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Sample records for jamahiriya morocco qatar

  1. Qatar.

    PubMed

    1992-04-01

    Qatar is a country of 11,437 sq. km with 400,000 inhabitants, of whom 65% are literate. Independence was gained on September 3, 1971. The terrain consists of flat, barren desert, with a hot and dry climate. Arabic and English are spoken by Arab, South Asian, and Iranian ethnic groups who are largely of the Islamic faith. Life expectancy is 58 years. The gross domestic product is $5.2 billion, growing at a rate of 4%. Per capita income is $13,000. The country's natural resources include petroleum, natural gas, and fish. Oil production, refining, natural gas development, fishing, cement, power/desalinization plants, petrochemicals, steel, and fertilizers are areas of economic production. Industrial and consumer goods are imported and oil is exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the US, and names of principal US officials in the country.

  2. Qatar.

    PubMed

    1992-04-01

    Qatar is a country of 11,437 sq. km with 400,000 inhabitants, of whom 65% are literate. Independence was gained on September 3, 1971. The terrain consists of flat, barren desert, with a hot and dry climate. Arabic and English are spoken by Arab, South Asian, and Iranian ethnic groups who are largely of the Islamic faith. Life expectancy is 58 years. The gross domestic product is $5.2 billion, growing at a rate of 4%. Per capita income is $13,000. The country's natural resources include petroleum, natural gas, and fish. Oil production, refining, natural gas development, fishing, cement, power/desalinization plants, petrochemicals, steel, and fertilizers are areas of economic production. Industrial and consumer goods are imported and oil is exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the US, and names of principal US officials in the country. PMID:12178044

  3. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  4. Morocco.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    This discussion of Morocco covers geography, the people, history, the government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, and relations between Morocco and the US. In 1984, the population of Morocco totaled 22.8 million. The 1983 annual growth rate was 2.6%. Morocco lies at the northwest corner of Africa, with only the Strait of Gibraltar separating it from Europe. Topographically, Morocco is sharply divided into open, agriculturally rich plains in the northwest and economically poor mountians and plateaus in the east and south. Most Moroccans are Sunni Muslims of Arab, Berber, or mixed Arab-Berber stock. Most of 100,000 foreign residents are French or Spanish. Arabic is the official and principal language. Morocco's strategic location has shaped its history. Beginning with the Phoenicians, many foreigners have come to this area, some to trade or settle and others as invaders. The Kingdom of Morocco recovered its political independence from France on March 2, 1956. The King is chief of state, and his son, the Crown Prince, is heir apparent. Under the 1972 constitution, a prime minister appointed by the King is head of government. Morocco has 6 principal political groups and 2 smaller ones. The country, rich in human and natural resources, is beginning to develop a socioeconomic infrastructure. The economy grew rapidly from 1967 to 1977, but beginning in 1978, a series of external shocks and a cycle of domestic drought revealed weaknesses ineconomic policies and structures. By 1983, the country was no longer able to service the heavy foreign debt. Although Morocco has rapidly urbanized and industrialized over the past decade, agriculture remains the biggest single determinant of its economic health. 42% of the work force is employed in agriculture. Since Morocco attained independence, its foreign policy has been basically sympathetic to the West. FormaL US-Moroccan relations date to 1787, when the 2 nations negotiated a Treaty of Peace and Friendship

  5. Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image over Morocco was acquired on April 23, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS, flying aboard the Terra spacecraft. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution bands. Notice the exquisite detail in the colors and textures of the variety of land surface features in northwestern Africa. The heavily-vegetated (green pixels) peninsula in the top center of the image is the southern shore of the Strait of Gibralter--the passage between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Notice the patchy formation of low-level cumulus clouds (white pixels) over this region, suggesting a moister climate that contributes to better plant growth. On the tip of this peninsula is the coastal city of Tangier. Moving west along the coastline, the city of Casablanca lies about 200 miles (330 km) southwest of Tangier, and about 50 miles south of Rabat, the capital city. Both Casablanca and Rabat are visible as small grey clusters of pixels. About 200 miles due south of Casablanca, the Atlas Mountains (brownish pixels) are running in a northeasterly direction toward Algeria, Morocco's eastern neighbor. Toward the bottom right side of the image is a portion of the northwestern edge of the Sahara Desert. The most yellow pixels toward the southeast corner of the image is the region in the Sahara known as the Great Western Erg, in Algeria. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC

  6. Qatar: Energy and development

    SciTech Connect

    El Mallakh, R.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the traumas that have been experienced in the Arabian Gulf over the past five years, Qatar has been remarkably successful in smoothing the transition of its economy from recession and oil glut to recovery and stabilization. This book examines the characteristics of Qatar's economic and social development that have assisted this process. These characteristics include; moderation in the development policy and the avoidance of excessive haste; a cohesive sense of political identity; and a relatively well educated labor force derived from an educational program that was in place prior to the oil boom. Qatar has also maintained a moderate policy within OPEC. During the price hikes of 1979-80, caused by cutbacks in Iranian exports, Qatar maintained its policy of restraint; this was an important factor in permitting Qatar to confront the substantial drop in oil-generated revenues faced by all the oil exporters in 1982-84.

  7. The Social Supervision and Its Role in Developing of the School Social Service in Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekali, Karima A. A.; zain, Abdul-Aziz

    2010-01-01

    The new direction of the social control over the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya is a phase that began in Tripoli city in 1990. After opening of the Office of Education ministry, education and health as a result of the efforts made by the Department of Education, which affected the evolution of modern educational thought, which emphasizes the process of…

  8. Profile of diabetic ketoacidosis at a teaching hospital in Benghazi, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.

    PubMed

    Elmehdawi, R R; Elmagerhei, H M

    2010-03-01

    This study describes the profile of 100 cases of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at a teaching hospital in 1 Benghazi, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. DKA was more frequent in young women with type 1 diabetes and mostly due to preventable causes, e.g., disrupted insulin treatment and/or infection. DKA also occurred in type 2 diabetics, with a higher mortality rate, as they were older patients with co-morbidity. Polyurea, fatigue, abdominal pain and vomiting were the most common clinical features, while coma was rarer. A high number of cases were first presentations of type 1 diabetes; hence this diagnosis should be considered in all patients with acute abdomen or decreased level of consciousness. The reasons for high mortality rate in this study (10%) were multifactorial. PMID:20795443

  9. The Qatar Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsubai, K. A.; Parley, N. R.; Bramich, D. M.; Horne, K.; Collier Cameron, A.; West, R. G.; Sorensen, P. M.; Pollacco, D.; Smith, J. C.; Fors, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Qatar Exoplanet Survey (QES) is discovering hot Jupiters and aims to discover hot Saturns and hot Neptunes that transit in front of relatively bright host stars. QES currently operates a robotic wide-angle camera system to identify promising transiting exoplanet candidates among which are the confirmed exoplanets Qatar 1b and 2b. This paper describes the first generation QES instrument, observing strategy, data reduction techniques, and follow-up procedures. The QES cameras in New Mexico complement the SuperWASP cameras in the Canary Islands and South Africa, and we have developed tools to enable the QES images and light curves to be archived and analysed using the same methods developed for the SuperWASP datasets. With its larger aperture, finer pixel scale, and comparable field of view, and with plans to deploy similar systems at two further sites, the QES, in collaboration with SuperWASP, should help to speed the discovery of smaller radius planets transiting bright stars in northern skies.

  10. Levels of radioactivity in Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Mohammed, K.

    1995-12-31

    The levels of natural and man-made radioactivity in soil and seabed were measured in Qatar to assess radiation exposure levels and to evaluate any radioactive contamination that may have reached the country from fallout or due to the Chernobyl accident radioactivity release. Qatar peninsula is located on the Arabian Gulf, 4500 km from Chernobyl, and has an area of {approximately}11,600 km{sup 2} and a population of {approximately}600,000.

  11. Morocco WFS.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    Although richer in natural resources than many developing countries, Morocco's economic development has been plagued by repid population growth, along with declines in the world price of its main export, phosphate, and a costly war in Western Sahara. Situated on the northwest corner of Africa, the Kingdom of Morocco is dominated geographically by its long coastline and the rugged Atlas mountain range to the east ans south. Abour 1/3 of the population live in remote mountain villages and speak Berber rather than the official language, Arabic. Despite large expanses of desert, agriculture has always been an economic mainstay. Morocco has hab near self-sufficiency in foodstuffs, but is now threatened by the burgeoning population, growing at 2.9% annually. The Moroccan governemnt officially recognized the role of population in development as early as 1966 and initiated a family planning program the following year. In 1979-80, a nationwide survey was conducted in conjunction with the World Fertility Survey program in part to assess the progrss of the family planning and health delivery systems. The newly published results show that contraceptive use is higher than expected. About 23% of the married women use birth control, and almost 20% use one of the more reliable methods. The pill is the most popular method, accounting for 71% of all users, followed by withdrawal, the IUD, and rhythm. Large families are valued, women want about 5 children each, but actual fertility exceeds even these levels. The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) for the 1974-79 period was 5.9 children per woman. This indicated a significant decline in childbearing among younger women, since women aged 40 and over reported an average total of 7 children. The WFS results support evidence of decline in birth rates indicated by the 1982 Moroccan census. Declines in infant mortality also measured by the WFS have not been as dramatic, but do show constant improvement, falling from 130 in the 1950s to about 93 in

  12. Revitalizing Qatar's National University. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Although Qatar University (QU) had been well regarded in the past, its performance had deteriorated by 2003, and the country's leadership was concerned that the university was not meeting Qatar's needs. From 2003 to 2007, the university led a reform process facilitated by RAND and outside experts, which clarified QU's mission and reformed QU's…

  13. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  14. Meteorite Falls in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.

    2016-08-01

    The number of meteorite falls reported in Morocco since 2000 is highest than any other place compared to the other countries in the world, that call into question the efficiency of the randomly meteorite falls on Earth.

  15. Liberal Arts Education in Qatar: Intercultural Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostron, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to sketch a historical, cultural and social background of recent educational developments in Qatar, briefly review the traditions of western liberal arts education with its goals and teaching and learning methodologies, explain its benefits and their relevance to Muslim Qatari students of universities in Education City in…

  16. Teaching across Cultures: Canada and Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prowse, Jacqueline; Goddard, J. Tim

    2010-01-01

    Findings from a comparative case study conducted in Canada and Qatar are presented in this article. The study examined the cultural context of a transnational post-secondary program offered by the Faculty of Business at a Canadian college, with campuses located in both St. John's and Doha. The instructors' perceptions of their students' cultures…

  17. Contextualizing Multilingualism in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Mayra C.; Ball, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the educational system of Morocco and the ways the country's multilingual history has influenced and continues to direct the choice of the languages used in schools. Suggestions that will eliminate cultural mismatch and thus facilitate interactions with Moroccan students and their families are included. The research focuses…

  18. Molecular basis of thalassemia in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidli, Aisha; Hamodat, Mowafak; Fawzi, Zainab; Abu-Laban, Mohamed; Gerard, Nathalie; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal

    2007-01-01

    There is a paucity of information on the molecular basis of beta-thalassemia (thal) in Qatar, a country in the southern part of the Arabian Gulf. To decipher the molecular spectrum of beta- thalassemic alleles present in Qatar, we studied 31 clinically recognized patients, including three with sickle cell disease and beta-thal, and an additional six cases referred for unexplained microcytic anemia. We found 12 different beta-thalassemic alleles and two yet to be defined alleles, mutations likely occurring elsewhere than in the beta-globin gene per se. This is quite striking, given the small size of the study population, and highlights not only the ethnic diversity, but also the necessity of further investigating the thalassemic spectrum. PMID:17486492

  19. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Kaabi, Saad; Derbala, Moutaz; Al-Marri, Ajayeb; Rikabi, Ammar

    2009-03-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10). A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006). Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%), hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  20. Applying Concepts of Critical Pedagogy to Qatar's Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanowski, Michael H.; Amatullah, Tasneem

    2016-01-01

    Qatar is in the midst of a systemic education reform, Education For a New Era, steered by RAND's (a nonprofit research organization) analysis and report of Qatar's Educational system. Driven by a neoliberal agenda, the reform includes international curricula, curriculum standards, teacher licensure, and professional standards for school leaders…

  1. Qatargas exporting LNG from Qatar`s new Ras Laffan Port

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-24

    When the 135,000 cu m LNG carrier Al Zubarah departed Ras Laffan Port in December, Qatar entered a new era of commerce that will both boost the emirate`s economic development and influence energy trade around the world. The event capped more than a decade of planning, design, and construction of Ras Laffan Port--the world`s newest and largest LNG exporting facility. During the 1980s, the focus in Qatar was on exploration and development of North field, which holds the world`s largest reserves of nonassociated natural gas. In the 1990s, efforts concentrated on establishing a direct production and export link between North field, the new multi-billion-dollar Qatar Liquefied Gas Co. (Qatargas) gas liquefaction plant at Ras Laffan, and LNG export facilities at the 8.5 sq km Ras Laffan Port. Markets of the Far East will be first to be served by LNG from Ras Laffan Port. Two 25-year LNG supply contracts have been signed with buyers in Japan and South Korea, and negotiations are under way with potential customers from China, Taiwan, and Thailand. The paper describes the port, its operations, and export projects.

  2. Controlling residential water demand in Qatar: an assessment.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohannadi, Hassan I; Hunt, Chris O; Wood, Adrian P

    2003-08-01

    Qatar has serious water resource problems, following rapid socioeconomic development and massive population increase. Municipal water provision depends on costly and unsustainable desalination. There is little regulation. Native Qataris do not pay a water tariff and migrants pay a subsidized price--approximately one third of the cost of production--so there is little awareness of the true cost of water and use is profligate. This paper discusses trends in water use and identifies issues underlying sustainable water use in Qatar. A questionnaire of respondents chosen to represent Qatari social groups measured awareness and attitudes to water. The results show that previous efforts to control water demand in Qatar, using awareness campaigns, legal restrictions and tariffs, have been ineffectual. The questionnaire evaluated reactions to possible measures to limit uses by raising awareness, using legal restrictions and raising tariffs. From this, a number of policy changes can be suggested, to bring Qatar's water industry towards sustainability.

  3. Uncommon opportunistic yeast bloodstream infections from Qatar.

    PubMed

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; AbdulWahab, Atqah; Kolecka, Anna; Deshmukh, Anand; Meis, Jacques F; Boekhout, Teun

    2014-07-01

    Eleven uncommon yeast species that are associated with high mortality rates irrespective of antifungal therapy were isolated from 17/187 (201 episodes) pediatric and elderly patients with fungemia from Qatar. The samples were taken over a 6-year period (January 2004-December 2010). Isolated species included Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Lindnera fabianii, Candida dubliniensis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Candida intermedia, Pichia kudriavzevii, Yarrowia lipolytica, Clavispora lusitaniae, Candida pararugosa, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry provided correct identifications compared with molecular analysis testing of the same isolates. Low minimal inhibitory concentrations were found when isavuconazole and voriconazole were used for all uncommon yeast species evaluated in this study. Resistance to antifungal drugs was low and remained restricted to a few species. PMID:24934803

  4. A preliminary report on the distribution of lizards in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Cogălniceanu, Dan; Castilla, Aurora M; Valdeón, Aitor; Gosá, Alberto; Al-Jaidah, Noora; Alkuwary, Ali; Saifelnasr, Essam O. H.; Mas-Peinado, Paloma; Richer, Renee; Al-Hemaidi, Ahmad Amer Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We have updated the list of the lizard species present in Qatar and produced the first distribution maps based on two field surveys in 2012 and 2013. We used the QND95/Qatar National Grid with a grid of 10 × 10 km squares for mapping. Our results show the occurrence of 21 lizard species in Qatar, from the 15 species indicated in the last biodiversity report conducted in 2004. The most abundant family found in Qatar is Gekkonidae with nine species (Bunopus tuberculatus, Cyrtopodion scabrum, Hemidactylus robustus, H. flaviviridis, H. persicus, Stenodactylus arabicus, S. slevini, S. doriae, Pseudoceramodactylus khobarensis), followed by Lacertidae with four species (Acanthodactylus schmidti, A. opheodurus, Mesalina brevirostris, M. adramitana), Agamidae with three species (Trapelus flavimaculatus, Uromastyx aegyptia, Phrynocephalus arabicus), Scincidae with two species (Scincus mitranus, Trachylepis septemtaeniata), and Varanidae (Varanus griseus), Sphaerodactylidae (Pristurus rupestris) and Trogonophiidae (Diplometopon zarudnyi) with one species each. The species richness fluctuated largely across Qatar between one and eleven species per grid square. We believe that the lizard fauna records in Qatar are still incomplete and that additional studies are required. However, our study here fills a gap concerning lizard biodiversity knowledge in the Gulf Region. PMID:24493961

  5. Qatar's School Transportation System: Supporting Safety, Efficiency, and Service Quality. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Keith; Younossi, Obaid; Al-Dafa, Maryah; Culbertson, Shelly; Mattock, Michael G.; Light, Thomas; Rohr, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    In consideration of the many challenges associated with Qatar's continued growth and demographic changes, the government of Qatar is interested in updating its school transportation system (STS). This volume assesses the perspectives of parents and school administrators on Qatar's STS, identifies a vision and goals for the STS, reviews…

  6. An assessment of Qatar's coral communities in a regional context.

    PubMed

    Burt, John A; Smith, Edward G; Warren, Christopher; Dupont, Jennifer

    2016-04-30

    Qatar's once extensive coral communities have undergone considerable change in recent decades. We quantitatively surveyed three coral assemblages in Qatar to assess current status, and compared these against 14 sites in Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates to evaluate Qatar in a larger biogeographic context. Umm Al-Arshan had the highest species richness of 17 sites examined in the southern Arabian Gulf, as well as the highest coral cover and the only Acropora observed on sites in Qatar. Coral cover and richness were more modest at Fuwayrit and Al-Ashat, reflecting greater impacts from earlier stress events. Two distinct communities were identified across the southern Gulf, with Umm Al-Arshan clustering with high-cover, mixed merulinid/poritid assemblages that were less impacted by earlier bleaching and long-term stress, while Fuwayrit and Al-Ashat grouped with a lower-cover, stress-tolerant community characteristic of more extreme environments in the southern Gulf. We recommend implementation of a nation-wide baseline assessment of coral communities to guide development of an MPA network and long-term coral monitoring program for Qatar. PMID:26410180

  7. An assessment of Qatar's coral communities in a regional context.

    PubMed

    Burt, John A; Smith, Edward G; Warren, Christopher; Dupont, Jennifer

    2016-04-30

    Qatar's once extensive coral communities have undergone considerable change in recent decades. We quantitatively surveyed three coral assemblages in Qatar to assess current status, and compared these against 14 sites in Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates to evaluate Qatar in a larger biogeographic context. Umm Al-Arshan had the highest species richness of 17 sites examined in the southern Arabian Gulf, as well as the highest coral cover and the only Acropora observed on sites in Qatar. Coral cover and richness were more modest at Fuwayrit and Al-Ashat, reflecting greater impacts from earlier stress events. Two distinct communities were identified across the southern Gulf, with Umm Al-Arshan clustering with high-cover, mixed merulinid/poritid assemblages that were less impacted by earlier bleaching and long-term stress, while Fuwayrit and Al-Ashat grouped with a lower-cover, stress-tolerant community characteristic of more extreme environments in the southern Gulf. We recommend implementation of a nation-wide baseline assessment of coral communities to guide development of an MPA network and long-term coral monitoring program for Qatar.

  8. Hydrocarbon potential of Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Achnin, H.; Nairn, A.E.M.

    1988-08-01

    Morocco lies at the junction of the African and Eurasian plates and carries a record of their movements since the end of the Precambrian. Four structural regions with basins and troughs can be identified: Saharan (Tarfaya-Ayoun and Tindouf basins); Anti-Atlas (Souss and Ouarzazate troughs and Boudnib basin); the Essaouria, Doukkala, Tadla, Missour, High Plateau, and Guercif basins; and Meseta and Rif (Rharb and Pre-Rif basins). The targets in the Tindouf basin are Paleozoic, Cambrian, Ordovician (clastics), Devonian (limestones), and Carboniferous reservoirs sourced primarily by Silurian shales. In the remaining basins, excluding the Rharb, the reservoirs are Triassic detritals, limestones at the base of the Lias and Dogger, Malm detritals, and sandy horizons in the Cretaceous. In addition to the Silurian, potential source rocks include the Carboniferous and Permo-Carboniferous shales and clays; Jurassic shales, marls, and carbonates; and Cretaceous clays. In the Rharb basin, the objectives are sand lenses within the Miocene marls. The maturation level of the organic matter generally corresponds to oil and gas. The traps are stratigraphic (lenses and reefs) and structural (horsts and folds). The seals in the pre-Jurassic rocks are shales and evaporites; in the younger rocks, shales and marl. Hydrocarbon accumulations have been found in Paleozoic, Triassic, Liassic, Malm, and Miocene rocks.

  9. Oil slicks off the coast of Qatar, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A detailed view the port facility of Musay'id on the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf (25.0N, 52.5E). Part of a large oil spill seen as a dark toned mass in the water, covering much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf, has moved offshore in this scene. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment commonly occur in oil tanker operations.

  10. Morocco: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on reflecting concern over Morocco's position as a net oil importer, that officials hope that revised hydrocarbon laws presented in 1984 will clarify and improve terms under which international companies come into the kingdom. State oil exploration company Onarep is being restructured and the new petroleum law as recently ratified.

  11. A Perspective on Student Learning Outcome Assessment at Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Thani, Shaikha Jabor; Abdelmoneim, Ali; Daoud, Khaled; Cherif, Adel; Moukarzel, Dalal

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a unique perspective on the student learning outcome assessment process as adopted and implemented at Qatar University from 2006 to 2012. The progress of the student learning outcome assessment and continuous improvement efforts at the university and the initiatives taken to establish a culture of assessment and evidence-based…

  12. Impact of noncommunicable diseases in the State of Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kaabi, Salma Khalaf; Atherton, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study, commissioned by the Supreme Council of Health in the State of Qatar, focuses on the main noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) globally and regionally, in order to gauge their potential impact on Qatar. The research shows that the Gulf Cooperation Council is projected to be affected dramatically by NCDs in the coming years. The top five NCDs that will affect Qatar in terms of economic burden and disability-adjusted life years are cardiovascular diseases, mental health and behavioral disorders, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes. Whilst these diseases have diverse effects on patients, their causes can be traced to “… common lifestyle-related, or behavioral, risk factors such as tobacco use, a diet heavy in fat, and physical inactivity”. The total direct and indirect costs to the Gulf Cooperation Council calculated for the above five NCDs were $36.2 billion in 2013, which equates to 150% of the officially recorded annual health care expenditure. If this trajectory is maintained, spending per head of population in Qatar will reach $2,778 by 2022. These figures demonstrate not only the potential financial impact of the main NCDs, but also give an idea of how the current health system is working to address them. PMID:26170702

  13. Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Qatar: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Alaa; Arora, Paul; Sadoun, Eman; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud; Thani, Mohamed H. Al

    2012-01-01

    Qatar has a high burden of chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Low serum vitamin D levels have been implicated in the development and progression of a range of these chronic conditions. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the general population of Qatar has still not been investigated. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of published studies documenting the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the Qatari population. A search strategy was developed for online databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and Embase Classic) between 1980 to the last week of August 2012, and bibliographies of the included studies were further searched for additional reports. Search terms used were QATAR and VITAMIN D. Studies reporting the serum levels of vitamin D in several Qatari sub-populations were identified. Weighted-average vitamin D serum levels and prevalence of low vitamin D status (<75 nmol/L) were calculated. Subgroup analysis was carried out by age. The quality of each study was evaluated according to four criteria: national representativeness, representation of males and females, the sample size, and the sampling protocol. A total of 16 relevant publications were identified, and 8 of these (reporting from 7 unique studies) met our inclusion and exclusion criteria with a total number of 1,699 Qatari subjects. The pooled sample size weighted-average vitamin D concentration (±SD) was 45.3±14.3 nmol/L (95% CI: 44.6-46.0; range 29.2-66.9 nmol/L). The weighted-average prevalence of low vitamin D status was 90.4% (95% CI: 90.1-91.0; range 83%-91%). Age was inversely correlated with vitamin D levels and directly with its insufficiency/deficiency prevalence. There have only been a few studies on the prevalence of low vitamin D in Qatar a very high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in Qatar that increases with age has been suggested. The present report

  14. Workplace Learning in Morocco: Private Sector Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, J. Ben; Al Arkoubi, Khadija

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore training and development practices in Morocco and examine them in light of international practices provided from benchmarking data. Distinctions were also made between multinationals operating in Morocco and Moroccan owned companies. Contrasts in the results are discussed with possible explanations and…

  15. Arranging marriage; negotiating risk: genetics and society in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Kilshaw, Susie; Al Raisi, Tasneem; Alshaban, Fouad

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers how the globalized discourse of genetic risk in cousin marriage is shaped, informed and taken up in local moral worlds within the context of Qatar. This paper investigates the way Qataris are negotiating the discourse on genetics and risk. It is based on data from ongoing ethnographic research in Qatar and contributes to anthropological knowledge about this understudied country. Participants were ambivalent about genetic risks and often pointed to other theories of causation in relation to illness and disability. The discourse on genetic risk associated with marrying in the family was familiar, but for some participants the benefits of close marriage outweighed potential risks. Furthermore, the introduction of mandatory pre-marital screening gave participants confidence that risks were monitored and minimized.

  16. Joining the nursing profession in Qatar: motives and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Okasha, M S; Ziady, H H

    2001-11-01

    We aimed to identify why female students in Qatar decide to become nurses and how the students perceived the community attitude towards nursing. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed to all (57) female students of the four academic classes of the Nursing Unit, University of Qatar for the academic year 1999-2000. The two commonest reasons for joining the nursing profession were an interest in medical services and the humanitarian nature of nursing. There were 33 (57.89%) students who considered there was a negative community attitude towards nursing mainly due to the presence of male patients and colleagues and the working hours. A mass media campaign and govemmental support were two strategies suggested to change this. PMID:15332745

  17. Joining the nursing profession in Qatar: motives and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Okasha, M S; Ziady, H H

    2001-11-01

    We aimed to identify why female students in Qatar decide to become nurses and how the students perceived the community attitude towards nursing. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed to all (57) female students of the four academic classes of the Nursing Unit, University of Qatar for the academic year 1999-2000. The two commonest reasons for joining the nursing profession were an interest in medical services and the humanitarian nature of nursing. There were 33 (57.89%) students who considered there was a negative community attitude towards nursing mainly due to the presence of male patients and colleagues and the working hours. A mass media campaign and govemmental support were two strategies suggested to change this.

  18. Population genetic structure of the people of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Hunter-Zinck, Haley; Musharoff, Shaila; Salit, Jacqueline; Al-Ali, Khalid A; Chouchane, Lotfi; Gohar, Abeer; Matthews, Rebecca; Butler, Marcus W; Fuller, Jennifer; Hackett, Neil R; Crystal, Ronald G; Clark, Andrew G

    2010-07-01

    People of the Qatar peninsula represent a relatively recent founding by a small number of families from three tribes of the Arabian Peninsula, Persia, and Oman, with indications of African admixture. To assess the roles of both this founding effect and the customary first-cousin marriages among the ancestral Islamic populations in Qatar's population genetic structure, we obtained and genotyped with Affymetrix 500k SNP arrays DNA samples from 168 self-reported Qatari nationals sampled from Doha, Qatar. Principal components analysis was performed along with samples from the Human Genetic Diversity Project data set, revealing three clear clusters of genotypes whose proximity to other human population samples is consistent with Arabian origin, a more eastern or Persian origin, and individuals with African admixture. The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is greater than that of African populations, and runs of homozygosity in some individuals reflect substantial consanguinity. However, the variance in runs of homozygosity is exceptionally high, and the degree of identity-by-descent sharing generally appears to be lower than expected for a population in which nearly half of marriages are between first cousins. Despite the fact that the SNPs of the Affymetrix 500k chip were ascertained with a bias toward SNPs common in Europeans, the data strongly support the notion that the Qatari population could provide a valuable resource for the mapping of genes associated with complex disorders and that tests of pairwise interactions are particularly empowered by populations with elevated LD like the Qatari.

  19. Morocco FPA hosts IPPF council.

    PubMed

    2000-07-01

    This article reports the proceedings of the meeting conducted by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Governing Council (GC) in Morocco. A total of 29 out of the 30 volunteer GC members attended the meeting. The activities of the first day included a visit to the Centers for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Communication Development in Rabat and Fez. It is noted that Morocco is sharing a model approach of its multi-purpose centers, which are located in densely populated areas. These centers provide reproductive health and family planning services, counseling, literacy classes, income-generating activities and legal advice on domestic violence. In the following days, discussions on administrative matters were held. In addition, the IPPF youth manifesto was presented in its final, published format, which stresses the need for IPPF youth to strengthen program activities and its financial situation. Moreover, a workshop was held to strengthen the working relationship and further communication between IPPF staff and volunteers. Issues covered included how to reach common goals and further mobilize resources.

  20. Education for a New Era: Design and Implementation of K-12 Education Reform in Qatar. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Augustine, Catherine H.; Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan, Gery; Goldman, Charles A.; Stasz, Cathleen; Constant, Louay

    2007-01-01

    The leadership of Qatar has a social and political vision that calls for improving the outcomes of the Qatari K-12 education system. With this vision in mind, the leadership asked RAND to examine Qatar's K-12 education system, to recommend options for building a world-class system, and, subsequently, to develop the chosen option and support its…

  1. The Private-Public Literacy Divide amid Educational Reform in Qatar: What Does PISA Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2015-01-01

    The education system in Qatar comprises of both private schools, which receive money through student fees, and public schools, which are fully government-funded. In the mid-2000s, Qatar started its transition towards an independent school model with the aim of eventually converting all public schools into government-supported independent schools.…

  2. Small Steps Lead to Quality Assurance and Enhancement in Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Attiyah, Asma; Khalifa, Batoul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of Qatar University's history since it was started in 1973. Its primary focus is on the various small, but important, steps taken by the University to address the needs of quality assurance and enhancement. The Qatar University Reform Plan is described in detail. Its aims are to continually improve the quality…

  3. The Migrant Effect: An Evaluation of Native Academic Performance in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent data have suggested that despite massive outlays on educational reform Qatar consistently ranks as one of the least academically proficient countries in key areas of literacy. Of the seventy-four countries that participated in PISA 2009 Qatar ranked between sixty-seven and sixty-nine in mathematics, reading and science literacy. Although…

  4. Identification of wind fields for wave modeling near Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Sashikant; Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Panchang, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Due to the development of coastal and offshore infrastructure in and around the Arabian Gulf, a large semi-enclosed sea, knowledge of met-ocean factors like prevailing wind systems, wind generated waves, and currents etc. are of great importance. Primarily it is important to identify the wind fields that are used as forcing functions for wave and circulation models for hindcasting and forecasting purposes. The present study investigates the effects of using two sources of wind-fields on the modeling of wind-waves in the Arabian Gulf, in particular near the coastal regions of Qatar. Two wind sources are considered here, those obtained from ECMWF and those generated by us using the WRF model. The wave model SWAN was first forced with the 6 hourly ERA Interim daily winds (from ECMWF) having spatial resolution of 0.125°. For the second option, wind fields were generated by us using the mesoscale wind model (WRF) with a high spatial resolution (0.1°) at every 30 minute intervals. The simulations were carried out for a period of two months (7th October-7th December, 2015) during which measurements were available from two moored buoys (deployed and operated by the Qatar Meteorological Department), one in the north of Qatar ("Qatar North", in water depth of 58.7 m) and other in the south ("Shiraouh Island", in water depth of 16.64 m). This period included a high-sea event on 11-12th of October, recorded by the two buoys where the significant wave heights (Hs) reached as high as 2.9 m (i.e. max wave height H ~ 5.22 m) and 1.9 (max wave height H ~ 3.4 m) respectively. Model results were compared with the data for this period. The scatter index (SI) of the Hs simulated using the WRF wind fields and the observed Hs was found to be about 30% and 32% for the two buoys (total period). The observed Hs were generally reproduced but there was consistent underestimation. (Maximum 27% for the high-sea event). For the Hs obtained with ERA interim wind fields, the underestimation was

  5. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography

  6. What do the trace metal contents of urine and toenail samples from Qatar׳s farm workers bioindicate?

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Nora; Rowell, Candace; Nriagu, Jerome; Shomar, Basem

    2014-05-01

    Qatar׳s farm workers provide a unique population for exposure study: they are young, healthy males. This study combined trace element profiles in urine and toenail with survey information from 239 farm workers to assess the extent to which the biomarkers provide complementary exposure information. Urinary Mo levels (average=114 µg/L) were elevated; average urinary values (µg/L) for all other elements were: V (1.02), Cr (0.55), Mn (2.15), Fe (34.1), Co (0.47), Ni (2.95), Cu (15.0), As (47.8), Se (25.7), Cd (1.09), Ba (22.5), Pb (2.50) and U (0.15). Average toenail concentrations (mg/kg) were: Mn (2.48), Cu (4.43), As (0.26), Se (0.58), Mo (0.07), Cd (0.03), Ba (1.00), Pb (0.51) and U (0.02). No significant association was found between corresponding elements in urine and toenails. Elemental profiles suggest groundwater (with the exception of Mo) and soil-dust-crop exposure pathways cannot account for elemental variations. The main factors moderating trace element contents are related to depuration processes involving participants׳ trace element body burden prior to work in Qatar, and interactions of trace element metabolic cycles which over-ride the exposure footprint. Toenail and urine need to be carefully validated before reliable use as biomarkers of exposure in general populations for most elements in the study.

  7. What do the trace metal contents of urine and toenail samples from Qatar׳s farm workers bioindicate?

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Nora; Rowell, Candace; Nriagu, Jerome; Shomar, Basem

    2014-05-01

    Qatar׳s farm workers provide a unique population for exposure study: they are young, healthy males. This study combined trace element profiles in urine and toenail with survey information from 239 farm workers to assess the extent to which the biomarkers provide complementary exposure information. Urinary Mo levels (average=114 µg/L) were elevated; average urinary values (µg/L) for all other elements were: V (1.02), Cr (0.55), Mn (2.15), Fe (34.1), Co (0.47), Ni (2.95), Cu (15.0), As (47.8), Se (25.7), Cd (1.09), Ba (22.5), Pb (2.50) and U (0.15). Average toenail concentrations (mg/kg) were: Mn (2.48), Cu (4.43), As (0.26), Se (0.58), Mo (0.07), Cd (0.03), Ba (1.00), Pb (0.51) and U (0.02). No significant association was found between corresponding elements in urine and toenails. Elemental profiles suggest groundwater (with the exception of Mo) and soil-dust-crop exposure pathways cannot account for elemental variations. The main factors moderating trace element contents are related to depuration processes involving participants׳ trace element body burden prior to work in Qatar, and interactions of trace element metabolic cycles which over-ride the exposure footprint. Toenail and urine need to be carefully validated before reliable use as biomarkers of exposure in general populations for most elements in the study. PMID:24674761

  8. No variations in transit times for Qatar-1 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Fernández, M.; Aceituno, F. J.; Ohlert, J.; Puchalski, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Seeliger, M.; Kitze, M.; Raetz, St.; Errmann, R.; Gilbert, H.; Pannicke, A.; Schmidt, J.-G.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: The transiting hot-Jupiter planet Qatar-1 b exhibits variations in transit times that could be perturbative. A hot Jupiter with a planetary companion on a nearby orbit would constitute an unprecedented planetary configuration, which is important for theories of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. We performed a photometric follow-up campaign to confirm or refute transit timing variations. Methods: We extend the baseline of transit observations by acquiring 18 new transit light curves acquired with 0.6-2.0 m telescopes. These photometric time series, together with data available in the literature, were analyzed in a homogenous way to derive reliable transit parameters and their uncertainties. Results: We show that the dataset of transit times is consistent with a linear ephemeris leaving no hint of any periodic variations with a range of 1 min. We find no compelling evidence of a close-in planetary companion to Qatar-1 b. This finding is in line with a paradigm that hot Jupiters are not components of compact multiplanetary systems. Based on dynamical simulations, we place tighter constraints on the mass of any fictitious nearby planet in the system. Furthermore, new transit light curves allowed us to redetermine system parameters with better precision than reported in previous studies. Our values generally agree with previous determinations. Partly based on (1) data collected with telescopes at the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory and (2) observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University.Tables of light curve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A109

  9. The challenge of population growth in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Sabagh, G

    1993-01-01

    The author investigates demographic trends in Morocco since 1950. Aspects considered include economic changes, with a focus on education, land distribution, and agricultural production; social transformation, particularly literacy, women in the labor force, and changes in marriage age; and the implications of these trends.

  10. Morocco and California: Comparing Environment and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a research project in which, using library and computer resources, students compiled a comparison profile of selected physical, social, and economic characteristics of Morocco and California. The students evaluated the relative role of environmental variables in influencing the human geography of the two regions. (MJP)

  11. Morocco: The Mohammadia College of Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kettani, Hamza

    1976-01-01

    Provides a history and description of the Mohammadia College of Engineering in Rabat, Morocco. Topics discussed include student selection, curriculum, policy implementation, and the teaching staff. The author concludes that the college does an excellent job in training qualified engineers for public works, mining, electrical and mechanical…

  12. Getting Its Ducks in a Row? Qatar Foundation's Agreement with HEC Paris and the Launch of the Qatar Foundation Management, Education and Research Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Last week, private, non-profit organisation the Qatar Foundation (QF) announced a partnership agreement with French business institution HEC Paris to offer executive education programmes. According to the terms of the agreement, a full-time faculty will provide executive and short certificate programmes and corporate-specific training, including…

  13. Prevalence of microplastics in the marine waters of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Azenith B; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2016-10-15

    Microplastics are firmly recognized as a ubiquitous and growing threat to marine biota and their associated marine habitats worldwide. The evidence of the prevalence of microplastics was documented for the first time in the marine waters of Qatar's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). An optimized and validated protocol was developed for the extraction of microplastics from plankton-rich seawater samples without loss of microplastic debris present and characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. In total 30 microplastic polymers have been identified with an average concentration of 0.71particlesm(-3) (range 0-3particlesm(-3)). Polypropylene, low density polyethylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, polyamide, polymethyl methacrylate, cellophane, and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymers were characterized with majority of the microplastics either granular shape, sizes ranging from 125μm to 1.82mm or fibrous with sizes from 150μm to 15.98mm. The microplastics are evident in areas where nearby anthropogenic activities, including oil-rig installations and shipping operations are present. PMID:27389452

  14. Prevalence of microplastics in the marine waters of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Azenith B; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2016-10-15

    Microplastics are firmly recognized as a ubiquitous and growing threat to marine biota and their associated marine habitats worldwide. The evidence of the prevalence of microplastics was documented for the first time in the marine waters of Qatar's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). An optimized and validated protocol was developed for the extraction of microplastics from plankton-rich seawater samples without loss of microplastic debris present and characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. In total 30 microplastic polymers have been identified with an average concentration of 0.71particlesm(-3) (range 0-3particlesm(-3)). Polypropylene, low density polyethylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, polyamide, polymethyl methacrylate, cellophane, and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymers were characterized with majority of the microplastics either granular shape, sizes ranging from 125μm to 1.82mm or fibrous with sizes from 150μm to 15.98mm. The microplastics are evident in areas where nearby anthropogenic activities, including oil-rig installations and shipping operations are present.

  15. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils

  16. Pediatric oncology in Morocco: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hessissen, Laila; Madani, Abdellah

    2012-03-01

    Cancer in children is quickly becoming one of the leading causes of non traumatic death among children. In pediatric oncology, palliative care is a primary component of the cancer control plan. In low income countries also known as emerging nations or developing countries access to adequate care remains a challenge for most pediatric oncology patients. In Morocco the situation has dramatically improved in the last few years as both the government and NGOs have become more aware of the importance and urgency of the issue. The incidence of cancer in patients under 15 years of age in Morocco is estimated to be 1000 new cases per year and the incidence of leukemia to be 100 new cases diagnosed per year. Pediatric cancer patients are mostly managed by public hospitals. Thus they are highly influenced by the Moroccan public health system, which is now considering cancer management a priority. Since health cover is very limited, most chemotherapy drugs were purchased by local parent associations. Recently, a new large Moroccan NGO (ALSC) provides anti-cancer drugs to all government-run oncology units. Despite all the progress, Morocco has witnessed in the pediatric oncology field, the palliative aspect of the care is not yet organized. Pediatric oncology is supported by the work of the National Society of Pediatric Oncolgy. The opioide therapy is available. However its use is strongly limited by the current restrictive and obsolete legislation which represents a major barrier to care. Despite the latest progress, pediatric oncology in Morocco still needs to improve in order to achieve performances comparable to those of the developed world. These improvements include better survival rates, less treatment abandonment, developing new techniques, improving quality of life and creating data collection teams. In order for this action to succeed all the stakeholders (government, NGOs, medical societies, oncology teams) must work together and coordinate their efforts.

  17. Horizontal well application in QGPC - Qatar, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Jubralla, A.F.; Al-Omran, J.; Al-Omran, S.

    1995-08-01

    As with many other areas in the world, the application of horizontal well technology in Qatar has changed the {open_quotes}old time{close_quotes} reservoir development philosophy and approach. QGPC`s first experience with this technology was for increased injectivity in an upper Jurassic reservoir which is comprised by alternating high and low permeable layers. The first well drilled in 1990 offshore was an extreme success and the application was justified for fieldwide implementation. Huge costs were saved as a result. This was followed by 2 horizontal wells for increased productivity in a typically tight (< 5 mD) chalky limestone of Cretaceous age. A fourth offshore well drilled in a thin (30 ft) and tight (10-100 mD) Jurassic dolomite overlaying a stack of relatively thick (25-70 ft) and {open_quotes}Watered Out{close_quotes} grain and grain-packstones, (500-4500 mD) indicated another viable and successful application. A similar approach in the Onshore Dukhan field has been adopted for another Upper Jurassic reservoir. The reservoir is 80 ft thick and is being developed by vertical wells. However, permeability contrast between the upper and lower cycles had caused preferential production and hence injection across the lower cycles, leaving the upper cycles effectively undrained. Horizontal wells have resulted in productivity and injectivity improvements by a factor 3 to 5 that of vertical wells. Therefore a field wide development scheme is being implemented. 3D seismic and the imaging tools, such as the FMS, reconciled with horizontal cores have assisted in understanding the lateral variation and the macro and micro architectural and structural details of these reservoirs. Such tools are essential for the optimum design of horizontal wells.

  18. Studies on mosquito borne dieases in Egypt and Qatar.

    PubMed

    Mikhail, Micheal W; Al-Bursheed, Khalifa M; Abd El-Halim, Azza S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2009-12-01

    Mosquitoes identification, distribution and densities in representative Egyptian Governorates and five Qatarain Municipalities (Al Rayyan, Doha, Al Daayan, Al Khor & Al Zahakira and Al Shamal) were studied. In Qatar the larvae were Culex pipiens complex, C. univettatus, C. pusillus, Aedes caspies, Anopheles multicolor and A. stephensi. C. pipiens and C. univettatus were mainly in Al Rayyan, Doha, and Al Khor & Al Zahakira. C. pusillus was in Doha and Al Daayan while A. caspies was in Al Daayan and Al Shamal. Anopheles multicolor and A. stephensi were mainly in Al Shamal with low density in Al Rayyan (only in Ain-Khalid locution). The Egyptian mosquitoes were C. pipiens, C. antennatus, C. thelerei, C. univittatus, C. perexiguus, C. poicilipes, C. pusillus, Aedes caspius, Ae. detritus, A. sergentii, A. pharoensis, A. multicolor, A. detali, A. algeriensis, A. tenebrosus, A. gambiae (formerly), A. superpictus, A. tarkhadi, A. hispaniola, A. rhodesiensis, A. stephensi, A. coustani and Culiseta longiareolata. As an example in Sharkia Governorate, larvae were C. pipiens (68.77%), Ae. caspius (15.75%), Culiseta sp. (=Theobaldia) and C. pusillus. In Greater Cairo, parts of Qualyoubia G., C. pipiens was the most dominant and the least was C. perexiguus. In parts of Giza G., C. pipiens was the most dominant and least was Cs. longiareolata. In Cairo G., C. pipiens was the most dominant and least was Ae. caspius. The overall in Greater Cairo was C. pipiens (61.74%), Cs. longiareolata (15.56%), Ae. caspius (15.3%), C. pusillus (4.0%) and C. perexiguus (3.16%).

  19. Composition of Atmospheric Dust from Qatar in the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Ansari, I. S.; Abdel-Moati, M.; Al-Ansi, M.; Paul, B.; Nelson, A.; Turner, J.; Murray, J. W.; Alfoldy, B. Z.; Mahfouz, M. M. K.; Giamberini, M.

    2015-12-01

    Samples of atmospheric dust from Qatar have been collected and analyzed for major and trace elemental composition. Twenty-one samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 from Doha, Al Khor, Katara, Sealine, and Al Waab by a variety of techniques. Some samples were collected during the megastorms that occurred in April 2015. Back trajectories were determined for each sample using the NOAA HYSPLIT model over a 50 hour time interval. Our samples were about equally divided between northerly (n=12; northern Saudi Arabia, Kuwait or Iraq) and southerly (n=8; SE Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Oman) sources. One sample originated directly westward, in Saudi Arabia. Samples were microwave-assisted total acid digested (HF+HCl+HNO3) and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). There are only 12 out of 23 elements for which the Qatari dust was enriched relative to upper continental crust (UCC). Calcium was especially enriched at 400% relative to UCC. About 33% of the total sample mass was CaCO3, reflecting the composition of surface rocks in the source areas. Of the elements typically associated with anthropogenic activity, Ag, Ni and Zn were the most enriched relative to UCC, with enrichment factors of 182%, 233% and 209%, respectively. Others like Pb and V were not significantly enriched, with enrichment factors of 25% and 3%, respectively. The major elements Al, Mn and Fe were depleted relative to UCC because of the strong enrichment in CaCO3, with enrichment factors of -58%, -35% and -45% respectively. We separately averaged the samples with northern and southern origins to see if composition could be used to identify source. Only three elements had a statistical difference. Pb and Na were higher in the samples from the Se while Cr was higher in those from the north.

  20. Transnational Education in Morocco: Current and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benahnia, Abdellah

    2015-01-01

    Transnational education (TNE) is becoming a phenomenon in the world of education in many countries. Morocco is included. The flourishing and spreading of many foreign educational institutions, products, and activities is becoming noticeable. As an Islamic nation, Morocco has long maintained its business and educational ties with different foreign…

  1. Discovering Morocco: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    2005-01-01

    This curriculum unit, intended to be used with elementary school students, provides information about a North African, Moslem, Arab, country: Morocco. The unit presents objectives, strategies, materials needed, background notes, evaluation methods, and assignments that fulfill National Social Studies Standards and National Geography standards. It…

  2. Morocco and Senegal: Faces of Islam in Africa. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1999 (Morocco and Senegal).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Morocco and Senegal in 1999. The participants represented various regions of the United States and different grade levels and subject areas. The 13 curriculum projects in the collection are: (1) "Doorway to Morocco: A Student Guide" (Sue Robertson); (2) "A Social…

  3. Challenges of Globalization: Morocco and Tunisia. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Morocco and Tunisia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This publication contains a collection of curriculum projects developed by educators who were participants in the 2001 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Morocco and Tunisia. The 13 curriculum projects in the publication are entitled: "Women in Morocco, Artists and Artisans" (Virginia da Costa); "Cultures of Africa" (Joanna Casey);…

  4. Development of Education in Qatar (1975/76 and 1976/77).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Youth Welfare (Qatar).

    The national educational system of Qatar was established in 1956, when the discovery of oil provided a financial base for educational expansion. The government provides free education from primary school through the university and has stressed a system of incentives for students rather than declaring education compulsory on any level. Four types…

  5. Little Steps at Improving Preschool Teachers Practices through Counseling Skills in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Thani, Aisha; Nasser, Ramzi

    2012-01-01

    The study focused on the effects of basic counseling skills program, such as listening, understanding, respecting, and empathizing, to elementary school teachers in Qatar. Through a three-hour intervention program, the authors used a self-reported questionnaire, interview questions and classroom observations to examine changes in how preschool…

  6. Qatar's Educational System in the Technology-Driven Era: Long Story Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Qatar's educational system. Specifically, it focuses on the national educational reform that has been unfolding since 2003, tracks its progress, and describes the extent to which educational technology is utilized within Qatari institutions of the higher education. The paper ends with recommendations for practice…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Organizational Learning and Career Resilience among Faculty Members at Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Two main purposes guide this study. The first is to assess the level of individual, group, and organizational learning at Qatar University (QU), and the level of career resilience among its faculty members. The second is to explore the relationships between these levels of learning at QU and the career resilience of its faculty members.…

  8. Alignment of Teacher-Developed Curricula and National Standards in Qatar's National Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ramzi; Zaki, Eman; Allen, Nancy; Al Mula, Badria; Al Mutawaha, Fatma; Al Bin Ali, Hessa; Kerr, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which teacher developed curriculum was aligned with the national standards in Qatar. Three sources of data included teacher response to a questionnaire, teacher interviews and expert rating of the alignment of teacher-developed materials with curriculum standards. A survey and interview questions measured…

  9. A Classroom Observational Study of Qatar's Independent Schools: Instruction and School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Douglas J.; Sadiq, Hissa M.; Lynch, Patricia; Parker, Dawn; Viruru, Radhika; Knight, Stephanie; Waxman, Hersh; Alford, Beverly; Brown, Danielle Bairrington; Rollins, Kayla; Stillisano, Jacqueline; Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M. Hamdan; Nasser, Ramzi; Allen, Nancy; Al-Binali, Hessa; Ellili, Maha; Al-Kateeb, Haithem; Al-Kubaisi, Huda

    2016-01-01

    Qatar initiated a K-12 national educational reform in 2001. However, there is limited information on the instructional practices of the teachers in the reform schools. This project was an observational study of classrooms with a stratified random sample of the first six cohorts of reform schools. Specifically, 156 classrooms were observed in 29…

  10. Qatar-1b: a hot Jupiter orbiting a metal-rich K dwarf star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsubai, K. A.; Parley, N. R.; Bramich, D. M.; West, R. G.; Sorensen, P. M.; Collier Cameron, A.; Latham, D. W.; Horne, K.; Anderson, D. R.; Bakos, G. Á.; Brown, D. J. A.; Buchhave, L. A.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Everett, M. E.; Fżrész, G.; Hartman, J. D.; Hellier, C.; Miller, G. M.; Pollacco, D.; Quinn, S. N.; Smith, J. C.; Stefanik, R. P.; Szentgyorgyi, A.

    2011-10-01

    We report the discovery and initial characterization of Qatar-1b, a hot Jupiter-orbiting metal-rich K dwarf star, the first planet discovered by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey. We describe the strategy used to select candidate transiting planets from photometry generated by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey camera array. We examine the rate of astrophysical and other false positives found during the spectroscopic reconnaissance of the initial batch of candidates. A simultaneous fit to the follow-up radial velocities and photometry of Qatar-1b yields a planetary mass of 1.09 ± 0.08 MJ and a radius of 1.16 ± 0.05 RJ. The orbital period and separation are 1.420 033 ± 0.000 016 d and 0.023 43 ± 0.000 26 au for an orbit assumed to be circular. The stellar density, effective temperature and rotation rate indicate an age greater than 4 Gyr for the system.

  11. Quality of Life of Caregivers of Children with Autism in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheir, Nadir; Ghoneim, Ola; Sandridge, Amy L.; Al-Ismail, Muna; Hayder, Sara; Al-Rawi, Fadhila

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Caring for a child diagnosed with autism could affect the quality of life of the caregiver in various different ways. No previous research has assessed the quality of lives of caregivers of children with autism in Qatar. Methods: Caregivers of a child with autism between 3 and 17 years old were recruited from child rehabilitation…

  12. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 18: The Middle East (Iran, Qatar and Turkey).

    PubMed

    Zeraatkar, Kimia; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Havlin, Tracy; Neves, Karen; Şendir, Mesra

    2016-06-01

    This is the 18th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Middle East (Iran, Qatar and Turkey). The next feature column will investigate trends in the Balkan States JM.

  13. "Hope in the Life": The Children of Qatar Speak about Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Attiyah, Asma; Lazarus, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Qatar supports the rights of children with special needs to obtain suitable opportunities to learn and be included with other children. However, the concept of inclusion in education is relatively new in this country. In 2001, the Special Needs Committee of the Supreme Council for Family Affairs set up a task force to begin planning for including…

  14. A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world.

    PubMed

    Marincola, Francesco M; Sheikh, Javaid I

    2012-08-29

    Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar's population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present.

  15. Qatar's K-12 Education Reform Has Achieved Success in Its Early Years. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Judy

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate progress made in the first years of Qatar's implementation of K-12 education reform, RAND analyzed data from school-level observations, national surveys, and national student assessments. The study found that students in the new, Independent schools were performing better than those in Ministry schools, and there was greater student…

  16. Evaluation of clinical pharmacy services offered for palliative care patients in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Wilby, Kyle John; Mohamad, Alaa Adil; AlYafei, Sumaya AlSaadi

    2014-09-01

    Palliative care is an emerging concept in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, a political and economic union of Arab states bordering the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Clinical pharmacy services have not yet been evaluated in this region. The objectives of this study were to create a baseline inventory of clinical pharmacy interventions in palliative care and to assess the perceived importance of interventions made. This was a prospective, single-center characterization study. Interventions were documented from September 30 to December 1, 2013. They were characterized into predetermined categories and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Physician acceptance rate and intervention rate per patient were calculated. Classification categories were sent to 10 practicing pharmacists in each of Qatar and Canada, who ranked the categories on the basis of perceived importance. A total of 96 interventions were documented, giving 3 interventions per patient and an acceptance rate of 81%. Discontinuing therapy (29%), initiating therapy (25%), and provision of education/counseling (13.5%) were most common. No differences were found between rankings from pharmacists in Qatar or Canada. Clinical pharmacy interventions are frequent, and those relating to alterations in drug therapy are most common. Interventions align with the perceived importance from pharmacists in both Qatar and Canada.

  17. A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world.

    PubMed

    Marincola, Francesco M; Sheikh, Javaid I

    2012-01-01

    Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar's population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present. PMID:22929646

  18. Morocco, Kingdom of the young geologist!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouttemy, Franck

    2015-04-01

    The Kingdom of Morocco is a country of 33 million people where about thirty French schools enroll 32,000 students including a majority of Moroccans. The Rabat Center includes several institutions enrolling 5,700 students aged 10 to 18 years old whose High School René Descartes is directed by the A.E.F.E, "Agency for French Teaching Abroad". Sixteen professors teach S.V.T. "Sciences de la Vie et de la Terre" that focuses on biology and geology. The programs involved are French but the biology-geology colleagues seek to place the teaching of geology in the context of Morocco through the choice of Moroccan examples. (https://sites.google.com/site/aefesvtmaroc/) Morocco's geology lends itself to this approach! The laboratory is equipped with a seismometer in the network "Sismos to School" (https://sites.google.com/a/lycee-descartes.ma/rabt_sismo/home) and we have the equipment necessary for making thin sections of the Moroccan rocks for practical work on a polarizing microscope. We organize several field trips: On a half-day in the region of Rabat, 12-year old pupils of "5ème", learn about reading the landscape and studying sedimentary rocks such as marls and sandstones. On a 3-day excursion in the region of Azrou, the16-year old pupils of "première scientifique" study the tectonic context of formation of mineral resources. A 2-day trip in the region of Oulmès, the17-year old pupils of "terminale scientifique" (the last year in the French system finishing with the "baccalaureate") study continental crust, tectonics and geothermal energy. These field trips will be presented in this poster. Students make field studies: observation, testing, photography, drawing and taking notes. Some works are evaluated during the field trip, others are the subject of home work: preparing a slide show, an audio recording work...

  19. Seasonal Variability in Tropospheric Ozone Distribution Over Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Mohammed; Ackermann, Luis

    2015-04-01

    We report on the vertical distribution and seasonal variability in tropospheric ozone over the Middle East through one year of weekly ozonesondes launched from Doha, Qatar during 2014. A total of 49 2Z-V7 DMT/EN-SCI Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesondes employing a 1% buffered potassium iodide solution (KI), coupled with iMet-1-RS GPS radiosondes were launched around 1300 local time. The authors used the SkySonde telemetry software (developed by CIRES and NOAA/ESRL) and developed robust in-house data quality assurance and validation methodologies. The average height of the thermal tropopause is between 15-17.5 km (125-85 hPa). Monthly average relative humidity around the tropopause shows an enhancement during the months of June through the beginning of October. Monthly average temperature profiles show the development of the subtropical subsidence inversion around 5-6 km (450-520 hPa) between the months of April through October. The subsidence inversion is strongest during the months of June and July and is accompanied by a sharp drop in relative humidity over a 100-300 m in the vertical. The monthly average ozone background concentration between the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height and the subsidence inversion increases from 50 ppb in the winter to almost 80 ppb in the summer months. An enhancement of up to 50% in the average ozone in the mid-to-upper troposphere (above the subsidence inversion) is strongest during the summer months (June through September) and results in average concentrations between 80-100 ppb. In the upper troposphere (above 13 km/200 hPa) ozone concentrations are highest during the spring and summer months. This is coupled with a drop in the average height of the tropopause. HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis shows the enhancement in mid-to-upper tropospheric ozone in the summer is due to persistent high pressure over the Middle East between the months of June through September. Evidence of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange

  20. MOREMix - Power sector optimization for Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Jürgen; Fichter, Tobias; Moser, Massimo; Trieb, Franz; Seidel, Frank; Heising, Klas; Lempp, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    DLR developed the optimization model REMix-CEM (Renewable Energy Mix - Capacity Expansion Model). REMix CEM to generate a cost-effective expansion planning of thermal and renewable assets with respect to a use optimization (dispatch) of various types of power plants for the energy system. Working closely with the Moroccan Ministry of Energy energy scenarios are created to support Morocco in the medium to long-term energy planning to develop cost-effective, and technically feasible expansion plans for renewable energy and better coordinate the interaction between different forms of electricity generation.

  1. Trends and characteristics of injuries in the State of Qatar: hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Abdul Rahman, Yassir S; Abdel Aleem, Eltayib Y; Khalid, Muayad K

    2012-01-01

    Injuries account for a large burden of mortality and morbidity in the State of Qatar. No comprehensive study has been conducted on all types of injuries in the State of Qatar. The objective of this study was to determine the trend in the number, incidence and pattern of injuries in the State of Qatar. This hospital-based study is a retrospective analysis of 53,366 patients treated at the accident and emergency and trauma centres for injuries during the period from 2006 to 2010. Injuries were determined according to the ICD 10 criteria. The details of the entire trauma patients who were involved in occupational/domestic injuries were extracted from the database of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS), Hamad Medical Corporation. Our results demonstrated that the rates of injury remained relatively stable in the State of Qatar over the five-year period. Those most at risk of injury were non-Qatari males who were below 30 years. Road traffic accidents (RTA) (36.7%) followed by falls causing back injuries (11.0%) were the most common types of injuries during the period. Most of the injuries occurred at the head for both males (17.7%) and females (13.5%); this was consistently the case across all of the age groups. The greatest proportion of RTA (21.2%), industrial machinery injuries (16.4%), construction injuries (15.5%), recreational sporting injuries (20.5%) and beach/sea/ocean injuries (15.0%) resulted in head injuries. Intervention efforts need to be aimed at reducing occupational injuries, RTA injuries and work-related hazards in the State of Qatar. PMID:22455450

  2. Exploration potential of Paleozoic rocks of Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.; Onarept, H.J.

    1985-02-01

    Paleozoic rocks of Morocco have some similarities with the producing Paleozoic sequences in Algeria. In Morocco, there is a basic division between the cratonal sequences of the Tidouf basin and contiguous areas and the Paleozoic megabasin to the north and possibly to the west under the present continental shelf areas. The Paleozoic of the northern megabasin has the following positive exploration elements. (1) Both wrench and normal extensional tectonics have produced significant structures that may have been reactivated during 2 later orogenic events. (2) Reservoir quality, although poor in outcrop, can be significantly improved in the subsurface. Wells from the Bojad region of the Tadla basin encountered porosities up to 30% in Devonian clastic sequences. (3) No area can be condemned on the basis of present published geochemical evidence. Burial depths are sufficient for mature hydrocarbons, and rocks with organic material are present in sediment ranging in age from Cambrian to Carboniferous. Paleozoic oil shows have been encountered and may actually serve as the source of hydrocarbon in the Essouira basin in a downfaulted Triassic red-bed sequence. (4) Quality of seismic data is good, even where Paleozoic rocks are onlapped by Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. Drilling for Paleozoic targets has been sparse, hence, few data are available to test both source and reservoir potential. Paleozoic rocks still need to be tested by industry and must be considered a frontier area.

  3. Case study on combined CO₂ sequestration and low-salinity water production potential in a shallow saline aquifer in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tausif Khizar; Nasrabadi, Hadi

    2012-10-30

    CO₂ is one of the byproducts of natural gas production in Qatar. The high rate of natural gas production from Qatar's North Field (world's largest non-associated gas field) has led to the production of significant amounts of CO₂. The release of CO₂ into the atmosphere may be harmful from the perspective of global warming. In this work, we study the CO₂ sequestration potential in Qatar's Aruma aquifer. The Aruma aquifer is a saline aquifer in the southwest of Qatar. It occupies an area of approximately 1985 km₂ on land (16% of Qatar's total area). We have developed a compositional model for CO₂ sequestration in the Aruma aquifer on the basis of available log and flow test data. We suggest water production at some distance from the CO₂ injection wells as a possible way to control the pore pressure. This method increases the potential for safe sequestration of CO₂ in the aquifer without losing integrity of the caprock and without any CO₂ leakage. The water produced from this aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and could be a good water source for the desalination process, which is currently the main source of water in Qatar. The outcome of the desalination process is water with higher salinity than the seawater that is currently discharged into the sea. This discharge can have negative long-term environmental effects. The water produced from the Aruma aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and can be a partial solution to this problem.

  4. English Subtexts: Letter from an American Teacher in Morocco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecker, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Relates the author's experiences teaching English at the Casablanca American School in Morocco. Evokes the joys and frustrations of establishing relationships between teacher and student, noting how possibilities exist sometimes in small and insignificant things. (SR)

  5. A new look at traditional medicine in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bellakhdar, J

    1989-01-01

    Traditional medicine is still popular in Morocco since it is an important form of health care for many people. Its positive aspects could be encouraged if it were officially recognized and given a place in the health system.

  6. A new look at traditional medicine in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bellakhdar, J

    1989-01-01

    Traditional medicine is still popular in Morocco since it is an important form of health care for many people. Its positive aspects could be encouraged if it were officially recognized and given a place in the health system. PMID:2610831

  7. Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen

    2014-05-01

    Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia

  8. Remote sensing of Qatar nearshore habitats with perspectives for coastal management.

    PubMed

    Warren, Christopher; Dupont, Jennifer; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Hobeichi, Sanaa; Palandro, David; Purkis, Sam

    2016-04-30

    A framework is proposed for utilizing remote sensing and ground-truthing field data to map benthic habitats in the State of Qatar, with potential application across the Arabian Gulf. Ideally the methodology can be applied to optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of mapping the nearshore environment to identify sensitive habitats, monitor for change, and assist in management decisions. The framework is applied to a case study for northeastern Qatar with a key focus on identifying high sensitivity coral habitat. The study helps confirm the presence of known coral and provides detail on a region in the area of interest where corals have not been previously mapped. Challenges for the remote sensing methodology associated with natural heterogeneity of the physical and biological environment are addressed. Recommendations on the application of this approach to coastal environmental risk assessment and management planning are discussed as well as future opportunities for improvement of the framework.

  9. Radioactivity levels in the marine environment along the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Qaradawi, Ilham; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Al-Yafei, Mohsin Al-Ansi; Al-Ansari, Ebrahim; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Holm, Elis; Al-Shaikh, Ismail; Mauring, Alexander; Pinto, Primal V; Abdulmalik, Dana; Amir, Amina; Miller, Mark; Yigiterhan, Oguz; Persson, Bertil

    2015-01-15

    A study on (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (238)U was carried out along the EEZ of Qatar. Results serve as the first ever baseline data. The level of (137)Cs (mean value 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3)) in water filters was found to be in the same order of magnitude as reported by others in worldwide marine radioactivity studies. Results are also in agreement with values reported from other Gulf regions. The computed values of sediment-water distribution coefficients Kd, are lower than the values given by IAEA. Measurements were carried out for bottom sediments, biota samples like fish, oyster, sponge, seashell, mangrove, crab, shrimp, starfish, dugong and algae. The 'concentration factors' reported for biota samples are below the levels published by IAEA and cause no significant impact on human health for seafood consumers in Qatar.

  10. Radioactivity levels in the marine environment along the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Qaradawi, Ilham; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Al-Yafei, Mohsin Al-Ansi; Al-Ansari, Ebrahim; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Holm, Elis; Al-Shaikh, Ismail; Mauring, Alexander; Pinto, Primal V; Abdulmalik, Dana; Amir, Amina; Miller, Mark; Yigiterhan, Oguz; Persson, Bertil

    2015-01-15

    A study on (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (238)U was carried out along the EEZ of Qatar. Results serve as the first ever baseline data. The level of (137)Cs (mean value 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3)) in water filters was found to be in the same order of magnitude as reported by others in worldwide marine radioactivity studies. Results are also in agreement with values reported from other Gulf regions. The computed values of sediment-water distribution coefficients Kd, are lower than the values given by IAEA. Measurements were carried out for bottom sediments, biota samples like fish, oyster, sponge, seashell, mangrove, crab, shrimp, starfish, dugong and algae. The 'concentration factors' reported for biota samples are below the levels published by IAEA and cause no significant impact on human health for seafood consumers in Qatar. PMID:25480154

  11. Adequacy, accountability, autonomy and equity in a Middle Eastern school reform: The case of Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.

    2012-04-01

    This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and its sustainability in light of concerns that movements in these directions might be politically unfeasible. To some degree, these concerns are substantiated by the developments we trace. However, it is important to note that the reform has changed the landscape of primary and secondary education in Qatar and that many reform principles, though diluted, have been retained. This paper highlights lessons learned - both hopeful and cautionary - in the first few years of reform and presents a methodology for evaluating progress along key dimensions that can be applied to school systems in many nations.

  12. Petroleum generation in the Morocco Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Geodekyan, A.A.; Simonenko, L.A.; Trotsyuk, V.Ya.

    1987-12-01

    Passive-margin sedimentary basins, despite their geologic similarities, differ substantially in their oil and gas reserves and in the distributions of these areally and in the section. Evidently, the level of hydrocarbon potential is controlled by differences in the size and history of the zone of petroleum generation. This conclusion was originally drawn from historical methods applied to various basins. To refine the conclusions and define the significance of the individual factors controlling hydrocarbon generation, it is of interest to examine the petroleum potential for a fairly extensive system. Here the authors consider the Morocco basin, in the passive-margin basin system of the East Atlantic, which has very scanty oil and gas reserves. The proven reserves at the start of 1978 were only 20.55 million metric tons of oil and 1.2 billion m/sup 3/ of gas. 16 references.

  13. Review of the wastewater situation in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mandi, L

    2000-01-01

    Recent estimations of the wastewater production of Morocco amounted to 370 million m3 per year, and this is expected to increase to 900 million m3 by the year 2020. In most cases wastewater is discharged directly into the environment, either to the sea via short outfalls or onto farmland for irrigation or infiltration. Major improvements in the quality of wastewater are needed urgently because of the strong migration of the rural population towards the towns and the very rapid demographic expansion. Studies for Sanitation Master Plans for the main towns are currently in progress and are a first step towards meeting these requirements. Development of a national master plan for liquid sewage is a way of extending this procedure over the whole territory.

  14. Health financing and insurance reform in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Kress, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The government of Morocco approved two reforms in 2005 to expand health insurance coverage. The first is a payroll-based mandatory health insurance plan for public- and formal private-sector employees to extend coverage from the current 16 percent of the population to 30 percent. The second creates a publicly financed fund to cover services for the poor. Both reforms aim to improve access to high-quality care and reduce disparities in access and financing between income groups and between rural and urban dwellers. In this paper we analyze these reforms: the pre-reform debate, benefits covered, financing, administration, and oversight. We also examine prospects and future challenges for implementing the reforms. PMID:17630444

  15. Energy trump for Morocco: the oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, S.D.

    1981-10-01

    The mainstays of the economy in Morocco are still agriculture and phosphates; the latter represent 34% of world exports. Energy demand in 1985 will be probably 3 times that in 1975. Most of the oil, which covers 82% of its energy needs, must be imported. Other possible sources are the rich oil shale deposits and nuclear energy. Four nuclear plants with a total of 600 MW are projected, but shale oil still will play an important role. A contract for building a pilot plant has been met recently. The plant is to be located at Timahdit and cost $13 million, for which a loan from the World Bank has been requested. If successful in the pilot plant, the process will be used in full scale plants scheduled to produce 400,000 tons/yr of oil. Tosco also has a contract for a feasibility study.

  16. The private-public literacy divide amid educational reform in Qatar: What does PISA tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2015-04-01

    The education system in Qatar comprises of both private schools, which receive money through student fees, and public schools, which are fully government-funded. In the mid-2000s, Qatar started its transition towards an independent school model with the aim of eventually converting all public schools into government-supported independent schools. The idea was to give public schools more autonomy in terms of hiring decisions, adoption of curriculum and textbooks, and budget spending, enabling them to emulate some of the private schools' strategies for turning out successful students. This study examines evidence from the 2006-2012 administrations of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in Qatar in order to evaluate whether or not recent educational reform efforts in this country have succeeded in bridging the literacy divide between private and public schools. The results, presented in a number of detailed tables and discussed in the last part of the article, indicate that there is a significant difference in key literacy skills between the two types of schools. Private schools were found to outperform their public counterparts in areas such as mathematics, reading and science, both before and after controlling for important student-level differences, and this gap has evidently persisted from 2006 to 2012.

  17. Perception and intentions to quit among waterpipe smokers in Qatar: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Jaam, M.; Al-Marridi, W.; Fares, H.; Izham, M.; Kheir, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the perceptions and attitudes of waterpipe (shisha) smokers in Qatar regarding the health risks associated with addiction and to determine their intentions to quit. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 181 self-reported waterpipe smokers. Participants were approached in public places as well as in shisha cafes in Qatar. The questionnaire included items related to perception, attitude and intention to quit. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were performed for data analyses, with P ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: About 44% of the respondents believed that waterpipe smoking was safer than cigarette smoking, and more than 70% would not mind if their children became involved in waterpipe smoking. More than half of the current smokers wanted to quit smoking shisha at some point, and 17% identified health concerns as the main motivating factor for their intention to quit. Conclusion: A large proportion of shisha smokers viewed shisha as a safer alternative to cigarettes, yet they admitted to intending to quit. These findings underscore the need to design educational interventions and awareness campaigns as well as impose stringent laws on waterpipe smoking in public places in Qatar. PMID:27051611

  18. A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar’s population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present. PMID:22929646

  19. Geology and hydrocarbon potential in the state of Qatar, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S. ); Nairn, A.E.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The state of Qatar is situated in the southern Arabian Gulf and covers an area of 12,000 km{sup 2}. It is formed by a large, broad anticline, which is part of the regional south-southwest-north-northeast-trending Qatar-South Fars arch. The arch separates the two Infracambrian salt basins. The Dukhan field was the first discovery, made in 1939, in the Upper Jurassic limestones. Since then, a series of discoveries have been made so that Qatar has become one of the leading OPEC oil states. Hydrocarbon accumulations are widely dispersed throughout the stratigraphic column from upper Paleozoic to Cretaceous producing strata. The most prolific reservoirs are the Permian and Mesozoic shelf carbonate sequences. Minor clastic reservoirs occur in the Albian and Paleozoic sequences. Seals, mainly anhydrite and shale. occur both intraformationally and regionally. Several stratigraphic intervals contain source rocks or potential source rocks. The Silurian shales arc the most likely source of the hydrocarbon stored in the upper Paleozoic clastics and carbonates. The upper Oxfordian-middle Kimmeridgian rocks formed in the extensive starved basin during the Mesozoic period of sea level rise. Total organic carbon ranges between 1 and 6%, with the sulfur content approximately 9%. The source material consists of sapropelic liptodetrinite and algae. The geological background of the sedimentary facies through geologic time, stratigraphy, and structural evolution which control source, and the subsequent timing and migration of large-scale hydrocarbon generation are presented in detail.

  20. Observational study of atmospheric surface layer and coastal weather in northern Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Dhrubajyoti; Sadr, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric surface layer is the interaction medium between atmosphere and Earth's surface. Better understanding of its turbulence nature is essential in characterizing the local weather, climate variability and modeling of turbulent exchange processes. The importance of Middle East region, with its unique geographical, economical and weather condition is well recognized. However, high quality micrometeorological observational studies are rare in this region. Here we show experimental results from micrometeorological observations from an experimental site in the coastal region of Qatar during August-December 2015. Measurements of winds are obtained from three sonic anemometers installed on a 9 m tower placed at Al Ghariyah beach in northern Qatar (26.08 °N, 51.36 °E). Different surface layer characteristics is analyzed and compared with earlier studies in equivalent weather conditions. Monthly statistics of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity and heat index are made from concurrent observations from sonic anemometer and weather station to explore variations with surface layer characteristics. The results also highlights potential impact of sea breeze circulation on local weather and atmospheric turbulence. The observed daily maximum temperature and heat index during morning period may be related to sea breeze circulations. Along with the operational micrometeorological observation system, a camera system and ultrasonic wave measurement system are installed recently in the site to study coastline development and nearshore wave dynamics. Overall, the complete observational set up is going to provide new insights about nearshore wind dynamics and wind-wave interaction in Qatar.

  1. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East. During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar. WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar. PMID:21272322

  2. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Chouchane, Lotfi; Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud M; Ameduri, Marco; Sheikh, Javaid I

    2011-01-27

    Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East.During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar.WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar.

  3. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Morocco. 10.787 Section 10.787 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules that apply...

  4. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Morocco. 10.787 Section 10.787 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules that apply...

  5. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Morocco. 10.787 Section 10.787 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules that apply...

  6. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Morocco. 10.787 Section 10.787 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules that apply...

  7. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Morocco. 10.787 Section 10.787 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules that apply...

  8. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program 1992: Morocco and Tunisia. Final Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMIDEAST, Washington, DC.

    The projects described in this document were submitted by U.S. teachers who spent time in Morocco and Tunisia as part of the 1992 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. The following are among the titles of the projects included: "Formal Education in Rural Morocco: Problems and Constraints" (Victoria Baker); "Continuity and Change in Morocco and…

  9. Gas potential of the Rharb Basin, Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, D.; Costagliola, A.

    1995-08-01

    The Rharb basin in northern Morocco is a Tertiary foreland filled by clastic series during Miocene and Pliocene times These sediments, derived from the Prerif to the North-East and the Meseta to the South, are characterized by two main turbiditic sequences during much of the Upper Tortonian/Messinian and Lower Pliocene. These deep water sand deposits were probably related to both uplifting of the Rif and prerif and relative change of sea level. Although the first oil discovery in the basin was made by the beginning of the 1920`s and that over 25 billions cf of gas have been discovered by exploration drilling, the problem still facing exploration in the area is seismic resolution and reprocessing. Recent studies, based on high seismic resolution techniques and general integrated basin study have permitted to gain a deep insight of stratigraphy and distribution of deep water sand within the Upper Miocene series and their fluid content and provide critical data for evaluating hydrocarbon potential. Such evaluation combined with structural configuration and seals allows assessment of different prospects for gas exploration. Out of more 100 amplitude anomalies identified in the area based on new exploration concepts, 7 are recently drilled with 4 discoveries and 8 are proposed for drilling.

  10. Carboniferous sedimentation and tectonics in southern Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.P.; Crossley, R.; Aktas, G.; Matthews, S.J.; Boudda, A.

    1988-08-01

    The Carboniferous rocks of southern Morocco record the gradual change from the extensional tectonic style of the early Paleozoic to a compressional regime. During the Tournaisian and early Visean, northwest compression formed a rising anticline in the Anti-Atlas, which provided sediments to shallow marine basins formed in the flanking synclines. During the late Visean, tectonic activity increased markedly, and northward-downthrowing normal/oblique slip faulting formed submarine fault scarps. Turbidity currents and debris flows together with giant exotic blocks were shed northward from these scarps. The turbidity currents were deflected eastward to flow down the axes of these small easterly plunging marine basins. A late Visean phase of minor folding with locally developed cleavage and quartz veining closed these basins. The folded sequences are unconformably overlain by uppermost Visean fluvial sediments deposited from northward and eastward-flowing rivers. During the Pennsylvanian, collisional tectonics recorded in the Moroccan Meseta to the north were probably responsible for thrust faulting and the formation of a high-angle cleavage. Thick (up to 4.5 km) sandstones and conglomerates with red mudstones, paleosols, and coals are preserved on the fringes of the area. These were deposited by southeast-flowing rivers and are interpreted as the eroded remnants of a syn-postorogenic molasse deposited in a major foredeep south of the main orogen.

  11. Fee exemption for caesarean section in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Financial barriers are an important obstacle for access to emergency obstetric care and a contributing factor to too slow a reduction in the level of maternal mortality. In Morocco, in 2009, a fee exemption policy for delivery and caesarean section was implemented in public maternity hospitals. As in most countries where a fee exemption policy has been implemented, fee exemption is considered synonym to free care. However, other direct costs may subsist. The objective of this study was to get an estimate of the actual cost of caesarean sections from the patients' perspective. This study was carried out in April 2010 in the three public hospitals in Fez. We carried out semi-structured interviews among a sample of 100 women who gave birth by caesarian section in the public hospitals in Fez. The results showed that households paid between US$169 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 153, 185) at the provincial and regional hospitals, and US$291 (95% CI: 224-359) at the university hospital (UH) where the fee exemption was not applied. The direct cost of a caesarean was mainly influenced by the price of the drugs the families bought, the invoice paid at UH, and the transport. Finally, although the fee exemption policy for caesareans has probably reduced the total cost for households who did not have access to a poverty card, it has not led to 'truly' free caesarean deliveries. PMID:22958578

  12. Space Radar Image of Eastern Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows how the Atlas Mountains in northwestern Africa dominate the geography of Morocco. The image shows a part of the eastern flank of these mountains near the town of Rissani, approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) from its border with Algeria. The striking bright patterns are the complex folds in the layered rocks of this region. Careful examination of the image shows areas where the folded structures have been disrupted due to fault movement and earthquakes. Dark areas between the rock outcrops are covered in sand and serve as channels for seasonal streams in this arid region. Scientists can use images like this one to map the geology and drainage patterns in arid regions. The area shown is 44 kilometers by 34 kilometers (27 miles by 21 miles)centered at 31 degrees north latitude, 4.4 degrees west longitude; north is toward the upper right. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Nadia; Desario, Costantina; Kadiri, Ahlam; Cavalli, Alessandra; Berrada, Jaouad; Zro, Khalil; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Parisi, Antonio; Elia, Gabriella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Malik, Jamal; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Since it first emergence in the mid-1970's, canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has evolved giving rise to new antigenic variants termed CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c, which have completely replaced the original strain and had been variously distributed worldwide. In Africa limited data are available on epidemiological prevalence of these new types. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine circulating variants in Morocco. Through TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay, 91 samples, collected from symptomatic dogs originating from various cities between 2011 and 2015, were diagnosed. Positive specimens were characterised by means of minor groove binder (MGB) probe PCR. The results showed that all samples but one (98.9%) were CPV positive, of which 1 (1.1%) was characterised as CPV-2a, 43 (47.7%) as CPV-2b and 39 (43.3%) as CPV-2c. Interestingly, a co-infection with CPV-2b and CPV-2c was detected in 4 (4.4%) samples and 3 (3.3%) samples were not characterised. Sequencing of the full VP2 gene revealed these 3 uncharacterised strains as CPV-2c, displaying a change G4068A responsible for the replacement of aspartic acid with asparagine at residue 427, impacting the MGB probe binding. In this work we provide a better understanding of the current status of prevailing CPV strains in northern Africa.

  14. Fee exemption for caesarean section in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bennis, Issam; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Financial barriers are an important obstacle for access to emergency obstetric care and a contributing factor to too slow a reduction in the level of maternal mortality. In Morocco, in 2009, a fee exemption policy for delivery and caesarean section was implemented in public maternity hospitals. As in most countries where a fee exemption policy has been implemented, fee exemption is considered synonym to free care. However, other direct costs may subsist. The objective of this study was to get an estimate of the actual cost of caesarean sections from the patients' perspective.This study was carried out in April 2010 in the three public hospitals in Fez. We carried out semi-structured interviews among a sample of 100 women who gave birth by caesarian section in the public hospitals in Fez. The results showed that households paid between US$169 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 153, 185) at the provincial and regional hospitals, and US$291 (95% CI: 224-359) at the university hospital (UH) where the fee exemption was not applied. The direct cost of a caesarean was mainly influenced by the price of the drugs the families bought, the invoice paid at UH, and the transport. Finally, although the fee exemption policy for caesareans has probably reduced the total cost for households who did not have access to a poverty card, it has not led to 'truly' free caesarean deliveries. PMID:22958578

  15. Cost of Pediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Sergi; Sicuri, Elisa; Laamrani El Idrissi, Abderahmane; Nejjari, Chakib; Picado, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated. VL is endemic in Morocco and other countries in North Africa were it mainly affects children from rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates and serological tests are used to diagnose VL. Glucantime is the first line of treatment. The objective of this study was to report the costs associated to standard clinical management of pediatric VL from the provider perspective in Morocco. As a secondary objective we described the current clinical practices and the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric VL patients. Methods From March to June 2014 we conducted a survey in eight hospitals treating pediatric VL patients in Morocco. A pro-forma was used to collect demographic, clinical and management data from medical records. We specifically collected data on VL diagnosis and treatment. We also estimated the days of hospitalization and the time to start VL treatment. Costs were estimated by multiplying the use of resources in terms of number of days in hospital, tests performed and drugs provided by the official prices. For patients receiving part of their treatment at Primary Health Centers (PHC) we estimated the cost of administering the Glucantime as outpatient. We calculated the median cost per VL patient. We also estimated the cost of managing a VL case when different treatment strategies were applied: inpatient and outpatient. Results We obtained data from 127 VL patients. The median total cost per pediatric VL case in Morocco is 520 US$. The cost in hospitals applying an outpatient strategy is significantly lower (307 US$) than hospitals keeping the patients for the whole treatment (636 US$). However the outpatient strategy is not yet recommended as VL treatment for children in the Moroccan guidelines. VL diagnosis and treatment regimens should be standardized following the current guidelines in Morocco

  16. Physician perceptions of pharmacist roles in a primary care setting in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacists are uniquely trained to provide guidance to patients in the selection of appropriate non-prescription therapy. Physicians in Qatar may not always recognize how pharmacists function in assuring safe medication use. Both these health professional groups come from heterogeneous training and experiences before migrating to the country and these backgrounds could influence collaborative patient care. Qatar Petroleum (QP), the largest private employer in the country, has developed a pharmacist-guided medication consulting service at their primary care clinics, but physician comfort with pharmacists recommending drug therapy is currently unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize physician perceptions of pharmacists and their roles in a primary care patient setting in Qatar. Methods This cross-sectional survey was developed following a comprehensive literature review and administered in English and Arabic. Consenting QP physicians were asked questions to assess experiences, comfort and expectations of pharmacist roles and abilities to provide medication-related advice and recommend and monitor therapies. Results The median age of the 62 (77.5%) physicians who responded was between 40 and 50 years old and almost two-third were men (64.5%). Fourteen different nationalities were represented. Physicians were more comfortable with pharmacist activities closely linked to drug products than responsibilities associated with monitoring and optimization of patient outcomes. Medication education (96.6%) and drug knowledge (90%) were practically unanimously recognized as abilities expected of pharmacists, but consultative roles, such as assisting in drug regimen design were less acknowledged. They proposed pharmacist spend more time with physicians attending joint meetings or education events to help advance acceptance of pharmacists in patient-centered care at this site. Conclusions Physicians had low comfort and expectations of patient

  17. Twenty years of sedimentary change and diagenesis, Qatar Peninsula, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1988-02-01

    Re-examination in February 1986 of areas studied by the author in 1966 and 1967 revealed rapid rates of sedimentation and diagenesis along the east coast of the Qatar Peninsula. At Ras Um Sa on the north-east side of Qatar, a series of chenier-like beaches and curved spits is building southward under the influence of longshore currents. Beach and spit growth increasingly protects the shoreline and allows tidal flats to form in their lee. As these spits accrete, they become armored on their lagoonal side by beachrock formation. In the last 20 years a spit approximately 1/2 km long has grown, and beachrock has already armored its recurved lagoonal side. At Umm Said on the southeast side of Qatar, seawardly accreting barchan dunes composed of quartz sand have built a 40-km long, 10-km wide sabkha as thick as 30 m. Aerial and ground photographs show that certain dunes near the seaward edge of the sabkha have migrated into the sea and have contributed to shoreline accretion. The observed rate of dune migration suggests that within approximately 100 years the remaining quartz sands will be depleted and blown into the sea because there is no replenishment of the dune field. Subsequently, the area will revert to one of carbonate deposition. Fine-grained dolomite is presently precipitating in interstitial brines in the landwardmost portions of this unusual sabkha. In the geologic record, such a deposit would be an anomalous, porous and permeable, cross-bedded, linear, 30-m thick, dolomite-cemented sandstone body encased in carbonate sediments. A modern model such as the one at Umm Said can provide useful clues for determining the origin of similar deposits in ancient rocks.

  18. Oral health knowledge, behaviour and practices among school children in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge behaviour and practices among school children in Qatar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Qatar from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2200 school children aged 12–14 years were approached from 16 schools of different areas. The information about oral health knowledge and sources of information was obtained through a self-administrated questionnaire. Data analyses were performed. Results: The overall response rate was (96%). Only (25.8%) of children reported a high level of oral health knowledge. After each meal, tooth brushing was observed by a very low percentage of children (3.7%). About 44.6% of children recognized dental floss as a cleaning device for between the teeth. A large number of children (32.5%) thought incorrectly that one must visit the dentist only in case of pain. A great majority was not aware of cariogenic potential of soft drinks (39%) and sweetened milk (97.8%). Less than half (38.9%) of children actually had heard about fluoride. Only (16.8%) correctly answered the question about sign of tooth decay. Slightly, less than half (48.4%) could not define the meaning of plaque. Parents were the most popular (69.1%), source of oral health information for the children. Conclusion: The oral health knowledge in Qatar is below the satisfactory level. Parents were the most popular source of oral health knowledge for the children followed by dentists, school teachers, and media. PMID:27605993

  19. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire in Arab Gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2008-07-01

    Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring self-reported driving style and investigating the relationship between driving behaviour and accident involvement. In spite of the fact that Arab Gulf countries have a higher road accident fatality rate compared to European countries and USA, the DBQ has not been used in Arab countries so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ, then to examine the relationships between the factors of the DBQ and accident involvement, and finally to compare DBQ scores between the two gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, 1110 Qatari (263 females and 847 males) and 1286 UAE drivers (294 females and 992 males) filled a survey questionnaire including the DBQ and background information. The results showed that UAE drivers scored higher on almost all DBQ items than Qatari drivers. Surprisingly, only very small differences between men and women on the DBQ item scores were found in UAE. Factor analysis resulted in four factors, which were named as errors, pushing-speeding violations, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations. However, there were a number of differences in the factor structure of the DBQ in UAE and Qatar when compared to the theoretical four-factor structure of the DBQ. Reliabilities of some subscales were also questionably lower than in the original British data. Logistic regression analyses showed that errors, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations predicted accident involvement in Qatar but not in UAE after controlling the effect of the demographic variables (age, sex, and annual mileage).

  20. Prevalence of dental caries among 12–14 year old children in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12–14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12–14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. Results The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Conclusion Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:25057232

  1. Oral health knowledge, behaviour and practices among school children in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge behaviour and practices among school children in Qatar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Qatar from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2200 school children aged 12–14 years were approached from 16 schools of different areas. The information about oral health knowledge and sources of information was obtained through a self-administrated questionnaire. Data analyses were performed. Results: The overall response rate was (96%). Only (25.8%) of children reported a high level of oral health knowledge. After each meal, tooth brushing was observed by a very low percentage of children (3.7%). About 44.6% of children recognized dental floss as a cleaning device for between the teeth. A large number of children (32.5%) thought incorrectly that one must visit the dentist only in case of pain. A great majority was not aware of cariogenic potential of soft drinks (39%) and sweetened milk (97.8%). Less than half (38.9%) of children actually had heard about fluoride. Only (16.8%) correctly answered the question about sign of tooth decay. Slightly, less than half (48.4%) could not define the meaning of plaque. Parents were the most popular (69.1%), source of oral health information for the children. Conclusion: The oral health knowledge in Qatar is below the satisfactory level. Parents were the most popular source of oral health knowledge for the children followed by dentists, school teachers, and media.

  2. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii producing OXA-23 Carbapenemase in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Rolain, J.-M.; Loucif, L.; Al-Maslamani, M.; Elmagboul, E.; Al-Ansari, N.; Taj-Aldeen, S.; Shaukat, A.; Ahmedullah, H.; Hamed, M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to describe the molecular support of carbapenem resistance from randomly selected clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii as a pilot study from the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Qatar. Results of our report will be used to study carbapenemases using molecular techniques in all isolated MDR A. baumannii. Forty-eight MDR A. baumannii were randomly selected from isolates preserved at HMC. Identification of all isolates was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antibiotic resistance was tested phenotypically by Phoenix and confirmed by Etest. The molecular support of carbapenemases (blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM) was investigated by real-time PCR. The epidemiologic relatedness of the isolates was verified by phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of CsuE and blaOXA-51 genes. All 48 isolates were identified as A. baumannii and were confirmed to be resistant to most antibiotics, especially meropenem, imipenems, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin and most of the β-lactams; they were sensitive to colistin. All the isolates were positive for blaOXA-23 and negative for the other tested carbapenemase genes. Clonality analysis demonstrated that different lineages were actually circulating in Qatar; and we suggest that an outbreak occurred in the medical intensive care unit of HMC between 2011 and 2012. Here we report the emergence of MDR A. baumannii producing the carbapenemase OXA-23 in Qatar. PMID:27054039

  3. Road traffic fatalities in Qatar, Jordan and the UAE: estimates using regression analysis and the relationship with economic growth.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Hussain, S J; Al-Malki, M a; Shotar, M M; Al-Said, M F; Jadaan, K S

    2010-03-01

    Smeed's equation is a widely used model for prediction of traffic fatalities but has been inadequate for use in developing countries. We applied regression analysis to time-series data on vehicles, exponential models for fatality prediction, producing an average absolute error of 20.9% for Qatar, 10.9% for population and traffic fatalities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Jordan and Qatar. The data were fitted to Jordan and 5.5% for the UAE. We found a strong linear relationship between gross domestic product and fatality rate.

  4. Evaluation of pesticide residues of organochlorine in vegetables and fruits in Qatar: statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamary, Noora M; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Al-Shaikh, Ismail; Al-Meer, Saeed H; Ahmad, Talaat A

    2016-03-01

    The study aimed to examine the residues of organochlorines pesticides (OCPs) in vegetables and fruits in Qatar. A total of 127 samples was studied. Ninety percent of the imported samples recorded residues above the maximum residue levels (MRLs). The most frequently detected OCP in the samples was heptachlor (found in 75 samples). In the comparisons between the washed and unwashed samples, no significant differences were observed (P > 0.05). However, the effect of washing process with tap water depended on the type of vegetables and fruits.

  5. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69%) were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (< 2%) gradually falling even further in the elderly. In contrast the prevalence of non-pathogenic amoebae (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii) peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A

  6. Hypoxia in the central Arabian Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar during summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ansari, Ebrahim M. A. S.; Rowe, G.; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.; Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Maslamani, I.; Al-Yafei, M. A.; Al-Shaikh, I.; Upstill-Goddard, R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most fascinating and unexpected discoveries during the Qatar University Marine Expeditions to the marine Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar in 2000-2001, was the detection of a hypoxic water layer in the central region of the Arabian Gulf in waters deeper than 50 m. Hypoxia was defined as the region where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 mg L-1. This article presents the discovery of hypoxia in the Arabian Gulf, based on samples collected (mainly during evening or night time) from vertical profiles along transects of the EEZ of Qatar and analyzed for physico-chemical properties, nutrients and chlorophyll-a. Hypoxia occurred in the summer months caused by an interaction between physical stratification of the water column that prevents oxygen replenishment, and biological respiration that consumes oxygen. Strong south-westerly winds (the SW monsoon) from June to September drive the relatively low-salinity nutrient-rich surface water from the Arabian Sea/Arabian Gulf (Sea of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz into the central-Arabian Gulf, and this surface current penetration fertilizes the deep central-Arabian Gulf during the summer period. A strong seasonal pycnocline is formed between deeper waters at an ambient temperature of 20.9 °C and surface waters at 31.9 °C. This prevents the mixing of supersaturated O2 (>100-130%) water from the upper layer that would otherwise raise concentrations of dissolved oxygen below the thermocline, thus resulting in deep water hypoxia, i.e. dissolved oxygen levels of less than 0.86 ml L-1 at 17.3% saturation. These are the lowest values ever recorded for the Arabian Gulf. The calculated area of hypoxia is around 7220 square kilometers, and occurs in a layer about ≥15 m thick above the sea floor which extends toward the deep part of the Qatar Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The biological consequences of this hypoxia on the sea floor are yet to be investigated.

  7. Objective structured clinical examination for pharmacy students in Qatar: cultural and contextual barriers to assessment.

    PubMed

    Wilby, K J; Black, E K; Austin, Z; Mukhalalati, B; Aboulsoud, S; Khalifa, S I

    2016-07-10

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and psychometric defensibility of implementing a comprehensive objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) on the complete pharmacy programme for pharmacy students in a Middle Eastern context, and to identify facilitators and barriers to implementation within new settings. Eight cases were developed, validated, and had standards set according to a blueprint, and were assessed with graduating pharmacy students. Assessor reliability was evaluated using inter-class coefficients (ICCs). Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing OSCE results to professional skills course grades. Field notes were maintained to generate recommendations for implementation in other contexts. The examination pass mark was 424 points out of 700 (60.6%). All 23 participants passed. Mean performance was 74.6%. Low to moderate inter-rater reliability was obtained for analytical and global components (average ICC 0.77 and 0.48, respectively). In conclusion, OSCE was feasible in Qatar but context-related validity and reliability concerns must be addressed prior to future iterations in Qatar and elsewhere.

  8. D Model of AL Zubarah Fortress in Qatar - Terrestrial Laser Scanning VS. Dense Image Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T.; Mechelke, K.; Maziull, L.

    2015-02-01

    In September 2011 the fortress Al Zubarah, built in 1938 as a typical Arabic fortress and restored in 1987 as a museum, was recorded by the HafenCity University Hamburg using terrestrial laser scanning with the IMAGER 5006h and digital photogrammetry for the Qatar Museum Authority within the framework of the Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project. One goal of the object recording was to provide detailed 2D/3D documentation of the fortress. This was used to complete specific detailed restoration work in the recent years. From the registered laser scanning point clouds several cuttings and 2D plans were generated as well as a 3D surface model by triangle meshing. Additionally, point clouds and surface models were automatically generated from digital imagery from a Nikon D70 using the open-source software Bundler/PMVS2, free software VisualSFM, Autodesk Web Service 123D Catch beta, and low-cost software Agisoft PhotoScan. These outputs were compared with the results from terrestrial laser scanning. The point clouds and surface models derived from imagery could not achieve the same quality of geometrical accuracy as laser scanning (i.e. 1-2 cm).

  9. LNG scene; Qatar's export plans intensify; sale of Columbia's U. S. terminal in doubt

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that Activity continues to percolate in Qatar's massive liquefied natural gas export program. In the latest development, France's Ste. Nationale Elf Aquitaine and Japan's Sumitomo Corp. agreed to promote development of Qatar's LNG export project based on supergiant North Offshore gas field and step up discussions with potential buyers in coming months. Target markets lie in Japan and the Far East. Among other LNG operations, Columbia Gas System Inc. last week the it was told by Shell LNG Co. it is unlikely that presale conditions will be met prior to Shell LNG's scheduled purchase July 29 of 40.8% of the stock in Columbia LNG. Columbia LNG owns and LNG receiving terminal at Cove Point, Md., with a design sendout capacity of 1 bcfd of regasified LNG. That makes it the biggest in type U.S. Columbia the it had not received work on what action Shell LNG will take on the purchase agreement. However, failure to meet the undisclosed conditions will allow Shell LNG to end the agreement.

  10. A Course-based Cross-Cultural Interaction among Pharmacy Students in Qatar and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jeff; Khalifa, Sherief I.; Jorgenson, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a course-based, cross-cultural student interaction using real-time videoconferencing between universities in Canada and Qatar. Design. A professional skills simulation practice session on smoking cessation was run for students in Qatar (n=22) and Canada (n=22). Students role played cases in small group situations and then interacted with colleagues from the other country regarding culturally challenging situations and communication strategies. Assessment. Students were assessed on analytical content and communication skills through faculty member and peer evaluation. Cultural competency outcomes were assessed using a postsession survey. Overall, 92.3% of respondents agreed that learning was enhanced through the cross-cultural exchange, and 94.9% agreed that insight was gained into the health-related issues and needs of people from another culture. Conclusion. A course-based, cross-cultural interaction was an effective method to incorporate cultural competency principles into student learning. Future initiatives should increase direct student interaction and focus on culturally sensitive topics. PMID:25861107

  11. The Qatar genome: a population-specific tool for precision medicine in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Fakhro, Khalid A; Staudt, Michelle R; Ramstetter, Monica Denise; Robay, Amal; Malek, Joel A; Badii, Ramin; Al-Marri, Ajayeb Al-Nabet; Khalil, Charbel Abi; Al-Shakaki, Alya; Chidiac, Omar; Stadler, Dora; Zirie, Mahmoud; Jayyousi, Amin; Salit, Jacqueline; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L

    2016-01-01

    Reaching the full potential of precision medicine depends on the quality of personalized genome interpretation. In order to facilitate precision medicine in regions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), a population-specific genome for the indigenous Arab population of Qatar (QTRG) was constructed by incorporating allele frequency data from sequencing of 1,161 Qataris, representing 0.4% of the population. A total of 20.9 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 3.1 million indels were observed in Qatar, including an average of 1.79% novel variants per individual genome. Replacement of the GRCh37 standard reference with QTRG in a best practices genome analysis workflow resulted in an average of 7* deeper coverage depth (an improvement of 23%) and 756,671 fewer variants on average, a reduction of 16% that is attributed to common Qatari alleles being present in QTRG. The benefit for using QTRG varies across ancestries, a factor that should be taken into consideration when selecting an appropriate reference for analysis. PMID:27408750

  12. Project analysis procedures for an OPEC country: case study of Qatar's Northwest Dome Gas Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.B.; Khalifah, H.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of oil in most OPEC countries in the 1940s changed the economies of these countries from a state of capital shortage and stagnation to a state of capital surplus and economic growth. This growth, however, is lopsided. Oil production and export dominate the gross domestic products (GDPs) of those economies. Concern arising during the 1970s about overdependence on crude oil export as the main source of national income has resulted in the initiation of various industrial development programs in OPEC states aiming to diversify their economies. This study was conducted with two primary objectives: (1) to identify and understand the features of selected OPEC countries' development problems, strategies and plans, focusing on the role of oil and gas resources and opportunities for diversification, and (2) to suggest an appropriate development strategy, with project evaluation implications, for capital-abundant, labor-scarce OPEC countries in the Gulf region such as Qatar. This proposed approach is designed to evaluate the project from its contribution to the national income, people's welfare, the expansion of the economy's absorptive capacity, and relief of the economy's dependence on nonrenewable resources. The Northwest Dome Gas Project in Qatar was selected as an illustrative case study for this approach.

  13. Pre-School Education in Morocco and Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouzoubaa, Khadija; Benghabrit-Remaoun, Nouria

    2004-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the current state of early childhood care in the Maghreb, in particular in Morocco and Algeria, where the pre-schooling rate for 5-year-olds is on the increase. Extending pre-school infrastructures and the need to create unified curricula have been among the most urgent questions to be tackled over the last decade in…

  14. Reform of Secondary Education in Morocco: Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diyen, Hayat

    2004-01-01

    As people embark on a new globalized world, the old formal system of education in the Arab world is facing challenges and dilemmas. How can the new system preserve their Islamic and Arabic culture, while incorporating strategies for a new globalized world? This article tries to answer some of these questions by focusing on Morocco as a case study.…

  15. [The consequences of emigration in the Central Rif (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Lazaar, M

    1987-01-01

    The impact of increased international labor migration on Morocco's Central Rif region is examined. The importance for the local economy of remittances from workers living abroad is noted, although the bulk of such resources are devoted to housing construction rather than to developing local business. The impact of remittances on urbanization is also discussed. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  16. Seismicity of Morocco for the Period 1987-1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Alami, S. O.; Tadili, B.; Aït Brahim, L.; Mouayn, I.

    A seismic data file of 3,740 earthquakes from January 1987 to December 1994 has been elaborated for Morocco and the border regions, with 10 main events registering magnitudes from 5 to 5.6. Such seismicity is particularly important for Morocco as the released seismic energy constitutes a considerable part of the total energy radiated during the 20th century. Relative seismicity maps confirm the persistence of the major features of the seismicity of Morocco. An important seismic activity is observed in the Alboran region continental crust, which absorbs the maximum deformation resulting from the convergence of the African and Iberian plates. However, in the longitude window 3.5°- 6° W at depths of 25 to 50 km, a seismic gap zone seems to take place. An explanation of this phenomenon may be provided by the slab breakoff model. Even if the seismicity of Morocco remains moderate, heavy damage is observed when the magnitude of earthquakes exceeds 4.5, especially in the case of traditional buildings.

  17. A Case Study on Undergraduate Entrepreneurial Constructivist Learning in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benamar, Said

    2016-01-01

    Jobs are available for university graduates with entrepreneurship skills, but unemployment in Morocco persists because of the dissociation between university entrepreneurship graduate skills and professional market demand. While university graduates have achieved academic standards, they have lacked the entrepreneurial attributes to be employable.…

  18. 75 FR 58353 - Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... and joint venture partners; site visits to ports and free trade zones, meetings with government... architecture. Examples of upcoming infrastructure projects include design and construction of: A high-speed..., Egypt, March 25-28, and Casablanca and Tangier, Morocco, March 29-April 1. Cairo is the capital of...

  19. [Health care services in the Kingdom of Morocco].

    PubMed

    Sbai Idrissi, K

    2002-01-01

    Kingdom of Morocco is located in Northwestern Africa on the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Its surface area is 710,850 km2. In 2001 the estimated population of Morocco was 29,800,000 people who are not equally distributed over the territory. Population growth rate is changing with a tendency toward levels similar to those in developed countries. The health care system created in 1959 has undergone several reorganizations including the most recent reform now in progress. At the present time the health care system is organized into approximately 60 medical districts. It is subdivided into two networks, i.e., an ambulatory action network and a hospital action network. The ambulatory action network provides basic health care services. It includes 2128 basic care units. Most of these units have medical equipment designed mainly for preventive medicine. The hospital action network comprises 112 hospitals classified as zone hospitals, provincial hospitals, regional hospitals, and university hospitals. Both networks receive technical and scientific support from a network of institutes, laboratories, and specialized centers. Training for health care professionals in Morocco is provided by four medical schools and two health care institutes for paramedical care specialists. Morocco is in a period of epidemiological transition characterized by the coexistence of patients with developed and developing country diseases.

  20. Apyretic gastrointestinal disorders due to giardiasis contracted in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Yann A.; Hole, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 32-year-old French man who presented with morning nausea, bloating, frequent flatulence, burping, occasional pyrosis, and alternating diarrhea and constipation two weeks after a trip to Morocco. The diagnosis was established by a parasitological stool exam that revealed cysts of Giardia lamblia. He was successfully treated with tinidazole. PMID:24765301

  1. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with: (1) educational philosophy, administration, statistics, and…

  2. Educational Reforms in Morocco: Evolution and Current Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorent-Bedmar, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Since 1956, the year in Morocco achieved independence, until now, the school system has been the subject of many discussions and controversies in the most varied areas of the country. We provide data on the educational situation. We analyze the reforms from a critical perspective, ending with final proposals. He underlined that the sector was…

  3. University Faculty Members' Perceptions of the Factors That Facilitate Technology Integration into Their Instruction: An Exploratory Case Study in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory case study was designed to elicit faculty members' perceptions of the factors that facilitate technology integration into their instruction. The study was conducted at a midsized higher education institution in Qatar. Davis's (1986) technology acceptance model (TAM) is the conceptual framework that guided this study…

  4. Prevalence of Online Reading among High School Students in Qatar: Evidence from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested presence of a significant relationship between prevalence of online reading and reading literacy. In this study we examined the prevalence of online reading among 15-year old students in Qatar using a nationally representative sample of 8,089 students. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted at the item and…

  5. 75 FR 66360 - Transportation and Energy Products and Services Trade Mission; Doha, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... exceed five percent.\\1\\ U.S. business opportunities also exist in alternative energy products and... likely increase the need for alternative energy products and services. \\1\\ World Trade Organization... to opportunities in the energy sector in Qatar involve alternative energy products and...

  6. QATAR-2: A K DWARF ORBITED BY A TRANSITING HOT JUPITER AND A MORE MASSIVE COMPANION IN AN OUTER ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Marta L.; Alsubai, Khalid A.; Latham, David W.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Carter, Joshua A.; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Furesz, Gabor; Stefanik, Robert P.; Torres, Guillermo; Parley, Neil R.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Horne, Keith D.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Street, Rachel A.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jorgensen, Uffe Grae; West, Richard G.; and others

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery and initial characterization of Qatar-2b, a hot Jupiter transiting a V = 13.3 mag K dwarf in a circular orbit with a short period, P{sub b} = 1.34 days. The mass and radius of Qatar-2b are M{sub P} = 2.49 M{sub J} and R{sub P} = 1.14 R{sub J}, respectively. Radial-velocity monitoring of Qatar-2 over a span of 153 days revealed the presence of a second companion in an outer orbit. The Systemic Console yielded plausible orbits for the outer companion, with periods on the order of a year and a companion mass of at least several M{sub J}. Thus, Qatar-2 joins the short but growing list of systems with a transiting hot Jupiter and an outer companion with a much longer period. This system architecture is in sharp contrast to that found by Kepler for multi-transiting systems, which are dominated by objects smaller than Neptune, usually with tightly spaced orbits that must be nearly coplanar.

  7. Effects of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction on Science Achievement and Interest in Science: Evidence from Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    The author sought to investigate the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on science achievement and interest in science of 5,120 adolescents from 85 schools in Qatar. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed the substantial positive effects of science teaching and learning with a focus on model or applications and…

  8. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  9. English Teaching Profiles from the British Council: Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role of English and the status of English language instruction is reported for Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, and Malaysia. The profile for each country contains a summary of English instruction within and outside of the educational system, teacher supply and qualifications,…

  10. Epidemiology of Tick-Borne Borreliosis in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Diatta, Georges; Souidi, Yassine; Granjon, Laurent; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Chauvancy, Gilles; Mané, Youssouph; Sarih, M'hammed; Belghyti, Driss; Renaud, François; Trape, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence in Morocco of Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex, the vector of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in North Africa, has been known since 1919, but the disease is rarely diagnosed and few epidemiological data are available. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2006 and 2011, we investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 34 sites distributed across Morocco. We also collected small mammals in 10 sites and we investigated TBRF in febrile patients in Kenitra district. The prevalence of Borrelia infections was assessed by nested PCR amplification in ticks and the brain tissue of small mammals, and by evaluation of thick blood films in patients. A high proportion of burrows were infested with ticks of the O. erraticus complex in all regions of Morocco, with a mean of 39.5% for the whole country. Borrelia infections were found in 39/382 (10.2%) of the ticks and 12/140 (8.6%) of the rodents and insectivores studied by PCR amplification, and 102 patients tested positive by thick blood film. Five small mammalian species were found infected: Dipodillus campestris, Meriones shawi, Gerbillus hoogstrali, Gerbillus occiduus and Atelerix algirus. Three Borrelia species were identified in ticks and/or rodents: B. hispanica, B. crocidurae and B. merionesi. Conclusions/Significance Tick populations belonging to O. erraticus complex are widely distributed in Morocco and a high proportion of ticks and small mammals are infected by Borrelia species. Although rarely diagnosed, TBRF may be a common cause of morbidity in all regions of Morocco. PMID:23029574

  11. Temporal and Spatial Assessment of Yearly Solar Maps Derived from Satellite Images over the UAE and Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Y.; Marpu, P. R.; Ghedira, H.; Chiesa, M.

    2012-12-01

    The unique climate of countries located within the Arabian Peninsula, characterized by high dust concentrations, high humidity and modest cloud coverage, requires regional models to retrieve the solar irradiance components from satellite images. An artificial neural network (ANN) model has shown promising results in estimating the direct normal, diffuse horizontal and global horizontal irradiances using thermal satellite channels over the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This model is trained with six thermal channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard Meteosat Second Generation, along with the solar zenith angle, day number, solar time and eccentricity correction. The outputs of this model are the solar irradiance components at 15-min temporal and 3-km spatial resolutions, which are then utilized to derive the daily, monthly and yearly irradiation maps over the UAE and Qatar. The purpose of this research is to examine the temporal and spatial variations for annual irradiation maps over the UAE and Qatar, derived using the ANN approach. For the period ranging from 2008 to 2010, the year of 2009 shows the lowest annual direct normal and global horizontal irradiation, and the highest diffuse horizontal irradiation. That is due to frequent dust events which occurred during 2009. The annual direct normal irradiation maps for 2008 to 2010 show the same trend, with the higher irradiation values in the southern area of UAE and the values decreasing as the coast approaches in the northern region. For any given year, Qatar generally shows lower direct normal irradiation values than the UAE. This might be explained by higher humidity in Qatar due to its coastal climate. As for the annual diffuse horizontal irradiation maps, the lower irradiation values are observed in the southern area of UAE and along some coastal regions, with the higher values being in the middle. Qatar shows higher values in the western region, due to the increased airborne dust coming from Saudi Arabia, as

  12. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome in Qatar: results from a National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Mohamed Hamad; Al-Thani, Al Anoud Mohammed; Cheema, Sohaila; Sheikh, Javaid; Mamtani, Ravinder; Lowenfels, Albert B; Al-Chetachi, Walaa Fattah; Almalki, Badria Ali; Hassan Khalifa, Shamseldin Ali; Haj Bakri, Ahmad Omar; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine optimum measurements for abdominal obesity and to assess the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome in Qatar. Design National health survey. Setting Qatar National STEPwise Survey conducted by the Supreme Council of Health during 2012. Participants 2496 Qatari citizens aged 18–64 representative of the general population. Primary and secondary outcome measures Measure of obesity (body mass index, waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio) that best identified the presence of at least 2 other factors of metabolic syndrome; cut-off values of waist circumference; frequency of metabolic syndrome. Results Waist circumference ≥102 for men and ≥94 cm for women was the best predictor of the presence of other determinants of metabolic syndrome (raised blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Using these values, we identified 28% of Qataris with metabolic syndrome, which is considerably lower than the estimate of 37% calculated using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Restricting the analysis to participants without known elevated blood pressure, elevated blood sugar or diabetes 16.5% would be classified as having metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased steadily with age (OR=3.40 (95% CI 2.02 to 5.74), OR=5.66 (3.65 to 8.78), OR=10.2 (5.98 to 17.6) and OR=18.2 (7.01 to 47.5) for those in the age group ‘30–39’, ‘40–49’, ‘50–59’, ‘60–64’ vs ‘18–29’; p<0.0001), decreased with increasing educational attainment (OR=0.61 (0.39 to 0.96) for those who attained ‘secondary school or more’ compared with ‘less than primary school’; p=0.03) and exercise (OR=0.60 (0.42 to 0.86) for those exercising ≥3000 vs <600 MET-min/week; p=0.006) but was not associated with smoking or diet. Conclusions Waist circumference was the best measure of obesity to

  13. Perception and intentions to quit among waterpipe smokers in Qatar: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Jaam, M; Al-Marridi, W; Fares, H; Izham, M; Kheir, N; Awaisu, A

    2016-03-21

    Objectif : Evaluer les perceptions et attitudes des fumeurs de pipe à eau (shisha) au Qatar en ce qui concerne les risques sanitaires associés à l'addiction et déterminer leurs intentions d'arrêter.Méthodes : Une enquête transversale a été réalisée auprès de 181 fumeurs de pipe à eau. Les participants ont été approchés dans des lieux publics ainsi que dans des cafés à shisha au Qatar. Le questionnaire a inclus des items liés aux perceptions, aux attitudes et aux intentions de s'arrêter. Des études statistiques descriptives et déductives ont été réalisées pour analyser les données, avec P ⩽ 0,05 considéré comme statistiquement significatif.Résultats : Près de 44% des répondants pensaient que fumer une pipe à eau était plus sûr que fumer des cigarettes, et plus de 70% ne verraient pas d'inconvénient à ce que leurs enfants se mettent à fumer la pipe à eau. De plus, plus de la moitié des fumeurs actuels voulaient arrêter de fumer la shisha à un moment ou à un autre et 17% indiquaient qu'une préoccupation relative à leur santé était le facteur de motivation principal dans leur intention d'arrêter.Conclusion : Une large proportion de fumeurs de shisha la considérait comme une alternative plus sûre que les cigarettes, mais ils admettaient volontiers qu'ils avaient l'intention d'arrêter. Ces résultats soulignent la nécessité d'élaborer des interventions à visée éducative et des campagnes de sensibilisation ainsi que d'imposer des lois strictes relatives à l'utilisation de la pipe à eau dans des lieux publics au Qatar.

  14. A Changing Literacy in Morocco: A Contextual and Pedagogical Overview (Changes in Literacy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezzaki, Abdelkader

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of literacy and literacy education in Morocco. Sketches the historical context, and then discusses literacy in formal school settings, adult programs, and needed improvements. (SR)

  15. Hydrodynamic trapping in the Cretaceous Nahr Umr lower sand of the North Area, Offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, P.R.A.

    1988-03-01

    A hydrodynamic model is described to account for oil and gas occurrences in the Cretaceous of offshore Qatar, in the Arabian Gulf. Variable and inconsistent fluid levels and variable formation water potentials and salinities cannot be explained by combinations of stratigraphic and structural trapping. Indeed, there is no structural closure to the southwest of the oil and gas accumulations. The water-potential and salinity data and oil distribution are consistent with this model and indicate that a vigorous hydrodynamic system pervades the Cretaceous of the Arabian Gulf region. Extensive upward cross-formational discharge is taking place in the North Area. This cross-formation water flow could be partly responsible for localized leaching and reservoir enhancement in the chalky limestones.

  16. Primary coronary angioplasty for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Qatar: First nationwide program

    PubMed Central

    Gehani, Abdurrazzak; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Arafa, Salah; Tamimi, Omer; Alqahtani, Awad; Al-Nabti, Abdulrahman; Arabi, Abdulrahman; Aboughazala, Tarek; Bonow, Robert O; Yacoub, Magdi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this article, we outline the plans, protocols and strategies to set up the first nationwide primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) program for ST-elevation myocardial Infarction (STEMI) in Qatar, as well as the difficulties and the multi-disciplinary solutions that we adopted in preparation. We will also report some of the landmark literature that guided our plans. The guidelines underscore the need for adequate number of procedures to justify establishing a primary-PCI service and maintain competency. The number of both diagnostic and interventional procedures in our centre has increased substantially over the years. The number of diagnostic procedures has increased from 1470 in 2007, to 2200 in 2009 and is projected to exceed 3000 by the end of 2012. The total number of PCIs has also increased from 443 in 2007, to 646 in 2009 and 1176 in 2011 and is expected to exceed 1400 by the end of 2012. These figures qualify our centre to be classified as ‘high volume’, both for the institution and for the individual interventional operators. The initial number of expected primary PCI procedures will be in excess of 600 procedures per year. Guidelines also emphasize the door to balloon time (DBT), which should not exceed 90 minutes. This interval mainly represents in-hospital delay and reflects the efficiency of the hospital system in the rapid recognition and transfer of the STEMI patient to the catheterization laboratory for primary-PCI. Although DBT is clearly important and is in the forefront of planning for the wide primary PCI program, it is not the only important time interval. Myocardial necrosis begins before the patient arrives to the hospital and even before first medical contact, so time is of the essence. Therefore, our primary PCI program includes a nationwide awareness program for both the population and health care professionals to reduce the pre-hospital delay. We have also taken steps to improve the pre-hospital diagnosis of

  17. Detection of the secondary eclipse of Qatar-1b in the Ks band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Patricia; Barrado, David; Lillo-Box, Jorge; Diaz, Marcos; Birkby, Jayne; López-Morales, Mercedes; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: Qatar-1b is a close-orbiting hot Jupiter (Rp ≃ 1.18 RJ, Mp ≃ 1.33 MJ) around a metal-rich K-dwarf, with orbital separation and period of 0.023 AU and 1.42 days. We have observed the secondary eclipse of this exoplanet in the Ks band with the objective of deriving a brightness temperature for the planet and providing further constraints to the orbital configuration of the system. Methods: We obtained near-infrared photometric data from the ground by using the OMEGA2000 instrument at the 3.5 m telescope at Calar Alto (Spain) in staring mode, with the telescope defocused. We have used principal component analysis (PCA) to identify correlated systematic trends in the data. A Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis was performed to model the correlated systematics and fit for the secondary eclipse of Qatar-1b using a previously developed occultation model. We adopted the prayer bead method to assess the effect of red noise on the derived parameters. Results: We measured a secondary eclipse depth of 0.196%+ 0.071%-0.051%, which indicates a brightness temperature in the Ks band for the planet of 1885+ 212-168 K. We also measured a small deviation in the central phase of the secondary eclipse of -0.0079+ 0.0162-0.0043, which leads to a value for ecosω of -0.0123+ 0.0252-0.0067. However, this last result needs to be confirmed with more data. Based on observations collected at the Calar Alto Observatory, Almería, Spain.Lightcurve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/595/A61

  18. [Tinea capitis etiology in Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Elmaataoui, A; Zeroual, Z; Lyagoubi, M; Aoufi, S

    2012-09-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a contagious infection that affects mainly children and teenagers. A retrospective study was realized at the mycology-parasitology department of the Ibn Sina hospital in Rabat, Morocco. The study includes 125 cases of TC. The mean age is 12.73 ± 11.61 year. The isolation of TC is dominated by two species Trichophyton violaceum 76 (60.8%) and Microsporum canis 27 (21.6%). Trichophyton verrucosum was isolated only in male and all of rural origin. In adults over 18 years, the most isolated species is T. violaceum (six cases) in females. For the last thirty years, the epidemiological profile of TC remains almost the same in Morocco.

  19. Morocco's policy choices to achieve Universal health coverage

    PubMed Central

    Tinasti, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Morocco's health system remains weak in spite of the improvement of other development indicators in the last ten years. Health remains one of the major challenges to lower the social disparities that are the priority for the authorities. Despite the goodwill of all stakeholders, significant reforms implemented respond only partially to the needs of the population. Morocco established several public insurance schemes, of which one focuses on the poorest, to achieve financial-risk protection for its population. Nevertheless, achieving universal health coverage through one of its dimensions is not sufficient, and all the effort being concentrated in one area has shown the deterioration of equity in access to and quality of health services. Moreover, the insurance schemes did not reach their objectives of protecting a majority of Moroccans from financial hardship. PMID:26405489

  20. Morocco's policy choices to achieve Universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Tinasti, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Morocco's health system remains weak in spite of the improvement of other development indicators in the last ten years. Health remains one of the major challenges to lower the social disparities that are the priority for the authorities. Despite the goodwill of all stakeholders, significant reforms implemented respond only partially to the needs of the population. Morocco established several public insurance schemes, of which one focuses on the poorest, to achieve financial-risk protection for its population. Nevertheless, achieving universal health coverage through one of its dimensions is not sufficient, and all the effort being concentrated in one area has shown the deterioration of equity in access to and quality of health services. Moreover, the insurance schemes did not reach their objectives of protecting a majority of Moroccans from financial hardship. PMID:26405489

  1. Morocco and border of spain as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Atlantic Ocean, Straits of Gibraltar, and Alboran Sea (the westernmost portion of the Mediterranean Sea) separate Spain on the left from Morocco on the right. Algeciras Harbor is the prominent notch cut out of the eastern end of the north shore of the Strait; the Rock of Gibraltar is the tiny arrowhead that separates the notch from the Alboran Sea. The Sierra Nevada, farther away down the Spanish coast, lives up to its name in this April scene. The difference in elevation between the Sierra Morena and the Guadalquivir River valley is highlighted nicely by cumulus clouds. Tangier, Morocco can be seen as a light-toned spot on the southern shore of the Strait, near the entrance to the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Air pollution biomonitoring survey in Morocco using k0-INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khoukhi, T.; Cherkaoui, R. M.; Gaudry, A.; Ayrault, S.; Senhou, A.; Chouak, A.; Moutia, Z.; Chakir, E.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental monitoring is an essential step in any economical and social development policy. The atmospheric pollution study is a principal task due to the importance of atmospheric transfer of pollutants. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by different micro-climates influencing, on one hand, the transfer range of trace elements and, on the other hand, the availability of biological organisms that can be used in trace element air pollution biodetection study. Tree-barks, lichens and mosses were used in this study to evaluate trace elements bioavailability in different regions of Morocco. Those organisms were analyzed using the multi-elemental k0-INAA technique. The quality control of the results was performed by the analysis of reference materials. The analysis results were interpreted in the form of enrichment factors reflecting the atmospheric availability of anthropogenic pollutant elements such as Cl, V, Cr, Zn, As, Se and Sr.

  3. Clinico-pathological profile of acute promyelocytic leukaemia at Al-Amal Oncology-Haematology Centre, Qatar.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, F A; Yassin, M A; El-Ayoubi, H R; Alhiji, I A; Albinali, A S; Almansour, S M; Qafoud, F M

    2010-09-01

    This cases series describes the profile of adult patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APt) at a referral hospital in Qatar. Of 34 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases diagnosed, 11(32%) were classified as APt. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was common at presentation (91%). Severe thrombocytopenia was seen in 73%, leukocytosis in 55% and severe anaemia in 45%. Only 2 patients were of the classic hypergranular type. In the remaining 9 patients, 3 morphological subtypes were recognized: microgranular variant (6 patients), hyperbasophilic (2 patients) and regular nuclear outline M3r (1 patient). Translocation t(15;17) was detected in 63% of cases. APL constitutes a high proportion of AML cases in Qatar, with considerable morphological heterogeneity and a oredominance of APL variants with unfavourable oresenting features. PMID:21218723

  4. Determination of 137Cs activity in soil from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Matthews, M.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Al Sadig, Ibrahim; Daar, Eman

    2016-10-01

    With interest in establishing baseline concentrations of 137Cs in soil from the Qatarian peninsula, we focus on determination of the activity concentrations in 129 soil samples collected across the State of Qatar prior to the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. As such, the data provides the basis of a reference map for the detection of releases of this fission product. The activity concentrations were measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector enclosed in a copper-lined passive lead shield that was situated in a low-background environment. The activity concentrations ranged from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg, with a median value of 1 Bq/kg, the greatest activity concentration being observed in a sample obtained from northern Qatar. Although it cannot be confirmed, it is expected that this contamination is mainly due to releases from the Chernobyl accident of 26 April 1986, there being a lack of data from Qatar before the accident. The values are typically within but are sometimes lower than the range indicated by data from other countries in the region. The lower values than those of others is suggested to be due to variation in soil characteristics as well as metrological factors at the time of deposition.

  5. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Long-Term-Residents and Settled Immigrants in Qatar in the Period 2005 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Doiphode, Sanjay H.

    2013-01-01

    The expanding economy of Qatar in the last two decades has attracted immigrants, often from countries with poor socio-economic levels. Many arrive with patent intestinal parasitic infections, and recent analyses have indicated consistently rising trends in the prevalence of some infections. Here, we examined 18,563 hospital records of subjects in Qatar seeking medical assistance for a variety of ailments, combining data from 2009 to 2011 with the earlier dataset from 2005 to 2008 to enable trends to be identified across a 7-year period. We found that 8.6% were infected with one or more species of parasites, however in contrast to the earlier period (2005–2008), in the latter 3 years there were falling trends of prevalence providing some optimism that parasitic infections among the resident immigrants have begun to decline. We identified also geographic regions from which resident workers still maintain a relatively high prevalence of helminth infections despite their long-term residence in Qatar. PMID:23478576

  6. Traffic-related pedestrian injuries amongst expatriate workers in Qatar: a need for cross-cultural injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Zarour, Ahmad; Parchani, Ashok; Abdulrahman, Husham; Asim, Mohammad; Peralta, Ruben; Consunji, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Qatar is a rapidly developing country in which expatriate workers constitute the majority of population. Also, Qatar is an example of right-sided road driving convention (RDC) country. The aim of our study is to analyse the traffic-related pedestrian injuries (TRPI) amongst expatriates in relation to RDC. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of TRPI patients who were admitted to the only Level I trauma centre in Qatar between 2009 and 2011 was performed. Demographics, country of origin, time of injury, injury severity score (ISS), RDC, morbidity and mortality were analysed. Of the 4997 injured patients, 601 (12%) were pedestrians. Of these, 92% were expatriates. The mean age was 31.8 ± 17 and 64% of them were 18-45 years old. Mean ISS was higher in those who were injured on weekends (15.4 ± 10) in comparison to working days (13.5 ± 10) (p = 0.04). The overall mortality was 15%. Sixty-seven percent of those who died were from left RDC countries. Expatriate workers, originally from left RDC countries are disproportionately affected by TRPI. This group of injured patients requires focused injury prevention programmes that are culture and language appropriate.

  7. The Qatar National Historic Environment Record: a Platform for the Development of a Fully-Integrated Cultural Heritage Management Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttler, R. T. H.; Tonner, T. W. W.; Al-Naimi, F. A.; Dingwall, L. M.; Al-Hemaidi, N.

    2013-07-01

    The development of the Qatar National Historic Environment Record (QNHER) by the Qatar Museums Authority and the University of Birmingham in 2008 was based on a customised, bilingual Access database and ArcGIS. While both platforms are stable and well supported, neither was designed for the documentation and retrieval of cultural heritage data. As a result it was decided to develop a custom application using Open Source code. The core module of this application is now completed and is orientated towards the storage and retrieval of geospatial heritage data for the curation of heritage assets. Based on MIDAS Heritage data standards and regionally relevant thesauri, it is a truly bilingual system. Significant attention has been paid to the user interface, which is userfriendly and intuitive. Based on a suite of web services and accessed through a web browser, the system makes full use of internet resources such as Google Maps and Bing Maps. The application avoids long term vendor ''tie-ins'' and as a fully integrated data management system, is now an important tool for both cultural resource managers and heritage researchers in Qatar.

  8. Traffic-related pedestrian injuries amongst expatriate workers in Qatar: a need for cross-cultural injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Zarour, Ahmad; Parchani, Ashok; Abdulrahman, Husham; Asim, Mohammad; Peralta, Ruben; Consunji, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Qatar is a rapidly developing country in which expatriate workers constitute the majority of population. Also, Qatar is an example of right-sided road driving convention (RDC) country. The aim of our study is to analyse the traffic-related pedestrian injuries (TRPI) amongst expatriates in relation to RDC. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of TRPI patients who were admitted to the only Level I trauma centre in Qatar between 2009 and 2011 was performed. Demographics, country of origin, time of injury, injury severity score (ISS), RDC, morbidity and mortality were analysed. Of the 4997 injured patients, 601 (12%) were pedestrians. Of these, 92% were expatriates. The mean age was 31.8 ± 17 and 64% of them were 18-45 years old. Mean ISS was higher in those who were injured on weekends (15.4 ± 10) in comparison to working days (13.5 ± 10) (p = 0.04). The overall mortality was 15%. Sixty-seven percent of those who died were from left RDC countries. Expatriate workers, originally from left RDC countries are disproportionately affected by TRPI. This group of injured patients requires focused injury prevention programmes that are culture and language appropriate. PMID:24392875

  9. The System of Higher Education in Morocco: A Brief Introductory Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meziani, Ahmed

    1999-01-01

    Describes higher education in Morocco, briefly touching on the country's socioeconomic history, then explaining Morocco's three types of postsecondary institutions: the public university system, the public non-university system, and the private system. Presents details about Moroccan universities, which are state institutions, focusing on…

  10. Projected changes in climate extremes over Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundeti, K.; Kanikicharla, K. K.; Al sulaiti, M.; Khulaifi, M.; Alboinin, N.; Kito, A.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the State of Qatar and the adjacent region is dominated by subtropical dry, hot desert climate with low annual rainfall, very high temperatures in summer and a big difference between maximum and minimum temperatures, especially in the inland areas. The coastal areas are influenced by the Arabian Gulf, and have lower maximum, but higher minimum temperatures and a higher moisture percentage in the air. The global warming can have profound impact on the mean climate as well as extreme weather events over the Arabian Peninsula that may affect both natural and human systems significantly. Therefore, it is important to assess the future changes in the seasonal/annual mean of temperature and precipitation and also the extremes in temperature and wind events for a country like Qatar. This study assesses the performance of the Coupled Model Inter comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations in present and develops future climate scenarios. The changes in climate extremes are assessed for three future periods 2016-2035, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099 with respect to 1986-2005 (base line) under two RCPs (Representative Concentrate Pathways) - RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We analyzed the projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes using several indices including those that capture heat stress. The observations show an increase in warm extremes over many parts in this region that are generally well captured by the models. The results indicate a significant change in frequency and intensity of both temperature and precipitation extremes over many parts of this region which may have serious implications on human health, water resources and the onshore/offshore infrastructure in this region. Data from a high-resolution (20km) AGCM simulation from Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency for the present (1979-2003) and a future time slice (2075-2099) corresponding to RCP8.5 have also been utilized to assess the impact of climate change on

  11. Storytelling and environmental information: connecting schoolchildren and herpetofauna in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Fanini, Lucia; Fahd, Soumia

    2009-06-01

    Northwestern Morocco is undergoing a sudden change in the level of infrastructure growth and pressure on the environment from increased tourism. The ongoing changes are raising questions about how the ecosystem will react, and the relevant drivers of these changes. The Oued Laou valley in north-west Morocco hosts high landscape, species and human cultural diversity. The Talassemtane National Park has been established to preserve the environment in this region; however, what information tools are available to children regarding this environment? The ecosystem is illustrated here using three components: herpetofauna (representing ecosystem components), problems related to water quantity and quality (representing interactions within ecosystem components) and Talassemtane National Park (representing a case of ecosystem management). A children's book was written on this topic, and when the book was delivered to pupils, a questionnaire was included, aimed at determining their sources of environmental information. The results identified major changes in the sources of information utilized by children in this part of Morocco, a clear role of schools in explaining ecosystem components, and an increasing role of TV in environmental information supply. The role of the family was found to be less important than TV or school. Another major source of pupils' environmental knowledge is personal observation and hands-on experience, both for rural and urban children. Children are willing to discover and understand complex systems, and researchers should be encouraged to supply children with correct and up-to-date information on environmental systems, focusing at first on the local environment, as a background for sustainable development.

  12. Sport events and climate for visitors—the case of FIFA World Cup in Qatar 2022

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Fröhlich, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The effect of weather on sport events is not well studied. It requires special attention if the event is taking place at a time and place with extreme weather situations. For the world soccer championship in Qatar (Doha 2022), human biometeorological analysis has been performed in order to identify the time of the year that is most suitable in terms of thermal comfort for visitors attending the event. The analysis is based on thermal indices like Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results show that this kind of event may be not appropriate for visitors, if it is placed during months with extreme conditions. For Doha, this is the period from May to September, when conditions during a large majority of hours of the day cause strong heat stress for the visitors. A more appropriate time would be the months November to February, when thermally comfortable conditions are much more frequent. The methods applied here can quantify the thermal conditions and show limitations and possibilities for specific events and locations.

  13. Knowledge and use of folic acid among pregnant Arabian women residing in Qatar and Oman.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Abdelmonem S; Al-Kharusi, Balqees M

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and use of folic acid among pregnant Arabian women in Qatar and Oman. Three hundred pregnant women were interviewed during their second trimester based on a questionnaire developed for the study. Results of the survey indicated that 94% of the women knew about folic acid, 41.3% knew it should be taken periconceptionally, 58.5% knew that it prevents birth defects and 34.4% were able to identify five or more food sources of folic acid. The majority (88.7%) of women was taking the supplement, 85.0% were taking it regularly and 13.2% took it before getting pregnant. Knowledge and use were significantly influenced by ethnicity, age, education level, employment and family income. Periconceptional use of supplement was lowest among younger women (4.9%) and illiterate and least educated women (5.3%). It was concluded that high level of knowledge of folic acid was not reflected as successful use of the folic acid supplement.

  14. 3D laser scanning and modelling of the Dhow heritage for the Qatar National Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetherelt, A.; Cooper, J. P.; Zazzaro, C.

    2014-08-01

    Curating boats can be difficult. They are complex structures, often demanding to conserve whether in or out of the water; they are usually large, difficult to move on land, and demanding of gallery space. Communicating life on board to a visiting public in the terra firma context of a museum can be difficult. Boats in their native environment are inherently dynamic artifacts. In a museum they can be static and divorced from the maritime context that might inspire engagement. New technologies offer new approaches to these problems. 3D laser scanning and digital modeling offers museums a multifaceted means of recording, monitoring, studying and communicating watercraft in their care. In this paper we describe the application of 3D laser scanning and subsequent digital modeling. Laser scans were further developed using computer-generated imagery (CGI) modeling techniques to produce photorealistic 3D digital models for development into interactive, media-based museum displays. The scans were also used to generate 2D naval lines and orthographic drawings as a lasting curatorial record of the dhows held by the National Museum of Qatar.

  15. Severe respiratory illness associated with a novel coronavirus--Saudi Arabia and Qatar, 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-10-12

    CDC is working closely with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners to better understand the public health risk presented by a recently detected, novel coronavirus. This virus has been identified in two patients, both previously healthy adults who suffered severe respiratory illness. The first patient, a man aged 60 years from Saudi Arabia, was hospitalized in June 2012 and died; the second patient, a man aged 49 years from Qatar with onset of symptoms in September 2012 was transported to the United Kingdom for intensive care. He remains hospitalized on life support with both pulmonary and renal failure. Person-to-person or health-care-associated transmission has not been identified to date. Interim case definitions based on acute respiratory illness and travel history were issued by WHO on September 29 and include criteria for "patient under investigation," "probable case," and "confirmed case". This information is current as of October 4. Updates on the investigation and the WHO case definition are available at http://www.who.int/csr/don/en/index.html. PMID:23051613

  16. Motor vehicle injuries in Qatar: time trends in a rapidly developing Middle Eastern nation.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud Mohammed; Sheikh, Javaid I; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2012-04-01

    Despite their wealth and modern road systems, traffic injury rates in Middle Eastern countries are generally higher than those in Western countries. The authors examined traffic injuries in Qatar during 2000-2010, a period of rapid population growth, focusing on the impact of speed control cameras installed in 2007 on overall injury rates and mortality. During the period 2000-2006, prior to camera installation, the mean (SD) vehicular injury death rate per 100,000 was 19.9±4.1. From 2007 to 2010, the mean (SD) vehicular death rates were significantly lower: 14.7±1.5 (p=0.028). Non-fatal severe injury rates also declined, but mild injury rates increased, perhaps because of increased traffic congestion and improved notification. It is possible that speed cameras decreased speeding enough to affect the death rate, without affecting overall injury rates. These data suggest that in a rapidly growing Middle Eastern country, photo enforcement (speed) cameras can be an important component of traffic control, but other measures will be required for maximum impact.

  17. Sport events and climate for visitors--the case of FIFA World Cup in Qatar 2022.

    PubMed

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Fröhlich, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The effect of weather on sport events is not well studied. It requires special attention if the event is taking place at a time and place with extreme weather situations. For the world soccer championship in Qatar (Doha 2022), human biometeorological analysis has been performed in order to identify the time of the year that is most suitable in terms of thermal comfort for visitors attending the event. The analysis is based on thermal indices like Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results show that this kind of event may be not appropriate for visitors, if it is placed during months with extreme conditions. For Doha, this is the period from May to September, when conditions during a large majority of hours of the day cause strong heat stress for the visitors. A more appropriate time would be the months November to February, when thermally comfortable conditions are much more frequent. The methods applied here can quantify the thermal conditions and show limitations and possibilities for specific events and locations.

  18. Acinetobacter Infections among Adult Patients in Qatar: A 2-Year Hospital-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Samawi, Musaed Saad; Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Eldeeb, Yasser; Almaslamani, Muna; Alkhal, Abdullatif; Alsoub, Hussam; Ghadban, Wissam; Howady, Faraj; Hashim, Samar

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, Qatar, to describe the demographic data, clinical features underlying diseases, antimicrobial susceptibility, and outcome of A. baumannii infection. It involved all adult patients 15 years of age or older who were managed at Hamad General Hospital for A. baumannii infection from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. We identified a total of 239 patients with A. baumannii infection, of which 182 (76.2%) were males. The mean age was 49.10 ± 19.57 years. The majority of the episodes (25.1%) occurred in elderly patients (≥65 years) and the most commonly identified site of A. baumannii infection was the respiratory tract, 117 (48.9%). Most episodes of infection, 231 (96.7%), were hospital-acquired and high rate of nosocomial infections occurred in the medical intensive care unit, 66 (28.6%). All patients had underlying medical conditions. Maximum resistance was seen to cefotaxime, 147 (58.3%), and minimum resistance was seen to colistin, 2 (1.4%). Of the 239 isolates, 102 (42.7%) were susceptible and 137 (57.3%) were multidrug-resistant. The in-hospital mortality in our study was 31%. Male gender, multidrug resistance, and septic shock were found to be independent mortality predictors. PMID:27433169

  19. Integration of solar process heat into an existing thermal desalination plant in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieckmann, S.; Krishnamoorthy, G.; Aboumadi, M.; Pandian, Y.; Dersch, J.; Krüger, D.; Al-Rasheed, A. S.; Krüger, J.; Ottenburger, U.

    2016-05-01

    The water supply of many countries in the Middle East relies mainly on water desalination. In Qatar, the water network is completely fed with water from desalination plants. One of these power and desalination plants is located in Ras Abu Fontas, 20 km south of the capital Doha. The heat required for thermal desalination is provided by steam which is generated in waste heat recovery boilers (HRB) connected to gas turbines. Additionally, gas fired boilers or auxiliary firing in the HRBs are used in order to decouple the water generation from the electricity generation. In Ras Abu Fontas some auxiliary boilers run 24/7 because the HRB capacity does not match the demand of the desalination units. This paper contains the techno-economic analysis of two large-scale commercial solar field options, which could reduce the fuel consumption significantly. Both options employ parabolic trough technology with a nominal saturated steam output of 350 t/h at 15 bar (198°C, 240 MW). The first option uses direct steam generation without storage while the second relies on common thermal oil in combination with a molten salt thermal storage with 6 hours full-load capacity. The economic benefit of the integration of solar power depends mainly on the cost of the fossil alternative, and thus the price (respectively opportunity costs) of natural gas. At a natural gas price of 8 US-/MMBtu the internal rate of return on equity (IRR) is expected at about 5%.

  20. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco. PMID:26593735

  1. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco.

  2. Hercynian basement faults control and hydrocarbon habitat in Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Elouataoui, A.; Jabour, H.; Ait, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Geologic, geophysical and remote sensing evidence shows that the Paleozoic basement of Morocco is fragmented at various scales. Wrench faults, difficult to identify by conventional methods were examined from a regional perspective and through careful observation and assessment of many factors. Subsurface structural mapping and geoseismic cross-sections supported by outcrop studies and geomorphological features revealed a network of strike slip faults. Although controversy still surrounds interpretation of major faults as wrench type, with various amounts of strike-slip, or as reverse dip-slip with large amount of shortening, mapping of these basement fault block pattern in Moroccan sedimentary basins revealed literally many correlations of these blocks with prospective structures. These range from simple fault traps, to horst blocks, to fracture systems, to asymmetrical folds over reverse faults. Additionally, many types of stratigraphic traps correlate with basement shear zones. One example is the Middle Devonian algal mounds complex in the Doukkala Basin that evidently formed on fault scarps and/or fault-caused sea floor highs. The present study demonstrates that most of defined prospective structures in Morocco result from basement fault control and considers precise mapping of these pattern a pervasive and prerequisite exploration approach to go forward in upcoming exploration programs.

  3. [Health risks study in a pottery environment in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Laraqui, C H; Caubet, A; Laraqui, O; Rahhali, A E; Curtes, J P; Verger, C

    2000-01-01

    Morocco is famous for its potteries, the largest of which are located at Rabat, Safi, Marrakech and Fes. This cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiological survey was carried out over an eight-month period, from January to August 1997. The study population consisted of 290 male workers from 36 workshops. The study involved a social and medical survey (a questionnaire and medical examination for all workers, with biological assessment for a representative sample of 95 craftsmen) and an analysis of the working conditions in which atmospheric pollution at the pottery was evaluated. Atmospheric concentrations of zinc, copper, iron, chrome and lead were determined. Only lead levels were found to be significantly high and were analyzed on three occasions. This study demonstrates poor working conditions and a lack of respect for the regulations concerning specific prevention measures and the health rules applicable to establishments where personnel are routinely exposed to the risk of lead poisoning. Various pathological conditions were observed, with the following prevalences: skeletal muscle 67.6%, dermatological 8.3%, digestive 58%, respiratory 28% and neurological 35.5%. Several nonspecific, often minor, clinical signs were recorded for most of the potters but the toxicological analysis confirmed lead contamination in 74% of the exposed subjects (plasma lead concentration, CPU, ALAU). The potteries of Morocco are not subject to any protection. Special technical and medical surveillance should be introduced and the laws concerning exposure to lead should be applied.

  4. Hercynian basement faults control and hydrocarbon habitat in Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Elouataoui, A.; Jabour, H.; Ait, S.A. )

    1996-01-01

    Geologic, geophysical and remote sensing evidence shows that the Paleozoic basement of Morocco is fragmented at various scales. Wrench faults, difficult to identify by conventional methods were examined from a regional perspective and through careful observation and assessment of many factors. Subsurface structural mapping and geoseismic cross-sections supported by outcrop studies and geomorphological features revealed a network of strike slip faults. Although controversy still surrounds interpretation of major faults as wrench type, with various amounts of strike-slip, or as reverse dip-slip with large amount of shortening, mapping of these basement fault block pattern in Moroccan sedimentary basins revealed literally many correlations of these blocks with prospective structures. These range from simple fault traps, to horst blocks, to fracture systems, to asymmetrical folds over reverse faults. Additionally, many types of stratigraphic traps correlate with basement shear zones. One example is the Middle Devonian algal mounds complex in the Doukkala Basin that evidently formed on fault scarps and/or fault-caused sea floor highs. The present study demonstrates that most of defined prospective structures in Morocco result from basement fault control and considers precise mapping of these pattern a pervasive and prerequisite exploration approach to go forward in upcoming exploration programs.

  5. Jurassic extension and Alpine inversion of the northern Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Zizi, M. )

    1993-09-01

    The lower Mesozoic half grabens of northern Morocco form part of an extensional system that is related to the opening of the western Tethys. They appear to be somewhat younger than the Triassic-Jurassic systems associated with the opening the Atlantic Ocean. During the Tertiary and as consequence of the Alpine collision of Africa with Europe, these half graben systems were inverted as shown by the High and the Middle Atlas mountains. Seismic illustrations of similar but smaller inversion structures are available from the Guercif area and the [open quotes]Rides Prerifaines[close quotes] of northern Morocco. These seismic profiles serve as small models for the much larger Atlas Mountains. In the Guercif area, the inversions are limited in scope, but in the [open quotes]Ride Prerifaines[close quotes] are extensive decollement systems that sole out in the Triassic evaporites. These systems evolve into complex thrust faults and associated lateral ramps that are strongly influenced by the configuration of the Jurassic transtensional systems. Significant hydrocarbon accumulation have been known for some time from the [open quotes]Rides Prerifaines.[close quotes] A review of the geometry of the inverted half-graben systems, combined with detailed stratigraphic studies, is likely to lead to the discovery of additional reserves in the area.

  6. [Rheumatoid arthritis in Morocco. Apropos of 404 observations].

    PubMed

    Benamour, S; Zeroual, B; Fares, L; el Kabli, H; Bettal, S

    1992-12-01

    A retrospective study of 404 cases of rheumatoid arthritis seen in a department of internal medicine in Casablanca highlights a number of specific features of the disease in Morocco. Onset occurred early and mean age of patients was 34.4 years. Analysis of joint manifestations showed that the disease tended to be mild in the hips and perhaps in the cervical spine. Thirty-five percent of patients were Steinbrocker's class II and 25.5% had carpal bone fusion. Only 20 patients had severely erosive disease, which manifested as giant geodes in 8 cases and as main en lorgnette deformity in one case. Subcutaneous nodules (7.9%) and systemic visceral disorders were fairly infrequent. Only three cases of malignant rheumatoid arthritis were found. Gougerot-Sjögren syndrome was present in 13.6% of patients. Among comorbid conditions, thyroid gland diseases and tuberculosis were fairly common. Serologic tests were positive in 61.14% of cases, often in low titres. Gold salt therapy was well tolerated. No patients in this group had surgical treatment. These data suggest that in Morocco rheumatoid arthritis may be less aggressive than in Europe.

  7. New oil and gas plays, Morocco and Tunisia, North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Pratsch, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    Modern integrated exploration concepts have defined two new oil and gas plays in onshore North Africa: The Prerif Basin in Morocco and the Central Basin in Tunisia. The Moroccan Prerif Basin is somewhat similar to Rocky Mountain basins, the Tunisian Central Basin to West Texas. In Morocco, two major gravity-indicated depocenters lie along the contact between the northern Tertiary Rif Fold- and Thrust Belt and southern Prerif Foreland Basin. No deep drilling or seismic data have been reported over these depocenters. They probably contain thick Jurassic oil source beds known from the southern basin flank; regional hydrocarbon migration was mainly north to south. Reservoirs will include sandstones and carbonates of Triassic, Jurassic, and Miocene ages. Some small oil production from Jurassic and Tertiary reservoirs at the southern edge of the basin is now shut-in. In Tunisia, a large (over 60,000 sqkm) regional structurally low area is indicated by gravity and regional geological data. Geochemistry shows a huge gas an oil potential from Paleozoic source beds. Main hydrocarbon migration most likely was from west to east. Reservoirs will include Paleozoic and Triassic sandstones, similar to those in the many producing fields in the North African Sahara Region. This play has not yet been initiated. Attractive legislation and market possibilities exist in both areas.

  8. Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ziyyat, A; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Dassouli, A; Serhrouchni, M; Benjelloun, W

    1997-09-01

    In order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental Morocco. The patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). On average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. This proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. This result shows that phytotherapy is widely adopted in northeastern Morocco. For diabetes, 41 plants were cited, of which the most used were Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata Benth. (Cupressaceae). In the hypertension's therapy 18 vegetal species were reported, of which the most used were Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), Olea europea L. (Oleaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae), Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill (Apiaceae). Among the 18 species used for hypertension, 14 were also employed for diabetes. Moreover, these two diseases were associated in 41% of hypertensives. These findings suggest that hypertension observed in this region would be in a large part related to diabetes.

  9. Occupational health and safety in the mining industry in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Laraqui, C H; Caubet, A; Harourate, K; Laraqui, O; Verger, C

    1999-01-01

    The mining sector is one of the pillars of our national economy. Our paper concerns safety and occupational health in the mining sector in Morocco. This sector employs 60,000 persons, more than half of them working in the phosphate sectors. There are 36 occupational medical services, with 83 practitioners 395 nurses and 91 agents, protecting 43,926 workers (73% of all personnel). The task of labour inspection in this sector is entrusted to mining engineers. The statistics of the central department of industrial inspection in mines from 1975 to 1995 show a fall in occupational injuries and a progressive increase reported in occupational diseases, 96% of which are silicosis. The improvement of prevention and health at work in the mining sector in Morocco has led to a reduction in occupational hazards and specially occupational injuries. However, an effort seems required so as to generalize occupational medical and safety services in all the mining enterprises and in the craft mining sector in particular.

  10. Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ziyyat, A; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Dassouli, A; Serhrouchni, M; Benjelloun, W

    1997-09-01

    In order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental Morocco. The patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). On average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. This proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. This result shows that phytotherapy is widely adopted in northeastern Morocco. For diabetes, 41 plants were cited, of which the most used were Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata Benth. (Cupressaceae). In the hypertension's therapy 18 vegetal species were reported, of which the most used were Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), Olea europea L. (Oleaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae), Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill (Apiaceae). Among the 18 species used for hypertension, 14 were also employed for diabetes. Moreover, these two diseases were associated in 41% of hypertensives. These findings suggest that hypertension observed in this region would be in a large part related to diabetes. PMID:9324004

  11. Birth of meteor network in Morocco - Analysis for the 2012 Geminids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudawska, Regina; Daassou, Ahmed; Ait Moulay Larbi, Mamoun; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Colas, Francois; Baratoux, David; Bouley, Sylvain

    2013-08-01

    Morocco is known to a region of frequent witness of meteorite falls and/or recovery. This dictate the necessity to create the first Moroccan meteor network. This paper presents the results of the 2012 Geminid observation campaign performed at the Atlas Golf Marrakesh, Marrakesh, Morocco. It was found that the Geminids duration is generally correlated to their magnitude. Moreover, we analyse a Geminid spectrum showing a normal class spectrum, with high sodium content. Morocco is found to be an excellent place for meteor observation and future work and collaboration are presented.

  12. Procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating research participants in Qatar: findings from a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very few researchers have reported on procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating participants in health research in the Arabian Gulf Region. Empirical research can inform the debate about whether to adjust these procedures for culturally diverse settings. Our objective was to delineate procedures related to recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating health research participants in the extremely high-density multicultural setting of Qatar. Methods During a multistage mixed methods project, field observations and qualitative interviews were conducted in a general medicine clinic of a major medical center in Qatar. Participants were chosen based on gender, age, literacy, and preferred language, i.e., Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu. Qualitative analysis identified themes about recruitment, informed consent, compensation, and other research procedures. Results A total of 153 individuals were approached and 84 enrolled; the latter showed a diverse age range (18 to 75 years); varied language representation: Arabic (n = 24), English (n = 20), Hindi (n = 20), and Urdu (n = 20); and balanced gender distribution: women (n = 43) and men (n = 41). Primary reasons for 30 declinations included concern about interview length and recording. The study achieved a 74% participation rate. Qualitative analytics revealed key themes about hesitation to participate, decisions about participation with family members as well as discussions with them as “incidental research participants”, the informed consent process, privacy and gender rules of the interview environment, reactions to member checking and compensation, and motivation for participating. Vulnerability emerged as a recurring issue throughout the process among a minority of participants. Conclusions This study from Qatar is the first to provide empirical data on recruitment, informed consent, compensation and other research procedures in a general

  13. Beliefs and attitudes about breast cancer and screening practices among Arab women living in Qatar: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite rising breast cancer incidence and mortality rates, breast cancer screening (BCS) rates among women in Qatar remain low. Previous studies indicate the need to better understand the many complex beliefs, values, and attitudes that influence Arab women’s health seeking behavior for the development of culturally appropriate and effective intervention strategies to address breast cancer in the Middle East. This study investigates beliefs, attitudes, and BCS practices of Arabic-speaking women in Qatar. Methods A multicenter, cross-sectional quantitative survey of 1,063 (87.5% response rate) Arabic-speaking female Qatari citizens and non-Qatari residents, 35 years of age or older, was conducted in Qatar from March 2011 to July 2011. Associations between beliefs and BCS practice were estimated using chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Participants who adhered to BCS guidelines (BCS practice = Yes) were compared to those who did not (BCS practice = No). Results In addition to low levels of awareness and low participation rates in BCS, one quarter of the participants stated their doctors talked to them about breast cancer, and less than half of the women interviewed believed breast cancer can be prevented. Women who engaged in BCS practice were more likely to have a doctor who talked to them about breast cancer, to believe they were in good–excellent health, that cancer can be prevented, or that cancer might be hereditary. The majority wanted to know if they had cancer and felt their health care needs were being met. The main reasons given for not planning BCS were lack of a doctor’s recommendation, fear, and embarrassment. Conclusions These findings indicate that a variety of channels (health care providers, media, breast cancer survivors, community leaders) should be utilized to create culturally appropriate breast cancer intervention programs and increased awareness of breast cancer, BCS, and the benefits of

  14. Influenza immunization coverage for healthcare workers in a community hospital in Qatar (2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons).

    PubMed

    Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Ramirez, Eduardo Crespo

    2014-02-01

    Influenza vaccination is recommended for all healthcare workers (HCW) to prevent transmission within healthcare facilities. We conducted a descriptive study on influenza vaccination coverage during 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 campaigns in a community hospital in Qatar. 61.7% of the HCW were immunized in the first campaign, with an increase of up to 71.1% (p<0.05) in the second one, which was mainly due to better compliance of doctors (46.9% and 69.2%, respectively). Our results show proper coverage rates according US standards and highlight the need to implement additional strategies to improve health workers adherence of influenza, vaccination.

  15. Evaluation of the atmospheric model WRF on the Qatar peninsula for a converging sea-breeze event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Nayak, Sashikant; Panchang, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Qatar, a narrow peninsula covering an area of 11437 sq km, extends northwards into the Arabian Gulf for about 160km and has a maximum width of 88km. The convex shape of the coast-line and narrowness of the peninsula results in the Qatar region experiencing complex wind patterns. The geometry is favorable for formation of the land-sea breeze from both coastal sides of the peninsula. This can lead to the development of sea breeze convergence zones in the middle of the country. Although circulations arising from diurnal thermal contrast of land and water are amongst most intensively studied meteorological phenomena, there is no reported study for the Qatar peninsula and very few studies are reported for the Arabian Gulf region as whole. It is necessary to characterize the wind field for applications such as assessing air pollution, renewable energy etc. A non-hydrostatic mesoscale model, Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a nested high resolution grid permits the investigation of such fine scale phenomena. Data from eighteen land based Automated Weather Stations (AWS) and two offshore buoys deployed and maintained by the Qatar Meteorological Department were analyzed. Based on the analysis a clear case of sea breeze convergence were seen on 18 September 2015. Model simulations were used to investigate the synoptic conditions associated with the formation of this event. The season is characterized by week ambient north westerly wind over the Arabian Gulf. The WRF model performance is validated using observed in-situ data. Model simulations show that vertical extent of sea breeze cell was up to 1 km and the converging sea breeze regions were characterized with high vertical velocities. The WRF simulation also revealed that with high resolution, the model is capable of reproducing the fine scale patterns accurately. The error of predictions in the inner domain (highest resolution) are found to be relatively lower than coarse resolution domain. The maximum wind speed

  16. Mishandling and exposure of farm workers in Qatar to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Shomar, Basem; Al-Saad, Khalid; Nriagu, Jerome

    2014-08-01

    We used a combination of subjective (questionnaire) and objective (urinary metabolites) measurements to evaluate factors that can predict the exposure of farm workers in Qatar to organophosphate pesticides and to assess whether the levels of exposure are associated with any self-reported health outcomes. The results show that pesticides were being extensively mishandled in the farms. Very few (<2%) of the farm workers knew the names of the pesticide they were using, and about one-third of the participants did not know the amount of pesticides to be applied to the crops. Nearly all (96%) of the participants had participated in mixing pesticides together before use and few (29%) used protective clothing while engaged in this operation. A significant number of participants (18%) had no knowledge that pesticides are a health hazard. At least one dialkyllphosphate (DAP) metabolite was detected in every worker. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of the dimethylalkylphosphates (DMAP) was 108 nM (range, from below the limit of detection (LOD) to 351 nM), and the GM for the diethylalkylphosphates (DEAP) was 43 nM (range, LOD-180 nM). The GM for total concentration of the metabolites (DAP) of 146 nM (maximum value estimated to be 531 nM) is below the values that have been reported for farmers in some countries, but higher than the levels in the general populations of many countries. We explored the influence of metal exposure and found consistent and negative relationships between the DAP metabolites and the concentrations of most of the trace elements in the urine of the farm workers; the negative associations were statistically significant for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, As, and Pb. We suspect that the negative associations are not source-dependent but may be reflective of antagonistic relationships in human metabolism of OPPs and trace metals; hence we recommend that metals should be included as co-factors in assessing the health effects of OPP exposure.

  17. Sedimentary facies, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the sulphate-bearing Miocene Dam Formation in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Botz, R.; Berner, Z.; Stüben, D.; Nasir, S.; Al-Saad, H.

    2005-01-01

    The Miocene deposits of the Dam Formation were deposited in a narrow seaway stretching along the western edge of the Qatar Arch. During the initial stages of basin evolution the rising Zagros Mts. delivered debris in this fore deep basin. The paleocurrent and paleogeographic zonation are reflected by the heavy mineral assemblage, by the spatial distribution of phyllosilicates and the various types of sulphate. From NW towards the SE, the contents of smectite and palygorskite increase, whereas the illite and kaolinite contents decrease. Mega crystals of gypsum are found in the NW and massive fine-grained gypsum in the SE of the basin. During the waning stages of basin subsidence, the Arabian Shield became more and more important as a source for the Miocene sediments. In this study, the Dam Formation was subdivided into 7 members/lithofacies associations (lower, middle, upper Salwa, and Al Nakhsh Members, Abu Samrah Member). The Salwa Members at the base of the Dam Formation consists of heterolithic siliciclastic-calcareous sediments which were laid down under meso- to microtidal conditions. The Al Nakhsh Members formed under macrotidal conditions with sub- to supratidal depositional environments passing into continental ones. Celestite, gypsum, and microbial mats (stromatolites) are very widespread in these sabkha sediments. Crystals of gypsum and the thickness of stromatolites tremendously increase towards younger sediments indicating thereby a close genetic link between growth of microbial domes and gypsum precipitation. Throughout the Abu Samrah Member marine calcareous sediments were deposited in a microtidal wave-dominated environment. Dissolution of Eocene evaporites at depth governed the lithofacies differentiation in the Miocene Dam Formation.

  18. Library collaboration with medical humanities in an american medical college in qatar.

    PubMed

    Birch, Sally; Magid, Amani; Weber, Alan

    2013-11-01

    The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of 'doctors' stories' related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs), and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a 'best practices' approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders. PMID:24223240

  19. Library Collaboration with Medical Humanities in an American Medical College in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Sally; Magid, Amani; Weber, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of ‘doctors’ stories’ related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs), and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a ‘best practices’ approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders. PMID:24223240

  20. Library collaboration with medical humanities in an american medical college in qatar.

    PubMed

    Birch, Sally; Magid, Amani; Weber, Alan

    2013-11-01

    The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of 'doctors' stories' related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs), and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a 'best practices' approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders.

  1. Molecular evidence of Culex pipiens form molestus and hybrids pipiens/molestus in Morocco, North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Culex pipiens L. is the most widespread mosquito vector in temperate regions including North Africa. Cx. pipiens has two recognized forms or biotypes; pipiens and molestus are morphologically indistinguishable with distinct behavior and physiology that may influence their vectorial status. In our study, we prospected for the different forms of Cx. pipiens in Morocco. Methods Cx. pipiens larvae were collected in 9 sites throughout Morocco during summer 2010 and reared until imago stage. Cx. pipiens was identified using diagnostic primers designed for the flanking region of microsatellite CQ11. Results We established the presence of both forms of Cx. pipiens and their hybrids in Morocco. Conclusions Molecular identification provides the first evidence of the presence of Cx. pipiens form molestus in Morocco and hybrids between pipiens and molestus forms in North Africa. The epidemiological implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:22541050

  2. Exploring Geographic Variability in Cancer Prevalence in Eastern Morocco: A Retrospective Study over Eight Years

    PubMed Central

    Abda, Naima; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant diseases have been believed to be more common in some areas of Eastern Morocco, but until now, cancer patterns have not been reported for this region. In this paper we present for the first time the cancer prevalence analysis in Eastern Morocco. Methods Cross-sectional study carried out among all patients diagnosed and/or treated with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was established in October 2005 until December 2012. The ROC is the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. Results A total of 8,508 cases of cancer were registered among residents in Eastern Morocco, with a female to male ratio of 2.1. The mean age at diagnosis was 53.9 ± 15.2 years (median age = 53 years). Thus, unlike in Western countries, cancer in Eastern Morocco afflicts younger population. The areas of Eastern Morocco did not differ significantly by mean age at diagnosis (p = 0.061). However, these regions differed significantly by sex ratio (p < 0.001). The highest sex ratio was observed in Figuig, with a female to male ratio of 3.1 (75.4% of the registered case were females), followed respectively by Taourirt, Oujda-Angad, Berkane, Nador-Driouch and Jerada. Clear variation in the distribution of cancer types between areas of Eastern Morocco was observed, both in males and females (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the areas of Eastern Morocco differed significantly by cancer prevalence (p < 0.001). The highest age-standardized five-year prevalence proportion was observed in Oujda-Angad with 420.2 per 100,000, followed respectively by Berkane (311.4), Jerada (287.8), Taourirt (269.3), Nador-Driouch (213.6) and Figuig (194.4). Trends in the five-year prevalence proportions decreased in Oujda-Angad, Berkane and Jerada throughout the study period, while an increasing trend was observed in Nador-Driouch, Taourirt and Figuig. Conclusions For the first time, our study presents the pattern and distribution of diagnosed cancers in Eastern

  3. Tsunami Evacuation Plan for the City of Tangier-Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchekroun, Sabah; Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana; Arbi Toto, El

    2016-04-01

    Tsunami evacuation plan is an important tool to mitigate the tsunami impact. It is the most efficient way to save human lives, well before the waves reach the threatened coastal area, by providing evacuation routes and appropriate shelters. In this study, we propose a tsunami evacuation plan for the city of Tangier-Morocco. This plan is designed considering the tsunami threat from the tsunamigenic sources located in the SW Iberia Margin and using the inundation maps of the worst case to define the limit of flooding area. The evacuation plan is elaborated through modelling the required time for the threatened coastal population to reach the shelters. Results of this study will be useful for decision makers and local authorities in preventing the community resiliency for tsunami hazard. This work received funding from collaborative project ASTARTE - Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe Grant 603839, FP7.

  4. [Molecular epidemiology of phlebovirus in four provinces in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Es-Sette, N; Ajaoud, M; Charrel, R N; Lemrani, M

    2016-08-01

    Sandflies are vectors of protozoa, viruses, and bacteria. To investigate the transmission of phleboviruses, a total of 8753 sandflies were collected in four foci of leishmania. A total of 16 distinct species were morphologically identified. Nested-PCR and cell culture screening for phleboviruses, using an assay targeting the polymerase gene, showed positive results for 19 pools of sandflies. Sequencing of the corresponding products confirmed the results and allowed identification of Toscana virus exclusively. Corresponding sandfly species originated from four different foci, and were different from those commonly reported in the literature. Sequence analysis shows that the Moroccan Toscana viruses belong to genotype B and appear close to the Toscana viruses isolated in France and Spain. This study reported the existence of the virus in the north, center and south of the country. The abundance and diversity of sandflies in Morocco, Mediterranean climate, would support the continuous circulation of Toscana virus in our country, posing a potential risk of emergence of these arboviruses.

  5. Poikiloderma with neutropenia, Clericuzio type, in a family from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mostefai, Rahima; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Boralevi, Franck; Sautarel, Michel; Lacombe, Didier; Stasia, Marie José; McGrath, John; Taïeb, Alain

    2008-11-01

    Three siblings from Morocco consanguineous family presented with cutaneous poikiloderma following postnatal ichthyosiform lesions, associated with papillomatous lesions, palmoplantar keratoderma, pachyonychia of toenails, fragile carious teeth, and lachrymal duct obstruction. Photosensitivity and blistering improved with age. Atrophic scars were prominent on the limbs. Neutropenia developed in the first year secondary to dysmyelopoiesis affecting the granulocyte lineage, associated with a polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Several broncho-pulmonary infectious episodes complicated the evolution, and cystic fibrosis was first considered on the basis of repeated abnormal sweat chloride tests but not confirmed by molecular analyses. This autosomal recessive disorder matches that described originally as poikiloderma with neutropenia-Clericuzio type in Navajo Indians (OMIM 604173). It is discussed within the group of the major hereditary poikiloderma disorders, that is, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, and Kindler syndrome. PMID:18925663

  6. Bacterial pathogens recovered from vegetables irrigated by wastewater in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ibenyassine, K; Mhand, R Ait; Karamoko, Y; Anajjar, B; Chouibani, M M; Ennaji, M

    2007-06-01

    The authors obtained 50 vegetable samples from various regions in Morocco and examined them to determine the microbiological quality of these products. Aerobic count, coliform, enterococci, and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. This analysis revealed high levels of enterococci, fecal coliforms, and total coliforms. No coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus was detected in any of the samples analyzed. Biochemical identification of Enterobacteriaceae showed the presence of Citrobacter freundii (28 percent), Enterobacter cloacae (27 percent), Escherichia coli (16 percent), Enterobacter sakazakii (12 percent), Klebsiella pneumoniae (17 percent), Serratia liquefaciens (11 percent), and Salmonella arizonae (0.7 percent). The results clearly demonstrate that vegetables irrigated with untreated wastewater have a high level of microbiological contamination. Consequently, these vegetables may be a threat for the Moroccan consumer and may be considered a serious risk to Moroccan public health.

  7. Main crustal discontinuities of Morocco derived from gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattach, D.; Houari, M. R.; Corchete, V.; Chourak, M.; El Gout, R.; Ghazala, H.

    2013-08-01

    Sharp linear gradients in maps of potential field data are generally assumed to result from sharp discontinuities or boundaries between rocks having different densities or magnetic susceptibilities and are usually associated with faults or other geological contacts. The computation of the horizontal gradients of the gravity field permits us to localize the limits of such blocks and then the fault locations. The horizontal derivative maxima of the Bouguer anomaly and its upward continuation at several heights show lineaments that could reflect the layout of faults and/or contacts and their dip directions. The application of this method to the Bouguer anomaly map of Morocco (with 19,571 points, using an average crustal density ρ = 2.67 g/cm3) allowed us to perform a multiscale analysis of the gravimetric lineaments of the country. The obtained structural map is consistent with several faults already identified in previous studies, and highlights five new major subsurface faults systems with location and dip: the Saghro fault system; Bou-Arfa Midelt fault system; Sidi Slimane Mezquitem fault; Ksar El Kebir-Chefchaouen fault and the Rifan West Mediterranean fault. In addition, this study suggests a new shape and localization for the Agadir-Oujda trans-Moroccan major fault with a NE-SW direction and 900 km length, subdividing Morocco into two main domains. The results of this study contribute to the improvement of the regional structural map of the north western part of Africa, which is situated within the convergence zone between Africa and Eurasia.

  8. Investigating chlorophyll and nitrogen levels of mangroves at Al-Khor, Qatar: an integrated chemical analysis and remote sensing approach.

    PubMed

    Al-Naimi, Noora; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Balakrishnan, Perumal

    2016-05-01

    Mangroves are unique ecosystems that dominate tropical and subtropical coastlines around the world. They provide shelter and nursery to wide variety of species such as fish and birds. Around 73 species of mangroves were recognized around the world. In Qatar, there is only one mangrove species Avicennia marina that is predominant along the northeastern coast. Assessing the health of these valuable ecosystems is vital for protection, management, and conservation of those resources. In this study, an integrated approach of chemical and remote sensing analysis was implemented to investigate the current status of the mangrove trees in Al-Khor, Qatar. Fifteen different A. marina trees from different locations in the mangrove forest were examined for their chlorophyll and nitrogen content levels. Soil analysis was also conducted to understand the effect of moisture on nitrogen availability. Results shows that currently, mangroves are in a good status in terms of nitrogen availability and chlorophyll levels which are related and both are key factors for photosynthesis. Remote sensing techniques were used for chlorophyll prediction. The results showed that these methods have the potential to be used for chlorophyll prediction and estimation. PMID:27048493

  9. Investigating chlorophyll and nitrogen levels of mangroves at Al-Khor, Qatar: an integrated chemical analysis and remote sensing approach.

    PubMed

    Al-Naimi, Noora; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Balakrishnan, Perumal

    2016-05-01

    Mangroves are unique ecosystems that dominate tropical and subtropical coastlines around the world. They provide shelter and nursery to wide variety of species such as fish and birds. Around 73 species of mangroves were recognized around the world. In Qatar, there is only one mangrove species Avicennia marina that is predominant along the northeastern coast. Assessing the health of these valuable ecosystems is vital for protection, management, and conservation of those resources. In this study, an integrated approach of chemical and remote sensing analysis was implemented to investigate the current status of the mangrove trees in Al-Khor, Qatar. Fifteen different A. marina trees from different locations in the mangrove forest were examined for their chlorophyll and nitrogen content levels. Soil analysis was also conducted to understand the effect of moisture on nitrogen availability. Results shows that currently, mangroves are in a good status in terms of nitrogen availability and chlorophyll levels which are related and both are key factors for photosynthesis. Remote sensing techniques were used for chlorophyll prediction. The results showed that these methods have the potential to be used for chlorophyll prediction and estimation.

  10. Attitudes toward science among grades 3 through 12 Arab students in Qatar: findings from a cross-sectional national study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Ziad; Summers, Ryan; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Wang, Shuai

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed students' attitudes toward science in Qatar. A cross-sectional, nationwide probability sample representing all students enrolled in grades 3 through 12 in the various types of schools in Qatar completed the 'Arabic Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science Survey' (ASSASS). The validity and reliability of the 32-item instrument, encompassing five sub-scales, have already been shown to be robust. The present analysis focused on responses from 1978 participants representing the students who completed the ASSASS in Arabic. Descriptive statistics were computed and a competing pair of multiple indicators multiple causes models is presented that attempt to link patterns in students' responses to the ASSASS with a set of indicators. The final model retained student age, gender, nationality (i.e. Qatari vs. Non-Qatari Arab), and school type as indicators. Findings from this study suggest that participants' attitudes toward science decrease with age, and that these attitudes and related preferences are influenced by students' nationality and the type of school they attend. Equally important, the often-reported advantages for male over female precollege students in terms of attitudes toward science were much less prominent in the present study.

  11. Challenges and opportunities of US and Arab collaborations in health services research: a case study from Qatar.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Maya M; Elnashar, Maha; Abdelrahim, Huda; Khidir, Amal; Elliott, Heather A K; Killawi, Amal; Padela, Aasim I; Al Khal, Abdul Latif; Bener, Abdulbari; Fetters, Michael D

    2012-11-01

    Economic globalization and advances in technology have made it more feasible and even necessary to develop international research collaborations in global public health. Historically, collaborations in global research described in the literature have been mostly "North-South" collaborations in which the more developed "North" country works together with a developing "South" country to conduct research in the latter. This type of collaboration has for the most part, represented unequal partnership and rarely left behind a lasting impact. Recently, the opportunity for a new kind of international research partnership has emerged in which the host country has significant financial resources, but relatively limited expertise in research Methodology or techniques and research implementation.  This type of collaboration features a relative equalization of power between the international partners. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of building a successful research collaboration between a team in the United States and a team in Qatar, a rich Arabic nation in Gulf. We present a case study that provides an overview of our own project focused on the development of a culturally and linguistically adapted health care quality instrument for Qatar, discussing many of the benefits and challenges we encountered during each phase of instrument development. We present recommendations for researchers seeking sustainable and equitable partnerships with the Arab World.

  12. Characteristics and determinants of adult patients with acute poisoning attending the accident and emergency department of a teaching hospital in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Khudair, I F; Jassim, Z; Hanssens, Y; Alsaad, W A

    2013-09-01

    Data about etiologic and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar are lacking. This prospective observational study was undertaken to analyze characteristics and possible determinants of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar. During 2010, 18,073 patients attended the emergency department of Hamad General Hospital, a teaching hospital in Qatar. Out of them, 599 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed as "poisoning case" with either chemical or pharmaceutical substances. The prevalence rate of poisoning incidence was 35.3/100,000 population. Seven patients died, corresponding with a case-fatality rate of 0.39/1000. The majority were male (65%) and the mean age was 34 years. The poisons involved were mainly chemicals (61.6%) and pharmaceuticals (38.4%). Female, mainly single, suffered more intentional poisoning compared to male. Of the patients aged 60 years and above (7.2%), the majority (95.3%) suffered unintentional poisoning with pharmaceuticals; 56% with warfarin, 12% with digoxin and 7% with insulin. Multivariate analysis shows that female gender, single status, younger than 35 years of age, being poisoned by pharmaceutical products, and the need for hospitalization are significant determinants for acute intentional poisoning after adjusting all other possible covariates. The findings of this study can be used to establish awareness and prophylactic campaigns in Qatar.

  13. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  14. Physician and medical student perceptions and expectations of the pediatric clerkship: a Qatar experience

    PubMed Central

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Khan, Shabina; Osman, Samar; Alsamman, Yasser; Khanna, Tushar; Alhammadi, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    Background The average number of clerkship weeks required for the pediatric core rotation by the US medical schools is significantly lower than those required for internal medicine or general surgery. Objective The objective behind conducting this survey study was to explore the perceptions and expectations of medical students and pediatric physicians about the third-year pediatric clerkship. Methods An anonymous survey questionnaire was distributed to all general pediatric physicians at Hamad Medical Corporation and to students from Weill Cornell Medical College-Qatar. Results Feedback was obtained from seven attending pediatricians (100% response rate), eight academic pediatric fellow physicians (100% response rate), 36 pediatric resident physicians (60% response rate), and 36 medical students (60% response rate). Qualitative and quantitative data values were expressed as frequencies along with percentages and mean ± standard deviation and median and range. A P-value <0.05 from a 2-tailed t-test was considered to be statistically significant. Participants from both sides agreed that medical students receive <4 hours per week of teaching, clinical rounds is the best environment for teaching, adequate bedside is provided, and that there is no adequate time for both groups to get acquainted to each other. On the other hand, respondents disagreed on the following topics: almost two-thirds of medical students perceive postgraduate year 1 and 2 pediatric residents as the best teachers, compared to 29.4% of physicians; 3 weeks of inpatient pediatric clerkship is enough for learning; the inpatient pediatric environment is safe and friendly; adequate feedback is provided by physicians to students; medical students have accessibility to physicians; students are encouraged to practice evidence-based medicine; and students get adequate exposure to multi-professional teams. Conclusion Assigning devoted physicians for education, providing proper job description or definition

  15. Enseignement de la langue francaise au Maroc et dialogue des cultures (Teaching of the French Language in Morocco and Dialogue of Cultures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahjomri, Abdeljalil

    1984-01-01

    In the process of Arabization of Morocco, it is necessary to maintain French language instruciton, but as a necessary foreign language and not as a primary language. French remains an important part of Morocco's diverse cultural identity. (MSE)

  16. Tectono-thermal evolution of the Atlas system - SW Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, G.; Negro, F.; Babault, J.; Foeken, J.; Stuart, F.; Kober, F.; Ivy-Ochs, S.

    2009-04-01

    In Morocco, the High and Middle Atlas of Morocco are intra-continental fold-thrust belts situated in the southern foreland of the Rif orogen. The High Atlas and its eastern continuation in Algeria and Tunisia is an ENE-WSW to E-W trending belt about 2000kms long and 100kms wide. It is a key natural laboratory because it 1) is the southern and westernmost expression of Alpine-Himalayan orogeny, and 2) encompasses Pre-Cambrian to recent evolution of the region. Phases of shortening and exhumation of this orogen remain however ill constrained and the few available quantitative, data do not allow the present-day high topography (over 4000m) to be explained. In order to put constrains on the recent orogenic growth of the Atlas system, we investigated the temperature-time history of rocks combining extensive low-temperature thermochronological analysis (Fission tracks and (U-Th)/He on zircon and apatite), and sub-recent denudation rates using cosmogenic Neon and Beryllium analysis. The target area is a NE-SW oriented transect between Marrakech and Igherm crossing the different structural segments of the western Atlas away from present-day fault systems. Results are much contrasted from one domain to the other: Pre-Cambrian bedrocks from the Anti-Atlas domain yield old Fission-Track ages on zircon (380-300 Ma), apatite (180-120 Ma) but also U-Th/He (150-110 Ma) still on apatite that are discussed in another contribution. U-Th/He ages on apatite are many from the High-Atlas (#>20) and much younger ranging between ~35 and 5 Ma. We performed a detailed vertical profile in the axial zone of the High-Atlas. Age-elevation relationship suggests that exhumation increased towards 1.0 km/my by the Late Miocene (~13-12 Ma). Further, continental series of Cretaceous age from the adjacent Sub-Atlas domains indicate total resetting to temperatures greater than 80°C suggesting that a post Cretaceous sedimentary pile of at least 3 kilometres in thickness is missing. The timing of the

  17. Seroprevalence and epidemiological correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infections among patients referred for hospital-based serological testing in Doha, Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Al-Molawi, Naema; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2008-01-01

    Background The city of Doha in Qatar has a high density of feral cats and there is a high risk of toxoplasmosis for the resident human population. No data currently exist for the prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in the city. Methods We analysed the serological response to Toxoplasma gondii of 1625 subjects referred for routine hospital based serological tests in Doha, Qatar. Prevalence of current/recent infection was assessed through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of specific anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies, and previous history of infection through IgG. Results Overall prevalence of IgG responses was 29.8% and this did not differ between the sexes nor between the three years of the study although there was a marked age effect. Among children less than 1 year old prevalence was 22.9%, but then dropped to <4% in the 1 year old group, indicating that these antibodies were most likely acquired in utero from immune mothers. Prevalence then increased steadily to peak at 41.2% among the oldest age class (>45 years). The prevalence of IgG antibody also varied significantly with region of origin, with higher rates for subjects from Africa, followed by those from the Eastern Mediterranean or Asia and lowest rates for subjects from the Arabian Peninsula. No IgM antibodies were detected in any subjects younger than 19 years, but prevalence increased to plateau at 7 – 9% in subjects aged over 20 years, and also varied with region of origin. In this case prevalence was highest among subjects from the Arabian Peninsula and least among those from Asia. Prevalence of IgM was higher among male subjects but did not vary between the three years of the study. Conclusion Although these data are based on a selected subset of the population, they nevertheless provide the first evidence that toxoplasmosis is endemic in Qatar in the human population, and that both age and region of origin play a role in the epidemiology of the infection

  18. Frequency-dependent Lg-wave attenuation in northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, Raquel; Ugalde, Arantza; Villaseñor, Antonio; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2015-11-01

    Frequency-dependent attenuation (Q- 1) in the crust of northern Morocco is estimated from Lg-wave spectral amplitude measurements every quarter octave in the frequency band 0.8 to 8 Hz. This study takes advantage of the improved broadband data coverage in the region provided by the deployment of the IberArray seismic network. Earthquake data consist of 71 crustal events with magnitudes 4 ≤ mb ≤ 5.5 recorded on 110 permanent and temporary seismic stations between January 2008 and December 2013 with hypocentral distances between 100 and 900 km. 1274 high-quality Lg waveforms provide dense path coverage of northern Morocco, crossing a region with a complex structure and heterogeneous tectonic setting as a result of continuous interactions between the African and Eurasian plates. We use two different methods: the coda normalization (CN) analysis, that allows removal of the source and site effects from the Lg spectra, and the spectral amplitude decay (SAD) method, that simultaneously inverts for source, site, and path attenuation terms. The CN and SAD methods return similar results, indicating that the Lg Q models are robust to differences in the methodologies. Larger errors and no significant frequency dependence are observed for frequencies lower than 1.5 Hz. For distances up to 400 km and the frequency band 1.5 ≤ ƒ (Hz) ≤ 4.5, the model functions Q(f) = (529- 22+ 23)(f/1.5)0.23 ± 0.06 and Q(f) = (457- 7+ 7)(f/1.5)0.44 ± 0.02 are obtained using the CN and SAD methods, respectively. A change in the frequency dependence is observed above 4.5 Hz for both methods which may be related to the influence of the Sn energy on the Lg window. The frequency-dependent Q- 1 estimates represent an average attenuation beneath a broad region including the Rif and Tell mountains, the Moroccan and Algerian mesetas, the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara Platform structural domains, and correlate well with areas of moderate seismicity where intermediate Q values have been obtained.

  19. Climate, human occupation and travertine deposits in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Louis; Pozzi, Jean-Pierre; Falguères, Christophe; Mahieux, Geoffroy; Beauchamp, Jacques; Ouammou, Abderrahmane; Haddad, Mustapha; Bejjit, Lahcen

    2015-04-01

    Specific calcitic geological formations produced by water (speleothems and travertines) constitute an attractive environment for Humans through recent Quaternary period. The potential contribution of calcite analysis is exceptional because beyond the fact that it is close system for U-series dating, it also registers oxygen stable isotope (delta 18O) variations which reveal temperature fluctuations and carbon stable isotopes (12C and 13C) which reveal, different types of vegetation (herbaceous or arboreal) that successively appeared through icehouse and greenhouse periods. Hydrothermal travertine delta 13 C values are displaced to more positive value than the average of meteogene (fluvial) travertines. Growth stages of calcite can be dated using several radiochronological methods, extended from present time until 500 ka with U-series dating method, and using paleomagnetic studies for older Pleistocene period. Geochemical and paleomagnetic data allow constraining human development within the Quaternary chronostratigraphic scale which is compared to the marine isotopic scale as a reference. Meteogene travertines are less suitable for geochemical isotopic studies and radiochonology than hydrothermal travertine due to their numerous impurities. Here we present the first results obtained by the studies of Moroccan hydrothermal and fluvial travertine in 24 archeological sites distributed on the Moroccan territory. Two main information about growth periods are obtained: (1) travertine precipitation is effective from 1.1 millions years to Holocene, (2) growth periods are observed during both glacial and interglacial stages of the global climatic frame.The travertine prehistoric human occupation is discontinuous during the older periods but becomes more continuous since MIS 9 (350 ka). In the SE Morocco, in the Tafilalet area, flint fragments and Levallois nuclei were found upon travertine. They are probably relevant to Mousterian culture (from 200 to 35 ka.). Human

  20. Tolerance Education in Morocco. "Anne Frank: A History for Today"--Learning about Our Past--Contributing to Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polak, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes recent developments in the field of history education and human rights education in Morocco. Educational reform in Morocco is ongoing and includes measures such as mandating that all schools create after-school Human Rights Clubs. These developments are then related to the possibility of teaching about the history of the…

  1. Concentration, composition and sources of PAHs in the coastal sediments of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of Qatar, Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Y S; Al Ansari, E M S; Wade, T L

    2014-08-30

    Surface sediments were collected from sixteen locations in order to assess levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Qatar exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Samples were analyzed for 16 parent PAHs, 18 alkyl homologs and for dibenzothiophenes. Total PAHs concentration (∑PAHs) ranged from 2.6 ng g(-1) to 1025 ng g(-1). The highest PAHs concentrations were in sediments in and adjacent to harbors. Alkylated PAHs predominated most of the sampling locations reaching up to 80% in offshore locations. Parent PAHs and parent high molecular weight PAHs dominated location adjacent to industrial activities and urban areas. The origin of PAHs sources to the sediments was elucidated using ternary plot, indices, and molecular ratios of specific compounds such as (Ant/Phe+Ant), (Flt/Flt+Pyr). PAHs inputs to most coastal sites consisted of mixture of petroleum and combustion derived sources. However, inputs to the offshore sediments were mainly of petroleum origin. PMID:24798421

  2. A quantitative sensitivity analysis on the behaviour of common thermal indices under hot and windy conditions in Doha, Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, Dominik; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Human thermal perception is best described through thermal indices. The most popular thermal indices applied in human bioclimatology are the perceived temperature (PT), the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). They are analysed focusing on their sensitivity to single meteorological input parameters under the hot and windy meteorological conditions observed in Doha, Qatar. It can be noted, that the results for the three indices are distributed quite differently. Furthermore, they respond quite differently to modifications in the input conditions. All of them show particular limitations and shortcomings that have to be considered and discussed. While the results for PT are unevenly distributed, UTCI shows limitations concerning the input data accepted. PET seems to respond insufficiently to changes in vapour pressure. The indices should therefore be improved to be valid for several kinds of climates.

  3. Challenges to conservation: land use change and local participation in the Al Reem Biosphere Reserve, West Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    One response to humanity's unsustainable use of natural resources and consequent degradation, even destruction of the environment, is to establish conservation areas to protect Nature and preserve biodiversity at least in selected regions. In Qatar, the government has shown strong support for this approach, confronted by the environmental consequences of oil and gas extraction and rapid urban development, by designating about one-tenth of the country a conservation area. Located in the west of the peninsula, it comprises the Al Reem Reserve, subsequently declared a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Several approaches have figured in conservation, currently popular is co-management featuring participation of the local population, which recognises that people's activities often contribute to today's environment, with the promotion of bio-cultural diversity. However, these assumptions may not hold where rapid social and cultural change occurs, as in Qatar. We explore the implications of such change, notably in land use. We detail changes resulting with the move from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles: in land access, which now features tribal-state control, and herding strategies, which now feature migrant labour and depend on imported fodder and water, underwritten by the country's large gas and oil revenues. Current stocking arrangements - animals herded in much smaller areas than previously - are thought responsible for the degradation of natural resources. The place of animals, notably camels, in Qatari life, has also changed greatly, possibly further promoting overstocking. Many local people disagree. What are the implications of such changes for the participatory co-management of conservation areas? Do they imply turning the clock back to centrally managed approaches that seek to control access and local activities? PMID:20964818

  4. Species, sex, size and male maturity composition of previously unreported elasmobranch landings in Kuwait, Qatar and Abu Dhabi Emirate.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M; McCarthy, I D; Carvalho, G R; Peirce, R

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents data from the first major survey of the diversity, biology and fisheries of elasmobranchs in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf. Substantial landings of elasmobranchs, usually as gillnet by-catch, were recorded in Kuwait, Qatar and the Emirate of Abu Dhabi (part of the United Arab Emirates), although larger elasmobranchs from targeted line fisheries were landed in Abu Dhabi. The elasmobranch fauna recorded was distinctive and included species that are undescribed, rare and have a highly restricted known distribution. Numerical abundance was dominated by sharks (c. 80%), of which carcharhinids were by far the most important. The milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus and whitecheek shark Carcharhinus dussumieri together comprised just under half of all recorded individuals. Around 90% of recorded sharks were small (50-90 cm total length, L(T) ) individuals, most of which were mature individuals of species with a small maximum size (<100 cm L(T) ), although immature individuals of larger species (e.g. Carcharhinus sorrah and other Carcharhinus spp.) were also important. The most frequently recorded batoid taxa were cownose rays Rhinoptera spp., an undescribed whipray, and the granulated guitarfish Rhinobatos granulatus. The first size, sex and maturity data for a wide range of Gulf elasmobranch species are presented (including L(T) at 50% maturity for males of four shark species) and include some notable differences from other locations in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean. A number of concerns regarding the sustainability of the fishery were highlighted by this study, notably that most of the batoid species recorded are classed by the IUCN Red List as vulnerable, endangered, data deficient or not evaluated. Despite their considerable elasmobranch landings, none of the three countries sampled have developed a 'Shark Plan' as encouraged to do so under the FAO International Plan of Action: Sharks. Furthermore, Kuwait and Qatar currently report zero or no elasmobranch

  5. Species, sex, size and male maturity composition of previously unreported elasmobranch landings in Kuwait, Qatar and Abu Dhabi Emirate.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M; McCarthy, I D; Carvalho, G R; Peirce, R

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents data from the first major survey of the diversity, biology and fisheries of elasmobranchs in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf. Substantial landings of elasmobranchs, usually as gillnet by-catch, were recorded in Kuwait, Qatar and the Emirate of Abu Dhabi (part of the United Arab Emirates), although larger elasmobranchs from targeted line fisheries were landed in Abu Dhabi. The elasmobranch fauna recorded was distinctive and included species that are undescribed, rare and have a highly restricted known distribution. Numerical abundance was dominated by sharks (c. 80%), of which carcharhinids were by far the most important. The milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus and whitecheek shark Carcharhinus dussumieri together comprised just under half of all recorded individuals. Around 90% of recorded sharks were small (50-90 cm total length, L(T) ) individuals, most of which were mature individuals of species with a small maximum size (<100 cm L(T) ), although immature individuals of larger species (e.g. Carcharhinus sorrah and other Carcharhinus spp.) were also important. The most frequently recorded batoid taxa were cownose rays Rhinoptera spp., an undescribed whipray, and the granulated guitarfish Rhinobatos granulatus. The first size, sex and maturity data for a wide range of Gulf elasmobranch species are presented (including L(T) at 50% maturity for males of four shark species) and include some notable differences from other locations in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean. A number of concerns regarding the sustainability of the fishery were highlighted by this study, notably that most of the batoid species recorded are classed by the IUCN Red List as vulnerable, endangered, data deficient or not evaluated. Despite their considerable elasmobranch landings, none of the three countries sampled have developed a 'Shark Plan' as encouraged to do so under the FAO International Plan of Action: Sharks. Furthermore, Kuwait and Qatar currently report zero or no elasmobranch

  6. Multi-mycotoxin contamination of couscous semolina commercialized in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zinedine, Abdellah; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Mañes, Jordi; Manyes, Lara

    2017-01-01

    The multi-mycotoxin contamination of ninety-eight (98) couscous semolina samples collected from various areas in Morocco was investigated in this study. Samples were surveyed for the presence of 22 mycotoxins (four aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, diacetoxiscyrpenol (DAS), three fumonisins, beauvericin (BEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), sterigmatocystin (STG), zearalenone (ZEA), four enniatins, T-2 and HT-2 toxins). Results showed that 96 out of 98 total couscous samples (98%) were contaminated by at least one mycotoxin. Enniatin B (ENB), Enniatin B1 (ENB1), Enniatin A1 (ENA1) and zearalenone (ZEA) have shown the highest incidences in contaminated samples. The dietary exposure was estimated to be 1.02, 0.57, 0.06, 0.57 and 0.3μg/kgbw/day for the sum of (DON+3-ADON+15-ADON), fumonisins (FB1+FB2+FB3), the sum of (T2+HT-2), NIV and ZEA, respectively. PMID:27507496

  7. [Molecular epidemiology of phlebovirus in four provinces in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Es-Sette, N; Ajaoud, M; Charrel, R N; Lemrani, M

    2016-08-01

    Sandflies are vectors of protozoa, viruses, and bacteria. To investigate the transmission of phleboviruses, a total of 8753 sandflies were collected in four foci of leishmania. A total of 16 distinct species were morphologically identified. Nested-PCR and cell culture screening for phleboviruses, using an assay targeting the polymerase gene, showed positive results for 19 pools of sandflies. Sequencing of the corresponding products confirmed the results and allowed identification of Toscana virus exclusively. Corresponding sandfly species originated from four different foci, and were different from those commonly reported in the literature. Sequence analysis shows that the Moroccan Toscana viruses belong to genotype B and appear close to the Toscana viruses isolated in France and Spain. This study reported the existence of the virus in the north, center and south of the country. The abundance and diversity of sandflies in Morocco, Mediterranean climate, would support the continuous circulation of Toscana virus in our country, posing a potential risk of emergence of these arboviruses. PMID:27193286

  8. Basin modeling of Tadla basin, Morocco, for hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Nakayama, K.

    1988-09-01

    The Tadla basin, Morocco, is the easternmost major structural subdivision of the Meseta south of the Central Massif. After the basin remained relatively stable through the Paleozoic, movements during the Variscan orogeny divided the basin into two subbasins, a western subbasin where compressional forces formed large anticlines and an eastern subbasin where intense folding and faulting are associated with uplift and erosion. The sedimentary basin fill includes numerous organic shales, which provide the source beds. Also deposited were numerous shallow-water to continental clastics and to a lesser extent carbonates, providing several possible reservoir rocks for hydrocarbons. The results from computer modeling show that the chief formations of hydrocarbon generation are Carboniferous and Silurian. Most of these formations may have generated hydrocarbons before Variscan movements, which probably destroyed preexisting oil and gas traps. The only source rocks in the generation stage from Mesozoic to the present are the upper Visean shales. The western part of the Tadla basin was the most favorable area for the generation and maturation of hydrocarbons of the upper Visean shales. 22 figures.

  9. Hydrocarbon generation in the Essaouira basin of western Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, P. ); Trepanier, A. )

    1993-06-01

    The Essaouira basin is an important onshore hydrocarbon-generating basin in western Morocco. There are seven producing or shut-in oil and gas fields. Six produce from Jurassic and one from Triassic reservoirs. Basin modeling and geochemical evidence suggest that hydrocarbon generation occurred from at least two source rocks: (I) Jurassic (Oxfordian) shale accumulated within the Neknafa syncline, and (2) deeply buried Carboniferous coals underlying the eastern basin area. The Oxfordian shale was sufficiently buried in western Essaouira to generate voluminous gas and condensate liquids, and to expel them into structurally closed jurassic reservoirs (Toukimt field) or offset horst-block Triassic reservoirs (Meskala field). Geochemical evidence suggests that the Jurassic-age reservoirs across the eastern Essaouira basin host commingled gases sourced from Jurassic and Carboniferous strata. Coal methane, generated from a deeply buried Carboniferous interval, may have been the main source for the eastern Essaouira basin. Traps developed as structures draping salt domes at junctions of offset transtensive faults. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Energy assessment of Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goering, P.

    1986-11-01

    This report is an overview of the energy market in four West African countries: The Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal. We feel these countries are representative of the West African region. Together they account for 75% of the total energy use in West Africa, 78% of GDP, and 76% of population. The purpose of the study is to analyze the evolution of energy demand in the context of the general socio-economic background of the region. The study also examines energy supply and trade related to the energy sector. The analysis focuses on the study of commercial fuels. Although we have reviewed studies of wood, solar, wind, and agricultural residues, we leave out detailed discussions of these non-commercial energy forms. The first part of the report is an assessment of the trends in energy demand in the four study countries. We discuss the main factors driving energy demand sector by sector. This is followed by a review of the primary energy resources of the countries, and of the capacity for production of secondary fuels. The last section looks at energy trade, with particular emphasis on the role of the United States.

  11. Potential cretaceous play in the Rharb basin of northern Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Jobidon, G.P. )

    1993-09-01

    The autochthonous Cretaceous in the Rharb basin of northern Morocco is located underneath a cover of neogene sediments and of the Prerif nappe olistostrome, which was emplaced during the Tortonian 7 m.y. The presence of infranappe Cretaceous sediments is documented in a few onshore wells in the Rharb basin and in the adjacent Prerif Rides area, as well as in the Rif Mountains. Their presence in the deeper portion of the Rharb basin is difficult to detail because of poor seismic resolution data beneath dispersive prerif nappe. A recent study of offshore seismic data acquired by PCIAC in 1987 indicates that the infranappe interval can be more than 1500 m thick in some of the offshore Kenitra area. These sediments have seismic signatures that would correspond to Middle Cretaceous transgressions, culminating with a Turonian highstand. Their deposition systems were located on the northern and western flanks of the Meseta and were followed by a hiatus lasting until the Miocene. Regional studies of gravity and magnetic data provide and additional understanding of the Rif province, its evolution, and the possible presence of autochthonous Cretaceous sediments below the prerif nappe cover. The infranappe of Rharb basin has a good potential to develop into a major hydrocarbon play with the presence of middle Cretaceous reservoir rocks, Turonian-Cenomanian black shale source rocks, as well as the timely combination of trap formation, source rock maturation, and hydrocarbon migration.

  12. The effects of airborne fluorides on oral conditions in Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Haikel, Y.; Cahen, P.M.; Turlot, J.C.; Frank, R.M. )

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis, as well as various other oral conditions, in 2378 subjects (ages seven to 60) living in the fluoridated area of Khouribga and the non-fluoridated area of Beni Mellal, Morocco. The community index of dental fluorosis (CFI) ranged from 1.99 to 2.80 in the high-fluoride area: Over 90% of the population was affected, and more than one-third of the subjects showed moderate dental fluorosis. However, in Beni Mellal, more than 96% of the dentate subjects examined were free of dental fluorosis, and the CFI of 0.02 was considered not significant. Significant differences were observed between the two areas with respect to caries prevalence. DMFT and DMFS indices were markedly lower in the fluorosis area of Khouribga. The oral conditions of subjects appeared to be better in Khouribga, where the gingival and calculus indices were significantly lower than in Beni Mellal. The analyses of covariance showed no significant differences in plaque accumulation (PI) between the Khouribga and Beni Mellal samples. However, a close statistical correlation was found between PI and GI in Beni Mellal and Khouribga.

  13. An acercostracan marrellomorph (Euarthropoda) from the Lower Ordovician of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, David A.

    2016-04-01

    Enosiaspis hrungnir gen. et sp. nov., a new species of marrellomorph arthropod from the Lower Ordovician (Tremadocian) Fezouata biota of Morocco, is described. This taxon is characterised by the possession of a cordiform dorsal carapace with an anterior notch and a doublure-like structure formed from fused marginal spines, covering the entire body. The head comprises at least five segments which bear an anterior pair of antenna, followed by three pairs of potentially biramous, geniculate appendages. The trunk possesses around 25 pairs of delicate, almost filamentous appendages, which decrease in size posteriorly. Similar features are also found in Xylokorys chledophilia from the Silurian of England, and Vachonisia rogeri from the Devonian of Germany, indicating acercostracan affinities for E. hrungnir. This was tested using a phylogenetic analysis which resolved this taxon as sister taxon to a group composed of the formerly mentioned taxa. The similarities between the ventral spinose carapace doublure of E. hrungnir and the mediolateral spines of marrellid marrellomorphs further support claims that the dorsal shield of acercostracans evolved from the fusion of spinose anlagen, akin to the formation of the carapace of crustaceans.

  14. Risk Factors for Chronic Mastitis in Morocco and Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Oltean, Hanna N.; Soliman, Amr S.; Omar, Omar S.; Youssef, Tamer F.; Karkouri, Mehdi; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Hablas, Ahmad; Tahri, Ali; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis). Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62–1.90) and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07–3.61). Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47–0.67) and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39–5.72). Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60–0.84) and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36–1.97). This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions. PMID:24327928

  15. Salinization process and coastal groundwater quality in Chaouia, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najib, Saliha; Fadili, Ahmed; Mehdi, Khalid; Riss, Joëlle; Makan, Abdelhadi; Guessir, Hakima

    2016-03-01

    The coastal aquifer system of Chaouia is recognized as one of the most important aquifers in Morocco that is affected by salinization in the coastal fringe. The purpose of this study is to highlight the origin of salinization by sampling and analyzing groundwater from 44 wells for major elements. This study was carried out in May 2011. The results indicate that, in the central and downstream parts, the dominant facies are Mg2+, Na+ and Cl-, while Ca2+ and HCO3- dominate in the upstream zones. Ion exchange processes, under seawater intrusion, control the concentration of ions such as calcium, magnesium and sodium. Moreover, groundwater is oversaturated with respect to carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), and under-saturated with respect to evaporate minerals (gypsum, halite). The contribution of dissolved halite and gypsum in the groundwater mineralization is revealed by their positive correlation between (Na + Cl) and (Ca + SO4), respectively. Furthermore, the comparison of the hydrochemical results to drinking water quality standards by World Health Organization (2008) shows that more than a half of the water sampled is not suitable for drinking purposes, especially with respect to high levels of EC, TDS, Cl- and NO3-. In addition, high mineralization is found to be a consequence of seawater intrusion and anthropogenic activities.

  16. Ecological and biogeographical analyses of Mediterranean forests of northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajbilou, Redouan; Marañón, Teodoro; Arroyo, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Mediterranean forests in northern Morocco have been studied. Tree species composition and abundance were investigated in 84 forest sites, distributed throughout the sandstone formation of the Tangier region. The relative abundance of 15 tree and arborescent shrub species was related, by ordination analysis, to altitude, disturbance by fire, and soil fertility. High-elevation forests were dominated by Cedrus atlantica, Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster. Sacred forests (protected as holy burial places) had a distinct stand structure, and were considered as refuges, for maintaining biodiversity at landscape scale. The evergreen oak Quercus suber and the semideciduous Quercus canariensis co-dominated the lowland forests. The mean basal area of the studied forests was 34 m 2 ha -1. The mean trunk size (dbh) for Q. suber was 24 cm and for Q. canariensis 36.5 cm; in both cases there were indications of declining regeneration at population level. A comparative biogeographical analysis with the equivalent region in southern Spain (separated by the Strait of Gibraltar; 14 km wide), indicated a possible biodiversity loss in the Moroccan forests.

  17. Geosites inventory of the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Wartiti, Mohamed; Malaki, Amina; Zahraoui, Mohamed; El Ghannouchi, Abdelilah; di Gregorio, Felice

    2008-07-01

    Across the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco there are many examples of landscapes, rocks and fossils that provide key evidence of a particular moment or period in Earth history. Such Earth heritage sites are important for educating the general public in environmental matters. They also serve as tools for demonstrating sustainable development and for illustrating methods of site conservation as well as remembering that rocks, minerals, fossils, soils, landforms form an integral part of the natural world. The significance of certain sites for aesthetic or tourism reasons is obvious. There are numerous geosites, which could contribute to effective exploitation of geotourism, often in conjunction with ecotourism. The strategy employed to such sites involves close consultation with all communities in the vicinity of the respective geosite and is not only aimed at tourism and education, but also at sustainable improvement of the infrastructure of the people of this area. Geological heritage sites, properly managed, can generate employment and new economic activities, especially in regions in need of new or additional sources of income.

  18. [Scorpion envenomation in Morocco: scorpions of the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota].

    PubMed

    Aboumaâd, B; Iba, N; Dersi, N

    2014-02-01

    Around the world and especially in summer, the scorpion envenomation is a real public health problem. In Morocco, its gravity is due to the diversity of genera of the Buthidae family whose their venom is potentially lethal, mainly the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota. The areas most affected by this problematic are the central and southern of Morocco. The lethality of scorpion's venom primarily affects children. It is rich in neurotoxic polypeptides that have targeted ion channel membrane Na(+), K(+) activated or not by Ca(++). The toxins polymorphism causes pathophysiological disorders. The diversity of symptomatic treatment in the absence of immunotherapy is due to variability in clinical pictures, which depends on the species involved and the patient at risk. The objective of this review is to highlight the magnitude of the scorpion envenomation by describing its epidemiological characteristics, elucidate the pathophysiological effects of the venom of the most dangerous scorpions in Morocco the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota, and their therapeutic treatment.

  19. PAH Metabolites in Bile of European Eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Wariaghli, Fatima; Kammann, Ulrike; Hanel, Reinhold; Yahyaoui, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Environmental pollution of fish with organic contaminants is a topic of rising attention in Morocco. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are prominent organic contaminants which are rapidly metabolized in fish. Their metabolites are accumulated in the bile fluid and can be used to assess PAH exposure. The two PAH metabolites 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene were quantified in European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from two Moroccan river systems by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Mean values ranged from 52 to 210 ng/mL 1-hydroxypyrene and from 61 to 73 ng/mL 1-hydroxyphenanthrene. The overall concentrations of PAH metabolites in eel from Morocco appeared moderate compared to eel from European rivers and coastal sites. The present study provides first information on concentrations of PAH metabolites in fish from Morocco.

  20. Borrelia crocidurae in Ornithodoros ticks from northwestern Morocco: a range extension in relation to climatic change?

    PubMed

    Souidi, Yassine; Boudebouch, Najma; Ezikouri, Sayeh; Belghyti, Driss; Trape, Jean-François; Sarih, M'hammed

    2014-12-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by Borrelia spirochetes transmitted to humans by Argasid soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. We investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in nine sites of the Gharb region of northwestern Morocco where we recently documented a high incidence of TBRF in humans. We assessed the Borrelia infection rate by nested PCR and sequencing. All sites investigated were colonized by ticks of the Ornithodoros marocanus complex and a high proportion of burrows (38.4%) were found to be infested. Borrelia infections were observed in 6.8% of the ticks tested. Two Borrelia species were identified by sequencing: B. hispanica and B. crocidurae. The discovery in northwestern Morocco of Ornithodoros ticks infected by B. crocidurae represents a 350 km range extension of this Sahelo-Saharan spirochete in North Africa. The spread of B. crocidurae may be related to the increasing aridity of northwestern Morocco in relation to climate change.

  1. The connectivity of Mytilus galloprovincialis in northern Morocco: A gene flow crossroads between continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouagajjou, Yassine; Presa, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous population genetic studies on the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis have shown the existence of two well differentiated sets of populations around Southern European coasts, one Atlantic and another Mediterranean. Those two population pools are kept apart by the Almería - Oran Oceanographic Front (AOOF), an oceanographic discontinuity acting either as a cause of such differentiation or simply as a means of maintaining two historically differentiated gene pools. The role of the Gibraltar Strait at shaping mussel larval flow entering the Alboran Sea has been much less addressed, especially regarding mussel swarms inhabiting the northern coast of Morocco. The present study applies seven microsatellite markers to describing the genetic status of northern Moroccan populations of M. galloprovincialis and their relationship with the two well-characterized mussel gene pools from southern Europe. We show that the Atlantic Iberia gene pool extending continuously from the Cantabrian Sea (NE Iberia) to the Alboran Sea (SE Iberia) up to the AOOF is well differentiated from the Atlantic Moroccan mussel. Either an oceanographic barrier or a limited larval dispersal or both, are required to explain this unexpected intercontinental differentiation regarding previous studies on this species. Populations from Atlantic Morocco conformed to a single gene pool (FST ± SD = 0.012 ± 0.007) as opposed to the reported latitudinal barrier to gene flow at Cape Ghir in western Morocco. Additionally, a significant restriction to gene flow was observed between Atlantic Morocco and Alboran Morocco (FST ± SD = 0.038 ± 0.010) in contrast to the reported mussel genetic continuity along the Iberian coast up to AOOF. Three major mussel gene pools appear to meet at this crossroads between continents and between seas, namely, a Mediterranean European subpopulation, an Atlantic Iberia subpopulation including the Alboran Sea, and an Atlantic Morocco subpopulation. Knowledge on

  2. Habitat preferences of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in southwestern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Guernaoui, S; Boumezzough, A

    2009-09-01

    Data from a 4-yr study of phlebotomine sand flies in 44 stations in southwestern Morocco are presented. Correspondence analysis is used to describe the habitat preferences of nine sand fly species on a meso-scale (station) and a micro-scale (biotope). This work, based on highly diversified data from various stations, comprising several biotopes sampled during different seasons, provides new information on the ecology of sand flies in southwestern Morocco. It highlights many natural and artificial factors that affect the abundance and distribution of sand fly populations. The impact of climate, urbanization, proximity of humans and domestic animals, organic matter in the soil, shelter, and vegetation type is discussed.

  3. Northern Morocco has ingredients for fruitful exploration, deserves a modern look

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, S.K. )

    1992-09-07

    This paper reports that northern Morocco encompasses three different geological units - Pharb, Riff, and Prerif - and occupies more than 45,000 sq km of sedimentary basinal area. There are two distinct characters of the sediments - allochthonous nappe and autochthonous ante-nappe. The area is a proven hydrocarbon producer. Early discoveries like Ain Hamra date to the 1930s through 1950s, when Morocco became almost self sufficient in its crude oil production. The exploration history of the area can at best be described as a see-saw, although the documented reference to oil goes back to the 14th century and the first oil well was drilled in 1890.

  4. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Smir marshes (northwest of Morocco): inventory and biotypology].

    PubMed

    El Joubari, M; Louah, A; Himmi, O

    2014-02-01

    The Smir marshes are a favorable environment for the growth of many mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). The inventory of Culicidae species reveals 14 species, is 33% of the species of Morocco, distributed in four genera: Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus and Anopheles (with 5, 2, 5 and 2 species respectively) which Anopheles labranchiae, vector of the agent of the malaria in Morocco until 2004. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal mesological affinities and we tried to explain the biotypology of mosquito populations of the site. These analyzes revealed several groups of stations and species according to various parameters, especially salinity.

  5. Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, W.; Barazangi, M.; Demnati, A.; Alji, M.E.

    1996-09-01

    The intracontinental High and Middle Atlas mountain belts in Morocco intersect to form the southern and western margins of the Missour basin, an intermontane basin formed as a result of the uplift and inversion of the Mesozoic Atlas paleorifts. These rifts were areas where the crust was greatly attenuated and more subject to deformation in response to nearby plate boundary tectonics. Data from observations based on seismic reflection profiles and wells over the Missour basin for hydrocarbon exploration and field mapping were used to understand the basin evolution, structural styles, and inversion timing of the nearby Atlas Mountains. Hercynian and Mesozoic normal faults were reactivated into high-angle reverse and thrust faults in the Mesozoic during the Jurassic, Early Cretaceous (early Alpine phase), and the Paleogene (late Alpine phase). The reactivation of synrift normal faults of the paleo-Atlas rifts inverted previous half grabens into anticlinal structures, with the axis of the half graben centered below the axis of the inverted anticline. The resulting inverted fold geometries are controlled by the geometries of the extensional planar or listric faults. The Atlas paleorift system is one of the largest rift systems in Africa. Little hydrocarbon exploration has occurred within the Atlas Mountains and the margins of the paleo-Atlas rift system. Inversion of synrift structures can lead to both the destruction and preservation of synrift traps and the creation of new hydrocarbon traps. The study of the effects of inversion in the Missour basin may lead to the discovery of footwall subthrust hydrocarbon traps in the Mesozoic sedimentary sequence of the Atlas Mountains.

  6. Jurassic midbaisn platform, central and eastern High Atlas Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Warme, J.E. )

    1988-08-01

    The central and eastern High Atlas ranges of southern Morocco coincide with a Mesozoic 100 {times} 500-km east-west rift. Upper Triassic to lower Liassic continental red beds, evaporites, and basalts, unconformably overlying Paleozoic metasediments, comprise basin-wide initial synrift deposition. These are abruptly overlain by up to 40 m of Hettangian or lower Sinemurian block, laminated, unfossiliferous limestones deposited in a euxinic hypersaline and/or stratified sea. Continued syndepositional transtension differentiated the embryonic seaway into a mosaic of fault blocks comprising an axial midbasin platform symmetrically flanked to the north and south by turbidite troughs, basin-margin shelves, and shores. The midbasin platform serves as an exposed model for structurally analogous platforms in oil-producing basins such as west Texas. It has a unique Liassic upward-shallowing limestone sequence approximately 450 m thick, now widely exposed by en echelon ridges upthrusted over a minimal axial area of 20 {times} 150 km. The basal laminated euxinic facies (potential source rock) becomes interbedded upward with bioturbated limestones, indicating cyclic presence of normal marine bottom waters. Overlying strata are completely bioturbated nodular limestones with rare diminutive shelled benthos and chert nodules resembling sponge morphologies. The upper 250 m of the sequence exhibit increasing bed thickness, abundance and diversity of shelly benthos, and frequency and size of sponge-algal mud mounds (potential reservoirs), indicating overall shallowing but generally below wave base. The sequence culminates in giant sponge-algal buildups with up to 200 m of relief, abruptly capped by a starved surface rich with ammonites related to a late Liassic (Toarcian) eustatic sea level rise.

  7. Effectiveness of soil conservation strategies on erosion in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmansour, Moncef; Mabit, Lionel; Moussadek, Rachid; Yassin, Mohamed; Nouira, Asmae; Zouagui, Anis; Mrabet, Rachid; Iaaich, Hamza; Hajib, Said

    2016-04-01

    - In Morocco, reducing soil erosion and land degradation is a national priority for improving soil quality and protecting downstream water quality and quantity. The combined use of Cs-137 and Be-7 techniques permit to estimate long and short term erosion and deposition magnitudes under different agro-environment and climatic conditions and then to evaluate the effectiveness of soil conservation practices. Case studies using Cs-137 and Be-7 were carried out in three Moroccan agricultural sites: Marchouch, Harchane and Oued Mellah located in Rabat, Tétouan and Chaouia-Ouardigha regions, respectively. In these sites, fallout Cs-137 measurements allowed a retrospective assessment of long term (50-60 years) soil redistribution rates while fallout Be-7 (half-life of 53 days) was used to document short term soil erosion associated with rainfall events for different tillage systems and land uses. Long term soil erosion rates of the three regions evaluated by the Cs-137 method, ranged from 8 to 58 t/ha/yr. Mostly located in the upslope part of the fields, the eroding zones represented more than 70% of the total area. For the experimental sites in Rabat and Tétouan, the results obtained using Be-7 indicated that soil loss has been reduced significantly under no-till as compared to conventional tillage. Indeed, soil erosion rates were lowered by 50% for the Marchouch site and by 40% for the Harchane site. Concerning the Oued Mellah watershed, the results highlighted that high density Atriplex plantations have reduced soil loss by approximately 60 to 80%, while for the site under fruit plantations and cereals, soil erosion has been decreased by 58%.

  8. Infective endocarditis in chronic hemodialysis patients: experience from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Montasser, Dina; Bahadi, Abdelali; Zajjari, Yassir; Asserraji, Mohamed; Alayoude, Ahmed; Moujoud, Omar; Aattif, Toufik; Kadiri, Moncef; Zemraoui, Nadir; El Kabbaj, Driss; Hassani, Mohamed; Benyahia, Mohamed; El Allam, Mustapha; Oualim, Zouhir; Akhmouch, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, regular hemodialysis (HD) was recognized as a risk factor for the development of infective endocarditis (IE), particularly at vascular access sites. The present report describes our experience at the Etat Major General Agadir, Morocco, of taking care of IE in patients on regular dialysis. A retrospective analysis was made of five cases of IE in patients receiving regular HD having arteriovenous fistula as vascular access. They were sent from four private centers and admitted in our formation between January 2004 and March 2009. Infective endocarditis was detected after 34.5 months following initiation of dialysis. The causative organisms included Staphylococcus and Enterococcus in two cases each and negative blood culture in one case. A recent history of infection (<3 months) of the vascular access was found in three cases. Peripheric embolic phenomena were noted in two cases. A pre-existing heart disease was common and contributed to heart failure. Mortality was frequent due to valvular perforations and congestive heart failure, making the medical treatment alone unsatisfactory. Two patients survived and three of our patients received a prosthetic valve replacement, with a median survival after surgery of 10.3 months/person. The clinical diagnosis of infective endocarditis in regularly dialyzed patients remains difficult, with the presence of vascular calcification as a common risk factor. The vascular catheter infections are the cardinal gateway of pathogenic organisms, which are mainly Staphylococcus. The prognosis is bad and the mortality is significant, whereas medical and surgical treatments are often established in these patients who have many factors of comorbidity. PMID:21196639

  9. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of the argan tree of Morocco.

    PubMed

    el Mousadik, A; Petit, R J

    1996-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the chloroplast genome of the argan tree (Sapotaceae), an endemic species of south-western Morocco, have been detected by restriction site studies of PCR-amplified fragments. A total of 12 chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments were amplified and digested with a single restriction enzyme (HinfI). Polymorphisms were identified in six of the cpDNA fragments, whereas no mtDNA polymorphisms were detected in a survey of 95 individuals from 19 populations encompassing most of the natural range of the species. The cpDNA polymorphisms allowed the identification of 11 haplotypes. Two lineages, one in the south-east and the other in the north-west, divide the range of the argan tree into two distinct areas. The level of genetic differentiation measured at the haplotype level (GSTc = 0.60) (i.e. with unordered haplotypes) was smaller than when phylogenetic relationships were taken into account (NSTc = 0.71-0.74) (ordered haplotypes), indicating that population history must be considered in the study of the geographical distribution of cpDNA lineages in this species. If contrasted with the level of nuclear genetic differentiation measured in a previous study with isozymes (GSTn = 0.25), the results indicate a relatively high level of gene flow by seeds, or conversely a relatively low level of gene flow by pollen, as compared with other tree species. Goats and camels could have played an important role in disseminating the fruits of this tree.

  10. Simulating gas and particulate pollution over the Middle East and the state of Qatar using a 3-D regional air quality modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoukis, Christos; Gladich, Ivan; Ayoub, Mohammed; Kais, Sabre; Ackermann, Luis; Skillern, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization, industrialization and economic expansion in the Middle East have led to increased levels of atmospheric pollution with important implications for human health and climate. We applied the online-coupled meteorological and chemical transport Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model over the Middle Eastern domain, to simulate the concentration of gas and aerosols with a special focus over the state of Qatar. WRF-Chem was set to simulate pollutant concentrations along with the meteorology-chemistry interactions through the related direct, indirect and semi-direct feedback mechanisms. A triple-nested domain configuration was used with a high grid resolution (1x1 km2) over the region of Qatar. Model predictions are evaluated against intensive measurements of meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) as well as ozone and particulate matter taken from various measurement stations throughout Doha, Qatar during summer 2015. The ability of the model to capture the temporal and spatial variability of the observations is assessed and possible reasons for the model bias are explored through sensitivity tests. Emissions of both fine and coarse mode particles from construction activities in large urban Middle Eastern environments comprise a major pollution source that is unaccounted for in emission inventories used so far in large scale models for this part of the world.

  11. Cultural competence springs up in the desert: the story of the center for cultural competence in health care at Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, Maha; Abdelrahim, Huda; Fetters, Michael D

    2012-06-01

    The authors describe the factors that led Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) to establish the Center for Cultural Competence in Health Care from the ground up, and they explore challenges and successes in implementing cultural competence training.Qatar's capital, Doha, is an extremely high-density multicultural setting. When WCMC-Q's first class of medical students began their clinical clerkships at the affiliated teaching hospital Hamad Medical Corporation in 2006, the complicated nature of training in a multicultural and multilingual setting became apparent immediately. In response, initiatives to improve students' cultural competence were undertaken. Initiatives included launching a medical interpretation program in 2007; surveying the patients' spoken languages, examining the effect of an orientation program on interpretation requests, and surveying faculty using the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training in 2008; implementing cultural competence training for students and securing research funding in 2009; and expanding awareness to the Qatar community in 2010. These types of initiatives, which are generally highly valued in U.S. and Canadian settings, are also apropos in the Arabian Gulf region.The authors report on their initial efforts, which can serve as a resource for other programs in the Arabian Gulf region. PMID:22534600

  12. Issues in Strategic Planning for Vocational Education: Lessons from Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmi, Jamil

    1991-01-01

    Although Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco have followed substantially different development strategies, they exhibit similar signs of crisis in vocational education. An integrated approach to planning that acknowledges social, financial, technological, and economic constraints could help coordinate general and vocational education and specialized…

  13. Vocational Education in Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco: The Crisis and its Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmi, Jamil

    1990-01-01

    Examines developments in vocational and technical education systems in Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco. Argues each system faces critical problems resulting from demographic pressures, educational demand, lack of funding, and job placement difficulties. Recommends programs should reflect industry's needs, urging integration between general and…

  14. An Evaluation of Non-Formal Educational Programs for Women in Morocco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Nadia H.; And Others

    Morocco's existing non-formal education programs involving women (Foyers Feminins and Ouvroirs) cater to female adolescents from low-income families and are almost entirely oriented to the teaching of traditional feminine crafts. Efforts are being made by both programs to introduce non-craft training in areas related to the modern economic sector.…

  15. Screening wild oat accessions from Morocco for resistance to Puccinia coronata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the screening of 338 new accessions of 11 different wild oat species (Avena) from the USDA Small Grains Collection for resistance to crown rust (Puccinia coronata). Wild oat species were originally collected in Morocco by C. Al Faiz, INRAT Rabat: Avena agadiriana, A. atlantica, A. bar...

  16. Access and Equity in Financing Higher Education: The Case of Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bougroum, Mohammed; Ibourk, Aomar

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the higher education financing policy in Morocco in light of the central issue of equity. First, it surveys the current situation, using a critical approach to the present financing policy, and looking at the three dimensions of adequacy, efficiency, and equity. Second, it describes the principal policy challenges in financing…

  17. "We Are All Beginners": Amazigh in Language Policy and Educational Practice in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Aissati, Abderrahman; Karsmakers, Suzanne; Kurvers, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the Amazigh (Berber) language and the Tifinagh script were, for the first time in history, introduced as a subject for all students in public primary schools in Morocco. This study first investigates the language planning policy behind the introduction of the new Amazigh curriculum: selection, codification, standardization, curriculum…

  18. Qur'anic Education and Social Change in Northern Morocco: Perspectives from Chefchaouen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawil, Sobhi

    2006-01-01

    This article documents patterns of take-up of traditional religious and primary school education in Chefchaouen, one of the most disadvantaged provinces in Morocco located in the impoverished northwestern region of the country. First, the author provides some background on the socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the province of…

  19. Additions to the Limoniidae and Pediciidae fauna of Morocco, with an updated checklist (Diptera, Tipuloidea).

    PubMed

    Driauach, Ouafaa; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-01-01

    Eighteen species of Limoniidae and two species of Pediciidae are recorded for the first time in Morocco, of which 15 species are new to North Africa. An updated checklist of Moroccan short-palped craneflies (Limoniidae and Pediciidae) is appended, containing 73 species in 25 genera.

  20. Cross-Cultural Training of European and American Managers in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Mansour, Bassou; Wood, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the training provided to US and European expatriates in Morocco, and subsequently build the body of knowledge for international HRD in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Design/methodology/approach: The study used the models of Black and Mendenhall and Mendenhall and Oddou, subdividing the…

  1. Tradition and Change in Modern Morocco, An Instructional Unit Based on Film Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, E. Jefferson

    The learning unit for grade levels 8, 9, or 10 is based upon viewing and discussing the film "Morocco: Chaoui Faces His Future." Among the learning objectives of the unit are the following: (1) to expand inquiry skills and the ability to formulate concepts, generalizations, and hypotheses; (2) to introduce the student to the interplay of forces of…

  2. Demography and cultural ecology of the Atlas Mountains of Morocco: some new hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Bencherifa, A

    1988-11-01

    The hypothesis is developed that the concentration of population in the mountains of Morocco is due to the existence of considerable resources in the region, and not because of its attraction as a place of refuge. The need to include the mountain region in today's development process is stressed. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND GER)

  3. Why Does Mother's Schooling Raise Child Health in Developing Countries? Evidence from Morocco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glewwe, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Estimations based on data from Morocco determined that mothers' health knowledge appears to be the crucial skill in child health. Such knowledge is primarily obtained outside the classroom, although literacy skills acquired in school may have been used in obtaining the knowledge. (SK)

  4. Situation Reports--Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the United States of America. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is…

  5. 3-D crustal structure in the Agadir region (SW High Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoulali, Youssef; Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2011-10-01

    The 1960 Agadir earthquake (Mw 6.0) constitutes the most damaging earthquake event in Morocco. With the expansion of seismic networks during the last decade in Morocco, new seismic data have been collected in this region. The P and S arrivals at 19 stations located in Southern Morocco are used to investigate the lithosphere in the Agadir region. In this study, we use a linearized inversion procedure comprising two steps: (1) finding the minimal 1-D model and simultaneous relocation of hypocentres and (2) determination of local velocity structure using linearized inversion. The model parameterization in this method assumes a continuous velocity field. The resolution tests indicate that the calculated images give near true structure for the studied region from 0- to 45-km depth. The results show that the total crust thickness varies from 30 to 40 km in SW High Atlas and confirm the modest crustal tectonic shortening and thickening in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco. The inferred geological structure reconstructed from the calculated image illustrates the existence of fault-related folding. The evidence for coseismic ruptures in 1960 on the Kasbah anticline combined with the 1960 earthquake hypocentre located in the tomographic image determines the seismic potential of the active fault and related fold. The resulting tomographic image shows a high-velocity anomalies that could be associated with the location of deep active fault (10-30 km) associated with the fold structure. In the South Atlas, theses anomalies could be associated with the South atlas thrust front structure.

  6. Learning to Weave the Threads of Honor: Understanding the Value of Female Schooling in Southern Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naji, Myriem

    2012-01-01

    This article is concerned with the role of formal education in the upward social mobility of women in the Sirwa, a marginal Berber region of southern Morocco where carpets are produced by women, and marketed by men. To explore why girls' education in weaving takes precedence over formal education, the article considers the place of women's…

  7. Pupil's Beliefs about the Transformations of Energy in Three Countries (Canada, France and Morocco)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Métioui, Abdeljalil; MacWillie, Mireille Baulu

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research approach was chosen to analyse the conceptions of pupils attending elementary school from Canada (N = 135), France (N = 30) and Morocco (N = 92) between 10 and 12 years of age. Their conceptions were identified while being mobilised on energy transformations during the working of a simple electric circuit made of a battery,…

  8. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 2, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for an annotated bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia cover topics such as the philosophy and theory of education, educational organization, adult education, teacher…

  9. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 3, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents 91 English language annotations of newspaper articles, journals, and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Although the title also includes Maghreb, this issue does not contain any annotations for that country. All articles were published during the period July-September 1975.…

  10. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4 No. 3, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    This report, part of a series of educational bibliographies from the Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) and Libya, consists of excerpts from periodicals published in those countries. Each entry is marked to indicate the particular country. The articles are organized under 13 major subjects that include: the structure of educational…

  11. Fulbright-Hayes Seminars Abroad Program, 1993. Morocco and Tunisia. Final Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America-Mideast Educational and Training Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This collection of Fulbright seminar projects focuses on Morocco and Tunisia. The first project (Ruth Brent) gives a descriptive analysis of images from the perspective of an interior design educator. The second project (Eileen Burchell) explores the theme of continuity and change as it is reflected in the contemporary French literature of the…

  12. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 4, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Ninety-one English language annotations are presented of newspaper articles and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Most of the entries were published during the period October-December 1976. Organized by country, the references cover topics of philosophy and theory of education, teacher training,…

  13. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 8, Number 1, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated bibliography contains 100 English-language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational topics of interest to North Africans. The majority of the items cited were published in 1974. Citations are categorized by country: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Within these major categories are subtopics…

  14. Selected Bibliography of Materials; Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 1, Number 2, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A bibliography with abstracts of 106 items from books and articles covers materials on education in the Maghreb countries of Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, and Morocco. Special emphasis is given to the two problems besetting the area's educational system: illiteracy and multilingualism. The entries cover philosophy and theory of education,…

  15. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 4, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French dating from 1953 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational and higher education;…

  16. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 2, Numbers 1, 2, 3, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Three volumes comprise a 375-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English, French, Italian, and Arabic that provides information on various aspects of education in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and foreign language titles are…

  17. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Numbers 2, 3, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A two volume, 200-item bibliography with English abstracts of books and articles in English and French dating from 1957 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and higher education; and…

  18. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 1, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for a bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia are preceded by a section on the Maghreb which deals with the special problems of illiteracy, multilingualism, and rapid…

  19. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 4, Number 1, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1969 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  20. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 1, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 130-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English and French provides information on various aspects of education (many of them language-related) in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and French titles are translated into English.…

  1. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  2. Vegetation change, goats, and religion: a 2000-year history of land use in southern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Helen V.; Dupont, Lydie; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.; Kuhlmann, Holger

    2009-07-01

    Understanding past human-climate-environment interactions is essential for assessing the vulnerability of landscapes and ecosystems to future climate change. This is particularly important in southern Morocco where the current vegetation is impacted by pastoralism, and the region is highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we present a 2000-year record of vegetation, sedimentation rate, XRF chemical element intensities, and particle size from two decadal-resolved, marine sediment cores, raised from offshore Cape Ghir, southern Morocco. The results show that between 650 and 850 AD the sedimentation rate increased dramatically from 100 cm/1000 years to 300 cm/1000 years, and the Fe/Ca and pollen flux doubled, together indicating higher inputs of terrestrial sediment. Particle size measurements and end-member modelling suggest increased fluvial transport of the sediment. Beginning at 650 AD pollen levels from Cichorioideae species show a sharp rise from 10% to 20%. Pollen from Atemisia and Plantago, also increase from this time. Deciduous oak pollen percentages show a decline, whereas those of evergreen oak barely change. The abrupt increase in terrestrial/fluvial input from 650 to 850 AD occurs, within the age uncertainty, of the arrival of Islam (Islamisation) in Morocco at around 700 AD. Historical evidence suggests Islamisation led to population increase and development of southern Morocco, including expanded pastoralism, deforestation and agriculture. Livestock pressure may have changed the vegetation structure, accounting for the increase in pollen from Cichorioideae, Plantago, and Artemisia, which include many weedy species. Goats in particular may have played a dominant role as agents of erosion, and intense browsing may have led to the decline in deciduous oak; evergreen oak is more likely to survive as it re-sprouts more vigorously after browsing. From 850 AD to present sedimentation rates, Fe/Ca ratios and fluvial discharge remain stable, whereas

  3. A retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of salmonellosis in the State of Qatar during 2004–2012

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Elmoubasher; Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Ganesan, Nandakumar; Ahmed, Shazia Nadeem N.; Al-Hajri, Mohammed; Al Thani, Shk. Mohammed Hamad J.; Al-Marri, Salih Ali; Ibrahim, Emad; Al-Romaihi, Hamad Eid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Salmonella is a food- and water-borne pathogen that can be easily spread in a population, leading to the outbreak of salmonellosis that is caused by ingestion of mixed salads contaminated by the pathogen. Most cases occur in the late spring months and can be seen as single cases, clusters, or episodes. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of salmonellosis in the State of Qatar. Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive study carried out in laboratory-confirmed cases of salmonellosis during 2004–2012 from all Salmonella surveillance centers. Therapeutic records of patients who were clinically suspected of having Salmonella diseases were analyzed. Initially, cases with typhoid fever were investigated in the laboratory by means of Widal agglutination tests, while non-typhoidal Salmonella diseases were determined based on culture technique. Results: The annual incident of salmonellosis cases were 12.3, 23.0, 30.3, 19.4, 15.3, 18.0, 22.7, 18.5, and 18.1 per 100,000 population in 2006–2011 and 2012, respectively. The number of salmonellosis cases was high among less than 2-year-old females and 3-year-old males. In addition, one-fourth of patients (27.7%) were Qatari when compared to other nationalities. A significant difference in age was found between Qatari (6.08 ± 12.28 years) and non-Qatari (15.04 ± 19.56 years) patients. Of the reported cases, 79.8% included the onset date of the first symptoms. Contact phone numbers were available for 94% of the cases but addresses were available for only 50.4% of cases. The time difference between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 5.4 ± 5.7 days. The most frequent serotype reported were type b (41.9%), type d (26.9%), and type c1 (12.2%). Conclusion: The present surveillance data showed a high incidence of salmonellosis in Qatar that poses a serious public health problem. Special intervention and health awareness programs are required for

  4. A retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of salmonellosis in the State of Qatar during 2004–2012

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Elmoubasher; Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Ganesan, Nandakumar; Ahmed, Shazia Nadeem N.; Al-Hajri, Mohammed; Al Thani, Shk. Mohammed Hamad J.; Al-Marri, Salih Ali; Ibrahim, Emad; Al-Romaihi, Hamad Eid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Salmonella is a food- and water-borne pathogen that can be easily spread in a population, leading to the outbreak of salmonellosis that is caused by ingestion of mixed salads contaminated by the pathogen. Most cases occur in the late spring months and can be seen as single cases, clusters, or episodes. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of salmonellosis in the State of Qatar. Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive study carried out in laboratory-confirmed cases of salmonellosis during 2004–2012 from all Salmonella surveillance centers. Therapeutic records of patients who were clinically suspected of having Salmonella diseases were analyzed. Initially, cases with typhoid fever were investigated in the laboratory by means of Widal agglutination tests, while non-typhoidal Salmonella diseases were determined based on culture technique. Results: The annual incident of salmonellosis cases were 12.3, 23.0, 30.3, 19.4, 15.3, 18.0, 22.7, 18.5, and 18.1 per 100,000 population in 2006–2011 and 2012, respectively. The number of salmonellosis cases was high among less than 2-year-old females and 3-year-old males. In addition, one-fourth of patients (27.7%) were Qatari when compared to other nationalities. A significant difference in age was found between Qatari (6.08 ± 12.28 years) and non-Qatari (15.04 ± 19.56 years) patients. Of the reported cases, 79.8% included the onset date of the first symptoms. Contact phone numbers were available for 94% of the cases but addresses were available for only 50.4% of cases. The time difference between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 5.4 ± 5.7 days. The most frequent serotype reported were type b (41.9%), type d (26.9%), and type c1 (12.2%). Conclusion: The present surveillance data showed a high incidence of salmonellosis in Qatar that poses a serious public health problem. Special intervention and health awareness programs are required for

  5. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    PubMed

    Schyns, Joep F; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy. PMID:24919194

  6. Cervical cancer and HPV: Awareness and vaccine acceptability among parents in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mouallif, Mustapha; Bowyer, Harriet L; Festali, Soukaina; Albert, Adelin; Filali-Zegzouti, Younes; Guenin, Samuel; Delvenne, Philippe; Waller, Jo; Ennaji, Moulay Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health concern in Morocco where it represents the second most common and lethal cancer in women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been licensed in Morocco since 2008 but there are no available data on their acceptability. This study aimed to assess awareness of HPV and the vaccine, and to identify factors associated with acceptability of the vaccine among parents in Morocco. We carried out a questionnaire-based survey using face-to-face interviews in a sample of 852 parents (670 mothers and 182 fathers) with at least one unmarried daughter ≤26 years. We collected data within public and private health centres and clinics in four regions in Morocco between July and August 2012. The main outcome measure was parental acceptability of the HPV vaccine for their daughter(s). Responses revealed very low awareness of HPV infection (4.7%) and the HPV vaccine (14.3%). None of the participants had vaccinated their daughter(s) against HPV and vaccine acceptability was low among mothers (32%) and fathers (45%). Higher education and income, previous awareness of the HPV vaccine and endorsement of the belief that a recommendation from the Ministry of Health or a doctor to have the vaccine would be encouraging, were associated with mothers' HPV vaccine acceptability. Non-acceptability among mothers was associated with having more than two daughters, believing the vaccine was expensive, lack of information and believing that whatever happens to an individual's health is God's will. The only factor associated with the fathers' acceptability of the vaccine was the cost of the vaccine. Increasing HPV and HPV vaccine awareness through educational campaigns, along with active recommendation by physicians and a publically funded vaccination programme could increase parental acceptability of the HPV vaccine in Morocco.

  7. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    PubMed

    Schyns, Joep F; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy.

  8. Preliminary Investigations on the Distribution of Leptospira Serovars in Domestic Animals in North-west Morocco.

    PubMed

    Benkirane, A; Noury, S; Hartskeerl, R A; Goris, M G A; Ahmed, A; Nally, J E

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance with a complex epidemiology that affects humans, domestic and wild mammals. However, due to the diversity of clinical signs and difficulties of establishing a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, the disease remains poorly investigated, particularly in the developing world. In Morocco, a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in animals has never been undertaken. To fill this gap, the current study was conducted on a subset of animals in north-west Morocco as a preliminary step towards understanding the epidemiological patterns of animal leptospirosis in the country. The study was conducted on 289 serum samples collected between January and April 2012 from dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and donkeys in the areas of Rabat-Temara, Sidi Kacem and Oulmes. All serum samples were tested by the MAT with 14 reference strains of the most prevalent pathogenic serovars of Leptospira and two serovars of non-pathogenic Leptospira. The overall seroprevalence of Leptospira in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and donkeys was 15%, 18%, 20%, 21% and 20%, respectively. The most prevalent serogroups found in each species were Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis in cattle, Ballum, Australis and Sejroe in sheep, Australis and Ballum in goats, Javanica and Australis in donkey and Australis, Ballum and Canicola in dogs. Of all the serogroups tested in this study, Icterohaemorrhagiae, the only serogroup which has been previously reported in humans in Morocco, was rarely reactive. The majority of reactive sera were collected from low land areas. A large number of sera samples classified as seronegative when tested against pathogenic leptospires were positive when tested against non-pathogenic leptospires; this is suggestive of possible novel, as yet unclassified, Leptospira serovars in Morocco. Eleven of thirteen sheep urine samples were positive by real-time PCR confirming their role as Leptospira carriers in Morocco. PMID

  9. Microclimatic factors controlling tafoni weathering in Tafraoute, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruhmann, Stefanie; Schnepfleitner, Harald; Sass, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Cavernous tafoni-type weathering is observed in many arid and semiarid regions of the world and the underlying processes, as well as the respective weathering rates, are still not fully understood. Although the conditions of Tafoni formation has been under consideration for approx. 100 years, there is still no unifom view about their formation process. Their distribution pattern is thought to be controlled by distance to shore, duration of the arid season, local fault systems or by the age of the respective exposure. Three possible ways of tafoni genesis are under discussion: (1) mechanical weathering by temperature and volume fluctuations in short periods which are reinforced by micro-circulation of air in the cavities; (2) mechanical weathering by hydration of salts; (3) chemical weathering including case hardening on the surface and "core weathering" of the interior. To understand the tafoni weathering process it boils down to three significant influential factors: temperature fluctuations, rock moisture and salt distribution. Our study focuses on tafoni weathering in Tafraoute, Morocco, located in the granites of the Kerdouse Massif. We attempt to clarify the formation process using a combination of various micro-climatic and geophysical methods. The most important technique is small-scale 2D-resistivity profiling which allows to look some decimetres inside the rock and to visualise rock moisture and salt concentration patterns. First morphometric analysis and mappings have been conducted in summer 2013, and micro-climatic investigations are carried out in February 2014. Mapping results show that tafoni distribution is influenced by topography and aspect. However, no relation between exposure and depth of the hollows was found; e.g. no significant differences in morphometric parameters were observed between northern and western rock faces. Temperature sensors were installed at different expositions and depths to measure daily temperature changes. These are

  10. Tectonic and stratigraphic evolution in South Alboran Sea (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Acremont, E.; Gorini, C.; El Abbassi, M.; Farran, M.; Leroy, S.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Migeon, S.; Poort, J.; Ammar, A.; Smit, J.; Ercilla, G.; Alonso, B.; Scientific Team of the Marlboro project

    2011-12-01

    The Alboran Basin, in western Mediterranean, concentrates on a relatively small surface and densely-populated, a large structural complexity linked to seismic activity with recurrent mass-transport deposits that may trigger tsunamis. It was formed by Oligo-Miocene extension while tectonic inversion occurred since the Late Miocene (Tortonian) due to the African-European collision. This North-South compression produces a conjugated fault system located in the central area from Al Hoceima to Andalusia. Numerous instabilities are linked to the recent and present-day seismic activity and show the link between seismicity and erosion-sedimentation processes. On the Andalusia margin the active structures have been identified and recently mapped in detail by using MBES data (including backscatter), and high-resolution seismic data. Such detailed studies have not yet been carried out on the Moroccan margin. The Marlboro-1 oceanographic cruise (R/V Côtes de la Manche, July 2011) has imaged and constrained active structures and associated sedimentary systems through seismic reflection data (MCS). The Xauen/Tofino banks (growth folds), the Alboran Ridge, and the Al Hoceima basin offshore Morocco have been selected because they constitute key-study areas that record a complete deformation history since the Tortonian. Active features including faults, growth folds, channels, mass transport deposits, contourites and volcanoes has provided first order tectonic and sedimentary markers of the basin's evolution. A high chrono-stratigraphical resolution will constitute the basis for reconstructing the evolution of this tectonically active area marked by strong seismic activity. The Marlboro-1 cruise will allow determining key-study area of the Marlboro-2 cruise scheduled for 2012 (R/V Téthys-II, CNFC Call). These cruises should allow for the acquisition of data necessary to characterize basin morphology, active tectonic and sedimentary structures and also make the link with existing

  11. Molecular Identification of Commercialized Medicinal Plants in Southern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Åsa; Rydberg, Anders; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Björk, Lars; Martin, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant trade is important for local livelihoods. However, many medicinal plants are difficult to identify when they are sold as roots, powders or bark. DNA barcoding involves using a short, agreed-upon region of a genome as a unique identifier for species– ideally, as a global standard. Research Question What is the functionality, efficacy and accuracy of the use of barcoding for identifying root material, using medicinal plant roots sold by herbalists in Marrakech, Morocco, as a test dataset. Methodology In total, 111 root samples were sequenced for four proposed barcode regions rpoC1, psbA-trnH, matK and ITS. Sequences were searched against a tailored reference database of Moroccan medicinal plants and their closest relatives using BLAST and Blastclust, and through inference of RAxML phylograms of the aligned market and reference samples. Principal Findings Sequencing success was high for rpoC1, psbA-trnH, and ITS, but low for matK. Searches using rpoC1 alone resulted in a number of ambiguous identifications, indicating insufficient DNA variation for accurate species-level identification. Combining rpoC1, psbA-trnH and ITS allowed the majority of the market samples to be identified to genus level. For a minority of the market samples, the barcoding identification differed significantly from previous hypotheses based on the vernacular names. Conclusions/Significance Endemic plant species are commercialized in Marrakech. Adulteration is common and this may indicate that the products are becoming locally endangered. Nevertheless the majority of the traded roots belong to species that are common and not known to be endangered. A significant conclusion from our results is that unknown samples are more difficult to identify than earlier suggested, especially if the reference sequences were obtained from different populations. A global barcoding database should therefore contain sequences from different populations of the same species to assure the

  12. Fertility-inhibiting indices in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Horne, A D

    1992-01-01

    Bongaart's model for estimating fertility levels that was not available in Arab countries. In this study, El-Khorazaty's model was used to determine fertility-inhibiting indices for the Arab countries with available age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) and to compare differences regionally, residentially, and nationally. The value of total fecundity (TF) was set at 17 rather than at the Bongaart's recommended 15.3, in order to avoid the negative values for percentage reduction from TF obtained by Bulatao. Childbearing indices provided projected estimates of the mean age of first and last birth and the projected length of the reproductive period experienced by a new cohort of women with a specified ASFR. These estimated and UN estimates were used to indirectly estimate Bongaarts indices. Estimates were generated for Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mauritania, Morocco, Qatar, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen Arab Republic. 8 of these 16 countries showed fertility decline for the periods indicated: Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia with declines due top contraceptive use and lower proportions married; Bahrain and Kuwait due to lower proportions married; and Sudan and Yemen to lactational infecundability. Increases in fertility were found in Mauritania, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, due to lower lactational infecundability, higher proportions married, and lower contraceptive used; and in Libyan Arab Jamahiriyha due to shorter breast feeding durations, higher proportions married, and unmeasured factors. Little change was represented in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, and Syria until the late 1970s. The total fertility rate between 1980-85 for all Arabs was 6.2. The most important of Bongaart's intermediate fertility variables in reducing fecundity was proportion married, responsible for 27% of the decline in TF with an index of .760. The least important was contraceptive usage

  13. Fertility-inhibiting indices in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Horne, A D

    1992-01-01

    Bongaart's model for estimating fertility levels that was not available in Arab countries. In this study, El-Khorazaty's model was used to determine fertility-inhibiting indices for the Arab countries with available age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) and to compare differences regionally, residentially, and nationally. The value of total fecundity (TF) was set at 17 rather than at the Bongaart's recommended 15.3, in order to avoid the negative values for percentage reduction from TF obtained by Bulatao. Childbearing indices provided projected estimates of the mean age of first and last birth and the projected length of the reproductive period experienced by a new cohort of women with a specified ASFR. These estimated and UN estimates were used to indirectly estimate Bongaarts indices. Estimates were generated for Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mauritania, Morocco, Qatar, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen Arab Republic. 8 of these 16 countries showed fertility decline for the periods indicated: Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia with declines due top contraceptive use and lower proportions married; Bahrain and Kuwait due to lower proportions married; and Sudan and Yemen to lactational infecundability. Increases in fertility were found in Mauritania, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, due to lower lactational infecundability, higher proportions married, and lower contraceptive used; and in Libyan Arab Jamahiriyha due to shorter breast feeding durations, higher proportions married, and unmeasured factors. Little change was represented in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, and Syria until the late 1970s. The total fertility rate between 1980-85 for all Arabs was 6.2. The most important of Bongaart's intermediate fertility variables in reducing fecundity was proportion married, responsible for 27% of the decline in TF with an index of .760. The least important was contraceptive usage

  14. Structural and physical properties of the dust particles in Qatar and their influence on the PV panel performance

    PubMed Central

    Aïssa, Brahim; Isaifan, Rima J.; Madhavan, Vinod E.; Abdallah, Amir A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, extensive R&D has been conducted, both by industry and academia, to significantly raise the conversion efficiency of commercial photovoltaic (PV) modules. The installation of PV systems aimed at optimizing solar energy yield is primarily dictated by its geographic location and installation design to maximize solar exposure. However, even when these characteristics have been addressed appropriately, there are other factors that adversely affect the performance of PV systems, namely the temperature-induced voltage decrease leading to a PV power loss, and the dust accumulation (soiling). The latter is the lesser acknowledged factor that significantly influences the performance of PV installations especially in the Middle East region. In this paper we report on the investigation of the structural and physical properties of the desert-dust particles in the State of Qatar. The dust particles were collected directly from the PV panels installed in desert environment and characterized by different techniques, including scanning electron, optical and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive, UV-Vis, micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The vibrating sample magnetometry analyses were also conducted to study the magnetic properties of the dust particles. The influence of the dust accumulation on the PV panel performance was also presented and discussed. PMID:27526667

  15. Toxoplasma gondii Seropositivity and Co-Infection with TORCH Pathogens in High-Risk Patients from Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Dabritz, Haydee A.

    2010-01-01

    Testing of patients who are deemed to be at high risk for TORCH pathogens, e.g., pregnant women, their fetuses, neonates, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, is important so that specific treatment can be initiated. This study included 1,857 such patients between 2005 and 2008. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity. Among 823 women of childbearing age, 35.1% and 5.2% tested positive for T. gondii IgG and IgM, respectively. Three infants ≤ 6 months of age (0.8% of 353) were congenitally infected. Factors associated with T. gondii IgG seropositivity included older age, East Mediterranean or African nationality, positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 serostatus, and negative rubella IgG results. The decreasing prevalence of IgM antibodies between 2005 and 2008 suggested that exposure to T. gondii from food or environmental sources declined over this period in Qatar. Population-based studies of newborns would be helpful to accurately estimate incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:20348511

  16. Structural and physical properties of the dust particles in Qatar and their influence on the PV panel performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aïssa, Brahim; Isaifan, Rima J.; Madhavan, Vinod E.; Abdallah, Amir A.

    2016-08-01

    Recently, extensive R&D has been conducted, both by industry and academia, to significantly raise the conversion efficiency of commercial photovoltaic (PV) modules. The installation of PV systems aimed at optimizing solar energy yield is primarily dictated by its geographic location and installation design to maximize solar exposure. However, even when these characteristics have been addressed appropriately, there are other factors that adversely affect the performance of PV systems, namely the temperature-induced voltage decrease leading to a PV power loss, and the dust accumulation (soiling). The latter is the lesser acknowledged factor that significantly influences the performance of PV installations especially in the Middle East region. In this paper we report on the investigation of the structural and physical properties of the desert-dust particles in the State of Qatar. The dust particles were collected directly from the PV panels installed in desert environment and characterized by different techniques, including scanning electron, optical and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive, UV-Vis, micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The vibrating sample magnetometry analyses were also conducted to study the magnetic properties of the dust particles. The influence of the dust accumulation on the PV panel performance was also presented and discussed.

  17. Structural and physical properties of the dust particles in Qatar and their influence on the PV panel performance.

    PubMed

    Aïssa, Brahim; Isaifan, Rima J; Madhavan, Vinod E; Abdallah, Amir A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, extensive R&D has been conducted, both by industry and academia, to significantly raise the conversion efficiency of commercial photovoltaic (PV) modules. The installation of PV systems aimed at optimizing solar energy yield is primarily dictated by its geographic location and installation design to maximize solar exposure. However, even when these characteristics have been addressed appropriately, there are other factors that adversely affect the performance of PV systems, namely the temperature-induced voltage decrease leading to a PV power loss, and the dust accumulation (soiling). The latter is the lesser acknowledged factor that significantly influences the performance of PV installations especially in the Middle East region. In this paper we report on the investigation of the structural and physical properties of the desert-dust particles in the State of Qatar. The dust particles were collected directly from the PV panels installed in desert environment and characterized by different techniques, including scanning electron, optical and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive, UV-Vis, micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The vibrating sample magnetometry analyses were also conducted to study the magnetic properties of the dust particles. The influence of the dust accumulation on the PV panel performance was also presented and discussed. PMID:27526667

  18. Structural and physical properties of the dust particles in Qatar and their influence on the PV panel performance.

    PubMed

    Aïssa, Brahim; Isaifan, Rima J; Madhavan, Vinod E; Abdallah, Amir A

    2016-08-16

    Recently, extensive R&D has been conducted, both by industry and academia, to significantly raise the conversion efficiency of commercial photovoltaic (PV) modules. The installation of PV systems aimed at optimizing solar energy yield is primarily dictated by its geographic location and installation design to maximize solar exposure. However, even when these characteristics have been addressed appropriately, there are other factors that adversely affect the performance of PV systems, namely the temperature-induced voltage decrease leading to a PV power loss, and the dust accumulation (soiling). The latter is the lesser acknowledged factor that significantly influences the performance of PV installations especially in the Middle East region. In this paper we report on the investigation of the structural and physical properties of the desert-dust particles in the State of Qatar. The dust particles were collected directly from the PV panels installed in desert environment and characterized by different techniques, including scanning electron, optical and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive, UV-Vis, micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The vibrating sample magnetometry analyses were also conducted to study the magnetic properties of the dust particles. The influence of the dust accumulation on the PV panel performance was also presented and discussed.

  19. Is Applied Physics Embedded in Words Like Chitto, Seminole, Quito, Keitan, Iquitos, Caqueta, Katahdin, Qatar, Katmandu, and Willimantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Kerianne; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-10-01

    Chitto Tustenugee's final Seminole stronghold is now preserved in Miramar, Florida. It is profoundly active; its electromagnetic field, EMF, can be detected by methods readily accessible to the historic Seminole. They may have utilized information from it to avoid hurricanes and tornadoes. It also can yield information about future earthquakes. An anomalous earthquake 90 miles north of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, was ``predicted'' by Mc Leod. The core concept here is that certain sites generate signals detectable by non-technologic societies, which seem to incorporate them into their world-views that include aspects of applied, practical physics. Keitan: A God, and Katahdin: Cathar stronghold, mountains in Maine, Iquitos: Island of the Cathars, is in Peru, reachable by sea-going vessels. Quito: Cathar, is in Ecuador. Caqueta: Church of the Cathar, is a tributary of the Amazon from Columbia. Chitto: Cathar, Qatar: Cathar. Is it even possible that Nepal's Katmandu, as Cathar doctor monk and Willimantic, doctor applied physicist at The God Spirit-signal, EMF, define similar individuals? What were the reasons why so many disparate groups, at different times, selected place-names or ``titles'' that have implicit, historic significance, involving natural phenomena?

  20. Deep burial dolomitization driven by plate collision: Evidence from strontium-isotopes of Jurassic Arab IV dolomites from offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Vahrenkamp, V.C.; Taylor, S.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The use of strontium-isotope ratios of dolomites to constrain timing and mechanism of diagenesis has been investigated on Jurassic Arab IV dolomites from offshore Qatar. Reservoir quality is determined by two types of dolomites, which were differentiated geochemically (cathodoluminescence, fluid inclusions, and carbon and oxygen stable isotopes): (1) stratigraphically concordant sucrosic dolomites with high porosity formed during early near-surface diagenesis (Jurassic) and (2) stratigraphically discordant cylindrical bodies of massive, porosity-destroying dolomites formed late during deep burial diagenesis (Eocene-Pliocene). Detailed Sr-isotope analysis of dolomites from the Arab IV confirms an Early Jurassic age of the sucrosic, high porosity dolomites ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}SR = 0.70707 for NBS 987 = 0.71024) with magnesium and strontium being derived from Jurassic seawater. Late Tertiary compressional orogeny of the Zagros belt to the north is proposed to have caused large-scale squeezing of fluids from the pore system of sedimentary rocks. A regional deep fluid flow system developed dissolving infra-Cambrian evaporites upflow and causing large-scale deep burial dolomitization downflow.

  1. Using game theory approach to interpret stable policies for Iran's oil and gas common resources conflicts with Iraq and Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Bahrini, Aram; Shayanrad, Sepideh

    2015-08-01

    Oil and gas as the non-renewable resources are considered very valuable for the countries with petroleum economics. These resources are not only diffused equally around the world, but also they are common in some places which their neighbors often come into conflicts. Consequently, it is vital for those countries to manage their resource utilization. Lately, game theory was applied in conflict resolution of common resources, such as water, which is a proof of its efficacy and capability. This paper models the conflicts between Iran and its neighbors namely Qatar and Iraq between their oil and gas common resources using game theory approach. In other words, the future of these countries will be introduced and analyzed by some well-known 2 × 2 games to achieve a better perspective of their conflicts. Because of information inadequacy of the players, in addition to Nash Stability, various solution concepts are used based on the foresight, disimprovements, and knowledge of preferences. The results of mathematical models show how the countries could take a reasonable strategy to exploit their common resources.

  2. Phytoplankton along the coastal shelf of an oligotrophic hypersaline environment in a semi-enclosed marginal sea: Qatar (Arabian Gulf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigg, Antonietta; Al-Ansi, Mohsin; Al Din, Nehad Nour; Wei, Chih-Lin; Nunnally, Clifton C.; Al-Ansari, Ibrahim S.; Rowe, Gilbert T.; Soliman, Yousria; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Mahmoud, Ismail; Youssef, Nabiha; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.

    2013-06-01

    Phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a concentration), primary production, abundance, species diversity and species groupings were measured in the coastal waters surrounding Qatar (Arabian Gulf) at 13 stations in February 2010, July 2010, February 2011 and May 2011. In addition, a broad suite of physico-chemical characteristics were measured: temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and nutrients (dissolved and particulate). Waters surrounding the Qatari peninsula were found to be highly diverse (125 species of diatoms, dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria were identified) but were low in both biomass (0.18-2.19 μg Chl a l-1) and productivity (0.14-0.97 mg C m-2 day-1). Phytoplankton physiology (Fv/Fm, σPSII, τQa, p) revealed acclimation strategies consistent with phytoplankton populations receiving ample light but insufficient nutrients. The finding of low primary production is consistent with water column nutrient ratios (DIN:P and DIN:Si ratios<1) and nutrient enrichment experiments in which the addition of nitrate or the addition of near-bottom waters stimulated biomass production of phytoplankton. This study in an oligotrophic, hypersaline semi-enclosed marginal sea is intended to contribute to the growing body of ecological information on this ecosystem functions.

  3. International note: exploring differences in native and immigrant adolescents' mathematics achievement and dispositions towards mathematics in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Melkonian, Michael; Khine, Myint Swe

    2015-04-01

    The burgeoning immigrant population in major immigrant-receiving countries in North America and Europe has necessitated researchers and policymakers in these countries to examine the academic success of children of immigration and the factors contributing to their academic success. However, there is sparse research on the academic trajectories of children of immigration in other continents, such as Asia. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to examine first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents' mathematics achievement and dispositions towards mathematics in comparison to their native peers in one of the Middle Eastern countries in Asia, Qatar. The results of the study indicated that both first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents tended to have higher mathematics achievement, intrinsic motivation to learn mathematics, instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematics self-concept than did their native counterparts. Moreover, immigrant adolescents tended to have lower mathematics anxiety than did their native peers. The study also revealed significant differences between first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents with respect to their mathematics achievement and dispositions towards mathematics.

  4. Demographic change in the Arab world: the impact of migration, education and taxes in Egypt and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Courbage, Y

    1994-01-01

    The populations of Egypt and Morocco have grown since the beginning of the century from approximately 10 to 57 million and less than 5 to 25.5 million, respectively. Egypt and Morocco are two of the most populous Arab countries. After a long period of demographic growth, they adopted less pronatalist legislation and implemented family planning programs starting in the 1960s. Egypt's rate of total fertility (TFR) at that time was 6.7 children per woman, lower than most of the Arab world and lower than Morocco's 7.2. Egypt's fertility since then, however, has remained at 5-6, only dropping below 5 in 1989. TFR in Morocco increased to 7.4 in 1973, declined to 5.9 over the period 1973-77, and fell below 4 in 1989. The author questions why the goals of fertility control programs have not been reached in Egypt, yet have been surpassed in Morocco. Available data on contraceptive prevalence and breastfeeding practices would predict the opposite to be the case. 35.9% used birth control methods in Morocco in 1987 and 37.8% in Egypt in 1988. 6.9%, however, used less effective traditional methods in Morocco compared to only 2.4% who used such methods in Egypt. Egyptian women breastfeed their babies for 17.3 months compared to 14.4 months among Moroccan women, while between the ages 20-24, 60% of Egyptian women are married compared to 45% of women in Morocco. Moroccan and Egyptian families resist traditional explanations of demographic transition. It is concluded that although educational status affects fertility in the Maghrib and Mashriq, greater female labor force participation, state-citizen fiscal relations, and foreign migration play major determining roles.

  5. [Management of wastes from dental amalgam by dentists in Burkina Faso and Morocco].

    PubMed

    Chala, S; Sawadogo, A; Sakout, M; Abdallaoui, F

    2012-12-01

    Dental amalgam is a metallic restorative material that is used for direct filling of carious lesions since many years. The use of this material generates solid and particulate wastes that present potential challenges to the environment. This study was carried out to assess amalgam use and waste management protocols practiced by Moroccan and Burkinabe dentists. A cross-sectional study was made of 79 in Rabat, Sale and Temara in Morocco and 56 in Ouagadougou, Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina-Faso. The results showed that 69.5% of dental amalgam waste in Morocco vs 49.9% in Burkina-Faso was disposed with household waste which is a problem for both the environment and a risk to human being. Proper methods of dental amalgam waste disposal should be carried out to prevent indirect mercury poisoning for human.

  6. Two chaotic global models for cereal crops cycles observed from satellite in northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain; Drapeau, Laurent; Letellier, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The dynamics underlying cereal crops in the northern region of Morocco is investigated using a global modelling technique applied to a vegetation index time series derived from satellite measurements, namely, the normalized difference vegetation index from 1982 to 2008. Two three-dimensional chaotic global models of reduced size (14-term and 15-term models) are obtained. The model validation is performed by comparing their horizons of predictability with those provided in previous studies. The attractors produced by the two global models have a complex foliated structure—evidenced in a Poincaré section—rending a topological characterization difficult to perform. Thus, the Kaplan-Yorke dimension is estimated from the synthetic data produced by our global models. Our results suggest that cereal crops in the northern Morocco are governed by a weakly dissipative three-dimensional chaotic dynamics.

  7. Creating Neoliberal Citizens in Morocco: Reproductive Health, Development Policy, and Popular Islamic Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Hughes Rinker, Cortney

    2015-01-01

    Self-governance and responsibility are two traits associated with neoliberal citizenship in scholarly and popular discourses, but little of the literature on this topic focuses on North Africa. My goal, in this article, is not only to fill this void but also to complicate understandings of neoliberalism through an examination of the relationship between reproductive health care, development policy, and popular Islamic beliefs in Morocco. My discussion is based on fieldwork in Rabat, Morocco, which included observations in health clinics, interviews with patients and staff, and visits to patients' homes. By analyzing the childbearing and childrearing practices of Moroccan women who visited the clinics, I pose that neoliberal logic cannot be predefined or understood as a monolithic concept. I demonstrate that women were active in their own governance and accountable for their reproductive behaviors, but they did so because of their understandings of what Islam says about fertility and motherhood.

  8. Linderiella jebalae sp. nov. (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca), a new species from the Rif mountains (northern Morocco).

    PubMed

    Boix, Dani; Sala, Jordi; Escoriza, Daniel; Alonso, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A new species of fairy shrimp, Linderiella jebalae sp. nov., was found in temporary ponds located in the Rif region of northern Morocco. Morphological characters of females, such as the basal long warty outgrowth of the antennae, the highly developed cuticular papillae in the second genital segment, and the presence of a keel-shaped process directed posteriorly in dorsal side of the brood pouch, clearly distinguish this species from the others of the genus. In the case of males, the basiomedial antennal outgrowth and the distal segment of the antenna are diagnostic features for the species. Cyst ornamentation, characterized by thick, blunt and sometimes truncated spines, also separate this species. This is the fourth known Palaearctic Linderiella species, all of them described recently (from 1980s onwards) and located in a restricted area, from south-eastern France to Iberian Peninsula and Morocco. PMID:27470776

  9. Meteorological Patterns and Fog Water in the Canary Islands and Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzol, M. V.; Sanchez Megía, J. L.; Yanes, A.; Bargach, J.; Derhem, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Stratocumulus cloud formation is very common in the Canary Islands (Spain) and on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. This cloud formation behaves as if it was fog when it comes into contact with the relief and its liquid content can be captured by artificial systems. The origin of this cloud formation is connected with the Azores anti-cyclone and with the anomalous structure of the low layers of the atmosphere caused by a subsidence thermal inversion. The aim of this article is to define a pattern of the most favourable meteorological and atmospheric conditions for this cloud formation to appear. In order to do this, a database has been compiled with the information about the days on which water has been collected in Morocco since June, 2006. This was when the collaboration with the Si Hmad Derhem Foundation (Casablanca) began. As well as meteorological data and data on water quantities, weather maps, thermodynamic soundings and satellite images are also analysed. The following two sites were studied: Anaga, on the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, 864 m a.s.l. and 4 km from the coast, and Boutmezguida, Morocco, 1,225 m a.s.l. and 30 km from the coast. The research was conducted in three stages. The first stage consisted of looking for the most appropriate sites to obtain the greatest efficiency in fog water collection; the Standard Fog Collector (SFC, Schemenauer and Cereceda, 1994) was used for this purpose. The second stage consisted of studying the most favourable meteorological conditions for water collection where the Quarter Fog Collector (QFC, Marzol, 2002) connected to an automatic weather station providing information on temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction and the amount of water collected on the netting every ten minutes was used to do this. The aim of the third stage, which was by nature an applied stage, was to construct large-sized fog collectors (Large Fog Collector, LFC) so that the water collected could be put to

  10. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) RNA and neutralising antibodies in milk collected according to local customs from dromedary camels, Qatar, April 2014.

    PubMed

    Reusken, C B; Farag, E A; Jonges, M; Godeke, G J; El-Sayed, A M; Pas, S D; Raj, V S; Mohran, K A; Moussa, H A; Ghobashy, H; Alhajri, F; Ibrahim, A K; Bosch, B J; Pasha, S K; Al-Romaihi, H E; Al-Thani, M; Al-Marri, S A; AlHajri, M M; Haagmans, B L; Koopmans, M P

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were detected in serum and milk collected according to local customs from 33 camels in Qatar, April 2014. At one location, evidence for active virus shedding in nasal secretions and/or faeces was observed for 7/12 camels; viral RNA was detected in milk of five of these seven camels. The presence of MERS-CoV RNA in milk of camels actively shedding the virus warrants measures to prevent putative food-borne transmission of MERS-CoV.

  11. Is Adherence to Imatinib Mesylate Treatment Among Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Associated with Better Clinical Outcomes in Qatar?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dewik, Nader I.; Morsi, Hisham M.; Samara, Muthanna M.; Ghasoub, Rola S.; Gnanam, Cinquea C.; Bhaskaran, Subi K.; Nashwan, Abdulqadir J.; Al-Jurf, Rana M.; Ismail, Mohamed A.; AlSharshani, Mohammed M.; AlSayab, Ali A.; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg I.; Khatib, Rani B.; Yassin, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    believed that IM would cure the disease. The MPR results reveal that 16% of patients had poor access to treatment through the hospital pharmacy. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION This is the first prospective study to evaluate CML patients’ adherence and response to IM in Qatar. The high rate of treatment failure observed in Qatar is explained by poor adherence. An economic factor (unaffordable drug prices) is one of the main causes of nonadherence and efforts should be made locally to improve access to medication for cancer diseases. Other risk factors associated with poor adherence could be improved by close monitoring and dose adjustment. Monitoring risk factors for poor adherence and patient education that include direct communication between the health-care teams, doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and patients are essential components for maximizing the benefits of TKI therapy and could rectify this problem. The preliminary results show that patients’ response to treatment may be directly linked to patients’ adherence to treatment. However, further in-depth and specific analysis may be necessary in a larger cohort. PMID:27721664

  12. Bartonella clarridgeiae, B. henselae and Rickettsia felis in fleas from Morocco

    PubMed Central

    BOUDEBOUCH, N; SARIH, M; BEAUCOURNU, J-C; AMAROUCH, H; HASSAR, M; RAOULT, D; PAROLA, P

    2011-01-01

    A total of 554 fleas were collected in the Moroccan Casablanca and Tiznit regions from domesticated animals and ruminants between August 2007 and October 2008 and were tested for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. using molecular methods. For the first time in Morocco, we found Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever in Ctenocephalides felis; B. henselae, an agent of cat scratch disease; and Bartonella clarridgeiae, a cat pathogen and potentially a human pathogen. PMID:22185943

  13. Antibiotic resistance determinants and genetic analysis of Salmonella enterica isolated from food in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Manuela; Bouchrif, Brahim; Timinouni, Mohammed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Cappuccinelli, Pietro; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-12-23

    Antimicrobial-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are an important cause of infection in Africa, but there is a lack of information on their molecular mechanisms of resistance and epidemiology. This study contributes to fill this gap through the characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), plasmid profiling and analysis of antibiotic-resistance determinants of 94 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from food in Morocco. PFGE revealed considerable heterogeneity among the strains, showing 32 pulsotypes. MLST of strains representative of the different serovars evidenced 13 sequence types (STs), three of which were newly identified (ST1694, ST1768 and ST1818) and nine not previously reported in Morocco. Thirty-four strains harbored from one to four plasmids, of IncI1 group in S. Mbandaka, IncFIIA in S. Typhimurium, IncL/M in S. Hadar and S. Blockley. For the first time in Morocco an intact Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1) carrying the resistance genes aadA2, floR, tetG, blaPSE-1 and sul1 was detected in S. Typhimurium DT104. In serovar Hadar resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin was associated to blaTEM-1, tetA and strA genes respectively, whereas one mutation in gyrA (Asp87Asn) and one in parC (Thr54Ser) genes conferred resistance to nalidixic acid. These findings improve the information on foodborne Salmonella in Morocco, evidencing the presence of MDR strains potentially dangerous to humans, and provide useful data for future studies. PMID:26325598

  14. On the reintroduction of the Mhorr gazelle in Tunisia and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, H; Müller, P

    1998-11-01

    The Mhorr gazelle (Gazella dama mhorr) became extinct in the wild in the 1960s. The current world zoo population amounts to some 240 animals, going back to only 12 founders. In a cooperate international operation Mhorr gazelles of European zoo populations were successfully reintroduced to national parks and nature reserves in Morocco and Tunisia in the years 1990/1992. The genetical and ecological prerequisites as well as the breeding aspects are discussed.

  15. Imaging Canary Island hotspot material beneath the lithosphere of Morocco and southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Meghan S.; O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Butcher, Amber J.; Thomas, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean has developed into its present day tectonic configuration as a result of complex interactions between late stage subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, continental collision of Africa and Eurasia, and the Canary Island mantle plume. This study utilizes S receiver functions (SRFs) from over 360 broadband seismic stations to seismically image the lithosphere and uppermost mantle from southern Spain through Morocco and the Canary Islands. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ∼65 km beneath the Atlas Mountains and the active volcanic islands to over ∼210 km beneath the cratonic lithosphere in southern Morocco. The common conversion point (CCP) volume of the SRFs indicates that thinned lithosphere extends from beneath the Canary Islands offshore southwestern Morocco, to beneath the continental lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains, and then thickens abruptly at the West African craton. Beneath thin lithosphere between the Canary hot spot and southern Spain, including below the Atlas Mountains and the Alboran Sea, there are distinct pockets of low velocity material, as inferred from high amplitude positive, sub-lithospheric conversions in the SRFs. These regions of low seismic velocity at the base of the lithosphere extend beneath the areas of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism, which has been linked to a Canary hotspot source via geochemical signatures. However, we find that this volume of low velocity material is discontinuous along strike and occurs only in areas of recent volcanism and where asthenospheric mantle flow is identified with shear wave splitting analyses. We propose that the low velocity structure beneath the lithosphere is material flowing sub-horizontally northeastwards beneath Morocco from the tilted Canary Island plume, and the small, localized volcanoes are the result of small-scale upwellings from this material.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain ET76, Isolated from Rice Rhizosphere in Northwestern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Aarab, Saida; Arakrak, Abdelhay; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Megías, Manuel; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens ET76 was isolated from rice rhizosphere in northwestern Morocco. Its draft genome was estimated to be 6,681,652 bp with 5,789 coding sequences (CDSs). Genes encoding for type I to VI secretion systems, PvdQ, proteases, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide synthase, ACC-deaminase, among others, highlight its potential use in biological control of plant pathogens. PMID:27198014

  17. Genome Sequence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Isolated from Morocco in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, J.; Gray, A.; Abouchoaib, N.; King, D. P.; Knowles, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    The genome of a virus isolated from an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Morocco in 2015 is described here. This virus is classified as lineage Ind-2001d within serotype O, topotype ME-SA (Middle East-South Asia). This lineage is endemic on the Indian subcontinent but has caused outbreaks in the Middle East and North Africa since 2013. PMID:27103736

  18. On the reintroduction of the Mhorr gazelle in Tunisia and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, H; Müller, P

    1998-11-01

    The Mhorr gazelle (Gazella dama mhorr) became extinct in the wild in the 1960s. The current world zoo population amounts to some 240 animals, going back to only 12 founders. In a cooperate international operation Mhorr gazelles of European zoo populations were successfully reintroduced to national parks and nature reserves in Morocco and Tunisia in the years 1990/1992. The genetical and ecological prerequisites as well as the breeding aspects are discussed. PMID:9853318

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain ET76, Isolated from Rice Rhizosphere in Northwestern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Aarab, Saida; Arakrak, Abdelhay; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Megías, Manuel; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens ET76 was isolated from rice rhizosphere in northwestern Morocco. Its draft genome was estimated to be 6,681,652 bp with 5,789 coding sequences (CDSs). Genes encoding for type I to VI secretion systems, PvdQ, proteases, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide synthase, ACC-deaminase, among others, highlight its potential use in biological control of plant pathogens. PMID:27198014

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain ET76, Isolated from Rice Rhizosphere in Northwestern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Aarab, Saida; Arakrak, Abdelhay; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Megías, Manuel; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-05-19

    Pseudomonas fluorescens ET76 was isolated from rice rhizosphere in northwestern Morocco. Its draft genome was estimated to be 6,681,652 bp with 5,789 coding sequences (CDSs). Genes encoding for type I to VI secretion systems, PvdQ, proteases, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide synthase, ACC-deaminase, among others, highlight its potential use in biological control of plant pathogens.

  1. Antibiotic resistance determinants and genetic analysis of Salmonella enterica isolated from food in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Manuela; Bouchrif, Brahim; Timinouni, Mohammed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Cappuccinelli, Pietro; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-12-23

    Antimicrobial-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are an important cause of infection in Africa, but there is a lack of information on their molecular mechanisms of resistance and epidemiology. This study contributes to fill this gap through the characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), plasmid profiling and analysis of antibiotic-resistance determinants of 94 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from food in Morocco. PFGE revealed considerable heterogeneity among the strains, showing 32 pulsotypes. MLST of strains representative of the different serovars evidenced 13 sequence types (STs), three of which were newly identified (ST1694, ST1768 and ST1818) and nine not previously reported in Morocco. Thirty-four strains harbored from one to four plasmids, of IncI1 group in S. Mbandaka, IncFIIA in S. Typhimurium, IncL/M in S. Hadar and S. Blockley. For the first time in Morocco an intact Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1) carrying the resistance genes aadA2, floR, tetG, blaPSE-1 and sul1 was detected in S. Typhimurium DT104. In serovar Hadar resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin was associated to blaTEM-1, tetA and strA genes respectively, whereas one mutation in gyrA (Asp87Asn) and one in parC (Thr54Ser) genes conferred resistance to nalidixic acid. These findings improve the information on foodborne Salmonella in Morocco, evidencing the presence of MDR strains potentially dangerous to humans, and provide useful data for future studies.

  2. American equipment and technology can help satisfy demand for water: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.A.

    1982-09-06

    The transfer of US equipment and technology to help North African and Middle East countries develop their water resources must include nonconventional technologies to help them augment existing water supplies. Water development in Morocco, Algeria, and Egypt to meet irrigation, sanitation, and economic development needs presents opportunities to US exporters and investors. This article summarizes the projects and needs in each of the three countries. (DCK)

  3. Mood disturbance and depression in Arab women following hospitalisation from acute cardiac conditions: a cross-sectional study from Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim Mohd; Al-Qahtani, Awad; Asaad, Nidal; Fung, Tak; Singh, Rajvir; Qader, Najlaa Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Depression is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates among cardiovascular patients. Depressed patients have three times higher risk of death than those who are not. We sought to determine the presence of depressive symptoms, and whether gender and age are associated with depression among Arab patients hospitalised with cardiac conditions in a Middle Eastern country. Setting Using a non-probability convenient sampling technique, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1000 Arab patients ≥20 years who were admitted to cardiology units between 2013 and 2014 at the Heart Hospital in Qatar. Patients were interviewed 3 days after admission following the cardiac event. Surveys included demographic and clinical characteristics, and the Arabic version of the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II). Depression was assessed by BDI-II clinical classification scale. Results 15% of the patients had mild mood disturbance and 5% had symptoms of clinical depression. Twice as many females than males suffered from mild mood disturbance and clinical depression symptoms, the majority of females were in the age group 50 years and above, whereas males were in the age group 40–49 years. χ2 Tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that gender and age were statistically significantly related to depression (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions Older Arab women are more likely to develop mood disturbance and depression after being hospitalised with acute cardiac condition. Gender and age differences approach, and routine screening for depression should be conducted with all cardiovascular patients, especially for females in the older age groups. Mental health counselling should be available for all cardiovascular patients who exhibit depressive symptoms. PMID:27388362

  4. Determination of benzo(a)pyrene by GC/MS/MS in retail olive oil samples available in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Abdulkadar, A H W; Kunhi, A A M; Jassim, Al-Jedah; Abdulla, Al-Ali

    2003-12-01

    A survey was carried out for the presence of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) in olive oils following reports that some batches of Spanish olive-pomace oil and its products contained high levels of B(a)P. Three types of olive oils (1) virgin olive oil, (2) refined olive oil and (3) olive-pomace oil, originating from France, Greece, Italy, the Lebanon, Spain, Tunisia and Turkey, and available on Qatar market, were analysed for B(a)P. Determination was carried out by extraction from a cyclohexane solution with N,N-dimethylformamide: water (9:1), back extraction with cyclohexane, followed by clean-up on a silica gel column and quantification by GC/MS/MS. The recovery and limit of quantitation of B(a)P in olive oils by this method were estimated as 88% and 0.5 microg kg(-1), respectively. B(a)P was detected in amounts below the permitted level of 2 microg kg(-1) in all 31 virgin olive oil samples and in 13 refined olive oil samples. However, all seven samples of Spanish olive-pomace oil produced and packed in Spain and three samples of olive-pomace oil produced in Spain, but packed in Saudi Arabia, were found to be contaminated with B(a)P, the level ranging from 3.1 to 70.8 microg kg(-1). In two samples of olive-pomace oil originating from Greece, B(a)P was not detected. PMID:14726280

  5. Reexamination of the relationship between the prevalence of hepatitis C virus and parenteral antischistosomal therapy among Egyptians resident in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Derbala, Moutaz; Chandra, Prem; Amer, Aliaa; John, Anil; Sharma, Manik; Amin, Ashraf; Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Faris, Amr

    2014-01-01

    Egypt has the highest prevalence of recorded hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide, estimated nationally at 14.7%, which is attributed to extensive iatrogenic transmission during the era of parenteral antischistosomal therapy (PAT) mass-treatment campaigns. The objective of our study was to attempt to highlight to what extent HCV transmission is ongoing and discuss the possible risk factors. We studied the prevalence of HCV among 7.8% of Egyptians resident in Qatar in relation to age, socioeconomic status, and PAT and discuss the possible risk factors. HCV testing was conducted in 2,335 participants, and results were positive for 13.5%, and 8.5% for those aged below 35 years. The prevalence of HCV in the PAT-positive population was 23.7% (123 of 518, 95% confidence interval [CI] 20.2%–27.6%) compared with 11.2% in the PAT-negative group. Significantly higher HCV prevalence occurred in participants who were older than 50 years (23%, 95% CI 19.3%–27.1%) compared to those aged 45–50 years (19.3%, 95% CI 15.2%–23.8%), 35–45 years (11.1%, 95% CI 8.9%–13.7%), and less than 35 years (8.5%, 95% CI 6.8%–10.4%) (P<0.0001). Insignificant higher prevalence occurred in the low socioeconomic group (14.2%, 95% CI 11.3%–17.4%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that increasing age, history of PAT, bilharziasis, and praziquantel were common risk factors, but there was no relation with dental care. Host genetic predisposition seems to be a plausible underlying factor for susceptibility among Egyptians and intense ongoing infection. PMID:25395869

  6. Detection of strobilurin-resistant isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Elbekali, A Y; Ramdani, A; Siah, A; Tisserant, B; Deweer, C; Hafidi, M; Reignault, P; Halama, P

    2011-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Septoria tritici) is nowadays one of the most frequently occurring diseases on both bread and durum wheat crops. Two hundred and thirty isolates of the fungus were sampled from six distinct wheat-producing regions of Morocco in order to investigate the resistance of M. graminicola to strobilurins in this country, where this fungicide class is increasingly used in wheat-pest management. A subset of 134 isolates was first collected in 2008 from Meknes-Tafilalet, Tadla-Azilal, Gharb and Chaouia. Furthermore, 96 additional isolates were sampled in 2010 from the fourth regions investigated in 2008 plus Fes-Boulmane and Doukkala-Abda. Sensitivity or resistance within the isolates were determined by screening the G143A cytochrome b substitution conferring resistance. We used a mismatch amplification mutation assay allowing the amplification of either G143 (sensitive) or A143 (resistant) allele. All the 2008 isolates were found to be sensitive since they carry the wild-type allele G143. However, 9 (9%) out of the 2010 isolates were found to contain the resistant allele A143 and therefore to be resistant. Four of them were from Gharb and five from Fes-Boulmane. This study highlighted for the first time the occurrence of strobilurin-resistant isolates of M. graminicola in Morocco. Further genetic investigations should determine if the resistant isolates emerged independently in Morocco or traveled by wind-migration from Europe. PMID:22702191

  7. Prerif-Rharb area of Morocco may be new hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Pratsch, J.C.

    1995-12-04

    Of the 12 or more sedimentary basins in Morocco, only three contain or have contained oil and gas production: the onshore Essaouira, Rharb, and Prerif basins. Large quantities of heavy oil and some light oil in place were also found in the Atlantic Tarfaya basin off Southwest Morocco, but these have been classified as noncommercial. Oil production has been established on the south flank of the Prerif foreland basin east of the Rharb basin; this production is now shut-in, as is gas and oil production in the Essaouria basin. As a result, no oil production exists today in Morocco, and only minor gas production and reserves in Neogene reservoirs exist in the Rharb basin. This situation is somewhat puzzling because thick, attractive sediments containing potential oil source beds, reservoirs, and traps are present in many of the basins, and oil and gas shows were present in many exploration wells across the country. The authors summarize here the known petroleum-geological parameters of the Prerif basin with the hope of raising some general exploration interest in this attractive new play region.

  8. Mapping Malaria Transmission Risk in Northern Morocco Using Entomological and Environmental Data

    PubMed Central

    Adlaoui, E.; Faraj, C.; El Bouhmi, M.; El Aboudi, A.; Ouahabi, S.; Tran, A.; Fontenille, D.; El Aouad, R.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria resurgence risk in Morocco depends, among other factors, on environmental changes as well as the introduction of parasite carriers. The aim of this paper is to analyze the receptivity of the Loukkos area, large wetlands in Northern Morocco, to quantify and to map malaria transmission risk in this region using biological and environmental data. This risk was assessed on entomological risk basis and was mapped using environmental markers derived from satellite imagery. Maps showing spatial and temporal variations of entomological risk for Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum were produced. Results showed this risk to be highly seasonal and much higher in rice fields than in swamps. This risk is lower for Afrotropical P. falciparum strains because of the low infectivity of Anopheles labranchiae, principal malaria vector in Morocco. However, it is very high for P. vivax mainly during summer corresponding to the rice cultivation period. Although the entomological risk is high in Loukkos region, malaria resurgence risk remains very low, because of the low vulnerability of the area. PMID:22312566

  9. [Scorpion envenomation in Morocco: scorpions of the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota].

    PubMed

    Aboumaâd, B; Iba, N; Dersi, N

    2014-02-01

    Around the world and especially in summer, the scorpion envenomation is a real public health problem. In Morocco, its gravity is due to the diversity of genera of the Buthidae family whose their venom is potentially lethal, mainly the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota. The areas most affected by this problematic are the central and southern of Morocco. The lethality of scorpion's venom primarily affects children. It is rich in neurotoxic polypeptides that have targeted ion channel membrane Na(+), K(+) activated or not by Ca(++). The toxins polymorphism causes pathophysiological disorders. The diversity of symptomatic treatment in the absence of immunotherapy is due to variability in clinical pictures, which depends on the species involved and the patient at risk. The objective of this review is to highlight the magnitude of the scorpion envenomation by describing its epidemiological characteristics, elucidate the pathophysiological effects of the venom of the most dangerous scorpions in Morocco the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota, and their therapeutic treatment. PMID:24402964

  10. Genetic testing and genomic analysis: a debate on ethical, social and legal issues in the Arab world with a focus on Qatar.

    PubMed

    El Shanti, Hatem; Chouchane, Lotfi; Badii, Ramin; Gallouzi, Imed Eddine; Gasparini, Paolo

    2015-11-14

    In 2013 both Saudi Arabia and Qatar launched genome projects with the aim of providing information for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and, ultimately to realize personalized medicine by sequencing hundred thousands samples. These population based genome activities raise a series of relevant ethical, legal and social issues general, related to the specific population structure as well as to the Islamic perspective on genomic analysis and genetic testing. To contribute to the debate, the Authors after reviewing the existing literature and taking advantage of their professional experience in the field and in the geographic area, discuss and provide their opinions. In particular, the Authors focus on the impact of consanguinity on population structure and disease frequency in the Arab world, on genetic testing and genomic analysis (i.e. technical aspects, impact, etc.) and on their regulations. A comparison between the Islamic perspective and the ethical, social and legal issues raised in other population contexts is also carried. In conclusion, this opinion article with an up-to-date contribution to the discussion on the relevance and impact of genomic analysis and genetic testing in the Arab world, might help in producing specific national guidelines on genetic testing and genomic analysis and help accelerate the implementation and roll out of genome projects in Muslim countries and more specifically in Qatar, and other countries of the Gulf.

  11. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  12. Assessment of learning and study strategies of university students in Qatar using an Arabic translation of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory.

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Nasser, Ramzi

    2014-06-01

    413 (119 men, 294 women) undergraduate university students in Qatar completed an Arabic version of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) measuring Anxiety, Attitude, Concentration, Information Processing, Motivation, Self-testing, Selecting Main Ideas, Study Aids, Time Management, and Test Strategies. The students' learning and study strategies scores were similar to those reported in the literature. Factor analysis indicated the same general factors as in the original study. Internal consistency estimates ranged from .62 to .88. Nine of the 10 scales (i.e., all with the exception of the Study Aids) significantly correlated with students' GPAs. Scores obtained from these scales provide valid assessments of Qatar University students' use of learning and study strategies related to skill, will, and self-regulation components of strategic learning and also academic achievement. There also were statistically significant differences between higher and lower achieving students in their learning and study strategies. This study also explored the use of the LASSI as a predictive measure of academic achievement. Anxiety and test strategies were significant predictors of academic achievement as measured by students' GPA. PMID:25074313

  13. Assessment of learning and study strategies of university students in Qatar using an Arabic translation of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory.

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Nasser, Ramzi

    2014-06-01

    413 (119 men, 294 women) undergraduate university students in Qatar completed an Arabic version of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) measuring Anxiety, Attitude, Concentration, Information Processing, Motivation, Self-testing, Selecting Main Ideas, Study Aids, Time Management, and Test Strategies. The students' learning and study strategies scores were similar to those reported in the literature. Factor analysis indicated the same general factors as in the original study. Internal consistency estimates ranged from .62 to .88. Nine of the 10 scales (i.e., all with the exception of the Study Aids) significantly correlated with students' GPAs. Scores obtained from these scales provide valid assessments of Qatar University students' use of learning and study strategies related to skill, will, and self-regulation components of strategic learning and also academic achievement. There also were statistically significant differences between higher and lower achieving students in their learning and study strategies. This study also explored the use of the LASSI as a predictive measure of academic achievement. Anxiety and test strategies were significant predictors of academic achievement as measured by students' GPA.

  14. Identification of 5’ capped structure and 3’ terminal sequence of hepatitis E virus isolated from Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo-Bing; Meng, Ji-Hong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine 5’ and 3’ terminal sequences of hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolated from Morocco, to confirm 5’ methylated cap structure of the genome, and to investigate whether the 3’ UTR can be used to distinguish HEV genotypes instead of HEV complete genome sequence. METHODS: RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) was employed to obtain the 5’ and 3’ terminal sequences of HEV Morocco strain. The 3’ UTR sequence of the Morocco strain was compared with that of the other 29 HEV strains using the DNAStar software. RESULTS: The 5’ PCR product was obtained only from the RLM-RACE based on the capped RNA template. The 5’ UTR of the Morocco strain had 26 nucleotides, and the 3’ UTR had 65 nucleotides upstream to the polyA. The 5’ UTR between HEV strains had only point mutations of nucleotides. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 3’ UTR was not the same as that based on the complete sequences. CONCLUSION: The genome of HEV Morocco strain was methylated cap structure. The 3’ terminal sequence can not be used for distinguishing HEV genotype for all HEV strains in place of the whole HEV genome sequence. PMID:15237431

  15. De la dualite a la complementaire: Le cas du bilingualisme au Maroc (From Duality to Complementarity: The Case of Bilingualism in Morocco).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redouane, Rabia

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the case of bilingualism in Morocco, a territory where a large variety of languages intersect, including French, Arabic, and Tamazight. The contact of cultures articulated through these languages allows Morocco to assign value to bilingualism that is not perceived as rivalry but as complementing the development of modern cosmopolitan…

  16. Misoprostol use in medical evacuation of spontaneous miscarriage: Pilot drug use evaluation study at the Women's Hospital in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    ElSalem, Samah A.; AlSaad, Doua T.; Abdulrouf, Palli V.; Ahmed, Afif A.; AlHail, Moza S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 that induces cervical effacement and uterine contractions at all gestational ages, thus facilitating uterine evacuation and pregnancy termination. Successful medical evacuation of spontaneous miscarriage with minimal adverse effects can be performed using misoprostol-only regimen if given as indicated and if the administered dose, frequency of the dosage, and number of total doses are appropriate. Aim: To conduct a drug use evaluation by investigating indications, appropriateness of dosing, and clinical outcome of misoprostol-only regimen when used for medical evacuation of spontaneous miscarriage at the Women's Hospital in Doha, Qatar. Materials and methods: A retrospective descriptive drug use evaluation was conducted on women with spontaneous miscarriage who received misoprostol for medical evacuation during August 2013. The current practice at the Women's Hospital was compared with the recommendation from the World Health Organization (WHO). Patients were stratified into three groups based on weeks of amenorrhea. Results: A total of 107 patients received misoprostol during August 2013, of which 33 (31%) were included in the study. In these patients, the main indication for misoprostol use was missed miscarriage (54.5%). In the group of patients at ≤ 9 weeks of gestation, 80% received an initial dose of 800 μg, 80% received frequency within the WHO recommendation, and the majority had surgical evacuation (80%). In the group of patients at 10–12 weeks of gestation, more than 80% received an initial dose of 800 μg, 6% received frequency within the WHO recommendation, and more than 75% had successful medical evacuation. In the group of patients at 13–22 weeks of gestation, more than 80% received an initial dose of 400 μg, more than 80% received frequency within the WHO recommendation, and 54% had successful medical evacuation. Overall, more than 70% of the patients received ≤ 3 total doses of

  17. Reconstruction of precipitation in Morocco since 1100 A.D. Based on Cedrus atlantica tree-ring widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, Claudine; Guiot, Joël

    1990-05-01

    Annual (October through September) precipitation from 1100 A.D. to modern times is reconstructed for Morocco, using Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Carrière tree-ring chronologies. Both multiple regression on principal components and the bootstrap method are use to calibrate tree-ring width with precipitation; precipitation variation is reconstructed for three climatically distinct areas: the humid, subhumid, and arid regions of Morocco. A series of successive wet and dry periods is identified for the past 1000 years; the maximum length of the 13 dry periods (during which precipitation was at least 1σ below normal) is 6 years. Twenty-one years are identified during which precipitation fell more than 2σ below normal. We are unable to identify significant correspondence in climatic variation in Morocco, Europe, and the Sahel during this time period.

  18. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Schyns, Joep F.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5×5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996–2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco’s water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco’s national water strategy. PMID:24919194

  19. The "New Climate" New Atmospheric Events and "New Climate Risks": The case of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrouk, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Since the end of last century, qualified meteorological events of "exceptional" causing floods have ceased to occur in Morocco and elsewhere, with a recurrence increasingly high, prompting to wonder about the "new" mode of climate's hydrothermal functioning inducing torrential rains, as well as its effect on the environment and societies.The latest event is the disaster of November 2014 flooding in southern Morocco, which is due especially to the non usual rains return.Weather conditions were marked by enhanced Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC), characterized by persistent high temperatures during the autumn period in Morocco, mainly south of the Atlas, combined by the intrusion of a cold drop in the beginning of the event on 11.17.2014, and straightforward installation of a planetary valley across the Moroccan coast on 11.24.2014, which has evolved into storm (Xandra) in which depression has reached the surprising value of 975 hPa on 11.28.2014.Human and material damage caused by this flood are impressive: people died, roads, bridges and crops have been destroyed, overwhelmed dams. It has been a catastrophe.This event and others like it (Mohammedia 2002, Tangier 2008, Gharb 2009-2010, Casablanca 2010), must be considered as references for the simulation of future situations, and integration into development plans on future.This communication aims to identify the processes and conditions that have generated these events causing floods, the "exceptional" characteristics of recorded rainfall, the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Those floods affect the whole country, especially low areas, foothills and the mouths of rivers. There are the most vulnerable locations mainly on the autumn which is the most exposed to torrential rainfall season !! ... Etc.

  20. Linkages between common wheat yields and climate in Morocco (1982-2008).

    PubMed

    Jarlan, L; Abaoui, J; Duchemin, B; Ouldbba, A; Tourre, Y M; Khabba, S; Le Page, M; Balaghi, R; Mokssit, A; Chehbouni, G

    2014-09-01

    In Morocco, wheat production shows a high inter-annual variability due to uncertain rainfall. In view of the importance of this resource to the country's economy, it is important to gain a better understanding of the natural large-scale climate oscillation governing this variability. In this study, we analyzed de-trended (1) time series of common wheat yields (1983-2008) from 11 agricultural provinces that account for 80% of national wheat production; (2) monthly rainfall and 10-day temperature from ten meteorological stations; (3) 10-day normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the AVHRR sensor; (4) monthly atmospheric climate indices [North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Scandinavian Pattern (SCA)] and monthly 500 hPa geopotentials fields; and (5) monthly sea surface temperature (SST) fields and indices (NIÑO3, Tropical North Atlantic and Tropical South Atlantic). The relationship between rainfall and temperature during tillering in early winter and grain filling in early spring and wheat yields already observed at the plot scale was also found to be significant at the provincial scale. The linkages between wheat yields and large scale climate have been analyzed for the first time over Morocco. In agreement with previous studies, results show a complex and competing influence of different climate phenomena. The NAO is found to be significantly related to yields during the early stage of wheat growth in December, whereas the SCA correlates with yields later in the season, in January and February. Interesting lagged correlations with higher lead time are also highlighted, with the leading modes of SST variability in the equatorial Atlantic during October (the "Atlantic Niño" mode) and in the North Atlantic (the "Atlantic tripole" mode) in February. Our conclusion is that regional climate indices and variables represent valuable information with which to increase lead time and skill regarding wheat yield predictions in Morocco.

  1. Linkages between common wheat yields and climate in Morocco (1982-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarlan, L.; Abaoui, J.; Duchemin, B.; Ouldbba, A.; Tourre, Y. M.; Khabba, S.; Le Page, M.; Balaghi, R.; Mokssit, A.; Chehbouni, G.

    2014-09-01

    In Morocco, wheat production shows a high inter-annual variability due to uncertain rainfall. In view of the importance of this resource to the country's economy, it is important to gain a better understanding of the natural large-scale climate oscillation governing this variability. In this study, we analyzed de-trended (1) time series of common wheat yields (1983-2008) from 11 agricultural provinces that account for 80 % of national wheat production; (2) monthly rainfall and 10-day temperature from ten meteorological stations; (3) 10-day normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the AVHRR sensor; (4) monthly atmospheric climate indices [North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Scandinavian Pattern (SCA)] and monthly 500 hPa geopotentials fields; and (5) monthly sea surface temperature (SST) fields and indices (NIÑO3, Tropical North Atlantic and Tropical South Atlantic). The relationship between rainfall and temperature during tillering in early winter and grain filling in early spring and wheat yields already observed at the plot scale was also found to be significant at the provincial scale. The linkages between wheat yields and large scale climate have been analyzed for the first time over Morocco. In agreement with previous studies, results show a complex and competing influence of different climate phenomena. The NAO is found to be significantly related to yields during the early stage of wheat growth in December, whereas the SCA correlates with yields later in the season, in January and February. Interesting lagged correlations with higher lead time are also highlighted, with the leading modes of SST variability in the equatorial Atlantic during October (the "Atlantic Niño" mode) and in the North Atlantic (the "Atlantic tripole" mode) in February. Our conclusion is that regional climate indices and variables represent valuable information with which to increase lead time and skill regarding wheat yield predictions in Morocco.

  2. Streamflow response to climate variability in sub-watersheds of the Sebou river basin, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouabid, Rachid; Chafai El Alaoui, Ali; Bahri, Hakima

    2010-05-01

    Morocco, like many other Mediterranean countries is facing water resources scarcity due to its arid to semi-arid conditions, affected by the recent climatic changes, mainly recurrent drought events observed during the last five decades. Stream flows, the main feeding source of the major reservoirs used for irrigation, drinking water, and hydro-power, are particularly affected by these changes. In this paper, long term trends of stream flow in relation to climatic data were studied in four sub-watersheds of the Sebou river basin in northern Morocco. A hydrologic simulation was performed on one of the sub-watershed using two hydrologic models, IHACRES and HEC-HMS. Over the past five decades, stream flow and precipitation data showed a cyclic trend as well as a general decline with variable amplitude from one sub-basin to another. Recorded stream flows were significantly correlated with the corresponding precipitation values. An average rainfall decline over the past 50 years varied from -285 mm to -150 mm, corresponding to about 25% decrease. Stream flow modeling with both models gave very reasonable simulations that were comparable over the series studied. Differences among years with contrasting climatic conditions were well illustrate and showed large disparities in terms of total annual discharges, ranging from 0.93 billion m3/yr to 5.3 billion m3/yr for dry and wet year conditions respectively. The models used can be used as tools for predictions of stream flow in response to climatic variability for sound water resources management. Key words: climate change, stream flow, modeling, IHACRES, HEC-HMS, Morocco.

  3. The Holocene climate variability in Southwestern Morocco and its link to the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SHA, L.; Cheng, H.; Cai, Y.; Edwards, R.; Yin, J.; Sifeddine, A.; Cruz, F.; Bouchaou, L.; Beraaouz, E.; Apaéstegui, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Southwestern Morocco is located at the southeast side of the Azores High and thus the local climate is sensitive to the changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Two stalagmite oxygen isotope (δ18O) records from Ifoulki and Win Timdouine Caves, Agadir, Morocco provide a high-resolution and absolutely dated climate history over the entire Holocene (last 11.5 ka). The broad similarity between the Ifoulki and Win Timdouine records for the past two millennia indicates that both records are not likely affected significantly by many possible local factors. The Win Timdouine record characterizes the full Holocene: a moderately wet early Holocene (~11.5 to 9 ka BP), wet mid-Holocene (~ 9 to 3 ka BP) and relatively dry late Holocene (~3 ka BP to present). Superimposed on the long-term trend of Holocene climate variations are eight climate events (wet) on millennial- centennial timescales that can be well linked to the Bond events documented primarily from fluctuations in ice-rafted debris throughout the Holocene in the North Atlantic Ocean. Furthermore, both records inferred a relatively dry Medieval Warm Period (high δ18O values),which is consistent with previous tree-ring records from Morocco. In addition, the oscillated δ18O values indicate an unstable climate in this area during the LIA period. Comparing with the NAO proxy records, dryer Medieval Warm Period and relatively wetter Little Ice Age agree with positive and negative NAO conditions, respectively. This linkage may potentially be extrapolated to entire Holocene and therefore put the NAO variability in the context of Holocene climate change and probe its connection with climate changes in adjacent regions throughout the Holocene.

  4. Impact of oil pollution on the North-western coast of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksissou, M.

    2003-04-01

    The North-western coast of Morocco has approximately 160 km from Asila city while passing by the towns of Tangier, Fnideq, M'diq and Tetouan to Oued Laou and shelters wetlands (lake Smir.), beaches, cliffs and mountains. Investigations carried out in 2000-2001 in this zone show scattered beaches and wetlands (Smir lake, Maleh river) polluted by oil. These polluted beaches and coastal wetlands are generally close to Marina or fishing ports and to the residential areas. Cases of fish (Rays and other Chondrychtiens), tortoises (Caretta caretta) and dolphins dead have been noted in some of these beaches during spring and summer (2000-2001) most probably because of oil pollution. Increased dredging in beaches (Haouara, Martil...) involves the salinity of the ground water and the disturbance of the marine biodiversity. Some management (construction of Kabila marina and Smir dam) involved disturbance of hydrology (salinity increased) and biodiversity (migration of the Birds from Smir lake towards Smir dam) in Smir lake. This management, dredging, algae extraction and oil act on the coastal biodiversity and involve the deterioration of the natural environment. The beaches polluted by oil obstruct the tourism activity. Measurements of prevention (by prohibition to get rid of the motor oil and the washing of the boats on the open sea, construction of sewage stations and industrial water purification) are necessary for the conservation of biological diversity and the tourism development. The cleaning of the beaches polluted within the framework of the activities of the ONG or the local communities is also necessary. An integrated coastal zone management is necessary for the nature conservation and the sustainable development of the North Western of Morocco. Keywords: Oil pollution, Biodiversity, Coast, Morocco.

  5. Determination of fluoride in tap water in Morocco using a direct electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    El Jaoudi, Rachid; Mamouch, Fouzia; Ait El Cadi, Mina; Bousliman, Yassir; Cherrah, Yahia; Bouklouze, Abdelaziz

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the fluoride concentration in tap drinking water in different cities of Morocco using an electrochemical ion-selective method. Three samples were collected from each thirteen selected cities in the period between March and May 2011. The median value of fluoride was 0.94 mg/L (0.21-2.97). High fluoride concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) were found in sixteen cities. Very high values were found in phosphate regions such as Khouribga which is known to be an endemic dental fluorosis area. This study has shown that the concentration of fluoride in drinking water exceeds the limit especially in phosphate regions.

  6. Estimation of the liveweight of working mules in Morocco from their body measurements.

    PubMed

    Kay, G; Pearson, R A; Ouassat, M

    2004-01-17

    During March 2001, 117 working mules, randomly chosen from four markets in Morocco, were weighed and a series of body measurements recorded; their age and body condition score were also recorded. Linear regression techniques were used to derive a 'best fit' equation for predicting liveweight from the other variables. For the working mules weighing between 131 and 391 kg the best prediction equation using two variables was: liveweight (kg) = -33 + 2.8 x heart girth (cm)+1.36 x length (cm). Other prediction equations available for estimating the liveweight of equidae were tested on the data, but in all cases they significantly overestimated the weights of the Moroccan mules.

  7. Snow algae of the Sierra Nevada, Spain, and High Atlas mountains of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Duval, B; Duval, E; Hoham, R W

    1999-03-01

    Snow algae (Chlorophyta) are reported from the Sierra Nevada mountains in southern Spain and the High Atlas mountains of Morocco. Populations of the snow algae Chlamydomonas sp., coloring the snow orange-red, were collected from Pico de Veleta, Spain, while snow samples from Mt. Neltner in the High Atlas mountains, contained resting spores of an orange-green colored Chloromonas sp. Other microbes observed in snow samples include bacteria, fungi, heterotrophic euglenids, diatoms, nematodes, and heterotrophic mastigotes (flagellated protists). This is the first report of snow algae from the Sierra Nevada mountains of Spain and from the Afro-alpine environment.

  8. Gerisa - Using Foss in Environmental Risk Management for the Coastal Areas of w- Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewner, R.; Elbchari, F.; Theilen-Willige, B.; Ait Malek, H.; Ayt Ougougdal, M.; Chaibi, M.; Charif, A.; Nakhcha, C.; Ridaoui, M.

    2013-12-01

    Pilot region of the GeRiSa project (Gestion des risques de l'environnement dans la région de Safi) is the Sahel of Abda (Morocco) located on the Atlantic coast of western Morocco between the lagoon of Oualidia and the Tensift river basin. It belongs to the Coastal Meseta and forms an erosional platform covered by accumulations of various Meso-cenozoic sediments. Firstly, the study area is characterized by a variety of geomorphological units (depressions, plateaus, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, etc.) and shows a considerable natural richness. Secondly, it illustrates its importance for the national economy by intensive social and economic activities. During the last century, this region has been affected by intensive changes from urban growth, tourism, industrial and commercial development, inducing a considerable vulnerability to natural hazards such as coastal erosion, landslides, flooding, Tsunamis and seismicity. In order to give solutions to these problems, the three-year GeRiSa project with the support of the bilateral Moroccan-German Programme of Scientific Research (PMARS) promoted by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), will implement a knowledge pool and a risk management centre for natural hazards at the Polydisciplinary Faculty of the Cadi Ayyad University of Safi (Morocco). GeRiSa addresses fundamental scientific, environmental and anthropological problems of national importance and social relevance. The aim is a regional real-time geoinformation system with worldwide access via Internet and interdisciplinary dynamic content, enabling the communication between universities, local authorities and public organisation. In this sense, this multidisciplinary project focuses on a synthesis of various works, approaches and collaborations in-progress, previous completed projects and already existing data combining it with new research results. One of the main research targets within this project is the

  9. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: Age Comparison Between the South Carolina Dykes and Morocco Lava Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youbi, N.; Nomade, S.; Breutel, E.; Knight, K.

    2003-12-01

    Believed to be the largest volcanic province on Earth at more than 6000 km long and 2000 km wide, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) stretches from Eastern Canada to Brazil and from Western Spain to the Ivory Coast. Due to the massive erosion and subsequent in filling of these areas since the 200 Ma rifting event, dikes and sills constitute the majority of the exposed CAMP volcanics. However, well preserved lava flows have been found in the Triassic basins of the Northeastern United States and Morocco. Despite numerous 40Ar/39Ar dating attempts, very few of the exposed CAMP volcanics have been successfully dated due to a variety of factors including; excess argon and alteration. Especially no age is available in the well-mapped but structurally complex South and North Carolina dykes swarm as well as only few scattered ages in the Moroccan Trias-Liassic basins. Our goal is to better constrain the emplacement timing of the dykes swarm but also to compare age of both intrusive and effusive rocks from the same magmatic event but separated from more than 1000 km, 200 Mys ago. Several questions continue to surround the CAMP volcanic province including its cause and emplacement mechanism. Toward that end we have collected and dated dyke samples from the Carolinas and flows in Morocco, 1000 km away and across the rift. We anticipate that a comparison of these dates will enable us to understand more about the timing between the emplacement of the flows and dykes. We have collected in South Carolina and High Atlas in Morocco 7 and 9 hand samples respectively. Specimens from South Carolina correspond to the three distinct dykes' direction NE-SW, NW-SE and NS. In Morocco, samples were collected in four sections (100 to 300 m thick) located in the High Atlas between Marrakech and Ouarzazate. From each hand sample two different transparent plagioclase fractions, 250-180 and 180 to 100 microns, were separated. We have performed step heating experiments at the Berkeley

  10. [Legislation on the pharmaceutical industry in Morocco during the French protectorate 1912 - 1956].

    PubMed

    Nhaili, Hicham; Taoufik, Jamal

    2015-06-01

    In Morocco, the pharmaceutical industry was born with the French protectorate. She knew a great evolution: from a limited production for local needs, it became an important activity, organized to export pharmaceutical patent medicines. This article revisits the birth and history of this industry during the protectorate. It refers to the situation at the time by listing some examples of active establishments and some specialities marketed. It also aims to increase knowledge about the industry and provides an overview of the situation of practitioners remembering the texts governing the profession. Based on the available literature, we examined and analyzed the arrangements related to the establishment, organization and evolution of the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Mapping rare erythrocyte phenotypes in morocco: a tool to overcome transfusion challenges.

    PubMed

    Benahadi, A; Boulahdid, S; Adouani, B; Laouina, A; Mokhtari, A; Soulaymani, A; Hajjout, K; Benajiba, M; Alami, R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to search for the distribution of blood groups in all the regions of Morocco. This study, done for the first time, aimed to provide the frequency of the Rhesus system and Kell (K) in more than 55000 blood donors from nine different regions around the country. In addition, the frequency of the Cellano, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood antigens was searched for 500 blood donors from the Rabat's region. Frequency of blood donors with rare blood groups was characterized for the first time in the country and compared to results found from other populations. PMID:24744962

  12. Constraining the crustal root geometry beneath the Rif Cordillera (North Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2016-04-01

    The analyses of wide-angle reflections of controlled source experiments and receiver functions calculated from teleseismic events provide consistent constraints of an over-thickened crust beneath the Rif Cordillera (North Morocco). Regarding active source data, we investigate now offline arrivals of Moho-reflected phases recorded in RIFSIS project to get new estimations of 3D crustal thickness variations beneath North Morocco. Additional constrains on the onshore-offshore transition are derived from onland recording of marine airgun shots from the coeval Gassis-Topomed profiles. A regional crustal thickness map is computed from all these results. In parallel, we use natural seismicity data collected throughout TopoIberia and PICASSO experiments, and from a new RIFSIS deployment, to obtain teleseismic receiver functions and explore the crustal thickness variations with a H-κ grid-search approach. The use of a larger dataset including new stations covering the complex areas beneath the Rif Cordillera allow us to improve the resolution of previous contributions, revealing abrupt crustal changes beneath the region. A gridded surface is built up by interpolating the Moho depths inferred for each seismic station, then compared with the map from controlled source experiments. A remarkably consistent image is observed in both maps, derived from completely independent data and methods. Both approaches document a large modest root, exceeding 50 km depth in the central part of the Rif, in contrast with the rather small topographic elevations. This large crustal thickness, consistent with the available Bouguer anomaly data, favor models proposing that the high velocity slab imaged by seismic tomography beneath the Alboran Sea is still attached to the lithosphere beneath the Rif, hence pulling down the lithosphere and thickening the crust. The thickened area corresponds to a quiet seismic zone located between the western Morocco arcuate seismic zone, the deep seismicity area

  13. Non-invasive chemical and phase analysis of Roman bronze artefacts from Thamusida (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Gliozzo, Elisabetta; Arletti, Rossella; Cartechini, Laura; Imberti, Silvia; Kockelmann, Winfried A; Memmi, Isabella; Rinaldi, Romano; Tykot, Robert H

    2010-12-01

    A repertory of Roman military bronze equipment (1st- 3rd century AD) found at the archaeological site of Thamusida (Rabat, Morocco) was analysed by non-destructive X-ray fluorescence and time of flight neutron diffraction (ToF-ND). Most objects are made of leaded alloys, where copper is combined with tin and/or zinc and, in six cases, to arsenic as well. A mixed technology was employed, making a limited use of "pure" semi-finished materials if compared with the large utilization of recycled materials (brass and bronze).

  14. [The problem of the cost of new oncologic therapies: what about Morocco?].

    PubMed

    Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Zahra, Ziani Fatima; Seddik, Youssef; Afqir, Said

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in Africa. The progress in cancer treatment over the past decade is undeniable. The emergence of targeted therapies in oncology made it possible to modify the natural history of some cancers associated with a poor prognosis. Despite their efficiency, these therapies pose a major health care problem that makes them inaccessible to most patients in developing countries. In Morocco, cancer is considered a long-term condition and for this reasons patients have health insurance coverage. The involvement of civil society made it possible even to improve therapy management as well as a broader poor patient's access to innovative medicines. PMID:27642392

  15. Revisiting the magnetostratigraphy of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, E.; Youbi, N.; Fernandes, S.; El Hachimi, H.; Kratinová, Z.; Hamim, Y.

    2011-09-01

    The origin of the Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J) mass extinction is still a matter of debate: proponents of the idea that continental flood basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) are responsible for the crisis are opposed by those who favor an extraterrestrial origin linked to the impact of meteorite. Principal limitations reside in the difficulty to date and correlate CAMP lavas with the marine realm turnover. One argument widely used to suggest that CAMP lavas pre-dated the Tr-J boundary in Morocco is based on the presence of two brief magnetic reversals in the intermediate units of the Tiourjdal and Oued Lahr sections (Morocco) that were correlated to the E23r chron from the Newark basin and to the SA5n.2r/3r and SA5r chrons of the Saint Audrie Bay [Knight, K.B., Nomade, S., Renne, P.R., Marzoli, A., Betrand, H., Youbi, N., 2004. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: paleomagnetic and 40Ar/ 30Ar evidence from Morocco for brief, episodic volcanism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 228, 143-160]. However the primary origin for these negative (reverse) magnetic components is questionable since no field or reversal test was provided to constrain the primary character of the remanence as well as because the small number of samples. Here we have conducted a detailed paleomagnetic and magnetic mineralogy study of the interbedded limestones of the Tiourjdal section and of other CAMP lavas sections where the intermediate unit is complete, namely the Tizi El Hajaj, Jbel Imzar and Aït Ourir sections, to better constrain the origin and stratigraphic location of these negative magnetic components. We show that the interbedded limestones of the Tiourjdal section were entirely remagnetized by chemical processes via acid and oxidizing hydrothermal fluids generated by eruptions of CAMP lavas. In addition, magnetostratigraphic data of the Tizi El Hajaj, Jbel Imzar and Aït Ourir sections show that the entire intermediate unit

  16. SU-E-P-57: Radiation Doses Assessment to Paediatric Patients for Some Digital Diagnostic Radiology Examination in Emergency Department in Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, I; Aly, A; Al Naemi, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate radiation doses to pediatric patients undergoing standard radiographic examinations using Direct Digital Radiography (DDR) in Paediatric emergency center of Hamad General Hospital (HGH) in state of Qatar and compared with regional and international Dose Reference Levels (DRLs). Methods: Entrance Skin Dose (ESD) was measured for 2739 patients for two common X-ray examinations namely: Chest AP/PA, Abdomen. Exposure factors such as kV, mAs and Focal to Skin Distance (FSD) were recorded for each patient. Tube Output was measured for a range of selected kV values. ESD for each individual patient was calculated using the tube output and the technical exposure factors for each examination. The ESD values were compared with the some international Dose Reference Levels (DRL) for all types of examinations. Results: The most performed procedure during the time of this study was chest PA/PA (85%). The mean ESD values obtained from AP chest, PA chest and AP abdomen ranged 91–120, 80–84 and 209 – 659 µGy per radiograph for different age’s groups respectively. Two protocols have been used for chest AP and PA using different radiological parameters, and the different of ESD values for chest PA and were 41% for 1 years old child, 57% for 5 years old for chest AP. Conclusion: The mean ESD were compared with those found in literature and were found to be comparable. The radiation dose can be reduced more for Chest AP and PA examination by optimization of each investigation and hence more studies are required for this task. The results presented will serve as a baseline data needed for deriving local reference doses for pediatric X-ray examinations in this local department and hence it can be applied in the whole Qatar.

  17. Relationships between anthropometric measures and athletic performance, with special reference to repeated-sprint ability, in the Qatar national soccer team.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Forchino, Fabricio; Al Haddad, Hani; Dos Santos, Gilvan A; Millet, Grégoire P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine potential relationships between anthropometric parameters and athletic performance with special consideration to repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Sixteen players of the senior male Qatar national soccer team performed a series of anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement jumps without (CMJ) and with free arms (CMJwA), straight-line 20 m sprint, RSA (6 × 35 m with 10 s recovery) and incremental field test. Significant (P < 0.05) relationships occurred between muscle-to-bone ratio and both CMJs height (r ranging from 0.56 to 0.69) as well as with all RSA-related variables (r < -0.53 for sprinting times and r = 0.54 for maximal sprinting speed) with the exception of the sprint decrement score (Sdec). The sum of six skinfolds and adipose mass index were largely correlated with Sdec (r = 0.68, P < 0.01 and r = 0.55, P < 0.05, respectively) but not with total time (TT, r = 0.44 and 0.33, P > 0.05, respectively) or any standard athletic tests. Multiple regression analyses indicated that muscular cross-sectional area for mid-thigh, adipose index, straight-line 20 m time, maximal sprinting speed and CMJwA are the strongest predictors of Sdec (r(2) = 0.89) and TT (r(2) = 0.95) during our RSA test. In the Qatar national soccer team, players' power-related qualities and RSA are associated with a high muscular profile and a low adiposity. This supports the relevance of explosive power for the soccer players and the larger importance of neuromuscular qualities determining the RSA. PMID:24742185

  18. Trends in indices of daily temperature and precipitations extremes in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filahi, S.; Tanarhte, M.; Mouhir, L.; El Morhit, M.; Tramblay, Y.

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of Morocco's climate extreme trends during the last four decades. Indices were computed based on a daily temperature and precipitation using a consistent approach recommended by the ETCCDI. Trends in these indices were calculated at 20 stations from 1970 to 2012. Twelve indices were considered to detect trends in temperature. A large number of stations have significant trends and confirm an increase in temperature, showing increased warming during spring and summer seasons. The results also show a decrease in the number of cold days and nights and an increase in the number of warm days and nights. Increasing trends have also been found in the absolute warmest and coldest temperatures of the year. A clear increase is detected for warm nights and diurnal temperature range. Eight indices for precipitation were also analyzed, but the trends for these precipitation indices are much less significant than for temperature indices and show more mixed spatial patterns of change. Heavy precipitation events do not exhibit significant trends except at a few locations, in the north and central parts of Morocco, with a general tendency towards drier conditions. The correlation between these climate indices and the large-scale atmospheric circulations indices such as the NAO, MO, and WEMO were also analyzed. Results show a stronger relationship with these climatic indices for the precipitation indices compared to the temperature indices. The correlations are more significant in the Atlantic regions, but they remain moderate at the whole country scale.

  19. Geomorphology and geomorphological heritage of the Ifrane-Azrou region (Middle Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waele, Jo; Melis, Maria Teresa

    2009-08-01

    Geomorphological heritage is a widely used term in European and North-American countries, but is still scarcely mentioned in Africa. Nevertheless, the attractiveness of the African countries is often intimately connected to its breathtaking and endless geological landscapes. Morocco is one of those countries that has the widest diversity in landscapes and landforms, ranging from the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts over the Rif, Middle Atlas, High Atlas and Anti-Atlas mountain chains to the great rocky and sandy deserts in the South. A wide variety of geological units hosting different types of important economic mineral deposits cover a temporal range from Late Precambrian to Quaternary. A detailed geomorphological study has been carried out in the region of Ifrane and Azrou (Middle Atlas, Central Morocco) using a combination of high resolution satellite data and direct field observations integrated by geological maps and scientific literature. In order to describe and evaluate the geomorphological heritage of this area, 40 geomorphosites have been selected comprising springs, karst landforms (polje, dolines, caves, sinkholes, stone forests, cryptokarstic dolines), carbonate depositional landforms (travertines and waterfalls), fluvial landforms (meanders, canyons, palaeo-valleys, etc.), structural landforms (triangular facets, hogbacks, cuestas, residual outcrops, etc.) and volcanic landforms (volcanoes, caldeira, pyroclastic cones, lava tube). The results of this research have been summarised in a thematic map, representing the geomorphosites related to various landscape units.

  20. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomine sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the urban area of Marrakech, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Boussaa, S; Guernaoui, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A

    2005-08-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were collected continuously, using sticky traps, during 1 year from October 2002 to September 2003, in an urban area of Marrakech city (Morocco). A total of 3277 specimens were collected belonging to five species. Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi (54.6%) is the predominant species followed by Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) minuta (20%), S. (S.) fallax (11.3%), P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti (10.3%) and P. (Larroussius) longicuspis (3.8%). Data analyses showed a mono-modal annual pattern for P. sergenti and a bi-modal one for the other species. P. papatasi, the proven vector of Leishmania major in Morocco, was active throughout the year. This species did not diapause in this region. P. papatasi population peaked in June and November, which relating to the periods of risk in this area. Its preferred temperature ranged between 32 and 36 degrees C but no significant correlation was found between its density and the temperature. Considering the high density and long activity period of P. papatasi, the area of Marrakech should be regarded as a potential focus for L. major. This suggests the need for a continuously surveillance to prevent risk of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:15985259

  1. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Juniperus thurifera in Spain and Morocco as determined by SSR.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Helena; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Nabais, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus thurifera L. is an important tree endemic to the western Mediterranean basin that it is able to grow in semi-arid climates. It nowadays exhibits a disjunct distribution pattern, occurring in North Africa, Spain, France and the Italian Alps. The Strait of Gibraltar has acted as an efficient barrier against gene flow between African and European populations, which are considered different subspecies by some authors. We aimed at describing the intraspecific genetic diversity of J. thurifera in populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco and the phylogeographical relationships among these populations. The ploidy level of J. thurifera was examined and eleven nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) developed for J. thurifera were assessed for genotyping this species. Six nSSRs were polymorphic and subsequently used to assess the genetic diversity and structure of the studied populations. Genotyping of the tetraploid J. thurifera using nuclear microsatellites supports the separation of Moroccan and Spanish populations into two genetically differentiated groups that correspond to the proposed subspecies africana and thurifera. High values of within population genetic diversity were found, that accounted for 90% of the total genetic variance, while population structure was weak. The estimators of genetic diversity were higher in populations of Spain than in populations of Morocco pointing for a possible loss of genetic diversity during the spread of this species to Africa from Europe.

  2. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steingass, H.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a month-long study in Morocco aimed at assessing the market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture and rural service applications are presented. The following applications, requiring less than 15 kW of power, are described: irrigation, cattle watering, refrigeration, crop processing, potable water and educational TV. Telecommunications and transportation signalling applications, descriptions of power and energy use profiles, assessments of business environment, government and private sector attitudes towards photovoltaics, and financing were also considered. The Moroccan market presents both advantages and disadvantages for American PV manufacturers. The principle advantages of the Moroccan market are: a limited grid, interest in and present use of PV in communications applications, attractive investment incentives, and a stated policy favoring American investment. Disadvantages include: lack of government incentives for PV use, general unfamiliarity with PV technology, high first cost of PV, a well-established market network for diesel generators, and difficulty with financing. The market for PV in Morocco (1981-1986), will be relatively small, about 340 kwp. The market for PV is likely to be more favorable in telecommunications, transport signalling and some rural services. The primary market appears to be in the public (i.e., government) rather than private sector, due to financial constraints and the high price of PV relative to conventional power sector.

  3. Characterization of clay from northern of Morocco for their industrial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ouahabi, Meriam; Fagel, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Clays are a natural resource used for millennia. Currently applications such as industrial minerals are diversified. In this context, our goal is to estimate the potential of the many clay deposits in northern of Morocco. The choice of this region is justified by the particular abundance of clay deposits used to manufacture building materials (brick, ceramic and refractories) and pottery. This study focuses on the mineralogical, chemical and geotechnical characterization tests carried out on Tangier-Tetouan and Meknes clays from northern of Morocco. The suitability of raw clay material from those regions in order to produce ceramic and brick has not been tested yet. The results revealed that the studied samples are diversified, kaolinite and illite (Tetouan clay) and kaolinite and illite and smectite and vermiculite (Tangier and Meknes clay) based materials. There were no major differences in grain-size distribution, whereas Meknes clay was more plastic than Tetouan-Tangier clay. The cation exchange capacity show that Meknes and Tangier clay were more important than Tetouan clay. Specific surface area and thermal analaysis complete this caracterization. It was found that almost all technological properties of the Meknes clay deposit are led to the manufacture of ceramic floor tile, and Tetouan-Tangier clay provide opportunities to making brick and ceramic floor. The Tetouan-Tangier and Meknes clay are a potential ceramic raw material for growing Morrocan ceramic tile and brick industries.

  4. Molecular characterization of patulin producing and non-producing Penicillium species in apples from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Rharmitt, Sanae; Hafidi, Majida; Hajjaj, Hassan; Scordino, Fabio; Giosa, Domenico; Giuffrè, Letterio; Barreca, Davide; Criseo, Giuseppe; Romeo, Orazio

    2016-01-18

    The isolation of patulin-producing Penicillia in apples collected in different markets in four localities in Morocco is reported. Fungi were identified by β-tubulin sequencing and further characterized using a specific PCR-based method targeting the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (IDH) gene to discriminate between patulin-producing and non-producing strains. Production of patulin was also evaluated using standard cultural and biochemical methods. Results showed that 79.5% of contaminant fungi belonged to the genus Penicillium and that Penicillium expansum was the most isolated species (83.9%) followed by Penicillium chrysogenum (~9.7%) and Penicillium crustosum (~6.4%). Molecular analysis revealed that 64.5% of the Penicillium species produced the expected IDH-amplicon denoting patulin production in these strains. However, patulin production was not chemically confirmed in all P. expansum strains. The isolation of IDH(-)/patulin(+) strains poses the hypothesis that gentisylaldehyde is not a direct patulin precursor, supporting previous observations that highlighted the importance of the gentisyl alcohol in the production of this mycotoxin. Total agreement between IDH-gene detection and cultural/chemical methods employed was observed in 58% of P. expansum strains and for 100% of the other species isolated. Overall the data reported here showed a substantial genetic variability within P. expansum population from Morocco. PMID:26513254

  5. Present and future of hematology and stem cell transplantation in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Benchekroun, S; Harif, M; Madani, A; Quessar, A; Zafad, S; Rachid, R

    2008-08-01

    The first hematology department in Morocco was created in Casablanca in 1980 and it is still the only public facility where adult patients can be treated for hematological diseases. Two other units treat pediatric hematological disorders and cancer. Some patients are treated in private clinics located primarily in Casablanca and Rabat. The public hospitals have very limited resources and rely heavily on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) for the care of these patients. The NGOs have also played an important role in developing successful cooperative programs with hospitals and groups in Europe and the United States. Till 2004, all patients who needed BMT and could afford the cost went to Europe. In 2004, SCT was initiated in Casablanca, with a four-bed ward set up and properly equipped. By May 2007, 27 patients have received autologous PBSCs. With 15 patients in continuous CR, the program is considered a success so far. The development of allogeneic transplantation in Morocco planned in the current year is also considered a real challenge.

  6. Molecular characterization of patulin producing and non-producing Penicillium species in apples from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Rharmitt, Sanae; Hafidi, Majida; Hajjaj, Hassan; Scordino, Fabio; Giosa, Domenico; Giuffrè, Letterio; Barreca, Davide; Criseo, Giuseppe; Romeo, Orazio

    2016-01-18

    The isolation of patulin-producing Penicillia in apples collected in different markets in four localities in Morocco is reported. Fungi were identified by β-tubulin sequencing and further characterized using a specific PCR-based method targeting the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (IDH) gene to discriminate between patulin-producing and non-producing strains. Production of patulin was also evaluated using standard cultural and biochemical methods. Results showed that 79.5% of contaminant fungi belonged to the genus Penicillium and that Penicillium expansum was the most isolated species (83.9%) followed by Penicillium chrysogenum (~9.7%) and Penicillium crustosum (~6.4%). Molecular analysis revealed that 64.5% of the Penicillium species produced the expected IDH-amplicon denoting patulin production in these strains. However, patulin production was not chemically confirmed in all P. expansum strains. The isolation of IDH(-)/patulin(+) strains poses the hypothesis that gentisylaldehyde is not a direct patulin precursor, supporting previous observations that highlighted the importance of the gentisyl alcohol in the production of this mycotoxin. Total agreement between IDH-gene detection and cultural/chemical methods employed was observed in 58% of P. expansum strains and for 100% of the other species isolated. Overall the data reported here showed a substantial genetic variability within P. expansum population from Morocco.

  7. Prediction of hourly and daily diffuse solar fraction in the city of Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihya, B.; Mechaqrane, A.; Tadili, R.; Bargach, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, 3-layers MLP (Multi-Layers Perceptron) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models have been developed and tested for predicting hourly and daily diffuse solar fractions at Fez city in Morocco. In parallel, some empirical models were tested. Three years of data (2009-2011) have been used for establishing the parameters of all tested models and 1 year (2012) to test their prediction performances. To select the best ANN (3-layers MLP) architecture, we have conducted several tests by using different combinations of inputs and by varying the number of neurons in the hidden layer. The output is only the diffuse solar fraction. The performances of each model were assessed on the basis of four statistic characteristics: mean absolute error (MAE), relative mean bias error (RMBE), relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and the degree of agreement (DA). Additionally, the coefficient of correlation ( R) is used to test the linear regression between predicted and observed data. The results indicate that the ANN model is more suitable for predicting diffuse solar fraction than the empirical tested models at Fez city in Morocco.

  8. Leishmaniasis in Central Morocco: Seasonal Fluctuations of Phlebotomine Sand Fly in Aichoun Locality, from Sefrou Province

    PubMed Central

    Talbi, Fatima Zahra; El Ouali Lalami, Abdelhakim; Janati Idrissi, Abdellatif; Sebti, Faiza; Faraj, Chafika

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniases (CL) are endemic in Morocco. They are common in the human population in different localities such as Aichoun in Sefrou province, Morocco. This study was carried out in Aichoun locality from April to October 2012 in order to study the spatiotemporal trends of the main Leishmania phlebotomine vectors in this focus. Overall, 1171 sand flies, belonging to four species, were collected by sticky traps. Phlebotomus sergenti was the predominant species (78.4%) followed by Ph. perniciosus (10.5%), Ph. papatasi (7.94%), and Ph. longicuspis (3.16%). Sandflies were active during 6 months (May–October). Ph. sergenti, Ph. perniciosus, and Ph. papatasi displayed a bimodal distribution with a first peak in July and a second peak in September, while Ph. longicuspis showed a monophasic trend with a peak in August. The high abundance and the lengthy period of activity of Ph. sergenti and Ph. perniciosus, vectors of L. tropica and L. infantum, respectively, are a cause for concern as they indicate the high potential risk of Leishmania transmission in the studied areas. PMID:25741448

  9. Highlights of NASA/DOE photovoltaic market assessment visit to Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A broad range of agricultural, rural development, and other power applications in various regions of Morocco were examined to determine the potential market for photovoltaic products in Moroccan development. The primary focus of the study was the agriculture sector which accounts for approximately 17% of the country's GNP. The country has a clear need for reliable remote power systems, but does not have the financial resources to invest in the relatively high capital cost PV equipment. A modest potential for PV use was identified in nonagricultural rural services, such as refrigerators for rural clinics and rural radio-telephones. The main potential for PV in Morocco in the next five years lies mainly in the telecommunications sector. Applications include rural TV sets, TV repeater stations, microwave relay stations, and railroad, marine, and airline signalling. Market size estimates were derived from development and expansion plans. At an average customer cost for complete installed systems from $18/Wp to $30/Wp the total potential market value is estimated in the range of $6.6 to $11 million over the 1981-1986 period.

  10. Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Department-Wide Service-Learning Program for English Language Learners in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seilstad, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the theoretical and pedagogical background and results from the first semester of a service-learning program for English learners at a public Moroccan university and the local high school. This study fills a gap in the literature related to service-learning practice and outcomes in Morocco and the Arab world in general. The…

  11. The Growth of Qur'anic Schooling and the Marginalization of Islamic Pedagogy: The Case of Morocco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Helen N.

    For centuries, Morocco has had a dynamic network of Qur'anic schools, serving children from elementary age through adulthood. Qur'anic schools are religious schools that facilitate memorization of the Qur'an through teaching children to pronounce and recite the Qur'an according to an accepted recitational style. Despite 44 years of French…

  12. Principals as Leaders of School and Community Revitalization: A Phenomenological Study of Three Urban Schools in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmeski, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This article explores leadership of place in the context of three urban middle schools in Morocco. School reform means that principals are changing from agents of authority to leaders with school improvement responsibilities. This shift in mission can be stressful for principals who are called to lead, but are often constrained by bureaucratic and…

  13. Schooling and Cognitive Achievements of Children in Morocco: Can the Government Improve Outcomes? World Bank Discussion Papers, No. 264.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; And Others

    This paper uses data from the Morocco Living Standard Survey in an econometric investigation of the relative effectiveness of supply- and demand-side factors in determining educational outcomes. A wide range of factors are examined that may be responsible for differences in grade completion levels and achievement among sexes, regions, and urban…

  14. Local Farmers' Organisations: A Space for Peer-to-Peer Learning? The Case of Milk Collection Cooperatives in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faysse, Nicolas; Srairi, Mohamed Taher; Errahj, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated to what extent local farmers' organisations are spaces where farmers discuss, learn and innovate. Design/methodology/approach: Two milk collection cooperatives in Morocco were studied. The study analysed the discussion networks, their impacts on farmers' knowledge and innovation, and the performance of collective…

  15. Matisse in Morocco: The Paintings and Drawings, 1912-1913. Teachers' Packet. A USA/USSR Joint Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powe, Faye

    Henri Matisse (1869-1954) is recognized as one of the great artists of the twentieth century. The paintings and drawings that he executed in Morocco in 1912 and 1913 reveal a pivotal stage in the artist's career. His Moroccan paintings have been compared to an interior journey taking place side by side with the outer one. This packet includes…

  16. 75 FR 4440 - Meeting of the Working group on Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Morocco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Morocco will review cooperative environmental work they have undertaken and will outline plans for future... a new 2010-2012 Plan of Action for implementing environmental cooperation consistent with the Joint... will develop a Plan of Action towards meeting this goal. The 2005-2007 Plan of Action focused on a...

  17. Ambient seismic noise levels: A survey of the permanent and temporary seismographic networks in Morocco, North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fellah, Y.; Khairy Abd Ed-Aal, A.; El Moudnib, L.; Mimoun, H.; Villasenor, A.; Gallart, J.; Thomas, C.; Elouai, D.; Mimoun, C.; Himmi, M.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract The results, of a conducted study carried out to analyze variations in ambient seismic noise levels at sites of the installed broadband stations in Morocco, North Africa, are obtained. The permanent and the temporary seismic stations installed in Morocco of the Scientific Institute ( IS, Rabat, Morocco), institute de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume almera (ICTJA, Barcelona, Spain) and Institut für Geophysik (Munster, Germany) were used in this study. In this work, we used 23 broadband seismic stations installed in different structural domains covering all Morocco from south to north. The main purposes of the current study are: 1) to present a catalog of seismic background noise spectra for Morocco obtained from recently installed broadband stations, 2) to assess the effects of experimental temporary seismic vault construction, 3) to determine the time needed for noise at sites to stabilize, 4) to establish characteristics and origin of seismic noise at those sites. We calculated power spectral densities of background noise for each component of each broadband seismometer deployed in the different investigated sites and then compared them with the high-noise model and low-noise Model of Peterson (1993). All segments from day and night local time windows were included in the calculation without parsing out earthquakes. The obtained results of the current study could be used forthcoming to evaluate permanent station quality. Moreover, this study could be considered as a first step to develop new seismic noise models in North Africa not included in Peterson (1993). Keywords Background noise; Power spectral density; Model of Peterson; Scientific Institute; Institute de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume almera; Institut für Geophysik

  18. Molecular genetic analysis of populations of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly, Wohlfahrtia magnifica, in outbreak populations from Greece and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Hall, M J R; Testa, J M; Smith, L; Adams, Z J O; Khallaayoune, K; Sotiraki, S; Stefanakis, A; Farkas, R; Ready, P D

    2009-06-01

    Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), is the most important cause of traumatic myiasis in the southern Palaearctic region. Larval stages are obligate parasites and the wounds caused by infestations are very similar to those caused by Old and New World screwworm flies. During the last decade, W. magnifica appears to have expanded its range to parts of northern and central Morocco, and to Crete, Greece. Specimens of W. magnifica were collected in Morocco and Crete either as larvae (preserved in 80% ethanol) or as adults (dry-pinned). Comparison specimens were collected in Spain, Hungary and mainland Greece. A DNA fragment containing the 3' 715 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from each of 132 larvae or adults of W. magnifica and the amplicons were directly sequenced and analysed phylogeographically. Twelve cytochrome b haplotypes were detected. All haplotypes from Morocco belonged to a lineage that included specimens from the Iberian peninsula, and restricted mixing of central and northern populations in Morocco was demonstrated. Cytochrome b haplotyping combined with an analysis of larval size provided clear evidence of multiple infestations of hosts in all geographical areas, with one quarter of wounds containing larvae from two to at least four females. More than 80% of specimens from Crete contained a haplotype predominating in mainland Greece and Hungary. Our survey indicated that wohlfahrtiosis was more widespread in northern and central Morocco than previously recorded by government veterinarians. However, the prevalence of wohlfahrtiosis was low (< 1%). The high genetic diversity of Moroccan populations is consistent with longterm endemicity, rather than recent introduction. Crete showed a higher prevalence of wohlfahrtiosis (< or = 15%) and less genetic diversity of W. magnifica, which is consistent with a recent introduction. The western and

  19. Cytotoxicity and Inhibition of Lymphocyte Proliferation of Fasciculatin, a Linear Furanosesterterpene Isolated from Ircinia variabilis Collected from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Rifai, Saida; Fassouane, Aziz; Pinho, Paulo M.; Kijjoa, Anake; Nazareth, Nair; Nascimento, Maria São José; Herz, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Fasciculatin, a furanosesterterpene isolated from the marine sponge Ircinia variabilis from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco, has been evaluated for its influence on a mitogen-induced proliferation of human lymphocytes and growth of human tumor cell lines.

  20. Tsunami hazard, vulnerability and impact assessment of the coastal area of Rabat, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesne, Olivia; Mangin, Antoine; Renou, Camille; Rouffi, Frédéric; Atillah, Abderrahman; Moudni, Hicham

    2010-05-01

    Among African countries, Morocco is probably one of the most exposed to tsunami hazard. Indeed, Morocco is integrated in the particular geodynamic context of the northern African margin characterized by the existence of the Azores-Gibraltar fault separating two active tectonic plates: the African and the Eurasian plates. This area generated and still generates many large earthquakes exceeding a magnitude of 6. The Moroccan Atlantic coasts are thus exposed to tsunamigenic earthquakes occurring offshore. Tsunamis generated in this area are not frequent but can be really disastrous and could have a huge impact. In the framework of the SCHEMA project, a 3 year European project, we studied the consequences on the Moroccan coastal area of two potential tsunami scenarios, applying the generic methodology developed during the project for building tsunami vulnerability and impact maps. The study focuses on the "Rabat Zaïr" region. Centred on the Bouregreg Valley, this study area encompasses three main coastal and densely populated towns of Morocco: Rabat (capital), Salé and Temara. Using a combination of numerical modelling, field surveys, earth observation and GIS data, the risk has been evaluated for this highly vulnerable area (flat topography, small beaches with many tourists in summer, presence of several bridges on the Bouregreg river separating Rabat and Salé, presence of a dam upstream the 2 cities, and development of a new residential and touristic complex on the coastline and in the vicinity of the estuary). Two scenarios of tsunami have been studied to estimate the hazard on the coastal zone of Rabat: a worst case scenario based on the historical Lisbon earthquake of 1755 as well as a moderate scenario based on the historical Portugal earthquake of 1969. For each scenario, numerical models allowed to produce inundation maps consisting of inundation limits as well as maximum water heights. Land use data together with earth observation data interpretation

  1. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Methods A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO’s and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Results Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. Conclusion The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and

  2. Contrasted terrace systems of the lower Moulouya valley as indicator of crustal deformation in NE Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Bartz, Melanie; El Ouahabi, Meriam; Szemkus, Nina; Brueckner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    The Moulouya river has the largest catchment in Morocco and drains an area which is characterized by active crustal deformation during the Late Cenozoic due to the convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. As yet, its Pleistocene terrace sequence remains poorly documented. Our study focuses on the lowermost reach of the river in NE Morocco, which drains the Triffa sedimentary basin directly upstream of the estuary. New field observations, measurements and sedimentological data reveal contrasted fluvial environments on either side of a newly identified thrust zone, which disrupts the whole sedimentary basin and is associated with N-S compressive shortening in this region (Barcos et al., 2014). Long-lasting fluvial aggradation, materialized by ≥37 m-thick stacked fill terraces, and the development of a well-preserved terrace staircase, with (at least) three Pleistocene terrace levels, occur in the footwall and the hanging wall of the thrust, respectively. Same as for the Pleistocene terrace sediments of the middle Moulouya, a recurrent sedimentary pattern, characterized by fining-upward sequences was observed in the studied terrace profiles. Assessing the rates of crustal deformation along this main thrust zone requires age estimations for these Pleistocene terrace deposits of the lower Moulouya on each side of the thrust. Samples for luminescence (OSL/IRSL), electron spin resonance (ESR, on quartz) and cosmogenic nuclide dating (26Al/10Be, burial dating) were collected in terrace deposits located both in the foot- and hanging walls. Sample preparation and analysis as well as age determination are in progress. The preliminary data mentioned above, soon to be completed by chronological data, agree well with morphometric indicators stating that the whole Moulouya catchment is at disequilibrium state (Barcos et al., 2014). This is confirmed by several knickpoints in its longitudinal profile. Late Cenozoic uplift associated with crustal shortening, which

  3. Novel SOST gene mutation in a sclerosteosis patient from Morocco: a case report.

    PubMed

    Belkhribchia, Mohamed Reda; Collet, Corinne; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Hassani, Redouane

    2014-03-01

    Sclerosteosis (OMIM 269500) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by increased bone density associated with syndactyly. It is linked to a genetic defect in the SOST gene coding for sclerostin. So far, seven different loss-of-function mutations in SOST have been reported in patients with sclerosteosis. Recently, two mutations in LRP4 gene underlying sclerosteosis were identified, reflecting the genetic heterogeneity of this disease. We report here a 30-years-old Moroccan man presented with typical clinical and radiological features of sclerosteosis who carries a novel homozygous mutation in the SOST gene, characterized as a nonsense mutation (c.79C > T; p.Gln27∗) in exon 1 of the SOST gene. This is to our knowledge the first case of sclerosteosis reported from Morocco and North Africa.

  4. Monitoring of Nitrate and Pesticide Pollution in Mnasra, Morocco Soil and Groundwater.

    PubMed

    Marouane, Bouchra; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Dousset, Sylvie; El Hajjaji, Souad

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the levels of nitrates and pesticides occurring in groundwater and agricultural soil in the Mnasra, Morocco area, a zone with intensive agricultural activity. A set of 108 water samples and 68 soil samples were collected from ten selected sites in the area during agricultural seasons, from May 2010 to September 2012. The results reveal that 89.7% of water samples exceeded the standard limit of nitrate concentrations for groundwater (50 mg/L). These results can be explained by the prevailing sandy nature of the soil in the area, the frequency of fertilizer usage, and the shallow level of the water table, which favors the leaching of nitrate from field to groundwater. In contrast, the selected pesticide molecules were not detected in the analysed soil and water samples; levels were below the quantification limit in all samples. This situation could be explained by the probable partial or total transformation of the molecules in soil.

  5. Microphysical observations in winter storms over the Atlas mountains in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddour, Omar; Rasmussen, Roy M.

    A case study is presented for a winter storm occurring on December 8 and 9 over Morocco in 1985. Using microphysical data collected by the University of North Dakota Citation aircraft, we show that two main precipitation mechanisms were dominant during this storm. The first was a seeder-feeder type mechanism in the stratiform regions of the cloud. The seed crystals were typically aggregates of dendrites and stellars of relatively low concentration. The liquid-water content in the lower cloud layers was relatively high (>0.2 g m -3) for over 10 min duration, suggesting that the seed crystals were relatively inefficient at depleting the available supercooled liquid water. In convective regions of these clouds, a coalescence process, followed by freezing and subsequent riming into graupel was observed. Model calculations verified this behavior, and showed that the observed moderate updrafts and high liquid-water contents were adequate to produce the observed particles sizes.

  6. A Critically Endangered new dragonfly species from Morocco: Onychogomphus boudoti sp. nov. (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sónia; Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Brochard, Christophe; Vieira, Cristiana; Alves, Paulo Célio; Thompson, David J; Watts, Phillip C; Brito, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Both sexes of Onychogomphus boudoti sp. nov. Ferreira (Odonata: Anisoptera: Gomphidae) and exuviae are described and illustrated from a single locality in Morocco. This newly discovered species differs markedly from other Onychogomphus species by the morphology of the male epiproct and the female vulvar scale. It is genetically distinct in the mitochondrial DNA and the nuclear PRMT gene from all other Western Palaearctic Onychogomphus species. The known distribution of the new species is confined to a small stream with unusual habitat characteristics in the vicinity of Khenifra, in the Middle Atlas, where it experiences low population size and limited genetic diversity. We suggest listing this species both locally and globally as "Critically Endangered" [CR (B1, B2 + abiii)] following the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.  PMID:25284663

  7. Monitoring of Nitrate and Pesticide Pollution in Mnasra, Morocco Soil and Groundwater.

    PubMed

    Marouane, Bouchra; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Dousset, Sylvie; El Hajjaji, Souad

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the levels of nitrates and pesticides occurring in groundwater and agricultural soil in the Mnasra, Morocco area, a zone with intensive agricultural activity. A set of 108 water samples and 68 soil samples were collected from ten selected sites in the area during agricultural seasons, from May 2010 to September 2012. The results reveal that 89.7% of water samples exceeded the standard limit of nitrate concentrations for groundwater (50 mg/L). These results can be explained by the prevailing sandy nature of the soil in the area, the frequency of fertilizer usage, and the shallow level of the water table, which favors the leaching of nitrate from field to groundwater. In contrast, the selected pesticide molecules were not detected in the analysed soil and water samples; levels were below the quantification limit in all samples. This situation could be explained by the probable partial or total transformation of the molecules in soil. PMID:26459825

  8. A comparison of Gemini and ERTS imagery obtained over southern Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Anderson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    A mosaic constructed from three ERTS MSS band 5 images enlarged to 1:500,000 compares favorably with a similar scale geologic map of southern Morocco, and a near-similar scale Gemini 5 photo pair. A comparative plot of lineations and generalized geology on the three formats show that a significantly greater number of probable fractures are visible on the ERTS imagery than on the Gemini photography, and that both orbital formats show several times more lineaments than were previously mapped. A plot of mineral occurrences on the structural overlays indicates that definite structure-mineralization relationships exist; this finding is used to define underdeveloped areas which are prospective for mineralization. More detailed mapping is possible using MSS imagery than on Gemini 5 photographs, and in addition, the ERTS format is not restricted to limited coverage.

  9. Oil shale development in Morocco: A technological analysis using the Occidental process

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, R.D.; Studebaker, I.G.

    1980-12-01

    Occidental Petroleum is concluding a two year evaluation of the application of its modified in situ oil shale process to the Timahdit oil shale of the Kingdom of Morocco. This work included evaluation of the geology, reserves, and hydrology of the deposit based on about 40 coreholes, most of which had been drilled by the government agency, BRPM, previously. In addition, mining tests were conducted under this contract to define rock strength, mine stability, mine safety and rubblization aspects. Oil shale from Timahdit was processed in a small pilot plant to obtain processing criteria. The results of these tests were utilized in the design of a facility to produce 50,000 B/D of raw shale oil and 650 megawatts of export power.

  10. The giant Imiter silver deposit: Neoproterozoic epithermal mineralization in the Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheilletz, Alain; Levresse, Gilles; Gasquet, Dominique; Azizi-Samir, Moulay; Zyadi, Rachid; Archibald, Douglas A.; Farrar, Edward

    2002-10-01

    The world-class Imiter silver deposit, in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco, is a Neoproterozoic epithermal vein deposit genetically associated with a felsic volcanic event, and formed within a regional extensional tectonic regime. Rhyolitic volcanism related to ore formation has been dated at 550±3 Ma by ion-probe U/Pb on zircons. The economic silver mineralization is superimposed on an older, discrete base-metal assemblage associated with calc-alkaline granodioritic magmatism. The magmatism is dated at 572±5 Ma by ion-probe U/Pb dating on zircons, and by 40Ar/39Ar dating on hydrothermal muscovites. In the Anti-Atlas Mountains, the Precambrian-Cambrian transition appears as an important period for the formation of major, productive precious-metal deposits associated with volcanic events and extensional tectonics. The Imiter silver deposit constitutes a Precambrian analogue to modern epithermal deposits.

  11. Evaluation of the impacts of climate changes on the coastal Chaouia aquifer, Morocco, using numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustadraf, J.; Razack, M.; Sinan, M.

    2008-11-01

    The aquifer of the Chaouia Coast, Morocco constitutes an example of groundwater resources subjected to intensive and uncontrolled withdrawals in a semi-arid region. The analysis of the trends of precipitation and piezometric levels of the Chaouia coastal aquifer, with the use of moving averages, emphasized the impact of the climate on the groundwater resources of the system. The results showed that the periods 1977-1993 and 1996-2000 are characterized by a deficit in precipitation, although the precipitation increased slightly during the periods 1973-1977 and 1993-1996. Numerical modeling of the Chaouia aquifer showed that the groundwater resources of this system are less sensitive to the variations in precipitation. Severe degradation of the resource is related to intensive pumping during the periods of drought, which has forced abandonment of wells due to seawater intrusion.

  12. [A state of need: the Spanish Red Cross in Morocco, 1886-1927].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the central role of nation-states in the Red Cross during the interwar period. In the late nineteenth century, Spain pioneered the creation of European-style humanitarian institutions in Morocco. However, its perennial instability as a state, aggravated by the colonial disaster of 1898, put an end to the regenerationist project of a Moroccan Red Cross. When the Spanish protectorate was established in 1912, the Spanish Red Cross was overshadowed by competition from its French counterpart, the internationalization of Tangiers and resistance from the local inhabitants. This culminated in the so-called Rif War of 1921-1927, a mixture of anticolonial revolt and international war that vividly exposed the ingrained deficiencies of the Spanish State and its Red Cross. PMID:27557359

  13. Nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in Chichaoua, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Guernaoui, S; Boussaa, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A

    2006-02-01

    The nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was studied "at an epidemic focus" on human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica Wright in Chichaoua province, in Morocco. Sandflies were collected using light and sticky-paper traps changed at 2-h intervals, inside and around houses, in August and October 2004. Overall, 633 sandflies, belonging to six species of Phlebotomus and three of Sergentomyia, were collected. Sandfly activity was nocturnal and higher at twilight. Several activity patterns were observed according to the species. Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot, 1917, the suspected vector of L. tropica in this focus, was caught during each collection performed from 1900 to 0500 hours, the numbers of species caught peaked at 1900-2100 hours. There were seasonal variations of the nocturnal activity, which could be related to the variations in temperature and relative humidity.

  14. Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, M. Luisa; Solá, Rita

    2015-04-01

    The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n'Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran-Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometries and angular discordances capping eroded basements ranging from the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup to the Cambrian Asrir Formation. Previous interpretations of these discordances as pull-apart or compressive events are revised here and reinterpreted in an extensional (rifting) context associated with active volcanism. The record of erosive unconformities, stratigraphic gaps, condensed beds and onlapping patterns across the traditional "lower-middle Cambrian" (or Cambrian Series 2-3) transition of the Atlas Rift must be taken into consideration for global chronostratigraphic correlation based on their trilobite content.

  15. (Equipment requirements for vaccine refrigeration, Rabat and Marakech, Morocco, June 1989): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, J.M.

    1989-07-10

    The consultant traveled to Morocco to assess the equipment requirements for the vaccine cold chain, comparing the need for additional absorption refrigeration systems with the financial viability of a conversion to photovoltaic powered vapor compression equipment. The consultant found that bottled gas has proven to be a cost effective and available fuel and moreover can be used very effectively for sterilization purposes in rural health clinics. Unless they could be introduced in groups of 50 systems or more in concentrated areas, photovoltaic systems were not seen as a viable alternative to gas fueled absorption systems, due to higher life cycle costs and to the absence of a maintenance network. Introduction of PV systems were recommended for lighting purposes, however, to supplement the energy uses in rural clinics.

  16. Voice, boundary work, and visibility in research on sex work in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Anne

    2015-01-01

    How might the ethnographer conduct research on health and suffering among populations who would rather remain hidden? Drawing on my research with female sex workers in southern Morocco, I suggest and demonstrate an approach that allows interlocutors' discretionary practices to guide ethnographic inquiry. I show how boundary work--as a politics of visibility founded on practices of discretion, concealment, and distancing--emerged as central to my interlocutors' livelihood strategies and their efforts to enact moral personhood, integrate themselves into networks of solidarity, and articulate social critiques. A methodological focus on discourses and practices of boundary drawing, I argue, was essential for conceptualizing and representing the suffering of the women with whom I worked. Using boundary work as a guide, the ethnographer does not give voice to suffering, but learns how suffering is already voiced as part of attempts to survive, aspire, and become.

  17. Estimation of antecedent wetness conditions for flood modelling in northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramblay, Y.; Bouaicha, R.; Brocca, L.; Dorigo, W.; Bouvier, C.; Camici, S.; Servat, E.

    2012-11-01

    In northern Morocco are located most of the dams and reservoirs of the country, while this region is affected by severe rainfall events causing floods. To improve the management of the water regulation structures, there is a need to develop rainfall-runoff models to both maximize the storage capacity and reduce the risks caused by floods. In this study, a model is developed to reproduce the flood events for a 655 km2 catchment located upstream of the 6th largest dam in Morocco. Constrained by data availability, a standard event-based model combining a SCS-CN (Soil Conservation Service Curve Number) loss model and a Clark unit hydrograph was developed for hourly discharge simulation using 16 flood events that occurred between 1984 and 2008. The model was found satisfactory to reproduce the runoff and the temporal evolution of floods, even with limited rainfall data. Several antecedent wetness conditions estimators for the catchment were compared with the initial condition of the model. Theses estimators include an antecedent discharge index, an antecedent precipitation index and a continuous daily soil moisture accounting model (SMA), based on precipitation and evapotranspiration. The SMA model performed the best to estimate the initial conditions of the event-based hydrological model (R2 = 0.9). Its daily output has been compared with ASCAT and AMSR-E remote sensing data products, which were both able to reproduce with accuracy the daily simulated soil moisture dynamics at the catchment scale. This same approach could be implemented in other catchments of this region for operational purposes. The results of this study suggest that remote sensing data are potentially useful to estimate the soil moisture conditions in the case of ungauged catchments in Northern Africa.

  18. Estimation of antecedent wetness conditions for flood modelling in Northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramblay, Y.; Bouaicha, R.; Brocca, L.; Dorigo, W.; Bouvier, C.; Camici, S.; Servat, E.

    2012-08-01

    In Northern Morocco are located most of the dams and reservoirs of the country, while this region is affected by severe rainfall events causing floods. To improve the management of the water regulation structures, there is a need to develop rainfall-runoff models to both maximize the storage capacity and reduce the risks caused by floods. In this study, a model is developed to reproduce the flood events for a 655 km2 catchment located upstream of the 6th largest dam of the Morocco. Constrained by data availability, a standard event-based model was developed for hourly discharge using 16 flood events that occurred between 1984 and 2008. The model was found satisfactory to reproduce the runoff and the temporal evolution of floods, even with limited rainfall data. Several antecedent wetness conditions estimators for the catchment were compared with the initial condition of the model. These estimators include the discharge of the previous days, the antecedent precipitation index and a continuous daily soil moisture accounting model (SMA). The SMA model performed the best to estimate the initial conditions of the model, with R2=0.9. Its daily output has been compared with ASCAT and AMSR-E remote sensing data products, both were able to reproduce with accuracy the daily soil moisture dynamics at the catchment scale. This same approach could be implemented in other catchments of this region for operational purposes. The results of this study indicate the potential usefulness of remote sensing data to estimate the soil moisture conditions in the case of ungauged catchments in Northern Africa.

  19. A Reconsideration of Pan African Orogenic Cycle in the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefferan, K. P.; Soulaimani, A.; Samson, S. D.; Admou, H.; Inglis, J.; Saquaque, A.; Heywood, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    The term 'Pan African' orogeny was first proposed in 1964 for a tectonothermal event in Africa ~ 500+/- 50 Ma. Over the past 50 years, the Pan African orogeny has been extended to as much as ~1050-450 Ma and recognized in other Gondwanan continents where regional names such as Brasiliano (South America), Adelaidean (Australian) and Bearmore (Antarctica) have been applied. The Pan African time span of ~500 million years is much longer than any Phanerozoic orogeny. However, it does correlate with time ranges of well defined Phanerozoic orogenic cycles such as the Appalachian cycle, extending from ~1,100 to 250 Ma, and the Cordilleran cycle of ~350 Ma to the present. A significant difference of course is that the Appalachian orogenic cycle has long been recognized as consisting of separate Grenville, Taconic, Acadian and Alleghenian orogenies. Similarly, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Cordilleran orogenic cycle consists of distinct Antler, Sonoma, Nevadan, Sevier, Laramide and ongoing Cascadian-Andean orogenies. Until recently, the absence of precise geochronology in West Africa has prevented a more refined analysis of individual orogenic events within the Pan-African orogenic cycle. Since 2000, precision geochronologic dating by various researchers in the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco, has provided critical data by which it is now appropriate to designate a Pan African orogenic cycle consisting of three separate orogenic events. We herein propose the following distinct orogenic events in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco: Iriri-Tichibanine orogeny (750-700 Ma), Bou Azzer orogeny (660-640 Ma) and the WACadomian orogeny (620-580 Ma). Generalized tectonic map of the Anti-Atlas Mountain inliers (Adapted from Ennih and Liégeois, 2008). Geodynamic model of the Pan African orogenic cycle in the Anti-Atlas Mountains. Modified from Walsh et al. (2012) and incorporating ideas from Thomas et al. (2002) and El Hadi et al. (2012).

  20. Evidences for multiple remagnetization of Proterozoic dykes from Iguerda inlier (Anti-Atlas Belt, Southern Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neres, Marta; Silva, Pedro F.; Ikene, Moha; Martins, Sofia; Hafid, Ahmid; Mata, João; Almeida, Francisco; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Boumehdi, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Paleomagnetic data able to constrain the paleoposition of the West African Craton (WAC) during Paleo-Mesoproterozoic are absent, mainly due to gaps on the sedimentary record and intense remagnetizations. Dykes that intrude several Proterozoic inliers of WAC in the Anti-Atlas Belt (southern Morocco) have recently been subjected to geochronological studies, which revealed ages between Paleoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic. Therefore, these dykes represent a window of opportunity for paleomagnetic studies aiming to infer about the paleoposition of WAC during Proterozoic. On this scope we conducted a paleomagnetic study on seven Proterozoic dykes of the Iguerda inlier. We determined the paleomagnetic directions and evaluated their meaning by rock magnetic and mineral analyses, complemented by petrographic observations. Results revealed that these rocks record the presence of a complex history of remagnetization events, mostly assigned to several Phanerozoic thermal/chemical events. In particular, we found components assigned to the late stages of Pan African orogeny (s.l.), to the Late Carboniferous Variscan orogeny, and to more recent events. The recognized remagnetization processes are related to widespread metamorphic events under greenschist facies followed by low-temperature oxidation, both responsible for the formation of new magnetic phases (magnetite and hematite). The primary (magmatic) thermo-remanent magnetization of the dykes was obliterated during these events through multiple thermal and chemical remagnetizations. For only one dyke the presence of primary magnetization is possible to infer, though not to confirm, and would place WAC at an equatorial position around 1750 Ma. The authors wish to acknowledge FCT (Portugal) - CNRST (Morocco) bilateral agreement for its major contribution without which this work wouldn't be possible. Publication supported by project FCT UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz.

  1. The South-Western Branch of the Variscan Belt: Evidence from Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michard, A.; Soulaimani, A.; Hoepffner, C.; Ouanaimi, H.; Baidder, L.; Rjimati, E. C.; Saddiqi, O.

    2010-09-01

    This work is based on the compilation and re-evaluation of the most significant data, either personal or from the literature, concerning the Moroccan Variscides. The latter constitute the only, moderately disturbed or even undisturbed part of the South-Western Branch of the Variscan Belt, facing directly NW Gondwana. They include two orogenic segments, namely the northern Mauritanides and the Meseta Domain exposed in the Saharan and Atlas-Meseta regions respectively, and a foreland belt cropping out essentially in the Anti-Atlas. The eastward thrust units of Saharan Morocco (Oulad Dlim) mostly originate from the West African Craton (WAC) border in an area of thin Palaeozoic sedimentation. Thin-skinned fold-thrust foreland arcs develop progressively northward (Zemmour) at the expense of the increasingly thick Palaeozoic series, whereas thick-skinned deformation characterizes the inverted proximal paleomargin in the Anti-Atlas Domain. As suggested by the Meseta and Anti-Atlas stratigraphic similarities, the Meseta Domain corresponds to a collage of moderately displaced, thinned crustal blocks from the distal Gondwana paleomargin. Variscan deformation is dominated by NW-verging thrusts, and metamorphism developed in the thickened tectonic prism in relation with crustal anatexis at depth. The Meseta-Anti-Atlas boundary is a major, ENE-trending transpressional dextral fault referred to as the South Meseta Fault (SMF). Discussing the correlations between the Variscan segments of Morocco and SW Iberia allows us to suggest that a latitudinal transform zone similar to the SMF separated these segments during the Late Palaeozoic. Subduction of the Rheic Ocean crust would have been directed SE-ward along both the Iberian and Moroccan Meseta, and NW-ward south of the SMF, i.e. along the WAC.

  2. [Smoking in Morocco: an outline of the anti-smoking campaign].

    PubMed

    Bartal, M; Bouayad, Z; Bahlaoui, A; Naciri, A; el Meziane, A

    1988-03-01

    In Morocco, as in many developing countries, tobacco use has become a plague which aggravates the many already existing problems. A coordinated prevention programme which included research and a variety of educational efforts, has been underway for the past five years. The preliminary stage of the non-smoking campaign consisted of research through use of a variety of standardized questionnaires. The research results showed tobacco use in Morocco to be the following: 23.8% of secondary students are smokers with variation according to family, culture, environment and sex (33% male vs. 8.6% female); 33.8% of university students smoke, including those in Medical Schools; 52.1% of adults in the work environment smoke, including doctors. The rate declines drastically among practicing muslims (between the ages of 14 and 65) to 9.8%. The use of other drugs is significantly higher in students who use tobacco (25%) than those who do not (1.5%). A common factor appeared regardless of age, sex, or occupation: there was insufficient information available concerning the harmful effects of smoking. An educational campaign was therefore launched. As the youth were considered to be the most vulnerable target group, a major part of the educational efforts was concentrated on them. A variety of activities was implemented including conference-debates using audiovisual supports; radio and T.V. broadcasts; contests run with the assistance of the CIPADED (International Committee for the Prevention of Alcohol/Drug Dependence). Information of the harmful effects of tobacco use was diffused in workplaces, government offices, and at public assemblies. Efforts were also implemented to promote adoption of legislation which would limit tobacco consumption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. From Morocco to Italy: How Women's Bodies Reflect their Change of Residence.

    PubMed

    Maqoud, Fatima; Vacca, Eligio; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila

    2016-04-01

    The body structure and nutritional status of Moroccan women who have immigrated to Italy are examined here in relation to changes in their alimentary behaviors and life-styles, and compared with those of women living in Morocco, who still retain a traditional rural life-style. It is known that the choice to migrate to a foreign country may not only lead to conflicting situations, when the people involved encounter socio-cultural contexts which are very different from those of their original countries, but such choices may also involve severe consequences for health and nutritional status, following changes in alimentary behaviors and life-styles. Among groups recently migrated to Italy, the Moroccan-community is an appropriate reference to highlight these effects. The choice to examine women as the focus of this survey allows extension of observations of their nutritional behavior to the whole family group. According to the bio-indicators examined here, groups of immigrant women are quite different from those remaining at home. The former show a considerable increase in weight, as assessed by both anthropometric and impedentiometric parameters. More than one-third of Moroccan immigrant women are obese, to an extent well beyond that of women in Morocco. The cause of this difference is ascribed to quantitative and qualitative changes induced after migration. Migrant women tend to adopt a mixed diet, which includes both traditional food and that typical of the host country. However, there is a considerable increase in the use of prepared foods, such as pasta, among farinaceous products, and meat, although vegetables and fruit are also consumed. Moroccan women consider both their socio-economic status and alimentary behavior as very private matters--an attitude which makes it difficult to recruit them for this kind of research. Future interventions require their preliminary acceptance and involvement in research aims, to demonstrate its great importance in improving

  4. HIV epidemiology in Morocco: a nine-year survey (1991-1999).

    PubMed

    Elmir, Elharti; Nadia, Safir; Ouafae, Bennani; Rajae, Mengad; Amina, Siwani; Rajae, El Aouad

    2002-12-01

    The first case of HIV/AIDS in Morocco was notified in 1986. The Moroccan Ministry of Health has set up a system of management of HIV/AIDS cases and surveillance of the epidemic. Between 1991 and 1999, we studied 12,981 sera from patients in different Moroccan regions, who attended with high risk and/or symptoms of HIV/AIDS. The overall prevalence of positive HIV serology was 5.04% (4.67-5.44%). This rate was higher compared to blood donors which is 0.02%. From 1993 to 1998, the prevalence was around 4-5% (2.73-6.26%) then increased to 8.06% (6.89-9.36%) in 1999. Retrospective analysis of available epidemiological data have shown that the highest rate was observed in the South of Morocco with 12.23% (11.10-13.44%). Of the HIV positive cases, 72.22% of seropositives were infected heterosexually, 11.11% by intravenous drugs use, 7.41% by homosexuality, 4.63% by bisexuality and 4.63% and 0.62% by vertical transmission. The median age of infected persons was 33.3 years. Among documented HIV-positive individuals, 53.74% were aged 30-39 years, 21.43% were 20-29 years and 17.69% were 40 years or more. In this study, among HIV-positive patients 42.17% have loss of weight with fever and diarrhoea represent and 35.54% have loss of weight with fever, diarrhoea and opportunistic infections. The present work shows that the HIV infection increased significantly in 1999. Effective measures to control this trend should be implemented soon before the situation worsens.

  5. From Morocco to Italy: How Women's Bodies Reflect their Change of Residence.

    PubMed

    Maqoud, Fatima; Vacca, Eligio; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila

    2016-04-01

    The body structure and nutritional status of Moroccan women who have immigrated to Italy are examined here in relation to changes in their alimentary behaviors and life-styles, and compared with those of women living in Morocco, who still retain a traditional rural life-style. It is known that the choice to migrate to a foreign country may not only lead to conflicting situations, when the people involved encounter socio-cultural contexts which are very different from those of their original countries, but such choices may also involve severe consequences for health and nutritional status, following changes in alimentary behaviors and life-styles. Among groups recently migrated to Italy, the Moroccan-community is an appropriate reference to highlight these effects. The choice to examine women as the focus of this survey allows extension of observations of their nutritional behavior to the whole family group. According to the bio-indicators examined here, groups of immigrant women are quite different from those remaining at home. The former show a considerable increase in weight, as assessed by both anthropometric and impedentiometric parameters. More than one-third of Moroccan immigrant women are obese, to an extent well beyond that of women in Morocco. The cause of this difference is ascribed to quantitative and qualitative changes induced after migration. Migrant women tend to adopt a mixed diet, which includes both traditional food and that typical of the host country. However, there is a considerable increase in the use of prepared foods, such as pasta, among farinaceous products, and meat, although vegetables and fruit are also consumed. Moroccan women consider both their socio-economic status and alimentary behavior as very private matters--an attitude which makes it difficult to recruit them for this kind of research. Future interventions require their preliminary acceptance and involvement in research aims, to demonstrate its great importance in improving

  6. Morphological changes due to tsunami impact: Numerical modelling of sediments transport and deposit at Tangier - Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalho, Inês; Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana; El Moussaoui, Said; Najib Zaghloul, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Coastal areas in the North of Morocco are at risk of tsunami inundation. Overland tsunami propagation leads to widespread and dramatic changes in coastal morphology due to sediments erosion, transport and deposition processes. Tsunami sediments transport and morphological changes must take into consideration bed-load and suspended load transport of non-cohesive sediments and suspended load of cohesive sediments. Numerical calculation of suspended sediment transport/deposition is performed by solving the advection-diffusion equations for the suspended sediment, where the velocities are obtained from the hydrodynamic modelling. In this study, we assess the morphological changes under tsunami impact at the Bay of Tangier-Morocco. We use a coupled hydrodynamic and morpho-dynamic numerical code, based on two open sources codes: COMCOT and Xbeach, to simulate the tsunami impact and the associated sediments transport and deposition. COMCOT solves the shallow water equations to calculate the inundation characteristics (flow depth and velocity), while Xbeach allows solving the advection-diffusion equations to determine the amount of sediments eroded, transported and deposed. The results of this study are presented in terms of maps displaying the amount of sediments eroded, transported and deposed at the bay of Tangier following a tsunami similar to the 1755 Lisbon event. We find that the bay of Tangier is vulnerable to morphological changes under tsunami threat coming from SW Iberia margin. This work is supported by the EU project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe, Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013,6.4-3).

  7. The GAPS programme with HARPS-N at TNG. I. Observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and characterisation of the transiting system Qatar-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covino, E.; Esposito, M.; Barbieri, M.; Mancini, L.; Nascimbeni, V.; Claudi, R.; Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Lanza, A. F.; Sozzetti, A.; Biazzo, K.; Affer, L.; Gandolfi, D.; Munari, U.; Pagano, I.; Bonomo, A. S.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hébrard, G.; Maggio, A.; Messina, S.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Pepe, F.; Piotto, G.; Ribas, I.; Santos, N. C.; Southworth, J.; Shkolnik, E.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Bedin, L.; Benatti, S.; Boccato, C.; Bonavita, M.; Borsa, F.; Borsato, L.; Brown, D.; Carolo, E.; Ciceri, S.; Cosentino, R.; Damasso, M.; Faedi, F.; Martínez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Latham, D. W.; Lovis, C.; Mordasini, C.; Nikolov, N.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Rebolo López, R.; Scandariato, G.; Silvotti, R.; Smareglia, R.; Alcalá, J. M.; Cunial, A.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Di Mauro, M. P.; Giacobbe, P.; Granata, V.; Harutyunyan, A.; Knapic, C.; Lattanzi, M.; Leto, G.; Lodato, G.; Malavolta, L.; Marzari, F.; Molinaro, M.; Nardiello, D.; Pedani, M.; Prisinzano, L.; Turrini, D.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Our understanding of the formation and evolution of planetary systems is still fragmentary because most of the current data provide limited information about the orbital structure and dynamics of these systems. The knowledge of the orbital properties for a variety of systems and at different ages yields information on planet migration and on star-planet tidal interaction mechanisms. Aims: In this context, a long-term, multi-purpose, observational programme has started with HARPS-N at TNG and aims to characterise the global architectural properties of exoplanetary systems. The goal of this first paper is to fully characterise the orbital properties of the transiting system Qatar-1 as well as the physical properties of the star and the planet. Methods: We exploit HARPS-N high-precision radial velocity measurements obtained during a transit to measure the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect in the Qatar-1 system, and out-of-transit measurements to redetermine the spectroscopic orbit. New photometric-transit light-curves were analysed and a spectroscopic characterisation of the host star atmospheric parameters was performed based on various methods (line equivalent width ratios, spectral synthesis, spectral energy distribution). Results: We achieved a significant improvement in the accuracy of the orbital parameters and derived the spin-orbit alignment of the system; this information, combined with the spectroscopic determination of the host star properties (rotation, Teff, log g, metallicity), allows us to derive the fundamental physical parameters for star and planet (masses and radii). The orbital solution for the Qatar-1 system is consistent with a circular orbit and the system presents a sky-projected obliquity of λ = - 8.4 ± 7.1 deg. The planet, with a mass of 1.33 ± 0.05 MJ, is found to be significantly more massive than previously reported. The host star is confirmed to be metal-rich ([Fe/H] = 0.20 ± 0.10) and slowly rotating (vsinI = 1.7 ± 0.3 km s-1

  8. Structural equation model for estimating risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Middle Eastern setting: evidence from the STEPS Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Faleh Mohamed Hussain; Reka, Husein; Renwick, Matthew J; Roman, Gabriela D; Mossialos, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Aims Understanding type 2 diabetes mellitus is critical for designing effective diabetes prevention policies in Qatar and the Middle East. Methods Using the Qatar 2012 WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance survey, a subsample of 1224 Qatari participants aged 18–64 years was selected. Subjects had their fasting blood glucose levels tested, had not been diagnosed with or treated for diabetes, had a fasting time >12 hours and were not pregnant. We applied a hypothesized structural equation model (SEM) to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, anthropometric and metabolic variables affecting persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results There is a direct effect of triglyceride levels (0.336) and body mass index (BMI) (0.164) on diabetes status. We also found that physical activity levels negatively affect BMI (−0.148) and positively affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (0.106); sociodemographic background negatively affects diet (−0.522) and BMI (−0.352); HDL positively affects total cholesterol (0.230) and has a negative effect on BMI (−0.108), triglycerides (−0.128) and waist circumference (−0.104). Diet has a positive effect on triglycerides (0.281) while family history of diabetes negatively affects total cholesterol (−0.104). BMI has a positive effect on waist circumference (0.788) and mediates the effects of physical activity over diabetes status (−0.028). BMI also mediates the effects that sociodemographic factors (−0.058) and physical activity (−0.024) have on diabetes status. BMI and HDL (−0.002) together mediate the effect of physical activity on diabetes status and similarly HDL and tryglycerides (−0.005) also mediate the effect of physical activity on diabetes status. Finally diet and tryglycerides mediate the effects that sociodemographic factors have on diabetes status (−0.049). Conclusions This study's main finding is that triglyceride levels and BMI are the main variables directly affecting diabetes status in the Qatari

  9. Precambrian/Cambrian boundary problem: Carbon isotope correlations for Vendian and Tommotian time between Siberia and Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Magaritz, M. ); Kirschvink, J.L. ); Latham, A.J. ); Zhuravlev, A.Yu.; Rozanov, A.Yu. )

    1991-08-01

    At least three distinctive cycles are preserved in the carbon-isotope patterns for the Vendian/Tommotian interval for the Siberian platform and the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco. In Siberia, and early Tommotian carbon cycle provides the first detailed test of correlations based on archaeocyathid biostratigraphy between classic sequences on the Aldan and Lena rivers, and demonstrates that the Early Cambrian zone boundaries are reasonably good time lines. The carbon signal is preserved in both limestone and dolomite and across regional facies variations. The {delta}{sup 13}C results from the late Vendian section in Morocco display a pattern similar to that found in Siberia, suggesting that carbon isotopes can be used to test stratigraphic correlations on an intercontinental scale.

  10. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    PubMed

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production. PMID:26690090

  11. Comprehensive dataset of the medicinal plants used by a Tashelhit speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Teixidor-Toneu, Irene; Martin, Gary J; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Puri, Rajindra K; Hawkins, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    This dataset describes medicinal plants used in a poorly studied area of Morocco: the High Atlas mountains, inhabited by Ishelhin people, the southern Moroccan Amazigh (Berber) ethnic group, "An ethnomedicinal survey of a Tashelhit-speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco" (Teixidor-Toneu et al., 2016) [1]. It includes a comprehensive list of the plants used in the commune, as well as details on the plant voucher specimens collected and a glossary of Tashelhit terminology relevant to the study. To collect the data, semi-structured and structured interviews were carried out, as well as focus group discussions. Free prior informed consent was obtained for all interactions. A hundred and six adults were interviewed and 2084 use reports were collected; a hundred fifty-one vernacular names corresponding to 159 botanical species were found. PMID:27366784

  12. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    PubMed

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-12-22

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production.

  13. Th/U dating of marine and continental mollusk shell, and travertine samples in quaternary deposits in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semghouli, S.; Choukri, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Jahjouh, E.; Chouak, A.; Ben Mohammadi, A.; Latiris, M.; Reyss, J.-L.; Plaziat, J. L.

    2001-06-01

    Th/U measurements by alpha spectrometry have been carried out on samples of quaternary deposits in Morocco Ages yielded by marine samples allow identification of two high sea levels: (1) Last Interglacial ˜133 ka (ii) Harounien sea level ˜266 ka. The scatter of ages around 133 and 266 ka has been discussed and corrected. For continental samples, the ages allowed identification of humid episodes during which these samples have been deposited.

  14. Les liaisons dangereuses: resource surveillance, uranium diplomacy and secret French-American collaboration in 1950s Morocco.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the origins and consequences of a unique, secret, French-American collaboration to prospect for uranium in 1950s Morocco. This collaboration permitted mediation between the United States and France. The appearance of France in an American-supported project for raw nuclear materials signalled American willingness to accept a new nuclear global order in which the French assumed a new, higher position as regional nuclear ally as opposed to suspicious rival. This collaboration also permitted France and the United States to agree tacitly to the same geopolitical status for the French Moroccan Protectorate, a status under dispute both in Morocco and outside it. The secret scientific effort reassured the French that, whatever the Americans might say publicly, they stood behind the maintenance of French hegemony in the centuries-old kingdom. But Moroccan independence proved impossible to deny. With its foreseeable arrival, the collaboration went from seductive to dangerous, and the priority of American and French geologists shifted from finding a major uranium lode to making sure that nothing was readily available to whatever post-independence interests might prove most powerful. Ultimately, the Kingdom of Morocco took a page out of the French book, using uranium exploration to assert sovereignty over a different disputed territory, its de facto colony of the Western Sahara. PMID:26563833

  15. Crustal and upper-mantle structure beneath the western Atlas Mountains in SW Morocco derived from receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spieker, Kathrin; Wölbern, Ingo; Thomas, Christine; Harnafi, Mimoun; El Moudnib, Lahcen

    2014-09-01

    The High Atlas and the Anti Atlas are fold-belts linked to former and still ongoing continent-continent collisions. Despite their high elevation, studies indicate a lack of a deep crustal root (<40 km) while the lithosphere underneath is thinned (<100 km). Previous explanations for this thinning include asthenospheric upwelling due to small-scale convection or a small plume. We use data recorded at stations in SW Morocco to analyse teleseismic P- and S-wave receiver functions. Our study yields a crustal thickness ranging from 24 km near the Atlantic coast to 44 km beneath the High Atlas with an average crustal Vp/Vs ratio of 1.77 in the entire region. A crustal thickness of 40 km cannot entirely support the topography in this region. Furthermore, we find the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary at ˜80 km depth. The lithosphere beneath SW Morocco is thinner than beneath northern Morocco (>150 km). This lithospheric thinning supports the theory of thermal compensation of the mountain ranges. The mantle transition zone thickness amounts to 240 ± 10 km. The transition zone seems to be slightly thinned which might indicate a higher mantle temperature in this region.

  16. Les liaisons dangereuses: resource surveillance, uranium diplomacy and secret French-American collaboration in 1950s Morocco.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the origins and consequences of a unique, secret, French-American collaboration to prospect for uranium in 1950s Morocco. This collaboration permitted mediation between the United States and France. The appearance of France in an American-supported project for raw nuclear materials signalled American willingness to accept a new nuclear global order in which the French assumed a new, higher position as regional nuclear ally as opposed to suspicious rival. This collaboration also permitted France and the United States to agree tacitly to the same geopolitical status for the French Moroccan Protectorate, a status under dispute both in Morocco and outside it. The secret scientific effort reassured the French that, whatever the Americans might say publicly, they stood behind the maintenance of French hegemony in the centuries-old kingdom. But Moroccan independence proved impossible to deny. With its foreseeable arrival, the collaboration went from seductive to dangerous, and the priority of American and French geologists shifted from finding a major uranium lode to making sure that nothing was readily available to whatever post-independence interests might prove most powerful. Ultimately, the Kingdom of Morocco took a page out of the French book, using uranium exploration to assert sovereignty over a different disputed territory, its de facto colony of the Western Sahara.

  17. Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students in Qatar on Anti-Doping in Sports and on Sports Pharmacy in Undergraduate Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response rate). Sixty percent were unaware of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and 85% were unaware of the International Pharmaceutical Federation’s statement on the pharmacist’s role in anti-doping. Students’ knowledge score regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes was around 50%. Fourth-year pharmacy students had significantly higher knowledge scores than the other groups of students. Respondents acknowledged the important role of health care professionals, including pharmacists, as advisors on the safe and effective use of drugs in sports. Ninety percent of the students supported the inclusion of sports pharmacy in the curriculum. Conclusion. Pharmacy students indicated a strong desire to play a role in doping prevention and ensure safe and rational use of drugs among athletes. They suggested requiring an education and training strategy for sports pharmacy in undergraduate pharmacy curricula. PMID:26689844

  18. A Case Study On the Relative Influence of Free Tropospheric Subsidence, Long Range Transport and Local Production in Modulating Ozone Concentrations over Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Mohammed; Ackermann, Luis; Fountoukis, Christos; Gladich, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) operates a network of air quality monitoring stations (AQMS) around the Doha metropolitan area and an ozonesonde station with regular weekly launches and occasional higher frequency launch experiments (HFLE). Six ozonesondes were launched at 0700 LT/0400 UTC and 1300 LT/1000 UTC over a three day period between 10-12 September, 2013. We present the analysis of the ozonesonde data coupled with regional chemical transport modeling over the same time period using WRF-Chem validated against both the ozonesonde and surface AQMS measurements. The HFLE and modeling show evidence of both subsidence and transboundary transport of ozone during the study period, coupled with a strong sea breeze circulation on the 11th of September resulting in elevated ozone concentrations throughout the boundary layer. The development of the sea breeze during the course of the day and influence of the early morning residual layer versus daytime production is quantified. The almost complete titration of ozone in the morning hours of 11 September, 2013 is attributed to local vehicular emissions of NOx and stable atmospheric conditions prevailing over the Doha area. The relative contribution of long range transport of ozone along the Arabian Gulf coast and local urban emissions are discussed.

  19. Geology and petrology of the Hormuz dolomite, Infra-Cambrian: Implications for the formation of the salt-cored Halul and Shraouh islands, Offshore, State of Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Sobhi; Al-Saad, Hamad; Alsayigh, Abudlrazak; Weidlich, Oliver

    2008-08-01

    Geological investigations of the Halul and the Shraouh islands, offshore Qatar, indicate that most of their calcareous rocks, which display abundant stromatolitic bedding, belong to the Infra-Cambrian Hormuz Series. Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical analyses show that these calcareous rocks consist dominantly of dolomite and have formed in a reducing depositional environment. Faint laminations and small streaks of organic matter furnish evidence for the involvement of algal mats in their genesis and indicate their formation in an intertidal to supratidal setting. The Halul and Shraouh dolomites experienced extensive recrystallization and sulfatization during the emplacement of the Halul and Shraouh salt domes that form the cores of the islands. During mobilization and ascent of the salt, the dolomite recrystallized, and its Sr initial ratios were abnormally enhanced by the incorporation of 87Sr from a source, which is more radiogenic than the attendant seawater at the time of the dolomite formation near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. Geochemical analysis show that Si, Al, Ti Zr, and % of insoluble residue are highly correlative, suggesting the presence of detrital minerals such as rutile and zircon. A paleosabkha model may well agree with this chemical signature. However, the Infra-Cambrian age of the Hormuz rocks and the presence of stromatolitic layers containing organic materials in the studied rocks, suggest that organogenic dolomitization could be an alternative dolomitization model.

  20. Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students in Qatar on Anti-Doping in Sports and on Sports Pharmacy in Undergraduate Curricula.

    PubMed

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students' knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response rate). Sixty percent were unaware of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and 85% were unaware of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's statement on the pharmacist's role in anti-doping. Students' knowledge score regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes was around 50%. Fourth-year pharmacy students had significantly higher knowledge scores than the other groups of students. Respondents acknowledged the important role of health care professionals, including pharmacists, as advisors on the safe and effective use of drugs in sports. Ninety percent of the students supported the inclusion of sports pharmacy in the curriculum. Conclusion. Pharmacy students indicated a strong desire to play a role in doping prevention and ensure safe and rational use of drugs among athletes. They suggested requiring an education and training strategy for sports pharmacy in undergraduate pharmacy curricula. PMID:26689844

  1. Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students in Qatar on Anti-Doping in Sports and on Sports Pharmacy in Undergraduate Curricula.

    PubMed

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students' knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response rate). Sixty percent were unaware of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and 85% were unaware of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's statement on the pharmacist's role in anti-doping. Students' knowledge score regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes was around 50%. Fourth-year pharmacy students had significantly higher knowledge scores than the other groups of students. Respondents acknowledged the important role of health care professionals, including pharmacists, as advisors on the safe and effective use of drugs in sports. Ninety percent of the students supported the inclusion of sports pharmacy in the curriculum. Conclusion. Pharmacy students indicated a strong desire to play a role in doping prevention and ensure safe and rational use of drugs among athletes. They suggested requiring an education and training strategy for sports pharmacy in undergraduate pharmacy curricula.

  2. Oxygen Isotope Speleothem record of Decadal and Multidecadal Atlantic Oscillations over the last millennium in Southwestern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Brahim, Yassine; Sha, LiJuan; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Cheng, Hai; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine; Da Cruz Junior, Francisco William; Khodri, Myriam; Peerbocus, Nawaaz; Mariller, Alexandre; Apaestegui, James; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Auler, Augusto; Hassane Beraaouz, El

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) speleothem record from Ifoulki cave located South-West of Morocco (N 30°42'29'', W 09°19'39'' and 1267 meters above sea level). The age model, based on eighteen U-Th dates, reveals that the record covers the AD 790-1953 period with a data resolution of ~1.7 years. Stable oxygen isotope variations show substantial decadal to multi-decadal swings between dry and humid periods. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) is characterized by the longest period with δ18O values above the average, suggestive of pronounced drying possibly as a response to positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phases and increased volcanic activity during this period. However, at least two short wet phases are recognized during the MCA in Morocco, with peaks centered on the years AD 1040 and AD 1190 and seem to overlap with negative NAO phases as recorded in a recently published NAO reconstruction for the last millennium. During the next centuries, the NAO again depicts predominantly negative values and the δ18O drops below the average during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Furthermore, a striking resemblance is observed between our record and another recently published stalagmite record from the Piste cave in Northeastern Morocco, which is quite remarkable given the different type of tracers (δ18O vs. Mg and Sr) obtained from different environments (Western High Atlas vs. Northeastern Middle Atlas and ~634 km away). Comparison with regional paleorecords from other studies also reveals the replication of many characteristic climate features from the last millennium, first detected in Northern Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula. In particular, the evidence of generally dry conditions during the MCA and wetter conditions in the LIA, which is confirmed by all the paleorecords. These similarities indicate coherent climate variability in Northwest Africa and the Iberian Peninsula and suggest a strong regional control of the NAO during the last

  3. Sexual violence and sub-Saharan migrants in Morocco: a community-based participatory assessment using respondent driven sampling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The European Union contracted Morocco to regulate migration from so-called “transit migrants” from Morocco to Europe via the European Neighbourhood Policy. Yet, international organisations signal that human, asylum and refugee rights are not upheld in Morocco and that many sub-Saharan migrants suffer from ill-health and violence. Hence, our study aimed at 1) investigating the nature of violence that sub-Saharan migrants experience around and in Morocco, 2) assessing which determinants they perceive as decisive and 3) formulating prevention recommendations. Methods Applying Community-Based Participatory Research, we trained twelve sub-Saharan migrants as Community Researchers to conduct in-depth interviews with peers, using Respondent Driven Sampling. We used Nvivo 8 to analyse the data. We interpreted results with Community Researchers and the Community Advisory Board and commonly formulated prevention recommendations. Results Among the 154 (60 F-94 M) sub-Saharan migrants interviewed, 90% reported cases of multiple victimizations, 45% of which was sexual, predominantly gang rape. Seventy-nine respondents were personally victimized, 41 were forced to witness how relatives or co-migrants were victimized and 18 others knew of peer victimisation. Severe long lasting ill-health consequences were reported while sub-Saharan victims are not granted access to the official health care system. Perpetrators were mostly Moroccan or Algerian officials and sub-Saharan gang leaders who function as unofficial yet rigorous migration professionals at migration ‘hubs’. They seem to proceed in impunity. Respondents link risk factors mainly to their undocumented and unprotected status and suggest that migrant communities set-up awareness raising campaigns on risks while legal and policy changes enforcing human rights, legal protection and human treatment of migrants along with severe punishment of perpetrators are politically lobbied for. Conclusion Sub

  4. NW Africa post-rift tectonics: fieldwork constraints from an "unfitting" anticline in west Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Gouiza, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of the Moroccan Atlantic rifted margin is marked by a period of abnormal and excessive early post-rift subsidence during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous affecting the proximal coastal basins, the continental shelf and the distal deep basins, which acted coevally to km-scale uplift and erosion of large domains to the east. The tectonics of the uplift event are still unclear, as it took place 30 to 50 Myr after lithospheric breakup between Morocco and Nova Scotia and prior to the Atlas/Alpine contraction, which gave rise to the Atlas and the Rif mountain belts. The Essaouira-Haha basin, located on the coastal plain of the Atlantic rifted margin of Morocco, and bounded by two uplifted Paleozoic basement highs (i.e. the Massif Ancien of Marrakech, to the east, and the Jebilet, to the northeast), is an ideal location to investigate the tectonic processes that might have triggered these vertical movements. Although most of the deformation observed in the basin is classically attributed to Upper Cretaceous halokinesis and Neogene Atlas contraction, recent works have shown the existence of contractional structures. We carry out a structural analysis of the Jbel Amsittene Anticline, located in the middle of the Essaouira-Haha basin to investigate the tectonics of its formation and its relationship with the above-mentioned exhumation. We show structural field data along several cross-sections transecting the anticline, and characterize a salt-cored fault propagation fold verging north, with a Triassic salt acting as a detachment plane. Regional kinematic indicators and structures show overall NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW shortening and active tectonics during the postrift phase, as indicated by syn-tectonic wedges seen for the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous period. These facts discard the "salt-drives-tectonics" theory to let "tectonic-drives-salt" one to rise, and point to factors other than small-cell mantle convection acting during the evolution of the Moroccan

  5. From the Surface Topography to the Upper Mantle, Seismic constraints on the Crustal structure Across Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Díaz, Jordi; Gallart, Josep; Gil, Alba; Ayarza, Puy; Palomeras, Immaculada; Levander, Alan; Marti, David; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2015-04-01

    The most characteristic topographic features of Morocco are the Atlas Mountains and the Rif Coordillera. These two orogenic belts are the response of different geodynamic processes acting at lithospheric scale caused by a unique driver, the collision between two tectonic plates. Both are located within the diffuse plate boundary zone separating Africa and Europe. The boundary zone is characterized by a relatively broad zone of deformation that includes Mountain chains in southern Iberia, the Betics and the Rif cordillera in Morocco. The zone delineates the arcuate arc system of Gribraltar. Within the last decade a large international effort have been devoted to the area mostly leaded by Spanish groups with the collaboration of international research teams (including scientist form Europe and USA). Key multi-seismic projects have been developed that aim to constrain the structure, composition and tectonic scenario from south of the Atlas to the Betics, across the Rif cordillera and the Alboran basin. The multidisciplinary research program includes: natural source (earthquakes) recording with temporal deployments of broad band (BB) instrumentation and, controlled source seismic acquisition experiments where, spatially dense recording of wide-angle seismic reflection shot gathers were acquired. The passive experiments consisted on: a transect from Merzouga across the Gibraltar arc and into the Iberian peninsula (untill south of Toledo); a nearly regular grid of BB which was achieve by multiple deployments of a number of BB. The controlled source datasets were able to constrain the crustal structure and provide seismic P-wave propagation velocity models from the coast across the Rif and the Atlas. Travel-time inversion of the controlled source seismic data across the Atlas constraints a crustal root to the south of the High Atlas, and reveals mantle wedge. A limited crustal imbrication also appears in the Middle Atlas. The crustal thickness, does not exceeded 40 km in

  6. Tectonics and sedimentology of post-rift anomalous vertical movements: the rifted margin of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Charton, Remi; Luber, Tim; Arantegui, Angel; Redfern, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Roughly 15 years ago it was discovered that substantial parts of the Morocco passive continental margin experienced km-scale, post-rift exhumation. It was predicted that the sands resulting from the associated erosion would be present in the offshore and potentially form hydrocarbon reservoirs. At the same time, anomalous post-rift vertical movements have been documented in various localities of the world and rifted continental margins are at present exciting objects of research. Following intense research efforts the knowledge of the kinematics of vertical movements and their implications for sedimentary systems is increasing. The low-T geochronology initially limited to the classical Meseta-Massif Ancien de Marrakech transect has been expanded reaching the Reguibate Massif to the S and covering, possibly more importantly, one transect in E-W direction along the Anti Atlas. Exhumation occurred along two dominant trends. In N-S direction a several hundred-kilometers long exhuming domain developed roughly parallel to the Atlantic margin. Changes in magnitude and timing of exhumation are observed along this elevated domain associated with E-W trending undulations. The timing of main stage of upward movement of E-W trending highs seems to be Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous in the Meseta and High Atlas and somewhat older, Early to Middle Jurassic, in the Anti-Atlas and Reguibate. The discovery of E-W trending highs and lows has major implication for sediment distribution and dispersal. At the large scale, it means that the drainage basins were smaller than initially predicted. This seems to be compatible with the paucity of sands encountered by recent exploration wells drilled offshore Morocco. At the scale of several kilometers, W-E trending anticlines and synclines developed in a generally subsiding coastal environment. These folds often had an expression at the sea floor documented by ravinement surfaces and (Jurassic) reef build-ups on top of the anticlines

  7. Violence toward physicians in emergency departments of Morocco: prevalence, predictive factors, and psychological impact

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Anyone working in the hospital may become a victim of violence. The effects of violence can range in intensity and include the following: minor physical injuries, serious physical injuries, temporary or permanent physical disability, psychological trauma, and death. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of exposure, characteristics, and psychological impact of violence toward hospital-based emergency physicians in Morocco. Methods This was a survey including emergency physicians who ensured emergency service during the last fortnight. The variables studied were those related to the victim (age and gender), and those related to aggression: assaulter gender, number, time, reason (delay of consultation and/or care, acute drunkenness, neuropsychiatric disease), and type (verbal abuse, verbal threat and/or physical assault). After the questionnaire was completed, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) of Spielberg was applied to all participants. Results A total of 60 physicians have achieved permanence in emergency department during the 15 days preceding the questionnaire response. The mean age was 24 ± 1 year and 57% were male. A total of 42 (70%) had been exposed to violence. The violence occurred at night n = 16 (27%), afternoon n = 13 (22%), evening n = 7 (12%) and morning n = 6 (10%). Reasons for violence were: the delay of consultation or care in n = 31 (52%) cases, acute drunkenness in n = 10 (17%) cases and neuropsychiatric disease in n = 3 (5%) cases. Twenty eight (47%) participants stated that they experienced verbal abuse, n = 18 (30%) verbal threat and n = 5 (8.3%) physical assault. Exposure to some form of violence was related to a higher median [interquartile range, IQR] state anxiety point (SAP); (51 [46-59] vs 39 [34-46]; P < 0,001), and trait anxiety point (TAP) (48 [41-55] vs 40,5 [38-53]; P = 0,01). Conclusions This study revealed a high prevalence (70%) of violence toward doctors in Morocco emergency departments. The

  8. Large Dew water collectors in a village of S-Morocco (Idouasskssou)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekouch, I.; Clus, O.; Durand, M.; Lanfourmi, M.; Muselli, M.; Milimouk, I.; Beysens, D.

    2010-07-01

    With precipitations close to 227 mm/year in average, the coastal region of south Morocco presents a chronically shortage of drinkable and fresh water. Since 1994, in the Mirleft area (150 km south of Agadir), inhabitants are facing a critically drought event. In the year 2007, only 49 mm of rain was recorded. However, measurements in Mirleft in the same year, showed that the dew yield was on order of 40 % of rain fall. In order to show to the local population the interest of recovering dew water in addition to rain water, a small nearby village (Idouasskssou, 8 km SE of Mirleft) was equipped with three pilot condensers of 136 m2 total surface area. In order to ensure a good integration of the project by the village inhabitants, a local organization (Association IMRJANE) collaborated to the project. A concrete tank at ground level with a flat horizontal surface, easily accessible for inhabitants and also a model for traditional Morocco terrace roofings, has been equipped with two lines of condensers (40.6 m²). All roofing materials were from local shops. Only the special radiative and hydrophilic coating was coming from non local resources (see www.opur.fr). The top of a second tank (aside the first one) was renovated and covered with a 21.2 m² two slopes steel roof, insulated and painted with the special dew coating as above. These roofs represent a condensation surface comparable to that of a very little house. A third condenser, with 73.8 m² surface area, was implemented directly on the ground, ensuring minimal work and very cheap implementation costs. Dew was collected and measured in one of the concrete tanks. The water production during 6 months, from 15-12-2008 to 31-07-2009 (137 dew events, 47 % of days) was more than 3800 L (more than 0.2 mm/dew day). It is important to note that, while the devices are specifically designed to condense dew water, they also harvest rain and fog as well, thus providing to the population a valuable water resource.

  9. Contribution of structural geology to assessment of hydrocarbon play in Casablanca Offshore, Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Aitsalem, A.

    1995-08-01

    The Casablanca offshore area, is located in the northwestern part of the Meseta structural domain of Morocco. The Moroccan meseta consists of two major zones, separated by a shearing and overthrusting zone. The eastern zone, contains outcroping massifs that are characterized by Hercynian granitic intrusives and Cambrian to Carboniferous rocks that were strongly folded and faulted during the Hercynian event. The Casablanca offshore area is presently covered by good quality and recently acquired, seismic, gravity and magnetic data. The previous petroleum exploration studies carried out in Casablanca offshore, worked out different structural models based on seismic interpretation, but these models do not agree exactly neither with the gravity and magnetic data nor with the regional structural framework. However, recent study of several structural features, outcropping immediately to the East of the study area, resulted in the elaboration of new structural transects that were used as model for the achievement of new and more accurate seismic interpretation. The Paleozoic rocks were also studied for their hydrocarbon potential as source rocks, reservoir rocks and seals. These new concepts summarize the great petroleum exploration interest in this area and may provide giant discoveries of oil and/or gas fields.

  10. Intestinal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a community setting in Casablanca, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Hannaoui, Imane; Barguigua, Abouddihaj; Serray, Bahija; El Mdaghri, Naima; Timinouni, Mohammed; Ait Chaoui, Ahmed; El Azhari, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the rate of intestinal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and to perform a phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of VRE isolates in the community in Casablanca, Morocco. During 6 months in 2014, 113 faecal samples were examined for the presence of enterococci. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the disk diffusion method. Phenotypic and genotypic species identification was performed, and the vanA, vanB and vanC genes were detected by PCR. Each bacterial isolate resistant to vancomycin was subjected to amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 100 strains were collected from a community population of 80 persons; 55% of the isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium and 45% as Enterococcus faecalis. The resistance profile showed that 88% of the strains were multiresistant. The rate of faecal carriage of VRE was 21% (n=21), among which 8 strains were E. faecalis (17.8% of all E. faecalis) and 13 strains were E. faecium (23.6% of all E. faecium). PCR analysis revealed that all of the strains were resistant to vancomycin owing to possession of the vanA gene. The emergence of VRE and the high rate of colonisation by multiresistant enterococci are alarming. Strict measures are required to control the further spread of these strains in the Moroccan community. PMID:27530846

  11. A potential groundwater aquifer for palaeoclimate reconstruction: Turonian Aquifer, Tadla Basin, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saaadi, Radouan; Palcsu, László; Marah, Hamid; Túri, Marianna; Futó, István; Molnár, Mihály; Rinyu, László

    2016-04-01

    The study is an environmental isotope investigation of groundwater samples from the Turonian Aquifer of Tadla Basin in Morocco for the purpose to confirm that this aquifer could be a potential site for palaeoclimate reconstruction. The collected groundwater samples were examined for δ18O, δ2H, δ13C, noble gas concentrations, radiocarbon and tritium. Radiocarbon ages obtained from different isotope geochemical models indicates that the recharge of all these water samples occurred during the Holocene, we obtained a palaeotemperature record for the last 10 kyr. The calculated noble gas solubility temperatures of the confined part of the aquifer are varying around the recent mean annual soil temperature of 19 °C. However the noble gas temperatures of the unconfined part of the aquifer are a few degree C higher than expected. The obtained noble gas and tritium values might be stated this hypothesis as well. Based on these data, we conclude that the Turonian aquifer might be a potential place for Late-Pleistocene palaeoclimate reconstruction if the research area would be extended in the direct of flow-path towards the western part of the basin and towards the foothill of the Phosphates Plateau.

  12. Entomological and epidemiological study of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ramaoui, K; Guernaoui, S; Boumezzough, A

    2008-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania tropica Wright has become an increasingly important problem in Al-Haouz province, Morocco. The objective of this paper was to undertake a retrospective analysis of CL between 2000 and 2006 and to study the sandfly fauna for the first time in this focus. The consultation of bulletins, registers and monthly and annual reports published by local and national medical services permitted a global synthesis of CL in Al-Haouz between 2000 and 2006. Sandflies were collected using sticky-paper traps in five selected stations in two communes, Ourika and Sti Fadma, the most affected by CL in Al-Haouz. Overall, 2,648 sandflies, belonging to five species of Phlebotomus and three of Sergentomyia, were collected. Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot (14.5%) was found in all studied stations where it was associated with domestic and peridomestic habitats. Based on this first report on ecology of sandflies and epidemiology of CL, Al-Haouz seems to be a typical focus of L. tropica and P. sergenti like the other Moroccan foci. Two communes, Sti Fadma and Ourika, constituted an important CL micro-focus in this region. Considering their economical importance (trade and tourism), they contribute probably to the dissemination of Leishmania parasite in bordering regions. PMID:18592272

  13. Ethnobotanical studies and economic evaluation of medicinal plants in Taounate province (Northern Morocco).

    PubMed

    El-Hilaly, Jaouad; Hmammouchi, Mohamed; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2003-06-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the Taounate population in Northern Morocco to identify plants used in folk-medicine. Two distinct physiographic regions of the province, populated by two ethnic groups, were surveyed. Extensive investigation undertaken during the past 5 years has brought to light 102 medicinal plants belonging to 48 families. The scientific and vernacular names of plants, their ecological distribution, and the popular uses of the plant, the part of the plant used, the preparation and mode of administration are presented. Plants are widely used in indigenous pharmacopoeia to alleviate the common symptoms of cardiovascular (5.8%), gastrointestinal (24.9%), bronchopulmonary systems (9.8%), urogenital (12.2%) and skin (9.2%) diseases, and other disorders which are often associated with magic. The majority of medicinal plants grow in the wild (61%), while others are cultivated (37%) and some (1.9%) are domesticated. These plants are more abundant in the northern part (62%) of the province where they grow in forested areas. Among the 102 species inventoried, 13(12.7%) medicinal plants are widely commercialized in the region and exploited outside of the province. The data collected from 17 wholesalers, show the income derived from medicinal plants to be about USD 1,826,900 per year. This survey demonstrates that the medicinal plant sector in the province is a promising economic resource for developing this region, but it needs planned exploitation, and that the tribes should continue to master the folk-medicine.

  14. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of rhizobia isolated from Hedysarum flexuosum in Northwest region of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ezzakkioui, Fatima; El Mourabit, Nourdin; Chahboune, Rajaa; Castellano-Hinojosa, Antonio; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Barrijal, Said

    2015-07-01

    Seventy bacterial strains were isolated from root nodules of the legume Hedysarum flexuosum grown wild in soils from Northwest Morocco. Repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clustered the strains into 30 REP-PCR groups. The nearly complete sequence of the 16S rRNA gene from a representative strain of each REP-PCR pattern showed that 17 strains were closely related to members of the genus Rhizobium of the family Rhizobiaceae of the Alphaproteobacteria. Pairwise alignments between globally aligned sequences of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the strains from H. flexuosum had 99.75-100% identity with Rhizobium sullae type strain IS123(T). The phenotypic characteristics analyzed allowed description of a wide physiological diversity among the isolates, where the carbohydrate assimilation test was the most discriminating. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of a representative strains from the remaining 13 REP-PCR groups showed they belong to a wide variety of phylogenetic groups being closely related to species of genera Stenotrophomonas, Serratia, Massilia, Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, and Pseudomonas from the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. The R. sullae strains identified in this study produced effective symbiosis with their original host plant. None of the other bacterial strains could form nodules on H. flexuosum.

  15. Economic concepts to address future water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellegers, Petra; Immerzeel, Walter; Droogers, Peter

    2013-10-01

    In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, renewable groundwater and surface water supply are limited while demand for water is growing rapidly. Climate change is expected to increase water demand even further. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia in 2040-2050 under dry, average and wet climate change projections and to show on the basis of the marginal cost and marginal value of water the optimum mix of supply-side and demand-side adjustments to address the imbalance. A hydrological model has been used to estimate the water supply-demand imbalance. Water supply and demand curves have been used to explore for which (marginal value of) water usage the marginal cost of supply-enhancement becomes too expensive. The results indicate that in the future in all cases, except in Iran under the wet climate projection, the quantity of water demanded has to be reduced considerably to address the imbalance, which is indeed what is currently happening already.

  16. Tetradactyl Footprints of an Unknown Affinity Theropod Dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Jaouad; Díaz-Martínez, Ignacio; Pérez-Lorente, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Background New tetradactyl theropod footprints from Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) have been found in the Iouaridène syncline (Morocco). The tracksites are at several layers in the intermediate lacustrine unit of Iouaridène Formation. The footprints were named informally in previous works “Eutynichnium atlasipodus”. We consider as nomen nudum. Methodology/Principal Findings Boutakioutichnium atlasicus ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov. is mainly characterized by the hallux impression. It is long, strong, directed medially or forward, with two digital pads and with the proximal part of the first pad in lateral position. More than 100 footprints in 15 trackways have been studied with these features. The footprints are large, 38–48 cm in length, and 26–31 cm in width. Conclusions/Significance Boutakioutichnium mainly differs from other ichnotaxa with hallux impression in lacking metatarsal marks and in not being a very deep footprint. The distinct morphology of the hallux of the Boutakioutichnium trackmaker –i.e. size and hallux position- are unique in the dinosaur autopodial record to date. PMID:22180775

  17. Acute Upper Gastro-Intestinal Bleeding in Morocco: What Have Changed?

    PubMed Central

    Timraz, A.; Khannoussi, W.; Ajana, F. Z.; Essamri, W.; Benelbarhdadi, I.; Afifi, R.; Benazzouz, M.; Essaid, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. In the present study, we aimed to investigate epidemiological, clinical, and etiological characteristics of acute upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2003 and December 2008. It concerned all cases of acute upper gastroduodenal bleeding benefited from an urgent gastro-intestinal endoscopy in our department in Morocco. Characteristics of patients were evaluated in terms of age, gender, medical history, presenting symptoms, results of rectal and clinical examinations, and endoscopy findings. Results. 1389 cases were registered. As 66% of the patients were male, 34% were female. Mean age was 49. 12% of patients had a history of previous hemorrhage, and 26% had a history of NSAID and aspirin use. Endoscopy was performed in 96%. The gastroduodenal ulcer was the main etiology in 38%, followed by gastritis and duodenitis in 32.5%. Conclusion. AUGIB is still a frequent pathology, threatening patients' life. NSAID and aspirin are still the major risk factors. Their impact due to peptic ulcer remains stable in our country. PMID:21991509

  18. Dinosaur footprints and other ichnofauna from the cretaceous Kem Kem beds of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Varricchio, David J; Sereno, Paul C; Wilson, Jeffery A; Wilson, Jeff A; Dutheil, Didier B; Martill, David M; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extensive ichnofossil assemblage from the likely Cenomanian-age 'lower' and 'upper' units of the 'Kem Kem beds' in southeastern Morocco. In the lower unit, trace fossils include narrow vertical burrows in cross-bedded sandstones and borings in dinosaur bone, with the latter identified as the insect ichnotaxon Cubiculum ornatus. In the upper unit, several horizons preserve abundant footprints from theropod dinosaurs. Sauropod and ornithischian footprints are much rarer, similar to the record for fossil bone and teeth in the Kem Kem assemblage. The upper unit also preserves a variety of invertebrate traces including Conichnus (the resting trace of a sea-anemone), Scolicia (a gastropod trace), Beaconites (a probable annelid burrow), and subvertical burrows likely created by crabs for residence and detrital feeding on a tidal flat. The ichnofossil assemblage from the Upper Cretaceous Kem Kem beds contributes evidence for a transition from predominantly terrestrial to marine deposition. Body fossil and ichnofossil records together provide a detailed view of faunal diversity and local conditions within a fluvial and deltaic depositional setting on the northwestern coast of Africa toward the end of the Cretaceous. PMID:24603467

  19. A new pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Unwin, David M; Martill, David M; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

    2010-05-26

    The Kem Kem beds in South Eastern Morocco contain a rich early Upper (or possibly late Lower) Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage. Fragmentary remains, predominantly teeth and jaw tips, represent several kinds of pterosaur although only one species, the ornithocheirid Coloborhynchus moroccensis, has been named. Here, we describe a new azhdarchid pterosaur, Alanqa saharica nov. gen. nov. sp., based on an almost complete well preserved mandibular symphysis from Aferdou N'Chaft. We assign additional fragmentary jaw remains, some of which have been tentatively identified as azhdarchid and pteranodontid, to this new taxon which is distinguished from other azhdarchids by a remarkably straight, elongate, lance-shaped mandibular symphysis that bears a pronounced dorsal eminence near the posterior end of its dorsal (occlusal) surface. Most remains, including the holotype, represent individuals of approximately three to four meters in wingspan, but a fragment of a large cervical vertebra, that probably also belongs to A. saharica, suggests that wingspans of six meters were achieved in this species. The Kem Kem beds have yielded the most diverse pterosaur assemblage yet reported from Africa and provide the first clear evidence for the presence of azhdarchids in Gondwana at the start of the Late Cretaceous. This, the relatively large size achieved by Alanqa, and the additional evidence of variable jaw morphology in azhdarchids provided by this taxon, indicates a longer and more complex history for this clade than previously suspected.

  20. Factors associated with treatment default by tuberculosis patients in Fez, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Slama, K; Tachfouti, N; Obtel, M; Nejjari, C

    2013-08-01

    Interruption in tuberculosis (TB) treatment still remains the most important challenge for control of the disease. This study aimed to identify the determinants of TB treatment default in Fez, Morocco. A 1:2 pair-matched case-control study was carried out in the TB control units in Fez. Cases were defaulters to TB treatment and were matched by age and sex to non-defaulters (controls). Of the 320 patients (108 defaulters, 212 controls), 80.6% were male. The main reason for defaulting reported by patients was the sensation of being cured. Predictive factors for treatment default in the multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, were: relapsed case (adjusted OR = 4.49; 95% Cl: 1.87-10.8), current smoking (aOR= 2.10; 95% Cl: 1.07-4.14), alcohol use (aOR = 2.92; 95% Cl: 1.04-8.19), being more than 30 minutes away from the health centre (aOR = 3.34; 95% Cl: 1.06-10.5) and perception of having received insufficient explanation about the disease (aOR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.53-5.36). The rate of defaulting in Fez can be lowered through targeted and realistic measures.

  1. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries.

  2. Structural features of phosphate accumulations in the Gantour basin - Morocco : Application of GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Laadraoui; El Hassane, Boumaggard; Essaid, Jourani

    2010-05-01

    The Moroccan Atlantic margin raises a lot of interest because of its potential resources in phosphates. It also holds in its Mesetien part one of the largest phosphatic deposit in the world. The authors present the results of their researches on structural environments of the phosphatic sedimentary sequences in the Gantour deposit in western Morocco. These investigations are mainly based on field data, data recorded from work done by the OCP (Office Chérifien des Phosphates) group, the interpretation of industrial seismic profiles and the application of GIS. Our aim are devoted to the apprehension of the geometry and the cinematic of these basins which are contemporaneous to the Central Atlantic Rifting, as well as the determination of the list of factors liable to the genesis of these phosphatic basins. Other data of field observations (cartography, study of structural features,...) permit to identify the general structure of the prospect. Sedimentation of phosphated deposits is strained by the presence of two wrench faulting systems oriented N20¬40E, N80¬120E and N140¬160E.

  3. New seismic reflection techniques applied to gas recognition in the Rharb Basin, Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Dakki, M. )

    1994-07-01

    The Rharb basin in Morocco is a Tertiary foreland filled by clastic series during the Miocene and Pliocene. This terrigenous influx, derived from the prerif to the northeast and the Meseta to the south, is characterized by a sandy episode during much of the Messinian and the Tortonian. The sand deposits were probably related to the uplift and major erosion of a part of the prerif during the sliding of an olistostrome (prerif nappe). Although most of the wells drilled in the basin have encountered biogenic gas accumulations, the problem still facing exploration in the area is seismic resolution and thin-bed tuning analysis. Recent studies using high seismic resolution techniques have permitted the authors to gain a deep insight into the stratigraphy and depositional environment of the thin sand reservoirs and their fluid content. AVO stratigraphy, inversion of seismic traces into acoustic impedance traces and seismic attributes calculation, and computing provide a remarkable example of the possibilities of depicting the lateral and vertical evolution of reservoir facies and localizing biogenic gas accumulations. Out of five recent exploratory wells drilled based on this new technique, three encountered gas-bearing sands with economic potential. Fifty-three amplitude anomalies have been identified and await processing.

  4. Supporting small-scale dairy farmers in increasing milk production: evidence from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Sraïri, Mohamed Taher; El Jaouhari, Meryem; Saydi, Abdessalam; Kuper, Marcel; Le Gal, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of technical support provided to five small-scale cattle farms in the Tadla irrigation scheme (Morocco) on their milk yield. The first stage consisted of assessing the initial management of dairy herds, especially feeding strategies, and their effects on milk output. This diagnosis revealed major gaps between the existing and the potential milk yield, due to insufficient and imbalanced dietary rations. Based on this diagnosis, technical support was adapted to the reality of each farm by regularly adjusting the dietary rations to the production potential of lactating cows using available feed resources. The production potential of either pure Holstein or crossbred cows was based on the herd's physiological status and its genetic merit. Results showed that milk production could be rapidly improved by balanced dietary rations that enabled the average milk yield of lactating cows to be reached, while optimising feed costs and reducing the cost of milk production. Providing technical support to dairy farms should have a significant impact on overall milk production at different scales (irrigation scheme, plant supply area, national production) while alleviating the poverty of small-scale farmers. It would require the involvement of farmers' organisations such as milk collection co-operatives to replace services provided by the State, which is currently withdrawing from extension activities.

  5. Morphological characteristics and medium-term evolution of the beaches between Ceuta and Cabo Negro (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfuso, G.; Martínez Del Pozo, J. A.; Nachite, D.; Benavente, J.; Macias, A.

    2007-05-01

    This work presents the results of a combined study on the beach morphology and the evolution at short- and medium-term of the littoral between Ceuta and Cabo Negro (Morocco). It is an interesting sector showing a great increase of human occupation and coastal structures. The monitoring program allowed for the reconstruction of the beach morphological behavior and the seasonal changes. The studied beaches presented reflective profiles recording little seasonality, with the most notable morphological changes being strictly related to storms. Surf Similarity and Surf Scaling parameters highlighted the existence of intermediate and reflective beach states, characterized by plunging breakers. Aerial photographs and a satellite image have been geo-referenced and elaborated with GIS tools to reconstruct the short- and medium-term evolution of the littoral and the sediment transport pathways. The littoral showed important erosion at short- and medium-term related to a negative sedimentary budget because of offshore transport. Sand accumulation was recorded close to the main ports, i.e., Marina Smir and Marina Kabila. These port structures constituted impermeable, fixed limits, which divided the studied area into littoral cells. Other free, transit limits were also observed.

  6. Structural and hydrogeological features of a Lias carbonate aquifer in the Triffa Plain, NE Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardinha, J.; Carneiro, J. F.; Zarhloule, Y.; Barkaoui, A.; Correia, A.; Boughriba, M.; Rimi, A.; El Houadi, B.

    2012-09-01

    The rising demand for water and the contamination of shallow water table aquifers has led authorities in NE Morocco to look for deeper groundwater resources in the Triffa Plain, namely in Lower Jurassic (Lias) dolomitic limestones. The liassic aquifer is of strategic importance for the development of the region, however, its hydrodynamic behaviour is poorly understood due to lack of hydrogeological data and block structure. This article presents a first effort towards understanding the structure and hydraulic behaviour of the aquifer. Exploration borehole data and results from geophysical campaigns were integrated into a GIS environment to build a preliminary model of the aquifer structure. The aquifer behaves as an unconfined aquifer in the northern part of the Béni Snassen Mountains (the recharge area), but as it dips to the north, it becomes confined by marls and shales of the Middle/Upper Jurassic. Even though piezometric level data are scarce, a tentative piezometric map was produced. Three blocks separated by NW-SE trending faults in a horst and graben structure, with distinct flow behaviours were identified: Berkane, Fezouane and Sidi Rahmoun blocks. Those blocks also show differences in hydraulic conductivity distribution. As a result of the reaction with the dolomitic limestones, the groundwater is of calcium-magnesium bicarbonate type. Groundwater temperature as measured in springs ranges from 29 °C to 37 °C in springs and constitutes a potential low enthalpy geothermal resource.

  7. Structural evolution of the Rides Prerifaines (Morocco): structural and seismic interpretation and analogue modelling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, F.; Del Ventisette, C.; Montanari, D.; Bendkik, A.; Chenakeb, M.

    2007-08-01

    The Rides Prerifaines (RP) of Morocco constitute the leading edge of the Rif chain. They involve a Triassic Palaeocene succession deposited on a peneplained Palaeozoic fold belt and accumulated in basins delimited by NE SW-trending normal fault systems. A significant hiatus separates an overlying Middle Miocene Upper Miocene foredeep sequence. The reconstruction of the complex structural evolution of the RP during the later compressive phases that affected the Rif chain since Middle Miocene time has been the aim of this paper. We integrated field structural analyses, seismic line interpretation, and analogue modelling in order to evaluate the control exerted by the Late Triassic Jurassic normal fault systems onto the later compressive tectonics. The maximum compression direction associated with the first compressive phase is roughly NE SW to ENE WSW oriented. During this phase the Mesozoic basin fill was scooped-out from the graben and the main décollement level were the Triassic evaporites. Since Pliocene times the maximum compression direction was oriented roughly N S. During this phase the RP assumed their present structural setting. The earlier normal faults delimiting the Mesozoic graben were reactivated in a strike slip mode also involving the Palaeozoic basement. The analogue modelling experiments demonstrated that the basement reactivation promoted salt tectonics and favoured fluid circulation.

  8. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries. PMID:19082756

  9. A New Pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Unwin, David M.; Martill, David M.; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

    2010-01-01

    The Kem Kem beds in South Eastern Morocco contain a rich early Upper (or possibly late Lower) Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage. Fragmentary remains, predominantly teeth and jaw tips, represent several kinds of pterosaur although only one species, the ornithocheirid Coloborhynchus moroccensis, has been named. Here, we describe a new azhdarchid pterosaur, Alanqa saharica nov. gen. nov. sp., based on an almost complete well preserved mandibular symphysis from Aferdou N'Chaft. We assign additional fragmentary jaw remains, some of which have been tentatively identified as azhdarchid and pteranodontid, to this new taxon which is distinguished from other azhdarchids by a remarkably straight, elongate, lance-shaped mandibular symphysis that bears a pronounced dorsal eminence near the posterior end of its dorsal (occlusal) surface. Most remains, including the holotype, represent individuals of approximately three to four meters in wingspan, but a fragment of a large cervical vertebra, that probably also belongs to A. saharica, suggests that wingspans of six meters were achieved in this species. The Kem Kem beds have yielded the most diverse pterosaur assemblage yet reported from Africa and provide the first clear evidence for the presence of azhdarchids in Gondwana at the start of the Late Cretaceous. This, the relatively large size achieved by Alanqa, and the additional evidence of variable jaw morphology in azhdarchids provided by this taxon, indicates a longer and more complex history for this clade than previously suspected. PMID:20520782

  10. Dinosaur Footprints and Other Ichnofauna from the Cretaceous Kem Kem Beds of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Varricchio, David J.; Sereno, Paul C.; Wilson, Jeff A.; Dutheil, Didier B.; Martill, David M.; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extensive ichnofossil assemblage from the likely Cenomanian-age ‘lower’ and ‘upper’ units of the ‘Kem Kem beds’ in southeastern Morocco. In the lower unit, trace fossils include narrow vertical burrows in cross-bedded sandstones and borings in dinosaur bone, with the latter identified as the insect ichnotaxon Cubiculum ornatus. In the upper unit, several horizons preserve abundant footprints from theropod dinosaurs. Sauropod and ornithischian footprints are much rarer, similar to the record for fossil bone and teeth in the Kem Kem assemblage. The upper unit also preserves a variety of invertebrate traces including Conichnus (the resting trace of a sea-anemone), Scolicia (a gastropod trace), Beaconites (a probable annelid burrow), and subvertical burrows likely created by crabs for residence and detrital feeding on a tidal flat. The ichnofossil assemblage from the Upper Cretaceous Kem Kem beds contributes evidence for a transition from predominantly terrestrial to marine deposition. Body fossil and ichnofossil records together provide a detailed view of faunal diversity and local conditions within a fluvial and deltaic depositional setting on the northwestern coast of Africa toward the end of the Cretaceous. PMID:24603467

  11. Cretaceous source rock characterization of the Atlantic Continental margin of Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H. )

    1993-02-01

    Characterization of the petroleum potential for the Atlantic margin of Morocco has been based primarily on limited, antiently acquired organic geochemical data. These indicate the area of drilling behind the paleoshelf edge to be only fair in organic carbon and C15+ extract values with predominantly terrestrial kerogen types. Recently acquired geochemical data obtained from relatively recent drilling both behind and beyond the paleoshelf edge indicate 4 depositional facies containing hydrogen rich amorphous kerogen assemblages. These are: (1) Lower to Mid Jurassic inner shelf facies probably deposited in algal rich lagoon-like, (2) Lower Cretaceous non marine coaly facies probably deposited in algal rich swamplike environments, (3) Middle Cretaceous facies characterized by restrited anoxic environment with sediments rich in marine kerogen types deposited under sluggish wather circulation, (4) Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary outer-shelf to Upper slope facies probably deposited under algal-rich upwelling systems. Of these, the Cretaceous facies is the most widespread and represents the best source rock potential characteristics. Correlation of these facies to recently acquired good quality seismic packages allows for extrapolation of probable organic facies distribution throughout the continental margin. This should enhance the hydrocarbon potential of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments both landward and seaward of the paleoshelf edge and thus permits refinement of strategies for hydrocarbon exploration in the area.

  12. Argan woodlands in South Morocco as an area of conflict between degradation and sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Mario; Kagermeier, Andreas; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The Argan woodlands are endemic for South Morocco and prone to degradation through expanding and intensifying agriculture and overgrazing. Unvegetated areas extend further due to degradation of soil and vegetation. Here infiltration is less than on vegetated areas, while runoff and soil erosion increase. The sale of the highly valuable oil, gained from the seeds of the argan tree, can be seen as an economic alternative for the region and a chance of survival for the argan woodlands. With the introduction of women's cooperatives for the production and sale of the oil, the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ, Association for Technical Cooperation) hoped to halt argan degradation from 1995 to 2002. The effects of this approach shall be studied in a proposed DFG-project. The erosion gradient between soils under canopy cover and intertree areas in varying stages of degradation will be at the center of the analysis. Insight into onsite and offsite degradation shall be gained through the measurement of runoff and erosion rates, which lead to rill and gully erosion downslope. Measurements of soil chemical and physical properties might also help indicate when an argan woodland can be classified as natural. Furthermore to be studied are the effects of the new found value of the Argan woodlands among the local population with focus on regional tourism and a possible reduction of grazing pressure. Sustainable soil management in combination with the needs of the local population is essential for a sustainable land use in the region.

  13. Detailed mineralogy and petrology of manganese oxyhydroxide deposits of the Imini district (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekoninck, A.; Bernard, A.; Barbarand, J.; Saint-Bezar, B.; Missenard, Y.; Lepretre, R.; Saddiqi, O.; Yans, J.

    2016-01-01

    Manganese ore in the Cenomanian-Turonian dolostone of the Imini district (south of the High Atlas, Morocco) displays a high Mn content due to the occurrence of pyrolusite, cryptomelane, hollandite sensu stricto, coronadite, romanechite, and lithiophorite. The orebodies occur mainly as three stratabound layers along the ~25-km-long ore belt following a WSW-ENE direction. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD), we here refine the mineralogy and petrology of Mn oxides and oxyhydroxides in order to constrain the paragenetic sequence and define the main processes of ore formation. Deposition and concentration of Mn oxyhydroxides follow a two-step sequence after dolomitization: (1) replacement of dolomite fabric (dolomite micrite and dolomite rhombs) by hollandite group minerals leading to a textural conservation and then (2) neoformation of collomorphous aggregates in an opened and brecciated system. These observations are consistent with a multistage evolution including multiple reworking and brecciation. Pyrolusite is the main Mn oxide observed in the Imini district during both early and late stages. The superficial environment provides supergene conditions suitable for the deposition of only Mn oxyhydroxides. This supergene environment and the occurrence of multiple bands of hollandite group minerals indicate an external migration (allochthonous supply) of Mn and associated elements, contemporaneous to an in situ chemical and mechanical dissolution of the host dolostone. The lithological heterogeneities of dolostone and its chemical environment compared to less permeable surrounding rocks may have provided the conditions to concentrate Mn oxides and oxyhydroxides.

  14. Studies on the epidemiology and control of seasonal conjunctivitis and trachoma in southern Morocco*

    PubMed Central

    Reinhards, J.; Weber, A.; Nižetič, B.; Kupka, K.; Maxwell-Lyons, F.

    1968-01-01

    It has been noted in many parts of the world that bacterial conjunctivitis is a major cause of total or partial loss of vision. In addition, trachoma is aggravated if there are associated bacterial infections and these lead to more frequent corneal complications. In the trials described the seasonal variation of bacterial infections was studied in addition to trachoma in 3 pilot sectors in southern Morocco. The frequency of complications and late sequelae from these infections in the whole population of these sectors was also studied. In one of the sectors 3 different methods of limiting the regular seasonal increase in bacterial infections and of curing trachoma were evaluated separately or in combination. These included the effect of fly-suppression on the transmission of infection, a possible method of chemoprophylaxis, and intermittent treatment with chlortetracycline ointment. The effect of the latter, when applied to a whole population group by auxiliary personnel, was compared with the long-term effect of self-treatment, in this and the two other sectors. The total observation period covered 12 years. PMID:5304804

  15. Distribution of Carcinogenic Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Association to Cervical Lesions among Women in Fez (Morocco)

    PubMed Central

    Souho, Tiatou; El Fatemi, Hinde; Karim, Safae; El Rhazi, Karima; Bouchikhi, Chahrazed; Banani, Abdelaziz; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes and their association to cellular abnormalities in women from Fez and its neighborhood. Methods Women attending the Hassan II University Hospital for cervical pap smears were recruited after an informed consent. Interviews and two cervical samples were performed for each woman. Cervical samples were used for cytological analysis and HPV DNA detection. HPV was typed using a method based on multiplex PCR with fluorescently labeled specific primers followed by capillary electrophoresis. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Fez. Results The HPV prevalence in the studied population was 43.1% and the most prevalent types were HPV 53 (23 cases); HPV 16 (20 cases); HPV 35 (18 cases); HPV 51 (10 cases) and HPV 56 (7 cases). From the 619 confirmed pap smears, 20% were abnormal. The cytological abnormalities were significantly associated to HPV infection, women age, number of pregnancies and parity (p < 0.05). Conclusion More attention should be given to HPV in Morocco because it represents an important public health concern. The distribution of carcinogenic HPV types in the studied population is different from the data in other regions but epidemiological studies in other Moroccan regions are required. PMID:26731415

  16. Human Exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Two Cities of Northwestern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Elhamiani Khatat, Sarah; Sahibi, Hamid; Hing, Mony; Alaoui Moustain, Ismail; El Amri, Hamid; Benajiba, Mohammed; Kachani, Malika; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with extensive increased interest. Epidemiological data are available in several regions of the USA, Europe and Asia in contrast to other parts of the world such as North Africa. Blood samples of 261 healthy individuals divided in two groups i.e., dog handlers and blood donors were analysed. Indirect immunofluorescent assay using a commercial kit was performed to detect specific A. phagocytophilum IgG. Two dilutions were used to assess the prevalence of seroreactive samples. Demographic variables were assessed as potential risk factors using exact logistic regression. Seropositivity rates reached 37% and 27% in dog handlers and 36% and 22% in blood donors. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence rates between the two groups. Analysis of risk factors such as gender, age groups, outdoor activities, self-reported previous exposure to ticks, or contact with domestic animals (dogs, cats, ruminants and horses) did not shown any significant difference. A. phagocytophilum exposure was common in both high-risk population and blood donors in Morocco. PMID:27532208

  17. Longitudinal to transverse drainage network evolution in the High Atlas (Morocco): The role of tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babault, Julien; van den Driessche, Jean; Teixell, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    The High Atlas of Morocco is a still-active, linear intracontinental mountain chain in the NW African plate, which results from weak crustal thickening associated with rift inversion during the Cenozoic and from uplift related to mantle thermal doming. A striking morphological feature of the High Atlas is the occurrence of both transverse and longitudinal (i.e., strike-parallel) drainage characterized by deep fluvial incision of more than 1000 m in low-relief topography of the axial zone of the chain. Most of the transverse component of the drainage appears to postdate the longitudinal component as indicated by recent or incipient captures and wind gaps. The longitudinal drainage is inherited from an early stage of fluvial organization controlled by the tectonic structures developed during upper crustal folding and thrusting in the post-Paleozoic cover. Amplification of N-S regional slope in the western High Atlas by continued crustal shortening and thickening triggered: (i) higher erosion rates in transverse than in longitudinal catchments and (ii) captures of longitudinal streams by transverse ones, creating a new organization of the drainage system toward the regional slope. Such evolution from a longitudinal to a transverse-dominated drainage may represent a common mechanism of fluvial network development in mountain belts where the amplification of the regional slope results from long-lived lithospheric convergence.

  18. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia Among School Children in Kenitra, Northwest of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Achouri, I; Aboussaleh, Y; Sbaibi, R; Ahami, A; El Hioui, M

    2015-04-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is an important health problem in Morocco. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children in Kenitra. The sample represents school children of all educational levels and age ranged between 6-15 years. The level of hemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was measured in a group of 271 school children. The seric iron was assessed and anaemia was defined when hemoglobin < 11.5 g dL(-1). A questionnaire was developed to obtain information about the daily food consumption and socio-economic conditions. The prevalence of anaemia was 16.2%. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 12.53 g dL(-1) in boys and 12.52 g dL(-1) in girls. The results suggest that iron deficiency is an important determinant of anaemia in this population. There was a significant relationship between education of the mother and anaemia in children (p = 0.004) but not with the family income. It is concluded that improving the economic status of the family, women education and health education about balanced animal and plant food consumption are recommended strategies to reduce the burden of anaemia.

  19. Palaeogeographic implications of a new iocrinid crinoid (Disparida) from the Ordovician (Darriwillian) of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Imran A.; Ausich, William I.

    2015-01-01

    Complete, articulated crinoids from the Ordovician peri-Gondwanan margin are rare. Here, we describe a new species, Iocrinus africanus sp. nov., from the Darriwilian-age Taddrist Formation of Morocco. The anatomy of this species was studied using a combination of traditional palaeontological methods and non-destructive X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT). This revealed critical features of the column, distal arms, and aboral cup, which were hidden in the surrounding rock and would have been inaccessible without the application of micro-CT. Iocrinus africanus sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of seven to thirteen tertibrachials, three in-line bifurcations per ray, and an anal sac that is predominantly unplated or very lightly plated. Iocrinus is a common genus in North America (Laurentia) and has also been reported from the United Kingdom (Avalonia) and Oman (middle east Gondwana). Together with Merocrinus, it represents one of the few geographically widespread crinoids during the Ordovician and serves to demonstrate that faunal exchanges between Laurentia and Gondwana occurred at this time. This study highlights the advantages of using both conventional and cutting-edge techniques (such as micro-CT) to describe the morphology of new fossil specimens. PMID:26664800

  20. Dinosaur footprints and other ichnofauna from the cretaceous Kem Kem beds of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Varricchio, David J; Sereno, Paul C; Wilson, Jeffery A; Wilson, Jeff A; Dutheil, Didier B; Martill, David M; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extensive ichnofossil assemblage from the likely Cenomanian-age 'lower' and 'upper' units of the 'Kem Kem beds' in southeastern Morocco. In the lower unit, trace fossils include narrow vertical burrows in cross-bedded sandstones and borings in dinosaur bone, with the latter identified as the insect ichnotaxon Cubiculum ornatus. In the upper unit, several horizons preserve abundant footprints from theropod dinosaurs. Sauropod and ornithischian footprints are much rarer, similar to the record for fossil bone and teeth in the Kem Kem assemblage. The upper unit also preserves a variety of invertebrate traces including Conichnus (the resting trace of a sea-anemone), Scolicia (a gastropod trace), Beaconites (a probable annelid burrow), and subvertical burrows likely created by crabs for residence and detrital feeding on a tidal flat. The ichnofossil assemblage from the Upper Cretaceous Kem Kem beds contributes evidence for a transition from predominantly terrestrial to marine deposition. Body fossil and ichnofossil records together provide a detailed view of faunal diversity and local conditions within a fluvial and deltaic depositional setting on the northwestern coast of Africa toward the end of the Cretaceous.

  1. Sampling studies on the epidemiology and control of trachoma in southern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Kupka, K.; Nižetič, B.; Reinhards, J.

    1968-01-01

    Mass-treatment campaigns against trachoma and seasonal conjunctivitis, using chlortetracycline ointment, were started in 1952 in parts of southern Morocco. This paper reports the results of a survey carried out between 1962 and 1965, under the auspices of the Moroccan Government, WHO and UNICEF, to evaluate the effects of the mass-campaign. The survey assessed the prevalence, gravity and frequency of complications of trachoma by ophthalmological examinations, conducted in the home, and the results are compared with data published elsewhere which were obtained before treatment started in the 1950s in parts of the study area. Additional studies were made of the relation between trachoma and the availability and use of water, and between the prevalence of trachoma in females and their exposure to infection. The over-all prevalence of trachoma was unaffected by the mass-treatment campaign but a larger proportion of the cases were at stage IV of the disease (healed). In one region, however, the prevalence of active cases (stages I—III) in the younger age-groups had decreased considerably. The occurrence of pannus decreased and while trichiasis decreased in children under 15 years of age, its prevalence increased in adults. This result may be important in planning future mass-campaigns. PMID:5304434

  2. Analysis of food intake profile among women from the oasis of southeastern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bidi, Amina; El Bouhali, Bachir; Nasri, Issad; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of women and food intake is known to reflect a healthy diet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on the food intake in women living in the southeastern oasis of Morocco by exploring their nutritional intake through 24-h dietary recall (n=387). Analysis of the relationship between food intake and the socioeconomic characteristics in women showed a positive correlation between daily vegetable, cereals, red and white meat intake and region of residence (p<0.001, p=0.005, p=0.001 and p=0.04 respectively). The number of persons living at home showed a positive significant correlation with the daily intake of vegetables (p=0.01) and beverage (p=0.004). For fish and cereals, a positive significant correlation with the occupation variable has been shown (p=0.04 and p<0.001 respectively). In addition, a positive correlation has been noticed between the daily intake of vegetables, cereals, white meat, and dairy product and family status in housing (p=0.03, p=0.02, p=0.03 and p=0.04 respectively). In conclusion, the level of education, family size and occupation influence the daily intake of food in this region. PMID:26246164

  3. Assessing the Effects of Tourist Provisioning on the Health of Wild Barbary Macaques in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Maréchal, Laëtitia; Semple, Stuart; Majolo, Bonaventura; MacLarnon, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Feeding wildlife is a very popular tourist activity, largely because it facilitates the close observation of animals in their natural habitat. Such provisioning may benefit animals by improving their survival and reproductive success, especially during periods of natural food shortage. However, provisioning by tourists may also have negative impacts on the health of the animals involved; to date such impacts are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of tourist provisioning on the health of wild adult Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, in Morocco. We compared health measures between a heavily provisioned group and a group that received negligible food from tourists and, in the former group, we also assessed health measures in relation to the intensity of provisioning. We used a broad range of non-invasive health measures relating to birth rate and survival, disease and injury risk, body size and condition, and physiological stress. Our findings indicate that feeding by tourists may overall have negative impacts on the health of Barbary macaques, being linked in particular to larger body size, elevated stress levels and more alopecia. Finally, we propose a framework to help consider the potential costs and benefits of provisioning, which may facilitate future research and management decisions on whether-and how much-provisioning is acceptable.

  4. Late Triassic to middle Jurassic history of the north-central high Atlas, Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Letsch, D.K.

    1988-02-01

    The Lower and Middle Jurassic (Liassic and Dogger) rocks in the north-central High Atlas and on the adjacent Oran Meseta, Morocco, were deposited on the subsiding margin of the Triassic/Jurassic High Atlas trough. This and the Middle Atlas trough formed as a result of rifting of the Moroccan Meseta and oran Meseta from the Saharan craton during initial stages of the opening of the modern Atlantic. The Tethys seaway flooded these troughs in the early Liassic, resulting in deposition of several thousand meters of liassic and Dogger limestone and marlstone. The deepening-upward Liassic section in the north-central High Atlas reflects the rapid development of the short-lived High Atlas trough, which formed in the Late Triassic-Early Liassic flooding by the Tethys established carbonate tidal flats on the Oran Meseta, a shelf margin at the basin's edge, and slope and basin-floor deposition within the trough. Rapid subsidence of the margin brought slope and basin floor sediments on top of the platform margin as the trough developed. Subsidence slowed toward the end of the Lias, resulting in progradation of the shelf-margin environments. At the end of the Lias, a portion of the margin slid into the basin, followed by debris shed off the slide scar. Continued marlstone and limestone deposition filled the basin during the Dogger, marking the end of rift-related sedimentation in the High Atlas trough.

  5. Rift tectonics and limestone sedimentation: Jurassic of the central and eastern High Atlas, Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Warme, J.E.; Hazlett, B.H.; Crevello, P.D.; Letsch, D.K.; Burke, R.B. )

    1988-08-01

    The central and eastern High Atlas ranges of southern Morocco represent deposition in an Early to Middle Jurassic rift which first collected continental basalts, red beds, and evaporites. Carbonate deposition was initiated by a euxinic phase, followed by a mosaic of normal marine limestones and marls controlled by regional subsidence and local differential fault-block movements and overprinted by global sea level changes. The High Atlas is now an en echelon series of high-angle reverse faults, creating abrupt and discontinuous fault-bounded ridges separated by broad synclines. Facies relationships of the Jurassic carbonates show that the faults were originally synrift normal faults, probably transtensional, now structurally reversed. Overlying Aalenian to Bajocian shelf limestones prograded into an axial seaway filled with thick marls, punctuated in the Bajocian by horizons of spectacularly exposed coralgal reefs which appear structurally isolated on separate fault blocks. Sedimentation eventually outpaced subsidence, culminating in continental deposits as the sea finally retreated in the mid-Dogger. Although abundant potential source rocks of this rift are thermally overmature, the basin serves as a well-exposed model for comparison with carbonate-filled rifts elsewhere.

  6. Human Exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Two Cities of Northwestern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Elhamiani Khatat, Sarah; Sahibi, Hamid; Hing, Mony; Alaoui Moustain, Ismail; El Amri, Hamid; Benajiba, Mohammed; Kachani, Malika; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with extensive increased interest. Epidemiological data are available in several regions of the USA, Europe and Asia in contrast to other parts of the world such as North Africa. Blood samples of 261 healthy individuals divided in two groups i.e., dog handlers and blood donors were analysed. Indirect immunofluorescent assay using a commercial kit was performed to detect specific A. phagocytophilum IgG. Two dilutions were used to assess the prevalence of seroreactive samples. Demographic variables were assessed as potential risk factors using exact logistic regression. Seropositivity rates reached 37% and 27% in dog handlers and 36% and 22% in blood donors. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence rates between the two groups. Analysis of risk factors such as gender, age groups, outdoor activities, self-reported previous exposure to ticks, or contact with domestic animals (dogs, cats, ruminants and horses) did not shown any significant difference. A. phagocytophilum exposure was common in both high-risk population and blood donors in Morocco. PMID:27532208

  7. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil salinization in irrigated Tadla Plain (Morocco) using satellite spectral indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Harti, Abderrazak; Lhissou, Rachid; Chokmani, Karem; Ouzemou, Jamal-eddine; Hassouna, Mohamed; Bachaoui, El Mostafa; El Ghmari, Abderrahmene

    2016-08-01

    Soil salinization is major environmental issue in irrigated agricultural production. Conventional methods for salinization monitoring are time and money consuming and limited by the high spatiotemporal variability of this phenomenon. This work aims to propose a spatiotemporal monitoring method of soil salinization in the Tadla plain in central Morocco using spectral indices derived from Thematic Mapper (TM) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Six Landsat TM/OLI satellite images acquired during 13 years period (2000-2013) coupled with in-situ electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were used to develop the proposed method. After radiometric and atmospheric correction of TM/OLI images, a new soil salinity index (OLI-SI) is proposed for soil EC estimation. Validation shows that this index allowed a satisfactory EC estimation in the Tadla irrigated perimeter with coefficient of determination R2 varying from 0.55 to 0.77 and a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) ranging between 1.02 dS/m and 2.35 dS/m. The times-series of salinity maps produced over the Tadla plain using the proposed method show that salinity is decreasing in intensity and progressively increasing in spatial extent, over the 2000-2013 period. This trend resulted in a decrease in agricultural activities in the southwestern part of the perimeter, located in the hydraulic downstream.

  8. First genotyping of Giardia duodenalis and prevalence of enteroparasites in children from Tetouan (Morocco)

    PubMed Central

    El Fatni, Chadia; Olmo, Francisco; El Fatni, Hoummad; Romero, Desiré; Rosales, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are common in the Moroccan population. Enteroparasites in children from four schools in urban and rural areas of Tetouan (Morocco) were studied to treat these children and to design prevention and control programs. A total of 673 children were examined. The prevalence of parasitized children was 51%. The average number of enteroparasites was half in urban areas than in rural areas. Multiple parasitism appeared in 30% of the samples presenting two, three, or four parasites. The most prevalent parasite was Blastocystis hominis (64%). Giardia duodenalis was the most frequent pathogen, with an overall prevalence of 20% (24% in rural areas and 16% in urban areas). Other pathogenic enteroparasites were Cyclospora cayetanensis (5% in rural and urban areas), Iodamoeba butschlii, Hymenolepis spp., Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius vermicularis, with prevalence lower than 2%. In this work, G. duodenalis genotypes were molecularly characterized by a study of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and 18S rRNA genes. This is the first study of molecular characterization of G. duodenalis in Moroccan children, and the sequence analysis revealed both Assemblage A (AII) and Assemblage B (BIII, BIV), with the predominance of Assemblage BIV (73%). PMID:25259605

  9. Factors affecting bird richness in a fragmented cork oak forest in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkaoui, Imad; Selmi, Slaheddine; Boukhriss, Jihen; Hamid, Rguibi-Idrissi; Mohammed, Dakki

    2009-03-01

    The cork oak forest of Ma'amora in north-western Morocco was the largest cork oak forest in the world until the beginning of the 20th century. Due to growing land use for agriculture and urbanization, however, this forest has become fragmented into relatively small and isolated patches. The effects of this fragmentation on the diversity of wild animal communities have never been investigated despite the importance of such investigations in elaborating long-term conservation plans of the biodiversity of this forest system. In this study of a sample of 44 forest patches we assessed the relationships between species numbers of wintering, breeding and spring migrant birds and patch size, shape, isolation and vegetation structure. We found that species richnesses of the three studied bird assemblages were strongly related to local vegetation structure, namely to the diversity and abundance of trees and bushes. Patches with higher diversity and cover of trees and bushes support higher numbers of bird species. However, patch size, shape and isolation were not significant predictors of bird richness. These results suggest that bird communities in the studied forest patches were more likely shaped by local habitat suitability rather than the amount of habitat or patch isolation. The results also demonstrate negative effects of current human pressures, namely logging, grazing and disturbance, on the diversity of bird communities in this forest system. This emphasizes the need for urgent management efforts aiming at reducing the negative impacts of forest use by humans on bird diversity in this forest system.

  10. The bacterial quality of red meat and offal in Casablanca (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nozha; Ennaji, Hayat; Hassar, Mohammed; Hassa, Mohammed; Karib, Hakim

    2006-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bacteriological quality of beef (n = 52), lamb (n = 52) and beef offal (n = 52) marketed in Casablanca, Morocco. Meat and offal samples (n = 156), were collected randomly from butcheries, supermarkets, and slaughterhouses. Two sampling periods were considered, one during the hot season and the second one during the cold season. The samples were analyzed for the presence of the following bacteria: Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes. Results indicated that counts of the aerobic plate count, and fecal coliforms were particularly high in all the samples analyzed. E. coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and C. perfringens were detected in 37.8, 16, and 4.5% of the meat samples, respectively. Neither Salmonella nor L. monocytogenes were isolated from meat samples. Approximately 26.9% of beef, 34.6% of lamb and 28.8% of beef offal samples contained bacteria above the maximum limits established by the Moroccan regulatory standards for meat and meat products. Seasonality and the distribution location significantly (p < 0.05) affected bacterial populations: the hot season and butcheries appeared to be cases where the highest populations of bacteria in meat were observed. These high levels of microbiological contamination attest the poor hygienic quality of meat and offal, possibly due to uncontrolled processing, storage, and handling of these products. PMID:16676376

  11. Using Cross-Correlation to Detect Upper Mantle Phases beneath Spain and Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatto, L.; Schimmel, M.; Gallart, J.; Morales, J.

    2012-04-01

    A novel technique is implemented to search for weak amplitude upper mantle phases that arrive in the P-wave coda. Cross-correlation and stacking techniques are applied in order to detect waveform similarity and eliminate the source influence from the vertical and radial component of records from single stations. A pilot wave is selected from the vertical component, this wavelet contains the P-wave and part of its coda. Phase cross-correlation (PCC) and geometrically normalized cross-correlation (CCGN) are performed between this pilot and the vertical, and the radial component of each event. It is expected that this procedure detects P to s conversions, and reflections at different mantle discontinuities (such as 410-km and 660-km depth discontinuities). Stacking is used to enhance signals which arrive consistently (near receiver conversions and reflections) and attenuate isolated depth phases and also spurious arrivals. Besides the source equalization, PCC and CCGN provide relative travel times with respect to the P phase through their correlation maxima. The data set used in the real data example is obtained from more than 40 stations selected from the first phase of the IberArray seismic network deployment (TopoIberia project) in south Spain and north Morocco. P-wave reflections and P to s conversions at 410-km and 660-km upper mantle discontinuities were detected beneath the studied region. Both discontinuities are on average within the expected depth range from global studies.

  12. Impact of mine tailings on surrounding soils and ground water: Case of Kettara old mine, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amari, K.; Valera, P.; Hibti, M.; Pretti, S.; Marcello, A.; Essarraj, S.

    2014-12-01

    The old ochre-pyrrhotite mine of Kettara, near Marrakech (Morocco) ceased operating some 30 years ago but its excavations, plants, and tailings have been totally abandoned since then. Geochemical analyses of the soils, stream sediments and waters of the surrounding area were carried out to assess the pollution impact of this mining site. Tailing characterization showed the presence of sulphide primary minerals, as well as secondary ones containing among others (Fe, S, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co, As, Se). In spite of the presence of theses pollutants in the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) of Kettara, groundwater did not show significant levels of these metals probably related to the low ion circulation under the local dry climate with low annual rainfall that prevents metal ion circulation. The chemical analyses of soil and stream sediment samples included elements most of which are internationally considered as dangerous for human health (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, S, Se and Zn). Geochemical maps of these elements showed that Cr and Ni were linked to mafic intrusions of Kettara sector. Sulphur is linked to the mining activity and the others are related both to lithological outcrops and mining activity. However, the levels of these contaminants did not exceed Italian Standards of soil pollution.

  13. Assessing the Effects of Tourist Provisioning on the Health of Wild Barbary Macaques in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Maréchal, Laëtitia; Semple, Stuart; Majolo, Bonaventura; MacLarnon, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Feeding wildlife is a very popular tourist activity, largely because it facilitates the close observation of animals in their natural habitat. Such provisioning may benefit animals by improving their survival and reproductive success, especially during periods of natural food shortage. However, provisioning by tourists may also have negative impacts on the health of the animals involved; to date such impacts are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of tourist provisioning on the health of wild adult Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, in Morocco. We compared health measures between a heavily provisioned group and a group that received negligible food from tourists and, in the former group, we also assessed health measures in relation to the intensity of provisioning. We used a broad range of non-invasive health measures relating to birth rate and survival, disease and injury risk, body size and condition, and physiological stress. Our findings indicate that feeding by tourists may overall have negative impacts on the health of Barbary macaques, being linked in particular to larger body size, elevated stress levels and more alopecia. Finally, we propose a framework to help consider the potential costs and benefits of provisioning, which may facilitate future research and management decisions on whether-and how much-provisioning is acceptable. PMID:27203861

  14. Famine relief and imperial policy in early modern Morocco: the political functions of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, A R

    1981-01-01

    There has been no systematic ethnology nor comparative history of public health. In fact, there has been a broad consensus that prior to the arrival of missionaries and colonial health authorities there was no indigenous public health. These assumptions apply to only some settings and do not reflect the general history of public health. The present study concerns public health in the first century of Alawi rule in Morocco, ca. 1670-1790. The early Alawi sultans undertook public health programs, most of which concerned the prevention and relief of mass starvation. Goals of the programs were consistent with other features of their public policies. Effectiveness of the programs was limited partly by technical and scientific factors, but more by political constraints, especially the sultans' higher priorities for political stability than public welfare and public health. These data provide important insights not only into Moroccan social and political history, but also into the more general problem of the political nature of public health. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:7027811

  15. Chemotrophic filamentous microfossils from the Hollard Mound (Devonian, Morocco) as investigated by focused ion beam.

    PubMed

    Cavalazzi, Barbara

    2007-04-01

    The biologic origin of objects with microbe-like morphologies from the oldest preserved terrestrial sedimentary rocks remains a matter of controversy. Their biogenicity has been questioned, as well as the claim that they are convincing evidence of early life. Though minerals with microbe-like morphologies represent ambiguous evidence of life, they are, in a number of conditions, the only achievable information. In this study, the focused ion beam (FIB) electron microscopy technique was used for nano and micrometer-scale high-resolution imaging and in situ microsectioning of filamentous microfossils. The structural elements of these filaments, their spatial relationships with the host rock, and artifacts produced by alteration of the original morphology due to laboratory sample processing have been clearly defined. The in situ sectioning provided a means by which to investigate surface and subsurface microstructures and perform different analytical techniques on the same object, which minimizes sample destruction and avoids excessive manual handling and exposure of the specimen during analysis. Improvement in the morphological and compositional evaluation of the filaments has facilitated the development of a hypothesis regarding the metabolic pathway of the filamentous microfossils preserved in the Middle Devonian-aged Hollard Mound deposit, Anti-Atlas, Morocco. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the FIB/SEM (scanning electron microscopy) system for detecting microbial-scale morphologies.

  16. Presence of drug resistance mutations among drug-naive patients in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Annaz, Hicham El; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Baba, Nabil; Sedrati, Omar; Mrani, Saad; Fleury, Hervé

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine viral subtypes and resistance mutations to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV-1-infected treatment-naive patients from Rabat, Morocco during the period 2005-2009. The protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes were sequenced, the phylogenetic trees were inferred, and the resistance-associated mutations to NRTIs, NNRTIs, and PIs were recorded according to the international list of surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs). The viral subtypes were subtype B (74%), CRF02_AG (15%), A1 (6%), C (2%), F1 (1%), CRF09 (1%), and CRF25_cpx (1%). The presence of DRMs was found in four (5.06%) of 91 patients; resistance mutations to NRTIs were M184V and T215I/S revertant mutations; resistance to NNRTIs was associated with K103N and resistance to PIs with V82A. These findings have relevant implications for the local molecular mapping of HIV-1 and future ART surveillance studies in the region.

  17. Assessing the Effects of Tourist Provisioning on the Health of Wild Barbary Macaques in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Maréchal, Laëtitia; Semple, Stuart; Majolo, Bonaventura; MacLarnon, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Feeding wildlife is a very popular tourist activity, largely because it facilitates the close observation of animals in their natural habitat. Such provisioning may benefit animals by improving their survival and reproductive success, especially during periods of natural food shortage. However, provisioning by tourists may also have negative impacts on the health of the animals involved; to date such impacts are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of tourist provisioning on the health of wild adult Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, in Morocco. We compared health measures between a heavily provisioned group and a group that received negligible food from tourists and, in the former group, we also assessed health measures in relation to the intensity of provisioning. We used a broad range of non-invasive health measures relating to birth rate and survival, disease and injury risk, body size and condition, and physiological stress. Our findings indicate that feeding by tourists may overall have negative impacts on the health of Barbary macaques, being linked in particular to larger body size, elevated stress levels and more alopecia. Finally, we propose a framework to help consider the potential costs and benefits of provisioning, which may facilitate future research and management decisions on whether—and how much—provisioning is acceptable. PMID:27203861

  18. Description of the Halophile Euplotes qatarensis nov. spec. (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea, Euplotida) Isolated from the Hypersaline Khor Al-Adaid Lagoon in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Fotedar, Rashmi; Stoeck, Thorsten; Filker, Sabine; Fell, Jack W; Agatha, Sabine; Al Marri, Masoud; Jiang, Jiamei

    2016-09-01

    The morphology, ontogenesis, and phylogenetic relationships of a halophile euplotid ciliates, Euplotes qatarensis nov. spec., isolated from the Khor Al-Adaid Lagoon in Qatar were investigated based on live observation as well as protargol- and silver nitrate-impregnated methods. The new species is characterised by a combination of features: the halophile habitat, a cell size of 50-65 × 33-40 μm, seven dorsal ridges, 10 commonly sized frontoventral cirri, two widely spaced marginal cirri, 10 dorsolateral kineties, and a double silverline pattern. The morphogenesis is similar to that of its congeners: (i) the oral primordium develops hypoapokinetally and the parental oral apparatus is retained; (ii) the frontoventral-transverse field of five streaks gives rise to the frontal, ventral, and transverse cirri, but not to the cirri I/1 and the marginal cirri; (iii) the dorsal somatic ciliature develops by intrakinetal proliferation of basal bodies in two anlagen per kinety that are just anterior and posterior to the future division furrow; (iv) the caudal cirri are formed by the two rightmost dorsolateral kineties. The SSU rDNA sequence of E. qatarensis branches with full support in the Euplotopsis elegans-Euplotes nobilii-Euplotopsis raikovi clade. The closest related publicly available SSU rDNA sequence is the one of E. nobilii, with which E. qatarensis has 93.4% sequence similarity. Euplotes parawoodruffi Song & Bradbury, 1997 is transferred to the genus Euplotoides based on the absence of frontoventral cirrus VI/3.

  19. Characteristics of patients with definite septic arthritis at Hamad General Hospital, Qatar: a hospital-based study from 2006 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Abu-Khattab, Mohammed; Baagar, Khalid; Mohamed, Shehab Fareed; Elgendy, Islam; Anand, Deshmukh; Malallah, Hani; Sanjay, Doiphode

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, coexisting conditions, causative organisms, and outcomes of all adult patients 15 years of age or older who had definite septic arthritis at Hamad General Hospital, Qatar, from 2006 to 2011. During this period, 56 patients were diagnosed with septic arthritis (mean age ± SD, 49.0 ± 16.6 years). In 53 of 56 (94.6%) patients, arthritis was diagnosed in a single joint, while polyarthritis was diagnosed in 3 of 56 (5.4%) patients; the most commonly involved joint was the knee (40 of 59 joints, 67.7%). The most frequent coexisting condition was diabetes mellitus (24 of 56 patients, 42.8%). Joint pain and restriction of movement were reported by all patients. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 36 of all 57 (63.0%) isolated microorganisms, and Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (20 of 57 microorganisms, 35.0%). Three cases of tuberculous arthritis were seen. The most favored antibiotic combinations were cloxacillin/ciprofloxacin, cefazolin/ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin/ciprofloxacin. Repeated needle aspiration, open joint drainage, and arthroscopic techniques were performed in 18 (32.1%), 22 (39.3%), and 11 (19.6%) of the 56 patients, respectively. The 30-day mortality was 3.6%, and the remaining patients showed clinical improvement upon discharge. In conclusion, there was no specific sign or symptom for diagnosing septic arthritis. Isolation of bacteria from the synovial fluid confirmed the diagnosis, and S. aureus and streptococci were the most common pathogens isolated. Prompt treatment with appropriate antibiotics and synovial drainage are mandatory to improve the outcome.

  20. An Examination of Income Effect on Consumers’ Ethical Evaluation of Counterfeit Drugs Buying Behaviour: A Cross-Sectional Study in Qatar and Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Alfadl, Abubakr Abdelraouf; Maraghi, Fatima Abdulla; Mohammad, Khadijah Shhab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are limited studies on consumer behaviour toward counterfeit products and the determining factors that motivate willingness to purchase counterfeit items. Aim This study aimed to fill this literature gap through studying differences in individual ethical evaluations of counterfeit drug purchase and whether that ethical evaluation affected by difference in income. It is hypothesized that individuals with lower/higher income make a more/less permissive evaluation of ethical responsibility regarding counterfeit drug purchase. Materials and Methods To empirically test the research assumption, a comparison was made between people who live in the low-income country Sudan and people who live in the high-income country Qatar. The study employed a face-to-face structured interview survey methodology to collect data from 1,170 subjects and the Sudanese and Qatari samples were compared using independent t-test at alpha level of 0.05 employing SPSS version 22.0. Results Sudanese and Qatari individuals were significantly different on all items. Sudanese individuals scored below 3 for all Awareness of Societal Consequences (ASC) items indicating that they make more permissive evaluation of ethical responsibility regarding counterfeit drug purchase. Both groups shared a basic positive moral agreement regarding subjective norm indicating that influence of income is not evident. Conclusion Findings indicate that low-income individuals make more permissive evaluation of ethical responsibility regarding counterfeit drugs purchase when highlighting awareness of societal consequences used as a deterrent tool, while both low and high-income individuals share a basic positive moral agreement when subjective norm dimension is exploited to discourage unethical buying behaviour. PMID:27790465

  1. Deep sequencing revealed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism and plasmid content of Erwinia amylovora strains isolated in Middle Atlas, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Hannou, Najat; Mondy, Samuel; Planamente, Sara; Moumni, Mohieddine; Llop, Pablo; López, María; Manceau, Charles; Barny, Marie-Anne; Faure, Denis

    2013-10-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes economic losses that affect pear and apple production in Morocco. Here, we report comparative genomics of four Moroccan E. amylovora strains with the European strain CFBP1430 and North-American strain ATCC49946. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed genetic homogeneity of Moroccan's strains and their proximity to the European strain CFBP1430. Moreover, the collected sequences allowed the assembly of a 65 kpb plasmid, which is highly similar to the plasmid pEI70 harbored by several European E. amylovora isolates. This plasmid was found in 33% of the 40 E. amylovora strains collected from several host plants in 2009 and 2010 in Morocco.

  2. The dairy chains in North Africa (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia): from self sufficiency options to food dependency?

    PubMed

    Sraïri, Mohamed Taher; Benyoucef, Mohammed Tahar; Kraiem, Khemais

    2013-12-01

    The Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) have experienced since the early 1950s a rapid demographic growth coupled to a significant rhythm of urbanization. This has led to a marked increase in the demand of dairy products. In order to secure the supply, specific policies have been implemented. They mainly consisted in the establishment of a dairy industry, based on the processing of either raw milk produced locally (in Morocco and Tunisia) or imported milk powder (in Algeria). These divergent options have had significant consequences on the whole organization of the dairy chains in these countries, from cattle rearing practices, to milk collection and processing. They have also implied differences in milk and its derivatives' prices and levels of consumption. The paper draws a comparative analysis of milk chains within the three countries: a supply mainly based on imports in Algeria, whereas in Morocco and Tunisia, the demand is satisfied by a chain relying on locally produced cattle milk. The paper also emphasizes on the future challenges that will have to be addressed: a rising volatility of milk and other strategic inputs' prices (feed, machinery, cattle, etc.) in global markets, an improvement in consumers' awareness about milk quality, a further pressure on natural resources (mainly soils and water) to get more raw milk, in countries already suffering an acute water stress. The article also establishes recommendations about specific issues related to the development of the dairy chains in the context of North Africa. These are mainly linked to the fragmented offer induced by numerous smallholder farms, which implies obvious difficulties to assess the hygienic and the chemical quality of milk batches delivered daily. Moreover, this fragmented offer also means that specific support programs will have to be designed, as the vast majority of farms are not dairy specialized, expecting both milk and calf crop from their herds.

  3. Irrigated Agriculture in Morocco: An Agent-Based Model of Adaptation and Decision Making Amid Increasingly Frequent Drought Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past 100 years, Morocco has undertaken a heavy investment in developing water infrastructure that has led to a dramatic expansion of irrigated agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is the primary user of water in many arid countries, often accounting for 80-90% of total water usage. Irrigation is adopted by farmers not only because it leads to increased production, but also because it improves resilience to an uncertain climate. However, the Mediterranean region as a whole has also seen an increase in the frequency and severity of drought events. These droughts have had a dramatic impact on farmer livelihoods and have led to a number of coping strategies, including the adoption or disadoption of irrigation. In this study, we use a record of the annual extent of irrigated agriculture in Morocco to model the effect of drought on the extent of irrigated agriculture. Using an agent-based socioeconomic model, we seek to answer the following questions: 1) Do farmers expand irrigated agriculture in response to droughts? 2) Do drought events entail the removal of perennial crops like orchards? 3) Can we detect the retreat of irrigated agriculture in the more fragile watersheds of Morocco? Understanding the determinants of irrigated crop expansion and contractions will help us understand how agro-ecological systems transition from 20th century paradigms of expansion of water supply to a 21st century paradigm of water use efficiency. The answers will become important as countries learn how to manage water in new climate regimes characterized by less reliable and available precipitation.

  4. Contribution of spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs to characterize prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes infecting tuberculosis patients in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Chaoui, Imane; Zozio, Thierry; Lahlou, Ouafae; Sabouni, Radia; Abid, Mohammed; El Aouad, Rajae; Akrim, Mohammed; Amzazi, Said; Rastogi, Nalin; El Mzibri, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical isolates from culture-positive TB patients in Morocco were studied by spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTR typing methods to characterize prevalent genotypes (n = 219 isolates from 208 patients). Spoligotyping resulted in 39 unique patterns and 167 strains in 30 clusters (2-50 strains per cluster). Comparison with international database showed that 29 of 39 unique patterns matched existing shared spoligotype international types (SITs). Nine shared types containing 10 strains were newly created (SIT 2891 to SIT 2899); this led to the description of 69 SITs with 206 strains and two orphan patterns. The most prevalent spoligotype was SIT42 (LAM; n = 50 or 24% of isolates). The repartition of strains according to major MTBC clades was as follows LAM (46.1%)> Haarlem (26%) >ill-defined T superfamily (22.6%) and S clade (0.96%). On the other hand, Beijing, CAS (Central Asian) and EAI (East-African Indian) strains were absent in this setting. Subsequent 12-Loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 25 SIT/MIT clusters (n = 66 isolates, 2-6 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent transmission rate of 22.3%. The MIRU-VNTR patterns corresponded to 69 MITs for 138 strains and 46 orphan patterns. The most frequent patterns were MIT43 (n = 8), MIT9 (n = 7) and MIT42 (n = 7). HGDI analysis of the 12 MIRU loci showed that loci 10, 23 and 40 were highly discriminative in our setting. The results also underlined the usefulness of spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR to detect mixed infections among certain of our TB patients. Globally, the results obtained showed that TB is almost exclusively transmitted in Morocco through evolutionary-modern MTBC lineages belonging to principal genetic groups 2/3 strains (Haarlem, LAM, T), with a high level of biodiversity seen by MIRU typing. This study provides with a 1st global snapshot of MTBC population structure in Morocco, and validates the potential use of spoligotyping in

  5. [Inventory of unsafe abortions: retrospective study of 451 cases treated in Moulay Ismail Military Hospital of instruction, Meknes, Morocco].

    PubMed

    Laghzaoui, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is a plague spreading around the world but especially in Africa where it is a lucrative market for traditional practitioners which exposes patients to serious complications including death. Our retrospective study of 451 cases represent an exhaustive sample of this practice in Morocco exploring the reasons why women experience an unsafe abortion, what age group is most affected, conditions and complications inherent in this practice. Our study focuses on the need for intervention before pregnancy by developing the concept of contraception among girls from their early years to minimize these non-health practices. PMID:27642422

  6. International academic service learning: lessons learned from students' travel experiences of diverse cultural and health care practices in morocco.

    PubMed

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud; Puri, Aditi; Dominick, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    Academic service learning (ASL) is an active teaching-learning approach to engage students in meaningful hands-on activities to serve community-based needs. Nine health professions students from a private college and a private university in the northeastern United States volunteered to participate in an ASL trip to Morocco. The participants were interviewed to reflect on their experiences. This article discusses the lessons learned from students' ASL experiences regarding integrating ASL into educational programs. The authors recommend a paradigm shift in nursing and dental hygiene curricula to appreciate diversity and promote cultural competency, multidisciplinary teamwork, and ethics-based education.

  7. Contribution of Mobile Teams to Efforts to Eliminate Schistosomiasis at Schistosoma haematobium in Morocco- Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    BARKIA, Hicham; BARKIA, Abdelaziz; YACOUBI, Rajae; ALEMAD, Ali; EL KHARIM, Khadija; BELGHYTI, Driss

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Since it was first diagnosed in 1914 in Marrakesh, schistosomiasis has been a public health problem in Morocco for decades. A national control program launched in 1982 has led to a considerable reduction in the incidence and morbidity associated with the disease. Consequently, the program has shifted from disease control to an elimination process launched in 1994. This process aimed to eliminate disease transmission by the end of 2004 and has helped to clear all known foci. Mobile teams were a key element that contributed to the success of this program. They played three important roles: monitoring and control, response, and the transmission of messages. PMID:26175970

  8. Crustal deformation pattern of the Morocco-Iberian area: constraints from 14 years of GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo; Fernandez, Josè

    2014-05-01

    We present an improved rendition of crustal motion field of the Morocco-Iberian area, based on an extensive GPS dataset covering about 14 years of observations from 1999.00 up to 2013.79 in order to provide a detailed spatial resolution of geodetic velocity and strain-rate fields. In particular, we included all available data from public continuous GPS stations, considering also data coming from networks developed mainly for mapping, engineering and cadastre purposes. In addition to continuous GPS sites, we included data from 31 episodic GPS sites located in Morocco with surveys spanning the 1999-2006 time interval, whose data are available through the UNAVCO archive (www.unavco.org). All GPS data were processed by using the GAMIT/GLOBK software, taking into account precise ephemerides from the IGS (International GNSS Service; http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov) and Earth orientation parameters from the International Earth Rotation Service (http://www.iers.org). To improve the overall configuration of the network and tie the regional measurements to an external global reference frame, data coming from more than 25 continuously operating global tracking stations, largely from the IGS and EUREF permanent networks, were introduced in the processing. All stations were organized (and processed) into seven sub-networks of about 40-50 sites each, on average, sharing a few common sites to provide ties between them. Finally, by using the GLORG module of GLOBK, the GAMIT-solutions and their full covariance matrices were combined to estimated a consistent set of positions and velocities in the ITRF2008 reference frame by minimizing the horizontal velocity of the continuously operating global tracking stations mentioned above. To adequately investigate the crustal deformation pattern over the study area, we aligned our estimated GPS velocities to an Eurasian and a Nubian fixed reference frames. In addition, by taking into account the observed GPS horizontal velocity field and

  9. Water quality assessment of a highly polluted Mediterranean River - Oued Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the South of the Mediterranean basin, many rivers are characterized by an alternation of very long dry periods only cut by short flood events. Currently, the socio-economical development of these zones is limited by water scarcity and poor quality of the water resources. Indeed human activities, generally concentrated in overpopulated cities, generate large quantity of domestic and industrial effluents which are directly rejected in the environment without any treatment. In Morocco, the well known city of Fez illustrates perfectly this situation, observed in most developing countries. The oued Fez receives continuously the non-treated domestic and industrial effluents (90.000 m3/day) of the city and pollutes all the downstream water bodies. Indeed, it is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. This study aims at characterising and quantifying the pollutant concentrations and fluxes in various points of oued Fez's hydrological network and assessing its impact on the Sebou River; this river's preservation being considered a national priority in Morocco. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen), phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) but also total chromium which is used in the leather tanning processes, one of the most important industrial production of the city of Fez, using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of 17 sampling campaigns, carried out over 3 hydrological years, indicate that the rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet

  10. Interactions between the hydrology and hydrochemistry of an intermittent southern Mediterranean River- Oued Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Chahinian, N.; Raïs, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean catchments are often characterized by highly variable rainfall inputs and intermittent flows. In comparison to the existing knowledge on their hydrological behaviour, the interactions between flow conditions and pollution levels remain less documented. This study aims at filling that gap through a case study on Oued Fez (Morocco). Oued Fez is an intermittent river located in central-eastern Morocco. It has a 615 km2 catchment 10% of which corresponds to the city of Fez, the 3rd biggest in the kingdom (1.2 M inhabitants). Oued Fes is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on Oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen) and phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of the study indicate that, despite variations in annual rainfall, the catchment's hydrological response is controlled by the urban impervious zones during floods. The rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet period while non-treated anthropogenic inputs constitute most of the flow during the dry period. This in turn affects the water quality results. Indeed: - during low flow conditions the pollution levels are very high and total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations reach 45 mg/l N and 6.5 mg/l P respectively at the most polluted sites. - during average and high flow conditions the pollution levels decrease due to dilution. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations reach 32 mg/l N and 3.5 mg/l P respectively with

  11. Targeted Water Quality Assessment in Small Reservoirs in Brazil, Zimbabwe, Morocco and Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boelee, Eline; Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Laamrani, Hammou; Cecchi, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Background Physical and chemical parameters of water in reservoirs can be affected by natural and manmade pollutants, causing damage to the aquatic life and water quality. However, the exact water quality considerations depend on what the water will be used for. Brick making, livestock watering, fisheries, irrigation and domestic uses all have their own specific water quality requirements. In turn, these uses impact on water quality. Methodology Water quality was assessed with a variety of methods in small multipurpose reservoirs in the São Francisco Basin in Brazil, Limpopo in Zimbabwe, Souss Massa in Morocco and Nakambé in Burkina Faso. In each case the first step was to select the reservoirs for which the water quality was to be monitored, then identify the main water uses, followed by a determination of key relevant water quality parameters. In addition, a survey was done in some cases to identify quality perceptions of the users. Samples were taken from the reservoir itself and related water bodies such as canals and wells where relevant. Results Accordingly in the four basins different methods gave different locally relevant results. In the Preto River in the Sao Francisco in Brazil small reservoirs are mainly used for irrigated agriculture. Chemical analysis of various small reservoirs showed that water quality was mainly influenced by geological origins. In addition there was nutrient inflow from surrounding areas of intensive agriculture with high fertilizer use. In the Limpopo basin in Zimbabwe small reservoirs are used for almost all community water needs. Plankton was selected as indicator and sampling was carried out in reservoirs in communal areas and in a national park. Park reservoirs were significantly more diversified in phytoplankton taxa compared to those in the communal lands, but not for zooplankton, though communal lands had the highest zooplankton abundance. In Souss Massa in Morocco a combination of perceptions and scientific water

  12. Tomographic imaging beneath Alboran sea and surrounding areas (southern Iberian Peninsula and northern Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, I.; Morales, J.

    2009-04-01

    The main aim of this study is to provide a detailed analysis of the structure of the crust and upper mantle below the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco and surrounding regions using the results of global seismic tomography. We have developed a detailed three-dimensional velocity structure of this region to 700-km depth using P-wave arrival times from more than 15,000 local and regional earthquakes and 145 teleseismic events. For teleseismic events we handpicked P-wave arrival times from high-quality original seismograms from 2000 to 2005 belonging to the Andalusian Seismic Network. We also handpicked data from seismic stations belonging to the GSN (Global Seismic Network) and monitored by IRIS. All events are located between 30° and 90° from the seismic networks. This new data set is superior, in terms of both station density and arrival time accuracy, to that used in previous studies because of the higher sensitivity of the seismographs monitored by the new broad band network of the Andalusian Institute of Geophysics. In this study we modified the original tomographic method of Zhao et al. (1992) to combine teleseismic residuals with local and regional earthquake arrival times in tomographic inversions. Several bodies of high P-wave seismic velocity are located between 5 and 15 km depth and the magnetic and gravimetric data indicate superposition of bodies at different depths in this zone with a complex geological structure. Pronounced low-velocity anomalies characterize the upper crust near the Strait of Gibraltar, both in Spain and Morocco, which could be interpreted as a sedimentary basin or crustal deformation in the flysch regions. Two high-velocity anomalies were obtained in the Alboran Sea, the first, located in the middle of the basin could be related to the existence of high density lithologies, while the second, situated in the eastern Rif and trending NE-SW, could be related to the NE-SW trending magnetic anomaly in the eastern Rif. One of the most robust

  13. Climate change and ecosystems dynamics over the last 6000 years in the Middle Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourelbait, Majda; Rhoujjati, Ali; Benkaddour, Abdelfattah; Carré, Matthieu; Eynaud, Frederique; Martinez, Philippe; Cheddadi, Rachid

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims at reconstructing past climate changes and their environmental impacts on plant ecosystems during the last 6000 years in the Middle Atlas, Morocco. Mean January temperature (Tjan), annual precipitation (Pann), winter (Pw) and summer (Ps) precipitation, and a seasonal index (SI) have all been quantified from a fossil pollen record. Several bio- and geo-chemical elements have also been analysed to evaluate the links between past climate, landscape, and ecosystem changes. Over the last 6000 years, climate has changed within a low temperature and precipitation range with a trend of aridity and warming towards the present. Tjan has varied within a ca. 2 °C range, and Pann within less than 100 mm yr-1. The long-term changes reconstructed in our record between 6 ka cal BP and today are consistent with the aridity trend observed in the Mediterranean basin. Despite the overall limited range of climate fluctuation, we observe major changes in the ecosystem composition, the carbon isotopic contents of organic matter (δ13C), the total organic carbon and nitrogen amount, and the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C / N) after ca. 3750 cal BP. The main ecosystem changes correspond to a noticeable transition in the conifer forest between the Atlas cedar, which expanded after 3750 cal BP, and the pine forest. These vegetation changes impacted the sedimentation type and its composition in the lake. Between 5500 and 5000 cal BP, we observe an abrupt change in all proxies which is coherent with a decrease in Tjan without a significant change in the overall amount of precipitation.

  14. Climate changes since the mid-Holocene in the Middle Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourelbait, M.; Rhoujjati, A.; Benkaddour, A.; Carré, M.; Eynaud, F.; Martinez, P.; Cheddadi, R.

    2015-09-01

    The Holocene climate is known to be rather stable although with few abrupt changes that lasted few decades. The present study is related the climate changes and their environmental impacts during the last 6000 years from a fossil record collected in the Middle Atlas, Morocco. Reconstruction of three climate variables (January temperature (Tjan), annual precipitation (Pann) and a precipitation seasonal index (SI)) was based on pollen data and analyzed various bio and geo-chemical elements. Then we evaluated the relationships between all the environmental variables. Climate over the last 6000 years was rather stable with a smooth trend of aridity towards the present. Tjan has varied within about 2 °C range and Pann within less than 100 mm yr-1. Despite such overall climate stability, after ca. 3750 cal BP some important changes were observe in the ecosystem composition, the carbon isotopic contents of organic matter in lake sediments (δ13C), the total organic carbon and nitrogen amount and the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C / N). These environmental changes are related to the transition in the conifer forest between the Atlas cedar, which expanded after 3750 cal BP, and the pine forest. These vegetation changes have impacted the sedimentation type and composition into the lake. Between 5500 and 5000 cal BP an abrupt change is recorded in all bio and geo-chemical indicators as well as in the pollen data. The multi-proxy analysis, taking into account the climate variables, tends to indicate that it was mainly a decrease in temperature without a significant change in the overall amount of precipitation. In summary, the present study confirms the overall climate stability over the last 6000 years and highlights the presence of short and abrupt climate events.

  15. Anthropogenic triggers for Late Holocene soil erosion in the Jebel Toubkal, High Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, William; Hughes, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The Assif n'Imserdane valley, located in the Jebel Toubkal area of the High Atlas, Morocco, is a highly dynamic geomorphological setting. The valley was glaciated during the Late Pleistocene, and subsequently experienced a catastrophic rock avalanche leading to the formation of one of the largest mass movement landforms in North Africa. Recent research (Hughes et al., GSA Bulletin 126: 1093-1104) has dated the formation of the rock avalanche to the mid-Holocene at 4.5 ± 0.5 ka. Here, we examine the sedimentological (organic matter content, magnetic susceptibility, particle size and XRF) and palaeoecological (pollen and spores, non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs), microcharcoal and conifer tracheid fragments) record of a small infilled basin located adjacent to a Late Pleistocene moraine and close to the rock avalanche in the Arroumd sector. The deposits, primarily fine-grained and minerogenic with a low concentration of organic microfossils including pollen, coprophilous ascospores, wood and charcoal microfragments, are enriched in fine silts and ferrimagnetic minerals, consistent with erosional sources from surrounding slope soils. Two radiocarbon dates on fine charcoal recovered from the deposit indicate that the infill event occurred during the first millennium AD (after 430 - 640 AD). As such, the deposits point to a phase of slope instability and erosion that is not linked to either deglaciation processes or to the mid-Holocene rock avalanche. Instead, the nature and timing suggest that an anthropogenic trigger of degradation to the natural vegetation cover may be implicated. The record casts light on a previously undocumented phase of landscape instability in the dynamic setting of the Assif n'Imserdane valley, and highlights the potential for further exploration of small infilled basins in the High Atlas to illuminate the geoecological history of this semi-arid mountain region.

  16. New concepts in exploring subsalt Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems in mature and near producing areas of Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Deminati, A.; Hcaine, M.; El Alji, M.

    1996-12-31

    The subsalt Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are one of the areally largest and paradoxally the least drilled in Morocco. Although, worldwide, these systems contain the largest potential gas reserves and contain one of the largest emerging oil plays and better still the few wells drilled to test the system in Essaouira Basin are producing commercial wet gas, these systems have never been tested in the Interatlasic and Prerif Basins. Impediments to exploration in these areas focused on the inability to map beneath the {open_quotes}geophysical basement{close_quotes}, to seismically image sub-salt, pre-Jurassic block faulted structures and the perceived lack of adequate source rock. Recent integrated study combining newly acquired deep targeted seismic, gravity, magnetic, geochemical data and basin modelling techniques, has permitted to decipher the pre-salt structures, interpret basin evolution and assess source rock potential. The sub-salt Paleozoic hydrocarbon system evolved in basically five stages: (1) simultaneous sediment accumulation and structural formation during the Paleozoic; (2) major tectonism and erosion in Late Paleozoic (Hercynian); (3) Triassic-Lower Jurassic deposition of a regional seal (salt and evaporate); (4) Mesozoic charging primarily from Silurian to Carboniferous sources; and (5) re-initiation of generation from Silurian source in uplifted blocks following atlasic (Neogene) compression. Large structures and prospective stratigraphic features exhibiting many similarities to the prolific Triassic objectives of neighboring Algeria are now defined and await to be drilled. Furthermore, the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline will shortly cross both the Interatlasic and the Prerif areas providing additional positive attribute that makes these exploration areas more attractive.

  17. A large abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco and comments on the Cenomanian theropods from North Africa.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Alfio Alessandro; Cau, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We describe the partially preserved femur of a large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Cenomanian "Kem Kem Compound Assemblage" (KKCA) of Morocco. The fossil is housed in the Museo Geologico e Paleontologico "Gaetano Giorgio Gemmellaro" in Palermo (Italy). The specimen is compared with the theropod fossil record from the KKCA and coeval assemblages from North Africa. The combination of a distally reclined head, a not prominent trochanteric shelf, distally placed lesser trochanter of stout, alariform shape, a stocky shaft with the fourth trochanter placed proximally, and rugose muscular insertion areas in the specimen distinguishes it from Carcharodontosaurus, Deltadromeus and Spinosaurus and supports referral to an abelisaurid. The estimated body size for the individual from which this femur was derived is comparable to Carnotaurus and Ekrixinatosaurus (up to 9 meters in length and 2 tons in body mass). This find confirms that abelisaurids had reached their largest body size in the "middle Cretaceous," and that large abelisaurids coexisted with other giant theropods in Africa. We review the taxonomic status of the theropods from the Cenomanian of North Africa, and provisionally restrict the Linnean binomina Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis and Spinosaurus aegyptiacus to the type specimens. Based on comparisons among the theropod records from the Aptian-Cenomanian of South America and Africa, a partial explanation for the so-called "Stromer's riddle" (namely, the coexistence of many large predatory dinosaurs in the "middle Cretaceous" record from North Africa) is offered in term of taphonomic artifacts among lineage records that were ecologically and environmentally non-overlapping. Although morphofunctional and stratigraphic evidence supports an ecological segregation between spinosaurids and the other lineages, the co-occurrence of abelisaurids and carcharodontosaurids, two groups showing several craniodental convergences that suggest direct resource competition

  18. Sleep apnea syndrome: experience of the pulmonology department in Ibn Sina Hospital, Rabat, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Jniene, Asmaa; el Ftouh, Mustapha; Fihry, Mohamed Tawfiq el Fassy

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sleep apnea syndrome is a highly prevalent disorder that is still underdiagnosed and undertreated and whose obstructive form is the most common. The diagnosis is suspected on clinical signs collected by interrogation and questionnaires (Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale), then confirmed by objective sleep study findings (polygraphy or polysomnography). It is necessary to conduct studies in each context on the characteristics and management of sleep apnea syndrome comprising the testing of reliability of the questionnaires. Methods Prospective and descriptive study of 104 patients addressed to sleep consultation at pulmononology Department of Ibn Sina Hospital, Morocco over a period of 5 years (January 2006 to December 2010), agreed to participate in the study, responded to a predetermined questionnaire, and benefited from clinical examination and paraclinical tests including a polygraphy or a polysomnography Results 59(56.7%) patients had an obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome with a similar prevalence in both sexes. 32.2% of patients were obese and 28,8% had cardio-vascular diseases. Snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and witnessed apnea were found in respectively 79.7%, 50.8% and 16.9%. Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale had an acceptable internal consistency against apnea hypopnea index with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient respectively 0.79 and 0.78. Depending on severity, clinical impact and results of investigations, the adequate treatment has been proposed based on the 2010 recommendations for clinical practice. Conclusion This study has provided an idea about the profile and the management of patients having an obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and showed that both Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale are two simple and reliable methods in our context. A larger and further study across the country should be considered. PMID:23308333

  19. First trials of oral vaccination with rabies SAG2 dog baits in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Boué, Franck; Demerson, Jean Michel; Fassi Fihri, Ouafaa; Yahia, Khadija Id Sidi; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Canine rabies is a serious health problem in Morocco and about 22 human deaths are reported yearly. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, Moroccan authorities evaluated oral rabies vaccine baits specially designed for dogs. Materials and Methods The study was performed in Tiflet area. The vaccine strain was SAG2, a modified live oral rabies vaccine strain. Each bait contained an aluminium/PVC capsule filled with a liquid. Two kinds of baits were used: placebo baits containing methylene blue as a topical marker and vaccine baits containing vaccine suspension. The study was performed according to recommended WHO strategies, i.e., door to door model (DDDM), hand-out and wildlife immunization model (WIM). The DDDM was performed in the rural area of Tiflet on 60 owned dogs. The hand-out strategy was tested on 15 stray dogs. The WIM was performed on 4 transects lines near Tiflet slaughterhouse and near the weekly traditional market location. Results Using the DDDM, 100% of owned dogs were attracted by the baits and 77% ate the bait. Using the hand-out model, 100% of dogs showed interest in baits and 46.7% took the baits. Using the WIM in stray dogs, up to 73% of baits disappeared and 68% of the capsules containing the SAG2 vaccine were found pierced, depending on the sites of distribution. Conclusion This pilot study showed that baits have a good palatability and that oral vaccination of both owned and stray dogs is feasible with baits specifically developed for dogs and with adapted strategy of distribution. PMID:25003096

  20. Pearl mussels (Margaritifera marocana) in Morocco: Conservation status of the rarest bivalve in African fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ronaldo; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Ghamizi, Mohamed; Froufe, Elsa; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2016-03-15

    Margaritifera marocana is one of the rarest freshwater mussel species (listed as critically endangered), and is endemic to Morocco. Despite its constrained distribution and low abundance, to date there are no quantitative studies addressing the conservation status of this species. Surveys were conducted in 36 sites along the Oum Er Rbia river basin (Rivers Derna, Laabid and Oum Er Rbia) to assess the distribution, abundance, population structure and genetic diversity of M. marocana. Just one specimen was found on River Oum Er Rbia and none on River Derna; however, a high abundance was found in the lower section of River Laabid (e.g., site Laabid 6 reached a mean density of 11.0 ± 6.8 ind.m(-2)). Contrary to earlier information, which reported an overall population size fewer than 250 individuals in a restricted area and no juvenile presence, this study showed that a much higher abundance exists in River Laabid alone. In addition, the species is present in more than 50 km of this river and is still recruiting since small specimens were found. Regarding genetic diversity, six of nine loci previously used in Margaritifera margaritifera were polymorphic and suitable in M. marocana. The spatial range contraction of this species is likely to be very recent, since no strong signature was detected by the molecular diversity indices. Information gathered in this study can be used as a reference to the present conservation status of M. marocana, and guide future research and management initiatives to better conserve it. We conclude discussing the potential major threats for the future survival of M. marocana and suggest some management measures (and research needs) that should be urgently applied. PMID:26789376