H. M. Enzensberger had labeled as either "friendly," "sad," or "spiteful." Following Jakobson's (1960) view on the vivid interplay of hierarchical text levels, we used multiple regression analyses to explore the specific influences of affective features from three different text levels (sublexical, lexical, and inter-lexical) on the perceived general affective meaning of the poems using three types of predictors: (1) Lexical predictor variables capturing the mean valence and arousal potential of words; (2) Inter-lexical predictors quantifying peaks, ranges, and dynamic changes within the lexical affective content; (3) Sublexical measures of basic affective tone according to sound-meaning correspondences at the sublexical level (see Aryani et al., 2016). We find the lexical predictors to account for a major amount of up to 50% of the variance in affective ratings. Moreover, inter-lexical and sublexical predictors account for a large portion of additional variance in the perceived general affective meaning. Together, the affective properties of all used textual features account for 43-70% of the variance in the affective ratings and still for 23-48% of the variance in the more abstract aesthetic ratings. In sum, our approach represents a novel method that successfully relates a prominent part of variance in perceived general affective meaning in this corpus of German poems to quantitative estimates of affective properties of textual components at the sublexical, lexical, and inter-lexical level.

  13. Teaching and learning science in linguistically diverse classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Emilee; Evnitskaya, Natalia; Ramos-de Robles, S. Lizette

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we reflect on the article, Science education in a bilingual class: problematising a translational practice, by Zeynep Ünsal, Britt Jakobson, Bengt-Olav Molander and Per-Olaf Wickman (Cult Stud Sci Educ, 10.1007/s11422-016-9747-3). In their article, the authors present the results of a classroom research project by responding to one main question: How is continuity between everyday language and the language of science construed in a bilingual science classroom where the teacher and the students do not speak the same minority language? Specifically, Ünsal et al. examine how bilingual students construe relations between everyday language and the language of science in a class taught in Swedish, in which all students also spoke Turkish, whereas the teacher also spoke Bosnian, both being minority languages in the context of Swedish schools. In this forum, we briefly discuss why close attention to bilingual dynamics emerging in classrooms such as those highlighted by Ünsal et al. matters for science education. We continue by discussing changing ontologies in relation to linguistic diversity and education more generally. Recent research in bilingual immersion classroom settings in so-called "content" subjects such as Content and Language Integrated Learning, is then introduced, as we believe this research offers some significant insights in terms of how bilingualism contributes to knowledge building in subjects such as science. Finally, we offer some reflections in relation to the classroom interactional competence needed by teachers in linguistically diverse classrooms. In this way, we aim to further the discussion initiated by Ünsal et al. and to offer possible frameworks for future research on bilingualism in science education. In their article, Ünsal et al. conclude the analysis of the classroom data by arguing in favor of a translanguaging pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning in which students' whole language repertoires are used as

  14. Past and Future EUROMET Collections of Micrometeorites and "Minimeteorites" in Greenland and Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.; Immel, G.; Pourchet, M.

    1992-07-01

    In the melt zone of the west Greenland ice sheet, micrometeorites as well as terrestrial wind-borne dust are initially trapped together in mm-sized cocoons of siderobacteria that make up the bulk of the dark sediments ("cryoconite") that we investigated. These sediments were collected at about 30 distinct locations on various ice fields, at the latitudes of Sondrestromfjord, Jakobson, and Port Victor. Two major limitations arise from the tight encapsulation of the grains in cryoconite: (i) they are exposed to biogenic etching, which probably generates some colloidal form of iron hydroxyde that penetrates through porous grains and that adsorbs very efficiently trace elements of terrestrial origin such as REE (Robin, 1988); (ii) they can only be retrieved through a vigorous disaggregation of cryoconite on a stainless steel sieve with mesh of 100 micrometers that eliminates ~95% of the cryoconite, but preferentially destroys friable micrometeorites. Consequently, the Greenland collection is highly biased toward hard, compact (i.e., non porous), crystalline micrometeorites, and trace elements can only be measured in compact grains. Another limitation of this collection is that, at least up to the latitude of Port Victor, the mineral fraction with size smaller than 100 micrometers extracted from cryoconite is too heavily contaminated by wind born dust. Micrometeorites can only be hand-picked in the larger >100- micrometer-sized fraction, which is much less contaminated. In this useful size fraction the concentration of large (>400 micrometers) micrometeorites ("minimeteorites") sharply increases up to values 20% when the margin of the ice field is near the sea shore, as a result of a sharp drop in the transport of wind-borne dust. The ideal collection zone should thus be an ice field very near the sea shore, but at much higher latitudes, where the arctic summer is too short as to allow the growth of extended colonies of siderobacteria . Running waters could be

  15. Differential vulnerability of global motion, global form, and biological motion processing in full-term and preterm children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, N M; Jakobson, L S; Maurer, D; Lewis, T L

    2009-11-01

    Young children born very prematurely show elevated thresholds for global motion and global form [Atkinson, J. & Braddick, O. (2007). Visual and visuocognitive development in children born very prematurely. Progress in Brain Research, 164, 123-149; MacKay, T. L., Jakobson, L. S., Ellemberg, D., Lewis, T. L., Maurer, D., & Casiro, O. (2005). Deficits in the processing of local and global motion in very low birthweight children. Neuropsychologia, 43, 1738-1748]. In adolescence, those with white matter pathology show reduced sensitivity to biological motion [Pavlova, M., Sokolov, A., Staudt, M., Marconato, F., Birbaumer, N., & Krageloh-Mann, I. (2005). Recruitment of periventricular parietal regions in processing cluttered point-light biological motion. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 594-601; Pavlova, M., Staudt, M., Sokolov, A., Birbaumer, N., & Krageloh-Mann, I. (2003). Perception and production of biological movement in patients with early periventricular brain lesions. Brain, 126, 692-701]. Here, we measured sensitivity to global form, global motion, and biological motion in a sample of 23, five- to nine-year-old children born at <32 weeks gestation, and in 20 full-term controls matched to the clinical sample in age, socioeconomic status, and estimated Verbal IQ. As a group, premature children showed reduced sensitivity, relative to controls, on all three tasks (F>4.1, p<0.05). By computing a deficit score for each task (the ratio between a premature child's threshold and the mean threshold for three age-matched controls) we were able to compare performance across tasks directly. Mean deficit scores were significantly greater than 1 (indicating some level of impairment) for biological motion and global motion (ps<0.03). In contrast, the mean deficit score for global form was not significantly different from 1 (indicating no impairment, relative to age-matched control children). Rates of impairment (deficit score>or=2) were four times higher for global motion than for global