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  1. Roman Jakobson's Semiotic Theory of Communication. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Richard L.

    For most of the 20th century, Roman Jakobson's name will have been synonymous with the definition of communication as a human science, i.e., communicology. Jakobson is the modern source of most of what communication scholars theorize about and practice as human communication, and he will be the source of how communication scholars shall come to…

  2. Psychopathology and the essence of language: the interpretation of aphasia by Kurt Goldstein and Roman Jakobson.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Janette

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the research on aphasia carried out by the linguist Roman Jakobson and the neuropsychiatrist Kurt Goldstein. The linguistic theory of aphasia advocated by Jakobson in the 1950s and 1960s is based on clinical case studies reported by Goldstein at the beginning of the 1930s. However, Jakobson used Goldstein's clinical observations without taking into account his theoretical work on language pathology. In particular, Jakobson fed the symptoms described by Goldstein into a structuralist model, allowing him to predict different types of aphasia deductively. Goldstein, however, saw the clinical manifestations of aphasia as a particular way of being in the world. By studying the changes associated with the patient's reaction to the disease, Goldstein wanted to reach an understanding of language functioning in the normal subject. He distinguished between an instrumental use and a symbolic use of language, the latter mainly characteristic of language use in the normal subject. Only a symbolic use reveals the essence of language by showing its intimate nature, the psychic link tying the subject to the world.

  3. Language Design, Computers and Brains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-29

    writings of the members of the Prague Linguistic School, principally those of Roman Jakobson , who was the first to propose the extension of the...markedness concept from phonology to the lexicon and to grammar. Jakobson’s first formulation and justification of the theory was given in Jakobson , 1932...Jakobson’s term is "gleichberechtigt"); instead Jakobson tried to show that the relations are hierarchical, with one of the categories, the unmarked one

  4. Integrating Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse DARPA Natural Language Understanding Program. Volume 3. Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    Theory. Linguistic Inquiry 18.3, 1987, pp. 369-411. [Jakobson57] Roman Jakobson , Shifters, Verbal Categories and the Russian Verb. In Selected Writings...Montague Grammar: The Semantics of Verbs and Times in Generative Semantics and in Montague’s PTQ. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. Jakobson , Roman . 1971 [1957...8217Taste ( Jakobson , 1957) refers to the semantic effect of the presence or absence or the perfect amilary. ’Aspect is both part of the inherent meaning of a

  5. Integrating Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse DARPA Natural Language Understanding Program. Volume 2. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-14

    in Generative Semantics and in Montague’s PTQ. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. Jakobson , Roman . 1971 [1957]. Shifters, verbal categories and the Russian verb. In...new domain. 5T7s"k ( Jakobson , 1957) refers to the semantic effect of the presence or absence of the perfect auxiliary. lGrammatical aspect is signalled...log, with distinct syntactic, semantic and pragmatic components (cf. Dahi, 1986; Palmer at al., 1986). IT&"# ( Jakobson , 1967) refers to the semantic

  6. Status Report on Speech Research. A Report on the Status and Progress of Studies on the Nature of Speech, Instrumentation for Its Investigation, and Practical Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-31

    See, e.g., Hockett, 1958, Jakobson & Waugh, 1979, Ladefoged, 1971, 1975, for comprehen- sive reviews of the vocabulary of vowel feature description...only to the tenseness feature but to the advancement and height features as well (see, e.g., Jakobson & Waugh, 1979). There Is, as well, some evidence...acoustical characteristics of vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 25, 105-113. Jakobson , R., & Waugh, L. R. (1979). The sound shape of

  7. Status Report on Speech Research. A Report on the Status and Progress of Studies on the Nature of Speech, Instrumentation for Its Investigation, and Practical Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    envelopes from formant frequencies. In M. Halle, H. Lunt, & H. MacLean (Eds.), For Roman Jakobson (pp. 109-120). The Hague: Mouton. Fry, D. B. (1958...speaking). But there is now ample evidence that the discontinuity between babble and speech, posited by Jakobson (1968), is not real. Oller (1980) provides...16. Immelmann, K., Barlow, G. W., Petrinovich, L., & Main, M. (Eds.). (1981). W Behavioral development. New York: Cambridge University Press. Jakobson

  8. Status Report on Speech Research. A Report on the Status and Progress of Studies on the Nature of Speech, Instrumentation for Its Investigation, and Practical Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-30

    feature theory ( Jakobson , Fant, & Halle, 1963). He has adopted an explicitly evolutionary approach to the link between production and perception by...that require no explanation (Chomsky & Halle, 1968; Jakobson , Fant, & Halle, 1963). A central goal of linguistic study is to describe a small set of 15...Cranach (Ed.), Methods of inference from human to animal behavior (pp. 165-196). Chicago: Aldine. Jakobson , R., Fant, C. G. M., & Halle, M. (1963

  9. Status Report on Speech Research, 1 January-31 March 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    frequencies. In N. Halle, H. Lunt, & H. MacLean (Eds.), For Roman Jakobson . The Hague: Mouton, 1956, 109-120. Fant, C. G. H. The acoustic theor of spe c...Synthesis experiments and acoustic cues. In L. L. Hammerioh, 3. Jakobson , & E. Zwirner (Eds.), Form and substance. Denmark: Akademisk Forlag, 1971, 221-232

  10. Form und Sinn: Sprachwissenschaftliche Betrachtungen (Form and Meaning: Linguistic Observations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobson, Roman

    This collection of 14 papers and articles by Roman Jakobson contains works written and published between 1931 and 1970 which deal either with global aspects of language or with specific grammatical issues. The collection emphasizes Jakobson's concern for finding the links between form and meaning in language. The text is entirely in German with…

  11. Semi-Direct Speech: Manambu and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.

    2008-01-01

    Every language has some way of reporting what someone else has said. To express what Jakobson [Jakobson, R., 1990. "Shifters, categories, and the Russian verb. Selected writings". "Word and Language". Mouton, The Hague, Paris, pp. 130-153] called "speech within speech", the speaker can use their own words, recasting…

  12. RLE Progress Report Number 122.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Porkolab, Miklos Birgeneau, Robert J. Jakobson , Roman * Proakis, John* Bose, Amar G. Kennedy, Robert S. Ross, John R. Bresnan, Joan W. Keyser, Samuel J...Esther K., 179 Duckworth, Gregory L., 133 Jakobson , Roman , 159 Dupree, Thomas H., 97, 113 Jarrell, Joseph A., 2 Durand, Marie, 15 Joannopoulos, John D...Cushing Dr. H. Van Riemsdijk Prof. R. Jakobson Dr. R.A. Freidin Dr. E.C.T. Walker (Emeritus) Dr. M. Guerssel Dr. E.M. Woolford Prof. S.J. Keyser Dr. D.M

  13. The Jakobsonian One-Stem Analysis of the Russian Verb: Adaptations and Pedagogical Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Billie D.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of one-stem verb theory since Roman Jakobson's 1948 study of Russian conjugation is outlined, and adaptations of his one-stem conjugation methodology for current classroom use are discussed and compared. (MSE)

  14. Status Report on Speech Research 1 July - 31 December 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    way. Stimuli were typed in the Roman alphabet in the center of 35 mm Prime U Film slides. Three experimental lists were composed for each language...Memo & Cognition, 1980, 8, 124-1 32. Lukatela, G., & Turvey, M. T. Some experiments on the Roman and Cyrillic alphabets of Serbo-Croatian. In J. F...publication of Jakobson’s Kinderaprache. Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze in 1941. Jakobson ’ s proposals quickly became standard dogma because they offered an

  15. Speech Research, A Report on the Status and Progress of Studies on the Nature of Speech, Instrumentation for Its Investigation, and Practical Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-31

    Jakobson , Fant, & Halle, 1963). One such distinctive feature corresponds to the presence or absence of voicing. Voiced consonants -- such as /b, d, g, v, z...term memory. Qurnal of Verbal Learni and Verbal Behavior, 1967, .6, 312-316. Jakobson , R., Fant, C. G. M., & Halle, M. Preliminaries toa s .analysis: IM...that a non-initial voiceless stop becomes voiced (Martin, 1972). In the Romanized forms kana, hiragana, the effect of this rule is explicit: The initial

  16. IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference on Accelerator Science and Technology Held in San Francisco, California on 6-9 May 1991. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    A. Browman, K. W. Jones, and M. J. Jakobson ....... 893 User control of the proton beam injection trajectories into the AGS booster - T. D’Ottavio, A... Roman Tatchyn, Herman IWinick, Alan S. Fisher, Juan C. Gallardo, and Claudio Pellegrini ....................................................... 2748...National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 M. J. Jakobson University of Montana Missoula, MT 59812 Abstract The results of the upgrade to the 750-keV H

  17. Satellite and Missile Data Generation for AIS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    R. On the Cyclic Nature of English Pronominalization. (1) In: Reibel and Schane 1969, 187-200. (2) In: To Honor Roman Jakobson . The Hague: Mouton...for Roman Numerals like 1, 11, V, VII. 0 NMTH: used for name of month, e.g., JANUARY, NOVEMBER The list of "placeholders" remains open-ended. New...Noun Phrases. In R. Jakobson and S. Kawamote (Eds.), Studies in General and Oriental Linguistics. Tokyo, Japan: TEC Com- pany Ltd., 1970. Kuno, S

  18. Changing Arctic: A Strategic Analysis of United States Arctic Policy and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    accomplished Canadian academic said: “What the Aegean Sea was to antiquity, what the Mediterranean was to the Roman world, what the Atlantic Ocean was to...Linda Jakobson and Stockholm International Peace Research Institute., "China Prepares for an Ice-Free Arctic," Stockholm International Peace Research...Quarterly (Jul 1, 2012): 45. Jakobson , Linda and Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. "China Prepares for an Ice-Free Arctic." Stockholm

  19. Central Asia After 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Disputes With China,” Eurasia Daily Monitor, October 26, 2011. 9. Linda Jakobson et al., ”China’s Energy and Security relati- ons with Russia,” SIPRI...the_limits_of_regional_cooperati- on_in_south_asia. 65. Roman Muzalevski, ”India Seeks to Project Power In and Out of Central Asia,” Eurasia Daily...available from www.kom- mersant.ru/doc/1407757. 77. SIPRI Yearbook 2010, p. 291. 78. Kommersant, March 14, 2011. 79. Ibid. 80. Jakobson et al., ”China’s

  20. Naval War College Review. Volume 66, Number 2, Spring 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    2010, the-diplomat.com/. 86. Jakobson , “China Prepares for an Ice-free arctic,” p. 10. 87. Wang Qian, “arctic research set to be beefed Up.” 88...96. Quoted in Jakobson , “China Prepares for an Ice-free arctic,” p. 7. 97. tony Capaccio, “Chinese vessels Harass U.s. Navy ship, Pentagon says...coalition NWC_Spring2013Review.indb 88 2/26/13 8:48 AM P e I f e r 8 9 that included the Holy roman empire, austria, spain, savoy, and numerous

  1. Working Papers in Speech Recognition, 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    du roman ’Eugene Onegm’ iMjolrant la liaison dec epreuve en chair;," Bulletin de ’Academie Imneri^e des Sciences de St. Peieiibourg, VII, 1913. [4...as having a ternary value (+, -, or 0). Other than being ternary, as opposed to binary, these features be»r some resemblance to the the JaKobson ...Waverly Press, Baltimore. Jakobson , R., G Fant, and M. Halle (1951), Preliminariet to Speech Anal/sit, MIT. Postal, P. (1968a), Aspects of Phonological

  2. Metaphor and Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Russell

    1994-01-01

    Describes in some detail the structure of metaphor and metonymy, reviewing three main structures of metaphor--supposition, extension, and apposition--and proposing a comprehensive definition of metaphor taking all three structures into account. Draws on Roman Jakobson when explaining Jacques Lacan's claim that condensation is metaphor and…

  3. Les Traits acoustiques (Acoustic Features)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Mario

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the theory of distinctive features advanced by Roman Jakobson, Gunnar Fant and Morris Halle in "Preliminaries to Speech Analysis." The notion of binarism, the criterion of distinctiveness and the definition of features are discussed. Questions leading to further research are raised. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  4. Contact de langues et fonction poetique du changement linguistique (Language Contact and the Poetic Function of Linguistic Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablonka, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Following Roman Jakobson, this article attempts to outline the affinity between linguistic change induced by language contact and conflict, and the poetic function of language. This phenomenon can be observed by studying the discourses of trilingual speakers in the Aosta Valley in Northern Italy. The problematic position of French is reflected and…

  5. West Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    neutrality is a "controversial idea. It is remembered that in his book "The 38th Floor," veteran diplomat Max Jakobson relates that in 1970, the Soviet...their spiritual and Roman -Christian legal-political traditions also lead to a greater affinity with the United States, rather than an alignment

  6. A Government-Binding Based Parser for Warlpiri, a Free-Word Order Language.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-22

    Warlpiri are being taught a written system that uses Roman characters. There is also a standard orthography for the phonetne that do not appear in English... Jakobson . editor. Structure of Language and itsq .11ithematical k l... Proceedings of the Twelfth Symnpositim In A1 phi~~ .11011( iatics. lpa’s 56Y 68

  7. Status Report on Speech Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    1968; Ladefoged, 1975). bTbe words are written in current Zulu orthography (which is based on the Roman alphabet), in which <c> corresponds to the...Hammerich, R. Jakobson , & E. Zwirner (Eds.), Form and substance: Phonetic and linguistic papers presented to Eli Fischer-Jorgensen (pp. 221-231

  8. The Elephants Teach: Creative Writing since 1880

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David Gershom

    2006-01-01

    When Vladimir Nabokov was up for a chair in literature at Harvard, the linguist Roman Jakobson protested: "What's next? Shall we appoint elephants to teach zoology?" That anecdote, with which D. G. Myers begins "The Elephants Teach", perfectly frames the issues this book tackles. Myers explores more than a century of debate over how writing should…

  9. Gender Signalling in Russian: A Contrastive Analysis of Native Speakers and Artificial Neural Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Edna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two surveys conducted in the Soviet Union are reported that demonstrate the complicated interrelationship between linguistic form and meaning. They support Jakobson and Gorbacevic on gender signalling, particularly when the speaker is not certain of the noun in question. (Contains 44 references.) (LB)

  10. Two Kinds of Disorders in the Comprehension of Grammatical Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luria, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Considering Jakobson's theory that speech disorders involve defects in paradigmatic or in syntagmatic operations, and that these two categories result in different defects, this question was examined: does the syntagmatic group suffer from defects not only in contextual generation of active speech but also in comprehension of grammatical…

  11. Analysis and Remediation of Aphasia in the U.S.S.R.: The Contribution of A. R. Luria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Frances M.

    1981-01-01

    The paper surveys contribution of A. Luria to aphasiology, emphasizing unique extent to which he integrated theory and therapeutic practice. Luria's view of primary defects underlying main forms of aphasia is summarized; this is followed by brief account of his application of certain notions of structural linguists, including R. Jakobson's…

  12. Essais de Stylistique (Essays on Stylistics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiraud, Pierre

    This French text of selected articles, lectures, and writings from Bally to Jakobson presents a typology of literary styles, complementing an introductory book on the theory and readings in stylistics by dealing with the problems and methods of stylistic analysis. Seeking to arrive at a description of the inner structure of literary texts, it…

  13. One-to-One Tutoring for Reading in Grade One: Is It Beneficial for All Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incorvaia, Aubrey

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders among school-age children, occurring in 3 percent to 12 percent of adolescents in the United States (Jakobson & Kirkas, 2007; Shulman, 2008). Recognizing and understanding the disorder is complicated by the fact that between 10 percent and 20 percent of people…

  14. The Regression Hypothesis as a Framework for First Language Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijzer, Merel

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to explain first language attrition in emigrant populations, this paper investigates the explanatory power of a framework that has--until now--received little attention: the regression hypothesis (Jakobson, 1941). This hypothesis predicts that the order of attrition is the reverse of the order of acquisition. The regression…

  15. Learning Science through Talking Science in Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems,…

  16. Syllabic constraints in the phonological errors of an aphasic patient.

    PubMed

    Romani, C; Calabrese, A

    1998-08-01

    The Sonority Dispersion Principle (Clements, 1990) states that the sharper the rise in sonority between the beginning of the syllable and the nucleus, the better the syllable. So far evidence in favour of this principle has been derived mainly from the distributional properties of syllable types and, to a lesser extent, from language acquisition. The case of DB, presented in this study, provides strong evidence that the Sonority Dispersion Principle also applies to an explanation of aphasic errors and revives Jakobson's idea that the same principles of complexity can explain the distribution of syllables, language acquisition, and language loss (Jakobson, 1941, 1968). Although some evidence that sonority constraints aphasic errors has been presented before, this is the first study reporting systematic effects of sonority-based complexity in aphasia.

  17. Transnistria: The Hot Nature of a Frozen Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    and the European security paradigm. In seeking to answer the primary research 1Max Jakobson , “Collective Security in Europe Today,” in Order and...Romanian language, the modern form of Dacian Latin.”30 In 106 A.D., a portion of Dacia was conquered by the Roman Empire and transformed into a Roman ...province. The Roman occupation lasted until Aurelian withdrew from Dacia in 271 A.D. Throughout this period the Romans began a Romanization process

  18. It cuts both ways: an analysis of the psychological discourse on self-injury from a linguistic point of view.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Vered

    2014-10-01

    This article proposes an analysis of the phenomenon of self-injury through the prism of current linguistic theories. The author uses the clinical distinctions made by Roman Jakobson between metonymic and metaphoric aphasia to suggest that the psychological community and those who harm themselves are participating in separate "language games." While the clinical "language game" is characterized by the dominance of metaphor and a conception stressing the hierarchy between metaphor and metonymy, the "language game" of self-mutilators is dominated by metonymy. The author explores the clinical implications of understanding the language game of those who injure themselves as metonymic.

  19. Semantic field in aphasia: an experimental investigation on comprehension of the relations of class and property.

    PubMed

    Bisiacchi, P; Denes, G; Semenza, C

    1976-01-01

    A multiple choice test was devised in order to assess some aspects of the aphasic's semantic field; patient's task was to match a given picture with one out of three alternatives: one of them was linked by a class relationship, one was linked by a property relationship and the last was an unrelated item. Results clearly show that Broca's aphasics make their choice according to class criteria whereas Wernicke's and controls make their choice according to property criteria. Results are discussed in the light of Jakobson linguistic hypothesis which postulates that Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia are subdued by a contiguity and similarity disorder.

  20. A linguistic model of informed consent.

    PubMed

    Marta, J

    1996-02-01

    The current disclosure model of informed consent ignores the linguistic complexity of any act of communication, and the increased risk of difficulties in the special circumstances of informed consent. This article explores, through linguistic analysis, the specificity of informed consent as a speech act, a communication act, and a form of dialogue, following on the theories of J.L. Austin, Roman Jakobson, and Mikhail Bakhtin, respectively. In the proposed model, informed consent is a performative speech act resulting from a series of communication acts which together constitute a dialogic, polyphonic, heteroglossial discourse. It is an act of speech that results in action being taken after a conversation has happened where distinct individuals, multiple voices, and multiple perspectives have been respected, and convention observed and recognized. It is more meaningful and more ethical for both patient and physician, in all their human facets including their interconnectedness.

  1. Does agrammatic speech constitute a regression to child language? A three-way comparison between agrammatic, child, and normal ellipsis.

    PubMed

    Kolk, H

    2001-06-01

    When children are in the process of learning their mother tongue, they show frequent use of nonfinite clauses, even though they produce finite clauses at the same time, thereby demonstrating the availability of the functional domain associated with finiteness. In this study the hypothesis was tested that this behavior results from an overuse of the normal elliptical repertoire that has also been observed in agrammatic aphasia. The purpose of this overuse is prevention of computational overload. In support of the hypothesis it was found that children behaved very similar to aphasics and normal adults with respect to the following parameters: (a) distribution of types of ellipsis, (b) elaboration of ellipses, (c) word order, (d) subject omission, (e) frequency of weak subject pronouns, and (f) verb type (eventivity). The results also support the Jackson/Jakobson regression hypothesis, at least at the grammatical level.

  2. Agrammatism in aphasiology.

    PubMed

    Goodglass, H

    1997-01-01

    Agrammatism is a pattern of syntactically defective speech that is frequently observed as a prominent feature in Broca's aphasia. It may range in severity from one-word utterances, completely lacking in grammatical organization, to mildly 'telegraphic' speech. First described in the early 19th century, it was originally interpreted by Pick as being due to economy of effort in finding words. Beginning with Jakobson, in 1956, there have been a succession of efforts to give an account of it in terms of linguistic theory. While the theories are still controversial, they have led to much more detailed and systematic description of the linguistic output in agrammatic speech. Cross linguistic comparisons have revealed that the features of agrammatism are not fixed, but are conditioned by the grammatical structure of the speaker's language.

  3. Learning science through talking science in elementary classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara

    2014-03-01

    Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems, both drawings and spoken responses provide rich evidence of their understanding of the connections between science drawings and verbal explanations. In this forum contribution, we present several theoretical connections between everyday language and science communication and argue that building communication skills in science are essential. We also discuss how young participants should be valued and supported in research. Finally we discuss the need for multimodal research methods when the research participants are young.

  4. Lost and found: the Plecoptera types of Blanchard and Mabille, with further contributions to the stoneflies of Chile.

    PubMed

    Murányi, Dávid; Gamboa, Maribet; Vera, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Types of five of the six Plecoptera species described by Émile Blanchard and the holotype of the single stonefly described by Jules François Mabille were discovered in the National Museum Prague, Czech Republic. The identity of P. myrmidon Mabille, 1891 and P. pictetii Blanchard, 1854 are confirmed as Potamoperla myrmidon and Pictetoperla gayi (Pictet, 1841), respectively. Perla virescentipennis Blanchard, 1851 is considered as Diamphipnopsis virescentipennis comb. n., with Diamphipnosis samali Illies, 1960 syn. n. as a junior subjective synonym, and Diamphipnoa chillanae nom. n. is proposed for D. virescentipennis sensu Illies 1960. Lectotypes are designated for three species: Nemoura rufescens Blanchard, 1851 is redescribed as Austronemoura rufescens (Blanchard, 1851) comb. n., with Perla infuscata Blanchard, 1851 syn. n. and Perla blanchardi Jakobson & Bianchi, 1905 syn. n. designated as junior subjective synonyms, whereas Perla stictica Blanchard, 1851 is treated as Neonemura stictica (Blanchard, 1851) comb. n., nomen dubium. Paralectotypes of these three species belong to further four taxa. Due to the missing syntypes, Perla lineatocollis Blanchard, 1851 is treated as a nomen dubium of uncertain suborder assignment. Specimens of the Blanchard collections that cannot regarded as types are enumerated belonging to six species. Recent collections of 15 species from Chile are also reported.

  5. Large eddy simulation of dilute bubbly turbulent flows for aerating hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajit, Mohammad; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-11-01

    We have proposed a formulation for the large eddy simulation of dilute bubbly flows by converting the governing equations to a more loosely-coupled form. This formulation provides an efficient numerical procedure for two-way coupling of bubbly flows at low gas holdups. Subgrid-scale turbulence modeling is based on the dynamic procedure of Germano for the liquid phase and the Jakobson approach for the gas phase. Wall-modeling is implemented using the method of Cabot & Moin. Our approach is employed to simulate flow over aerating hydrofoils at different angles of attack. A structured body-fitted C-grid is employed for domain discretization. Validation of our computational code, for C-grids, is carried out by simulating single-phase flows over a NACA0012 airfoil (20° AOA) with laminar flow and an E387 airfoil (6° AOA) with turbulent flow. Comparisons with available computational and experimental data in terms of time averaged drag coefficient, lift coefficient, separation bubble length, and reattachment point proves the validity of our computational code. The aerating hydrofoil simulation utilizes a NACA0015 hydrofoil, for which experiments were carried out at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. Comparisons between computational and experimental datasets show promising results. This work is supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy and the Hydro Reasearch Foundation.

  6. The phonological representation of affricates: Evidence from Korean and other languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunsoon

    1997-11-01

    This work is concerned with the formal representation of affricates. For this we examine phonological patterns of affricates with simple stops and fricatives from a wide range of languages. Our cross-linguistic survey of affricates provides strong evidence in support of the view that in languages where affricates are all strident, affricates are strident stops, as first proposed by Jakobson, Fant and Halle (1963). Thus affricates pattern with simple stops by (-continuant), and with fricatives by (+strident), not by (+continuant). Under the stop- analysis of affricates, simple stops are distinct from affricates by (-strident) when the language in question has only strident affricates. We also propose that sonorant consonants are specified for (-continuant,- strident) if they phonologically function like simple stops, and that the airstream feature (strident) as well as (continuant) is structurally located higher than Place features in a nonlinear model of feature organization. As a case study we narrow our focus to one language, Korean, examining Korean affricates in both phonetic and phonological aspects. We first determine, from our own articulatory and acoustic experiments of four native speakers, that Korean affricates are alveolar in intervocalic position. From the phonetic study and our proposed model of affricates, we propose that Korean affricates are specified for (-continuant, +strident), with no secondary vocalic feature (coronal) like other obstruents in Korean. Phonological behavior of affricates in Korean Umlaut and Affrication provides evidence for our proposed representation of affricates, and also for our phonetic study.

  7. On the Relation between the General Affective Meaning and the Basic Sublexical, Lexical, and Inter-lexical Features of Poetic Texts—A Case Study Using 57 Poems of H. M. Enzensberger

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Susann; Aryani, Arash; Kraxenberger, Maria; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Conrad, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The literary genre of poetry is inherently related to the expression and elicitation of emotion via both content and form. To explore the nature of this affective impact at an extremely basic textual level, we collected ratings on eight different general affective meaning scales—valence, arousal, friendliness, sadness, spitefulness, poeticity, onomatopoeia, and liking—for 57 German poems (“die verteidigung der wölfe”) which the contemporary author H. M. Enzensberger had labeled as either “friendly,” “sad,” or “spiteful.” Following Jakobson's (1960) view on the vivid interplay of hierarchical text levels, we used multiple regression analyses to explore the specific influences of affective features from three different text levels (sublexical, lexical, and inter-lexical) on the perceived general affective meaning of the poems using three types of predictors: (1) Lexical predictor variables capturing the mean valence and arousal potential of words; (2) Inter-lexical predictors quantifying peaks, ranges, and dynamic changes within the lexical affective content; (3) Sublexical measures of basic affective tone according to sound-meaning correspondences at the sublexical level (see Aryani et al., 2016). We find the lexical predictors to account for a major amount of up to 50% of the variance in affective ratings. Moreover, inter-lexical and sublexical predictors account for a large portion of additional variance in the perceived general affective meaning. Together, the affective properties of all used textual features account for 43–70% of the variance in the affective ratings and still for 23–48% of the variance in the more abstract aesthetic ratings. In sum, our approach represents a novel method that successfully relates a prominent part of variance in perceived general affective meaning in this corpus of German poems to quantitative estimates of affective properties of textual components at the sublexical, lexical, and inter-lexical level

  8. On the Relation between the General Affective Meaning and the Basic Sublexical, Lexical, and Inter-lexical Features of Poetic Texts-A Case Study Using 57 Poems of H. M. Enzensberger.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Susann; Aryani, Arash; Kraxenberger, Maria; Jacobs, Arthur M; Conrad, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The literary genre of poetry is inherently related to the expression and elicitation of emotion via both content and form. To explore the nature of this affective impact at an extremely basic textual level, we collected ratings on eight different general affective meaning scales-valence, arousal, friendliness, sadness, spitefulness, poeticity, onomatopoeia, and liking-for 57 German poems ("die verteidigung der wölfe") which the contemporary author H. M. Enzensberger had labeled as either "friendly," "sad," or "spiteful." Following Jakobson's (1960) view on the vivid interplay of hierarchical text levels, we used multiple regression analyses to explore the specific influences of affective features from three different text levels (sublexical, lexical, and inter-lexical) on the perceived general affective meaning of the poems using three types of predictors: (1) Lexical predictor variables capturing the mean valence and arousal potential of words; (2) Inter-lexical predictors quantifying peaks, ranges, and dynamic changes within the lexical affective content; (3) Sublexical measures of basic affective tone according to sound-meaning correspondences at the sublexical level (see Aryani et al., 2016). We find the lexical predictors to account for a major amount of up to 50% of the variance in affective ratings. Moreover, inter-lexical and sublexical predictors account for a large portion of additional variance in the perceived general affective meaning. Together, the affective properties of all used textual features account for 43-70% of the variance in the affective ratings and still for 23-48% of the variance in the more abstract aesthetic ratings. In sum, our approach represents a novel method that successfully relates a prominent part of variance in perceived general affective meaning in this corpus of German poems to quantitative estimates of affective properties of textual components at the sublexical, lexical, and inter-lexical level.

  9. Teaching and learning science in linguistically diverse classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Emilee; Evnitskaya, Natalia; Ramos-de Robles, S. Lizette

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we reflect on the article, Science education in a bilingual class: problematising a translational practice, by Zeynep Ünsal, Britt Jakobson, Bengt-Olav Molander and Per-Olaf Wickman (Cult Stud Sci Educ, 10.1007/s11422-016-9747-3). In their article, the authors present the results of a classroom research project by responding to one main question: How is continuity between everyday language and the language of science construed in a bilingual science classroom where the teacher and the students do not speak the same minority language? Specifically, Ünsal et al. examine how bilingual students construe relations between everyday language and the language of science in a class taught in Swedish, in which all students also spoke Turkish, whereas the teacher also spoke Bosnian, both being minority languages in the context of Swedish schools. In this forum, we briefly discuss why close attention to bilingual dynamics emerging in classrooms such as those highlighted by Ünsal et al. matters for science education. We continue by discussing changing ontologies in relation to linguistic diversity and education more generally. Recent research in bilingual immersion classroom settings in so-called "content" subjects such as Content and Language Integrated Learning, is then introduced, as we believe this research offers some significant insights in terms of how bilingualism contributes to knowledge building in subjects such as science. Finally, we offer some reflections in relation to the classroom interactional competence needed by teachers in linguistically diverse classrooms. In this way, we aim to further the discussion initiated by Ünsal et al. and to offer possible frameworks for future research on bilingualism in science education. In their article, Ünsal et al. conclude the analysis of the classroom data by arguing in favor of a translanguaging pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning in which students' whole language repertoires are used as