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Sample records for jamais conduite sur

  1. Impacts of Gender Differences on Conducting Operational Activities (Impact des diffrenes homme/femme sur la conduite des activites oprationnelles)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    MP-HFM-158 Impacts of Gender Differences on Conducting Operational Activities (Impact des différences homme/ femme sur la conduite des activités...harassment should also be dealt with on a multicultural basis. ES - 2 RTO-MP-HFM-158 Impact des différences homme/ femme sur la...conduite des activités opérationnelles (RTO-MP-HFM-158) Synthèse L’intégration des femmes dans les armées, se fait à un rythme variable dans les

  2. Seal arrangement for intersecting conduits

    DOEpatents

    Goedicke, Friedrich E.

    1980-01-01

    A seal arrangement in which two intersecting conduits are sealed from each other. A sleeve insert is locked in a sealed relationship within one conduit enclosing the openings of the intersecting conduit.

  3. Conduit purging device and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilks, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A device for purging gas comprises a conduit assembly defining an interior volume. The conduit assembly comprises a first conduit portion having an open first end and an open second end and a second conduit portion having an open first end and a closed second end. The open second end of the first conduit portion is disposed proximate to the open first end of the second conduit portion to define a weld region. The device further comprises a supply element supplying a gas to the interior volume at a substantially constant rate and a vent element venting the gas from the interior volume at a rate that maintains the gas in the interior volume within a pressure range suitable to hold a weld bead in the weld region in equilibrium during formation of a weld to join the first conduit portion and the second conduit portion.

  4. Seal between metal and ceramic conduits

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Richard Paul; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2015-02-03

    A seal between a ceramic conduit and a metal conduit of an ion transport membrane device consisting of a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a single gasket body, and a single compliant interlayer.

  5. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    SciTech Connect

    Brindza, P.D.; Wines, R.R.; Takacs, J.J.

    1999-12-21

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

  6. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    DOEpatents

    Brindza, Paul Daniel; Wines, Robin Renee; Takacs, James Joseph

    1999-01-01

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

  7. Subglacial conduits in sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Much of the current understanding of subglacial hydrology is based on the R-channel type model, in which turbulent dissipation and melting causes a roughly semi-circular incision upwards into the ice. The prevalence of such R-channels beneath the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets is poorly known. Beneath sediment-based ice, distributed water flow may prevail, or some form of conduits may still form due to a combination of upwards melting as well as downwards erosion into the subglacial sediments (often referred to as a canal). This study examines the dynamics of such conduits, and implications for large-scale subglacial drainage. Although a relatively standard set of equations has developed to model the evolution and efficiency of R-channels, models of sediment-floored conduits are much less well established; previous models assume steady state, or make ad hoc assumptions about the balance of processes controlling the channel walls. In this study I suggest a (relatively) simple model analogous to that for an R-channel. The model requires consideration of the energy balance that results in melting of the ice roof, and also the erosion, deposition, and creep of the sediments. Implications for the evolution of large-scale drainage systems over subglacial sediment will be discussed, for subglacial floods in Antarctica, and for subglacial erosion and landform development.

  8. Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein

    DOEpatents

    Metzger, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein. The apparatus releasably retains the conduit out of the way of nearby personnel and equipment. The apparatus includes a portable support frame defining a slot therein having an open mouth portion in communication with the slot for receiving the conduit through the open mouth portion and into the slot. A retention bar is pivotally connected to the support frame adjacent the mouth portion for releasably retaining the conduit in the slot. The retention bar freely pivots to a first position, so that the mouth portion is unblocked in order that the conduit is received through the mouth portion and into the slot. In addition, the retention bar freely pivots to a second position, so that the mouth portion is blocked in order that the conduit is retained in the slot. The conduit is released from the slot by pivoting the retention bar to the first position to unblock the mouth portion and thereafter manipulating the conduit from the slot and through the mouth portion. The apparatus may further include a mounting member attached to the support frame for mounting the apparatus on a vertical support surface. Another embodiment of the apparatus includes a shoe assembly of predetermined weight removably connected to the support frame for resting the apparatus on a floor in such a manner that the apparatus is substantially stationary on the floor.

  9. Portable conduit retention apparatus for releasably retaining a conduit therein

    DOEpatents

    Metzger, R.H.

    1998-07-07

    Portable conduit retention apparatus is described for releasably retaining a conduit therein. The apparatus releasably retains the conduit out of the way of nearby personnel and equipment. The apparatus includes a portable support frame defining a slot therein having an open mouth portion in communication with the slot for receiving the conduit through the open mouth portion and into the slot. A retention bar is pivotally connected to the support frame adjacent the mouth portion for releasably retaining the conduit in the slot. The retention bar freely pivots to a first position, so that the mouth portion is unblocked in order that the conduit is received through the mouth portion and into the slot. In addition, the retention bar freely pivots to a second position, so that the mouth portion is blocked in order that the conduit is retained in the slot. The conduit is released from the slot by pivoting the retention bar to the first position to unblock the mouth portion and thereafter manipulating the conduit from the slot and through the mouth portion. The apparatus may further include a mounting member attached to the support frame for mounting the apparatus on a vertical support surface. Another embodiment of the apparatus includes a shoe assembly of predetermined weight removably connected to the support frame for resting the apparatus on a floor in such a manner that the apparatus is substantially stationary on the floor. 6 figs.

  10. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  11. CONDUIT: Control Designer's Unified Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, William S.; Tischler, Mark B.

    1999-01-01

    CONDUIT, which stands for control designer's unified interface, is a computer software package. Its purpose is to assist a human control system designer in designing control systems for aircraft. At the present time CONDUIT is being used by most of the major U. S. rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft manufacturers to assist in the design of stability and control augmentation systems. Work is also continuing on the development of additional features for CONDUIT, including tools for analyzing the sensitivity of solutions, and on further enhancements to the basic package. The purpose of this paper is to describe CONDUIT, its operation, and the sensitivity tools that are being developed for inclusion in the next release of the package.

  12. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  13. Method and apparatus for inspecting conduits

    DOEpatents

    Spisak, Michael J.; Nance, Roy A.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for ultrasonic inspection of a conduit are provided. The method involves directing a first ultrasonic pulse at a particular area of the conduit at a first angle, receiving the reflected sound from the first ultrasonic pulse, substantially simultaneously or subsequently in very close time proximity directing a second ultrasonic pulse at said area of the conduit from a substantially different angle than said first angle, receiving the reflected sound from the second ultrasonic pulse, and comparing the received sounds to determine if there is a defect in that area of the conduit. The apparatus of the invention is suitable for carrying out the above-described method. The method and apparatus of the present invention provide the ability to distinguish between sounds reflected by defects in a conduit and sounds reflected by harmless deposits associated with the conduit.

  14. Nonlinear wavetrains in viscous conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiden, Michelle; Hoefer, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Viscous fluid conduits provide an ideal system for the study of dissipationless, dispersive hydrodynamics. A dense, viscous fluid serves as the background medium through which a lighter, less viscous fluid buoyantly rises. If the interior fluid is continuously injected, a deformable pipe forms. The long wave interfacial dynamics are well-described by a dispersive nonlinear partial differential equation. In this talk, experiments, numerics, and asymptotics of the viscous fluid conduit system will be presented. Structures at multiple length scales are discussed, including solitons, dispersive shock waves, and periodic waves. Modulations of periodic waves will be explored in the weakly nonlinear regime with the Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. Modulational instability (stability) is identified for sufficiently short (long) periodic waves due to a change in dispersion curvature. These asymptotic results are confirmed by numerical simulations of perturbed nonlinear periodic wave solutions. Also, numerically observed are envelope bright and dark solitons well approximated by NLS. This work was partially supported by NSF CAREER DMS-1255422 (M.A.H.) and NSF GRFP (M.D.M.).

  15. Electrical Conduit Distributes Weld Gas Evenly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrisco, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    Purge-gas distributor, made from flexible electrical conduit by drilling small holes along its length, provides even gas flow for welding. Flexible conduit adjusts to accomodate almost any shape and is used for gas coverage in other applications that previously needed formed and drilled solid tubing.

  16. Conduit options in coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Canver, C C

    1995-10-01

    The choice of graft conduit is crucial to the success of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) because the patency of a coronary conduit is closely associated with an uneventful postoperative course and a better long-term patient survival. The standard conduits used for CABG are the greater saphenous vein (GSV) and the internal thoracic artery (ITA). An excellent substitute conduit for coronary bypass operations that can be taken "off the shelf" is certainly the dream of every practicing cardiac surgeon. However, virtually every synthetic and biologic alternative to arterial conduits or autologous fresh saphenous vein has proved disappointing. Fortunately, patients with absolutely no autologous conduit alternatives are uncommon. Circumstances exist, however, that often necessitate the use of alternative conduits such as young hyperlipemic patients, absent or unsuitable autologous ITAs and GSV as a result of previous myocardial revascularization, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and varicose vein ligation procedures. This review provides an update on the clinical work done with all coronary conduits available for myocardial surgical revascularization.

  17. Stability of volcanic conduits during explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravena, Álvaro; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Cioni, Raffaello; Neri, Augusto

    2017-06-01

    Geological evidences of volcanic conduit widening are common in most pyroclastic deposits (e.g. presence of lithic fragments from different depths), suggesting a continuous modification of the conduit geometry during volcanic eruptions. However, the controlling factors of the mechanisms driving conduit enlargement (e.g. erosion, local collapse) are still partially unclear, as well as the influence of conduit geometry on the eruptive dynamics. Although numerical models have been systematically employed to study volcanic conduits, their mechanical stability and the eruptive dynamics related to non-cylindrical conduits have been poorly addressed. We present here a 1D steady-state model which includes the main processes experimented by ascending magmas (i.e. crystallization, rheological changes, fragmentation, drag forces, outgassing and degassing), and the application of two mechanical stability criteria (Mohr-Coulomb and Mogi-Coulomb), in order to study the collapse conditions of volcanic conduits during a representative explosive rhyolitic eruption. It emerges that mechanical stability of volcanic conduits is mainly controlled by its radial dimension, and a minimum radius for reaching stable conditions can be computed, as a function of water content and inlet overpressure. Additionally, for a set of input parameters thought typical of explosive rhyolitic volcanism, we estimated a minimum magma flux for developing a mechanically stable conduit ( 7 • 107 - 3 • 108 kg/s). Results are consistent with the unsteady character usually observed in sub-Plinian eruptions, opposite to mainly stationary Plinian eruptions, commonly characterized by higher magma discharge rates. We suggest that cylindrical conduits represent a mechanically stable configuration only for large radii. Because the instability conditions are not uniform along the conduit, the widening processes probably lead to conduit geometries with depth-varying width. Consequently, as our model is able to

  18. Stochastic simulation of karst conduit networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Dowd, Peter A.; Xu, Chaoshui; Durán-Valsero, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    Karst aquifers have very high spatial heterogeneity. Essentially, they comprise a system of pipes (i.e., the network of conduits) superimposed on rock porosity and on a network of stratigraphic surfaces and fractures. This heterogeneity strongly influences the hydraulic behavior of the karst and it must be reproduced in any realistic numerical model of the karst system that is used as input to flow and transport modeling. However, the directly observed karst conduits are only a small part of the complete karst conduit system and knowledge of the complete conduit geometry and topology remains spatially limited and uncertain. Thus, there is a special interest in the stochastic simulation of networks of conduits that can be combined with fracture and rock porosity models to provide a realistic numerical model of the karst system. Furthermore, the simulated model may be of interest per se and other uses could be envisaged. The purpose of this paper is to present an efficient method for conditional and non-conditional stochastic simulation of karst conduit networks. The method comprises two stages: generation of conduit geometry and generation of topology. The approach adopted is a combination of a resampling method for generating conduit geometries from templates and a modified diffusion-limited aggregation method for generating the network topology. The authors show that the 3D karst conduit networks generated by the proposed method are statistically similar to observed karst conduit networks or to a hypothesized network model. The statistical similarity is in the sense of reproducing the tortuosity index of conduits, the fractal dimension of the network, the direction rose of directions, the Z-histogram and Ripley's K-function of the bifurcation points (which differs from a random allocation of those bifurcation points). The proposed method (1) is very flexible, (2) incorporates any experimental data (conditioning information) and (3) can easily be modified when

  19. 47 CFR 32.2441 - Conduit systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... necessary in the construction of conduit plant. (b) The cost of pumping water out of manholes and of cleaning manholes and ducts in connection with construction work and the cost of permits and privileges...

  20. 47 CFR 32.2441 - Conduit systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... necessary in the construction of conduit plant. (b) The cost of pumping water out of manholes and of cleaning manholes and ducts in connection with construction work and the cost of permits and privileges...

  1. 47 CFR 32.2441 - Conduit systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... necessary in the construction of conduit plant. (b) The cost of pumping water out of manholes and of cleaning manholes and ducts in connection with construction work and the cost of permits and privileges...

  2. 47 CFR 32.2441 - Conduit systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... necessary in the construction of conduit plant. (b) The cost of pumping water out of manholes and of cleaning manholes and ducts in connection with construction work and the cost of permits and privileges...

  3. 47 CFR 32.2441 - Conduit systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... necessary in the construction of conduit plant. (b) The cost of pumping water out of manholes and of..., as appropriate. (d) The cost of pipes or other protective covering for underground drop and...

  4. Phase distribution in complex geometry conduits

    SciTech Connect

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Lopez de Bertodano, M.; Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1992-12-31

    Some of the most important and challenging problems in two-phase flow today have to do with the understanding and prediction of multidimensional phenomena, in particular, lateral phase distribution in both simple and complex geometry conduits. A prior review paper summarized the state-of-the-art in the understanding of phase distribution phenomena, and the ability to perform mechanistic multidimensional predictions. The purpose of this paper is to update that review, with particular emphasis on complex geometry conduit predictive capabilities.

  5. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  6. [The continent colon-conduit stoma].

    PubMed

    Jonas, U; Wetzel, W; Hohenfellner, R

    1978-07-01

    A conduit occlusor is presented consisting of a tube surrounded by foam rubber and covered by a latex membrane, with a polyurethane cap attached to the other end. A valve imbedded in the cap allows voluntary urine drainage. This atraumatic, pneumatic, non-invasive occlusor device was used quite succesfully in 3 volunteers who had had a colon conduit urinary diversion. The device was well-tolerated, leakage was effectively prevented. Further experience, however, will be necessary for final evaluation.

  7. Collagen nerve conduits promote enhanced axonal regeneration, schwann cell association, and neovascularization compared to silicone conduits.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Stephen W P; Syed, Shahbaz; Walsh, Walsh; Zochodne, Douglas W; Midha, Rajiv

    2009-08-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration within guidance conduits involves a critical association between regenerating axons, Schwann cells (SCs), and neovascularization. However, it is currently unknown if there is a greater association between these factors in nonpermeable versus semipermeable nerve guide conduits. We therefore examined this collaboration in both silicone- and collagen-based nerve conduits in both 5- and 10-mm-injury gaps in rat sciatic nerves. Results indicate that collagen conduits promoted enhanced axonal and SC regeneration and association when compared to silicone conduits in the shorter 5-mm-gap model. In addition, collagen tubes displayed enhanced neovascularization over silicone conduits, suggesting that these three factors are intimately related in successful peripheral nerve regeneration. At later time points (1- and 2-month analysis) in a 10-mm-gap model, collagen tubes displayed enhanced axonal regeneration, myelination, and vascularization when compared to silicone-based conduits. Results from these studies suggest that regenerating cables within collagen-based conduits are revascularized earlier and more completely, which in turn enhances peripheral nerve regeneration through these nerve guides as compared to silicone conduits.

  8. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  9. A model of bubble growth leading to xylem conduit embolism.

    PubMed

    Hölttä, T; Vesala, T; Nikinmaa, E

    2007-11-07

    The dynamics of a gas bubble inside a water conduit after a cavitation event was modeled. A distinction was made between a typical angiosperm conduit with a homogeneous pit membrane and a typical gymnosperm conduit with a torus-margo pit membrane structure. For conduits with torus-margo type pits pit membrane deflection was also modeled and pit aspiration, the displacement of the pit membrane to the low pressure side of the pit chamber, was found to be possible while the emboli was still small. Concurrent with pit aspiration, the high resistance to water flow out of the conduit through the cell walls or aspirated pits will make the embolism process slow. In case of no pit aspiration and always for conduits with homogeneous pit membranes, embolism growth is more rapid but still much slower than bubble growth in bulk water under similar water tension. The time needed for the embolism to fill a whole conduit was found to be dependent on pit and cell wall conductance, conduit radius, xylem water tension, pressure rise in adjacent conduits due to water freed from the embolising conduit, and the rigidity and structure of the pits in the case of margo-torus type pit membrane. The water pressure in the conduit hosting the bubble was found to occur almost immediately after bubble induction inside a conduit, creating a sudden tension release in the conduit, which can be detected by acoustic and ultra-acoustic monitoring of xylem cavitation.

  10. 77 FR 22480 - Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BH77 Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction AGENCY... correction to final regulations (TD 9562) that were published in the Federal Register on Friday, December 9... arrangement. DATES: This correction is effective on April 16, 2012 and is applicable on December 9, 2011....

  11. 30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hose conduit. 18.39 Section 18.39 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements...

  12. 30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hose conduit. 18.39 Section 18.39 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements...

  13. Controlling Wavebreaking in a Viscous Fluid Conduit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dalton; Maiden, Michelle; Hoefer, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This poster will present a new technique in the experimental investigation of dispersive hydrodynamics. In shallow water flows, internal ocean waves, superfluids, and optical media, wave breaking can be resolved by a dispersive shock wave (DSW). In this work, an experimental method to control the location of DSW formation (gradient catastrophe) is explained. The central idea is to convert an initial value problem (Riemann problem) into an equivalent boundary value problem. The system to which this technique is applied is a fluid conduit resulting from high viscosity contrast between a buoyant interior and heavier exterior fluid. The conduit cross-sectional area is modeled by a nonlinear, conservative, dispersive, third order partial differential equation. Using this model, the aim is to predict the breaking location of a DSW by controlling one boundary condition. An analytical expression for this boundary condition is derived by solving the dispersionless equation backward in time from the desired step via the method of characteristics. This is used in experiment to generate an injection rate profile for a high precision piston pump. This translates to the desired conduit shape. Varying the jump height and desired breaking location indicates good control of DSW formation. This result can be improved by deriving a conduit profile by numerical simulation of the full model equation. Controlling the breaking location of a DSW allows for the investigation of dynamics independent of the boundary. Support provided by NSF CAREER DMS-1255422 , NSF EXTREEMS.

  14. 30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hose conduit. 18.39 Section 18.39 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design...

  15. 30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hose conduit. 18.39 Section 18.39 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design...

  16. 30 CFR 18.39 - Hose conduit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hose conduit. 18.39 Section 18.39 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design...

  17. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubulars

    SciTech Connect

    Curlett, H.B.

    1989-01-24

    A seal adapted for use with a multi-conduit well tubular, or the like, is described which consists of: a plate with fluid passages, each passage corresponding to an opening of a conduit of the multiconduit tubular, and a groove on the plate around each passage; and elastomer means partially embeddable into each groove for sealing each conduit of a tubular to a corresponding conduit of another similar tubular.

  18. Acoustic signal propagation characterization of conduit networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Muhammad Safeer

    Analysis of acoustic signal propagation in conduit networks has been an important area of research in acoustics. One major aspect of analyzing conduit networks as acoustic channels is that a propagating signal suffers frequency dependent attenuation due to thermo-viscous boundary layer effects and the presence of impedance mismatches such as side branches. The signal attenuation due to side branches is strongly influenced by their numbers and dimensions such as diameter and length. Newly developed applications for condition based monitoring of underground conduit networks involve measurement of acoustic signal attenuation through tests in the field. In many cases the exact installation layout of the field measurement location may not be accessible or actual installation may differ from the documented layout. The lack of exact knowledge of numbers and lengths of side branches, therefore, introduces uncertainty in the measurements of attenuation and contributes to the random variable error between measured results and those predicted from theoretical models. There are other random processes in and around conduit networks in the field that also affect the propagation of an acoustic signal. These random processes include but are not limited to the presence of strong temperature and humidity gradients within the conduits, blockages of variable sizes and types, effects of aging such as cracks, bends, sags and holes, ambient noise variations and presence of variable layer of water. It is reasonable to consider that the random processes contributing to the error in the measured attenuation are independent and arbitrarily distributed. The error, contributed by a large number of independent sources of arbitrary probability distributions, is best described by an approximately normal probability distribution in accordance with the central limit theorem. Using an analytical approach to model the attenuating effect of each of the random variable sources can be very complex and

  19. Comparison of conduits for leg revascularization.

    PubMed

    Weisel, R D; Johnston, K W; Baird, R J; Drezner, A D; Oates, T K; Lipton, I H

    1981-01-01

    The saphenous vein (SV) remains the conduit of choice for lower limb revascularization. When SV is unavailable, or unsuitable, two alternative conduits have been employed: gluteraldehydestablized human umbilical vein (HUV) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). In this study of the 218 patients who underwent lower limb revascularization, 3-year patency of 85 SV graft was 75% compared to 34% for the 66 HUV grafts and 33% for the 67 PFTE grafts. Three factors were found to independently influence patency: the indication for surgery, the site of the distal anastomosis, and the angiographic runoff. The SV group had significantly better patency than either HUV or PFTE in each of these subgroups. No consistent difference between HUV and PTFE was found. A risk score was obtained by assigning a value of 1 to 3 for each of the factors influencing patency--indication: 1 = claudication, 2 = rest pain, 3 = ischemic lesions; site: 1 = above knee (AK), 2 = below knee (BK), 3 = tibial; runoff 1 = good (two or three vessels), 2 = fair (one vessel), 3 = poor (no vessel). Patients with the lowest risk scores (3 to 4) had the best 3-year patency: SV, 78%; HUV, 44%; and PTFE, 48%. Patients with the highest risk scores (7 to 9) had the worst 3-year patency: SV, 68%; HUV, 32%; and PTFE, 28%. SVs had better patency under high- and low-risk conditions and remain the conduit of choice for lower limb revascularization. Both HUV and PTFE have equivalent and acceptable patency when SV is unavailable or unstable.

  20. High temperature lined conduits, elbows and tees

    DOEpatents

    De Feo, Angelo; Drewniany, Edward

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature lined conduit comprising, a liner, a flexible insulating refractory blanket around and in contact with the liner, a pipe member around the blanket and spaced therefrom, and castable rigid refractory material between the pipe member and the blanket. Anchors are connected to the inside diameter of the pipe and extend into the castable material. The liner includes male and female slip joint ends for permitting thermal expansion of the liner with respect to the castable material and the pipe member. Elbows and tees of the lined conduit comprise an elbow liner wrapped with insulating refractory blanket material around which is disposed a spaced elbow pipe member with castable refractory material between the blanket material and the elbow pipe member. A reinforcing band is connected to the elbow liner at an intermediate location thereon from which extend a plurality of hollow tubes or pins which extend into the castable material to anchor the lined elbow and permit thermal expansion. A method of fabricating the high temperature lined conduit, elbows and tees is also disclosed which utilizes a polyethylene layer over the refractory blanket after it has been compressed to maintain the refractory blanket in a compressed condition until the castable material is in place. Hot gases are then directed through the interior of the liner for evaporating the polyethylene and setting the castable material which permits the compressed blanket to come into close contact with the castable material.

  1. Assessment of conduit artery vasomotion using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanders, Karlis; Grabovskis, Andris; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Aivars, Juris Imants

    2013-11-01

    Vasomotion is a spontaneous oscillation of vascular tone. The phenomenon has been observed in small arterioles and capillaries as well as in the large conduit arteries. The layer of smooth muscle cells that surrounds a blood vessel can spontaneously and periodically change its tension and thereby the arterial wall stiffness also changes. As the understanding of the phenomenon is still rather obscure, researchers would benefit from a low-cost and reliable investigation technique such as photoplethysmography (PPG). PPG is an optical blood pulsation measurement technique that can offer substantial information about the arterial stiffness. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the usefulness of the PPG technique in the research of vasomotion and to investigate vasomotion in the relatively large conduit arteries. Continuous 15 minute long measurements of posterior tibial artery wall stiffness were taken. Artery diameter, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and respiration were also simultaneously registered. Fast Fourier Transform power spectra were calculated to identify unique stiffness oscillations that did not correspond to fluctuations in the systemic parameters and thus would indicate vasomotion. We concluded that photoplethysmography is a convenient method for the research of the vasomotion in large arteries. Local stiffness parameter b/a is more accurate to use and easier to measure than the pulse wave velocity which describes stiffness of a segment of an artery. Conduit arteries might exhibit a low amplitude high frequency vasomotion ( 9 to 27 cycles per minute). Low frequency vasomotion is problematic to distinguish from the passive oscillations imposed by the arterial pressure.

  2. DEFORMATION OF SCORIA CONE BY CONDUIT PRESSURIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Gaffney; B. Damjanac; D. Krier; G. Valentine

    2005-08-26

    A simplified mechanical model is used to simulate the deformation of a scoria cone due to pressurization of magma in a feeder conduit. The scoria cone is modeled as consisting of a cone of stabilized scoria with an axial region of loose scoria (height h{sub 1}), all overlying a vertically oriented cylindrical conduit intruded into rhyolite tuff country rock. For our analyses, the conduit is filled with basalt magma, usually with the upper length (h{sub 2}) solidified. The style of deformation of the cone depends on both h{sub 1} and h{sub 2}. If magma is prevented from hydrofracturing out of the conduit (as, for example, might be the case if the magma is surrounded by a solidified, but plastically deformable layer acting as a gasket backed up by the brittle country rock) pressures in the magma can build to 10s of MPa. When h{sub 1} is 100 m, not unusual for a small isolated basaltic cinder cone, the magma pressure needed to destabilize the cone when molten magma extends all the way to the original ground surface (h{sub 2} = 0) is only about one-third of the pressure when the upper part of the conduit is solidified (h{sub 2} = 25m). In the former case, almost the entire upper third of the cone is at failure in tension when the configuration becomes unstable. In the latter case, small portions of the surface of the cone are failing in tension when instability occurs, but a large volume in the central core of the cone is failing in shear or compressions. These results may provide insight into the status of volcanic plumbing, either past or present, beneath scoria cones. Field observations at the Lathrop Wells volcano in southern Nevada identify structures at the outer edge just below the crater rim that appear to be inward-dipping listric normal faults. This may indicate that, near the end of its active stage, the cone was close to failing in this fashion. A companion paper suggests that such a failure could have been quite energetic had it occurred.

  3. Mise en evidence d'effects grand-maternels sur les conduites maternelles de la souris.

    PubMed

    Chevalet, P; Le Pape, G; Lassalle, J M

    1987-12-01

    Continuous recording of locomotor activity and time spent in the nest were performed on mice during the five first days postpartum. We compared mice of the C57BL/6 inbred strain to mice of the two reciprocal F2's derived from the C57BL/6 and BALB/c parental strains. All animals reared foster pups of the C57BL/6 strain. The results did not show any difference between the three groups for the total amount of time spent in the nest ; this parameter decreases with days. No difference appeared between the C57BL/6 group and the F2 B6CxCB6 group (having a grandmother of the C57BL/6 strain), whereas each of these groups differed significantly from F2 CB6xB6C group (having a grandmother of the BALB/c strain) for the following indices : locomotor activity, mean duration of a stay in the nest, mean duration of an absence from the nest and percentage of nocturnal activity. These results are discussed in terms of grandmaternal effects as far as the variation in the strain of the grandmother is the only factor which can account for these differences in behavior. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.; Kidd, T.G.

    1999-05-18

    A system is described for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements. 3 figs.

  5. System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German; Kidd, Terrel G.

    1999-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.

  6. Gas slug ascent through rheologically stratified conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capponi, Antonio; James, Mike R.; Lane, Steve J.

    2016-04-01

    Textural and petrological evidence has indicated the presence of viscous, degassed magma layers at the top of the conduit at Stromboli. This layer acts as a plug through which gas slugs burst and it is thought to have a role in controlling the eruptive dynamics. Here, we present the results of laboratory experiments which detail the range of slug flow configurations that can develop in a rheologically stratified conduit. A gas slug can burst (1) after being fully accommodated within the plug volume, (2) whilst its base is still in the underlying low-viscosity liquid or (3) within a low-viscosity layer dynamically emplaced above the plug during the slug ascent. We illustrate the relevance of the same flow configurations at volcanic-scale through a new experimentally-validated 1D model and 3D computational fluid dynamic simulations. Applied to Stromboli, our results show that gas volume, plug thickness, plug viscosity and conduit radius control the transition between each configuration; in contrast, the configuration distribution seems insensitive to the viscosity of magma beneath the plug, which acts mainly to deliver the slug into the plug. Each identified flow configuration encompasses a variety of processes including dynamic narrowing and widening of the conduit, generation of instabilities along the falling liquid film, transient blockages of the slug path and slug break-up. All these complexities, in turn, lead to variations in the slug overpressure, mirrored by changes in infrasonic signatures which are also associated to different eruptive styles. Acoustic amplitudes are strongly dependent on the flow configuration in which the slugs burst, with both acoustic peak amplitudes and waveform shapes reflecting different burst dynamics. When compared to infrasonic signals from Stromboli, the similarity between real signals and laboratory waveforms suggests that the burst of a slug through a plug may represent a viable first-order mechanism for the generation of

  7. Conduits for Coronary Bypass: Vein Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Emily A

    2012-01-01

    The saphenous vein has been the principal conduit for coronary bypass grafting from the beginning, circa 1970. This report briefly traces this history and concomitantly presents one surgeons experience and personal views on use of the vein graft. As such it is not exhaustive but meant to be practical with a modest number of references. The focus is that of providing guidance and perspective which may be at variance with that of others and recognizing that there may be many ways to accomplish the task at hand. Hopefully the surgeon in training/early career may find this instructive on the journey to surgical maturity. PMID:23130300

  8. Delayed complication of pelvic lymphocele: Ileal conduit obstruction.

    PubMed

    Bankar, Sanket S; Bakshi, Ganesh K; Prakash, Gagan; Sable, Nilesh P

    2015-01-01

    Radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Lymphocele is a common sequalae of pelvic lymphadenectomy. We report an unusual presentation of pelvic lymphocele developing after radical cystectomy reconstructed with an ileal conduit where the patient developed obstruction of the ileal conduit loop due to external pressure of the lymphocele. Catheter drainage of the conduit relieved the symptoms and a computerized tomography scan showed a large lymphocele causing acute angulation and resultant obstruction of the ileal conduit. The patient was treated with percutaneous drainage of the lymphocele and remains symptom-free on follow-up at 1 year.

  9. Delayed complication of pelvic lymphocele: Ileal conduit obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bankar, Sanket S.; Bakshi, Ganesh K.; Prakash, Gagan; Sable, Nilesh P.

    2015-01-01

    Radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Lymphocele is a common sequalae of pelvic lymphadenectomy. We report an unusual presentation of pelvic lymphocele developing after radical cystectomy reconstructed with an ileal conduit where the patient developed obstruction of the ileal conduit loop due to external pressure of the lymphocele. Catheter drainage of the conduit relieved the symptoms and a computerized tomography scan showed a large lymphocele causing acute angulation and resultant obstruction of the ileal conduit. The patient was treated with percutaneous drainage of the lymphocele and remains symptom-free on follow-up at 1 year. PMID:26166973

  10. Pumice, a window into the volcanic conduit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degruyter, W.; Dufek, J.; Bachmann, O.

    2009-12-01

    To better understand pumice microtextures and stress distribution within the volcanic conduit, a numerical study is performed using passive tracers to map the type and amount of shear in different parts of the conduit. During an explosive eruption pumices are formed by fragmenting the rising magmatic foam (i.e. highly vesicular magma). Provided they are quenched fast enough, pumices reflect the state of the magma just prior to fragmentation and their microtextures carry information on the stresses applied during magma ascent. Numerous deposits contain both tube pumice, with highly elongated vesicles and frothy pumice, with nearly spherical vesicles showing evidence that they were exposed to different stresses during magma ascent (e.g. Kos Plateau Tuff and Campanian Ignimbrite). The main aim of this investigation is to determine the strain histories of magmatic parcels that eventually become pumice We have modified the Multiphase Flow with Interphase Exchanges (MFIX) code to simulate a two-phase (bubbles and magma), two-dimensional, isothermal flow with disequilibrium bubble growth. We include a rheology model depending on water content with outlet expansion into the atmosphere. Furthermore, different fragmentation criteria (i.e. critical gas volume fraction, strain rate and gas overpressure) are examined. Strain histories are investigated by releasing passive tracers within simulated magma rise, which record the pure and simple shear strain rates during ascent. The range of accumulated stresses at fragmentation shown by the passive tracers can then be linked to the range of different microtextures found within pumices.

  11. Further Development, Support and Enhancement of CONDUIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veronica, Moldoveanu; Levine, William S.

    1999-01-01

    From the first airplanes steered by handles, wheels, and pedals to today's advanced aircraft, there has been a century of revolutionary inventions, all of them contributing to flight quality. The stability and controllability of aircraft as they appear to a pilot are called flying or handling qualities. Many years after the first airplanes flew, flying qualities were identified and ranked from desirable to unsatisfactory. Later on engineers developed design methods to satisfy these practical criteria. CONDUIT, which stands for Control Designer's Unified Interface, is a modern software package that provides a methodology for optimization of flight control systems in order to improve the flying qualities. CONDUIT is dependent on an the optimization engine called CONSOL-OPTCAD (C-O). C-O performs multicriterion parametric optimization. C-O was successfully tested on a variety of control problems. The optimization-based computational system, C-O, requires a particular control system description as a MATLAB file and possesses the ability to modify the vector of design parameters in an attempt to satisfy performance objectives and constraints specified by the designer, in a C-type file. After the first optimization attempts on the UH-60A control system, an early interface system, named GIFCORCODE (Graphical Interface for CONSOL-OPTCAD for Rotorcraft Controller Design) was created.

  12. 26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.881-3 Section 1.881-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.881-3 Conduit financing arrangements. (a) General rules and definitions—(1) Purpose and scope....

  13. Biopsy of ureteral tumor in patient with ileal conduit.

    PubMed

    Shental, J; Nussinson, E; Schmitz, A; Sudarsky, M

    1985-11-01

    A patient with ileal conduit and recent dilation of the left upper collecting system had flexible fiberoptic endoscopy of the ileal loop. The entire lumen of the intestinal conduit and the ureteroileal anastomosis were visualized. In addition retrograde pyelography and direct vision biopsy of a tumor in the ureter were performed.

  14. Engineering Bi-Layer Nanofibrous Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yiqian; Wang, Aijun; Patel, Shyam; Kurpinski, Kyle; Diao, Edward; Bao, Xuan; Kwong, George; Young, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma injuries often cause peripheral nerve damage and disability. A goal in neural tissue engineering is to develop synthetic nerve conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration having therapeutic efficacy comparable to that of autografts. Nanofibrous conduits with aligned nanofibers have been shown to promote nerve regeneration, but current fabrication methods rely on rolling a fibrous sheet into the shape of a conduit, which results in a graft with inconsistent size and a discontinuous joint or seam. In addition, the long-term effects of nanofibrous nerve conduits, in comparison with autografts, are still unknown. Here we developed a novel one-step electrospinning process and, for the first time, fabricated a seamless bi-layer nanofibrous nerve conduit: the luminal layer having longitudinally aligned nanofibers to promote nerve regeneration, and the outer layer having randomly organized nanofibers for mechanical support. Long-term in vivo studies demonstrated that bi-layer aligned nanofibrous nerve conduits were superior to random nanofibrous conduits and had comparable therapeutic effects to autografts for nerve regeneration. In summary, we showed that the engineered nanostructure had a significant impact on neural tissue regeneration in situ. The results from this study will also lead to the scalable fabrication of engineered nanofibrous nerve conduits with designed nanostructure. This technology platform can be combined with drug delivery and cell therapies for tissue engineering. PMID:21501089

  15. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-1 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.7701(l)-1 Section 1.7701(l)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7701(l)-1 Conduit...

  16. 26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.881-3 Section 1.881-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Corporations § 1.881-3 Conduit financing arrangements. (a) General rules and definitions—(1) Purpose...

  17. 26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.881-3 Section 1.881-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Corporations § 1.881-3 Conduit financing arrangements. (a) General rules and definitions—(1) Purpose...

  18. 26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.881-3 Section 1.881-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Corporations § 1.881-3 Conduit financing arrangements. (a) General rules and definitions—(1) Purpose...

  19. Preclinical evaluations of acellular biological conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liao, I-Chien; Wan, Hua; Qi, Shijie; Cui, Cunqi; Patel, Paarun; Sun, Wendell

    2013-01-01

    Various types of natural biological conduits have been investigated as alternatives to the current surgical standard approach for peripheral nerve injuries. Autologous nerve graft, the current gold standard for peripheral nerve damage, is limited by clinical challenges such as donor-site morbidity and limited availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using acellular xenographic conduits (nerve, artery, and dermis) for the repair of a 1.2 cm critical size defect of peripheral nerve in a rodent model. Four months post surgery, the animal group receiving acellular artery as a nerve conduit showed excellent physiological outcome in terms of the prevention of muscle atrophy and foot ulcer. Histological assessment of the bridged site revealed excellent axon regeneration, as opposed to the nonrepaired control group or the group receiving dermal conduit. Finally, the study evaluated the potential improvement via the addition of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells into the artery conduit during the bridging procedure. The mesenchymal stem cell–dosed artery conduit group resulted in significantly higher concentration of regenerated axons over artery conduit alone, and exhibited accelerated muscle atrophy rescue. Our results demonstrated that xenographic artery conduits promoted excellent axonal regeneration with highly promising clinical relevance. PMID:23532671

  20. Water Flow in Karst Aquifer Considering Dynamically Variable Saturation Conduit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chaoqun; Hu, Bill X.

    2017-04-01

    The karst system is generally conceptualized as dual-porosity system, which is characterized by low conductivity and high storage continuum matrix and high conductivity and quick flow conduit networks. And so far, a common numerical model for simulating flow in karst aquifer is MODFLOW2005-CFP, which is released by USGS in 2008. However, the steady-state approach for conduit flow in CFP is physically impractical when simulating very dynamic hydraulics with variable saturation conduit. So, we adopt the method proposed by Reimann et al. (2011) to improve current model, in which Saint-Venant equations are used to model the flow in conduit. Considering the actual background that the conduit is very big and varies along flow path and the Dirichlet boundary varies with rainfall in our study area in Southwest China, we further investigate the influence of conduit diameter and outflow boundary on numerical model. And we also analyze the hydraulic process in multi-precipitation events. We find that the numerical model here corresponds well with CFP for saturated conduit, and it could depict the interaction between matrix and conduit during very dynamic hydraulics pretty well compare with CFP.

  1. 18 CFR 358.6 - No conduit rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false No conduit rule. 358.6 Section 358.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.6 No conduit...

  2. 18 CFR 358.6 - No conduit rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false No conduit rule. 358.6 Section 358.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.6 No conduit...

  3. 18 CFR 358.6 - No conduit rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false No conduit rule. 358.6 Section 358.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.6 No conduit...

  4. 18 CFR 358.6 - No conduit rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false No conduit rule. 358.6 Section 358.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.6 No conduit...

  5. 18 CFR 358.6 - No conduit rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false No conduit rule. 358.6 Section 358.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.6 No conduit...

  6. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-1 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.7701(l)-1 Section 1.7701(l)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7701(l)-1 Conduit...

  7. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-1 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.7701(l)-1 Section 1.7701(l)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7701(l)-1 Conduit...

  8. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-1 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.7701(l)-1 Section 1.7701(l)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7701(l)-1 Conduit...

  9. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-1 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conduit financing arrangements. 1.7701(l)-1 Section 1.7701(l)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7701(l)-1 Conduit...

  10. Conduite automobile et démence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda; Molnar, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Fournir aux médecins de première ligne une approche relative aux préoccupations de sécurité au volant lorsque les personnes âgées présentent des troubles de mémoire. Sources d’information L’approche est fondée sur un programme de formation agréé des cliniques de la mémoire, élaboré par la clinique de la mémoire du Centre for Family Medicine. Message principal L’un des aspects les plus difficiles des soins aux personnes atteintes de démence est l’évaluation de la sécurité au volant. Les conducteurs atteints de démence présentent un risque plus élevé de collisions, quoique de nombreux conducteurs dont l’atteinte est légère soient aptes à conduire pendant encore plusieurs années. Puisque l’aptitude à conduire dépend de multiples compétences cognitives et fonctionnelles, de nombreux facteurs entrent en jeu lorsque les cliniciens déterminent si les sujets de préoccupation en matière de cognition se répercutent sur l’aptitude à conduire. Les observations spécifiques tirées de l’anamnèse corroborée et des tests cognitifs effectués en cabinet pourraient aider le médecin à décider s’il doit recommander le patient à un examen pratique complet et aviser les autorités provinciales du transport, conformément aux exigences en matière de déclarations. La communication doit être axée sur le patient et menée avec tact. Conclusion Les médecins de première ligne doivent tenir compte de plusieurs facteurs lorsqu’ils déterminent si les sujets de leurs préoccupations en matière de cognition pourraient se répercuter sur l’aptitude des conducteurs âgés à prendre le volant. PMID:28115452

  11. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology. PMID:23507674

  12. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    PubMed

    Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

  13. Cardiac compression secondary to a massively dilated substernal colon conduit.

    PubMed

    Khan, Babar A; Ionescu, Ruxandra C; Halal, Ahmed M; Kesler, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    With the growing success of surgical repairs of congenital defects previously incompatible with life, it is expected of these patients to live longer and experience the complications of these corrective procedures. Esophageal atresia is a congenital defect that occurs in 1 out of 4000 births and is oftentimes a surgical emergency in which colonic conduits are routinely used for esophageal reconstruction. Colonic conduit redundancy and dilatation are well-recognized late complications of colon conduit surgeries for esophageal reconstructions. We report a rare case of symptomatic cardiac compression secondary to a massively dilated substernal colon conduit occurring 44 years after the initial childhood surgery in 1964 with rapid reversal of hemodynamic compromise after conduit removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternative Fuels Compatibility with Army Equipment Testing - Aged Niedner Rifts Conduit Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    ends of the conduit using IPDS couplings to attach them to the conduit end fittings. 2 Setup the plumbing for the pump to pressurize the conduit. 3...Cyclic Testing Procedure Step No. Description 1 End Plugs should be installed on both ends of the conduit using IPDS couplings to attach them to the...testing site. Pressurization Cycles 12 End Plugs should be installed on both ends of the conduit using IPDS couplings to attach them to the conduit

  15. Nanofibrous nerve conduit-enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xu; Mi, Ruifa; Hoke, Ahmet; Chew, Sing Yian

    2014-05-01

    Fibre structures represent a potential class of materials for the formation of synthetic nerve conduits due to their biomimicking architecture. Although the advantages of fibres in enhancing nerve regeneration have been demonstrated, in vivo evaluation of fibre size effect on nerve regeneration remains limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of fibre diameter of electrospun conduits on peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15-mm critical defect gap in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. By using an electrospinning technique, fibrous conduits comprised of aligned electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microfibers (981 ± 83 nm, Microfiber) or nanofibers (251 ± 32 nm, Nanofiber) were obtained. At three months post implantation, axons regenerated across the defect gap in all animals that received fibrous conduits. In contrast, complete nerve regeneration was not observed in the control group that received empty, non-porous PCL film conduits (Film). Nanofiber conduits resulted in significantly higher total number of myelinated axons and thicker myelin sheaths compared to Microfiber and Film conduits. Retrograde labeling revealed a significant increase in number of regenerated dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in the presence of Nanofiber conduits (1.93 ± 0.71 × 10(3) vs. 0.98 ± 0.30 × 10(3) in Microfiber, p < 0.01). In addition, the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes were higher and distal motor latency values were lower in the Nanofiber conduit group compared to the Microfiber group. This study demonstrated the impact of fibre size on peripheral nerve regeneration. These results could provide useful insights for future nerve guide designs.

  16. Arterial conduits for hepatic artery revascularisation in adult liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Imber, Charles; Leelaudomlipi, Surasak; Gunson, Bridget K; Buckels, John A C; Mirza, Darius F; Mayer, A David; Bramhall, Simon R

    2004-05-01

    Arterial complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), including hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), are important causes of early graft failure. The use of an arterial conduit is an accepted alternative to the utilisation of native recipient hepatic artery for specific indications. This study aims to determine the efficacy of arterial conduits and the outcome in OLT. We retrospectively reviewed 1,575 cadaveric adult OLTs and identified those in which an arterial conduit was used for hepatic revascularisation. Data on the primary disease, indication for using arterial conduit, type of vascular graft, operative technique and outcome were obtained. Thirty-six (2.3%) patients underwent OLT in which arterial conduits were used for hepatic artery (HA) revascularisation. Six of these were performed on the primary transplant, while the rest (n=30) were performed in patients undergoing re-transplantation, including six who had developed hepatic artery aneurysms. The incidence of arterial conduits was 0.4% (6/1,426 cases) in all primary OLTs and 20.1% (30/149 cases) in all re-transplants. Twenty-nine procedures utilised iliac artery grafts from the same donor as the liver, six used iliac artery grafts from a different donor, and a single patient underwent a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft. Two techniques were used: infra-renal aorto-hepatic artery conduit and interposition between the donor and recipient native HAs, or branches of the HAs. The 30-day mortality rate for operations using an arterial conduit was 30.6%. Three conduits thrombosed at 9, 25 and 155 months, respectively, but one liver graft survived without re-transplantation. The arterial conduits had 1- and 5-year patency rates of 88.5% and 80.8%. The 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 66.7% and 44%. We can thus conclude that an arterial conduit is a viable alternative option for hepatic revascularisation in both primary and re-transplantation. Despite a lower patency rate than that of

  17. 35. CONDUIT LAYOUT FOR BASCULE General overview with motors, brakes, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. CONDUIT LAYOUT FOR BASCULE General overview with motors, brakes, etc. Courtesy of Norwood Noonan Company, Chicago, 1930. - Congress Street Bascule Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at Congress Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 79. COVERED CONDUIT ACROSS ANTELOPE VALLEY WITH WIND FARM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. COVERED CONDUIT ACROSS ANTELOPE VALLEY WITH WIND FARM IN DISTANCE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 87. AQUEDUCT IN COVERED CONDUIT LOOKING NORTHWEST Los Angeles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. AQUEDUCT IN COVERED CONDUIT LOOKING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 98. (Credit BLV) Detail of gravity, flow conduit intake at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. (Credit BLV) Detail of gravity, flow conduit intake at cross Lake dam Cribbing supports extra suction intake installed in 1930. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  1. 2. DETAIL, CONDUITS ALONG BASE OF NORTH FRONT. Looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL, CONDUITS ALONG BASE OF NORTH FRONT. Looking east. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-4, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. 11. INTERIOR DETAIL, BASEMENT, SHOWING CONDUITS LEADING UNDERGROUND TO SWITCHES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR DETAIL, BASEMENT, SHOWING CONDUITS LEADING UNDERGROUND TO SWITCHES AND SIGNALS - Baltimore & Potomac Interlocking Tower, Adjacent to AMTRAK railroad tracks in block bounded by Howard Street, Jones Falls Expressway, Maryland Avenue & Falls Road, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. [The preparation and evaluation of tissue inducible nerve guide conduit].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongbin; Liu, Xingyan; Ge, Baofeng; Guo, Chao; Zhen, Ping

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this research was to fabricate a novel tissue inducible nerve guide conduit, and to evaluate its biologic property. The microspheres were prepared with chitosan that encapsulated ligustrazine. The drug release of the chitosan microspheres was detected with application of the controlled release method in vitro. Chitosan microspheres were mixed with collagen to fabricate the tissue inducible nerve conduit, which were crosslinked with 2% genipin for 24h. Mechanical properties of the nerve guide conduit samples, including maximum load and breaking load, were measured using an Instron Series IX Automated Materials Testing System. The flexibility of the nerve guide conduit was determined with the texture evaluation instrument. Different methods, such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), light microscope (LMS) and immunofluorescence were used to analyze the spatial structure of the nerve guide conduit, the distribution of the microspheres, the state of the nerve duct combined with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and the effect of the ligustrazine that released from chitosan microsphere on MSCs differentiation into nerve cells, respectively. The results showed that the chitosan microspheres had better releasing effect. The mechanical properties resultant nerve guide conduit were determined. The maximum load and breaking load of the genipin crosslinked samples were significantly higher than that observed with the non-crosslinkers, increasing to (0.76 +/- 0.15) N and (0.69 +/- 0.17) N from (0.23 +/- 0.09) N and (0.20 +/- 0.12) N for the non-crosslinkers (P < 0.01). The degradation rates of non-crosslinked and crosslinked by genipin were(58.62 +/- 7.59) mg and (9.23 +/- 2.47) mg, respec- tively. This had a statistical significance (P < 0.01). The average linearities in dry and hygrometric state of the nerve guide conduit were (0.597 +/- 0.012) LC and (0.333 +/- 0.015) LC, respectively, which also had statistical significance (P < 0.01). The flexibility in

  4. Superconducting cable-in-conduit low resistance splice

    DOEpatents

    Artman, Thomas A.

    2003-06-24

    A low resistance splice connects two cable-in-conduit superconductors to each other. Dividing collars for arranging sub-cable units from each conduit are provided, along with clamping collars for mating each sub-cable wire assembly to form mated assemblies. The mated assemblies ideally can be accomplished by way of splicing collar. The mated assemblies are cooled by way of a flow of coolant, preferably helium. A method for implementing such a splicing is also described.

  5. Conduit properties and karstification in the unconfined Floridan aquifer.

    PubMed

    Screaton, Elizabeth; Martin, Jonathan B; Ginn, Brian; Smith, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    Exchange of water between conduits and matrix is an important control on regional chemical compositions, karstification, and quality of ground water resources in karst aquifers. A sinking stream (Santa Fe River Sink) and its resurgence (River Rise) in the unconfined portion of the Floridan Aquifer provide the opportunity to monitor conduit inflow and outflow. The use of temperature as a tracer allows determination of residence times and velocities through the conduit system. Based on temperature records from two high water events, flow is reasonably represented as pipe flow with a cross-sectional area of 380 m2, although this model may be complicated by losses of water from the conduit system at higher discharge rates. Over the course of the study year, the River Rise discharged a total of 1.9 x 10(7) m3 more water than entered the River Sink, reflecting net contribution of ground water from the matrix into the conduit system. However, as River Sink discharge rates peaked following three rainfall events during the study period, the conduit system lost water, presumably into the matrix. Surface water in high flow events is typically undersaturated with respect to calcite and thus may lead to dissolution, depending on its residence time in the matrix. A calculation of local denudation is larger than other regional estimates, perhaps reflecting return of water to conduits before calcite equilibrium is reached. The exchange of matrix and conduit water is an important variable in karst hydrology that should be considered in management of these water resources.

  6. Valved Polytetrafluoroethylene Conduits for Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shinkawa, Takeshi; Tang, Xinyu; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Mustafa, Thikra; Hategekimana, Festus; Watanabe, Fumiya; Miyazaki, Takako; Yamagishi, Masaaki; Imamura, Michiaki

    2015-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to review our early outcomes using valved expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) conduits, with or without bulging sinus structure, for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and to examine the mechanical properties of the ePTFE material after bulging sinuses were created. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who received the valved ePTFE conduit between 2008 and 2014 at a single institution. The surface morphologies and the mechanical strengths of the ePTFE conduit with bulging sinuses examined by scanning electron microscopy and unidirectional pull test were compared with those of the original ePTFE material. There were 120 operations with the valved ePTFE conduit (60 with bulging sinuses). The patients median age and weight were 6.9 years and 23.7 kg. The conduits were a median size of 22 mm. At 5 years, freedom from conduit reoperation was 92.7% (95% confidence interval, 82.7% to 97.0%), and freedom from severe conduit insufficiency or more than a 50 mm Hg gradient was 74.8% (95% confidence interval, 60.8% to 84.4%). No significant differences in the surface morphologies were observed by the scanning electron microscopy or in the maximum tolerated loads obtained by the pull test between the original ePTFE material and the ePTFE with bulging sinuses (121 and 122 N in longitudinal direction and 115 and 121 N in circumferential direction; p = 0.88 and p = 0.68). The valved ePTFE conduits demonstrated excellent early clinical outcomes. The mechanical property examinations showed no obvious difference after bulging sinuses were created on the ePTFE material. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-Newtonian flow of bubbly magma in volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Simone; Papale, Paolo; Montagna, Chiara Paola

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of magma ascent along volcanic conduits towards the Earth's surface affects eruptive styles and contributes to volcanic hazard. The rheology of ascending magmatic mixtures is known to play a major role on mass flow rate as well as on pressure and exit velocity at the vent, even determining effusive vs explosive eruptive behaviour. In this work we explore the effects of bubble-induced non-Newtonian rheology on the dynamics of magma flow in volcanic conduits. We develop a quasi-2D model of magma ascent that incorporates a rheological constitutive equation describing the strain-dependent effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of the multiphase magma. Non-Newtonian magma flow is investigated through a parametric study where the viscosity of the melt and the water content are varied over natural ranges. Our results show that non-Newtonian rheology leads to greater exit velocity, mass flow, and density. The pressure distribution along the conduit remains very similar to the Newtonian case, deviating only at the conduit exit. Plug-like velocity profiles develop approaching the conduit exit, when mixture velocity is high, and are favored by smaller liquid viscosity. Since the mass flow rate, the density and the velocity of the mixture exiting from the conduit are fundamental for quantifying and assessing the transport and emplacement dynamics, neglecting the non-Newtonian effect of bubble-bearing magmas may result in misinterpretation of the deposit and, consequently, eruptive behavior.

  8. Non-Newtonian flow of bubbly magma in volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, S.; Papale, P.; Montagna, C. P.

    2017-03-01

    The dynamics of magma ascent along volcanic conduits toward the Earth's surface affects eruptive styles and contributes to volcanic hazard. The rheology of ascending magmatic mixtures is known to play a major role on mass flow rate as well as on pressure and exit velocity at the vent, even determining effusive versus explosive eruptive behavior. In this work we explore the effects of bubble-induced non-Newtonian rheology on the dynamics of magma flow in volcanic conduits. We develop a quasi 2-D model of magma ascent that incorporates a rheological constitutive equation describing the strain-dependent effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of the multiphase magma. Non-Newtonian magma flow is investigated through a parametric study where the viscosity of the melt and the water content are varied over natural ranges. Our results show that non-Newtonian rheology leads to greater exit velocity, mass flow, and density. The pressure distribution along the conduit remains very similar to the Newtonian case, deviating only at the conduit exit. Plug-like velocity profiles develop approaching the conduit exit, when mixture velocity is high, and are favored by smaller liquid viscosity. Since the mass flow rate, the density and the velocity of the mixture exiting from the conduit are fundamental for quantifying and assessing the transport and emplacement dynamics, neglecting that the non-Newtonian effect of bubble-bearing magmas may result in misinterpretation of the deposit and, consequently, eruptive behavior.

  9. Neurotrophin releasing single and multiple lumen nerve conduits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; De Laporte, Laura; Rives, Christopher B; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Lin, Wei-Chun; Shull, Kenneth R; Shea, Lonnie D

    2005-06-02

    Tissue engineering strategies for nerve repair employ polymer conduits termed guidance channels and bridges to promote regeneration for peripheral nerve injury and spinal cord injury, respectively. An approach for fabrication of nerve conduits with single and multiple lumens capable of controlled release of neurotrophic factors was developed. These conduits were fabricated from a mixture of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microspheres and porogen (NaCl) that was loaded into a mold and processed by gas foaming. The porosity and mechanical properties of the constructs were regulated by the ratio of porogen to polymer microsphere. The neurotrophin, nerve growth factor (NGF), was incorporated into the conduit by either mixing the protein with microspheres or encapsulating the protein within microspheres prior to gas foaming. A sustained release was observed for at least 42 days, with the release rate controlled by method of incorporation and polymer molecular weight. Released NGF retained its bioactivity, as demonstrated by its ability to stimulate neurite outgrowth from primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG). In vivo results indicate that conduits retain their original architecture, and allow for cellular infiltration into the channels. Polymer conduits with controllable lumen diameters and protein release may enhance nerve regeneration by guiding and stimulating neurite outgrowth.

  10. CONDUIT: A New Multidisciplinary Integration Environment for Flight Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.; Colbourne, Jason D.; Morel, Mark R.; Biezad, Daniel J.; Levine, William S.; Moldoveanu, Veronica

    1997-01-01

    A state-of-the-art computational facility for aircraft flight control design, evaluation, and integration called CONDUIT (Control Designer's Unified Interface) has been developed. This paper describes the CONDUIT tool and case study applications to complex rotary- and fixed-wing fly-by-wire flight control problems. Control system analysis and design optimization methods are presented, including definition of design specifications and system models within CONDUIT, and the multi-objective function optimization (CONSOL-OPTCAD) used to tune the selected design parameters. Design examples are based on flight test programs for which extensive data are available for validation. CONDUIT is used to analyze baseline control laws against pertinent military handling qualities and control system specifications. In both case studies, CONDUIT successfully exploits trade-offs between forward loop and feedback dynamics to significantly improve the expected handling, qualities and minimize the required actuator authority. The CONDUIT system provides a new environment for integrated control system analysis and design, and has potential for significantly reducing the time and cost of control system flight test optimization.

  11. Comminution and frictional melting in volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, Y.; Mitchell, T. M.; Heap, M. J.; Kendrick, J. E.; kennedy, B.; Ashwell, P. A.; Hirose, T.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    Shearing and faulting at active volcanoes may differ to tectonic faulting due to their distinct temperature conditions above those of the Earth's geotherm. In particular, the ascent of high-viscosity magma/rocks in upper conduits leads to shear/fault zones, with/without gouge formation and sometimes frictional melting; yet, details of the deformation and fracture mechanisms in these magma/rocks with different crystallinities reveal a different synopsis. For instance, the extrusion of lava domes proceeds endogenously or exogenically - a distinction generally understood as a shift in magma rheology to brittle failure, without consideration of the subsequent slip process. Exogenic growth and formation of a spine follow the dynamic rupture of the lava and the dome carapace, and suffer slip along the fault surface. Here, we present experimental investigations of the ability of volcanic rocks (with different glass/crystal and vesicle ratios) to sustain friction, and in cases melt, using a high-velocity rotary apparatus. During high-velocity rotary shear test, we find that slip of along andesite and basalt rocks generate heat which leads to frictional melting at temperature of ca. 1000 C, conciding to a total slip of 10-40 m (for slip initiating at room temperature). In contrast, slip along dense obsidian rocks or porous rocks cannot sustain slip along a discrete plane. Alternatively, obsidian can be slipped against a crystalline material. The width of the slip zone decreases in the presence of crystals. The findings suggest that the comminution of crystals is a requirement to the development of a localised slip zone. In absence of crystals, obsidian (and crystal-free magma) shatter catastrophically. We discuss the implication of our findings to the cases of tectonic faults, stability of volcanic edifices and evolution of lava dome eruptions.

  12. Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Sandberg, Chester Ledlie

    2009-07-14

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at 25.degree. C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.

  13. Aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile: exemple des candidats au permis de conduire à Libreville

    PubMed Central

    Souhail, Hassane; Assoumou, Prudence; Birinda, Hilda; Mengome, Emmanuel Mve

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif était d’évaluer l'aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile des candidats au permis de conduire à Libreville. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique, qui s'est déroulée à Libreville pendant la période du 4 avril 2012 au 14 juillet 2012 (soit 4 mois et 10 jours). La population d’étude concernait les candidats soumis aux épreuves d'obtention du permis de conduire. Nous avons inclus dans notre travail, les candidats, ayant donné leur consentement par écrit et exclus ceux refusant d'adhérer à l'enquête. Les variables étudiées concernaient l’âge, le sexe, la population d’étude, l'activité professionnelle, l'acuité visuelle de loin et de près, la vision des couleurs, la catégorie du permis de conduire, et l'aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile. La saisie et l'analyse des données ont été collectées au moyen d'une fiche d'enquête standardisée; après vérification et validation, elles ont été saisies sur le logiciel Excel Windows et analysées sur le logiciel Epi Info version 3.5.1. L’âge moyen des 406 candidats était de 29 ans ± 6,65 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 17 ans à 52 ans. Les hommes représentaient 283 (69,7%) et les femmes 123 (30,3%), soit un ratio de 2,3. Les fonctionnaires étaient retrouvés dans 39,4 % des cas, suivi des élèves-étudiants dans 33,5%. Dans notre population d’étude, 71 sur 406 candidats avaient une baisse de l'acuité visuelle de loin, soit 17,5%. Dans notre série, nous avons retrouvés 34 candidats âgés de 40 ans et plus, et seulement 14 candidats (41,2%) avaient une baisse de l'acuité visuelle de près. La quasi-totalité des patients avaient une vision de couleurs normale (99,5%), cependant 2 candidats avaient une vision de couleurs anormale, soit une prévalence de 0,5%. Dans notre échantillon, 403 (99,3%) sollicitaient un permis de conduire de catégorie léger (perms A, A1, B, F) et 3 (0,7%) sollicitaient un permis de conduire de type

  14. Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

    2013-09-01

    Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (Ψ) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (<2 min) residence times, whereas monzogranite clasts are much more rounded and smoothed due to deeper source depths and consequently longer residence times (up to ˜1 h). Larger monzogranite clasts are smoother than

  15. Nanofiber-reinforced biological conduit in cardiac surgery: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Guhathakurta, Soma; Galla, Satish; Ramesh, Balasundari; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen

    2011-06-01

    Several options are available for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction, including commercially available bovine jugular vein and cryo-preserved homografts. Homograft non-availability and the problems of commercially available conduits led us to develop indigenously processed bovine jugular vein conduits with competent valves. They were made completely acellular and strengthened by non-conventional cross-linking without disturbing the extracellular matrix, which improved the luminal surface characteristics for hemocompatibility. Biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo, along with thermal stability, matrix stability, and mechanical strength have been evaluated. Sixty-nine patients received these conduits for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction. Seven conduits dilated and 4 required replacement. To counteract dilatation, biodegradable polymeric nanofibers in various combinations and in isolation (collagen, polycaprolactone, polylactic acid) were characterized and used to reinforce the conduit circumferentially. Physical validation by mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy, and in-vitro cytotoxicity was conducted. Thermal stability, spectroscopy studies of the polymer, and preclinical studies of the coated bovine jugular vein in animals are in progress. The feasibility studies have been completed, and the final polymer selection depends on evaluation of the functional superiority of the coated bovine jugular vein.

  16. In Vitro Study of Directly Bioprinted Perfusable Vasculature Conduits

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yahui; Yu, Yin; Akkouch, Adil; Dababneh, Amer; Dolati, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    The ability to create three dimensional (3D) thick tissues is still a major tissue engineering challenge. It requires the development of a suitable vascular supply for an efficient media exchange. An integrated vasculature network is particularly needed when building thick functional tissues and/or organs with high metabolic activities, such as the heart, liver and pancreas. In this work, human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs) were encapsulated in sodium alginate and printed in the form of vasculature conduits using a coaxial deposition system. Detailed investigations were performed to understand the dehydration, swelling and degradation characteristics of printed conduits. In addition, because perfusional, permeable and mechanical properties are unique characteristics of natural blood vessels, for printed conduits these properties were also explored in this work. The results show that cells encapsulated in conduits had good proliferation activities and that their viability increased during prolonged in vitro culture. Deposition of smooth muscle matrix and collagen was observed around the peripheral and luminal surface in long-term cultured cellular vascular conduit through histology studies. PMID:25574378

  17. Conductive PPY/PDLLA conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haixing; Holzwarth, Jeremy M.; Yan, Yuhua; Xu, Peihu; Zheng, Hua; Yin, Yixia; Li, Shipu; Ma, Peter X.

    2013-01-01

    The significant drawbacks and lack of success associated with current methods to treat critically sized nerve defects have led to increased interest in neural tissue engineering. Conducting polymers show great promise due to their electrical properties, and in the case of polypyrrole (PPY), its cell compatibility as well. Thus, the goal of this study is to synthesize a conducting composite nerve conduit with PPY and poly(D, L-lactic acid) (PDLLA), assess its ability to support the differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells in vitro, and determine its ability to promote nerve regeneration in vivo. Different amounts of PPY (5%, 10%, and 15%) are used to synthesize the conduits resulting in different conductivities (5.65, 10.40, and 15.56 ms/cm, respectively). When PC12 cells are seeded on these conduits and stimulated with 100 mV for 2 h, there is a marked increase in both the percentage of neurite-bearing cells and the median neurite length as the content of PPY increased. More importantly, when the PPY/PDLLA nerve conduit was used to repair a rat sciatic nerve defect it performed similarly to the gold standard autologous graft. These promising results illustrate the potential that this PPY/PDLLA conducting composite conduit has for neural tissue engineering. PMID:24138830

  18. Access to the native atria following conduit total cavopulmonary anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Robert L; Danon, Saar; Jureidini, Saadeh

    2017-08-01

    We describe the use of trans-thoracic and trans-conduit puncture to access the atria and perform interventional procedures in patients who have undergone conduit total cavopulmonary anastomosis. Catheter access to the atria following intra or extra-cardiac Fontan is desirable when there is a need for trans-atrial interventions. Between 2009 and 2014, 5 patients ages 7 to 28 years underwent this approach; three trans-thoracic and 2 trans-conduit punctures. Various therapeutic aims were achieved. Included are: placement of pacing wire in the left atrial appendage, access to re-canalized left superior vena cava via the coronary sinus for device occlusion eliminating cyanosis, access with subsequent device closure of a dormant pulmonary valve thought to be the nidus of an embolic event, and access to the atria for ablation of an atrial tachycardia. Entry to the atria was successful in all five patients with either trans-thoracic access or trans-conduit puncture with subsequent intended intervention performed successfully. Trans-conduit puncture and trans-thoracic access may allow therapeutic procedures which mitigate the need for further open heart surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Aeration efficiency of free-surface conduit flow systems.

    PubMed

    Unsal, M; Baylar, A; Tugal, M; Ozkan, F

    2009-12-14

    Dissolved oxygen is a measure of the quantity of oxygen present in water and is one of the best indicators of the health of a water ecosystem. Dissolved oxygen levels in water can be increased by creating turbulent conditions where fine air bubbles are carried into the bulk of the flow. This is achieved by hydraulic structures. A free-surface conduit is a particular instance of this. In the present work, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the aeration efficiency of free-surface conduit flow systems. The results indicate that free-surface conduit flow systems are very effective for oxygen transfer. At Froude numbers greater than 15, almost full oxygen transfer up to the saturation value was reached. Moreover, from experimental data, a regression equation was obtained with a very high correlation coefficient, showing the effect of various parameters on the aeration efficiency.

  20. Endoscopic Treatment of Stump Leakage Related to the Ileal Conduit

    PubMed Central

    Odemis, Bulent; Oztas, Erkin; Akpinar, Muhammet Yener; Olcucuoglu, Erkan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Ileal conduit with leakage from either the anastomotic site or the stump is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The standard treatment of stump leakage is surgery. Case Presentation: A 60-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with complaint of hematuria and bladder carcinoma was diagnosed. After performing radical cystectomy and ileal conduit, he developed fever with abdominal pain within the first week of surgery. Stump leakage was diagnosed by endoscopic examination performed through a gastroscope. After two over-the-scope clips (OTSCs) were applied to the stump, vinyl mesh was inserted into the space between the OTSCs. Later, cyanoacrylat and lipiodol were repelled on the OTSCs and vinyl mesh. Subsequently, stump leakage was resolved. Conclusion: This is the first case of stump leakage related to ileal conduit that has been treated endoscopically, according to the current literature. PMID:27579432

  1. Understanding Volcanic Conduit Dynamics: from Experimental Fragmentation to Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M. A.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    The investigation of conduit dynamics at high pressure, under controlled laboratory conditions is a powerful tool to understand the physics behind volcanic processes before an eruption. In this work, we analyze the characteristics of the seismic response of an "experimental volcano" focusing on the dynamics of the conduit behavior during the fragmentation process of volcanic rocks. The "experimental volcano" is represented by a shock tube apparatus, which consists of a low-pressure voluminous tank (3 x 0.40 m), for sample recovery; and a high-pressure pipe-like conduit (16.5 x 2,5 cm), which represents the volcanic source mechanism, where rock samples are pressurized and fragmented. These two serial steel pipes are connected and sealed by a set of diaphragms that bear pressures in a range of 4 to 20 MPa. The history of the overall process of an explosion consists of four steps: 1) the slow pressurization of the pipe-like conduit filled with solid pumice and gas, 2) the sudden removal of the diaphragms, 3) the rapid decompression of the system and 4) the ejection of the gas-particle mixture. Each step imprints distinctive features on the microseismic records, reflecting the conduit dynamics during the explosion. In this work we show how features such as waveform characteristics, the three components of the force system acting on the conduit, the independent components of the moment tensor, the volumetric change of the source mechanism, the arrival time of the shock wave and its velocity, are quantified from the experimental microseismic data. Knowing these features, each step of the eruptive process, the conduit conditions and the source mechanism characteristics can be determined. The procedure applied in this experimental approach allows the use of seismic field data to estimate volcanic conduit conditions before an eruption takes place. We state on the hypothesis that the physics behind the pressurization and depressurization process of any conduit is the same

  2. Linking Volcano Infrasound Observations to Conduit Processes for Vulcanian Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, L. M.; Dunham, E. M.; Almquist, M.; Mattsson, K.; Ampong, K.

    2016-12-01

    Volcano infrasound observations have been used to infer a range of eruption parameters, such as volume flux and exit velocity, with the majority of work focused on subaerial processes. Here, we propose using infrasound observations to investigate the subsurface processes of the volcanic system. We develop a one-dimensional model of the volcanic system, coupling an unsteady conduit model to a description of a volcanic jet with sound waves generated by the expansion of the jet. The conduit model describes isothermal two-phase flow with no relative motion between the phases. We are currently working on including crystals and adding conservation of energy to the governing equations. The model captures the descent of the fragmentation front into the conduit and approaches a steady state solution with choked flow at the vent. The descending fragmentation front influences the time history of mass discharge from the vent, which is linked to the infrasound signal through the volcanic jet model. The jet model is coupled to the conduit by conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. We compare simulation results for a range of models of the volcanic jet, ranging in complexity from assuming conservation of volume, as has been done in some previous infrasound studies, to solving the Euler equations for the surrounding compressible atmosphere and accounting for entrainment. Our model is designed for short-lived, impulsive Vulcanian eruptions, such as those seen at Sakurajima Volcano, with activity triggered by a sudden drop in pressure at the top of the conduit. The intention is to compare the simulated signals to observations and to devise an inverse procedure to enable inversion for conduit properties.

  3. Apparatus for controlling fluid flow in a conduit wall

    DOEpatents

    Glass, S. Jill; Nicolaysen, Scott D.; Beauchamp, Edwin K.

    2003-05-13

    A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

  4. Past, Present, and Future of Nerve Conduits in the Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Muheremu, Aikeremujiang

    2015-01-01

    With significant advances in the research and application of nerve conduits, they have been used to repair peripheral nerve injury for several decades. Nerve conduits range from biological tubes to synthetic tubes, and from nondegradable tubes to biodegradable tubes. Researchers have explored hollow tubes, tubes filled with scaffolds containing neurotrophic factors, and those seeded with Schwann cells or stem cells. The therapeutic effect of nerve conduits is improving with increasing choice of conduit material, new construction of conduits, and the inclusion of neurotrophic factors and support cells in the conduits. Improvements in functional outcomes are expected when these are optimized for use in clinical practice. PMID:26491662

  5. Design of barrier coatings on kink-resistant peripheral nerve conduits

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Basak Acan; Bushman, Jared; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Ezra, Mindy; Pastore, Christopher M; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report on the design of braided peripheral nerve conduits with barrier coatings. Braiding of extruded polymer fibers generates nerve conduits with excellent mechanical properties, high flexibility, and significant kink-resistance. However, braiding also results in variable levels of porosity in the conduit wall, which can lead to the infiltration of fibrous tissue into the interior of the conduit. This problem can be controlled by the application of secondary barrier coatings. Using a critical size defect in a rat sciatic nerve model, the importance of controlling the porosity of the nerve conduit walls was explored. Braided conduits without barrier coatings allowed cellular infiltration that limited nerve recovery. Several types of secondary barrier coatings were tested in animal studies, including (1) electrospinning a layer of polymer fibers onto the surface of the conduit and (2) coating the conduit with a cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel. Sixteen weeks after implantation, hyaluronic acid-coated conduits had higher axonal density, displayed higher muscle weight, and better electrophysiological signal recovery than uncoated conduits or conduits having an electrospun layer of polymer fibers. This study indicates that braiding is a promising method of fabrication to improve the mechanical properties of peripheral nerve conduits and demonstrates the need to control the porosity of the conduit wall to optimize functional nerve recovery. PMID:26977288

  6. 24. Lake Hodges Flume conduit enlargement. April 1930. Courtesy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Lake Hodges Flume conduit enlargement. April 1930. Courtesy of the Mandeville Department of Special Collections, Central Library, University of California, San Diego. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  7. Evaluation of the MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process.

    PubMed

    Hill, Melissa E; Stewart, Mark T; Martin, Angel

    2010-01-01

    The recent development of the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides hydrogeologic modelers with a new tool that incorporates the non-Darcian, multiporosity components of flow characteristic of karst aquifers. CFP introduces new parameters extending beyond those of traditional Darcian groundwater flow codes. We characterize a karst aquifer to collect data useful for evaluating this new tool at a test site in west-central Florida, where the spatial distribution and cross-sectional area of the conduit network are available. Specifically, we characterize: (1) the potential for Darcian/non-Darcian flow using estimates of specific discharge vs. observed hydraulic gradients, and (2) the temporal variation for the direction and magnitude of fluid exchange between the matrix and conduit network during extreme hydrologic events. We evaluate the performance of CFP Mode 1 using a site-scale dual-porosity model and compare its performance with a comparable laminar equivalent continuum model (ECM) using MODFLOW-2005. Based on our preliminary analyses, hydraulic conductivity coupled with conduit wall conductance improved the match between observed and simulated discharges by 12% to 40% over turbulent flow alone (less than 1%).

  8. Structure of a bacterial cell surface decaheme electron conduit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves decaheme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outer-membrane electron transfer conduits...

  9. Robotic implantation of biodegradable regenerative urinary conduit: experimental study.

    PubMed

    de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Azhar, Raed A; Berger, Andre K; Chopra, Sameer; Marien, Arnaud; Santomauro, Michael; Satkunasivam, Raj; Sun, Yi; Aron, Monish; Ukimura, Osamu; Desai, Mihir M; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-01-01

    To determine the feasibility and develop a robotic technique for intracorporeal implantation of a biodegradable tubular scaffold seeded with adipose-sourced smooth muscle cells (Neo-Urinary-Conduit) that, when implanted as a conduit for urinary diversion, facilitates regeneration of native-like neourinary tissue. Robotic NUC implantation was performed in two fresh male cadavers. The greater omentum was widely detached from the greater curvature of the stomach, in preparation for final wrapping of the conduit. Bilateral ureters were mobilized for implantation. The NUC, with two precreated ureteral openings, was inserted into the abdomen. Bilateral, stented uretero-NUC anastomoses were created. The NUC was circumferentially wrapped with the predissected omentum, exteriorized through the abdominal wall, and maturated. Both procedures were successfully completed intracorporeally. Operative time for NUC implantation was 90 and 100 minutes, respectively. Examination of gross anatomy showed no injury to other organs. There was no omental kinking, rotation, eversion, or stripping from the NUC. Bilateral stents were confirmed to be in situ with the proximal coil in the kidney. Uretero-NUC anastomoses and omentum were tension free. The entire NUC, including its distal edge and posterior aspect, was circumferentially wrapped 360 degrees. We demonstrated the feasibility and developed a robotic technique for intracorporeal implantation of a biodegradable regenerative urinary conduit. This study serves as the foundation for the robotic surgical technique before the clinical application.

  10. 32. ISOMETRIC VIEW OF PIPING PLAN, SHOWING PATH OF CONDUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. ISOMETRIC VIEW OF PIPING PLAN, SHOWING PATH OF CONDUIT FROM CONTROL BUNKER TO SHIELDING TANK. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-701-P-1. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0701 60 851 151977. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Growth of normal zones in cable-in-conduit superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dresner, L.

    1983-01-01

    A picture is proposed in which the growth of normal zones in cable-in-conduit superconductors is caused by the expansion of hot helium along the length of the conductor. Quantitative results suitable for experimental testing have been obtained by dimensional and similarity arguments. The results indicate non-uniform propagation at velocities of tens of meters per second.

  12. Intraoperative in situ radial artery conduit flow assessment.

    PubMed

    Canver, Charles C; Yousafzai, Sajjad M

    2008-01-01

    A technique is described for simple flow assessment of the in situ radial artery conduit during coronary bypass via a small incision. This technique allows morphologic and physiologic direct intraoperative assessment of radial artery quality and expands the use of radial artery during coronary artery surgery.

  13. 21. COMPLETION OF INTAKE CONDUITS REVISED, PIPE SECTIONS AND PLANS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. COMPLETION OF INTAKE CONDUITS REVISED, PIPE SECTIONS AND PLANS, SHEET 117 OF 117, 1922. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. Draining mafic magma from conduits during Strombolian eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, F. B.; Kennedy, B.; Branney, M. J.; Vasseur, J.; von Aulock, F. W.; Lavallée, Y.; Kueppers, U.

    2014-12-01

    During and following eruption, mafic magmas can readily drain downward in conduits, dykes and lakes producing complex and coincident up-flow and down-flow textures. This process can occur at the top of the plumbing system if the magma outgases as slugs or through porous foam, causing the uppermost magma surface to descend and the magma to densify. In this scenario the draining volume is limited by the gas volume outgassed. Additionally, magma can undergo wholesale backflow when the pressure at the base of the conduit or feeder dyke exceeds the driving pressure in the chamber beneath. This second scenario will continue until pressure equilibrium is established. These two scenarios may occur coincidently as local draining of uppermost conduit magma by outgassing can lead to wholesale backflow because the densification of magma is an effective way to modify the vertical pressure profile in a conduit. In the rare case where conduits are preserved in cross section, the textural record of draining is often complex and great care should be taken in interpreting bimodal kinematic trends in detail. Lateral cooling into country rock leads to lateral profiles of physical and flow properties and, ultimately, outgassing potential, and exploration of such profiles elucidates the complexity involved. We present evidence from Red Crater volcano, New Zealand, and La Palma, Canary Islands, where we show that at least one draining phase followed initial ascent and eruption. We provide a rheological model approach to understand gravitational draining velocities and therefore, the timescales of up- and down-flow cycles predicted. These timescales can be compared with observed geophysical signals at monitored mafic volcanoes worldwide. Finally, we discuss the implications of shallow magma draining for edifice stability, eruption longevity and magma-groundwater interaction.

  16. Sleep and quality of life in people with ileal conduit.

    PubMed

    Cavdar, Ikbal; Temiz, Zeynep; Ozbas, Ayfer; Can, Gulbeyaz; Tarhan, Fatih; Findik, Ummu Yildiz; Kutlu, Fatma Yasemin; Akyuz, Nuray

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sleep quality and the association between sleep quality and quality of life in people with ileal conduit. A descriptive and cross-sectional design was adopted. The study sample comprised 111 people with ileal conduit operated on in urology clinics in a state hospital between January 2011 and May 2014. Six months after the operation, they were called by telephone to participate in the study. Data for the study were collected using a questionnaire form, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Stoma Quality of Life Scale (SQLS). The mean ± SD total PSQI score of the people with ileal conduit was 10.20 ± 2.95, mean total score of SQLS was 43.63 ± 7.21, mean Work/Social Function domain score was 37.27 ± 5.80 and mean Stoma Function domain score was 50.0 ± 12.56. The total sleep quality had a low degree of negative correlation with total SQLS score, a medium degree of negative correlation with Work/Social Function (r = -0.327, p < .001) and no correlation with Stoma Function (r = -0.096, p > .001). People using a night drainage system had higher sleep quality. This study determined that quality of life and sleep deteriorate in people with ileal conduit. The quality of life decreases when the sleep quality is poor, and decreased quality of life affects quality of sleep in people with ileal conduit.

  17. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves to Detect Buried Concrete Conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajiani, P.; Anderson, N.; Rogers, J. D.; Elkrry, A.

    2016-12-01

    The detection of underground cavities is of significant concern to geotechnical engineers working in karst terrain. In spite of the marked progress in nondestructive geophysical methods for detecting shallow underground voids, no unique methodology has emerged that can be applied globally. Various studies have been performed on the use of Rayleigh waves to detect shallow tunnels. In this study, we examined the potential of both Rayleigh and Love waves for detecting subsurface voids. Vertical geophones with Eigen-frequencies of 4.5 Hz, 14 Hz, and 100 Hz were utilized to evaluate Rayleigh waves to resolve near-surface tunnels. Seismic surveys were carried out using horizontal 14 Hz geophones to verify the feasibility of using Love waves to detect shallow tunnels. Two buried conduits of known size and embedment were chosen for the study. One conduit serves as a spillway outfall for an embankment dam, and the other as a low flow outlet for aa flood retention basin. Attenuation analyses of surface waves were performed on all of the data sets to identify locations of the buried concrete conduits. In order to minimize the far-field effects, such as body-wave domination, or low signal-to-noise ratio, it was suggested that we try muting the direct waves, refraction, reflection, air wave, and ambient noise. An amplification of energy on, or in front of the near boundary of the conduits was thereby observed. The muting process greatly reduced the number of false positives. The results of this study not only confirmed previous work, but also displayed the ability of Love waves in detecting the shallow subsurface tunnels or conduits.

  18. Combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium transport model for solution conduits.

    PubMed

    Field, Malcolm S; Leij, Feike J

    2014-02-01

    Solute transport in karst aquifers is primarily constrained to relatively complex and inaccessible solution conduits where transport is often rapid, turbulent, and at times constrictive. Breakthrough curves generated from tracer tests in solution conduits are typically positively-skewed with long tails evident. Physical nonequilibrium models to fit breakthrough curves for tracer tests in solution conduits are now routinely employed. Chemical nonequilibrium processes are likely important interactions, however. In addition to partitioning between different flow domains, there may also be equilibrium and nonequilibrium partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases. A combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium (PCNE) model was developed for an instantaneous release similar to that developed by Leij and Bradford (2009) for a pulse release. The PCNE model allows for partitioning open space in solution conduits into mobile and immobile flow regions with first-order mass transfer between the two regions to represent physical nonequilibrium in the conduit. Partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases proceeds either as an equilibrium process or as a first-order process and represents chemical nonequilibrium for both the mobile and immobile regions. Application of the model to three example breakthrough curves demonstrates the applicability of the combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium model to tracer tests conducted in karst aquifers, with exceptionally good model fits to the data. The three models, each from a different state in the United States, exhibit very different velocities, dispersions, and other transport properties with most of the transport occurring via the fraction of mobile water. Fitting the model suggests the potentially important interaction of physical and chemical nonequilibrium processes.

  19. Hemiresective reconstruction of a redundant ileal conduit with severe bilateral ileal conduit-ureteral re fl ux.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tetsuya; Minowada, Shigeru; Kishi, Hiroichi; Hamasaki, Kimihisa; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kitamura, Tadaichi

    2005-10-01

    A 58-year-old man was referred to our hospital with high fever and anuria. Since undergoing a total pelvic exenteration due to bladder-invasive sigmoid colon cancer, urinary tract infections had frequently occurred. We treated with the construction of a bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN), and chemotherapy. Although we replaced the PCN with a single J ureteral catheter after an improvement of infection, urinary infection recurred because of an obstruction of the catheter. Urological examinations showed that an ileal conduit-ureteral reflux caused by kinking of the ileal loop was the reason why frequent pyelonephritis occurred. We decided to resect the proximal segment to improve conduit-ureteral reflux for the resistant pyelonephritis. After the surgery, the excretory urogram showed improvement and the urinary retention at the ileal conduit disappeared. Three years after the operation, renal function has been stable without episodes of pyelonephritis. Here we report a case of open repair surgery of an ileal conduit in a patient with severe urinary infection.

  20. Results and analysis of the hot-spot temperature experiment for a cable-in-conduit conductor with thick conduit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlak, Kamil; Bruzzone, Pierluigi

    2015-12-01

    In the design of future DEMO fusion reactor a long time constant (∼23 s) is required for an emergency current dump in the toroidal field (TF) coils, e.g. in case of a quench detection. This requirement is driven mainly by imposing a limit on forces on mechanical structures, namely on the vacuum vessel. As a consequence, the superconducting cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) of the TF coil have to withstand heat dissipation lasting tens of seconds at the section where the quench started. During that time, the heat will be partially absorbed by the (massive) steel conduit and electrical insulation, thus reducing the hot-spot temperature estimated strictly from the enthalpy of the strand bundle. A dedicated experiment has been set up at CRPP to investigate the radial heat propagation and the hot-spot temperature in a CICC with a 10 mm thick steel conduit and a 2 mm thick glass epoxy outer electrical insulation. The medium size, ∅ = 18 mm, NbTi CICC was powered by the operating current of up to 10 kA. The temperature profile was monitored by 10 temperature sensors. The current dump conditions, namely the decay time constant and the quench detection delay, were varied. The experimental results show that the thick conduit significantly contributes to the overall enthalpy balance, and consequently reduces the amount of copper required for the quench protection in superconducting cables for fusion reactors.

  1. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout...

  2. Synergistic effects of micropatterned biodegradable conduits and Schwann cells on sciatic nerve regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Gregory E.; Miller, Cheryl A.; Jeftinija, Srdija; Mallapragada, Surya K.

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a novel biodegradable conduit that provides a combination of physical, chemical and biological cues at the cellular level to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration. The conduit consists of a porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) tubular support structure with a micropatterned inner lumen. Schwann cells were pre-seeded into the lumen to provide additional trophic support. Conduits with micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells (MS) were fabricated and compared with three types of conduits used as controls: M (conduits with micropatterned inner lumens without pre-seeded Schwann cells), NS (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells) and N (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens, without pre-seeded Schwann cells). The conduits were implanted in rats with 1 cm sciatic nerve transections and the regeneration and functional recovery were compared in the four different cases. The number or size of regenerated axons did not vary significantly among the different conduits. The time of recovery, and the sciatic function index, however, were significantly enhanced using the MS conduits, based on qualitative observations as well as quantitative measurements using walking track analysis. This demonstrates that biodegradable micropatterned conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells that provide a combination of physical, chemical and biological guidance cues for regenerating axons at the cellular level offer a better alternative for repairing sciatic nerve transactions than conventional biodegradable conduits.

  3. Bubble Rise and Break-Up in Volcanic Conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A.; Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Rosi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The continual passive degassing occurring at open-vent mafic volcanoes is often punctuated by bursts of active degassing. The latter are generally thought to be the result of slug flow: large, conduit-filling bubbles periodically rising up the feeder conduit and bursting at the magma-air interface. Existing models of volcanic degassing systems make the simplifying assumption that the conduit is cylindrical; however, while this may be true at shallow levels, a flaring probably connects it to a dyke-like geometry at depth. The overall goal of this research is to assess the influence of conduit geometry on the speed and stability of bubbles rising in open-vent systems, and ultimately to devise a model to infer conduit shape from emerging bubbles size. In order to do that an analogue experimental approach was used. All of the experiments were two-phase (melt+volatiles); the analogue materials of choice were golden syrup-water mixtures ranging in viscosity from 10-1 to 104 Pa*s and air. Two experimental apparatuses were used: a bi-dimensional and a tri-dimensional one. The bi-dimensional set-up is a cell made of two flat transparent PVC plates (44x23cm) 10mm or 5mm apart (the front one having a hole at the bottom permitting bubble injection) containing a variety of parallelepipeds apt to outline different plumbing system geometries. The tri-dimensional one consists of a cylindrical tube (r=1,5cm; l=7cm) allowing bubble injection through the bottom rubber tap and terminating into a square tank (l=22cm). Results indicate that conduit geometry directly controls the slug rise velocity and the surrounding liquid descending speed, which in turn control the slug stability. Small enough bubbles simply deform as they go through the flaring, while bigger ones split into two daughter bubbles. A regime diagram has been constructed, illustrating the bubble break-up threshold dependence on the flare geometry and initial slug size, the two main controlling factors. The phenomenon of

  4. Cryovolcanic Conduit Evolution and Eruption on Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    In silicate volcanism, such as on Earth or Io, eruptions typically result from fracture formation caused by interaction of tectonic stresses with inflating, pressurized magma sources, leading to transport of melt through an evolving conduit. On icy satellites the paradigm may be similar, resulting from some combination of tidal stresses and expansion of freezing water within, or near the base of, an ice shell. Such a fracture will result in eruption if mass continuity can be established, with buoyancy aided by exsolution and expansion of dissolved volatiles. After onset, conduit shape evolves due to: (1) shear-stresses or frictional erosional; (2) wallrock "bursting" due to massive wall stresses; (3) wall melting or condensation of particles due to heat transfer; or (4) changes in applied stresses. Preliminary thermodynamic and fluid mechanical analysis suggests some initial cooling during ascent resulting from exsolution and expansion of volatiles, thermally buffered by freezing, Conduit contraction may occur, and so evolution towards a deep, gas-filled plume chamber is difficult to accommodate without evoking a co-incidental process. Conduit flaring occurs near the surface where velocities are greatest, enhancing erosion. Here, viscous dissipative heating exceeds adiabatic cooling, and so some boiling (a few wt%) may occur. In contrast with silicate volcanism, decompression to below the triple point will occur within conduit, vent or jet, resulting in rapid freezing and boiling of the remaining water at a 6.8:1 ratio. Subsequent isentropic or adiabatic expansion within erupting jets may result in a few percent net of condensation or sublimation. These effects combined lead to ~4:1-7:1 solid:vapor ratios in the jet for most eruption conditions. These figures are consistent with the ~6:1 inferred in Enceladus' jets, supporting the hypothesis that the Enceladus plume draws from a subsurface body of liquids through a conduit. Similar results are anticipated if

  5. Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Han, Mengdi; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia

    2014-03-10

    We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 μA/cm{sup 2}. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface.

  6. Impulsive Wave Propagation within Magmatic Conduits with Axial Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Negri Leiva, R. S.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    We implemented Trefftz's method to simulate wave propagation in a fluid-solid system aimed to represent a magmatic conduit. Assuming axial symmetry, a set of multipoles is used to build a complete system of wave functions for both the solid and the fluid. These functions are solutions of the elastodynamic equations that govern the motions in the fluid and the solid, respectively. The conduit can be closed or open and the exterior elastic domain may be unlimited or with an exterior boundary. In order to find the functions coefficients, boundary conditions (null shear and continuity of pressures and normal velocities) are satisfied in the least squares sense. The impulsive nature of the source is considered using Fourier analysis. Despite the simplicity of the formulation our results display a rich variety of behaviors. In fact, for a uniform infinite cylinder we reproduced the analytical solution. Moreover, this approach allows establishing some important effects of conduit geometry, including changes of sections. Lateral effects and bump resonances are well resolved. We compared our numerical calculations with results obtained from experimental simulations of volcanic explosions in which rapid depressurization induces fragmentation of volcanic rocks. These experiments are performed within a shock-tube apparatus at room temperature and various pressures using Argon (Ar) gas, particles and pumice samples of different porosities, from Popocatepetl volcano. The mechanical system is well characterized and the dynamics of the explosive process is monitored with high precision piezoelectric sensors located at the pipe surface. The combination of analytical and experimental approaches is very useful to understand the seismic wave field of volcanic conduit dynamics.

  7. Parastomal hernias after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Parastomal hernia, defined as an "incisional hernia related to an abdominal wall stoma", is a frequent complication after conduit urinary diversion that can negatively impact quality of life and present a clinically significant problem for many patients. Parastomal hernia (PH) rates may be as high as 65% and while many patients are asymptomatic, in some series up to 30% of patients require surgical intervention due to pain, leakage, ostomy appliance problems, urinary obstruction, and rarely bowel obstruction or strangulation. Local tissue repair, stoma relocation, and mesh repairs have been performed to correct PH, however, long-term results have been disappointing with recurrence rates of 30%–76% reported after these techniques. Due to high recurrence rates and the potential morbidity of PH repair, efforts have been made to prevent PH development at the time of the initial surgery. Randomized trials of circumstomal prophylactic mesh placement at the time of colostomy and ileostomy stoma formation have shown significant reductions in PH rates with acceptably low complication profiles. We have placed prophylactic mesh at the time of ileal conduit creation in patients at high risk for PH development and found it to be safe and effective in reducing the PH rates over the short-term. In this review, we describe the clinical and radiographic definitions of PH, the clinical impact and risk factors associated with its development, and the use of prophylactic mesh placement for patients undergoing ileal conduit urinary diversion with the intent of reducing PH rates. PMID:27437533

  8. Tracking dynamics of magma migration in open-conduit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, Sébastien; Lacanna, Giorgio; Coppola, Diego; Laiolo, Marco; Pistolesi, Marco; Donne, Dario Delle; Genco, Riccardo; Marchetti, Emanuele; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Allocca, Carmine; Cigolini, Corrado; Nishimura, Takeshi; Poggi, Pasquale; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    Open-conduit volcanic systems are typically characterized by unsealed volcanic conduits feeding permanent or quasi-permanent volcanic activity. This persistent activity limits our ability to read changes in the monitored parameters, making the assessment of possible eruptive crises more difficult. We show how an integrated approach to monitoring can solve this problem, opening a new way to data interpretation. The increasing rate of explosive transients, tremor amplitude, thermal emissions of ejected tephra, and rise of the very-long-period (VLP) seismic source towards the surface are interpreted as indicating an upward migration of the magma column in response to an increased magma input rate. During the 2014 flank eruption of Stromboli, this magma input preceded the effusive eruption by several months. When the new lateral effusive vent opened on the Sciara del Fuoco slope, the effusion was accompanied by a large ground deflation, a deepening of the VLP seismic source, and the cessation of summit explosive activity. Such observations suggest the drainage of a superficial magma reservoir confined between the crater terrace and the effusive vent. We show how this model successfully reproduces the measured rate of effusion, the observed rate of ground deflation, and the deepening of the VLP seismic source. This study also demonstrates the ability of the geophysical network to detect superficial magma recharge within an open-conduit system and to track magma drainage during the effusive crisis, with a great impact on hazard assessment.

  9. Collagen Type I Conduits for the Regeneration of Nerve Defects

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Silvan; Vykoukal, Jody; Felthaus, Oliver; Dienstknecht, Thomas; Prantl, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    To date, reliable data to support the general use of biodegradable materials for bridging nerve defects are still scarce. We present the outcome of nerve regeneration following type I collagen conduit nerve repair in patients with large-diameter nerve gaps. Ten patients underwent nerve repair using a type I collagen nerve conduit. Patients were re-examined at a minimal follow-up of 14.0 months and a mean follow-up of 19.9 months. Regeneration of nerve tissue within the conduits was assessed by nerve conduction velocity (NCV), a static two-point discrimination (S2PD) test, and as disability of arm shoulder and hand (DASH) outcome measure scoring. Quality of life measures including patients’ perceived satisfaction and residual pain were evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). No implant-related complications were observed. Seven out of 10 patients reported being free of pain, and the mean VAS was 1.1. The mean DASH score was 17.0. The S2PD was below 6 mm in 40%, between 6 and 10 mm in another 40% and above 10 mm in 20% of the patients. Eight out of 10 patients were satisfied with the procedure and would undergo surgery again. Early treatment correlated with lower DASH score levels. The use of type I collagen in large-diameter gaps in young patients and early treatment presented superior functional outcomes. PMID:28773346

  10. Peripheral nerve regeneration with conduits: use of vein tubes

    PubMed Central

    Sabongi, Rodrigo Guerra; Fernandes, Marcela; dos Santos, João Baptista Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains a challenge to modern medicine due to the complexity of the neurobiological nerve regenerating process. There is a greater challenge when the transected nerve ends are not amenable to primary end-to-end tensionless neurorraphy. When facing a segmental nerve defect, great effort has been made to develop an alternative to the autologous nerve graft in order to circumvent morbidity at donor site, such as neuroma formation, scarring and permanent loss of function. Tubolization techniques have been developed to bridge nerve gaps and have been extensively studied in numerous experimental and clinical trials. The use of a conduit intends to act as a vehicle for moderation and modulation of the cellular and molecular ambience for nerve regeneration. Among several conduits, vein tubes were validated for clinical application with improving outcomes over the years. This article aims to address the investigation and treatment of segmental nerve injury and draw the current panorama on the use of vein tubes as an autogenous nerve conduit. PMID:26170802

  11. Elastic chitosan conduits with multiple channels and well defined microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jixiang; Xiong, Yi; Zeng, Chenguang; Qiang, Na; Quan, Daping; Wan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Four kinds of chitosan conduits with longitudinal multi-channels and controlled internal microstructures were prepared using a special mold and a freeze-drying method. One of the conduits was fabricated from a chitosan solution (ab NC), while the other three groups were made from a pre-gelled chitosan solution using genipin as a chemical cross-linker (ab gNC), dibasic sodium phosphate as a physical cross-linker (ab pNC) or a combined ionic and covalent co-cross-linker (ab gpNC), respectively. The porosity of the chitosan conduits ranged from 88 to 90%. The gpNC showed highly interconnected and uniformly distributed pores compared to NC, the gNC and pNC. In contrast, the gNC and gpNC showed about 10% of the volume swelling ratio in 37°C PBS solution, although the gpNC scaffold's water uptake was the highest, at more than 17 times its original mass. Compressive tests showed that gpNC had significant elasticity and maintained its physical integrity even after compressing them down to 20% of their original height. The elastic modulus of gpNC reached 80 kPa, which was more than twice that of the other groups. Adhesion and proliferation of PC12 cells on chitosan gpNC scaffolds showed excellent properties by MTT and SEM observation, which indicated the potential of gpNC scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering applications.

  12. Methods of measuring pumpage through closed-conduit irrigation systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Methods of measuring volumes of water withdrawn from the Snake River and its tributaries and pumped through closed-conduit irrigation systems were needed for equitable management of and resolution of conflicts over water use. On the basis of evaluations and field tests by researchers from the University of Idaho, Water Resources Research Institute, Moscow, Idaho, an impeller meter was selected to monitor pumpage through closed-conduit systems. In 1988, impeller meters were installed at 20 pumping stations along the Snake River between the Upper Salmon Falls and C.J. Strike Dams. Impeller-derived pumpage data were adjusted if they differed substantially from ultrasonic flow-meter- or current-meter-derived values. Comparisons of pumpage data obtained by ultrasonic flow-meter and current-meter measurements indicated that the ultrasonic flow meter was a reliable means to check operation of impeller meters. The equipment generally performed satisfactorily, and reliable pumpage data could be obtained using impeller meters in closed-conduit irrigation systems. Many pumping stations that divert water from the Snake River for irrigation remain unmeasured; however, regression analyses indicate that total pumpage can be reasonably estimated on the basis of electrical power consumption data, an approximation of total head at a pumping station, and a derived coefficient.

  13. Les torsions sur testicules cryptorchides

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Amri, Najmeddine; Chambeh, Wahib; Braiek, Salem; Kamel, Rafik El

    2010-01-01

    Résumé But : La cryptorchidie est une pathologie assez fréquente en urologie. Elle est associée à un risque élevé d’infertilité et de dégénérescence. Elle semble aussi être associée à un risque important de torsion. Cette entité est très peu abordée dans la littérature. Nous rapportons tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide observés à notre service dans le but de mieux caractériser cette pathologie et de réduire ainsi le taux d’orchidectomies. Méthodologie : Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide opérés dans notre service d’urologie entre 1999 et 2007. Les patients ont fait l’objet d’une description basée sur le résumé de leurs observations. Résultats : Les patients étaient âgés de 7 mois à 39 ans. La torsion touchait le testicule droit dans 53 % des cas. Le tableau clinique comportait une douleur au niveau de la région inguinale d’apparition soudaine avec une masse sous-cutanée inflammatoire et douloureuse à ce niveau et surtout un hémiscrotum homolatéral vide. Dans 60 % des cas, le diagnostic était tardif et une orchidectomie a été réalisée. Dans les autre cas, un abaissement du testicule a été réalisé avec orchidopexie controlatéral dans le même temps opératoire. Conclusion : Bien qu’il s’agisse d’une pathologie peu courante, la torsion sur testicule cryptorchide doit être étudiée davantage. Le diagnostic précoce permettra de sauver et d’abaisser le testicule et faciliter ainsi le dépistage d’une éventuelle dégénérescence. PMID:21191497

  14. Association of pulmonary conduit type and size with durability in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Poynter, Jeffrey A; Eghtesady, Pirooz; McCrindle, Brian W; Walters, Henry L; Kirshbom, Paul M; Blackstone, Eugene H; Husain, S Adil; Overman, David M; Austin, Erle H; Karamlou, Tara; Lodge, Andrew J; St Louis, James D; Gruber, Peter J; Ziemer, Gerhard; Davies, Ryan R; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Brown, John W; Williams, William G; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Jacobs, Marshall L; Caldarone, Christopher A

    2013-11-01

    Treatment of congenital heart disease may include placement of a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit that requires future surgical replacement. We sought to identify surgeon-modifiable factors associated with durability (defined as freedom from surgical replacement or explantation) of the initial conduit in children less than 2 years of age at initial insertion. Since 2002, 429 infants were discharged from 24 Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society member institutions after initial conduit insertion. Parametric hazard analysis identified factors associated with conduit durability while adjusting for patient characteristics, the institution where the conduit was inserted, and time-dependent interval procedures performed after conduit insertion but before replacement/explantation. In all, 138 conduit replacements (32%) and 3 explantations (1%) were performed. Conduit durability at a median follow-up of 6.0 years (range, 0.1 to 11.7) was 63%. After adjusting for interval procedures and institution, placement of a conduit with smaller z-score was associated with earlier replacement/explantation (p = 0.002). Moreover, conduit durability was substantially reduced with aortic allografts (p = 0.002) and pulmonary allografts (p = 0.03) compared with bovine jugular venous valved conduits (JVVC). The JVVC were 12 mm to 22 mm in diameter at insertion (compared with 6 mm to 20 mm for allografts); therefore, a parametric propensity-adjusted analysis of patients with aortic or pulmonary allografts versus JVVC with diameter of 12 mm or greater was performed, which verified the superior durability of JVVC. Pulmonary conduit type and z-score are associated with late conduit durability independent of the effects of institution and subsequent interval procedures. Surgeons can improve long-term conduit durability by judiciously oversizing, and by selecting a JVVC. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term outcomes following Medtronic Open Pivot valved conduit.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Rishendran; Pearse, Bronwyn; Tesar, Peter J; Yap, Su-Ann; Barnett, Adrian G; Fayers, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Aortic root replacement is a complex procedure, though subsequent modifications of the original Bentall procedure have made surgery more reproducible. The study aim was to examine the outcomes of a modified Bentall procedure, using the Medtronic Open PivotTM valved conduit. Whilst short-term data on the conduit and long-term data on the valve itself are available, little is known of the long-term results with the valved conduit. Patients undergoing aortic root replacement between February 1999 and February 2010, using the Medtronic Open Pivot valved conduit were identified from the prospectively collected Cardiothoracic Register at The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. All patients were followed up echocardiographically and clinically. The primary end-point was death, and a Cox proportional model was used to identify factors associated.with survival. Secondary end-points were valve-related morbidity (as defined by STS guidelines) and postoperative morbidity. Predictors of morbidity were identified using logistic regression. A total of 246 patients (mean age 50 years) was included in the study. The overall mortality was 12%, with actuarial 10-year survival 79% and a 10-year estimate of valve-related death of 0.04 (95% CI: 0.004, 0.07). Preoperative myocardial infarction (p = 0.004, HR 4.74), urgency of operation (p = 0.038, HR 2.8) and 10% incremental decreases in ejection fraction (p = 0.046, HR 0.69) were predictive of mortality. Survival was also affected by the valve gradients, with a unit increase in peak gradient reducing mortality (p = 0.021, HR 0.93). Valve-related morbidity occurred in 11 patients. Urgent surgery (p <0.001, OR 4.12), aortic dissection (p = 0.015, OR 3.35), calcific aortic stenosis (p = 0.016, OR 2.35) and Marfan syndrome (p 0.009, OR 3.75) were predictive of postoperative morbidity. The reoperation rate was 1.2%. The Medtronic Open Pivot valved conduit is a safe and durable option for aortic root replacement, and is associated

  16. From fractures to conduits: perspectives from three-dimensional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, T.; Starchenko, V.; Marra, C.

    2016-12-01

    Fractures take up only about 1% of the subsurface pore space, but they frequently make the most important contribution to groundwater transport. The increase in permeability due to dissolution of the fracture surfaces gives rise to a number of questions that are important for waste storage systems, sequestration, oil and gas recovery, and dam stability. In numerical simulations, fractures are usually represented by an aperture field, with the three-dimensional equations for flow and transport replaced by averages over the local aperture. We have examined the validity of this approximation by comparing results from aperture-averaged models with results from three-dimensional simulations where the motion of the dissolving surfaces is explicitly accounted for. We find that an aperture-averaged model does not correctly describe flow in the tube-like conduits that develop as the fracture dissolves, nor does it correctly capture the mass transfer from bulk solution to the dissolving surfaces. We have used three-dimensional simulations, with a mesh that conforms to the evolving fracture surfaces, to investigate dissolution beyond the point where reactant first reaches the outlet. We have found that elliptical conduits evolve very early in the dissolution, even prior to breakthrough. They can be nucleated from local enhancements of aperture, from spatially random aperture distributions, or even from variations in the central plane of an otherwise smooth fracture. The shape of the conduit depends on flow rate: at small flow rates they are circular, but expand horizontally into elliptical shapes as the flow rate increases. We have found significant differences between fractures dissolving under constant flow rate (typical of laboratory experiments) and fractures dissolving under a constant pressure drop, possibly coupled with a flow rate limit (more typical of field conditions). Conduits form over a much wider range of flow rates when driven by a pressure difference than

  17. Frictional melting and stick-slip behavior in volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Jackie Evan; Lavallee, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; di Toro, Giulio; Hornby, Adrian Jakob; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Dome-building eruptions have catastrophic potential, with dome collapse leading to devastating pyroclastic flows with almost no precursory warning. During dome growth, the driving forces of the buoyant magma may be superseded by controls along conduit margins; where brittle fracture and sliding can lead to formation of lubricating cataclasite and gouge. Under extreme friction, pseudotachylyte may form at the conduit margin. Understanding the conduit margin processes is vital to understanding the continuation of an eruption and we postulate that pseudotachylyte generation could be the underlying cause of stick-slip motion and associated seismic "drumbeats", which are so commonly observed at dome-building volcanoes. This view is supported by field evidence in the form of pseudotachylytes identified in lava dome products at Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) and Mount St. Helens (USA). Both eruptions were characterised by repetitive, periodic seismicity and lava spine extrusion of highly viscous magma. High velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate the propensity for melting of the andesitic and dacitic material (from Soufrière Hills and Mount St. Helens respectively) at upper conduit stress conditions (<10 MPa). Starting from room temperature, frictional melting of the magmas occurs in under 1 s (<< 1 m) at 1.5 m/s (a speed that is achievable during stick-slip motion). At lower velocities melting occurs comparatively later due to dissipation of heat from the slip zone (e.g. 8-15 m at 0.1 m/s). Hence, given the ease with which melting is achieved in volcanic rocks, and considering the high ambient temperatures in volcanic conduits, frictional melting may thus be an inevitable consequence of viscous magma ascent. The shear resistance of the slip zone during the experiment is also monitored. Frictional melting induces a higher resistance to sliding than rock on rock, and viscous processes control the slip zone properties. Variable-rate HVR experiments which mimic

  18. The influence of nerve conduits diameter in motor nerve recovery after segmental nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Guilherme; Shin, Richard H; Lee, Joo-Yup; Mattar, Tiago G; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2014-11-01

    Many conduits have demonstrated potential to substitute nerve autografts; however, the influence of conduit inner diameter (ID) has never been studied as a separate parameter. This experimental study compared motor recovery after segmental nerve repair with two different ID collagen conduits: 1.5 and 2.0 mm. In addition, the conduits were analyzed in vitro to determine the variations of ID before and after hydration. Thirty rats were divided into three groups: 2.0 mm ID, 1.5 mm ID, and a control group autograft. After 12 weeks, the 1.5 mm ID group demonstrated significant increase in force (P < 0.0001) and weight (P < 0.0001) of the tibialis anterior muscle and better histomorphometry results of the peroneal nerve (P < 0.05) compared to 2.0 mm ID group; nevertheless, autograft results outperformed both conduits (P < 0.0001). Conduits ID were somewhat smaller than advertised, measuring 1.59 ± 0.03 mm and 1.25 ± 0.0 mm. Only the larger conduit showed a 6% increase in ID after hydration, changing to 1.69 ± 0.02 mm. Although autografts perform best, an improvement in motor recovery can be achieved with collagen conduits when a better size match conduit is being used. Minimal changes in collagen conduits ID can be expected after implantation.

  19. Effect of an Epineurial-Like Biohybrid Nerve Conduit on Nerve Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Chih; Chang, Chen-Jung; Cheng, Wen-Tung; Tseng, Ting-Chen; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach of making a biomimetic nerve conduit was established by seeding adipose-derived adult stem cells (ADSCs) on the external wall of porous poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PLA) nerve conduits. The PLA conduits were fabricated using gas foaming salt and solvent-nonsolvent phase conversion. We examined the effect of two different porous structures (GS and GL) on ADSC growth and proliferation. The GS conduits had better structural stability, permeability, and porosity, as well as better cell viability at 4, 7, and 10 days. The epineurial-like tissue was grown from ADSC-seeded conduits cultured for 7 days in vitro and then implanted into 10-mm rat sciatic nerve defects for evaluation. The regeneration capacity and functional recovery were evaluated by histological staining, electrophysiology, walking track, and functional gait analysis after 6 weeks of implantation. Experimental data indicated that the autograft and ADSC-seeded GS conduits had better functional recovery than the blank conduits and ADSC-seeded GL conduits. The area of regenerated nerve and number of myelinated axons quantified based on the histology also indicated that the autograft and AGS groups performed better than the other two groups. We suggested that ADSCs may interact with endogenous Schwann cells and release neurotrophic factors to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. The design of the conduit may be critical for producing a biohybrid nerve conduit and to provide an epineurial-like support.

  20. Conduit speed limit promotes formation of explosive `super slugs'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellin, E. W.; Burton, M. R.; Mader, H. M.; Polacci, M.

    2014-12-01

    Strombolian activity - characterized by discrete, impulsive explosions - is common at basaltic volcanoes. The explosions are caused by the arrival, at the volcanic vent, of over-pressured `slugs' of magmatic gas, which have ascended the volcanic conduit. We present data from large-scale analogue experiments which reveal a previously-undescribed process which promotes the formation of large, highly over-pressured `super slugs'. We propose that these large slugs may drive the most violent Strombolian eruptions. Experiments were performed at the Large Analogue Volcano Apparatus at Durham University, UK, which comprises a 13m tall, 24cm diameter transparent conduit, surmounting a reservoir of analogue magma held at constant pressure. We simulate a vesiculation event deep in the sub-volcanic plumbing system by fluxing gas into the reservoir. Magma analogues with a range of viscosities are used, giving slug Reynolds numbers in the range 16 to 140,000. At moderate-to-high Reynolds number, we find that the gas rapidly self-organizes to form a conduit-filling lead slug; this slug ascends the column slowly, at a velocity limited by the flux of the falling film of liquid around it. Trailing bubbles, which ascend through the wake of the lead slug, rise much more rapidly. As they catch and coalesce with the lead slug, it grows and becomes increasingly over-pressured. This mechanism causes large slugs to form rapidly and we propose that it underpins the formation of the very large slugs that are responsible for the most explosive strombolian eruptions.

  1. Imaging of platelets in right-sided extracardiac conduits in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, K.C.; Wahner, H.W.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Fuster, V.; Puga, F.J.; Danielson, G.K.; Chesebro, J.H.; Feldt, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    As a connection between the systemic venous ventricle and the pulmonary artery, valved Dacron extracardiac conduits have remarkably influenced the surgical approach to many complex congenital heart defects. Obstruction of the conduit, however, can reduce the long-term effectiveness of this corrective procedure. In addition to stenosis of the porcine valve, formation of thick fibrous neointima plays a major role in the pathogenesis of conduit obstruction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether platelet deposition could be demonstrated in these conduits by external imaging with In-111-labeled autologous platelets. After injection of labeled platelets either immediately after operation or on the fifth to eighth post-operative day, imaging was performed by standard procedures. Eight of nine patients had platelet accumulation in the conduit, and treatment with aspirin and dipyridamole caused no recognizable change in platelet deposition. This study demonstrates the feasibility of imaging platelet deposition in Dacron conduits and shows that the pattern of deposition varies with time.

  2. Imaging of platelets in right-sided extracardiac conduits in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, K.C.; Wahner, H.W.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Fuster, V.; Puga, F.J.; Danielson, G.K.; Chesebro, J.H.; Feldt, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    As a connection between the systemic venous ventricle and the pulmonary artery, valved Dacron extracardiac conduits have remarkably influenced the surgical approach to many complex congenital heart defects. Obstruction of the conduit, however, can reduce the long-term effectiveness of this corrective procedure. In addition to stenosis of the porcine valve, formation of thick fibrous neointima plays a major role in the pathogenesis of conduit obstruction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether platelet deposition could be demonstrated in these conduits by external imaging with /sup 111/In-labeled autologous platelets. After injection of labeled platelets either immediately after operation or on the fifth to eighth postoperative day, imaging was performed by standard procedures. Eight of nine patients had platelet accumulation in the conduit, and treatment with aspirin and dipyridamole caused no recognizable change in platelet deposition. This study demonstrates the feasibility of imaging platelet deposition in Dacron conduits and shows that the pattern of deposition varies with time.

  3. Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German; Boucher, Timothy J

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  4. Migrating quake swarm may indicate magma conduit clog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-03-01

    On 13 January 2006, Augustine Volcano, a towering volcano offshore from the Alaska Peninsula, erupted explosively. In the days leading up to the eruption, a series of explosions and earthquake swarms had warned of the impending activity. On 12 January, 36 hours before the first magmatic explosions, a swarm of 54 earthquakes was detected across the 13-station seismic network on Augustine Island. Analyzing the seismic waves produced by the earthquakes, Buurman and West found that the earthquakes were being triggered from point sources within the magma conduit itself.

  5. Sciatic nerve repair by reinforced nerve conduits made of gelatin-tricalcium phosphate composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Chin; Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Cheng, Hsu-Chen; Liu, Bai-Shuan

    2011-02-01

    This study proposes a biodegradable GGT composite nerve guide conduit containing genipin-cross-linked gelatin and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramic particles in peripheral nerve regeneration. The proposed genipin-cross-linked gelatin annexed with TCP ceramic particles (GGT) conduit was dark bluish and round with a rough and compact surface. Water uptake and swelling tests indicated that the hydrated GGT conduit exhibited increased stability with not collapsing or stenosis. The GGT conduit had higher mechanical properties than the genipin-cross-linked gelatin without TCP ceramic particles (GG) conduit and served as a better nerve guide conduit. Cytotoxicity tests revealed that the GGT conduit was not toxic and that it promoted the viability and growth of neural stem cells. The experiments in this study confirmed the effectiveness of the GGT conduit as a guidance channel for repairing a 10-mm gap in rat sciatic nerve. Walking track analysis showed a significantly higher sciatic function index score and better toe spreading development in the GGT group than in the silicone group 8 weeks after implantation. Gross examination revealed that the diameter of the intratubular newly formed nerve fibers in GGT conduits exceeded those in silicone tubes after the implantation period. Histological observations revealed that the morphology and distribution patterns of nerve fibers in the GGT conduits at 8 weeks after implantation were similar to those of normal nerves. The quantitative results indicated the superiority of the conduits over the silicone tubes. Motor functional and histomorphometric assessments demonstrate that the proposed GGT conduit is a suitable candidate for peripheral nerve repair. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. APICAL LEFT VENTRICULAR-ABDOMINAL AORTIC COMPOSITE CONDUITS FOR LEFT VENTRICULAR OUTFLOW OBSTRUCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Denton A.; Norman, John C.

    1978-01-01

    Certain problems related to the left ventricular outflow tract are not amenable to conventional surgical methods, but may be solved with the creation of a double outlet left ventricle by using a composite rigid pyrolite left ventricular apex outlet prosthesis and a fabric valve-containing conduit. Low porosity woven Dacron tube grafts are used for the conduit. Twenty-three patients who have undergone apico-aortic bypass with this conduit are reported here, with gratifying results in eighteen. PMID:15216062

  7. Treatment of right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit stenosis in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Münsterer, Andrea; Kasnar-Samprec, Jelena; Hörer, Jürgen; Cleuziou, Julie; Eicken, Andreas; Malcic, Ivan; Lange, Rüdiger; Schreiber, Christian

    2013-09-01

    To determine the incidence of right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit stenosis after the Norwood I operation in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), and to determine whether the treatment strategy of RV-PA conduit stenosis has an influence on interstage and overall survival. Ninety-six patients had a Norwood operation with RV-PA conduit between 2002 and 2011. Details of reoperations/interventions due to conduit obstruction prior to bidirectional superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (BSCPA) were collected. Overall pre-BSCPA mortality was 17%, early mortality after Norwood, 6%. Early angiography was performed in 34 patients due to desaturation at a median of 8 days after the Norwood operation. Fifteen patients (16%) were diagnosed with RV-PA conduit stenosis that required treatment. The location of the conduit stenosis was significantly different in the patients with non-ringed (proximal) and the patients with ring-enforced conduit (distal), P = 0.004. In 6 patients, a surgical revision of the conduit was performed; 3 of them died prior to BSCPA. Another 6 patients had a stent implantation and 3 were treated with balloon dilatation followed by a BSCPA in the subsequent 2 weeks. All patients who were treated interventionally for RV-PA conduit obstruction had a successful BSCPA. Patients who received a surgical RV-PA conduit revision had a significantly higher interstage (P = 0.044) and overall mortality (P = 0.011) than those who received a stent or balloon dilatation of the stenosis followed by an early BSCPA. RV-PA conduit obstruction after Norwood I procedure in patients with HLHS can be safely and effectively treated by stent implantation, balloon dilatation and early BSCPA. Surgical revision of the RV-PA conduit can be reserved for patients in whom an interventional approach fails, and an early BSCPA is not an option.

  8. Enhancing Peripheral Nerve Regeneration with a Novel Drug Delivering Nerve Conduit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Products 21 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations 22 8. Special Reporting Requirements 23 9. Appendices 24 3... Corning Inc) were also added to the nerve conduit. Figure 2 illustrates the nerve conduit in which the drug (NGF) stored in the orifice between...7525 DLG 7E, Evonik). The PLGA was dissolved in acetone and ethanol and conduits were then formed and emulsified in water. 15µm diffusion holes

  9. Fabrication and evaluation of a biodegradable proanthocyanidin-crosslinked gelatin conduit in peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bai-Shuan

    2008-12-15

    This study proposed a novel and biodegradable nerve guide conduit in its applicability to peripheral nerve regeneration. A naturally occurring proanthocyanidin (PA) was selected as a cross-linking reagent in preparing the PA-crosslinked gelatin (PCG) conduit. Experimental results indicate that 5 wt % of PA was optimal in the complete cross-linking reaction in the PCG conduit. The PCG conduit was brownish and round with a rough outer surface whereas its inner lumen was smooth. The cross-linked networks of the PCG conduit resisted enzymatic hydrolysis under in vitro degradation studies. PA and gelatin were released from the soaked PCG conduit. During the release phase, the concentrations of PA, gelatin, and PCG-soaking solutions were not only nontoxic but also promoted the viability and growth of Schwann cells. The PCG conduit more effectively supported cell attachment and growth. The effectiveness of the PCG conduit as a guidance channel was studied when it was used to repair a 10 mm gap in the rat sciatic nerve. Throughout the 8-week experimental period, the peak amplitude and area under the muscle action potential curve both increased with the recovery period. Histological observations revealed that various regenerated nerve fibers crossed through and beyond the gap region. These results suggest that the PCG conduit can be a candidate for peripheral nerve repair. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Environmental tracers as indicators of karst conduits in groundwater in South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, A.J.; Sawyer, J.F.; Putnam, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental tracers sampled from the carbonate Madison aquifer on the eastern flank of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA indicated the approximate locations of four major karst conduits. Contamination issues are a major concern because these conduits are characterized by direct connections to sinking streams, high groundwater velocities, and proximity to public water supplies. Objectives of the study were to estimate approximate conduit locations and assess possible anthropogenic influences associated with conduits. Anomalies of young groundwater based on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium, and electrical conductivity (EC) indicated fast moving, focused flow and thus the likely presence of conduits. ??18O was useful for determining sources of recharge for each conduit, and nitrate was a useful tracer for assessing flow paths for anthropogenic influences. Two of the four conduits terminate at or near a large spring complex. CFC apparent ages ranged from 15 years near conduits to >50 years in other areas. Nitrate-N concentrations >0.4 mg/L in groundwater were associated with each of the four conduits compared with concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 0.4 mg/L in other areas. These higher nitrate-N concentrations probably do not result from sinking streams but rather from other areas of infiltration. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  11. 3D-engineering of Cellularized Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu; Wu, Yao; Gou, Zhiyuan; Tao, Jie; Zhang, Jiumeng; Liu, Qianqi; Kang, Tianyi; Jiang, Shu; Huang, Siqing; He, Jiankang; Chen, Shaochen; Du, Yanan; Gou, Maling

    2016-08-01

    Tissue engineered conduits have great promise for bridging peripheral nerve defects by providing physical guiding and biological cues. A flexible method for integrating support cells into a conduit with desired architectures is wanted. Here, a 3D-printing technology is adopted to prepare a bio-conduit with designer structures for peripheral nerve regeneration. This bio-conduit is consisted of a cryopolymerized gelatin methacryloyl (cryoGelMA) gel cellularized with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). By modeling using 3D-printed “lock and key” moulds, the cryoGelMA gel is structured into conduits with different geometries, such as the designed multichannel or bifurcating and the personalized structures. The cryoGelMA conduit is degradable and could be completely degraded in 2-4 months in vivo. The cryoGelMA scaffold supports the attachment, proliferation and survival of the seeded ASCs, and up-regulates the expression of their neurotrophic factors mRNA in vitro. After implanted in a rat model, the bio-conduit is capable of supporting the re-innervation across a 10 mm sciatic nerve gap, with results close to that of the autografts in terms of functional and histological assessments. The study describes an indirect 3D-printing technology for fabricating cellularized designer conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration, and could lead to the development of future nerve bio-conduits for clinical use.

  12. Peripheral facial nerve regeneration using collagen conduit entubulation in a cat model.

    PubMed

    Dresner, Harley S; King, Timothy A; Clark, H Brent; Juhn, Steven K; Levine, Samuel C

    2006-08-01

    Facial nerve (FN) injuries are functionally, psychologically, and financially debilitating. Facial nerve autograft repairs produce significant donor nerve morbidity and functional results that rarely exceed House-Brackmann (HB) grade III over VI. In this study we sought to enhance FN regeneration via collagen conduit entubulation. Five control cats underwent right ("cut-side") FN transection and immediate microsurgical anastomosis repair. Five experimental cats underwent identical repairs plus collagen conduit entubulation of each anastomosis. Postoperative behavioral observations revealed gradual FN functional recovery in all cats, who attained adapted HB grades of II to III over VI after 6 weeks. Electromyographic latencies and amplitudes from the bilateral orbicularis oculi and orbicularis oris muscles indicated restoration of FN continuity in all 10 cats. In comparison with FN repairs without conduits, repairs with conduits significantly enhanced recovery of amplitude in cut-side orbicularis oculi muscles (p = .037) and latency in cut-side orbicularis oris muscles (p = .048). In comparison with intact left ("uncut-side") FN latencies and amplitudes, more statistically significant differences in cut-side FN function were observed in repairs without conduits than in repairs with conduits. Conduits therefore facilitated a more complete return of electrophysiological function. Histologic analyses confirmed FN continuity and revealed more organized FN regenerative architecture in conduit-implanted repairs. The overall results support enhanced FN regeneration with collagen conduit entubulation.

  13. A silk sericin/silicone nerve guidance conduit promotes regeneration of a transected sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongjian; Yang, Wen; Chen, Jianghai; Zhang, Jinxiang; Lu, Xiaochen; Zhao, Xiaobo; Huang, Kun; Li, Huili; Chang, Panpan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2015-10-28

    Peripheral nerve gap defects lead to significant loss of sensory or motor function. Tissue engineering has become an important alternative to nerve repair. Sericin, a major component of silk, is a natural protein whose value in tissue engineering has just begun to be explored. Here, the first time use of sericin in vivo is reported as a long-term implant for peripheral nerve regeneration. A sericin nerve guidance conduit is designed and fabricated. This conduit is highly porous with mechanical strength matching peripheral nerve tissue. It supports Schwann cell proliferation and is capable of up-regulating the transcription of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in Schwann cells. The sericin conduit wrapped with a silicone conduit (sericin/silicone double conduits) is used for bridging repair of a 5 mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. The sericin/silicone double conduits achieve functional recovery comparable to that of autologous nerve grafting as evidenced by drastically improved nerve function and morphology. Importantly, this improvement is mainly attributed to the sericin conduit as the silicone conduit alone only produces marginal functional recovery. This sericin/silicone-double-conduit strategy offers an efficient and valuable alternative to autologous nerve grafting for repairing damaged peripheral nerve.

  14. 3D-engineering of Cellularized Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Wu, Yao; Gou, Zhiyuan; Tao, Jie; Zhang, Jiumeng; Liu, Qianqi; Kang, Tianyi; Jiang, Shu; Huang, Siqing; He, Jiankang; Chen, Shaochen; Du, Yanan; Gou, Maling

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineered conduits have great promise for bridging peripheral nerve defects by providing physical guiding and biological cues. A flexible method for integrating support cells into a conduit with desired architectures is wanted. Here, a 3D-printing technology is adopted to prepare a bio-conduit with designer structures for peripheral nerve regeneration. This bio-conduit is consisted of a cryopolymerized gelatin methacryloyl (cryoGelMA) gel cellularized with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). By modeling using 3D-printed “lock and key” moulds, the cryoGelMA gel is structured into conduits with different geometries, such as the designed multichannel or bifurcating and the personalized structures. The cryoGelMA conduit is degradable and could be completely degraded in 2-4 months in vivo. The cryoGelMA scaffold supports the attachment, proliferation and survival of the seeded ASCs, and up-regulates the expression of their neurotrophic factors mRNA in vitro. After implanted in a rat model, the bio-conduit is capable of supporting the re-innervation across a 10 mm sciatic nerve gap, with results close to that of the autografts in terms of functional and histological assessments. The study describes an indirect 3D-printing technology for fabricating cellularized designer conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration, and could lead to the development of future nerve bio-conduits for clinical use. PMID:27572698

  15. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1999-03-23

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit is disclosed. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit. 3 figs.

  16. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German

    1999-01-01

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit.

  17. Evaluation of Gastric Conduit Perfusion During Esophagectomy with Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Schlottmann, Francisco; Patti, Marco G

    2017-08-17

    Anastomotic leakage is a determining factor of morbidity and mortality after an esophagectomy. An adequate blood supply of the gastric conduit is vital to prevent this complication. We aimed to determine the feasibility and usefulness of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging to evaluate the gastric conduit perfusion during an esophagectomy. Patients with distal esophageal cancer or esophagogastric junction cancer scheduled for esophagectomy were enrolled in this study. After pulling up the gastric conduit into the chest and before performing the anastomosis, 5 mg of ICG was injected as a bolus. Visual assessment of the blood supply of the gastric conduit was compared with the ICG fluorescence imaging pattern of perfusion. Five patients were included in this study. Hybrid Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy (laparoscopic abdomen and right thoracotomy) was performed in all cases. In all patients, visual assessment of the perfusion of the stomach determined that the conduit was well perfused. In two patients (40%), ICG fluorescence showed an inadequate blood supply of the conduit's tip. Resection of the devitalized portion of the conduit was performed in these two patients. No anastomotic leaks were recorded, and all patients had an uneventful postoperative course. Visual assessment of the gastric conduit may underestimate perfusion and inadequate blood supply. ICG fluorescence imaging is a promising tool to determine the gastric conduit perfusion during an esophagectomy. Prospective studies with larger series are warranted to confirm the usefulness of ICG fluorescence imaging during an esophagectomy.

  18. Development of a new lacrimal drainage conduit using POSS nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Chaloupka, Karla; Motwani, Meghna; Seifalian, Alexander Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Lacrimal surgery in cases of severely obstructed or missing canalicular ducts is highly challenging. In these cases, the placement of a bypass tube is currently the only option to restore the drainage of tears into the nose and reduce the symptomatic watery eye. Different approaches to achieve functional drainage have been tried using blood vessels or artificial implants. The implantation of the rigid Lester Jones tube is, since its introduction in the late 1960s, the gold standard. The functional success is satisfactory. However, complication rates are high and remain, even with many modifications of the original design, a major problem. These complications include mainly the displacement and blockage of the tube, requiring regular checkups, as well as irritation of the surrounding tissue including the nose and the eye. The objective of this study was to develop a new lacrimal duct conduit (LDC) to restore structural and functional integrity of the lacrimal drainage system. The conduit is constructed with a novel polymer, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (POSS-PCU), that offers biocompatibility. We exploit nanotopography to evade the problems associated with current applications. A number of extrusion techniques were investigated for this purpose: ultrasonic atomization spraying, electrohydrodynamic atomization spraying/spinning, extrusion-coagulation, and high-pressure coagulation by autoclave and casting. Finally, the coagulation and cast technique were selected to construct an LDC superior to its predecessors, and its advantages highlighted.

  19. Exploring Ultimate Water Capillary Evaporation in Nanoscale Conduits.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinxiao; Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Zhao, Yihong; Duan, Chuanhua

    2017-08-09

    Capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits is an efficient heat/mass transfer strategy that has been widely utilized by both nature and mankind. Despite its broad impact, the ultimate transport limits of capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits, governed by the evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid-vapor interface, have remained poorly understood. Here we report experimental study of the kinetic limits of water capillary evaporation in two dimensional nanochannels using a novel hybrid channel design. Our results show that the kinetic-limited evaporation fluxes break down the limits predicated by the classical Hertz-Knudsen equation by an order of magnitude, reaching values up to 37.5 mm/s with corresponding heat fluxes up to 8500 W/cm(2). The measured evaporation flux increases with decreasing channel height and relative humidity but decreases as the channel temperature decreases. Our findings have implications for further understanding evaporation at the nanoscale and developing capillary evaporation-based technologies for both energy- and bio-related applications.

  20. Acoustic resonance in the combustion conduits of a steam locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, S.; Oengoeren, A.; Vogel, H.H.

    1996-12-01

    The sound emission of a modern, oil fired steam rack locomotive increased sharply when the locomotive speed exceeded the design value of 12 km/hr. The results of pressure and noise measurements, together with an acoustical model of the combustion conduits indicated that the acoustic resonance modes of the combustion conduits are excited by the pressure pulsations generated by the exhaust from the steam cylinders at multiples of the piston frequency. Additionally, when the acoustic resonance is initiated, the resulting pulsations trigger the flame instability of the oil burners which, in turn, enhances the resonance. By means of the acoustical model, a Helmholtz resonator has been designed and optimized to reduce the acoustic response such that it does not excite the flame instability. A second set of measurements, after installing the resonator, has shown a reduction in the noise level by an amount exceeding 21 dBA. The paper focuses upon the identification of the excitation source and the implementation of the countermeasure which are of interest to other applications involving combustion oscillations.

  1. Bio-Valsalva prosthesis: 'new' conduit for 'old' patients.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Botta, Luca; Leone, Alessandro; Pilato, Emanuele; Martin-Suarez, Sofia; Bacchini, Massimo; Pacini, Davide

    2008-12-01

    A new bio-prosthetic valved conduit (Bio-Valsalva) has recently been introduced into surgical practice in order to offer a valid option for elderly patients undergoing composite aortic root replacement. The conduit is made up of a stentless porcine valve (elan valve) pre-sewn inside a triple layer Valsalva prosthesis and it is entirely preserved in a glutaraldehyde solution. In our Department, 21 patients (16 males, mean age 67.8+/-5.5 years) underwent aortic root replacement using the Bio-Valsalva prosthesis. Composite root replacement was extended to the hemiarch in three cases while a complete arch replacement was performed in two patients. Type A aortic dissection was present in two cases while a bicuspid aortic valve was detected in eight patients. In-hospital mortality was 4.7% (1 patient). Re-thoracotomy for bleeding was performed in one case. The median in-hospital stay was 12 days. The median follow-up was six months and is 100% complete. There were no re-operations or structural deterioration during this early phase of observation. The Bio-Valsalva graft, readily available in different sizes, demonstrates ease of implantability and shows good haemostatic characteristics. More patients and a longer follow-up are necessary to confirm the advantages of this graft.

  2. Conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiegl, George (Inventor); Torbet, Walter (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material consists of a composite structure incorporating a quartz transfer tube as the innermost member, with an outer thermally insulating layer designed to serve the dual purposes of minimizing heat losses from the quartz tube and maintaining mechanical strength and rigidity of the conduit at the elevated temperatures encountered. The composite structure ensures that the molten semiconductor material only comes in contact with a material (quartz) with which it is compatible, while the outer layer structure reinforces the quartz tube, which becomes somewhat soft at molten semiconductor temperatures. To further aid in preventing cooling of the molten semiconductor, a distributed, electric resistance heater is in contact with the surface of the quartz tube over most of its length. The quartz tube has short end portions which extend through the surface of the semiconductor melt and which are lef bare of the thermal insulation. The heater is designed to provide an increased heat input per unit area in the region adjacent these end portions.

  3. Documentation of a Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Kuniansky, Eve L.; Birk, Steffen; Bauer, Sebastian; Swain, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for the modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2005. The CFP has the ability to simulate turbulent ground-water flow conditions by: (1) coupling the traditional ground-water flow equation with formulations for a discrete network of cylindrical pipes (Mode 1), (2) inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 2), or (3) simultaneously coupling a discrete pipe network while inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 3). Conduit flow pipes (Mode 1) may represent dissolution or biological burrowing features in carbonate aquifers, voids in fractured rock, and (or) lava tubes in basaltic aquifers and can be fully or partially saturated under laminar or turbulent flow conditions. Preferential flow layers (Mode 2) may represent: (1) a porous media where turbulent flow is suspected to occur under the observed hydraulic gradients; (2) a single secondary porosity subsurface feature, such as a well-defined laterally extensive underground cave; or (3) a horizontal preferential flow layer consisting of many interconnected voids. In this second case, the input data are effective parameters, such as a very high hydraulic conductivity, representing multiple features. Data preparation is more complex for CFP Mode 1 (CFPM1) than for CFP Mode 2 (CFPM2). Specifically for CFPM1, conduit pipe locations, lengths, diameters, tortuosity, internal roughness, critical Reynolds numbers (NRe), and exchange conductances are required. CFPM1, however, solves the pipe network equations in a matrix that is independent of the porous media equation matrix, which may mitigate numerical instability associated with solution of dual flow components within the same matrix. CFPM2 requires less hydraulic information and knowledge about the specific location and hydraulic properties of conduits, and turbulent flow is approximated by

  4. Le Point sur... Astronomie IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    Cet ouvrage regroupe des articles de mise au point sollicités par le rédacteur en chef de la rubrique Astronomie des Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Les textes se proposent de faire découvrir aux lecteurs, dans les principales disciplines de l'astronomie, les résultats les plus remarquables des dernières années.Leurs auteurs sont des spécialistes participant activement à l'accroissement des connaissances dans des domaines faisant l'objet de recherches intensives. Ces mises au point sur des questions particulièrement importantes de l'astronomie sont rédigées soit en français, soit en anglais et accompagnées d'une bibliographie détaillée.

  5. Manufacture of porous biodegradable polymer conduits by an extrusion process for guided tissue regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widmer, M. S.; Gupta, P. K.; Lu, L.; Meszlenyi, R. K.; Evans, G. R.; Brandt, K.; Savel, T.; Gurlek, A.; Patrick, C. W. Jr; Mikos, A. G.; hide

    1998-01-01

    We have fabricated porous, biodegradable tubular conduits for guided tissue regeneration using a combined solvent casting and extrusion technique. The biodegradable polymers used in this study were poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA). A polymer/salt composite was first prepared by a solvent casting process. After drying, the composite was extruded to form a tubular construct. The salt particles in the construct were then leached out leaving a conduit with an open-pore structure. PLGA was studied as a model polymer to analyze the effects of salt weight fraction, salt particle size, and processing temperature on porosity and pore size of the extruded conduits. The porosity and pore size were found to increase with increasing salt weight fraction. Increasing the salt particle size increased the pore diameter but did not affect the porosity. High extrusion temperatures decreased the pore diameter without altering the porosity. Greater decrease in molecular weight was observed for conduits manufactured at higher temperatures. The mechanical properties of both PLGA and PLLA conduits were tested after degradation in vitro for up to 8 weeks. The modulus and failure strength of PLLA conduits were approximately 10 times higher than those of PLGA conduits. Failure strain was similar for both conduits. After degradation for 8 weeks, the molecular weights of the PLGA and PLLA conduits decreased to 38% and 43% of the initial values, respectively. However, both conduits maintained their shape and did not collapse. The PLGA also remained amorphous throughout the time course, while the crystallinity of PLLA increased from 5.2% to 11.5%. The potential of seeding the conduits with cells for transplantation or with biodegradable polymer microparticles for drug delivery was also tested with dyed microspheres. These porous tubular structures hold great promise for the regeneration of tissues which require tubular scaffolds such as peripheral nerve

  6. Manufacture of porous biodegradable polymer conduits by an extrusion process for guided tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Widmer, M S; Gupta, P K; Lu, L; Meszlenyi, R K; Evans, G R; Brandt, K; Savel, T; Gurlek, A; Patrick, C W; Mikos, A G

    1998-11-01

    We have fabricated porous, biodegradable tubular conduits for guided tissue regeneration using a combined solvent casting and extrusion technique. The biodegradable polymers used in this study were poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA). A polymer/salt composite was first prepared by a solvent casting process. After drying, the composite was extruded to form a tubular construct. The salt particles in the construct were then leached out leaving a conduit with an open-pore structure. PLGA was studied as a model polymer to analyze the effects of salt weight fraction, salt particle size, and processing temperature on porosity and pore size of the extruded conduits. The porosity and pore size were found to increase with increasing salt weight fraction. Increasing the salt particle size increased the pore diameter but did not affect the porosity. High extrusion temperatures decreased the pore diameter without altering the porosity. Greater decrease in molecular weight was observed for conduits manufactured at higher temperatures. The mechanical properties of both PLGA and PLLA conduits were tested after degradation in vitro for up to 8 weeks. The modulus and failure strength of PLLA conduits were approximately 10 times higher than those of PLGA conduits. Failure strain was similar for both conduits. After degradation for 8 weeks, the molecular weights of the PLGA and PLLA conduits decreased to 38% and 43% of the initial values, respectively. However, both conduits maintained their shape and did not collapse. The PLGA also remained amorphous throughout the time course, while the crystallinity of PLLA increased from 5.2% to 11.5%. The potential of seeding the conduits with cells for transplantation or with biodegradable polymer microparticles for drug delivery was also tested with dyed microspheres. These porous tubular structures hold great promise for the regeneration of tissues which require tubular scaffolds such as peripheral nerve

  7. Linear permeability evolution of expanding conduits due to feedback between flow and fast phase change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lichun; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2017-05-01

    Conduits are ubiquitous and critical pathways for many fluids relevant for geophysical processes such as magma, water, and gases. Predicting flow through conduits is challenging when the conduit geometry coevolves with the flow. We theoretically show that the permeability (k) of a conduit whose walls are eroding due to fast phase change increases linearly with time because of a self-reinforcing mechanism. This simple result is surprising given complex feedbacks between flow, transport, and phase change. The theory is congruent with previous experimental observations of fracture dissolution in calcite. Supporting computational fracture dissolution experiments showed that k only slightly increases until the dissolution front reaches the narrowest conduit constriction, after which the linear evolution of k manifests. The theory holds across multiple scales and a broad range of Peclet and Damkohler numbers and thus advances the prediction of dynamic mass fluxes through expanding conduits in various geologic and environmental settings.Plain Language SummaryGeological <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are ubiquitous present in the subsurface. In many situations, these <span class="hlt">conduits</span> may enlarge through time due to erosion of its walls by dissolution and melting. This leads to strongly coupled flow and reactive transport processes where the flow dictates the wall's erosion and vice versa. As the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> expands, so does its permeability and thus flow. Thus, predicting fluid flow and relevant transport processes through expanding <span class="hlt">conduits</span> is challenging. In this study, we presented a theory for the linear time dependence of permeability for expanding <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. The theory is congruent with previous observations from fracture dissolution in calcite. An additional series of our own computational experiments also aligns with the theory. The theory will be of interest to geoscientists and engineers in many fields such as hydrology, glaciology, and petroleum</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994E%26PSL.121..137M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994E%26PSL.121..137M"><span>Erosion processes in volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and application to the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macedonio, Giovanni; Dobran, Flavio; Neri, Augusto</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The flow of gas, magma and pyroclasts through a volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> produces erosion of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall. Erosion may be produced by the impact of pyroclasts on the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall, fluid shear stress at the wall, <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall collapse, and volcanic tremor. Using a two-phase flow non-equilibrium model of magma ascent along the volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span> demonstrated that the erosion due to the impact of particles on the wall can occur only above the magma fragmentation level of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> where the particles or pyroclasts remove the wall material by an abrasion process. This abrasion process was found to be the largest near the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> exit where the gas-magma velocities are the largest. The erosion due to the fluid shear stress at the wall can be produced along the entire length of a <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, depending on the wall roughness and yield strength of wall rocks. This shear stress is the largest near the magma fragmentation level where the gas-magma viscosity and velocity gradients are very large. The collapse of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall due to the difference between the gas-magma and lithostatic pressures can occur below and above the magma fragmentation level, causing the production of lithics directly when the wall collapses inward, and indirectly when the wall collapses outward. The effectiveness of different erosion mechanisms was tested with the magma characteristics, <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry, and wall rock properties pertaining to the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius. It was found that during the white and gray magma plinian eruption phases the lithics should have come from the deep as well as from the shallow regions of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The conclusions from erosion modeling are also consistent with the limited field data whereby the gray magma phase deposits are associated with larger lithic content and larger proportion of deep limestone fragments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Litho.272..261R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Litho.272..261R"><span>Silicic magma differentiation in ascent <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Experimental constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodríguez, Carmen; Castro, Antonio</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Crystallization of water-bearing silicic magmas in a dynamic thermal boundary layer is reproduced experimentally by using the intrinsic thermal gradient of piston-cylinder assemblies. The standard AGV2 andesite under water-undersaturated conditions is set to crystallize in a dynamic thermal gradient of about 35 °C/mm in 10 mm length capsules. In the hotter area of the capsule, the temperature is initially set at 1200 °C and decreases by programmed cooling at two distinct rates of 0.6 and 9.6 °C/h. Experiments are conducted in horizontally arranged assemblies in a piston cylinder apparatus to avoid any effect of gravity settling and compaction of crystals in long duration runs. The results are conclusive about the effect of water-rich fluids that are expelled out the crystal-rich zone (mush), where water saturation is reached by second boiling in the interstitial liquid. Expelled fluids migrate to the magma ahead of the solidification front contributing to a progressive enrichment in the fluxed components SiO2, K2O and H2O. The composition of water-rich fluids is modelled by mass balance using the chemical composition of glasses (quenched melt). The results are the basis for a model of granite magma differentiation in thermally-zoned <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with application of in-situ crystallization equations. The intriguing textural and compositional features of the typical autoliths, accompanying granodiorite-tonalite batholiths, can be explained following the results of this study, by critical phenomena leading to splitting of an initially homogeneous magma into two magma systems with sharp boundaries. Magma splitting in thermal boundary layers, formed at the margins of ascent <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, may operate for several km distances during magma transport from deep sources at the lower crust or upper mantle. Accordingly, <span class="hlt">conduits</span> may work as chromatographic columns contributing to increase the silica content of ascending magmas and, at the same time, leave behind residual mushes that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.......127A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.......127A"><span>Characterization of molecule and particle transport through nanoscale <span class="hlt">conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin</p> <p></p> <p>Nanofluidic devices have been of great interest due to their applications in variety of fields, including energy conversion and storage, water desalination, biological and chemical separations, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Although these applications cross the boundaries of many different disciplines, they all share the demand for understanding transport in nanoscale <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. In this thesis, different elusive aspects of molecule and particle transport through nanofluidic <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are investigated, including liquid and ion transport in nanochannels, diffusion- and reaction-governed enzyme transport in nanofluidic channels, and finally translocation of nanobeads through nanopores. Liquid or solvent transport through nanoconfinements is an essential yet barely characterized component of any nanofluidic systems. In the first chapter, water transport through single hydrophilic nanochannels with heights down to 7 nm is experimentally investigated using a new measurement technique. This technique has been developed based on the capillary flow and a novel hybrid nanochannel design and is capable of characterizing flow in both single nanoconduits as well as nanoporous media. The presence of a 0.7 nm thick hydration layer on hydrophilic surfaces and its effect on increasing the hydraulic resistance of the nanochannels is verified. Next, ion transport in a new class of nanofluidic rectifiers is theoretically and experimentally investigated. These so called nanofluidic diodes are nanochannels with asymmetric geometries which preferentially allow ion transport in one direction. A nondimensional number as a function of electrolyte concentration, nanochannel dimensions, and surface charge is derived that summarizes the rectification behavior of this system. In the fourth chapter, diffusion- and reaction-governed enzyme transport in nanofluidic channels is studied and the theoretical background necessary for understanding enzymatic activity in nanofluidic channels is presented. A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........64L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........64L"><span>Viscous Fluid <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> as a Prototypical Nonlinear Dispersive Wave Platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lowman, Nicholas K.</p> <p></p> <p>This thesis is devoted to the comprehensive characterization of slowly modulated, nonlinear waves in dispersive media for physically-relevant systems using a threefold approach: analytical, long-time asymptotics, careful numerical simulations, and quantitative laboratory experiments. In particular, we use this interdisciplinary approach to establish a two-fluid, interfacial fluid flow setting known as viscous fluid <span class="hlt">conduits</span> as an ideal platform for the experimental study of truly one dimensional, unidirectional solitary waves and dispersively regularized shock waves (DSWs). Starting from the full set of fluid equations for mass and linear momentum conservation, we use a multiple-scales, perturbation approach to derive a scalar, nonlinear, dispersive wave equation for the leading order interfacial dynamics of the system. Using a generalized form of the approximate model equation, we use numerical simulations and an analytical, nonlinear wave averaging technique, Whitham-El modulation theory, to derive the key physical features of interacting large amplitude solitary waves and DSWs. We then present the results of quantitative, experimental investigations into large amplitude solitary wave interactions and DSWs. Overtaking interactions of large amplitude solitary waves are shown to exhibit nearly elastic collisions and universal interaction geometries according to the Lax categories for KdV solitons, and to be in excellent agreement with the dynamics described by the approximate asymptotic model. The dispersive shock wave experiments presented here represent the most extensive comparison to date between theory and data of the key wavetrain parameters predicted by modulation theory. We observe strong agreement. Based on the work in this thesis, viscous fluid <span class="hlt">conduits</span> provide a well-understood, controlled, table-top environment in which to study universal properties of dispersive hydrodynamics. Motivated by the study of wave propagation in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> system, we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026910"><span>In vivo studies of silk based gold nano-composite <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for functional peripheral nerve regeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Das, Suradip; Sharma, Manav; Saharia, Dhiren; Sarma, Kushal Konwar; Sarma, Monalisa Goswami; Borthakur, Bibhuti Bhusan; Bora, Utpal</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>We report a novel silk-gold nanocomposite based nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> successfully tested in a neurotmesis grade sciatic nerve injury model in rats over a period of eighteen months. The <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was fabricated by adsorbing gold nanoparticles onto silk fibres and transforming them into a nanocomposite sheet by electrospinning which is finally given a tubular structure by rolling on a stainless steel mandrel of chosen diameter. The <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were found to promote adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells in vitro and did not elicit any toxic or immunogenic responses in vivo. We also report for the first time, the monitoring of muscular regeneration post nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> implantation by recording motor unit potentials (MUPs) through needle electromyogram. Pre-seeding the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with Schwann cells enhanced myelination of the regenerated tissue. Histo-morphometric and electrophysiological studies proved that the nanocomposite based <span class="hlt">conduits</span> pre-seeded with Schwann cells performed best in terms of structural and functional regeneration of severed sciatic nerves. The near normal values of nerve conduction velocity (50 m/sec), compound muscle action potential (29.7 mV) and motor unit potential (133 μV) exhibited by the animals implanted with Schwann cell loaded nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in the present study are superior to those observed in previous reports with synthetic materials as well as collagen based nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Animals in this group were also able to perform complex locomotory activities like stretching and jumping with excellent sciatic function index (SFI) and led a normal life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3558W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3558W"><span>Sedimentary roles on hyporheic exchange in karst <span class="hlt">conduits</span> at low Reynolds numbers by laboratory experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Yuexia; Hunkeler, Daniel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The relative roles of the sediment grain size/permeability, <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow rate and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry/angle on the hyporheic exchange between a karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and its underlying sediments under low Reynolds numbers (Re) were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Two laboratory analogues consisting of siphon structured glass tubes (with bend angles of 15° and 45°) were used for the experimental studies. Tracer experiments were performed in each analogue with sediments of variable grain size (0.45 mm, 0.4-0.7 mm, 1 mm) to characterize the transport properties of contaminants originating from the sediments. Numerical simulations were used to probe the exchange flow patterns and exchange flux magnitudes between the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and sediment. Tracer experiments demonstrated a zone of forward flow and a zone of reverse flow in the sediments that were independent of grain size, which were reproduced well by numerical simulations. The exchange flux ranged from 0.02 % for fine grains to 2 % for coarse grains under the experimental flow conditions. A linear relationship between the exchange flux and the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> Re value, which was independent of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry and sediment grain size, was established with numerical simulations. This study demonstrated that sediment grain size/permeability has no influence on the exchange flow patterns. However, relative to the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow rate and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry/angle, sediment permeability has a much stronger influence on the exchange rate of hyporheic flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HydJ...25..787W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HydJ...25..787W"><span>Sedimentary roles on hyporheic exchange in karst <span class="hlt">conduits</span> at low Reynolds numbers by laboratory experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Yuexia; Hunkeler, Daniel</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The relative roles of the sediment grain size/permeability, <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow rate and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry/angle on the hyporheic exchange between a karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and its underlying sediments under low Reynolds numbers (Re) were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Two laboratory analogues consisting of siphon structured glass tubes (with bend angles of 15 and 45°) were used for the experimental studies. Tracer experiments were performed in each analogue with sediments of variable grain size (0.45 mm, 0.4-0.7 mm, 1 mm) to characterize the transport properties of contaminants originating from the sediments. Numerical simulations were used to probe the exchange flow patterns and exchange flux magnitudes between the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and sediment. Tracer experiments demonstrated a zone of forward flow and a zone of reverse flow in the sediments that were independent of grain size, which were reproduced well by numerical simulations. The exchange flux ranged from 0.02% for fine grains to 2% for coarse grains under the experimental flow conditions. A linear relationship between the exchange flux and the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> Re value, which was independent of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry and sediment grain size, was established with numerical simulations. This study demonstrated that sediment grain size/permeability has no influence on the exchange flow patterns; however, relative to the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow rate and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry/angle, sediment permeability has a much stronger influence on the exchange rate of hyporheic flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-19/pdf/2013-27608.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-19/pdf/2013-27608.pdf"><span>78 FR 69403 - South Tahoe Public Utility District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-19</p> <p>... a Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On... qualifying <span class="hlt">conduit</span> hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The CHYDRO Project would be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-21/pdf/2013-27958.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-21/pdf/2013-27958.pdf"><span>78 FR 69847 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydropower...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-21</p> <p>... Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On November 5, 2013, North Side Canal Company, filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying <span class="hlt">conduit</span> hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-09/pdf/2013-24407.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-09/pdf/2013-24407.pdf"><span>78 FR 61987 - Corbett Water District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydropower...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-09</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 23, 2013, Corbett Water District filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying <span class="hlt">conduit</span> hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-09/pdf/2013-24408.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-09/pdf/2013-24408.pdf"><span>78 FR 61985 - City of Astoria, Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydropower...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-09</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 24, 2013, City of Astoria, Oregon (Astoria) filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying <span class="hlt">conduit</span> hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-09/pdf/2013-24409.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-09/pdf/2013-24409.pdf"><span>78 FR 61986 - City of Santa Barbara, California; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-09</p> <p>... Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 24, 2013... hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The Gibraltar <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydroelectric Project would...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HydJ..tmp...12W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HydJ..tmp...12W"><span>Sedimentary roles on hyporheic exchange in karst <span class="hlt">conduits</span> at low Reynolds numbers by laboratory experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Yuexia; Hunkeler, Daniel</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The relative roles of the sediment grain size/permeability, <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow rate and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry/angle on the hyporheic exchange between a karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and its underlying sediments under low Reynolds numbers (Re) were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Two laboratory analogues consisting of siphon structured glass tubes (with bend angles of 15 and 45°) were used for the experimental studies. Tracer experiments were performed in each analogue with sediments of variable grain size (0.45 mm, 0.4-0.7 mm, 1 mm) to characterize the transport properties of contaminants originating from the sediments. Numerical simulations were used to probe the exchange flow patterns and exchange flux magnitudes between the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and sediment. Tracer experiments demonstrated a zone of forward flow and a zone of reverse flow in the sediments that were independent of grain size, which were reproduced well by numerical simulations. The exchange flux ranged from 0.02% for fine grains to 2% for coarse grains under the experimental flow conditions. A linear relationship between the exchange flux and the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> Re value, which was independent of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry and sediment grain size, was established with numerical simulations. This study demonstrated that sediment grain size/permeability has no influence on the exchange flow patterns; however, relative to the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow rate and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry/angle, sediment permeability has a much stronger influence on the exchange rate of hyporheic flow.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec75-700.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec75-700.pdf"><span>30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec77-700.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec77-700.pdf"><span>30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec77-700.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec77-700.pdf"><span>30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec75-700.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec75-700.pdf"><span>30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec75-700.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec75-700.pdf"><span>30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec77-700.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec77-700.pdf"><span>30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec75-700.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec75-700.pdf"><span>30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec77-700.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec77-700.pdf"><span>30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> enclosing power...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035820','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035820"><span>A one-dimensional heat-transport model for <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow in karst aquifers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Long, A.J.; Gilcrease, P.C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A one-dimensional heat-transport model for <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow in karst aquifers is presented as an alternative to two or three-dimensional distributed-parameter models, which are data intensive and require knowledge of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> locations. This model can be applied for cases where water temperature in a well or spring receives all or part of its water from a phreatic <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Heat transport in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is simulated by using a physically-based heat-transport equation that accounts for inflow of diffuse flow from smaller openings and fissures in the surrounding aquifer during periods of low recharge. Additional diffuse flow that is within the zone of influence of the well or spring but has not interacted with the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is accounted for with a binary mixing equation to proportion these different water sources. The estimation of this proportion through inverse modeling is useful for the assessment of contaminant vulnerability and well-head or spring protection. The model was applied to 7 months of continuous temperature data for a sinking stream that recharges a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and a pumped well open to the Madison aquifer in western South Dakota. The simulated <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-flow fraction to the well ranged from 2% to 31% of total flow, and simulated <span class="hlt">conduit</span> velocity ranged from 44 to 353 m/d.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA10925.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA10925.html"><span>Fires Burning near Big <span class="hlt">Sur</span>, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-06-30</p> <p>Fires near Big <span class="hlt">Sur</span>, Calif., continued to burn unchecked when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ASTER instrument on NASA Terra satellite captured this image on Sunday, June 29, 2008.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/287630','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/287630"><span>Optimization and stability of a cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> superconductor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schauer, F.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>The optimization process for strand number and diameter, cable void fraction, and Cu/NbTi-ratio of the cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor for the superconducting magnet system of the planned stellarator fusion experiment Wendelstein 7-X is presented. Main optimization criteria are stability and cable cooling requirements, taking into account transient disturbances and losses. A simple stability criterion regarding transient disturbances is used which is derived from cable compression experiments. The resulting data for the 16 kA, 6 T cable are: cable and strand diameter {approx}11.5 mm and {approx}0.57 mm, respectively, strand number {approx}250, void {approx}36%, and Cu/sc-ratio {approx}2.7.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.8037S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.8037S"><span>Hot upwelling <span class="hlt">conduit</span> beneath the Atlas Mountains, Morocco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Daoyuan; Miller, Meghan S.; Holt, Adam F.; Becker, Thorsten W.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The Atlas Mountains of Morocco display high topography, no deep crustal root, and regions of localized Cenozoic alkaline volcanism. Previous seismic imaging and geophysical studies have implied a hot mantle upwelling as the source of the volcanism and high elevation. However, the existence, shape, and physical properties of an associated mantle anomaly are debated. Here we use seismic waveform analysis from a broadband deployment and geodynamic modeling to define the physical properties and morphology of the anomaly. The imaged low-velocity structure extends to ~200 km beneath the Atlas and appears ~350 K hotter than the ambient mantle with possible partial melting. It includes a lateral <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, which suggests that the Quaternary volcanism arises from the upper mantle. Moreover, the shape and temperature of the imaged anomaly indicate that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains is due to active mantle support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.404...98C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.404...98C"><span>An integrated model of magma chamber, <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and column for the analysis of sustained explosive eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colucci, S.; de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Neri, A.; Palladino, D. M.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Explosive volcanic eruptions comprise a complex series of processes involving withdrawal from the magma chamber, magma ascent along the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and eruption column dynamics. Numerous studies have modeled the different sub-domains of a volcanic system, but their interplay has seldom been analyzed. To this end, we developed C3 (C-cubed, that stands for Chamber, <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> and Column), a new integrated model that describes the dynamics of an explosive eruption as a series of steady state regimes and as a function of geometry and initial conditions of the magma reservoir. We used Global Sensitivity Analysis to quantify the role of the relevant model parameters and describe the interplay between the different volcanic sub-domains. In particular, we analyzed the evolution of a sustained explosive eruption in order to identify the conditions for buoyant, super-buoyant and collapsing columns. Input data were based on field reconstructions of Quaternary explosive eruptions in the Vulsini Volcanic District (Roman Province, central Italy). Model results show that: 1) the column regime, although affected by complex interactions among several factors, mostly depends on the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> radius, the volatile content (i.e. supersaturation concentration at the top of the chamber) and length of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, in decreasing level of importance; 2) the amount of mass erupted is independent of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> radius and depends mostly on volatile supersaturation, the radius of the magma chamber, the length of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and the overpressure at the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> inlet; 3) the mass flow-rate, column height and duration of the eruption are largely controlled by the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> radius; 4) the flow pressure and density at the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> exit are mostly controlled by the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> inlet overpressure at the onset of the eruption, and by the length of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> at the end of the eruption; 5) the exit velocity from the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is mostly controlled by the volatile content, the length of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and the inlet</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11352095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11352095"><span>A new nerve guide <span class="hlt">conduit</span> material composed of a biodegradable poly(phosphoester).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, S; Wan, A C; Xu, X; Gao, S; Mao, H Q; Leong, K W; Yu, H</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>There is a resurgence of interest in the development of degradable and biocompatible polymers for fabrication of nerve guide <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (NGCs) in recent years. Poly(phosphoester) (PPE) polymers are among the attractive candidates in this context, in view of their high biocompatibility, adjustable biodegradability, flexibility in coupling fragile biomolecules under physiological conditions and a wide variety of physicochemical properties. The feasibility of using a biodegradable PPE, P(BHET-EOP/TC), as a novel NGC material was investigated. Two types of <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were fabricated by using two batches of P(BHET-EOP/TC) with different weight-average molecular weights (Mw) and polydispersity indexes (PI). The polymers as well as <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were non-toxic to all six types of cells tested, including primary neurones and neuronally differentiated PC12 cells. After in situ implantation in the sciatic nerve of the rat, two types of <span class="hlt">conduits</span> triggered a similar tissue response, inducing the formation of a thin tissue capsule composed of approximately eight layers of fibroblasts surrounding the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> at 3 months. Biological performances of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were examined in the rat sciatic nerve model with a 10 mm gap. Although tube fragmentation, even tube breakage, was observed within less than 5 days post-implantation, successful regeneration through the gap occurred in both types of <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, with four out of 10 in the Type I <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (Mw 14,900 and PI 2.57) and 11 out of 12 in the Type II <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (Mw 18,900 and PI 1.72). The degradation of <span class="hlt">conduits</span> was further evidenced by increased roughness on the tube surface in vivo under scanning electron microscope and a mass decrease in a time-dependent manner in vitro. The Mw of the polymers dropped 33 and 24% in the Type I and II <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, respectively, in vitro within 3 months. Among their advantages over other biodegradable NGCs, the PPE <span class="hlt">conduits</span> showed negligible swelling and no crystallisation after implantation. Thus, these PPE</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014560','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014560"><span>Effect of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> material on CICC performance under high cycling loads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martovetsky, N N; Bruzzone, P; Stepanov, B; Wesche, R; Gung, C; Minervini, J V; Takayasu, M; Goodrich, L F; Ekin, J W; Nijhuis, A</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>Recent ITER Model Coils and CRPP tests on Nb3Sn Cable in <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Conductors (CICC) showed a significant and unexpected increase in the broadness of the transition to the normal state, resulting in degradation of superconducting properties. To investigate these phenomena two CICC samples were built with identical 144 strand cables but different <span class="hlt">conduit</span> materials. One sample had titanium <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the other had stainless steel <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The purpose of this experiment was to study changes in strand properties in the cable (n-value, I{sub c}, T{sub cs}), the effect of cycling and high electromagnetic load and the effect of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> on the CICC performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816639S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816639S"><span>Distributed measurement of flow rate in <span class="hlt">conduits</span> using heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sánchez, Raúl; Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In some cases flow varies along <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, such as in irrigated land drainage pipes and channels, irrigation laterals and others. Detailed knowledge of flow rate along the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> makes possible analytical evaluation of water distribution and collection systems performance. Flow rate can change continuously in some systems, like in drainage pipes and channels, or abruptly, like in <span class="hlt">conduits</span> bifurcations or emitter insertions. A heat pulse along the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> makes possible to get flow rate from continuity and heat balance equations. Due to the great value of specific heat of water, temperature changes along <span class="hlt">conduit</span> are smaller than the noise that involves the measurement process. This work presents a methodology that, dealing with the noise of distributed temperature measurements, leads to flow rate determination along pressurized pipes or open channel flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Cryo...38...33R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Cryo...38...33R"><span>Large-scale tests of insulated <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for the ITER CS coil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reed, R. P.; Walsh, R. P.; Schutz, J. B.</p> <p></p> <p>Compression-fatigue tests at 77 K were conducted on test modules of insulated Incoloy 908 <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. To replicate the operating conditions for the ITER central solenoid (CS) full-scale coil, fatigue loads up to 3.6 MN were applied for 10 5 cycles; no mechanical breakdowns occurred. The <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were insulated with a preimpregnated resin system, a tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDM) epoxy cured with DDS aromatic amine. The <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were joined by vacuum-pressure impregnation with a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F epoxy/anhydride-cured resin system. In the 4×4 stacked-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> test modules, the layer insulation (a high-pressure laminate of TGDM epoxy cured with DDS aromatic amine) was inserted. Periodically during the tests, breakdown voltage was measured across the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> of both turn and layer insulation; throughout the test, breakdown voltages were at least 46 kV. The addition of a barrier increased structural and electrical reliability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28761992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28761992"><span>Novel technique for airless connection of artificial heart to vascular <span class="hlt">conduits</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karimov, Jamshid H; Gao, Shengqiang; Dessoffy, Raymond; Sunagawa, Gengo; Sinkewich, Martin; Grady, Patrick; Sale, Shiva; Moazami, Nader; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka</p> <p>2017-07-31</p> <p>Successful implantation of a total artificial heart relies on multiple standardized procedures, primarily the resection of the native heart, and exacting preparation of the atrial and vascular <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for pump implant and activation. Achieving secure pump connections to inflow/outflow <span class="hlt">conduits</span> is critical to a successful outcome. During the connection process, however, air may be introduced into the circulation, traveling to the brain and multiple organs. Such air emboli block blood flow to these areas and are detrimental to long-term survival. A correctly managed pump-to-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> connection prevents air from collecting in the pump and <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. To further optimize pump-connection techniques, we have developed a novel connecting sleeve that enables airless connection of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) to the <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. In this brief report, we describe the connecting sleeve design and our initial results from two acute in vivo implantations using a scaled-down version of the CFTAH.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984SPIE..405...69A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984SPIE..405...69A"><span>Transmission <span class="hlt">Sur</span> Fibres Optiques Dans Un Systeme D'Archivage Et De Communication D'Images Pour Des Applications Medicales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aaron, Gilles; Bonnard, Rene</p> <p>1984-03-01</p> <p>Dans l'hOpital, le besoin d'un reseau de communication electronique ne cesse de crottre au fur et a mesure de la numerisation des images. Ce reseau local a pour but de relier quelques sources d'images telles la radiologie numerique, la tomodensitometrie, la resonance magnetique nucleaire, l'echographie ultraso-nore etc..., a un systme d'archivage. Des consoles de visualisation interacti-ves peuvent etre utilisees dans les salles d'examens, les bureaux des medecins et les services de soins. Dans un tel systme, trois caracteristiques princi-pales doivent etre prises en compte le debit, la longueur du cable et le nombre de connexions. - Le debit est tr?)s important, en effet, un temps de reponse maxima de quel-ques secondes doit etre garanti pour des images de plusieurs millions d'ele-ments binaires. - La distance entre connexions peut etre de quelques km dans certains grands hopitaux. - Le nombre de connexions au reseau ne depasse <span class="hlt">jamais</span> quelques dizaines car les sources d'images et les unites de traitement representent des materiels importants, par ailleurs les consoles de visualisation simples peuvent etre groupees en grappe. Toutes ces conditions sont remplies par les transmissions <span class="hlt">sur</span> fibres optiques. Selon la topologie et la methode d'accNs, deux solutions peuvent etre envisa-gees : - Anneau actif - Etoile active ou passive Enfin, les developpements de Thomson-CSF en composants pour transmissions optiques pour les grands reseaux de tel4distribution nous apportent un support technologique et une production de masse qui diminuera les collts du materiel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JNEng..10a6008Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JNEng..10a6008Q"><span>Engineering a multimodal nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for repair of injured peripheral nerve</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or <span class="hlt">conduits</span> from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration <span class="hlt">conduit</span> using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair <span class="hlt">conduit</span> design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair <span class="hlt">conduit</span> lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration <span class="hlt">conduit</span> compared to rats implanted with <span class="hlt">conduits</span> containing only an alginate</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4145904','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4145904"><span>Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yu, Tao; Zhao, Changfu; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduit</span> transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduits</span> or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-repaired sciatic nerve following tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Following poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduit</span> transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogenous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduits</span> or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduits</span> exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair. PMID:25206505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25206505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25206505"><span>Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Tao; Zhao, Changfu; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min</p> <p>2013-07-25</p> <p>Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduit</span> transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduits</span> or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-repaired sciatic nerve following tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Following poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduit</span> transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogenous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduits</span> or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduits</span> exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4774210','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4774210"><span>A novel bioactive nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for the repair of peripheral nerve injury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Bin-bin; Yin, Yi-xia; Yan, Qiong-jiao; Wang, Xin-yu; Li, Shi-pu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The use of a nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> provides an opportunity to regulate cytokines, growth factors and neurotrophins in peripheral nerve regeneration and avoid autograft defects. We constructed a poly-D-L-lactide (PDLLA)-based nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> that was modified using poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-lysine)]} and β-tricalcium phosphate. The effectiveness of this bioactive PDLLA-based nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was compared to that of PDLLA-only <span class="hlt">conduit</span> in the nerve regeneration following a 10-mm sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed the nerve morphology in the early period of regeneration, 35 days post injury, using hematoxylin-eosin and methylene blue staining. Compared with the PDLLA <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, the nerve fibers in the PDLLA-based bioactive nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> were thicker and more regular in size. Muscle fibers in the soleus muscle had greater diameters in the PDLLA bioactive group than in the PDLLA only group. The PDLLA-based bioactive nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is a promising strategy for repair after sciatic nerve injury. PMID:26981105</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.4221Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.4221Q"><span>Modeling the closure of volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with an application to Mount Vesuvius</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quareni, Francesca; Mulargia, Francesco</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>The eruptive activity of a volcano is controlled by the opening and closure of <span class="hlt">conduits</span> through which magma ascends to the surface. We develop a model to study the deformation of a cylindrical <span class="hlt">conduit</span> surrounded by a viscoelastic cylindrical region in an infinite, elastic, homogeneous space. The viscoelastic behavior of the zone around the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is due to heat conduction from the hot magma, which raises the temperature beyond the brittle-ductile transition point. The effect of a tectonic regional stress which favors (compressive) or acts against (tensile) <span class="hlt">conduit</span> closure is taken into account. <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> closure is found to be ruled essentially by the extension of the viscoelastic region and by the ratio between its rigidity and the rigidity of the surrounding elastic medium, while tectonic stress is much less important. The model is applied to the last eruptive cycle of Mount Vesuvius. We find that an open <span class="hlt">conduit</span> condition has been possible from 1631 to 1944, while the quiescence from 1944 on implies a closed <span class="hlt">conduit</span> state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V31A3069Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V31A3069Y"><span>Hydrothermal Alteration of the Mt Unzen <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> (Shimabara/Japan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yilmaz, T. I.; Mayer, K.; Hess, K. U.; Janots, E.; Gilg, H. A.; Dingwell, D. B.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, and C-O-isotope analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the magma <span class="hlt">conduit</span> zone was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite and R1 illite-smectite in the groundmass. Carbonates in fractures comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values of d13Cvpdb = -4.59 ± 0.6‰ and d18Ovpdb = -21.73 ± 0.5‰ indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest <span class="hlt">conduit</span> alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration degree of the pristine dome rocks. Highest CCPI value was determined for sample C14-1-5 and the highest AI value was determined for sample C15-2-6. The degrees of alteration do not indicate highest alteration of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024813','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024813"><span>Pockmarks off Big <span class="hlt">Sur</span>, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Paull, C.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N.; Greene, H. Gary; Rehder, G.; Lorenson, T.; Lee, H.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A pockmark field was discovered during EM-300 multi-beam bathymetric surveys on the lower continental slope off the Big <span class="hlt">Sur</span> coast of California. The field contains ??? 1500 pockmarks which are between 130 and 260 m in diameter, and typically are 8-12 m deep located within a 560 km2 area. To investigate the origin of these features, piston cores were collected from both the interior and the flanks of the pockmarks, and remotely operated vehicle observation (ROV) video and sampling transects were conducted which passed through 19 of the pockmarks. The water column within and above the pockmarks was sampled for methane concentration. Piston cores and ROV collected push cores show that the pockmark field is composed of monotonous fine silts and clays and the cores within the pockmarks are indistinguishable from those outside the pockmarks. No evidence for either sediment winnowing or diagenetic alteration suggestive of fluid venting was obtained. 14C measurements of the organic carbon in the sediments indicate continuous sedimentation throughout the time resolution of the radiocarbon technique ( ??? 45000 yr BP), with a sedimentation rate of ??? 10 cm per 1000 yr both within and between the pockmarks. Concentrations of methane, dissolved inorganic carbon, sulfate, chloride, and ammonium in pore water extracted from within the cores are generally similar in composition to seawater and show little change with depth, suggesting low biogeochemical activity. These pore water chemical gradients indicate that neither significant accumulations of gas are likely to exist in the shallow subsurface ( ??? 100 m) nor is active fluid advection occurring within the sampled sediments. Taken together the data indicate that these pockmarks are more than 45000 yr old, are presently inactive, and contain no indications of earlier fluid or gas venting events. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..576A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..576A"><span>Stability of volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span>: insights from magma ascent modelling and possible consequences on eruptive dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aravena, Alvaro; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Cioni, Raffaello; Neri, Augusto</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Geological evidences of changes in volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry (i.e. erosive processes) are common in the volcanic record, as revealed by the occurrence of lithic fragments in most pyroclastic deposits. However, the controlling factors of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> enlargement mechanisms are still partially unclear, as well as the influence of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry in the eruptive dynamics. Despite physical models have been systematically used for studying volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, their mechanical stability has been poorly addressed. In order to study the mechanical stability of volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span> during explosive eruptions, we present a 1D steady-state model which considers the main processes experimented by ascending magmas, such as crystallization, drag forces, fragmentation, outgassing and degassing; and the application of the Mogi-Coulomb collapse criterion, using a set of constitutive equations for studying typical cases of rhyolitic and trachytic explosive volcanism. From our results emerge that <span class="hlt">conduit</span> stability is mainly controlled by magma rheology and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> dimensions. Indeed, in order to be stable, feeding <span class="hlt">conduits</span> of rhyolitic eruptions need larger radii respect to their trachytic counterparts, which is manifested in the higher eruption rates usually observed in rhyolitic explosive eruptions, as confirmed by a small compilation of global data. Additionally, for both magma compositions, we estimated a minimum magma flux for developing stable <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (˜3ṡ106 kg/s for trachytic magmas and ˜8ṡ107 kg/s for rhyolitic magmas), which is consistent with the unsteady character commonly observed in low-mass flux events (e.g. sub-Plinian eruptions), which would be produced by episodic collapse events of the volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, opposite to the mainly stationary high-mass flux events (e.g. Plinian eruptions), characterized by stable <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. For a given magma composition, a minimum radius for reaching stable conditions can be computed, as a function of inlet overpressure and water content</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4151583','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4151583"><span>Forgotten DJ Stent with a Large Calculus at Its Distal End in an Ileal <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Diversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Puri, Anurag; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Raizada, Nivedita; Pal, Dilip Kumar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Calculus formation in an ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> following cystectomy is a known complication. Encrustation and formation of calculus may also occur over a DJ stent retained for a long period; but this is never reported in patients with <span class="hlt">conduit</span> diversion because of close surveillance of these patients. Here we report first case of a large calculus encrusted over a forgotten DJ stent within an ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> in a man who had undergone urinary diversion following radical cystectomy for carcinoma urinary bladder 8 years earlier. PMID:25215257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034022','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034022"><span>A <span class="hlt">conduit</span> dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Scandella, B.P.; Varadharajan, C.; Hemond, Harold F.; Ruppel, C.; Juanes, R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the methane generated in organic-rich sediments underlying surface water bodies, including lakes, wetlands, and the ocean. The fraction of the methane that reaches the atmosphere depends critically on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of free-gas venting from the underlying sediments. Here we propose that methane transport in lake sediments is controlled by dynamic <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other shallow-water, organic-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10879532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10879532"><span>Mapping the Hawaiian plume <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with converted seismic waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li; Kind; Priestley; Sobolev; Tilmann; Yuan; Weber</p> <p>2000-06-22</p> <p>The volcanic edifice of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts, as well as the surrounding area of shallow sea floor known as the Hawaiian swell, are believed to result from the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Although geochemical and gravity observations indicate the existence of a mantle thermal plume beneath Hawaii, no direct seismic evidence for such a plume in the upper mantle has yet been found. Here we present an analysis of compressional-to-shear (P-to-S) converted seismic phases, recorded on seismograph stations on the Hawaiian islands, that indicate a zone of very low shear-wave velocity (< 4 km s(-1)) starting at 130-140 km depth beneath the central part of the island of Hawaii and extending deeper into the upper mantle. We also find that the upper-mantle transition zone (410-660 km depth) appears to be thinned by up to 40-50 km to the south-southwest of the island of Hawaii. We interpret these observations as localized effects of the Hawaiian plume <span class="hlt">conduit</span> in the asthenosphere and mantle transition zone with excess temperature of approximately 300 degrees C. Large variations in the transition-zone thickness suggest a lower-mantle origin of the Hawaiian plume similar to the Iceland plume, but our results indicate a 100 degrees C higher temperature for the Hawaiian plume.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1016439','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1016439"><span>Structure of a Bacterial Cell Surface Decaheme Electron <span class="hlt">Conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clarke, Thomas A.; Edwards, Marcus; Gates, Andrew J.; Hall, Andrea; White, Gaye; Bradley, Justin; Reardon, Catherine L.; Shi, Liang; Beliaev, Alex S.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Zheming; Watmough, Nicholas; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.</p> <p>2011-05-23</p> <p>Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves deca-heme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outermembrane (OM) electron transfer <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. The cell surface cytochromes can potentially play multiple roles in mediating electron transfer directly to insoluble electron sinks, catalyzing electron exchange with flavin electron shuttles or participating in extracellular inter-cytochrome electron exchange along ‘nanowire’ appendages. We present a 3.2 Å crystal structure of one of these deca-heme cytochromes, MtrF, that allows the spatial organization of the ten hemes to be visualized for the first time. The hemes are organized across four domains in a unique crossed conformation, in which a staggered 65 Å octa-heme chain transects the length of the protein and is bisected by a planar 45 Å tetra-heme chain that connects two extended Greek key split β-barrel domains. The structure provides molecular insight into how reduction of insoluble substrate (e.g. minerals), soluble substrates (e.g. flavins) and cytochrome redox partners might be possible in tandem at different termini of a trifurcated electron transport chain on the cell surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3111324','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3111324"><span>Structure of a bacterial cell surface decaheme electron <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Clarke, Thomas A.; Edwards, Marcus J.; Gates, Andrew J.; Hall, Andrea; White, Gaye F.; Bradley, Justin; Reardon, Catherine L.; Shi, Liang; Beliaev, Alexander S.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Zheming; Watmough, Nicholas J.; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves decaheme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outer-membrane electron transfer <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. The cell surface cytochromes can potentially play multiple roles in mediating electron transfer directly to insoluble electron sinks, catalyzing electron exchange with flavin electron shuttles or participating in extracellular intercytochrome electron exchange along “nanowire” appendages. We present a 3.2-Å crystal structure of one of these decaheme cytochromes, MtrF, that allows the spatial organization of the 10 hemes to be visualized for the first time. The hemes are organized across four domains in a unique crossed conformation, in which a staggered 65-Å octaheme chain transects the length of the protein and is bisected by a planar 45-Å tetraheme chain that connects two extended Greek key split β-barrel domains. The structure provides molecular insight into how reduction of insoluble substrate (e.g., minerals), soluble substrates (e.g., flavins), and cytochrome redox partners might be possible in tandem at different termini of a trifurcated electron transport chain on the cell surface. PMID:21606337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2984186','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2984186"><span>Engineering of a synthetic electron <span class="hlt">conduit</span> in living cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jensen, Heather M.; Albers, Aaron E.; Malley, Konstantin R.; Londer, Yuri Y.; Cohen, Bruce E.; Helms, Brett A.; Weigele, Peter; Groves, Jay T.; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Engineering efficient, directional electronic communication between living and nonliving systems has the potential to combine the unique characteristics of both materials for advanced biotechnological applications. However, the cell membrane is designed by nature to be an insulator, restricting the flow of charged species; therefore, introducing a biocompatible pathway for transferring electrons across the membrane without disrupting the cell is a significant challenge. Here we describe a genetic strategy to move intracellular electrons to an inorganic extracellular acceptor along a molecularly defined route. To do so, we reconstitute a portion of the extracellular electron transfer chain of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 into the model microbe Escherichia coli. This engineered E. coli can reduce metal ions and solid metal oxides ∼8× and ∼4× faster than its parental strain. We also find that metal oxide reduction is more efficient when the extracellular electron acceptor has nanoscale dimensions. This work demonstrates that a genetic cassette can create a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for electronic communication from living cells to inorganic materials, and it highlights the importance of matching the size scale of the protein donors to inorganic acceptors. PMID:20956333</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21606337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21606337"><span>Structure of a bacterial cell surface decaheme electron <span class="hlt">conduit</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clarke, Thomas A; Edwards, Marcus J; Gates, Andrew J; Hall, Andrea; White, Gaye F; Bradley, Justin; Reardon, Catherine L; Shi, Liang; Beliaev, Alexander S; Marshall, Matthew J; Wang, Zheming; Watmough, Nicholas J; Fredrickson, James K; Zachara, John M; Butt, Julea N; Richardson, David J</p> <p>2011-06-07</p> <p>Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves decaheme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outer-membrane electron transfer <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. The cell surface cytochromes can potentially play multiple roles in mediating electron transfer directly to insoluble electron sinks, catalyzing electron exchange with flavin electron shuttles or participating in extracellular intercytochrome electron exchange along "nanowire" appendages. We present a 3.2-Å crystal structure of one of these decaheme cytochromes, MtrF, that allows the spatial organization of the 10 hemes to be visualized for the first time. The hemes are organized across four domains in a unique crossed conformation, in which a staggered 65-Å octaheme chain transects the length of the protein and is bisected by a planar 45-Å tetraheme chain that connects two extended Greek key split β-barrel domains. The structure provides molecular insight into how reduction of insoluble substrate (e.g., minerals), soluble substrates (e.g., flavins), and cytochrome redox partners might be possible in tandem at different termini of a trifurcated electron transport chain on the cell surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..38.6408S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..38.6408S"><span>A <span class="hlt">conduit</span> dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scandella, Benjamin P.; Varadharajan, Charuleka; Hemond, Harold F.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Juanes, Ruben</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the methane generated in organic-rich sediments underlying surface water bodies, including lakes, wetlands, and the ocean. The fraction of the methane that reaches the atmosphere depends critically on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of free-gas venting from the underlying sediments. Here we propose that methane transport in lake sediments is controlled by dynamic <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other shallow-water, organic-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/airmspi/airmspi_podex/bigsur_terrain_images','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/airmspi/airmspi_podex/bigsur_terrain_images"><span>AirMSPI PODEX Big<span class="hlt">Sur</span> Terrain Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-13</p> <p>... Browse Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Big <span class="hlt">Sur</span> target (Big <span class="hlt">Sur</span>, California) 02/03/2013 Terrain-projected   Select ...   Version number   For more information, see the Data Product Specifications (DPS)   ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LaPhL...7..246B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LaPhL...7..246B"><span>In vivo visualization of microneedle <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in human skin using laser scanning microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bal, S.; Kruithof, A. C.; Liebl, H.; Tomerius, M.; Bouwstra, J.; Lademann, J.; Meinke, M.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Solid microneedles enhance the penetration of drugs into the viable skin but little is known about the geometry of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in vivo. Therefore, laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> of a microneedle system with needles at a length of 300 μm in 6 healthy subjects over a period of time. The model drug, a fluorescent dye was applied before and after piercing. Laser scanning microscopy was evaluated as being an excellent method to monitor the geometry and closure of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> over time. The used microneedle system was evaluated as suitable to enhance the transport of model drugs into the viable epidermis without bleeding and a short closure time of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> at the skin surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4281169','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4281169"><span>Effect of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement on Coaxially Extruded Cellular Vascular <span class="hlt">Conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yahui; Yu, Yin; Dolati, Farzaneh; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Due to its abundant source, good biocompatibility, low price and mild crosslinking process, alginate is an ideal selection for tissue engineering applications. In this work, alginate vascular <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were fabricated through a coaxial extrusion-based system. However, due to the inherent weak mechanical properties of alginate, the vascular <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are not capable of biomimicking natural vascular system. In this paper, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were used to reinforce vascular <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Mechanical, dehydration, swelling and degradation tests were performed to understand influences of MWCNT reinforcement. The unique mechanical properties together with perfusion and diffusional capability are two important factors to mimic the nature. Thus, perfusion experiments were also conducted to explore the MWCNT reinforcement effect. In addition, cell viability and tissue histology were conducted to evaluate the biological performance of <span class="hlt">conduits</span> both in short and long term for MWCNT reinforcement. PMID:24863208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/416678','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/416678"><span>Development of bending characteristics for the TPX TF magnet coil cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grut, K.E.; Holbrook, R.L.; Hook, E.; Antaya, T.A.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The conductor for the toroidal field (TF) magnet coils for the Tokamak Physics experiment (TPX) is an assembly of stranded Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor sheathed by an Incoloy 908 <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The coil shape, when coupled with stiffness of the cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor (CICC) is such that conventional magnet winding techniques cannot be utilized. Therefore a bending and forming method will be employed in the TF coils. The cable will be reacted after bending because the reaction process hardens the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and also lowers the strain the cable can withstand without performance degradation. The Incoloy 908 <span class="hlt">conduit</span> also work hardens quickly, necessitating the production of the required coil shape in one step without correction. This paper discusses the limiting processes for forming the TPX TF magnet geometry, the methods utilized in establishing the CICC bending characteristics and the methods employed to account for material springback so that a coil can be manufactured accurately and efficiently.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...90...99B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...90...99B"><span>Can one identify karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks geometry and properties from hydraulic and tracer test data?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borghi, Andrea; Renard, Philippe; Cornaton, Fabien</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Karst aquifers are characterized by extreme heterogeneity due to the presence of karst <span class="hlt">conduits</span> embedded in a fractured matrix having a much lower hydraulic conductivity. The resulting contrast in the physical properties of the system implies that the system reacts very rapidly to some changes in the boundary conditions and that numerical models are extremely sensitive to small modifications in properties or positions of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Furthermore, one major issue in all those models is that the location and size of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> is generally unknown. For all those reasons, estimating karst network geometry and their properties by solving an inverse problem is a particularly difficult problem. In this paper, two numerical experiments are described. In the first one, 18,000 flow and transport simulations have been computed and used in a systematic manner to assess statistically if one can retrieve the parameters of a model (geometry and radius of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, hydraulic conductivity of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span>) from head and tracer data. When two tracer test data sets are available, the solution of the inverse problems indicate with high certainty that there are indeed two <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and not more. The radius of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are usually well identified but not the properties of the matrix. If more <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are present in the system, but only two tracer test data sets are available, the inverse problem is still able to identify the true solution as the most probable but it also indicates that the data are insufficient to conclude with high certainty. In the second experiment, a more complex model (including non linear flow equations in <span class="hlt">conduits</span>) is considered. In this example, gradient-based optimization techniques are proved to be efficient for estimating the radius of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and the hydraulic conductivity of the matrix in a promising and efficient manner. These results suggest that, despite the numerical difficulties, inverse methods should be used to constrain numerical</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036473','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036473"><span>Effects of dynamically variable saturation and matrix-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> coupling of flow in karst aquifers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Reimann, T.; Geyer, T.; Shoemaker, W.B.; Liedl, R.; Sauter, M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Well-developed karst aquifers consist of highly conductive <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and a relatively low permeability fractured and/or porous rock matrix and therefore behave as a dual-hydraulic system. Groundwater flow within highly permeable strata is rapid and transient and depends on local flow conditions, i.e., pressurized or nonpressurized flow. The characterization of karst aquifers is a necessary and challenging task because information about hydraulic and spatial <span class="hlt">conduit</span> properties is poorly defined or unknown. To investigate karst aquifers, hydraulic stresses such as large recharge events can be simulated with hybrid (coupled discrete continuum) models. Since existing hybrid models are simplifications of the system dynamics, a new karst model (ModBraC) is presented that accounts for unsteady and nonuniform discrete flow in variably saturated <span class="hlt">conduits</span> employing the Saint-Venant equations. Model performance tests indicate that ModBraC is able to simulate (1) unsteady and nonuniform flow in variably filled <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, (2) draining and refilling of <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with stable transition between free-surface and pressurized flow and correct storage representation, (3) water exchange between matrix and variably filled <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, and (4) discharge routing through branched and intermeshed <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks. Subsequently, ModBraC is applied to an idealized catchment to investigate the significance of free-surface flow representation. A parameter study is conducted with two different initial conditions: (1) pressurized flow and (2) free-surface flow. If free-surface flow prevails, the systems is characterized by (1) a time lag for signal transmission, (2) a typical spring discharge pattern representing the transition from pressurized to free-surface flow, and (3) a reduced <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-matrix interaction during free-surface flow. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5637A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5637A"><span>Numerical Calculation of LP Seismic Signals Modeling the Fluid-Rock Interaction in Simulated Volcanic <span class="hlt">Conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Corona-Romero, Pedro; Sanchez-Sesma, Francisco</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>We present an investigation of the fluid-solid dynamic interaction of a fluid-driven cylindrical <span class="hlt">conduit</span> embedded within an infinite, homogeneous elastic space with physical properties similar to those encountered in volcanic environments. In our model, a pressure transient is applied at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, which perturbs the steady flow of incompressible viscous fluid, driven by a pressure gradient. The model includes radial variation of a cylindrical fluid-filled <span class="hlt">conduit</span> driven by changes in the flow velocity of a Newtonian fluid and a pressure gradient. Both fluid and solid are dynamically coupled by the continuity of radial velocities and shear and radial stresses at the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall. The <span class="hlt">conduit</span> dynamics are governed by three ordinary non-linear differential equations of second order, which are solved numerically by applying a fifth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Our model allows for any number of pipe segments of different sizes coupled in series, thus representing an extended source region, which closely mimics the geometry of realistic volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Various examples of fluid-filled pipe-systems, starting from the simplest penny-shape geometries up to <span class="hlt">conduits</span> of hundreds of meters in length, are presented. The values assumed for the fluid density and viscosity are in the mean range of basaltic and andesitic composition. Far-field velocity synthetics radiated by the motion of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and fluid flows ascending to the surface display characteristic waveforms and frequency contents that closely resemble those of long-period (LP) signals observed at active volcanoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26071111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26071111"><span>A nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with topographical and biochemical cues: potential application using human neural stem cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jenkins, Phillip M; Laughter, Melissa R; Lee, David J; Lee, Young M; Freed, Curt R; Park, Daewon</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Despite major advances in the pathophysiological understanding of peripheral nerve damage, the treatment of nerve injuries still remains an unmet medical need. Nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduits</span> present a promising treatment option by providing a growth-permissive environment that 1) promotes neuronal cell survival and axon growth and 2) directs axonal extension. To this end, we designed an electrospun nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduit</span> using a blend of polyurea and poly-caprolactone with both biochemical and topographical cues. Biochemical cues were integrated into the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> by functionalizing the polyurea with RGD to improve cell attachment. Topographical cues that resemble natural nerve tissue were incorporated by introducing intraluminal microchannels aligned with nanofibers. We determined that electrospinning the polymer solution across a two electrode system with dissolvable sucrose fibers produced a polymer <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with the appropriate biomimetic properties. Human neural stem cells were cultured on the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> to evaluate its ability to promote neuronal growth and axonal extension. The nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was shown to enhance cell survival, migration, and guide neurite extension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanot..25n5101D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanot..25n5101D"><span>In vitro evaluation of carbon-nanotube-reinforced bioprintable vascular <span class="hlt">conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dolati, Farzaneh; Yu, Yin; Zhang, Yahui; De Jesus, Aribet M.; Sander, Edward A.; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Vascularization of thick engineered tissue and organ constructs like the heart, liver, pancreas or kidney remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Vascularization is needed to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove waste in living tissues and organs through a network that should possess high perfusion ability and significant mechanical strength and elasticity. In this paper, we introduce a fabrication process to print vascular <span class="hlt">conduits</span> directly, where <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance their mechanical properties and bioprintability. In vitro evaluation of printed <span class="hlt">conduits</span> encapsulated in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells was performed to characterize the effects of CNT reinforcement on the mechanical, perfusion and biological performance of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Perfusion and permeability, cell viability, extracellular matrix formation and tissue histology were assessed and discussed, and it was concluded that CNT-reinforced vascular <span class="hlt">conduits</span> provided a foundation for mechanically appealing constructs where CNTs could be replaced with natural protein nanofibers for further integration of these <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in large-scale tissue fabrication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24098649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24098649"><span>A biosynthetic nerve guide <span class="hlt">conduit</span> based on silk/SWNT/fibronectin nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Farokhi, Mehdi; Zaminy, Arash; Kokabi, Mehrdad; Soleimani, Masoud; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghizadeh, Majid</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (NGCs) in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs) has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN) containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT <span class="hlt">conduits</span> produced through electrospinning process have shown aligned fashion with appropriate porosity and diameter. Moreover, fibronectin remained its bioactivity and influenced the adhesion and growth of U373 cell lines. The <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were then implanted to 10 mm left sciatic nerve defects in rats. The histological assessment has shown that nerve regeneration has taken places in proximal region of implanted nerve after 5 weeks following surgery. Furthermore, nerve conduction velocities (NCV) and more myelinated axons were observed in SF/SWNT and SF/SWNT/FN groups after 5 weeks post implantation, indicating a functional recovery for the injured nerves. With immunohistochemistry, the higher S-100 expression of Schwann cells in SF/SWNT/FN <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in comparison to other groups was confirmed. In conclusion, an oriented <span class="hlt">conduit</span> of biocompatible SF/SWNT/FN has been fabricated with acceptable structure that is particularly applicable in nerve grafts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HydJ...21.1555S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HydJ...21.1555S"><span>Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saller, Stephen P.; Ronayne, Michael J.; Long, Andrew J.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. The inclusion of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048516','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048516"><span>Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Saller, Stephen P.; Ronayne, Michael J.; Long, Andrew J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. The inclusion of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11774850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11774850"><span>Bioactive poly(L-lactic acid) <span class="hlt">conduits</span> seeded with Schwann cells for peripheral nerve regeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, Gregory R D; Brandt, Keith; Katz, Steven; Chauvin, Priscilla; Otto, Lisa; Bogle, Melissa; Wang, Bao; Meszlenyi, Rudolph K; Lu, Lichun; Mikos, Antonios G; Patrick, Charles W</p> <p>2002-02-01</p> <p>This study attempted to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using our previously tested poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) <span class="hlt">conduits</span> by incorporating them with allogeneic Schwann cells (SCs). The SCs were harvested, cultured to obtain confluent monolayers and two concentrations (1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(6) SC/ml) were combined with a collagen matrix (Vitrogen) and injected into the PLLA <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. The <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were then implanted into a 12 mm right sciatic nerve defect in rats. Three control groups were used: isografts, PLLA <span class="hlt">conduits</span> filled with collagen alone and empty silicone tubes. The sciatic functional index (SFI) was calculated monthly through four months. At the end of second and fourth months, the gastrocnemius muscle was harvested and weighed for comparison and the graft <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and distal nerve were harvested for histomorphologic analysis. The mean SFI demonstrated no group differences from isograft control. By four months, there was no significant difference in gastrocnemius muscle weight between the experimental groups compared to isograft controls. At four months, the distal nerve demonstrated a statistically lower number of axons mm2 for the high and low SC density groups and collagen control. The nerve fiber density was significantly lower in all of the groups compared to isograft controls by four months. The development of a "bioactive" nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> using tissue engineering to replace autogenous nerve grafts offers a potential approach to improved patient care. Although equivalent nerve regeneration to autografts was not achieved, this study provides promising results for further investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3787046','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3787046"><span>A Biosynthetic Nerve Guide <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Based on Silk/SWNT/Fibronectin Nanocomposite for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Farokhi, Mehdi; Zaminy, Arash; Kokabi, Mehrdad; Soleimani, Masoud; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (NGCs) in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs) has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN) containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT <span class="hlt">conduits</span> produced through electrospinning process have shown aligned fashion with appropriate porosity and diameter. Moreover, fibronectin remained its bioactivity and influenced the adhesion and growth of U373 cell lines. The <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were then implanted to 10 mm left sciatic nerve defects in rats. The histological assessment has shown that nerve regeneration has taken places in proximal region of implanted nerve after 5 weeks following surgery. Furthermore, nerve conduction velocities (NCV) and more myelinated axons were observed in SF/SWNT and SF/SWNT/FN groups after 5 weeks post implantation, indicating a functional recovery for the injured nerves. With immunohistochemistry, the higher S-100 expression of Schwann cells in SF/SWNT/FN <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in comparison to other groups was confirmed. In conclusion, an oriented <span class="hlt">conduit</span> of biocompatible SF/SWNT/FN has been fabricated with acceptable structure that is particularly applicable in nerve grafts. PMID:24098649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4281171','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4281171"><span>In Vitro Evaluation of Carbon-Nanotube-Reinforced Bioprintable Vascular <span class="hlt">Conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dolati, Farzaneh; Yu, Yin; Zhang, Yahui; De Jesus, Aribet M; Sander, Edward A.; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Vascularization of thick engineered tissue and organ constructs like the heart, liver, pancreas or kidney remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Vascularization is needed to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove waste in living tissues and organs through a network that should possess high perfusion ability and significant mechanical strength and elasticity. In this paper, we introduce a fabrication process to print vascular <span class="hlt">conduits</span> directly, where <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were reinforced with carbon-nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance their mechanical properties and bioprintability. In vitro evaluation of printed <span class="hlt">conduits</span> encapsulated in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs) was performed to characterize the effects of CNT reinforcement on the mechanical, perfusion and biological performance of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Perfusion and permeability, cell viability, extracellular matrix formation and tissue histology were assessed and discussed, and it was concluded that CNT-reinforced vascular <span class="hlt">conduits</span> provided a foundation for mechanically appealing constructs where CNTs could be replaced with natural protein nanofibers for further integration of these <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in large-scale tissue fabrication. PMID:24632802</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.V33D1484O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.V33D1484O"><span>An Approach to Simulation of the Turbulent Multifield/Multiphase Dynamics of Volcanic <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> and Plumes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogden, D. E.; Wohletz, K. H.; Glatzmaier, G. A.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The shape and size of volcanic eruption <span class="hlt">conduits</span> play a large role in determining the character of eruption phenomena. <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> for explosive eruptions evolve with time during the eruption greatly affecting mass fluxes and the fate of degassed volatile constituents. Previous modeling has focused on compressible fluid dynamics of gas and solid particle mixtures moving within a cylindrical <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and expanding into the atmosphere. However, it is clear that evolution of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> itself is influenced by the erupting mixture and the flow field of the mixture is controlled in part by the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. In order to address this important aspect of eruption dynamics, both compressible fluid flow and solid mechanics must be solved simultaneously. Two different three-dimensional state of the art computer codes have been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratories that are capable of simulating these dynamics together, CFDLib and SAGE. CFDLib is a compilation of well-tested computational fluid dynamics approaches suited for a wide range of fluid and solid dynamics, using well-known Marker-And-Cell (MAC) and Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) techniques. SAGE employs adaptive grid Eulerian techniques to provide local areas of high resolution for dynamics of complex materials. We are benchmarking and validating these codes for geophysical application as a preliminary step toward modeling the three-dimensional dynamics of volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NRL....10..264J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NRL....10..264J"><span>A nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with topographical and biochemical cues: potential application using human neural stem cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jenkins, Phillip M.; Laughter, Melissa R.; Lee, David J.; Lee, Young M.; Freed, Curt R.; Park, Daewon</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Despite major advances in the pathophysiological understanding of peripheral nerve damage, the treatment of nerve injuries still remains an unmet medical need. Nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduits</span> present a promising treatment option by providing a growth-permissive environment that 1) promotes neuronal cell survival and axon growth and 2) directs axonal extension. To this end, we designed an electrospun nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduit</span> using a blend of polyurea and poly-caprolactone with both biochemical and topographical cues. Biochemical cues were integrated into the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> by functionalizing the polyurea with RGD to improve cell attachment. Topographical cues that resemble natural nerve tissue were incorporated by introducing intraluminal microchannels aligned with nanofibers. We determined that electrospinning the polymer solution across a two electrode system with dissolvable sucrose fibers produced a polymer <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with the appropriate biomimetic properties. Human neural stem cells were cultured on the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> to evaluate its ability to promote neuronal growth and axonal extension. The nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was shown to enhance cell survival, migration, and guide neurite extension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26369636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26369636"><span>Assessment of Hemodynamic Conditions in the Aorta Following Root Replacement with Composite Valve-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Graft.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Zhuo; Kidher, Emaddin; Jarral, Omar A; O'Regan, Declan P; Wood, Nigel B; Athanasiou, Thanos; Xu, Xiao Yun</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This paper presents the analysis of detailed hemodynamics in the aortas of four patients following replacement with a composite bio-prosthetic valve-<span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Magnetic resonance image-based computational models were set up for each patient with boundary conditions comprising subject-specific three-dimensional inflow velocity profiles at the aortic root and central pressure waveform at the model outlet. Two normal subjects were also included for comparison. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the valve-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> on flow in the proximal and distal aorta. The results suggested that following the composite valve-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> implantation, the vortical flow structure and hemodynamic parameters in the aorta were altered, with slightly reduced helical flow index, elevated wall shear stress and higher non-uniformity in wall shear compared to normal aortas. Inter-individual analysis revealed different hemodynamic conditions among the patients depending on the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> configuration in the ascending aorta, which is a key factor in determining post-operative aortic flow. Introducing a natural curvature in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> to create a smooth transition between the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and native aorta may help prevent the occurrence of retrograde and recirculating flow in the aortic arch, which is particularly important when a large portion or the entire ascending aorta needs to be replaced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V21B2724O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V21B2724O"><span><span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Magma Storage during the 800 BP Quilotoa Eruption, Ecuador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ort, M. H.; Cashman, K. V.; Di Muro, A.; Best, J. A.; Rosi, M.; Mothes, P. A.; Bustillos, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The 800 BP eruption of Quilotoa produced two large ignimbrites, U1 (~5.8 km3 DRE) and U3 (~1.8 km3 DRE). These eruptions were separated by a series of much smaller eruptions over one to several weeks, as inferred from 1) the intercalation of secondary pyroclastic and debris flow deposits between U1 and U3, 2) deposits from phreatic explosions from the U1 ignimbrite surface, 3) oxidation of the upper 2 m of U1, and 4) a lack of erosion of the U1 surface. Why did the main phase of the eruption (U1) stall when eruptable magma was available? How did explosive activity stop and restart? We address these questions by examining deposits (U2) emplaced during the 'hiatus' that provide information on the conditions in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and vent area between explosive episodes. The lowest sub-unit, U2a, forms a series of pumiceous surge deposits found only within 5 km of the crater rim. U2b is a vitric-poor, crystal- and lithic-rich fall deposit distributed to about 15 km from the crater. U2c is a thin gray fine ash containing 2-5-mm-diameter rhyolite lapilli that is present within 6 km of the vent. Similar lapilli also occur in the lowermost few centimeters of U3 and appear to be from a dome that exploded as the new magma arrived at the surface; their presence as small ballistic fragments ties U2c to lowermost U3 in time. U2a appears to have been emplaced by episodic surges and weak fallout plumes, whereas U2b and U2c were deposited from a series of sustained eruption columns. Moreover, the lack of U2b grain-size variation with distance suggests that the grain size was determined at the vent, not by transport. FTIR analysis of CO2 and H2O in melt inclusions (MIs) indicates that a deep magma chamber (>400 MPa; ~12 km) fed U1. U2a and U2b MIs plot along vapor isopleths, suggesting equilibration at pressures to about 300 MPa as CO2 outgassed. U2b MIs have lower CO2 than U2a, perhaps indicating continued degassing during the 'hiatus'. MIs from the lower few centimeters of U3 lie along</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15565867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15565867"><span>Photofabricated gelatin-based nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span>: nerve tissue regeneration potentials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gámez, Eduardo; Goto, Yoshinobu; Nagata, Kengo; Iwaki, Toru; Sasaki, Tomio; Matsuda, Takehisa</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>There is a strong demand for development of nerve guide <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with prompt nerve regeneration potential for injury-induced nerve defect. Prior to study on nerve tissue engineering using Schwann cells or nerve stem cells, the effectiveness of photofabricated scaffolds based on photocurable gelatin was examined. This study describes the evaluation of in vivo nerve tissue regeneration potentials of three custom-designed and -fabricated prostheses (inner diameter, 1.2 mm; outer diameter, 2.4 mm; wall thickness, 0.60 mm; and length, 15 mm) made of photocured gelatin: a plain photocured gelatin tube (model I), a photocured gelatin tube packed with bioactive substances (laminin, fibronectin, and nerve growth factor) coimmobilized in a photocured gelatin rod (model II), and a photocured gelatin tube packed with bioactive substances coimmobilized in multifilament fibers (model III). These prostheses were implanted between the proximal and distal stumps 10 mm of the dissected right sciatic nerve of 70 adult male Lewis rats for up to 1 year. The highest regenerative potentials were found using the model III prosthesis, followed by the model II prosthesis. Markedly retarded neural regeneration was observed using the model I prosthesis. These were evaluated from the viewpoints of functional recovery, electrophysiological responses, and tissue morphological regeneration. The significance of the synergistic cooperative functions of multifilaments, which serve as a platform that provides contact guidance to direct longitudinal cell movement and tissue ingrowth and as a cell adhesive matrix with high surface area, and immobilized bioactive substances, which enhance nerve regeneration via biological stimulation, is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI34A..03F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI34A..03F"><span>Fluid dynamics of active heterogeneities in a mantle plume <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farnetani, C. G.; Limare, A.; Hofmann, A. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations indicate that the flow of a purely thermal plume preserves the azimuthal zonation of the source region, thus providing a framework to attribute a deep origin to the isotopic zonation of Hawaiian lavas. However, previous studies were limited to passive heterogeneities not affecting the flow. We go beyond this simplification by considering active heterogeneities which are compositionally denser, or more viscous, and we address the following questions: (1) How do active heterogeneities modify the axially symmetric velocity field of the plume <span class="hlt">conduit</span>? (2) Under which conditions is the azimuthal zonation of the source region no longer preserved in the plume stem? (3) How do active heterogeneities deform during upwelling and what is their shape once at sublithospheric depths? We conducted both laboratory experiments, using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to calculate the velocity field, and high resolution three-dimensional simulations where millions of tracers keep track of the heterogeneous fluid. For compositionally denser heterogeneities we cover a range of buoyancy ratios 0<B<2, where B=Δρchemical/Δρthermal and ρ is density; for more viscous heterogeneities, the range of viscosity ratios is 0<λ<20, where λ=ηheterogeneity/ηfluid and η is viscosity. The initial heterogeneity has the arbitrary shape of a sphere and we vary its volume and its distance from the plume axis. We find that by increasing λ, the shape of the heterogeneity changes from filament-like to blob-like characterized by internal rotation and little stretching. By increasing B the heterogeneity tends to spread at the base of the plume stem and to rise as a tendril close to the axis, so that the initial zonation may be poorly preserved. We also find that the plume velocity field can be profoundly modified by active heterogeneities, and we explore the relation between strain rates and the evolving shape of the upwelling heterogeneity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11091239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11091239"><span>Compliance properties of <span class="hlt">conduits</span> used in vascular reconstruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tai, N R; Salacinski, H J; Edwards, A; Hamilton, G; Seifalian, A M</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>Compliance mismatch between native artery and prosthetic graft used for infrainguinal bypass is implicated in the aetiology of graft failure. The aim was to quantify the elastic properties of a new compliant poly(carbonate)polyurethane (CPU) vascular graft, and to compare the compliance properties of grafts made from CPU, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), Dacron and human saphenous vein with that of human muscular artery. A pulsatile flow phantom was used to perfuse vessel and prosthetic graft segments at physiological pulse pressure and flow. Intraluminal pressure was measured using a Millar Mikro-tip catheter transducer and vessel wall motion was determined with duplex ultrasonography using an echo-locked wall-tracking system. Diametrical compliance and a stiffness index were then calculated for each type of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> over mean pressures ranging from 30 to 100 mmHg by 10-mmHg increments. The compliance values of CPU and artery (mean over the pressure range) were similar (mean(s.d.) 8.1(0.4) and 8.0(5.9) per cent per mmHg x 10(-2) respectively), although the elastic behaviour of artery was anisotropic unlike CPU, which was isotropic. Dacron and ePTFE grafts had lower compliance values (1.8(1.2) and 1.2(0.3)per cent per mmHg x 10(-2) respectively, averaged over the pressure range). In both these cases, compliance and stiffness differed significantly from that of artery over a mean pressure range of 30-90 mmHg. Human saphenous vein exhibited anisotropic behaviour and, although compliant at low pressure (30 mmHg), was markedly incompliant at higher pressures. Compliant polyurethane grafts offer a greater degree of compliance match than either ePTFE or Dacron.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10190603','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10190603"><span>Current distribution in Cable-In-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Conductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ferri, M.A.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Conductors (CICC`s) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ``quench`` -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ``current imbalance instability`` is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25647385','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25647385"><span>Polytetrafluoroethylene pulmonary valve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> implantation for chronic pulmonary insufficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quintessenza, James A</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Pulmonary valve replacement in patients with congenital cardiac disease is now being performed with more liberal indications in light of the data that chronic pulmonary insufficiency is not a benign lesion. The beneficial effects of valve replacement with low operative mortality and morbidity support this approach. Many options exist for a pulmonary valve prosthesis, which underscores the fact that there is no ideal valve available. Our efforts are focussed around a synthetic valve that avoids the bio-degeneration of a bio-prosthesis and avoids the need for life-long coumadin. We developed a bicuspid (bileaflet) polytetrafluoroethylene valve design, which has now gone through three major revisions in >200 patients over 14 years. We began the experience utilising a polytetrafluoroethylene hand-sewn bicuspid valve in the right ventricular outflow tract, initially using 0.6 mm and more recently 0.1 mm polytetrafluoroethylene. The 0.1 mm thickness material functions well as a leaflet, maintaining a relatively thin and flexible nature. It does not calcify or initiate thromboses at least for the first several years. We identified issues with dehiscence of the leaflet from the right ventricular outflow tract muscle, especially in the larger, potentially expansive right ventricular outflow tracts, and this prompted our latest design change to place the valve within a polytetrafluoroethylene tube. This current version of the polytetrafluoroethylene valve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> has excellent short-to-intermediate-term function. Further follow-up is necessary to determine late durability and life-long valve-related procedural risk for our patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10941207','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10941207"><span>A polymer foam <span class="hlt">conduit</span> seeded with Schwann cells promotes guided peripheral nerve regeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hadlock, T; Sundback, C; Hunter, D; Cheney, M; Vacanti, J P</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p>Alternatives to autografts have long been sought for use in bridging neural gaps. Many entubulation materials have been studied, although with generally disappointing results in comparison with autografts. The purpose of this study was to design a more effective neural guidance <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, to introduce Schwann cells into the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, and to determine regenerative capability through it in an in vivo model. A novel, fully biodegradable polymer <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was designed and fabricated for use in peripheral nerve repair, which approximates the macro- and microarchitecture of native peripheral nerves. It comprised a series of longitudinally aligned channels, with diameters ranging from 60 to 550 microns. The lumenal surfaces promoted the adherence of Schwann cells, whose presence is known to play a key role in nerve regeneration. This unique channel architecture increased the surface area available for Schwann cell adherence up to five-fold over that available through a simple hollow <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was composed of a high-molecular-weight copolymer of lactic and glycolic acids (PLGA) (MW 130,000) in an 85:15 monomer ratio. A novel foam-processing technique, employing low-pressure injection molding, was used to create highly porous <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (approximately 90% pore volume) with continuous longitudinal channels. Using this technique, <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were constructed containing 1, 5, 16, 45, or more longitudinally aligned channels. Prior to cellular seeding of these <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, the foams were prewet with 50% ethanol, flushed with physiologic saline, and coated with laminin solution (10 microg/mL). A Schwann cell suspension was dynamically introduced into these processed foams at a concentration of 5 X 10(5) cells/mL, using a simple bioreactor flow loop. In vivo regeneration studies were carried out in which cell-laden five-channel polymer <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (individual channel ID 500 microm, total <span class="hlt">conduit</span> OD 2.3 mm) were implanted across a 7-mm gap in the rat sciatic nerve (n = 4), and midgraft</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817736H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817736H"><span><span class="hlt">Conduit</span> evolution during the Avellinio Plinian eruption (Vesuvius): insights from fieldwork, lithic grain size distributions and modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hanson, Jonathan; Rust, Alison; Phillips, Jeremy; Sulpizio, Roberto; Engwell, Samantha; Costa, Antonio</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Large-scale explosive eruptions are modulated by a combination of magmatic and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> processes, including changes in the geometry of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> as host rocks are eroded from the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> walls and vent region. This study of deposits 1-45 km from source of the main, quasi-steady Plinian phases of the 3949 ± 10 yBP Avellino eruption of Vesuvius (EU2 and EU3) demonstrates the potential for measurements of lithics and xenoliths to constrain subsurface eruption processes. The lithics comprise volcanic rocks derived from the upper ˜2700 m of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, carbonates from the lower <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and magma reservoir wall rocks. The lithics (free clasts) are thought to be incorporated into the erupting mixture by <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall implosion around and above the fragmentation depth as well as shallow vent spalling, whilst xenoliths are interpreted to result from viscous shear stresses applied to the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> walls pre-fragmentation. The lithology of xenoliths indicates that they are sourced from relatively deep in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, and their scarcity indicates that there is only minor <span class="hlt">conduit</span> erosion below magma fragmentation during the Plinian eruptions. In contrast total lithic volumes calculated for EU2 and EU3 are 0.002 and 0.02 km3, respectively, which corresponds to 8 % and 18 % of the total erupted volume. Lava lithics dominate, making up 69 and 74 % of the total lithic volume for EU2 and EU3, respectively. The majority of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> erosion occurred above the fragmentation depth, in the upper few kilometers of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, and scales approximately with the increase in mass discharge rate between the two phases. Individual component (total lithic, carbonate, lava) Lithic Total Grain Size Distributions (L-TGSDs) provide insights into rock failure mechanisms. The fractal dimensions of the majority of the L-TGSDs are approximately 2 (grain size in φ against log2 no. of grains), inferred to be the result of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> implosion modified by initial rock characteristics. The lava lithics from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20737555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20737555"><span>Characteristics and biocompatibility of a biodegradable genipin-cross-linked gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate reinforced nerve guide <span class="hlt">conduit</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Yi-Chin; Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Huang, Tsung-Bin; Chang, Shun-Hsung; Cheng, Hsu-Chen; Liu, Bai-Shuan</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>To modulate the mechanical properties of nerve guide <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for surgical manipulation, this study develops a biodegradable composite containing genipin cross-linked gelatin annexed with β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic particles as a nerve guide material. The <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was dark bluish and round with a rough and compact outer surface compared to the genipin cross-linked gelatin <span class="hlt">conduit</span> (without β-tricalcium phosphate). Water uptake and swelling tests indicate that the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> noticeably increases the stability in water, and the hydrated <span class="hlt">conduit</span> does not collapse and stenose. The <span class="hlt">conduit</span> has a sufficiently high level of mechanical properties to serve as a nerve guide. After subcutaneous implantation on the dorsal side of a rat, the degraded <span class="hlt">conduit</span> only evokes a mild tissue response, and the formation of a very thin fibrous capsule surrounds the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. This paper assesses the effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> as a guidance channel when we use it to repair a 10 mm gap in the rat's sciatic nerve. The experimental results show no gross inflammatory reactions of the peripheral nerve tissues at the implantation site in either group. In overall gross examination, the diameter of the intratubular and newly formed nerve fibers in the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> exceeds that of the silicone tubes during the implantation period. The quantitative results indicate the superiority of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> over the silicone tubes. This study microscopically observes the nerve regeneration in the tissue section at the middle region of all implanted <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Therefore, the histomorphometric assessment demonstrates that the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> could be a candidate for peripheral nerve repair.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H43C1048Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H43C1048Z"><span>Geophysical Methods for Locating Karst <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> in Cane Run Watershed, Central Kentucky</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, J.; Paylor, R.; Currens, J. C.; Dinger, J. S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Cane Run watershed in central Kentucky was listed by the Kentucky Division of Water as one of four focus watersheds for clean-up under the State’s nonpoint-source pollution program. This watershed is degraded by pathogens, nutrients, siltation, and organic enrichment. The sources of pollution include both municipal point sources and nonpoint agricultural and nonagricultural sources. The relative contribution of different parts of the watershed to the contamination is not well understood, however. The geology of Cane Run watershed consists of Ordovician thin-bedded limestone with sparse interbeds of shale. The landscape is dominated by karst features such as sinkholes and springs. Cane Run only flows during times of significant rainfall, usually in the spring of the year. The remainder of the year, most water is recharged to a karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> system that leads from Lexington, Ky to Royal Spring, as demonstrated by groundwater tracing. Royal Spring is the major water supply for Georgetown in Scott County, Ky. We attempted to locate the karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> so that groundwater flowing through the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> could be monitored. These monitoring data are essential for assessing the effectiveness of remediation plans. In 2008, based on geology, karst features, and hydrogeology, an initial round of electrical-resistivity and spontaneous-potential geophysical surveys were conducted to help pinpoint the location of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> at three sites. Fifteen exploratory boreholes were drilled on the basis of the geophysical results. The boreholes confirmed the geophysical surveys had located minor mud-filled <span class="hlt">conduits</span> that were interpreted as tributaries to the main <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Another round of 2D and 3D electrical resistivity surveys were conducted in 2009 to search for the main <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The analysis of this round of surveys resulted in one promising site that is suspected to be in close proximity to the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. A time-lapse 2D electrical resistivity survey in conjunction with calcium chlorite</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3761336','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3761336"><span>Influence of spontaneously occurring bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity on <span class="hlt">conduit</span> artery diameter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fairfax, Seth T.; Padilla, Jaume; Vianna, Lauro C.; Holwerda, Seth H.; Davis, Michael J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Large increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) can decrease the diameter of a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> artery even in the presence of elevated blood pressure, suggesting that MSNA acts to regulate <span class="hlt">conduit</span> artery tone. Whether this influence can be extrapolated to spontaneously occurring MSNA bursts has not been examined. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that MSNA bursts decrease <span class="hlt">conduit</span> artery diameter on a beat-by-beat basis during rest. <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> artery responses were assessed in the brachial (BA), common femoral (CFA) and popliteal (PA) arteries to account for regional differences in vascular function. In 20 young men, MSNA, mean arterial pressure (MAP), <span class="hlt">conduit</span> artery diameter, and shear rate (SR) were continuously measured during 20-min periods of supine rest. Spike-triggered averaging was used to characterize beat-by-beat changes in each variable for 15 cardiac cycles following all MSNA bursts, and a peak response was calculated. Diameter increased to a similar peak among the BA (+0.14 ± 0.02%), CFA (+0.17 ± 0.03%), and PA (+0.18 ± 0.03%) following MSNA bursts (all P < 0.05 vs. control). The diameter rise was positively associated with an increase in MAP in relation to increasing amplitude and consecutive numbers of MSNA bursts (P < 0.05). Such relationships were similar between arteries. SR changes following MSNA bursts were heterogeneous between arteries and did not appear to systematically alter diameter responses. Thus, in contrast to our hypothesis, spontaneously occurring MSNA bursts do not directly influence <span class="hlt">conduit</span> arteries with local vasoconstriction or changes in shear, but rather induce a systemic pressor response that appears to passively increase <span class="hlt">conduit</span> artery diameter. PMID:23832696</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22054813','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22054813"><span>[Large diameter nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> use in the upper limb: report of four cases and literature review].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jardin, E; Huard, S; Chastel, R; Uhring, J; Obert, L</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Defects of the median, ulnar or radial nerves in the forearm, can be treated by conventional nerve grafts, or by interposing a synthetic guide such as nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Wounds without nerve loss treated with simple suture may be supplemented by sleeving to prevent the nerve irritation symptoms using a nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> or a vein sleeve. We studied the results of nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in both cases in a single-center retrospective study. Four patients underwent surgery with placement of a nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> in the forearm, between May 2007 and January 2011. All patients were reviewed by the same examiner. Pain, tenderness, motor (Medical Research Council classification, MRC), time to return to work and self-evaluation by the patient were measured. The averages of these data were calculated and compared with results of other studies in the literature, the nerve grafts for defects and the Socket joints for venous ulcers. The decrease is on average 30 months (2 years). The defect never exceeds 40mm and is 22mm on average. According to the classification MRC, sensitivity found after inserting nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in the forearm after a defect is excellent (S4) for two of three patients and good (S3) for the third. Motor results were very good (M4 and M3 for one patient) andM2 for the other. As for the insertion of a nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> as a sleeve, the result is good in terms of sensitivity (S3) and excellent in terms of motor (M5) for our case in the study. For our small group of patients with neuroma we obtained, results similar to those published in the literature with conventional techniques. The nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> seem to give results similar to conventional techniques, in situations of defects or neuromasin the forearm, with a diameter greater than 2mm, but defects of less than 30mm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESSD..11.6519P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESSD..11.6519P"><span>Evolution of karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perne, M.; Covington, M. D.; Gabrovšek, F.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe) flow to a free surface (open channel) flow in evolving discrete <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM), which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, but only one <span class="hlt">conduit</span> remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep penetration of high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GGG.....3.1037M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GGG.....3.1037M"><span>Insights into volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow from an open-source numerical model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mastin, Larry G.</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>Numerical models that calculate the fluid dynamics of explosive volcanic eruptions have been used with increasing frequency to understand volcanic processes and evaluate volcanic hazards. Yet those who develop such models rarely make them publicly available so that they can be verified, used, and possibly improved by other scientists. In this paper I present a visual, interactive, open-source numerical model that calculates steady state flow of magma and gas in vertical eruptive <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and contains user-friendly utilities for quickly determining physical, thermodynamic, and transport properties of silicate melts, H2O gases, and melt-gas-crystal mixtures. The model represents an advance over previously published <span class="hlt">conduit</span> models by incorporating a non-Arrhenian viscosity relation for hydrous silicate melts, a relation between viscosity and volume fraction of gas that depends on Capillary number, and adiabatic temperature changes in the mixture using established thermodynamic relations for melts and H2O gas, respectively. Volcanologists who have not had access to <span class="hlt">conduit</span> models have frequently approximated <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow using an analytical equation for incompressible, laminar, Newtonian pipe flow, which predicts that the mass flux is proportional to the fourth power of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> radius and inversely proportional to mixture viscosity. The model presented here, which is not much more difficult to use than a back-of-the-envelope calculation, shows that the pipe-flow approximation significantly overestimates the sensitivity of mass flux to both <span class="hlt">conduit</span> radius and mixture viscosity. Results from the model also show that viscous heating in the lower <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, which is not considered in most other models, may increase the mass flux of large silicic eruptions by several percent and decrease the viscosity of the mixture at the fragmentation depth by a few tens of percent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8580S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8580S"><span>Investigating degassing dynamics into the shallow <span class="hlt">conduit</span> through decompression experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spina, Laura; Scheu, Bettina; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The history of bubbles' growth and interaction, as well as their spatial distribution in the shallow <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, is deeply interconnected with the style of the eruptions. According to the fundamental role played by volatiles in the eruptive process, more effort is required in determining how the key factors of volcanic systems (i.e., magma properties, decompression rate) influence the dynamics of degassing. Therefore, our aim is to provide, through the analysis of decompression experiments on analogue materials, insights on such relations. We performed several decompression experiments with a shock-tube apparatus, and using silicon oil as laboratory-analogue for the magmatic melt. The sample was placed in a transparent autoclave, saturated with Argon for an established amount of time under a fixed pressure (up to a maximum of 10 MPa). Successively it was decompressed to atmospheric conditions, by releasing gas through a control valve. The dynamics of gas exsolution processes were recorded by using pressure sensors and a high speed camera. A range of viscosity values (1, 10, 100, 1000 Pa s) was investigated, for the same decompression path. Furthermore, some experiments were carried out with the addition of glass beads, as analogue to crystals, to the pure liquid. The height of the expanding column was monitored, in conjunction with images recorded during the experiments, and the growth rate of bubbles was measured at different times and depth. Finally, bubble size distribution has been evaluated at various stages for some experiments, in order to achieve a spatial map of the ongoing degassing phenomena. Results allowed us to define different regimes occurring during the decompression, whose features and characteristics are strongly affected by fluid viscosity. Indeed, several degassing phases were observed, from bubbly fluid to the eventual buildup of a more or less "foamy" phase, which ultimately experiences periodical oscillations around an average equilibrium level</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871364','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871364"><span>Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> having an abrupt gradual bend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ortiz, Marcos German</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A system for measuring fluid flow in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/570469','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/570469"><span>Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> having an abrupt gradual bend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ortiz, M.G.</p> <p>1998-02-10</p> <p>A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......394A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......394A"><span>Technique distribuee de gestion de la charge <span class="hlt">sur</span> le reseau electrique et ring-tree: Un nouveau systeme de communication P2P</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ayoub, Simon</p> <p></p> <p>Le reseau de distribution et de transport de l'electricite se modernise dans plusieurs pays dont le Canada. La nouvelle generation de ce reseau que l'on appelle smart grid, permet entre autre l'automatisation de la production, de la distribution et de la gestion de la charge chez les clients. D'un autre cote, des appareils domestiques intelligents munis d'une interface de communication pour des applications du smart grid commencent a apparaitre <span class="hlt">sur</span> le marche. Ces appareils intelligents pourraient creer une communaute virtuelle pour optimiser leurs consommations d'une facon distribuee. La gestion distribuee de ces charges intelligentes necessite la communication entre un grand nombre d'equipements electriques. Ceci represente un defi important a relever surtout si on ne veut pas augmenter le cout de l'infrastructure et de la maintenance. Lors de cette these deux systemes distincts ont ete concus : un systeme de communication peer-to-peer, appele Ring-Tree, permettant la communication entre un nombre important de noeuds (jusqu'a de l'ordre de grandeur du million) tel que des appareils electriques communicants et une technique distribuee de gestion de la charge <span class="hlt">sur</span> le reseau electrique. Le systeme de communication Ring-Tree inclut une nouvelle topologie reseau qui n'a <span class="hlt">jamais</span> ete definie ou exploitee auparavant. Il inclut egalement des algorithmes pour la creation, l'exploitation et la maintenance de ce reseau. Il est suffisamment simple pour etre mis en oeuvre <span class="hlt">sur</span> des controleurs associes aux dispositifs tels que des chauffe-eaux, chauffage a accumulation, bornes de recharges electriques, etc. Il n'utilise pas un serveur centralise (ou tres peu, seulement lorsqu'un noeud veut rejoindre le reseau). Il offre une solution distribuee qui peut etre mise en oeuvre sans deploiement d'une infrastructure autre que les controleurs <span class="hlt">sur</span> les dispositifs vises. Finalement, un temps de reponse de quelques secondes pour atteindre 1'ensemble du reseau peut etre obtenu, ce qui est</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23229291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23229291"><span>Percutaneous balloon dilation of Carpentier-Edwards porcine-valved right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery <span class="hlt">conduits</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hall, Amanda C; Miga, Daniel E; Leonard, Glenn T; Wang, Hongyue; Kavey, Rae-Ellen; Alfieris, George M</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) <span class="hlt">conduit</span> stenosis remains a significant problem for patients with right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-to-PA) <span class="hlt">conduits</span> placed as palliation for congenital heart disease. Previous reports on balloon dilation of RVOT <span class="hlt">conduits</span> all describe small series with varying levels of success during limited follow-up evaluation. This study reviewed all patients with RV-to-PA <span class="hlt">conduits</span> who underwent percutaneous balloon dilation for <span class="hlt">conduit</span> stenosis at the authors' institution from 2000 to 2011. Patients with Carpentier-Edwards (CE) model 4300 porcine-valved <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (Edwards Lifesciences Corp., Irvine, CA) (n = 19) were compared with patients who had all other types of <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (n = 19). Successful balloon angioplasty was defined as a 20 % decrease in the RV-to-PA gradient, a 20 % decrease in the ratio of the RV systolic-to-aortic systolic pressure, or both. Balloon dilation was successful for 57.9 % of the patients with CE <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and for 31.6 % of patients with other types of <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (p = 0.10, Chi square test). Logistic regression analysis showed that balloon dilation was significantly more likely to be successful with CE valves than with other types (odds ratio [OR], 6.59; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.22-35.49). In a continuous series of patients with stenotic RV-to-PA <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, the CE porcine-valved <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was more amenable to percutaneous balloon dilation than other types of RV-to-PA <span class="hlt">conduits</span> at the midterm follow-up evaluation. This has important ramifications in terms of valve selection for patients with congenital heart disease who will require surgical reintervention for RVOT stenosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28443569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28443569"><span>Can a Small Intestine Segment Be an Alternative Biological <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arda, Mehmet S; Koçman, Emre A; Özkara, Emre; Söztutar, Erdem; Özatik, Orhan; Köse, Aydan; Çetin, Cengiz</p> <p>2017-05-05</p> <p>Autologous nerve grafts are used to bridge peripheral nerve defects. Limited sources and donor site morbidity are the major problems with peripheral nerve grafts. Although various types of autologous grafts such as arteries, veins and muscles have been recommended, an ideal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> has not yet been described. To investigate the effectiveness of a small intestinal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for peripheral nerve defects. Animal experimentation. Twenty-one rats were divided into three groups (n=7). Following anaesthesia, sciatic nerve exploration was performed in the Sham group. The 10 mm nerve gap was bridged with a 15 mm ileal segment in the small intestinal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> group and the defect was replaced with orthotopic nerve in autologous nerve graft group. The functional recovery was tested monthly by walking-track analysis and the sciatic functional index. Histological evaluation was performed on the 12th week. Sciatic functional index tests are better in autologous nerve graft group (-55.09±6.35); however, during follow-up, progress in sciatic functional index was demonstrated, along with axonal regeneration and innervation of target muscles in the small intestinal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> group (-76.36±12.08) (p<0.05). In histologic sections, distinctive sciatic nerve regeneration was examined in the small intestinal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> group. The expression of S-100 and neurofilament was observed in small intestinal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> group but was less organised than in the autologous nerve graft group. Although the counted number (7459.79±1833.50 vs. 4226.51±1063.06 mm2), measured diameter [2.19 (2.15-2.88) vs. 1.74 (1.50-2.09) µm] and myelin sheath thickness [1.18 (1.09-1.44) vs. 0.66 (0.40-1.07) µm] of axons is significantly high in the middle sections of autologous nerve graft compared to the small intestinal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> group, respectively (p<0.05), the peripheral nerve regeneration was also observed in the small intestinal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> group. Small intestinal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> should not be considered as an alternative to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27345506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27345506"><span>Alternative <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for infrageniculate bypass in patients with critical limb ischemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moreira, Carla C; Leung, Alexander D; Farber, Alik; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Kalish, Jeffrey; Eslami, Mohammad H</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Autologous great saphenous vein (GSV) has always been considered the gold standard <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for infrainguinal revascularization. When GSV is inadequate or unavailable, alternative <span class="hlt">conduits</span> have been used. In this study, we compared modern outcomes of different <span class="hlt">conduit</span> types used in lower extremity bypass (LEB) for patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). The Vascular Study Group of New England database (2003-2014) was queried for patients who underwent infrageniculate bypass originating from the femoral arteries. <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> types were categorized as single-segment GSV, alternative autologous <span class="hlt">conduit</span> (AAC), and nonautologous <span class="hlt">conduit</span> (NAC). Primary outcomes were 1-year freedom from major adverse limb event (MALE), MALE-free survival, and primary graft patency. Multivariable Cox regression was used to adjust for demographics and comorbidities. LEB was performed in 2148 patients, of which 1125 were to below-knee popliteal (BK-Pop) and 1023 to infrapopliteal artery (IPA) targets. The baseline characteristics differed among the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> groups: Patients in the GSV group were younger and had fewer comorbidities than in the AAC groups. Patients undergoing BK-Pop bypass with NAC had higher rates of postoperative myocardial infarction (7.1%) and postoperative (5.8%) and 1-year death (40.8%) than in those with GSV (3.1%, 2%, and 31.7%, respectively) and AAC (0%, 0%, and 25%, respectively). In multivariable analysis, <span class="hlt">conduit</span> type did not make a difference in 1-year MALE, MALE-free survival, or primary graft patency for BK-Pop bypasses. For IPA bypasses, NAC use was associated with higher rates of postoperative (6.4%) and in-hospital death (4.5%) compared with GSV (2.5% and 1.4%, respectively) and AAC (2.9% and 1.9%, respectively). In adjusted analysis, NAC was associated with higher risk of MALE (hazard ratio [HR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.20; P = .036) and primary patency loss (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.91-1.89), and lower MALE-free survival (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanot..25p5102Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanot..25p5102Y"><span>A novel electrospun nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> enhanced by carbon nanotubes for peripheral nerve regeneration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Wenwen; Jiang, Xinquan; Cai, Ming; Zhao, Wen; Ye, Dongxia; Zhou, Yong; Zhu, Chao; Zhang, Xiuli; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhiyuan</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>For artificial nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, great improvements have been achieved in mimicking the structures and components of autologous nerves. However, there are still some problems in <span class="hlt">conduit</span> construction, especially in terms of mechanical properties, biomimetic surface tomography, electrical conductivity and sustained release of neurotrophic factors or cells. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel electrospun nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> enhanced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the basis of a collagen/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (collagen/PCL) fibrous scaffold. Our aim was to provide further knowledge about the mechanical effects and efficacy of MWNTs on nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> as well as the biocompatibility and toxicology of MWNTs when applied in vivo. The results showed that as one component, carboxyl MWNTs could greatly alter the composite scaffold’s hydrophilicity, mechanical properties and degradability. The electrospun fibers enhanced by MWNTs could support Schwann cell adhesion and elongation as a substrate in vitro. In vivo animal studies demonstrated that the MWNT-enhanced collagen/PCL <span class="hlt">conduit</span> could effectively promote nerve regeneration of sciatic nerve defect in rats and prevent muscle atrophy without invoking body rejection or serious chronic inflammation. All of these results showed that this MWNT-enhanced scaffold possesses good biocompatibility and MWNTs might be excellent candidates as engineered nanocarriers for further neurotrophic factor delivery research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376237','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376237"><span>New nerve regeneration strategy combining laminin-coated chitosan <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and stem cell therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsu, Sung-Hao; Kuo, Wen-Chun; Chen, Yu-Tzu; Yen, Chen-Tung; Chen, Ying-Fang; Chen, Ko-Shao; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Nerve regeneration remains a difficult challenge due to the lack of safe and efficient matrix support. We designed a laminin (LN)-modified chitosan multi-walled nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> combined with bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) grating to bridge a 10 mm long gap in the sciatic nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats. The repair outcome was monitored during 16 weeks after surgery. Successful grafting of LN onto the chitosan film, confirmed by immunolocalization, significantly improved cell adhesion. In vivo study showed that newly formed nerve cells covered the interior of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> to connect the nerve gap successfully in all groups. The rats implanted with the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> combined with BMSCs showed the best results, in terms of nerve regrowth, muscle mass of gastrocnemius, function recovery and tract tracing. Neuroanatomical horseradish peroxidase tracer analysis of motor neurons in the lumbar spinal cord indicated that the amount and signal intensity were significantly improved. Furthermore, BMSCs suppressed neuronal cell death and promoted regeneration by suppressing the inflammatory and fibrotic response induced by chitosan after long-term implantation. In summary, this study suggests that LN-modified chitosan multi-walled nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> combined with BMSCs is an efficient and safe <span class="hlt">conduit</span> matrix for nerve regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28740120','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28740120"><span>Uncovering Offshore Financial Centers: <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> and Sinks in the Global Corporate Ownership Network.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garcia-Bernardo, Javier; Fichtner, Jan; Takes, Frank W; Heemskerk, Eelke M</p> <p>2017-07-24</p> <p>Multinational corporations use highly complex structures of parents and subsidiaries to organize their operations and ownership. Offshore Financial Centers (OFCs) facilitate these structures through low taxation and lenient regulation, but are increasingly under scrutiny, for instance for enabling tax avoidance. Therefore, the identification of OFC jurisdictions has become a politicized and contested issue. We introduce a novel data-driven approach for identifying OFCs based on the global corporate ownership network, in which over 98 million firms (nodes) are connected through 71 million ownership relations. This granular firm-level network data uniquely allows identifying both sink-OFCs and <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-OFCs. Sink-OFCs attract and retain foreign capital while <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-OFCs are attractive intermediate destinations in the routing of international investments and enable the transfer of capital without taxation. We identify 24 sink-OFCs. In addition, a small set of five countries - the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Singapore and Switzerland - canalize the majority of corporate offshore investment as <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-OFCs. Each <span class="hlt">conduit</span> jurisdiction is specialized in a geographical area and there is significant specialization based on industrial sectors. Against the idea of OFCs as exotic small islands that cannot be regulated, we show that many sink and <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-OFCs are highly developed countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/512413','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/512413"><span>Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> using an elbow flow meter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.</p> <p>1997-06-24</p> <p>A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871017','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871017"><span>Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> using an elbow flow meter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ortiz, Marcos G.; Boucher, Timothy J.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>A system for measuring fluid flow in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19115095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19115095"><span>Evaluation of a multi-layer microbraided polylactic acid fiber-reinforced <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for peripheral nerve regeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Ming-Chin; Huang, Yen-Ting; Lin, Jia-Horng; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Lou, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Chen, Yueh-Sheng</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>We evaluated peripheral nerve regeneration using a biodegradable multi-layer microbraided polylactic acid (PLA) fiber-reinforced <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Biodegradability of the PLA <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and its effectiveness as a guidance channel were examined as it was used to repair a 10 mm gap in the rat sciatic nerve. As a result, tube fragmentation was not obvious and successful regeneration through the gap occurred in all the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> at 8 weeks after operation. These results indicate the superiority of the PLA materials and suggest that the multi-layer microbraided PLA fiber-reinforced <span class="hlt">conduits</span> provide a promising tool for neuro-regeneration.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V21B2722G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V21B2722G"><span>Shallow <span class="hlt">conduit</span> processes of the 1991 Hekla eruption, Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gudnason, J.; Thordarson, T.; Houghton, B. F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>On January 17, 1991 at 17:00 hrs, the 17th eruption of Hekla since 1104AD began. Lasting for almost two months, it produced 0.02 km3 of icelandite tephra and ~0.15km3 of icelandite lava. This eruption was the third of four eruptions since 1980 with a recurrence period of approximately 10 years, as opposed to a recurrence interval of c. 55 years for the eruptions in the period 1104AD to 1947AD. [1] The last four Hekla eruptions are typified by a 0.5-2 hour-long initial phase of subplinian intensity and discharge ranging from 2900-6700 m3/s [2]. In all 4 events the inital phase was followed by a sustained and relatively low-discharge(<20 m3/s) effusive phase, which in the case of Hekla 1991 lasted until the 11th March 1991 [1]. The initial phase of the 1991 event lasted for ~50 minutes and sustained an eruption plume that rose to 11.5 km in about 10 minutes [1]. The plume was dispersed to the NNE at velocities of 60-70 km/hr producing a well-sorted tephra fall covering >20,000 km2. Here we examine the first phase of the Hekla 1991 eruption with focus on vesiculation and fragmentation processes in the shallow <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and ash production. Samples of the tephra fall were collected on snow immediately after the initial phase at multiple sites providing a representative spatial coverage within the 0.1mm isopach [3]. This set was augmented by samples collected in 2012 to provide tighter coverage of near vent region. Grain size of all samples has been measured down to 1 micron. Density measurements have been conducted on 4 near-vent pumice samples (100 clasts each) and the pumice vesicle size distribution has been determined in a selected subset of clasts. The reconstructed whole deposit grain size distribution exhibits a unimodal, log-normal distribution peaking at -3 phi, typical of dry, magmatic fragmentation. Pumice densities range from 520-880 kg/m3 and exhibit a tight unimodal and log-normal distribution indicating a mean vesicularity of 77% to 79% for the magma</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916548"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry on the performance of typical particulate microchip packings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jung, Stephanie; Höltzel, Alexandra; Ehlert, Steffen; Mora, Jose-Angel; Kraiczek, Karsten; Dittmann, Monika; Rozing, Gerard P; Tallarek, Ulrich</p> <p>2009-12-15</p> <p>This work investigates the impact of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry on the chromatographic performance of typical particulate microchip packings. For this purpose, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-microchips with separation channels of quadratic, trapezoidal, or Gaussian cross section were fabricated by direct laser ablation and lamination of multiple polyimide layers and then slurry-packed with either 3 or 5 microm spherical porous C8-silica particles under optimized packing conditions. Experimentally determined plate height curves for the empty microchannels are compared with dispersion coefficients from theoretical calculations. Packing densities and plate height curves for the various microchip packings are presented and conclusively explained. The 3 microm packings display a high packing density irrespective of their <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometries, and their performance reflects the dispersion behavior of the empty channels. Dispersion in 5 microm packings correlates with the achieved packing densities, which are limited by the number and accessibility of corners in a given <span class="hlt">conduit</span> shape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.6038B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.6038B"><span>Magma fracture and hybrid earthquakes in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> of Augustine Volcano</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buurman, Helena; West, Michael E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>exploit subtle but systematic shifts in seismic waveforms to examine a 2 h cluster of repeating hybrid volcanic earthquakes preceding the first magmatic explosions at Augustine Volcano in January 2006. We extract differential P wave traveltimes of <0.01 s to determine that the source locations migrated downward by approximately 35 m. Waveform characteristics, GPS observations, and visual reports of lava effusion at the summit suggest that the earthquakes were sourced by fracturing magma in the upper <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. As the lava cooled and degassed at the surface, the conditions in the upper <span class="hlt">conduit</span> changed causing the zone in which magma fracture could occur to move downward through the magma column. These changes may also have been the first indicators that the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was becoming choked, causing a buildup in pressure that resulted in the large magmatic explosions that followed 36 h later.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19076529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19076529"><span>Capacitive effect of cavitation in xylem <span class="hlt">conduits</span>: results from a dynamic model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hölttä, Teemu; Cochard, Herve; Nikinmaa, Eero; Mencuccini, Maurizio</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Embolisms decrease plant hydraulic conductance and therefore reduce the ability of the xylem to transport water to leaves provided that embolized <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are not refilled. However, as a xylem <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is filled with gas during cavitation, water is freed to the transpiration stream and this transiently increases xylem water potential. This capacitive effect of embolism formation on plant function has not been explicitly quantified in the past. A dynamic model is presented that models xylem water potential, xylem sap flow and cavitation, taking into account both the decreasing hydraulic conductance and the water release effect of xylem embolism. The significance of the capacitive effect increases in relation to the decreasing hydraulic conductance effect when transpiration rate is low in relation to the total amount of water in xylem <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. This ratio is typically large in large trees and during drought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4697439','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4697439"><span>Physical nanoscale <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-mediated communication between tumour cells and the endothelium modulates endothelial phenotype</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Connor, Yamicia; Tekleab, Sarah; Nandakumar, Shyama; Walls, Cherelle; Tekleab, Yonatan; Husain, Amjad; Gadish, Or; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Kaushik, Shelly; Sehrawat, Seema; Kulkarni, Ashish; Dvorak, Harold; Zetter, Bruce; R. Edelman, Elazer; Sengupta, Shiladitya</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Metastasis is a major cause of mortality and remains a hurdle in the search for a cure for cancer. Not much is known about metastatic cancer cells and endothelial cross-talk, which occurs at multiple stages during metastasis. Here we report a dynamic regulation of the endothelium by cancer cells through the formation of nanoscale intercellular membrane bridges, which act as physical <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for transfer of microRNAs. The communication between the tumour cell and the endothelium upregulates markers associated with pathological endothelium, which is reversed by pharmacological inhibition of these nanoscale <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. These results lead us to define the notion of ‘metastatic hijack': cancer cell-induced transformation of healthy endothelium into pathological endothelium via horizontal communication through the nanoscale <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Pharmacological perturbation of these nanoscale membrane bridges decreases metastatic foci in vivo. Targeting these nanoscale membrane bridges may potentially emerge as a new therapeutic opportunity in the management of metastatic cancer. PMID:26669454</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..923Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..923Y"><span>Modeling magma flow in volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with non-equilibrium crystallization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yulia, Tsvetkova</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Modeling magma flow in volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> including with non -equilibrium crystallization There is a set of models of magma flow in volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span> which predicts oscillations in magma discharge during extrusion of lava domes. These models neglect heating of surrounding rocks and use 1D approximation of the flow in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Here magma flow is investigated with an account of heat exchange between surrounding rocks and magma and different dependences viscosity on temperature and crystal concentration. Stick-slip conditions were applied at the wall. The flow is assumed to be quasi-static and quasi 1D. Only vertical component of velocity vector is present, thus, we do not consider horizontal momentum balance. At the top of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> the pressure is assumed to be fixed, chamber pressure changes according with magma influx and outflux. First set of simulation was made for the viscosity that depends on cross-section average crystal concentration and parabolic velocity profile. In earlier models that account for crystal growth kinetics the temperature was allowed to change only due to the release of latent heat of crystallization. Heat transfer leads to cooling of the outer parts of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> leading to high crystal contents and high magma viscosities. Changes in viscosity result in changes in discharge rate. For the non-isothermal case there is no motion during most part of the cycle and a portion of magma solidifies at the top of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> forming a plug. During repose period chamber pressure is growing due to influx of fresh magma, and magma discharge rate starts to increase. Influx of hot magma into the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> leads to decrease in friction resulting in a jump in discharge rate that lead to depressurization of magma chamber. Discharge rate decreases and magma solidifies again. For isothermal model with the same parameters discharge rate monotonically tends to the value of Qin. Simulation reveal that crystal content changes significantly across the <span class="hlt">conduit</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20005193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20005193"><span>Biodegradable fibrin <span class="hlt">conduit</span> promotes long-term regeneration after peripheral nerve injury in adult rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pettersson, Jonas; Kalbermatten, Daniel; McGrath, Aleksandra; Novikova, Liudmila N</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Peripheral nerve injuries are often associated with loss of nerve tissue and require autologous nerve grafts to provide a physical substrate for axonal growth. Biosynthetic neural <span class="hlt">conduits</span> could be an alternative treatment strategy in such injuries. The present study investigates the long-term effects of a tubular fibrin <span class="hlt">conduit</span> on neuronal regeneration, axonal sprouting and recovery of muscle weight following peripheral nerve injury and repair in adult rats. Sciatic axotomy was performed proximally in the thigh to create a 10-mm gap between the nerve stumps. The injury gap was bridged by using a 14-mm-long fibrin glue <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, entubulating 2 mm of the nerve stump at each end. A reversed autologous nerve graft was used as a control. The regenerative response from sensory and motor neurones was evaluated following retrograde labelling with Fast Blue fluorescent tracer. In control experiments, at 16 weeks following peripheral nerve grafting, 5184 (±574 standard error of mean (SEM)) sensory dorsal root ganglion neurones and 1001 (±37 SEM) spinal motor neurones regenerated across the distal nerve-graft interface. The fibrin <span class="hlt">conduit</span> promoted regeneration of 60% of sensory neurones and 52% of motor neurones when compared to the control group. The total number of myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump in the fibrin-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> group reached 86% of the control and the weight of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles recovered to 82% and 89% of the controls, respectively. The present results suggest that a tubular fibrin <span class="hlt">conduit</span> can be used to promote neuronal regeneration following peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19291791','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19291791"><span>Processed allografts and type I collagen <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for repair of peripheral nerve gaps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Whitlock, Elizabeth L; Tuffaha, Sami H; Luciano, Janina P; Yan, Ying; Hunter, Daniel A; Magill, Christina K; Moore, Amy M; Tong, Alice Y; Mackinnon, Susan E; Borschel, Gregory H</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Autografting is the gold standard in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries that are not amenable to end-to-end coaptation. However, because autografts result in donor-site defects and are a limited resource, an effective substitute would be valuable. In a rat model, we compared isografts with Integra NeuraGen (NG) nerve guides, which are a commercially available type I collagen <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, with processed rat allografts comparable to AxoGen's Avance human decellularized allograft product. In a 14-mm sciatic nerve gap model, isograft was superior to processed allograft, which was in turn superior to NG <span class="hlt">conduit</span> at 6 weeks postoperatively (P < 0.05 for number of myelinated fibers both at midgraft and distal to the graft). At 12 weeks, these differences were no longer apparent. In a 28-mm graft model, isografts again performed better than processed allografts at both 6 and 22 weeks; regeneration through the NG <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was often insufficient for analysis in this long graft model. Functional tests confirmed the superiority of isografts, although processed allografts permitted successful reinnervation of distal targets not seen in the NG <span class="hlt">conduit</span> groups. Processed allografts were inherently non-immunogenic and maintained some internal laminin structure. We conclude that, particularly in a long gap model, nerve graft alternatives fail to confer the regenerative advantages of an isograft. However, AxoGen processed allografts are superior to a currently available <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-style nerve guide, the Integra NeuraGen. They provide an alternative for reconstruction of short nerve gaps where a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> might otherwise be used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023924','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023924"><span>Comparison of postoperative acute kidney injury between ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and neobladder urinary diversions after radical cystectomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Joung, Kyoung-Woon; Kong, Yu-Gyeong; Yoon, Syn-Hae; Kim, Yeon Ju; Hwang, Jai-Hyun; Hong, Bumsik; Kim, Young-Kug</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and neobladder urinary diversions are frequently performed after radical cystectomy. However, complications after radical cystectomy may be different according to the type of urinary diversion. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after surgery and increases costs, morbidity, and mortality of hospitalized patients. This study was performed to compare the incidence of postoperative AKI between ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and neobladder urinary diversions after radical cystectomy. All consecutive patients who underwent radical cystectomy in 2004 to 2014 in a single tertiary care center were identified. The patients were divided into the ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and ileal neobladder groups. Preoperative variables, including demographics, cancer-related data and laboratory values, as well as intraoperative data and postoperative outcomes, including AKI, intensive care unit admission rate, and the duration of hospital stay, were evaluated between the groups. Postoperative AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome criteria. Propensity score matching analysis was performed to reduce the influence of possible confounding variables and adjust for intergroup differences. After performing 1:1 propensity score matching, the ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and ileal neobladder groups each included 101 patients. The overall incidence of AKI after radical cystectomy was 30.7% (62 out of 202) and the incidences did not significantly differ between the groups (27 [26.7%], ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> group vs 35 [34.7%], ileal neobladder group, P = 0.268). Intraoperative data, intensive care unit admission rate, and the duration of hospital stay were not significantly different between the groups. Postoperative AKI did not significantly differ between ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and neobladder urinary diversions after radical cystectomy. This finding provides additional information useful for appropriate selection of the urinary diversion type in conjunction with radical cystectomy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V53A3063L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V53A3063L"><span>VLP seismicity from resonant modes of acoustic-gravity waves in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-crack system filled with multiphase magma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, C.; Prochnow, B. N.; OReilly, O. J.; Dunham, E. M.; Karlstrom, L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Oscillation of magma in volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span> connected to cracks (dikes and sills) has been suggested as an explanation for very long period (VLP) seismic signals recorded at active basaltic volcanoes such as. Kilauea, Hawaii, and Erebus, Antarctica. We investigate the VLP seismicity using a linearized model for waves in and associated eigenmodes of a coupled <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-crack system filled with multiphase magma, an extension of the Karlstrom and Dunham (2016) model for acoustic-gravity waves in volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. We find that the long period surface displacement (as recorded on broadband seismometers) is dominated by opening/closing of the crack rather than the deformation of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> <span class="hlt">conduit</span> walls. While the fundamental eigenmode is sensitive to the fluid properties and the geometry of the magma plumbing system, a closer scrutiny of various resonant modes reveals that the surface displacement is often more sensitive to higher modes. Here we present a systematic analysis of various long period acoustic-gravity wave resonant modes of a coupled <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-crack system that the surface displacement is most sensitive to. We extend our previous work on a quasi-one-dimensional <span class="hlt">conduit</span> model with inviscid magma to a more general axisymmetric <span class="hlt">conduit</span> model that properly accounts for viscous boundary layers near the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> walls, based on the numerical method developed by Prochnow et al. (submitted to Computers and Fluids, 2016). The surface displacement is dominated by either the fundamental or higher eigenmodes, depending on magma properties and the geometry of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and crack. An examination of the energetics of these modes reveals the complex interplay of different restoring forces (magma compressibility in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, gravity, and elasticity of the crack) driving the VLP oscillations. Both nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption and viscosity contribute to the damping of VLP signals. Our models thus provide a means to infer properties of open-vent basaltic volcanoes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26199615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26199615"><span>Biological <span class="hlt">conduits</span> combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yang; Li, Zheng-Wei; Luo, Min; Li, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Ke-Qiang</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid <span class="hlt">conduits</span> combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid <span class="hlt">conduit</span> + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid <span class="hlt">conduit</span> + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid <span class="hlt">conduit</span> + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid <span class="hlt">conduit</span> + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid <span class="hlt">conduit</span> + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, in the polylactic glycolic acid <span class="hlt">conduit</span> + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid <span class="hlt">conduit</span> + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1228844','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1228844"><span>Pressure distribution along the AGS vacuum chambers with new types of pump out <span class="hlt">conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>The AGS HEBT and ring vacuum system is monitored by the discharge current of the magnet ion pumps, which is proportional to the pressure at the inlet port of these ion pumps. The discharge current is measured and suitably calibrated to indicate the ion pump pressure. In order to calculate the vacuum chamber pressure from the ion pump pressure, a detailed analysis is essential to compute their difference in different scenarios. Such analysis has been carried out numerically in the past for the system with the older type of pump out <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, and similar analysis using FEM in ANSYS is presented in this paper with the newer type of pump out <span class="hlt">conduit</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1184132','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1184132"><span>Havery Mudd 2014-2015 Computer Science <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Clinic Final Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aspesi, G; Bai, J; Deese, R; Shin, L</p> <p>2015-05-12</p> <p><span class="hlt">Conduit</span>, a new open-source library developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, provides a C++ application programming interface (API) to describe and access scientific data. Conduit’s primary use is for inmemory data exchange in high performance computing (HPC) applications. Our team tested and improved <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> to make it more appealing to potential adopters in the HPC community. We extended Conduit’s capabilities by prototyping four libraries: one for parallel communication using MPI, one for I/O functionality, one for aggregating performance data, and one for data visualization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3918631','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3918631"><span>A rare case of prosthetic endocarditis and dehiscence in a mechanical valved <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kannan, Arun; Smith, Cristy; Subramanian, Sreekumar; Janardhanan, Rajesh</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A middle-aged adult patient with a history of aortic root replacement with a mechanical valved <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and remote chest trauma was referred to our institution with prosthetic endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiogram at our institution confirmed a near-complete dehiscence of the prosthetic aortic valve from the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, with significant perivalvular flow forming a pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent a high-risk re-operation, involving redo aortic root replacement with a homograft after extensive debridement of the infected tissue. The patient was discharged to an outside facility after an uncomplicated hospital course, and remains stable. PMID:24510692</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24510692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24510692"><span>A rare case of prosthetic endocarditis and dehiscence in a mechanical valved <span class="hlt">conduit</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kannan, Arun; Smith, Cristy; Subramanian, Sreekumar; Janardhanan, Rajesh</p> <p>2014-02-07</p> <p>A middle-aged adult patient with a history of aortic root replacement with a mechanical valved <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and remote chest trauma was referred to our institution with prosthetic endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiogram at our institution confirmed a near-complete dehiscence of the prosthetic aortic valve from the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, with significant perivalvular flow forming a pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent a high-risk re-operation, involving redo aortic root replacement with a homograft after extensive debridement of the infected tissue. The patient was discharged to an outside facility after an uncomplicated hospital course, and remains stable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6484649','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6484649"><span>Transient heat transfer from a cable in <span class="hlt">conduit</span> configuration in subcooled he I and he II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Z.; Van Sciver, S.W.</p> <p>1985-03-01</p> <p>Experimental investigations of liquid helium heat transfer from a model of a cable in <span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor are reported. The model consists of a 19 element stainless steel tubing bundle contained within a rectangular cross section <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The experiment involves resistively heating the bundle with a constant amplitude heat pulse, while recording the time variation of the temperature within the conductors and helium. Three test sections were studied each having a different spacing between the elements, delta. Results reported here are for bath temperatures 4.2, 2.5 and 1.8 K with applied pressure p = 100 kPa (1 atm).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V23D4823D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V23D4823D"><span>Wave Propagation in Axi-Symmetrical Magmatic <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> Due to an Internal Source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Negri, R. S.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The classical Trefftz's method is implemented to simulate wave propagation in and around axi-symmetrical magmatic <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. In this fluid-solid system the fluid (magma) is confined by an elastic unbounded medium that represents the surrounding rock. Our aim is to associate wave behavior with mechanical and geometrical <span class="hlt">conduit</span> characteristics. The source is assumed to be at a point along the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> centered axis medium are constructed in both cases as linear combinations of particular solutions.Within the fluid such solutions are spherical standing waves that are smooth at the origins. In the elastic solid region the field is constructed with monopoles and dipoles for the P waves and spheroidal dipoles for SV waves. The particular solutions satisfy the elastodynamic equations that govern the wave motion at those media and are associated to origins (selected points) distributed along the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> axis. For the surrounding rock the solutions are sources that satisfy Sommerfeld's radiation condition. These sets of solutions are assumed to be complete. This conjecture is exact in 2D acoustic problems. The <span class="hlt">conduit</span> can be closed or open at the ends and the surrounding elastic domain is unbounded. In order to find the coefficients of Trefftz's wave expansions, boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface (null shear and continuity of pressures and normal velocities) are satisfied in the least squares sense. The solution is obtained in the frequency domain and the source time function can be introduced using Fourier analysis.Regardless the low order of the formulation our results display a rich variety of behaviors. For a uniform infinite cylinder we reproduced the exact analytical solution. In addition, this approach allows identifying some important effects of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry, including changes of sections. Lateral and longitudinal resonances of irregular axi-symmetric <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are well resolved. The stiffness of the solid domain with respect to the fluid</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007E%26PSL.263...74H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007E%26PSL.263...74H"><span>Modelling shear bands in a volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span>: Implications for over-pressures and extrusion-rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hale, Alina J.; Mühlhaus, Hans-B.</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>Shear bands in a volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> are modelled for crystal-rich magma flow using simplified conditions to capture the fundamental behaviour of a natural system. Our simulations begin with magma crystallinity in equilibrium with an applied pressure field and isothermal conditions. The viscosity of the magma is derived using existing empirical equations and is dependent upon temperature, water content and crystallinity. From these initial <span class="hlt">conduit</span> conditions we utilize the Finite Element Method, using axi-symmetric coordinates, to simulate shear bands via shear localisation. We use the von Mises visco-plasticity model with constant magma shear strength for a first look into the effects of plasticity. The extent of shear bands in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is explored with a numerical model parameterized with values appropriate for Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, although the model is generic in nature. Our model simulates shallow (up to approximately 700 m) shear bands that occur within the upper <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and probably govern the lava extrusion style due to shear boundaries. We also model the change in the over-pressure field within the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for flow with and without shear bands. The pressure change can be as large as several MPa at shallow depths in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, which generates a maximum change in the pressure gradient of 10's of kPa/m. The formation of shear bands could therefore provide an alternative or additional mechanism for the inflation/deflation of the volcano flanks as measured by tilt-metres. Shear bands are found to have a significant effect upon the magma ascent rate due to shear-induced flow reducing <span class="hlt">conduit</span> friction and altering the over-pressure in the upper <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Since we do not model frictional controlled slip, only plastic flow, our model calculates the minimum change in extrusion rate due to shear bands. However, extrusion rates can almost double due to the formation of shear bands, which may help suppress volatile loss. Due to the paucity of data and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..245M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..245M"><span>Small scale high resolution LiDAR measurements of a subglacial <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mankoff, K. D.; Gulley, J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We present direct measurements of surface roughness in a sub-glacial <span class="hlt">conduit</span> system underneath the Rieperbreen Glacier, Svalbard, Norway. Data was collected with a low-cost (129 USD) Microsoft Kinect video game device used as a LIDAR sensor. Surface roughness is a primary control on water flow in rivers, channels, and cave <span class="hlt">conduit</span> systems and understanding the effects of surface roughness on water flow has been problematic due to lack of direct measurements of roughness in natural systems. We use the ice scallop dimensions to derive flow velocity and explore implications of the changing roughness parameters as the cave grows and shrinks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol13/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol13-sec1-6081-7.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol13/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol13-sec1-6081-7.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.6081-7 - Automatic extension of time to file Real Estate Mortgage Investment <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> (REMIC) income tax...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automatic extension of time to file Real Estate... Time for Filing Returns § 1.6081-7 Automatic extension of time to file Real Estate Mortgage Investment <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> (REMIC) income tax return. (a) In general. A Real Estate Mortgage Investment <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-16/pdf/2013-24464.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-16/pdf/2013-24464.pdf"><span>78 FR 62324 - Village of Oak Lawn, Illinois; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-16</p> <p>... Energy Regulatory Commission Village of Oak Lawn, Illinois; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a..., Village of Oak Lawn, Illinois (Oak Lawn) filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying <span class="hlt">conduit</span>... Hydroelectric Turbine Installation Project would utilize Oak Lawn's water distribution system, and it would be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-13/pdf/2013-27043.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-13/pdf/2013-27043.pdf"><span>78 FR 68052 - Town of Telluride, Colorado; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-13</p> <p>.../ Statutory provision Description N) FPA 30(a)(3)(A), as amended by The <span class="hlt">conduit</span> the Y HREA. facility uses is a... the generation of electricity. FPA 30(a)(3)(C)(i), as amended The facility is Y by HREA. constructed, operated, or maintained for the generation of electric power and uses for such generation only the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-18/pdf/2013-24483.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-18/pdf/2013-24483.pdf"><span>78 FR 62351 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydropower...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-18</p> <p>... (Y/N) FPA 30(a)(3)(A), as amended by The <span class="hlt">conduit</span> the facility Y HREA. uses is a tunnel, canal... of electricity. FPA 30(a)(3)(C)(i), as amended by The facility is Y HREA. constructed, operated, or maintained for the generation of electric power and uses for such generation only the hydroelectric potential...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-16/pdf/2013-22434.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-16/pdf/2013-22434.pdf"><span>78 FR 56872 - City of Barre, Vermont; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydropower...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-16</p> <p>... Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The Nelson Street 17 kW In-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydroelectric Net-Metered Project would be... system at http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling.asp . Commenters can submit brief comments up to 6,000....asp . You must include your name and contact information at the end of your comments. For assistance...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21525148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21525148"><span>Novel use of biodegradable casein <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for guided peripheral nerve regeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsiang, Shih-Wei; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Ho, Tin-Yun; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Yueh-Sheng</p> <p>2011-11-07</p> <p>Recent advances in nerve repair technology have focused on finding more biocompatible, non-toxic materials to imitate natural peripheral nerve components. In this study, casein protein cross-linked with naturally occurring genipin (genipin-cross-linked casein (GCC)) was used for the first time to make a biodegradable <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for peripheral nerve repair. The GCC <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was dark blue in appearance with a concentric and round lumen. Water uptake, contact angle and mechanical tests indicated that the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> had a high stability in water and did not collapse and cramped with a sufficiently high level of mechanical properties. Cytotoxic testing and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling assay showed that the GCC was non-toxic and non-apoptotic, which could maintain the survival and outgrowth of Schwann cells. Non-invasive real-time nuclear factor-κB bioluminescence imaging accompanied by histochemical assessment showed that the GCC was highly biocompatible after subcutaneous implantation in transgenic mice. Effectiveness of the GCC <span class="hlt">conduit</span> as a guidance channel was examined as it was used to repair a 10 mm gap in the rat sciatic nerve. Electrophysiology, labelling of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the lumbar spinal cord, and histology analysis all showed a rapid morphological and functional recovery for the disrupted nerves. Therefore, we conclude that the GCC can offer great nerve regeneration characteristics and can be a promising material for the successful repair of peripheral nerve defects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-23/pdf/2013-24739.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-23/pdf/2013-24739.pdf"><span>78 FR 63176 - Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydropower Facility and Soliciting...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-23</p> <p>... Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene; Orchard City, Colorado On October 7, 2013, Orchard City, Colorado (Orchard City) filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying <span class="hlt">conduit</span>... Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The 22 kW Orchard City Water Treatment Plant...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-10/pdf/2010-31039.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-10/pdf/2010-31039.pdf"><span>75 FR 77000 - South Coast <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>/Upper Reach Reliability Project, Santa Barbara County, CA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-12-10</p> <p>... Bureau of Reclamation South Coast <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>/Upper Reach Reliability Project, Santa Barbara County, CA... reliability to Cachuma Project (CP) and State Water Project (SWP) customers on the South Coast of Santa....gov , or from Ms. Kate Rees, Cachuma Operation and Maintenance Board, 3301 Laurel Canyon Road,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694360','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694360"><span>3D Bioprinting of Heterogeneous Aortic Valve <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> with Alginate/Gelatin Hydrogels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A.; Kang, Kevin H.; Butcher, Jonathan T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Heart valve disease is a serious and growing public health problem for which prosthetic replacement is most commonly indicated. Current prosthetic devices are inadequate for younger adults and growing children. Tissue engineered living aortic valve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> have potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth, but fabricating natural anatomical complexity with cellular heterogeneity remain challenging. In the current study, we implement 3D bioprinting to fabricate living alginate/gelatin hydrogel valve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with anatomical architecture and direct incorporation of dual cell types in a regionally constrained manner. Encapsulated aortic root sinus smooth muscle cells (SMC) and aortic valve leaflet interstitial cells (VIC) were viable within alginate/gelatin hydrogel discs over 7 days in culture. Acellular 3D printed hydrogels exhibited reduced modulus, ultimate strength, and peak strain reducing slightly over 7-day culture, while the tensile biomechanics of cell-laden hydrogels were maintained. Aortic valve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were successfully bioprinted with direct encapsulation of SMC in the valve root and VIC in the leaflets. Both cell types were viable (81.4±3.4% for SMC and 83.2±4.0% for VIC) within 3D printed tissues. Encapsulated SMC expressed elevated alpha-smooth muscle actin when printed in stiff matrix, while VIC expressed elevated vimentin in soft matrix. These results demonstrate that anatomically complex, heterogeneously encapsulated aortic valve hydrogel <span class="hlt">conduits</span> can be fabricated with 3D bioprinting. PMID:23015540</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21371024','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21371024"><span>Modifications to the <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Flow Process Mode 2 for MODFLOW-2005.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reimann, Thomas; Birk, Steffen; Rehrl, Christoph; Shoemaker, W Barclay</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>As a result of rock dissolution processes, karst aquifers exhibit highly conductive features such as caves and <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Within these structures, groundwater flow can become turbulent and therefore be described by nonlinear gradient functions. Some numerical groundwater flow models explicitly account for pipe hydraulics by coupling the continuum model with a pipe network that represents the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> system. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Flow Process Mode 2 (CFPM2) for MODFLOW-2005 approximates turbulent flow by reducing the hydraulic conductivity within the existing linear head gradient of the MODFLOW continuum model. This approach reduces the practical as well as numerical efforts for simulating turbulence. The original formulation was for large pore aquifers where the onset of turbulence is at low Reynolds numbers (1 to 100) and not for <span class="hlt">conduits</span> or pipes. In addition, the existing code requires multiple time steps for convergence due to iterative adjustment of the hydraulic conductivity. Modifications to the existing CFPM2 were made by implementing a generalized power function with a user-defined exponent. This allows for matching turbulence in porous media or pipes and eliminates the time steps required for iterative adjustment of hydraulic conductivity. The modified CFPM2 successfully replicated simple benchmark test problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26821785','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26821785"><span>A New Equation Solver for Modeling Turbulent Flow in Coupled Matrix-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Flow Models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hubinger, Bernhard; Birk, Steffen; Hergarten, Stefan</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Karst aquifers represent dual flow systems consisting of a highly conductive <span class="hlt">conduit</span> system embedded in a less permeable rock matrix. Hybrid models iteratively coupling both flow systems generally consume much time, especially because of the nonlinearity of turbulent <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow. To reduce calculation times compared to those of existing approaches, a new iterative equation solver for the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> system is developed based on an approximated Newton-Raphson expression and a Gauß-Seidel or successive over-relaxation scheme with a single iteration step at the innermost level. It is implemented and tested in the research code CAVE but should be easily adaptable to similar models such as the <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Flow Process for MODFLOW-2005. It substantially reduces the computational effort as demonstrated by steady-state benchmark scenarios as well as by transient karst genesis simulations. Water balance errors are found to be acceptable in most of the test cases. However, the performance and accuracy may deteriorate under unfavorable conditions such as sudden, strong changes of the flow field at some stages of the karst genesis simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol2-sec1-67-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol2-sec1-67-3.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.67-3 - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment <span class="hlt">conduits</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. 1.67-3 Section 1.67-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.67-3 Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-20/pdf/2013-27746.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-20/pdf/2013-27746.pdf"><span>78 FR 69662 - Browns Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-20</p> <p>... Energy Regulatory Commission Browns Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a..., Browns Valley Irrigation District (BVID) filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying <span class="hlt">conduit</span>..., California. Applicant Contact: Walter Cotter, Browns Valley Irrigation District, 9370 Browns Valley School...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-29/pdf/2011-21983.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-29/pdf/2011-21983.pdf"><span>76 FR 53678 - Calleguas Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (<span class="hlt">Conduit</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-08-29</p> <p>... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Calleguas Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (<span class="hlt">Conduit</span>) Pursuant to section 4.95(a) of the Commission's regulations,\\1\\ Calleguas Municipal Water... exemption for Project No. 11651 on June 7, 1999. Calleguas Municipal Water District, 87 FERC ] 62,256...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMiMi..26d5016L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMiMi..26d5016L"><span>Nerve growth factor released from a novel PLGA nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> can improve axon growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Keng-Min; Shea, Jill; Gale, Bruce K.; Sant, Himanshu; Larrabee, Patti; Agarwal, Jay</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Nerve injury can occur due to penetrating wounds, compression, traumatic stretch, and cold exposure. Despite prompt repair, outcomes are dismal. In an attempt to help resolve this challenge, in this work, a poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with associated biodegradable drug reservoir was designed, fabricated, and tested. Unlike current nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, this device is capable of fitting various clinical scenarios by delivering different drugs without reengineering the whole system. To demonstrate the potential of this device for nerve repair, a series of experiments were performed using nerve growth factor (NGF). First, an NGF dosage curve was developed to determine the minimum NGF concentration for optimal axonal outgrowth on chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells. Next, PLGA devices loaded with NGF were evaluated for sustained drug release and axon growth enhancement with the released drug. A 20 d in vitro release test was conducted and the nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> showed the ability to meet and maintain the minimum NGF requirement determined previously. Bioactivity assays of the released NGF showed that drug released from the device between the 15th and 20th day could still promote axon growth (76.6-95.7 μm) in chick DRG cells, which is in the range of maximum growth. These novel drug delivery <span class="hlt">conduits</span> show the ability to deliver NGF at a dosage that efficiently promotes ex vivo axon growth and have the potential for in vivo application to help bridge peripheral nerve gaps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608736','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608736"><span>Percutaneous Transthoracic Computed Tomography-Guided AICD Insertion in a Patient with Extracardiac Fontan <span class="hlt">Conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murphy, Darra T. Moynagh, Michael R.; Walsh, Kevin P.; Noelke, Lars; Murray, John G.</p> <p>2011-02-15</p> <p>Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan <span class="hlt">conduit</span> who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H23F1342H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H23F1342H"><span>Analogue modelisation of flow through a double porosity media with discrete <span class="hlt">conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hakoun, V.; Pistre, S.; Karst; heterogeneous media-Hydrogeology, hydraulics; transfers</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In this study we describe a three dimensional meter scale experimental system used to investigate flow through a double porosity media that includes discrete flow <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. This hybrid discrete-continuum approach is used to simulate water flow in karstic carbonate aquifers. A rectangular tank is filled with stacked ceramic foam blocks laterally separated with a constant aperture. The tank outlet is connected to a drilled <span class="hlt">conduit</span> network that follows the overlying aperture scheme at the lower base of the system. Above the system, an artificial rain is set with a sprinkler. Working with an analogue model seems interesting as materials, initial and boundary conditions are fully known. Ceramic foam provides a uniform matrix material allowing different porosities and hydraulic conductivities. The modulability of the aperture pattern and size let different experiment setting possibilities. A variation in the drilled number of holes in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> network will change its draining capacity. And, finally the artificial rain rate and location are well characterized. The system is adequately instrumented in order to 1) observe hydraulic head distributions in both matrix and fracture medium and 2) record spring flow fluctuations. Moreover, any experience is very reproducible. This analogue modeling approach allows an observation of both fracture and matrix flow contribution to a spring with a drained double porosity media with discrete <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Comparison of in situ measured data with a finite element numerical model and an analytical solution are shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-08/pdf/2013-24394.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-08/pdf/2013-24394.pdf"><span>78 FR 61958 - San Juan County Historical Society; Notice of Preliminary Determination of A Qualifying <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-08</p> <p>... Energy Regulatory Commission San Juan County Historical Society; Notice of Preliminary Determination of A..., San Juan County Historical Society filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying <span class="hlt">conduit</span>... Historical Society, P.O. Box 154, Silverton, CO 81433, Phone No. (970) 387-5488. FERC Contact: Robert...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28975768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28975768"><span>A Physicochemically Optimized and Neuroconductive Biphasic Nerve Guidance <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> for Peripheral Nerve Repair.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryan, Alan J; Lackington, William A; Hibbitts, Alan J; Matheson, Austyn; Alekseeva, Tijna; Stejskalova, Anna; Roche, Phoebe; O'Brien, Fergal J</p> <p>2017-10-04</p> <p>Clinically available hollow nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (NGCs) have had limited success in treating large peripheral nerve injuries. This study aims to develop a biphasic NGC combining a physicochemically optimized collagen outer <span class="hlt">conduit</span> to bridge the transected nerve, and a neuroconductive hyaluronic acid-based luminal filler to support regeneration. The outer <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is mechanically optimized by manipulating crosslinking and collagen density, allowing the engineering of a high wall permeability to mitigate the risk of neuroma formation, while also maintaining physiologically relevant stiffness and enzymatic degradation tuned to coincide with regeneration rates. Freeze-drying is used to seamlessly integrate the luminal filler into the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, creating a longitudinally aligned pore microarchitecture. The luminal stiffness is modulated to support Schwann cells, with laminin incorporation further enhancing bioactivity by improving cell attachment and metabolic activity. Additionally, this biphasic NGC is shown to support neurogenesis and gliogenesis of neural progenitor cells and axonal outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia. These findings highlight the paradigm that a successful NGC requires the concerted optimization of both a mechanical support phase capable of bridging a nerve defect and a neuroconductive phase with an architecture capable of supporting both Schwann cells and neurons in order to achieve functional regenerative outcome. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=film&pg=2&id=EJ1034467','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=film&pg=2&id=EJ1034467"><span>Jean Vigo's "Zéro De <span class="hlt">Conduite</span>" and the Spaces of Revolt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vanobbergen, Bruno; Grosvenor, Ian; Simon, Frank</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this article we will contribute to the contemporary theoretical debate about film by considering, from a history-of-education perspective, the film "Zéro de <span class="hlt">conduite</span>" by Jean Vigo (1905--1934). This film is classified under the umbrella of "poetic realism": a product of "cinéma de gauche" and an avant-gardist,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dynamic+AND+websites&pg=5&id=ED524952','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dynamic+AND+websites&pg=5&id=ED524952"><span>The <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> and Whirlpooling: A New Theory of Knowledge Constitution and Dispersion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nzegwu, Azuka</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>There is a new epistemological approach for exploring knowledge constitution and dispersal in a dynamic Web ecosystem. The approach has three pivots. The first presents virtual whirlpools as knowledge systems. The second introduces the creator of the system as the <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>. The third formulates a theory of knowledge that involves the collective…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23890811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23890811"><span>Bronchovascular reconstruction with a bovine pericardial <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and surgical reintervention due to thrombosis with revascularisation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peña, Emilio; Blanco, Montserrat; Otero, Teresa</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present the case of a 57-year-old male with left hilar squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the pulmonary artery and in whom a sleeve bronchoplasty and angioplasty were performed using a bovine pericardial <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Three days post-operatively, graft thrombosis was detected; thrombectomy and graft reconstruction were performed with revascularisation of the graft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4146035','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4146035"><span>Nanofibrous nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for repair of 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Pouya, Majid; Rad, Hadi; Nava, Melody Omrani; Azarbakhsh, Mohammad; Hooshmand, Shirin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>It has been confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> can promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. However, its efficiency in repair of over 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects needs to be assessed. In this study, we used a nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> to bridge a 30-mm-long gap in the rat sciatic nerve. At 4 months after nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> implantation, regenerated nerves were cally observed and histologically assessed. In the nanofibrous graft, the rat sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed by restoration of nerve continuity and formation of myelinated nerve fiber. There were Schwann cells and glial cells in the regenerated nerves. Masson's trichrome staining showed that there were no pathological changes in the size and structure of gastrocnemius muscle cells on the operated side of rats. These findings suggest that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is suitable for repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects. PMID:25206536</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035490','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035490"><span>Modifications to the <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Flow Process Mode 2 for MODFLOW-2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Reimann, T.; Birk, S.; Rehrl, C.; Shoemaker, W.B.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>As a result of rock dissolution processes, karst aquifers exhibit highly conductive features such as caves and <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Within these structures, groundwater flow can become turbulent and therefore be described by nonlinear gradient functions. Some numerical groundwater flow models explicitly account for pipe hydraulics by coupling the continuum model with a pipe network that represents the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> system. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Flow Process Mode 2 (CFPM2) for MODFLOW-2005 approximates turbulent flow by reducing the hydraulic conductivity within the existing linear head gradient of the MODFLOW continuum model. This approach reduces the practical as well as numerical efforts for simulating turbulence. The original formulation was for large pore aquifers where the onset of turbulence is at low Reynolds numbers (1 to 100) and not for <span class="hlt">conduits</span> or pipes. In addition, the existing code requires multiple time steps for convergence due to iterative adjustment of the hydraulic conductivity. Modifications to the existing CFPM2 were made by implementing a generalized power function with a user-defined exponent. This allows for matching turbulence in porous media or pipes and eliminates the time steps required for iterative adjustment of hydraulic conductivity. The modified CFPM2 successfully replicated simple benchmark test problems. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Ground Water ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8102650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8102650"><span>Ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for reconstruction of the duodenum following right hemicolectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy for malignant duodenocolic fistula.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ohri, A K; Ohri, S K</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>We describe a case of malignant duodenocolic fistula in which after a radical resection of right hemicolectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy, the duodenal defect was reconstructed using a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> of transposed ileum. This technique, not previously described, offers an alternative to 'duodenal patching', which allows only limited duodenal resection, or gastroenterostomy with its attendant side-effects such as dumping syndrome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/id0443.photos.220095p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/id0443.photos.220095p/"><span>ETR, TRA642. BEFORE BASEMENT FLOOR IS PLACED, WORKERS LAY <span class="hlt">CONDUIT</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>ETR, TRA-642. BEFORE BASEMENT FLOOR IS PLACED, WORKERS LAY <span class="hlt">CONDUIT</span> RUNS THAT WILL LIE BELOW IT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-541. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 2/15/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=static+AND+web&pg=3&id=ED524952','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=static+AND+web&pg=3&id=ED524952"><span>The <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> and Whirlpooling: A New Theory of Knowledge Constitution and Dispersion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nzegwu, Azuka</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>There is a new epistemological approach for exploring knowledge constitution and dispersal in a dynamic Web ecosystem. The approach has three pivots. The first presents virtual whirlpools as knowledge systems. The second introduces the creator of the system as the <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>. The third formulates a theory of knowledge that involves the collective…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..302....1K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..302....1K"><span>Numerical investigation of temporal changes in volcanic deformation caused by a gas slug ascent in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawaguchi, Ryohei; Nishimura, Takeshi</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Strombolian type eruptions are considered to be generated by a sudden release of a large gas slug that migrates upward in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> filled with a low viscous basaltic magma. We examine volcano deformations caused by such a gas slug to understand the Strombolian eruption mechanism from geodetic observation data. We model spatio-temporal pressure changes in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> by using a gas slug ascent model presented by James et al. (2008). As a gas slug ascends in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, its volume expands because of depressurization. Hence, the magma head lifts up in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and the upper part of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall is stressed. In the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, magma pressure increases with depth according to the bulk density of magma: the gas slug part with a low density is characterized by a small pressure gradient, while the other parts, consisting of melt, are characterized by a large pressure gradient. We numerically calculate volcano deformations caused by the spatio-temporal changes of magma pressure predicted from the basic equations representing gas slug locations in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Simulation results show that the radial and vertical displacements and tilt changes indicate volcano deformations that represent the inflation originating from the stress increase at the upper part of <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. As the gas slug reaches the shallow part of <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, the rate of inflation observed in the radial displacement decreases, the vertical displacement starts to move downward, and the tilt turns to show down toward the crater. These deflation signals are caused by a moving deflation source in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> that is formed beneath the gas slug. Since these predicted features are not observed in the tilt records associated with explosions at Stromboli volcano (Genco and Ripepe, 2010), it is necessary to modify the gas slug ascent model or to introduce other mechanisms to better understand the magma dynamics of Strombolian eruption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C41D0692C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C41D0692C"><span>Surface Features Parameterization and Equivalent Roughness Height Estimation of a Real Subglacial <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Y.; Liu, X.; Manko ff, K. D.; Gulley, J. D.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The surfaces of subglacial <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are very complex, coupling multi-scale roughness, large sinuosity, and cross-sectional variations together. Those features significantly affect the friction law and drainage efficiency inside the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> by altering velocity and pressure distributions, thus posing considerable influences on the dynamic development of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Parameterizing the above surface features is a first step towards understanding their hydraulic influences. A Matlab package is developed to extract the roughness field, the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> centerline, and associated area and curvature data from the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> surface, acquired from 3D scanning. By using those data, the characteristic vertical and horizontal roughness scales are then estimated based on the structure functions. The centerline sinuosities, defined through three concepts, i.e., the traditional definition of a fluvial river, entropy-based sinuosity, and curvature-based sinuosity, are also calculated and compared. The cross-sectional area and equivalent circular diameter along the centerline are also calculated. Among those features, the roughness is especially important due to its pivotal role in determining the wall friction, and thus an estimation of the equivalent roughness height is of great importance. To achieve such a goal, the original <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is firstly simplified into a straight smooth pipe with the same volume and centerline length, and the roughness field obtained above is then reconstructed into the simplified pipe. An OpenFOAM-based Large-eddy-simulation (LES) is then performed based on the reconstructed pipe. Considering that the Reynolds number is of the order 106, and the relative roughness is larger than 5% for 60% of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, we test the validity of the resistance law for completely rough pipe. The friction factor is calculated based on the pressure drop and mean velocity in the simulation. Working together, the equivalent roughness height can be calculated. However, whether the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V21B2716C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V21B2716C"><span>The role of shear heating in obsidian formation within volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Curry, A. C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>While most volcanic rocks contain a significant amount of crystals (15-35 vol%), obsidian is unusual because it contains < 2 vol% phenocrysts. The few phenocrysts in obsidian are evidence for some crystallization, but the relative paucity reflects conditions in which crystallization is inhibited. The causes of these conditions in obsidian magmas are poorly understood. One way to inhibit crystallization and resorb crystals is to increase temperature. Shear heating is a potentially important source of heat in high-silica rhyolites due to their high viscosity, yet it is seldom accounted for in the thermal budgets of ascending magmas. This study combines mineralogical analysis of obsidian with numerical models of ascending, high-silica magma in order to examine an alternate hypothesis for obsidian formation in which shear heating inhibits crystallization and resorbs crystals. Using the finite-element solver COMSOL Multiphysics, this study models a planar dike 5 m wide and 1 km long. Temperatures increase up to 300 K above initial magma temperatures at <span class="hlt">conduit</span> edges, which enable velocities and fluxes above Poiseuille solutions. These temperature increases are 150-200 K higher than those found by existing numerical models that account for shear heating in volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Based on velocities in the outer edge of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, residence times of crystals in hotter magma range from 6 minutes to 58 days in a 1 km <span class="hlt">conduit</span>; longer <span class="hlt">conduits</span> increase residence time. Furthermore, complex <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry can cause separation of laminar flow lines which would distribute hotter magma to other parts of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Longer residence times and higher temperatures favor crystal resorption. Modal analyses of obsidian in this study reflect a regional lack of quartz and sanidine phenocrysts in eastern California obsidian. This regional lack is unpredicted by the dominant hypotheses of obsidian formation and unexpected based on the mineralogy of other high-silica rhyolites. Phenocryst</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.5305K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.5305K"><span>Welding of pyroclastic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> infill: A mechanism for cyclical explosive eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Vulcanian-style eruptions are small- to moderate-sized, singular to cyclical events commonly having volcanic explosivity indices of 1-3. They produce pyroclastic flows, disperse tephra over considerable areas, and can occur as precursors to larger (e.g., Plinian) eruptions. The fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. eruption of Mount Meager, BC, Canada, contain bread-crusted blocks of welded breccia as accessory lithics. They display a range of compaction/welding intensity and provide a remarkable opportunity to constrain the nature and timescales of mechanical processes operating within explosive volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span> during repose periods between eruptive cycles. We address the deformation and porosity/permeability reduction within natural pyroclastic deposits infilling volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. We measure the porosity, permeability, and ultrasonic wave velocities for a suite of samples and quantify the strain recorded by pumice clasts. We explore the correlations between the physical properties and deformation fabric. Based on these correlations, we reconstruct the deformation history within the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, model the permeability reduction timescales, and outline the implications for the repressurization of the volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Our results highlight a profound directionality in the measured physical properties of these samples related to the deformation-induced fabric. Gas permeability varies drastically with increasing strain and decreasing porosity along the compaction direction of the fabric but varies little along the elongation direction of the fabric. The deformation fabric records a combination of compaction within the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and postcompaction stretching associated with subsequent eruption. Model timescales of these processes are in good agreement with repose periods of cyclic vulcanian eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V43E3190P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V43E3190P"><span>Effects of particles size, componentry and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry on fragmentation processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paredes, J.; Scheu, B.; Montanaro, C.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Dingwell, D. B.; Perugini, D.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The grain size distribution (GSD) is an important tool to characterize a volcanic deposit and to link it to eruptive processes. The GSD of a deposit is a complex product of primary fragmentation converting magma to tephra and secondary processes within the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and the subsequent way out of it. Particularly, the continuous interaction between tephra particles, together with the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry, play a crucial role in the secondary processes which in turn control the GSD of the ejected mixture. Here we present first results of a series of rapid decompression experiments aimed to evaluate the influence of the initial particle size and lithology, together with <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry, on size reduction processes (gas-driven fragmentation, collision, abrasion). Loose material collected from the Pomici Principale eruption (10.3ka) fall deposit (Campi Flegrei) was used for the experiments. A physical separation allowed discriminating two main groups as 1) pumiceous fraction, and 2) lithic fraction, which included both crystal and lithic particles. The sample was slowly pressurized to 10MPa using argon gas and then rapidly decompressed. A transparent autoclave and sample holder were used to optimize the visual observation of particle's acceleration, collision and eventual fragmentation. Finally the ejected fragments were analyzed for their grain size distribution. Our first results suggest that 1) an increasing amount of lithics in the initial particle mixture produced an increased percentage of fines; 2) a significant amount of very fine material (<63μm) is produced independently of the presence of lithics, and 3) a reduction on the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> diameter (analogous to obstacles within the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> walls) is likely to further reduce the average diameter and increase the generation of very fine material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5034629','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5034629"><span>Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.</p> <p>1981-04-30</p> <p>This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864439','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864439"><span>Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kennerly, John M.; Lindner, Gordon M.; Rowe, John C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033651','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033651"><span>Tile drainage as karst: <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> flow and diffuse flow in a tile-drained watershed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schilling, K.E.; Helmers, M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The similarity of tiled-drained watersheds to karst drainage basins can be used to improve understanding of watershed-scale nutrient losses from subsurface tile drainage networks. In this study, short-term variations in discharge and chemistry were examined from a tile outlet collecting subsurface tile flow from a 963 ha agricultural watershed. Study objectives were to apply analytical techniques from karst springs to tile discharge to evaluate water sources and estimate the loads of agricultural pollutants discharged from the tile with <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, intermediate and diffuse flow regimes. A two-member mixing model using nitrate, chloride and specific conductance was used to distinguish rainwater versus groundwater inputs. Results indicated that groundwater comprised 75% of the discharge for a three-day storm period and rainwater was primarily concentrated during the hydrograph peak. A contrasting pattern of solute concentrations and export loads was observed in tile flow. During base flow periods, tile flow consisted of diffuse flow from groundwater sources and contained elevated levels of nitrate, chloride and specific conductance. During storm events, suspended solids and pollutants adhered to soil surfaces (phosphorus, ammonium and organic nitrogen) were concentrated and discharged during the rapid, <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow portion of the hydrograph. During a three-day period, <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow occurred for 5.6% of the time but accounted for 16.5% of the total flow. Nitrate and chloride were delivered primarily with diffuse flow (more than 70%), whereas 80-94% of total suspended sediment, phosphorus and ammonium were exported with <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and intermediate flow regimes. Understanding the water sources contributing to tile drainage and the manner by which pollutant discharge occurs from these systems (<span class="hlt">conduit</span>, intermediate or diffuse flow) may be useful for designing, implementing and evaluating non-point source reduction strategies in tile-drained landscapes. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28718327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28718327"><span>Fibrin Glue Increases the Tensile Strength of <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>-Assisted Primary Digital Nerve Repair.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Childe, Jessica R; Regal, Steven; Schimoler, Patrick; Kharlamov, Alexander; Miller, Mark C; Tang, Peter</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>An ideal peripheral nerve repair construct does not currently exist. Our primary goal was to determine whether fibrin glue adds to the tensile strength of <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-assisted primary digital nerve repairs. Our secondary goal was to evaluate the impact of varying suture number and location on the tensile strength. Ninety cadaveric digital nerves were harvested and divided equally into the following repair groups: A (4/4), B (2/2), C (0/2), D (0/1), and E (0/0) with the first number referring to the number of sutures at the coaptation and the second number referring to the number of sutures at each proximal and distal end of the nerve-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> junction. When fibrin glue was added, the group was labeled prime. The nerve specimens were transected and then repaired with 8-0 nylon suture and <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The tensile strength of the repairs was tested, and maximum failure load was determined. The results were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance. The Tukey post hoc test compared repair groups if the 2-way analysis of variance showed significance. Both suture group and glue presence significantly affected the maximum failure load. Increasing the number of sutures increased the maximum failure load, and the presence of fibrin glue also increased the failure load. Fibrin glue was found to increase the strength of <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-assisted primary digital nerve repairs. Furthermore, the number of sutures correlated to the strength of the repair. Fibrin glue may be added to a <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-assisted primary digital nerve repair to maintain strength and allow fewer sutures at the primary coaptation site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JVGR..120..141N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JVGR..120..141N"><span>Coupled <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and atmospheric dispersal dynamics of the AD 79 Plinian eruption of Vesuvius</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neri, Augusto; Papale, Paolo; Del Seppia, Dario; Santacroce, Roberto</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius is certainly one of the most investigated explosive eruptions in the world. This makes it particularly suitable for the application of numerical models since we can be quite confident about input data, and the model predictions can be compared with field-based reconstruction of the eruption dynamics. Magma ascent along the volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and the dispersal of pyroclasts in the atmosphere were simulated. The <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and atmospheric domain were coupled through the flow conditions computed at the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> exit. We simulated two different peak phases of the eruption which correspond to the emplacement of the white and gray magma types that produced Plinian fallout deposits with interlayered pyroclastic flow units during the gray phase. The input data, independently constrained and representative of each of the two eruptive phases, consist of liquid magma composition, crystal and water content, mass flow rate, and pressure-temperature-depth of the magma at the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> entrance. A parametric study was performed on the less constrained variables such as microlite content of magma, pressure at the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> entrance, and particle size representative of the eruptive mixture. Numerical results are substantially consistent with the reconstructed eruptive dynamics. In particular, the white eruption phase is found to lead to a fully buoyant eruption plume in all cases investigated, whereas the gray phase shows a more transitional character, i.e. the simultaneous production of a buoyant convective plume and pyroclastic surges, with a significant influence of the microlite content of magma in determining the partition of pyroclast mass between convective plumes and pyroclastic flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27173066','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27173066"><span>Smaller-Sized Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> With a Fan-Shaped Valve and Bulging Sinuses for Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Reconstruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamashita, Eijiro; Yamagishi, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Takako; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Kato, Nobuyasu; Asada, Satoshi; Hongu, Hisayuki; Yaku, Hitoshi</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>One of the critical factors limiting <span class="hlt">conduit</span> longevity in right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction with homografts and xenografts is the small size of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The aim of our study was to assess the outcome of using smaller-sized expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with a fan-shaped valve and bulging sinuses for RVOT reconstruction. This retrospective review examined 303 patients who underwent RVOT reconstruction with ePTFE <span class="hlt">conduits</span> at 63 Japanese hospitals between 2003 and 2014. Inclusion criteria were a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> size less than or equal to 16 mm and the use of operative treatment as the primary correction for underlying heart disease. Patients undergoing palliative procedures were excluded. Median follow-up was 1.7 years. Freedom from <span class="hlt">conduit</span> replacement and freedom from <span class="hlt">conduit</span> reintervention were 90.1% ± 4.8% and 77.2% ± 5.6%, respectively. The most common indication for <span class="hlt">conduit</span> reintervention was pulmonary artery (PA) bifurcation stenosis (82%). Modeling z-scores as a dichotomous variable revealed that freedom from <span class="hlt">conduit</span> reintervention for PA bifurcation stenosis was significantly decreased for <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with a z-score greater than or equal to 1.4 compared with z-scores less than 1.4 (p = 0.036). There were 30 patients (9.9%) who experienced at least moderate <span class="hlt">conduit</span> stenosis and 21 patients (6.9%) with at least moderate <span class="hlt">conduit</span> insufficiency. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that <span class="hlt">conduit</span> size was a significant factor for <span class="hlt">conduit</span> stenosis (p = 0.006). Excellent midterm outcomes were achieved with ePTFE valved <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, even when using smaller sizes. <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> z-scores around 1.4 were optimal for RVOT reconstruction in younger patients. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4973316','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4973316"><span><span class="hlt">Sur</span>8 mediates tumorigenesis and metastasis in colorectal cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Young-Mi; Kaduwal, Saluja; Lee, Kug Hwa; Park, Jong-Chan; Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Choi, Kang-Yell</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sur</span>8, a scaffold protein of the Ras pathway, interacts with Ras and Raf and modulates the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Here we show that <span class="hlt">Sur</span>8 is overexpressed in established human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and CRC patient tissues. Moreover, <span class="hlt">Sur</span>8 expression is increased during liver metastasis in CRC patients. <span class="hlt">Sur</span>8 knockdown decreases ERK and Akt activities in CRC cell lines, regardless of their K-Ras, B-Raf or PI3K mutation status. Overexpression or knockdown of <span class="hlt">Sur</span>8 increases or decreases, respectively, the proliferation or transformation of CRC cell lines. <span class="hlt">Sur</span>8 knockdown attenuates the migration and invasion of HCT116 CRC cells. Subcutaneous or orthotopic injection of HCT116 cells harboring a doxycycline (Dox)-mediated <span class="hlt">Sur</span>8 knockdown system in nude mice resulted in decreased tumorigenic potential and inhibited the liver metastatic potential of HCT116 cells. Taken together, our data support the role of <span class="hlt">Sur</span>8 as a promoter of tumorigenesis and liver metastasis in CRC through its modulation of the Ras-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. PMID:27469030</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990051006','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990051006"><span>The Development of the <span class="hlt">CONDUIT</span> Advanced Control System Design and Evaluation Interface with a Case Study Application to an Advanced Fly by Wire Helicopter Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Colbourne, Jason</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This report details the development and use of <span class="hlt">CONDUIT</span> (Control Designer's Unified Interface). <span class="hlt">CONDUIT</span> is a design tool created at Ames Research Center for the purpose of evaluating and optimizing aircraft control systems against handling qualities. Three detailed design problems addressing the RASCAL UH-60A Black Hawk are included in this report to show the application of <span class="hlt">CONDUIT</span> to helicopter control system design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2605861','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2605861"><span>Regard <span class="hlt">sur</span> les lazarets en terre canadienne</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Milot, Jean</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Puisant dans les nombreuses références qu’offrent les publications médicales canadiennes du milieu du XIXe siècle à nos jours, l’auteur fait découvrir l’existence de lazarets en terre canadienne, décrit l’impact de la maladie <span class="hlt">sur</span> les conditions vie des lépreux qui y étaient confinés et en souligne les contrecoups tant <span class="hlt">sur</span> le plan physique et psychologique que social. Il présente un bref aperçu de la maladie, ses symptômes, ses signes ainsi que ses complications oculaires et rappelle les premiers moyens thérapeutiques à base d’huile de chaulmoogra introduits dans la colonie de Tracadie vers 1901. Il illustre son propos en évoquant la vie dans les lazarets de l’île de Sheldrake (1844–1848) et de Tracadie (1848–1965) au Nouveau-Brunswick, puis dans ceux des îles D’Arcy (1891–1924) et de Bentinck (1924–1957) en Colombie-Britannique. PMID:19352451</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3413465','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3413465"><span>Adolescence et pornographie <span class="hlt">sur</span> la toile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haza, Marion</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Dans cet article, nous abordons la question de l’accès à la pornographie <span class="hlt">sur</span> Internet par les adolescents. Nous déclinons plusieurs facettes de ces rencontres: la rencontre «fortuite», quand les adolescents sont confrontés à des images intempestives, des publicités ou spams avec des contenus pornographiques; la rencontre «spectatrice», quand les adolescents cherchent activement des vidéos ou photos mettant en scène la sexualité; et enfin la rencontre «actrice», quand les adolescents se mettent en scène eux-mêmes, seuls ou à plusieurs, de façon pornographique <span class="hlt">sur</span> le Net. A partir d’exemple, nous réfléchissons aux enjeux de ces rencontres virtuelles précoces de la sexualité adulte par rapport au développement adolescent et à la représentation de leur propre sexualité en construction. PMID:22876261</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17429831','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17429831"><span>In vivo evaluation of a biodegradable EDC/NHS-cross-linked gelatin peripheral nerve guide <span class="hlt">conduit</span> material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Ju-Ying; Lin, Jia-Horng; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Chen, Yueh-Sheng</p> <p>2007-04-10</p> <p>Peripheral nerve regeneration has been evaluated using a biodegradable nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, which is made of a 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linked gelatin. The EDC/NHS crosslinked gelatin (ENG) <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is brownish in appearance, and is concentric and round with a smooth outer surface and inner lumen. After subcutaneous implantation on the dorsal side of a rat, the degraded ENG <span class="hlt">conduit</span> only evoked a mild tissue response, with the formation of a thin tissue capsule surrounding the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Biodegradability of the ENG <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and its effectiveness as a guidance channel has been examined by its use to repair a 10 mm gap in the rat sciatic nerve. As a result, the tubes degraded throughout the implantation period, but still remained circular with a thin round lumen until they were completely integrated with the enclosed nerves. Successful regeneration through the gap occurred in all the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> over the three experimental periods of 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Histological observation showed that numerous myelinated axons had crossed through the gap region even at the shortest implantation period of 4 weeks. Peak amplitude, area under the muscle action potential curve, and nerve conductive velocity all showed an increase as a function of the recovery period, which indicates that the nerve had undergone adequate regeneration. These results indicate the superiority of the ENG materials and suggest that the novel ENG <span class="hlt">conduits</span> provide a promising tool for neuro-regeneration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008HydJ...16..951P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008HydJ...16..951P"><span>Inference of the structure of karst <span class="hlt">conduits</span> using quantitative tracer tests and geological information: example of the Swiss Jura</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perrin, Jérôme; Luetscher, Marc</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Karst aquifers are known for being particularly heterogeneous with highly transmissive <span class="hlt">conduits</span> embedded in low permeability volumes of rock matrix. Artificial tracer experiments have been carried out in a complex karst aquifer of the folded Jura Mountains in Switzerland with the aim of deciphering the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> organisation. It is shown that tracer experiments with multiple injection points under different flow conditions can lead to useful information on the conduits’ structure. This information has been combined with data from structural geology, spring hydrology, and speleological observations. A conceptual model of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> network shows that a detailed inference of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> organisation can be reached: geology controls <span class="hlt">conduit</span> location and orientation; spring hydrology, including temporary springs, constrains <span class="hlt">conduit</span> elevations and relative hydraulic heads in the aquifer subsystems; and tracer tests identify major flow paths and outlets of the system and dilution caused by non-traced tributaries, as well as the presence of secondary flow routes. This understanding of the Aubonne aquifer structure has important implications for the future management of the groundwater resource. Similar approaches coupling geological information, spring hydrology, and multi-tracer tests under various flow conditions may help to characterise the structure of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> network in karst aquifers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26736254','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26736254"><span>Effect of valsalva in the pulmonary prosthetic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> valve on hemodynamic function in a mock circulatory system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsuboko, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Akihiro; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Matsuo, Satoshi; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Yamagishi, Masaaki</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Pulmonary <span class="hlt">conduit</span> valves are used as one of the surgical treatment methods of congenital heart diseases. We have been designing a sophisticated pulmonary <span class="hlt">conduit</span> valve for the right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction in pediatric patients. In this study, two types of polyester grafts with or without bulging structures for the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> valves were used and evaluated from the hemodynamic point of view focusing on the application of these <span class="hlt">conduit</span> valves in the grown-up congenital heart failure patients. We examined valvular function in the originally developed pulmonary mock circulatory system, which consisted of a pneumatic driven right ventricular model, a pulmonary valve chamber, and an elastic pulmonary compliance model with peripheral vascular resistance units. Prior to the measurement, a bileaflet valve was sutured in each <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Each <span class="hlt">conduit</span> valve was installed in the mock right ventricular outflow portion, and its leaflet motion was obtained by using a high-speed camera synchronously with pressure and flow waveforms. As a result, we could obtain hemodynamic changes in two different types of <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for pulmonary valves, and it was indicated that the presence of the Valsalva shape might be effective for promoting valvular response in the low cardiac output condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034268','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034268"><span>Challenges of using electrical resistivity method to locate karst <span class="hlt">conduits</span>-A field case in the Inner Bluegrass Region, Kentucky</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Zhu, J.; Currens, J.C.; Dinger, J.S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Conduits</span> serve as major pathways for groundwater flow in karst aquifers. Locating them from the surface, however, is one of the most challenging tasks in karst research. Geophysical methods are often deployed to help locate voids by mapping variations of physical properties of the subsurface. <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> can cause significant contrasts of some physical properties that can be detected; other subsurface features such as water-bearing fractures often yield similar contrasts, which are difficult to distinguish from the effects of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. This study used electrical resistivity method to search for an unmapped karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> that recharges Royal Spring in the Inner Bluegrass karst region, Kentucky, USA. Three types of resistivity techniques (surface 2D survey, quasi-3D survey, and time-lapse survey) were used to map and characterize resistivity anomalies. Some of the major anomalies were selected as drilling targets to verify the existence of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Drilling near an anomaly identified by an electrical resistivity profile resulted in successful penetration of a major water-filled <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The drilling results also suggest that, in this study area, low resistivity anomalies in general are associated with water-bearing features. However, differences in the anomaly signals between the water-filled <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and other water-bearing features such as water-filled fracture zones were undistinguishable. The electrical resistivity method is useful in <span class="hlt">conduit</span> detection by providing potential drilling targets. Knowledge of geology and hydrogeology about the site and professional judgment also played important roles in locating the major <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26PSL.349..231B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26PSL.349..231B"><span>Laboratory simulations of tensile fracture development in a volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> via cyclic magma pressurisation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benson, Philip M.; Heap, Michael J.; Lavallée, Yan; Flaws, Asher; Hess, K.-U.; Selvadurai, A. P. S.; Dingwell, Donald B.; Schillinger, B.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>During volcanic unrest, high magma pressure induces cracking and faulting of the country rock, providing <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for the transport of magma and other fluids. These <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, known as dykes, are fundamental structures for the transport of magma to the surface in volcanically active regions. The mechanics of dyke propagation is not yet fully understood but is crucial to better model dyke emplacement and eruption in volcanoes. Central to this need is a greater understanding of the mechanical properties of the magma/country rock interaction as a function of known magmatic pressure, temperature and stress. Here, we report data from a series of experiments in which we cyclically compress viscoelastic rhyolitic magma (at 828 °C, 892 °C and 918 °C) inside a cylindrical <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-like shell of basalt (from Mt. Etna, Italy) until fracture occurs. The compression is performed under strain rates cyclically varying between 5×10-6 and 5×10-5 s-1. The resultant monitored (axial) loading and relaxation illustrates how the presence of a visco-elastic fluid (magma) controls the stress induced at the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> margin boundary. This is achieved by analysing the viscoelastic relaxation (through time) to calculate an apparent modulus, which is found to decrease with both increasing temperature and time. In the 4 cycles before failure we find that the apparent modulus decreases from 180 to 40 GPa, 80 to 20 GPa and 8 to 1 GPa for imposed stress cycles at 828 °C, 892 °C and 918 °C, respectively. We theoretically estimate a tensile strength at failure of approximately 7-11 MPa, consistent with recent field data and in agreement with a model derived from the sample geometry and basic material parameters. Post-experimental neutron computed tomography and microscopic analyses further reveal the fragmentation of the melt and generation of tuffisite veins inside the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> due to spontaneous crack nucleation associated with <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall fracture. The geometry of the rupture area inside the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4287J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4287J"><span>Shallow <span class="hlt">conduit</span> processes during the 1158 AD explosive eruption of Hekla volcano, Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janebo, Maria; Houghton, Bruce; Thordarson, Thor; Larsen, Gudrun</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Hekla is one of the most frequently active silicic volcanic systems in the world, with multiple pre-historic large Plinian eruptions and 18 historical subplinian-Plinian eruptions. The common view is that the Plinian phases of the largest Hekla eruptions are all relatively homogeneous in style. Of the historical eruptions, only two were silicic: a Plinian eruption in 1104 and a smaller, less well characterized, eruption in 1158. We examine the dynamics of the 1158 eruption in detail with focus on the modulating role of shallow <span class="hlt">conduit</span> processes. Grain size analysis, componentry, and density were used to characterize gradual and abrupt changes during the course of the eruption and quantitative vesicularity analysis was used to constrain the influence of bubble nucleation and coalescence. The 1158 eruption was a relatively steady, dry eruption with a more powerful opening phase followed by a lower intensity, waning phase accompanied by destabilization and collapse of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> walls. The juvenile pyroclasts are comprised of three types of microvesicular ragged pumice: white, grey, and banded. The abundance of grey pumice decreases as the eruption reaches maximum intensity, and then increases again during the waning phase of the eruption. The white pumices are more vesicular than the grey pumice, and the banded pumices have vesicularities that span predictably the range of the two end-members. The macroscopic differences between the white and grey pumice are accompanied by differences on a microscopic scale, most notably in a decrease in vesicle number density (VND) and a broadening of the vesicle size distribution, as well as increased crystal content. VND values of 0.5 to 1 E+6 mm-3 are similar to those recorded for the more powerful and sustained Plinian phases of the Novarupta 1912 and Taupo 181 eruptions in our laboratory. The 1158 pumice clasts display complex textures with adjacent domains of contrasting texture, alluding to complex nucleation, growth and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636519"><span>Total laparoscopic esophageal bypass using a colonic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for corrosive-induced esophageal stricture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Javed, Amit; Agarwal, Anil K</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The colon and the stomach are the most commonly used <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for esophageal replacement in patients with esophageal strictures resulting from corrosive ingestion. The replacement surgeries have traditionally been performed by an open approach. While laparoscopic replacement surgery using a stomach <span class="hlt">conduit</span> has been previously reported, a total laparoscopic bypass using a colonic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> has not been previously described. We herein describe the surgical technique and results of laparoscopic esophageal bypass using a colonic <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Patients with corrosive stricture involving the esophagus with the proximal level at the hypopharynx, or those with concomitant gastric scarring, were selected. The surgery was performed with the patient in a supine position using five abdominal ports and a hockey stick/transverse skin crease neck incision. The main steps include colonic mobilization and assessment of the adequacy of the marginal vascular arcade, creation of a retrosternal tunnel, preparation of the colonic <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, neck dissection, delivery of the colonic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> into the neck and cervical pharyngo/esophagocolic anastomosis, and intra-abdominal cologastric and ileocolic anastomosis. During the study period, 39 patients with corrosive stricture of the esophagus were managed surgically at our center with either gastric or colonic bypass. Of these, 22 patients underwent an open procedure (12 retrosternal colonic bypasses and 10 retrosternal gastric bypasses) and 17 patients underwent a laparoscopic procedure (13 retrosternal gastric bypasses and 4 retrosternal colonic bypasses). Patients with stricture at the hypopharynx (n = 2) or those in whom the stomach was contracted (n = 2) were considered for a laparoscopic esophagocoloplasty. The average duration of surgery of these latter four patients was 370 (380, 320, 360, and 420) min and the mean estimated blood loss was 100 mL. All patients could be ambulated on the first postoperative day and were allowed oral liquids</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24529058','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24529058"><span>Retrograde exchange of heavily encrusted ureteric stents via the ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span>: a technical report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tapping, Charles Ross; Boardman, Phil</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>We describe two cases of retrograde ureteric stent exchange of heavily encrusted ureteric stents (JJ) via tortuous ileal <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. The blocked ureteric stents were snared from inside the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> so they could be accessed and a wire inserted. The lumens of the stents were unblocked with a wire but the stents could not be withdrawn due to heavy encrustation of the ureteric stent in the renal pelvis. A stiff wire was inserted to provide support and a 9 French peel away sheath was used to remove the encrustations allowing the stents to be withdrawn and exchanged. This is a safe and successful technique allowing ureteric stents to be removed when heavily encrusted. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28485400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28485400"><span>Actively evolving subglacial <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and eskers initiate ice shelf channels at an Antarctic grounding line.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Drews, R; Pattyn, F; Hewitt, I J; Ng, F S L; Berger, S; Matsuoka, K; Helm, V; Bergeot, N; Favier, L; Neckel, N</p> <p>2017-05-09</p> <p>Ice-shelf channels are long curvilinear tracts of thin ice found on Antarctic ice shelves. Many of them originate near the grounding line, but their formation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we use ice-penetrating radar data from Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, to infer that the morphology of several ice-shelf channels is seeded upstream of the grounding line by large basal obstacles indenting the ice from below. We interpret each obstacle as an esker ridge formed from sediments deposited by subglacial water <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, and calculate that the eskers' size grows towards the grounding line where deposition rates are maximum. Relict features on the shelf indicate that these linked systems of subglacial <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and ice-shelf channels have been changing over the past few centuries. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation and ice-shelf stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJP..132..195A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJP..132..195A"><span>Lorentz force effect on mixed convection micropolar flow in a vertical <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdel-wahed, Mohamed S.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The present work provides a simulation of control and filtration process of hydromagnetic blood flow with Hall current under the effect of heat source or sink through a vertical <span class="hlt">conduit</span> (pipe). This work meets other engineering applications, such as nuclear reactors cooled during emergency shutdown, geophysical transport in electrically conducting and heat exchangers at low velocity conditions. The problem is modeled by a system of partial differential equations taking the effect of viscous dissipation, and these equations are simplified and solved analytically as a series solution using the Differential Transformation Method (DTM). The velocities and temperature profiles of the flow are plotted and discussed. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall shear stress and heat flux are deduced and explained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/135133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/135133"><span>TPX superconducting cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> 1995 design and development progress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zbasnik, J.P.; Martovetsky, N.N.; Hibbs, S.M.</p> <p>1995-09-29</p> <p>A unique feature of the magnet system for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is that all the magnets are superconducting. With the exception of the outer poloidal coils, the magnet system uses Nb{sub 3}Sn cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor; the outer poloidal coils use Nb-Ti cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor. We describe the current TPX conductor design and present a progress report on the conductor development. Our strand development contracts have resulted in demonstrating that at least two vendors can produce Nb{sub 3}Sn strand which meets the TPX specification. Subcable testing gives confidence that the TPX conductor will satisfy the magnet operational requirements. Fabrication of full-size conductors is underway and tests on these will give verification that the TPX conductor meets the operational requirements. Our industrial cabling and sheathing contract to produce demonstration conductor using copper strands is exploring a production technique that differs from the conventional tube mill approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Cryo...37..431V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Cryo...37..431V"><span>Measurements of current distribution in a 12-strand Nb 3Sn cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vysotsky, Vitaly S.; Takayasu, Makoto; Jeong, Sangkwon; Michael, Philip C.; Schultz, Joel H.; Minervini, Joseph V.</p> <p></p> <p>Experiments were performed to measure directly the current in each strand of a 12-strand Nb 3Sn cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> superconductor during current and/or external magnetic field ramps. The goal of the experiment was to get straightforward evidence of current maldistribution in a cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor (CICC). A heavily instrumented sample coil from Nb 3Sn TPX-TF strands was specially prepared. Severe non-uniformity of the strand currents were found during field ramp. Immediately before a quench the individual strand currents within a triplet differed by as much as an order of magnitude. During field ramps with constant transport current, the currents in some strands were observed to drop rapidly and then recover. The data show that quench development in the CICC is a complicated phenomenon involving dynamic redistribution of current among the strands. Non-uniformity of current along the strands during quench was also observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029951','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029951"><span>Three-dimensional structure of fluid <span class="hlt">conduits</span> sustaining an active deep marine cold seep</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hornbach, M.J.; Ruppel, C.; Van Dover, C.L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Cold seeps in deep marine settings emit fluids to the overlying ocean and are often associated with such seafloor flux indicators as chemosynthetic biota, pockmarks, and authigenic carbonate rocks. Despite evidence for spatiotemporal variability in the rate, locus, and composition of cold seep fluid emissions, the shallow subseafloor plumbing systems have never been clearly imaged in three dimensions. Using a novel, high-resolution approach, we produce the first three-dimensional image of possible fluid <span class="hlt">conduits</span> beneath a cold seep at a study site within the Blake Ridge gas hydrate province. Complex, dendritic features diverge upward toward the seafloor from feeder <span class="hlt">conduits</span> at depth and could potentially draw flow laterally by up to 103 m from the known seafloor seep, a pattern similar to that suggested for some hydrothermal vents. The biodiversity, community structure, and succession dynamics of chemosynthetic communities at cold seeps may largely reflect these complexities of subseafloor fluid flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...815228D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...815228D"><span>Actively evolving subglacial <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and eskers initiate ice shelf channels at an Antarctic grounding line</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drews, R.; Pattyn, F.; Hewitt, I. J.; Ng, F. S. L.; Berger, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Helm, V.; Bergeot, N.; Favier, L.; Neckel, N.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Ice-shelf channels are long curvilinear tracts of thin ice found on Antarctic ice shelves. Many of them originate near the grounding line, but their formation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we use ice-penetrating radar data from Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, to infer that the morphology of several ice-shelf channels is seeded upstream of the grounding line by large basal obstacles indenting the ice from below. We interpret each obstacle as an esker ridge formed from sediments deposited by subglacial water <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, and calculate that the eskers' size grows towards the grounding line where deposition rates are maximum. Relict features on the shelf indicate that these linked systems of subglacial <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and ice-shelf channels have been changing over the past few centuries. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation and ice-shelf stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17803551','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17803551"><span>Computed tomography arteriography to assess greater saphenous vein as a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for peripheral bypass.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, Alan; Buckenham, Timothy; Roake, Justin; Lewis, David</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>To determine whether computed tomography arteriography of the lower extremities (64-slice volume computed tomography (CT)), used in delineating the arterial tree in peripheral vascular disease, is useful in assessing suitability of greater saphenous vein as a vascular <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for peripheral bypass grafting for limb-threatening lower limb ischaemia. A search of published works in August 2005 showed no similar study has been published. A prospective study of nine consecutive patients who had undergone lower limb CT arteriography and long saphenous vein colour duplex ultrasound (U/S) were studied. Good concordance between colour duplex U/S and CT arteriography was obtained. Computed tomography images of the long saphenous vein as a part of arterial lower limb CT arteriography correlate well with preoperative <span class="hlt">conduit</span> assessment colour duplex U/S findings of the long saphenous vein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.8342S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.8342S"><span>Crab burrows as <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for groundwater-surface water exchange in Bangladesh</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stahl, Mason O.; Tarek, M. H.; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Harvey, Charles F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Groundwater recharge affects water budgets and groundwater quality on the deltas and floodplains of South and Southeast Asia. Rain and flooding rivers recharge groundwater during the monsoon; irrigated rice fields and surface water bodies recharge aquifers during the dry season. Groundwater throughout the region is severely contaminated by arsenic, and recent research suggests that quantifying and characterizing recharge is important to understand whether recharge flushes or mobilizes arsenic from aquifers. At a field site in Bangladesh, we found that burrows of terrestrial crabs short-circuit low-permeability surface sediments, providing the primary <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for recharge. We combine field observations along with a model that couples isotope and water balances to quantify the effect of crab burrows on aquifer recharge. Given the wide distribution of burrowing crabs and the surficial geology, we suggest that crab burrows provide widespread <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for groundwater recharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4407955','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4407955"><span>Lithiase géante <span class="hlt">sur</span> enterocystoplastie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elmortaji, Khalid; Elomri, Ghassane; Bennani, Saad; Rabii, Redouane; Aboutaib, Rachid; Meziane, Fethi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>La formation des lithiases est une complication fréquente des entérocystoplasties après cystectomie radicale pour tumeur de vessie infiltrante. Le délai d'apparition dépend des facteurs de risque favorisants notamment les infections urinaires. Néanmoins la survenue de lithiase géante <span class="hlt">sur</span> néovessie reste exceptionnelle, seulement 5 cas ont été rapportés dans la littérature. Nous rapportons dans ce travail, le cas d'une lithiase géante compliquant une entérocystoplastie chez un malade suivi pour tumeur de vessie infiltrante. PMID:25932070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7182522','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7182522"><span>Fluid dynamics of supercritical hellium within cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Van Sciver, S.W.</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>The enclosed report summarizes work carried out under DOE/MFE Support, during the past four years. Emphasis is placed on progress within the last year. Results of experiments on pressure drop and heat transfer within several Cable-in-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Conductors are described. These results are compared to models for flow in similar geometrics. The work provides a basis for design of magnets using the CIC Conductor Concept.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10169848','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10169848"><span>Fluid dynamics of supercritical hellium within cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductors. Progress report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Van Sciver, S.W.</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>The enclosed report summarizes work carried out under DOE/MFE Support, during the past four years. Emphasis is placed on progress within the last year. Results of experiments on pressure drop and heat transfer within several Cable-in-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Conductors are described. These results are compared to models for flow in similar geometrics. The work provides a basis for design of magnets using the CIC Conductor Concept.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..827P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..827P"><span>Impact of the lithographic discontinuities on the karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> development - insights from modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petrus, Karine; Szymczak, Piotr</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Karst formation is controlled by the processes of the fluid flow and reactant transport coupled to the chemical erosion of the limestone rock [1]. The coupling between these processes can lead to a number of different instabilities, resulting in the formation of dissolutional voids, caverns and <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Arguably the simplest systems of this kind are solution pipes, in which gravitationally driven water movement carves vertical <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in limestone rocks. In the homogeneous rocks these <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are often cylindrical, with almost a constant diameter along their length. However, in a stratified medium, the morphology of the pipes changes. For example, if a number of less porous layers is introduced in an otherwise homogeneous medium, then the pipes are observed to narrow as they cross the layers and then widen up to form bulbous caverns as they emerge from the layer [1]. In this communication, we investigate these effects more closely, considering different kind of lithographic discontinuities to be present in the system: the layers of increased/decreased porosity and/or permeability as well as the solubility which is different from the rest of the system. Using a Darcy-scale numerical model we analyze the effects these layers have on the shape and growth of solution pipes and compare the results on the piping morphologies observed in nature. Finally we comment on the possible relevance of these results to the cave-formation phenomena and the inception horizon concept [3]. References: 1.Howard A. D., The development of karst features, Bull. Natl. Spel. Soc. 25, 45-65 (1963) 2. Petrus, K. and Szymczak, P., Influence of layering on the formation and growth of solution pipes. Frontiers in Physics (submitted) 3.Filipponi , M., Jeannin, P. and Tacher, L., Evidence of inception horizons in karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks, Geomorphology, 106, 86-99 (2009)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035290','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035290"><span>CO2 outgassing in a combined fracture and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> karst aquifer near lititz spring, Pennsylvania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Toran, L.; Roman, E.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Lititz Spring in southeastern Pennsylvania and a nearby domestic well were sampled for 9 months. Although both locations are connected to <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (as evidenced by a tracer test), most of the year they were saturated with respect to calcite, which is more typical of matrix flow. Geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) was used to explain this apparent paradox and to infer changes in matrix and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> contribution to flow. The saturation index varied from 0.5 to 0 most of the year, with a few samples in springtime dropping below saturation. The log PCO2 value varied from -2.5 to -1.7. Lower log PCO2 values (closer to the atmospheric value of -3.5) were observed when the solutions were at or above saturation with respect to calcite. In contrast, samples collected in the springtime had high PCO2, low saturation indices, and high water levels. Geochemical modeling showed that when outgassing occurs from a water with initially high PCO2, the saturation index of calcite increases. In the Lititz Spring area, the recharge water travels through the soil zone, where it picks up CO2 from soil gas, and excess CO 2 subsequently is outgassed when this recharge water reaches the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. At times of high water level (pipe full), recharge with excess CO 2 enters the system but the outgassing does not occur. Instead the recharge causes dilution, reducing the calcite saturation index. Understanding the temporal and spatial variation in matrix and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow in karst aquifers benefited here by geochemical modeling and calculation of PCO2 values. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16211569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16211569"><span>An in vivo study of tricalcium phosphate and glutaraldehyde crosslinking gelatin <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in peripheral nerve repair.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Ming-Hong; Chen, Pei-Ru; Chen, Mei-Hsiu; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang; Huang, Jing-Shan; Lin, Feng-Huei</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>In order to modulate the mechanical properties of gelatin, we previously developed a biodegradable composite composed by tricalcium phosphate and glutaraldehyde crosslinking gelatin (GTG) feasible for surgical manipulation. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo applications of GTG <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for peripheral nerve repair. The effect of sciatic nerve reconstruction was compared between resorbable permeable GTG <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and durable impermeable silicone tubes. Traditional methods of assessing nerve recovery following peripheral nerve repair including histomorphometric and electrophysiologic features were conducted in our study. In addition, autotomy score and sciatic function index (SFI) in walking tract analysis were used as additional parameters for assessing the return of nerve function. Twenty-four weeks after sciatic nerve repair, the GTG <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were harvested. Microscopically, regeneration of nerves was observed in the cross-section at the mid portion of all implanted GTG <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. The cross-sectional area of regenerated nerve of the GTG group was significant larger than that of the silicone group. In the compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), the mean recovery index of CMAP amplitude was 0.24 +/- 0.02 for the silicone group, 0.41 +/- 0.07 for the GTG group. The mean SFI increased with time in the GTG group during the evaluation period until 24 weeks. Walking tract analysis showed a higher SFI score in the GTG group at both 12 and 24 weeks. The difference reached a significant level at 24 weeks. Thus, the histomorphometric, electrophysiologic, and functional assessments demonstrate that GTG can be a candidate for peripheral nerve repair.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9631C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9631C"><span>Physical mechanisms that lead to large-scale gas accumulation in a volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collombet, Marielle; Burgisser, Alain</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The eruption of viscous magma at the Earth's surface often gives rise to abrupt regime changes. The transition from the gentle effusion of a lava dome to brief but powerful explosions is a common regime change. This transition is often preceded by the sealing of the shallow part of the volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and the accumulation of volatile-rich magma underneath, a situation that collects the energy to be brutally released during the subsequent explosion. While <span class="hlt">conduit</span> sealing is well-documented, volatile accumulation has proven harder to characterize. We use a 2D <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow model including gas loss within the magma and into the wallrock to find steady-state magma flow configurations in the effusive regime. Model outputs yield a strongly heterogeneous distribution of the gas volume fraction underneath a dense, impermeable magma cap. Gas accumulates in inclined structures hundredths of meters long and several meters thick. These structures probably constitute the gas pockets that accumulate explosive energy and that were intuited by previous studies. We tested the numerical robustness of our results by simulating the fragmented state of the magma contained within the pockets, by testing various fragmentation criteria, and by varying computational gird size. These gas pockets are robust features that occur regardless of wallrock permeability (from very permeable at 10-12 m2 to quasi impermeable at 10-16 m2) but that are sensitive to the volume to surface ratio of the volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. One implication is that the formation of these large degassing structures probably plays an essential role in the triggering of violent explosions. Such large scale outgassing feature may also bring a partial answer to the long standing issue of the observed gas transfer across entire magmatic systems despite high magma viscosity and no obvious physical mechanism of transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910595M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910595M"><span>Experimental and numerical analysis of fluid flow in pipe - like <span class="hlt">conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mendo-Pérez, Gerardo M.; Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Guzmán-Vázquez, José E.; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Volcanic activity is complex and it is a good example of multiscale phenomenon due to the sundry processes that occur at different scales while fluids ascend from the magmatic reservoirs to volcanic vents. Several processes occur at their own time scale and within a wide range of strengths. Each process contributes with its particular elastic response to the overall stress-strain field of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> dynamics. In this work, we present experimental and numerical analysis of fluid flowing through pipe-like <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in order to understand the dynamic of the volcanic eruptions and its effects on the seismic signals. We focused on the elastic response of cylindrical <span class="hlt">conduits</span> due to the flow of viscous Newtonian fluids (0.001 and 1 Pa s) passing through them. We compared signals obtained experimentally with those calculated by numerical modeling. The experimental signals are recorded with high dynamic range piezoelectric sensors located along the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> where the fluid flows due to a sudden pressure drop. The numerical counterparts are calculated through a scheme that involves the continuity and motion equations for fluids, where the fluid couples with the surrounding solid; the excitation function simulates a pressure drop, in the range of the experimental values. In both, the excitation is considered an instantaneous pressure drop from maximum 3 bar to ambient pressure. The analysis of these observations included video recording of the process with a high speed camera. The dynamic behavior of experimental and numerical simulations present high similarity with field volcanic signals associated with pressurization processes. Our studies contributes to the understanding volcanic phenomenon and its effects on field base seismograms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BVol...78...74J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BVol...78...74J"><span>Shallow <span class="hlt">conduit</span> processes during the ad 1158 explosive eruption of Hekla volcano, Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janebo, Maria H.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Larsen, Gudrun</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Hekla is one of the most frequently active felsic volcanic systems in the world, with several known pre-historic large Plinian eruptions and 18 historical subplinian to small Plinian eruptions. A common view is that Plinian eruptions of Hekla are relatively short lived and purely explosive events. In detail, these events exhibit subtle differences in terms of deposit characteristics, reflecting significant differences in eruption behaviour. Of the 18 historical eruptions, two had bulk magma compositions with >66 wt% SiO2: a Plinian eruption in ad 1104 and a smaller, less well characterised, but atypical subplinian eruption in ad 1158. The ad 1158 eruption was a relatively sustained, dry (magmatic) eruption with a more powerful opening phase followed by a lower intensity, waning phase accompanied by minor destabilisation and collapse of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> walls. We examine here the dynamics of the ad 1158 eruption, focussing on the role of shallow <span class="hlt">conduit</span> processes in modulating eruption dynamics. Vesicularity data constrain the relative influence of bubble nucleation, growth, and coalescence. The juvenile pyroclasts are composed of two types of microvesicular pumice (white and grey) with contrasting vesicle number density, vesicle-size distribution, and phenocryst and microlite contents. Textural analysis shows that these pumices reflect heterogeneity developed pre- to syn-eruptively in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and that entrainment of longer resident magma by faster ascending magma permitted magma of contrasting maturity to be fragmented simultaneously. In this regard, the mixed melt of the ad 1158 eruption contrasts with the compositionally homogeneous melt phase of the more powerful ad 1104 Plinian event, which was typified by more uniform <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and eruption dynamics accompanying higher average ascent rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25394224','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25394224"><span>Possible <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-matrix water exchange signatures outlined at a karst spring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitrofan, Horia; Marin, Constantin; Povară, Ioan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>During a significant flood event, reversible water exchanges may occur between a karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and its adjacent porous rock (frequently designated as "matrix"): while the flood pulse rises, some <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-derived water is forced into the matrix; then, as the flood recedes, the same water flows back into the stream passage. The present note addresses such a karst setting in the Carpathian Mountains (Romania), where in addition, a usually stable flux of chloride originating in a natural saline inflow, was being mixed with a variable flow of karst freshwater. For that particular case, with the above-mentioned process of matrix storage/release from storage assumedly taking place downstream of the mixing site, two distinct chemical signatures could be noticed during a flood event: an initial depletion in the spring flow chloride flux, subsequently followed by a comparable chloride flux enrichment (the depletion and the enrichment being outlined with respect to the essentially stable chloride flux value that had been noticed to persist at the spring over a long period of flow rate recession). Concomitantly with such flood-induced fluctuations in the spring chloride flux, the spring discharge displayed, for long periods, abnormally slow variations: the latter likely indicated that the spring supply rate actual oscillations were buffered by the reversible water exchanges which took place between the karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and its adjacent matrix. On the whole, these results show that <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-matrix water exchanges could be interpreted by simple mass balance calculations that involved fluxes of a conservative tracer (the chloride ion in that particular case). © 2014, National Ground Water Association.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/78708','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/78708"><span>Final report on fluid dynamics of supercritical helium within cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Van Sciver, S.W.</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>The enclosed report summarizes work carried out under DOE/MFE support during the past four years. Emphasis is placed on progress during the last year. Results of experiments on pressure drop and heat transfer within several Cable-in-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span> conductors are described. These results are compared to models developed for flow in similar geometries. The work provides a basis for design of magnets using CIC conductors in fusion magnetic systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6090117','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6090117"><span>Pressure drop measurements on cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductors of various geometries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Daugherty, M.A.; Van Sciver, S.W. . Applied Superconductivity Center)</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>This paper measures the pressure drop on various cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductors with different void fractions, number of strands and flow areas. To carry out these measurements, supercritical helium is circulated through a loop containing several conductor sections instrumented with cold pressure transducers. A cold centrifugal pump is used to force the helium through the loop at flow rates of up to several grams per second. The modular design of the flow loop allows for relatively easy insertion of different test sections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5177999','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5177999"><span>Surgical Clips Migration up to Renal Collecting System from Ileal <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Postcystectomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Albadawi, Hani; Sener, Tarik Emre</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract This is a 49-year-old female known to have had cystectomy and ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> 4 years ago presented to our hospital complaining of left flank pain with recurrent urinary tract infection. Radiologic investigations showed left lower pole renal stone. She underwent left laser flexible ureterorenoscopy. Renal collection system was fully explored that showed stone occupying the lower calix, laser disintegration of the stone revealed what we assumed are surgical clips. PMID:28078327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080900','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080900"><span>Differential expression of GAP-43 and neurofilament during peripheral nerve regeneration through bio-artificial <span class="hlt">conduits</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carriel, Víctor; Garzón, Ingrid; Campos, Antonio; Cornelissen, Maria; Alaminos, Miguel</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are promising alternatives for repairing nerve gaps; they provide a close microenvironment that supports nerve regeneration. In this sense, histological analysis of axonal growth is a determinant to achieve successful nerve regeneration. To evaluate this process, the most-used immunohistochemical markers are neurofilament (NF), β-III tubulin and, infrequently, GAP-43. However, GAP-43 expression in long-term nerve regeneration models is still poorly understood. In this study we analysed GAP-43 expression and its correlation with NF and S-100, using three tissue-engineering approaches with different regeneration profiles. A 10 mm gap was created in the sciatic nerve of 12 rats and repaired using collagen <span class="hlt">conduits</span> or collagen <span class="hlt">conduits</span> filled with fibrin-agarose hydrogels or with hydrogels containing autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). After 12 weeks the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were harvested for histological analysis. Our results confirm the long-term expression of GAP-43 in all groups. The expression of GAP-43 and NF was significantly higher in the group with ADMSCs. Interestingly, GAP-43 was observed in immature, newly formed axons and NF in thicker and mature axons. These proteins were not co-expressed, demonstrating their differential expression in newly formed nerve fascicles. Our descriptive and quantitative histological analysis of GAP-43 and NFL allowed us to determine, with high accuracy, the heterogenic population of axons at different stages of maturation in three tissue-engineering approaches. Finally, to perform a complete assessment of axonal regeneration, the quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation of both GAP-43 and NF could be a useful quality control in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17560237','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17560237"><span>Use of autogenous saphenous vein as a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for mesenterico-left portal vein bypass.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Query, Julie A; Sandler, Anthony D; Sharp, William J</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The authors describe a case of extrahepatic portal vein (EHPV) thrombosis and portal hypertension treated with a variant of mesenterico-left portal vein bypass (MLPVB) or Rex shunt. In this case, a segment of autogenous greater saphenous vein was used to bridge the distance between the left gastric vein inflow and the left portal vein. Use of such nontraditional <span class="hlt">conduit</span> in similar circumstances may expand the application of portal revascularization/decompression procedures in treating these patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18440619','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18440619"><span>Sciatic nerve repair by microgrooved nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> made of chitosan-gold nanocomposites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Yi-Lo; Jen, Jui-Chi; Hsu, Shan-hui; Chiu, Ing-Ming</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>To better direct the repair of peripheral nerve after injury, an implant consisting of a multicomponent micropatterned <span class="hlt">conduit</span> seeded with NSC was designed. The mechanical properties of the chi-Au nanocomposites were tested. In vitro, the effect of chi-Au on cell behavior (NSC and glial cell line C6) and the influence of micropattern on cell alignment were evaluated. In vivo, the micropatterned <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with/without the preseeded NSC were implanted to bridge a 10-mm-long defect of the sciatic nerve in 9 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The repair outcome was investigated 6 weeks after the surgery. Based on the dynamic modulus, chitosan with 50 ppm or more gold was a stronger material than others. In vitro, gold at 25 or 50 ppm led to better cell performance for NSC; and gold at 50 ppm gave better cell performance for C6. On the microgrooved substrate, the NSC had elongated processes oriented parallel to the grooves, whereas the NSC on the nonpatterned surfaces did not exhibit a particular bias in alignment. In vivo, the number of regenerated axons, the regenerated area, and the number of blood vessels were significantly higher in the NSC-preseeded <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Modification of the chitosan matrix by gold nanoparticles not only provides the mechanical strength but also affects the cellular response. The preliminary in vivo data demonstrated that the biodegradable micropatterned <span class="hlt">conduits</span> preseeded with NSC provided a combination of physical and biological guidance cues for regenerating axons at the cellular level and offered a better alternative for repairing sciatic nerve transactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA238958','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA238958"><span>Causes and Control of Corrosion in Buried-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Heat Distribution Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-07-01</p> <p>line. Dissolved carbon dioxide in the condensate can be minimized, in part, by avoiding the use of high bicarbonate -alkalinity feedwater and by...sulfite with the pH adjusted to 9 to 10 using caustic soda . High-temperature Same as that for medium- temperature. *Source: R.T. Blake, Water Treatment...34 exhibit sufficient impact, abrasion , and ductility characteristics that the coated <span class="hlt">conduits</span> can be handled, stored, and installed using recommended</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27775616','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27775616"><span>Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve <span class="hlt">Conduits</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Radtke, Christine</p> <p>2016-10-20</p> <p>Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa) or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based <span class="hlt">conduit</span> development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for enhancement of nerve regeneration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997342','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997342"><span>Long distance seawater intrusion through a karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> network in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Zexuan; Bassett, Seth Willis; Hu, Bill; Dyer, Scott Barrett</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Five periods of increased electrical conductivity have been found in the karst <span class="hlt">conduits</span> supplying one of the largest first magnitude springs in Florida with water. Numerous well-developed <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks are distributed in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), Florida and connected to the Gulf of Mexico. A composite analysis of precipitation and electrical conductivity data provides strong evidence that the increases in conductivity are directly tied to seawater intrusion moving inland and traveling 11 miles against the prevailing regional hydraulic gradient from from Spring Creek Spring Complex (SCSC), a group of submarine springs at the Gulf Coast. A geochemical analysis of samples from the spring vent rules out anthropogenic contamination and upwelling regional recharge from the deep aquifer as sources of the rising conductivity. The interpretation is supported by the conceptual model established by prior researchers working to characterize the study area. This paper documents the first and longest case of seawater intrusion in the WKP, and also indicates significant possibility of seawater contamination through subsurface <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks in a coastal karst aquifer. PMID:27557803</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27865067','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27865067"><span>Laminin-modified and aligned PHBV/PEO nanofibrous nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> promote peripheral nerve regeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Hai-Xia; Ortiz, Lazarus Santiago; Xiao, Zhong-Dang; Huang, Ning-Ping</p> <p>2016-11-12</p> <p>Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) has received much attention for its biodegradability and biocompatibility, characteristics which are required in tissue engineering. In this study, polyethylene oxide (PEO)-incorporated PHBV nanofibers with random or aligned orientation were obtained by electrospinning. For further use in vivo, the nanofiber films were made into nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> after treated with NH3 plasma, which could improve the hydrophilicity of inner surfaces of nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and then facilitate laminin adsorption via electrostatic interaction for promoting cell adhesion and proliferation. Morphology of the surfaces of modified PHBV/PEO nanofibrous scaffolds were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Schwann cell viability assay was conducted and the results confirmed that the functionalized nanofibers were favorable for cell growth. Morphology of Schwann cells cultured on scaffolds showed that aligned nanofibrous scaffolds provided topographical guidance for cell orientation and elongation. Furthermore, 3D PHBV/PEO nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> made from aligned and random-oriented nanofibers were implanted into 12-mm transected sciatic nerve rat model and subsequent analysis were conducted at 1 and 2 months post-surgery. The above functionalized PHBV/PEO scaffolds provide a novel and promising platform for peripheral nerve regeneration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5266796','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5266796"><span>Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Strategies: Electrically Stimulating Polymer Based Nerve Growth <span class="hlt">Conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anderson, Matthew; Shelke, Namdev B.; Manoukian, Ohan S.; Yu, Xiaojun; McCullough, Louise D.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Treatment of large peripheral nerve damages ranges from the use of an autologous nerve graft to a synthetic nerve growth <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Biological grafts, in spite of many merits, show several limitations in terms of availability and donor site morbidity, and outcomes are suboptimal due to fascicle mismatch, scarring, and fibrosis. Tissue engineered nerve graft substitutes utilize polymeric <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in conjunction with cues both chemical and physical, cells alone and or in combination. The chemical and physical cues delivered through polymeric <span class="hlt">conduits</span> play an important role and drive tissue regeneration. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been applied toward the repair and regeneration of various tissues such as muscle, tendon, nerve, and articular tissue both in laboratory and clinical settings. The underlying mechanisms that regulate cellular activities such as cell adhesion, proliferation, cell migration, protein production, and tissue regeneration following ES is not fully understood. Polymeric constructs that can carry the electrical stimulation along the length of the scaffold have been developed and characterized for possible nerve regeneration applications. We discuss the use of electrically conductive polymers and associated cell interaction, biocompatibility, tissue regeneration, and recent basic research for nerve regeneration. In conclusion, a multifunctional combinatorial device comprised of biomaterial, structural, functional, cellular, and molecular aspects may be the best way forward for effective peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27278739</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25934451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25934451"><span>PRGD/PDLLA <span class="hlt">conduit</span> potentiates rat sciatic nerve regeneration and the underlying molecular mechanism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Binbin; Qiu, Tong; Iyer, K Swaminathan; Yan, Qiongjiao; Yin, Yixia; Xie, Lijuan; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Shipu</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Peripheral nerve injury requires optimal conditions in both macro-environment and micro-environment for reestablishment. Though various strategies have been carried out to improve the macro-environment, the underlying molecular mechanism of axon regeneration in the micro-environment provided by nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> remains unclear. In this study, the rat sciatic nerve of 10 mm defect was made and bridged by PRGD/PDLLA nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. We investigated the process of nerve regeneration using histological, functional and real time PCR analyses after implantation from 7 to 35 days. Our data demonstrated that the ciliary neurotrophic factor highly expressed and up-regulated the downstream signaling pathways, in the case of activated signals, the expressions of axon sprout relative proteins, such as tubulin and growth-associated protein-43, were strongly augmented. Taken together, these data suggest a possible mechanism of axon regeneration promoted by PRGD/PDLLA <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, which created a micro-environment for enhancement of diffusion of neurotrophic factors secreted by the injured nerve stumps, and activation of molecular signal transduction involved in growth cone, to potentiate the nerve recovery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BVol...78...63G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BVol...78...63G"><span><span class="hlt">Conduit</span> enlargement during the precursory Plinian eruption of Aira Caldera, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geshi, Nobuo; Miyabuchi, Yasuo</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Increase in magma flux as the result of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> enlargement is one of the key processes that triggered caldera collapse and eruption of the Ito ignimbrite from Aira Caldera at ~29 ka. We examine the total volume of the pumice fall deposit, vertical variations in grain size of pumice, and the lithic content in the Osumi pumice deposit to investigate the trigger for caldera collapse. Wider distribution of the later-stage unit and the upward coarsening of grain size throughout the Osumi pumice fall deposit indicate an increase in magma discharge toward the onset of collapse. The total volume of lithic fragments in the Osumi pumice fall deposit is estimated as ~1.6 km3, based on the lithic content in several representative outcrops and the total volume of the Osumi pumice fall deposit. The lithic fragments in the Osumi pumice fall deposit indicate intense mechanical erosion of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> during the Plinian eruption prior to caldera collapse. Caldera collapse requires decompression of the magma chamber by withdrawal of magma; effective enlargement of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> diameter during precursory eruptive phases is one of the important processes that subsequently allow the rapid discharge of a large volume of magma, which in turn facilitates decompression of the reservoir and induces caldera collapse.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27557803','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27557803"><span>Long distance seawater intrusion through a karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> network in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Zexuan; Bassett, Seth Willis; Hu, Bill; Dyer, Scott Barrett</p> <p>2016-08-25</p> <p>Five periods of increased electrical conductivity have been found in the karst <span class="hlt">conduits</span> supplying one of the largest first magnitude springs in Florida with water. Numerous well-developed <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks are distributed in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), Florida and connected to the Gulf of Mexico. A composite analysis of precipitation and electrical conductivity data provides strong evidence that the increases in conductivity are directly tied to seawater intrusion moving inland and traveling 11 miles against the prevailing regional hydraulic gradient from from Spring Creek Spring Complex (SCSC), a group of submarine springs at the Gulf Coast. A geochemical analysis of samples from the spring vent rules out anthropogenic contamination and upwelling regional recharge from the deep aquifer as sources of the rising conductivity. The interpretation is supported by the conceptual model established by prior researchers working to characterize the study area. This paper documents the first and longest case of seawater intrusion in the WKP, and also indicates significant possibility of seawater contamination through subsurface <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks in a coastal karst aquifer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27427674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27427674"><span>Thermo-Hydraulic Characteristics of Anatase Titania Nanofluids Flowing Through a Circular <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kristiawan, Budi; Kamal, Samsul; Yanuar</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The thermo-hydraulic characteristics of anatase titanium dioxide dispersed into distilled water with particle concentration of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 vol.% were investigated experimentally in this work. The influence of rheological behavior on hydrodynamic and convective heat transfer characteristics was evaluated under both laminar and turbulent flow conditions in a plain <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and with twisted tape insert for twist ratio of 7. The nanofluids exhibited a strong shear-thinning behavior at low shear rate particularly higher particle concentration. The non-Newtonian titania nanofluids have also demonstrated a drag reduction phenomena in turbulent flow. At equal Reynolds number, the values of performance evaluation criterion in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> inserted a twisted tape were lower than those of in a plain <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. It implies the unfavourable energy budget for twisted tape insert. The convective heat transfer coefficient does not gradually enhance with an increase of particle concentration. The flow features due mainly to the rheology of colloidal dispersions might be a reason for this phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2920132','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2920132"><span>The Dynamic Regulation of Microcirculatory <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Function: Features Relevant to Transfusion Medicine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Steiner, Marie E; Hebbel, Robert P.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The microcirculation is not merely a passive <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for red cell transport, nutrient and gas exchange, but is instead a dynamic participant contributing to the multiple processes involved in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis and optimal end-organ function. The microcirculation’s angioarchitechture and surface properties influence <span class="hlt">conduit</span> function and flow dynamics over a wide spectrum of conditions, accommodating many different mechanical, pathological or organ-specific responses. The endothelium itself plays a critical role as the interface between tissues and blood components, participating in the regulation of coagulation, inflammation, vascular tone, and permeability. The complex nitric oxide pathways affect vasomotor tone and influence vascular <span class="hlt">conduit</span> caliber and distribution density, alter thrombotic propensity, and modify adhesion molecule expression. Nitric oxide pathways also interact with red blood cells and free hemoglobin moieties in normal and pathological conditions. Red blood cells themselves may affect flow dynamics. Altered rheology and compromised NO bioavailability from medical storage or disease states impede microcirculatory flow and adversely modulate vasodilation. The integration of the microcirculation as a system with respect to flow modulation is delicately balanced, and can be readily disrupted in disease states such as sepsis. This review will provide a comprehensive description of these varied and intricate functions of the microvasculature. PMID:20580315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5085779','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5085779"><span>Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve <span class="hlt">Conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Radtke, Christine</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa) or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based <span class="hlt">conduit</span> development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for enhancement of nerve regeneration. PMID:27775616</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...632235X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...632235X"><span>Long distance seawater intrusion through a karst <span class="hlt">conduit</span> network in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Zexuan; Bassett, Seth Willis; Hu, Bill; Dyer, Scott Barrett</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Five periods of increased electrical conductivity have been found in the karst <span class="hlt">conduits</span> supplying one of the largest first magnitude springs in Florida with water. Numerous well-developed <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks are distributed in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), Florida and connected to the Gulf of Mexico. A composite analysis of precipitation and electrical conductivity data provides strong evidence that the increases in conductivity are directly tied to seawater intrusion moving inland and traveling 11 miles against the prevailing regional hydraulic gradient from from Spring Creek Spring Complex (SCSC), a group of submarine springs at the Gulf Coast. A geochemical analysis of samples from the spring vent rules out anthropogenic contamination and upwelling regional recharge from the deep aquifer as sources of the rising conductivity. The interpretation is supported by the conceptual model established by prior researchers working to characterize the study area. This paper documents the first and longest case of seawater intrusion in the WKP, and also indicates significant possibility of seawater contamination through subsurface <span class="hlt">conduit</span> networks in a coastal karst aquifer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714591C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714591C"><span>Non-Newtonian rheology of bubble-bearing magmas: effects on <span class="hlt">conduit</span> dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colucci, Simone; Papale, Paolo; Montagna, Chiara</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Non-Newtonian rheology typically arises in magmas from the presence of a dispersed phase. In particular bubbles can reduce or increase the relative viscosity, depending on size and strain regime (i.e., capillary number), for example large bubbles, as well as low strain, reduce the apparent viscosity. In a Non-Newtonian regime it is not possible to define a strain-rate-independent viscosity and the velocity profile is complex. In this work we extended the 1D, steady, isothermal, multiphase non-homogeneous magma ascent model of Papale (2001) to 1.5D to include the Non-Newtonian effect of a bubble-bearing magma. The model has been tested with a basaltic test case. In this way we were able to calculate depth-dependent Non-newtonian velocity profiles across the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> radius along with shear strain-rate and viscosity distributions. Moreover, the model could quantify the effects of the Non-Newtonian rheology on <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow dynamics, in terms of flow variables (e.g. velocity, pressure). P. Papale (2001). Dynamics of magma flow in volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with variable fragmentation efficiency and nonequilibrium pumice degassing. JGR, 106, 11043-11065.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4074712','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4074712"><span>Laparoscopic radical cystectomy: neobladder or ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, debate still goes on</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Drewa, Tomasz; Olejniczak, Pawel; Chlosta, Piotr L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective To compare the pre, intra, and post–operative data between ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and neobladder urinary diversions during laparoscopic radical cystectomy(LRC). Material and methods Between 2006 and 2011, 63 patients who underwent LRC and urinary diversion had their data input prospectively into a database and said data used for the analysis. The outcome comparators were the patient demographics, operative time, conversion rate, blood loss, transfusion rate, morphine analgesic requirement, length of hospital stay, complication rates, follow up, and quality of life assessments. A Mantel–Haenszel test was used for dichotomous data and an inverse variance method was used for continuous data. P values less than 0.5 were considered significant Results Thirty–nine patients (60 ±7.11 years) had ileal <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and 24 patients (57 ±8.68 years) had neobladder urinary diversion. No difference was found (P >0.05) regarding age, BMI, smoking history, TURBT pathology result, blood loss, blood transfusion requirement, conversion rates, length of hospital stay, morphine requirement, complications, or follow–up and quality of life. The neobladder groups did have more previous abdominal operations and had significantly longer operative time. Conclusions We found no difference between either types of diversion in all comparative aspects except that the neobladder had longer operative times. This is the first comparative study between ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and neobladder urinary diversion after laparoscopic radical cystectomy and can pose as a bench mark for future comparisons. PMID:24982773</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5022204','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5022204"><span><span class="hlt">Conduit</span> and diffuse type groundwater flow regimes in young volcanic terrain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hicks, B.G. )</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>The Big Butte Springs Watershed Geohydrologic Study (Medford Water Commission and Rogue River National Forest, Medford, OR, 1990) compares the movement of the groundwater supplying these major domestic springs to karstic terrain groundwater flow regimes. The similarity of groundwater velocities and the characteristics of responses to precipitation events in young volcanic groundwater systems warrants the use of <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-like (and diffuse-like) for volcanic terrain to clearly differentiate from the karstic hydrogeologic terms turbulent solution <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow and diffuse darcian flow''. The <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-like systems in young volcanic terrain includes both the clinkery, rubbly interflow zones and the high hydraulic conductivity (K) basal zones. The basal zones are interpreted to originate as follows: (1) thin lava flows onto rivers/streams yielding through-going continuous groundwater passages by steam explosion and thermal shock, and (2) lava flows cover high K river gravel sequences. The (volcanic) diffuse component originates from fracture systems, minor interflow zones or from streams which were tributary to the pre-lava flow main river system. The presentation will highlight comparisons of data from karstic and volcanic terrain and include descriptions of several world-wide high velocity and high K volcanic groundwater systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4955497','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4955497"><span>Continent catheterizable <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for urinary diversion in children: Applicability and acceptability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, Muniamjanappa Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Ramesh, Santhanakrishnan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Continent catheterizable <span class="hlt">conduit</span> (CCC) has made clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) painless and easy. It is applicable in diverse clinical conditions. Nonetheless, convincing the parents for the need of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> procedure is still difficult. Materials and Methods: A prospective study, included children who underwent CCC procedure from March 2008 to February 2013. The data were assessed for; diagnosis, type of <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, number of preoperative counselling sessions before acceptance, role of “self-help group” in decision making, parental concern and satisfaction for the procedure. Results: Twenty-nine patients (males; 24, females; 5) underwent CCC procedure for various clinical conditions. The multiple preoperative counselling sessions and creation of “self-help groups” were helped them for decision making. The main concerns among parents were: (1) Impact of procedure on future fertility and sexual life. (2) Patency of native urethral channel. (3) Permanent urinary stoma over the abdomen. Conclusion: CCC procedures are applicable to a wide array of clinical situations with a good outcome. The acceptability of the CCC procedure improves with preoperative counselling of parent/child, initiation of preoperative per urethral CIC and creation of self-help groups. PMID:25659547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7105563','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7105563"><span>Imaging analysis of platelet deposition on the extracardiac valved <span class="hlt">conduit</span> in humans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kawata, H.; Matsuda, H.; Isaka, Y.; Kaneko, M.; Matsuwaka, R.; Kobayashi, J.; Matsuki, O.; Nakano, S.; Kimura, K.; Kawashima, Y. )</p> <p>1989-07-01</p> <p>In 14 patients (aged 2-29 yr) with Hancock (n = 11) or Carpentier-Edwards extracardiac valved <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (n = 3), platelet deposition (PD) was investigated using indium 111 ({sup 111}In) platelet imaging. Repeated studies were performed in five patients. By visual analysis, 71% (5/7) of the imagings (7 images/5 patients) showed PD at early study 1-3 months after surgery, 9% (1/11) at intermediate study at 6-46 months (mean 21 mon) (11 images/10 patients) and 0% at late study at 81-132 months (3 images/3 patients). Quantitative analysis was made using relative ratio of radioactivity at the graft area to the area of the brachiocephalic artery (platelet accumulation index or PAI). The PAI was 1.85 {plus minus} 0.47 (mean {plus minus} SD) at early study, 1.51 {plus minus} 0.23 at intermediate, and 1.36 {plus minus} 0.37 at late study (NS). There was no significant difference in the late pressure gradients across the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> (16-68 mon postoperatively) between the two groups with (n = 3) and without (n = 5) PD at the early stage (1-18 mon postoperatively, n = 8). The result may indicate that PD to the valved <span class="hlt">conduit</span> in the right ventricular (RV) outflow tract occurs early postoperatively (mostly within 3 mon). The relationship of the PD detected by this method to late obstruction was not clarified in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786058','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786058"><span>Nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduits</span> from aligned nanofibers: improvement of nerve regeneration through longitudinal nanogrooves on a fiber surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Chen; Ouyang, Yuanming; Niu, Haitao; He, Nanfei; Ke, Qinfei; Jin, Xiangyu; Li, Dawei; Fang, Jun; Liu, Wanjun; Fan, Cunyi; Lin, Tong</p> <p>2015-04-08</p> <p>A novel fibrous <span class="hlt">conduit</span> consisting of well-aligned nanofibers with longitudinal nanogrooves on the fiber surface was prepared by electrospinning and was subjected to an in vivo nerve regeneration study on rats using a sciatic nerve injury model. For comparison, a fibrous <span class="hlt">conduit</span> having a similar fiber alignment structure without surface groove and an autograft were also conducted in the same test. The electrophysiological, walking track, gastrocnemius muscle, triple-immunofluorescence, and immunohistological analyses indicated that grooved fibers effectively improved sciatic nerve regeneration. This is mainly attributed to the highly ordered secondary structure formed by surface grooves and an increase in the specific surface area. Fibrous <span class="hlt">conduits</span> made of longitudinally aligned nanofibers with longitudinal nanogrooves on the fiber surface may offer a new nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for peripheral nerve repair and regeneration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026436','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026436"><span>Application of near real-time radial semblance to locate the shallow magmatic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dawson, P.; Whilldin, D.; Chouet, B.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Radial Semblance is applied to broadband seismic network data to provide source locations of Very-Long-Period (VLP) seismic energy in near real time. With an efficient algorithm and adequate network coverage, accurate source locations of VLP energy are derived to quickly locate the shallow magmatic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> system at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. During a restart in magma flow following a brief pause in the current eruption, the shallow magmatic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is pressurized, resulting in elastic radiation from various parts of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> system. A steeply dipping distribution of VLP hypocenters outlines a region extending from sea level to about 550 m elevation below and just east of the Halemaumau Pit Crater. The distinct hypocenters suggest the shallow plumbing system beneath Halemaumau consists of a complex plexus of sills and dikes. An unconstrained location for a section of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is also observed beneath the region between Kilauea Caldera and Kilauea Iki Crater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28213098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28213098"><span>Gelatin-based 3D <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into Schwann cell-like phenotypes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uz, Metin; Büyüköz, Melda; Sharma, Anup D; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Altinkaya, Sacide Alsoy; Mallapragada, Surya K</p> <p>2017-02-16</p> <p>In this study, gelatin-based 3D <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with three different microstructures (nanofibrous, macroporous and ladder-like) were fabricated for the first time via combined molding and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) technique for peripheral nerve regeneration. The effects of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> microstructure and mechanical properties on the transdifferentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into Schwann cell (SC) like phenotypes were examined to help facilitate neuroregeneration and understand material-cell interfaces. Results indicated that 3D macroporous and ladder-like structures enhanced MSC attachment, proliferation and spreading, creating interconnected cellular networks with large numbers of viable cells compared to nanofibrous and 2D-tissue culture plate counterparts. 3D-ladder-like <span class="hlt">conduit</span> structure with complex modulus of ∼0.4×10(6)Pa and pore size of ∼150μm provided the most favorable microenvironment for MSC transdifferentiation leading to ∼85% immunolabeling of all SC markers. On the other hand, the macroporous <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with complex modulus of ∼4×10(6)Pa and pore size of ∼100μm showed slightly lower (∼65% for p75, ∼75% for S100 and ∼85% for S100β markers) immunolabeling. Transdifferentiated MSCs within 3D-ladder-like <span class="hlt">conduits</span> secreted significant amounts (∼2.5pg/mL NGF and ∼0.7pg/mL GDNF per cell) of neurotrophic factors, while MSCs in macroporous <span class="hlt">conduits</span> released slightly lower (∼1.5pg/mL NGF and 0.7pg/mL GDNF per cell) levels. PC12 cells displayed enhanced neurite outgrowth in media conditioned by <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with transdifferentiated MSCs. Overall, <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with macroporous and ladder-like 3D structures are promising platforms in transdifferentiation of MSCs for neuroregeneration and should be further tested in vivo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570167"><span>Enhanced noradrenergic axon regeneration into schwann cell-filled PVDF-TrFE <span class="hlt">conduits</span> after complete spinal cord transection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Yee-Shuan; Wu, Siliang; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston; Bunge, Mary Bartlett</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Schwann cell (SC) transplantation has been utilized for spinal cord repair and demonstrated to be a promising therapeutic strategy. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of combining SC transplantation with novel <span class="hlt">conduits</span> to bridge the completely transected adult rat spinal cord. This is the first and initial study to evaluate the potential of using a fibrous piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with SCs for spinal cord repair. PVDF-TrFE has been shown to enhance neurite growth in vitro and peripheral nerve repair in vivo. In this study, SCs adhered and proliferated when seeded onto PVDF-TrFE scaffolds in vitro. SCs and PVDF-TrFE <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, consisting of random or aligned fibrous inner walls, were transplanted into transected rat spinal cords for 3 weeks to examine early repair. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)(+) astrocyte processes and GFP (green fluorescent protein)-SCs were interdigitated at both rostral and caudal spinal cord/SC transplant interfaces in both types of <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, indicative of permissivity to axon growth. More noradrenergic/DβH(+) (dopamine-beta-hydroxylase) brainstem axons regenerated across the transplant when greater numbers of GFAP(+) astrocyte processes were present. Aligned <span class="hlt">conduits</span> promoted extension of DβH(+) axons and GFAP(+) processes farther into the transplant than random <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Sensory CGRP(+) (calcitonin gene-related peptide) axons were present at the caudal interface. Blood vessels formed throughout the transplant in both <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. This study demonstrates that PVDF-TrFE <span class="hlt">conduits</span> harboring SCs are promising for spinal cord repair and deserve further investigation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 444-456. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28823058','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28823058"><span>Polyurethane/Gelatin Nanofibrils Neural Guidance <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Containing Platelet-Rich Plasma and Melatonin for Transplantation of Schwann Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salehi, Majid; Naseri-Nosar, Mahdi; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Nourani, Mohammdreza; Khojasteh, Arash; Farzamfar, Saeed; Mansouri, Korosh; Ai, Jafar</p> <p>2017-08-19</p> <p>The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using a biodegradable porous neural guidance <span class="hlt">conduit</span> as a carrier to transplant allogeneic Schwann cells (SCs). The <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was prepared from polyurethane (PU) and gelatin nanofibrils (GNFs) using thermally induced phase separation technique and filled with melatonin (MLT) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The prepared <span class="hlt">conduit</span> had the porosity of 87.17 ± 1.89%, the contact angle of 78.17 ± 5.30° and the ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus of 5.40 ± 0.98 MPa and 3.13 ± 0.65 GPa, respectively. The <span class="hlt">conduit</span> lost about 14% of its weight after 60 days in distilled water. The produced <span class="hlt">conduit</span> enhanced the proliferation of SCs demonstrated by a tetrazolium salt-based assay. For functional analysis, the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was seeded with 1.50 × 10(4) SCs (PU/GNFs/PRP/MLT/SCs) and implanted into a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect of Wistar rat. Three control groups were used: (1) PU/GNFs/SCs, (2) PU/GNFs/PRP/SCs, and (3) Autograft. The results of sciatic functional index, hot plate latency, compound muscle action potential amplitude and latency, weight-loss percentage of wet gastrocnemius muscle and histopathological examination using hematoxylin-eosin and Luxol fast blue staining, demonstrated that using the PU/GNFs/PRP/MLT <span class="hlt">conduit</span> to transplant SCs to the sciatic nerve defect resulted in a higher regenerative outcome than the PU/GNFs and PU/GNFs/PRP <span class="hlt">conduits</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27397950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27397950"><span><span class="hlt">Conduit</span> margin heating and deformation during the AD 1886 basaltic Plinian eruption at Tarawera volcano, New Zealand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schauroth, Jenny; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Kennedy, Ben; von Aulock, Felix W; Lavallée, Yan; Damby, David E; Vasseur, Jérémie; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B</p> <p></p> <p>During explosive eruptions, a suspension of gas and pyroclasts rises rapidly within a <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Here, we have analysed textures preserved in the walls of a pyroclastic feeder dyke of the AD 1886 Tarawera basaltic Plinian fissure eruption. The samples examined consist of basaltic ash and scoria plastered onto a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall of a coherent rhyolite dome and a welded rhyolitic dome breccia. We examine the textural evidence for the response of the wall material, built of ∼75 vol.% glass and ∼25 vol.% crystals (pore-free equivalent), to mass movement in the adjacent <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. In the rhyolitic wall material, we quantify the orientation and aspect ratio of biotite crystals as strain markers of simple shear deformation, and interpret juxtaposed regions of vesiculation and vesicle collapse as evidence of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall heating. Systematic changes occur close to the margin: (1) porosity is highly variable, with areas locally vesiculated or densified, (2) biotite crystals are oriented with their long axis parallel to the margin, (3) the biotites have greater aspect ratios close to the margin and (4) the biotite crystals are fractured. We interpret the biotite phenocryst deformation to result from crystal fracture, rotation and cleavage-parallel bookcase translation. These textural observations are inferred to indicate mechanical coupling between the hot gas-ash jet and the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall and reheating of wall rock rhyolite. We couple these observations with a simple 1D conductive heating model to show what minimum temperature the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall needs to reach in order to achieve a temperature above the glass transition throughout the texturally-defined deformed zone. We propose that <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall heating and resulting deformation influences <span class="hlt">conduit</span> margin outgassing and may enhance the intensity of such large basaltic eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.V71B..04D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.V71B..04D"><span>Ash Production in Eruptive Flows: Comminution in <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> and Pyroclastic Flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dufek, J.; Manga, M.; Patel, A.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Processes occurring at the grain scale, termed microphysical processes, can exert strong control of explosive eruption dynamics. In this talk we illustrate the importance of particle-particle interaction on the mass and momentum balance of eruptive flows. In particular we examine the break-up and transport of clasts during particle-particle interactions for two high-energy flow environments: pyroclastic and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flows. Abrasion and comminution of pumice clasts during the propagation of pyroclastic flows and post-fragmentation <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow have long been recognized as a potential source for the enhanced production of volcanic ash, however its relative importance has eluded quantification. The amount of fine-material produced in-situ can potentially affect runout distance, deposit sorting, the volume of ash introduced in the upper atmosphere, and internal pore pressure in pyroclastic flows. We conduct a series of laboratory experiments on the collisional production of ash that may occur during different regimes of pyroclastic flow transport and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow. Using these laboratory experiments we develop a subgrid model for ash production that can be included in analytical and multiphase numerical procedures to estimate the total volume of ash produced during transport. We find that for most pyroclastic flow conditions, 10-20% of the initially 1 cm clasts comminutes into ash with the percentage increasing as a function of initial flow energy. Most of the ash is produced in the high-energy regions near the flow inlet, although flow acceleration on steep slopes can produce ash far from the vent. On level terrain, collisionally and frictionally produced ash generates gravity currents that detach from the main flow. Ash produced at the frictional base of the flow and in the collisional upper regions of the flow can be redistributed through the entirety of the flow, although frictionally produced ash accumulates preferentially near its source in the bed load. Flows that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....7294W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....7294W"><span>Using ballistic bombs at Pichincha volcano, Ecuador as a proxy for <span class="hlt">conduit</span> dynamics in Vulcanian eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wright, H.; Rosi, M.; Cioni, R.; Cashman, K.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Vulcanian eruptions are perhaps the most common style of eruptive activity at intermediate composition volcanoes, as they often precede and/or follow much larger Plinian events. Vulcanian eruptions occur in energetic, short-duration pulses and eject relatively small amounts of material. However, although each pulse has been inferred to represent the ejection of a shallow <span class="hlt">conduit</span> plug, the dynamics and mechanics of vulcanian eruptions are not well understood; the character of the material that is ejected, the amount of erupted material, the pressurization conditions preceding eruption, and the maximum depth that these eruptions tap are unresolved questions. To address conditions leading to Vulcanian eruptions, we are studying ballistic bombs ejected from the 1999-2000 vulcanian eruptions at Guagua Pichincha volcano, Ecuador. Bomb types range from dense to highly vesicular, with many exhibiting the breadcrusting that is ubiquitous in Vulcanian deposits. Clast morphology varies with clast density, with slightly vesicular bombs having thick, glassy crusts with widely spaced cracks, while more vesicular bombs have thinner crusts and more closely spaced crack patterns. We suggest that the wide range of clast types may represent the stratigraphy of the uppermost <span class="hlt">conduit</span> prior to each eruptive event, with denser blocks representing more degassed magma from near the top of the pre-eruptive <span class="hlt">conduit</span> plug and more vesicular blocks representing deeper, less degassed levels in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Quantification of both the breadcrust crack structures (e.g. crack orientation, density of the rind, and crack spacing) and the interior porosity and permeability of each bomb type allows us to examine the thermal, vesiculation and expansion history of the erupted material. Different breadcrust types experienced variable degrees of expansion. For example, the volume expansion of the most vesicular clast is ~6% based on the relationship between crack volume and total bomb volume, whereas the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3833032','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3833032"><span>Transplantation of Autologous Minced Bladder Mucosa for a One-Step Reconstruction of a Tissue Engineered Bladder <span class="hlt">Conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reinfeldt Engberg, Gisela; Chamorro, Clara Ibel; Nordenskjöld, Agneta</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Surgical intervention is sometimes needed to create a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> from the abdominal wall to the bladder for self-catheterization. We developed a method for tissue engineering a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for bladder emptying without in vitro cell culturing as a one-step procedure. In a porcine animal model bladder, wall tissue was excised and the mucosa was minced to small particles. The particles were attached to a tube in a 1 : 3 expansion rate with fibrin glue and transplanted back by attaching the tube to the bladder and through the abdominal wall. Sham served as controls. After 4-5 weeks, <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were assessed in respect to macroscopic and microscopic appearance in 6 pigs. Two pigs underwent radiology before termination. Gross examination revealed a patent <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with an opening to the bladder. Histology and immunostaining showed a multilayered transitional uroepithelium in all cases. Up to 89% of the luminal surface area was neoepithelialized but with a loose attachment to the submucosa. No epithelium was found in control animals. CT imaging revealed a patent channel that could be used for filling and emptying the bladder. Animals that experienced surgical complications did not form <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Minced autologous bladder mucosa can be transplanted around a tubular mold to create a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> to the urinary bladder without in vitro culturing. PMID:24288669</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3875632','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3875632"><span>Blood Pressure Regulation VIII: Resistance Vessel Tone and Implications for a Pro-Atherogenic <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Artery Endothelial Cell Phenotype</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Fadel, Paul J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Dysfunction of the endothelium is proposed as the primary initiator of atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease, which occurs mainly in medium to large-sized <span class="hlt">conduit</span> arteries of the lower extremities (e.g., iliac, femoral, popliteal arteries). In this review article, we propose the novel concept that <span class="hlt">conduit</span> artery endothelial cell phenotype is determined, in part, by microvascular tone in skeletal muscle resistance arteries through both changes in arterial blood pressure as well as upstream <span class="hlt">conduit</span> artery shear stress patterns. First, we summarize the literature supporting the involvement of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the modulation of microvascular tone and arterial blood pressure. We then focus on the role of elevated blood pressure and shear stress profiles in modulating <span class="hlt">conduit</span> artery endothelial cell phenotype. Last, we discuss findings from classic and emerging studies indicating that increased vascular resistance, as it occurs in the context of increased SNA and/or reduced NO bioavailability, is associated with greater oscillatory shear stress (e.g., increased retrograde shear) in upstream <span class="hlt">conduit</span> arteries. The ideas put forth in this review set the stage for a new paradigm concerning the mechanistic link between increased microvascular tone and development of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> artery endothelial dysfunction and thus increased risk for peripheral artery disease. Indeed, a vast amount of evidence supports the notion that excessive blood pressure and oscillatory shear stress are potent pro-atherogenic signals to the endothelium. PMID:23860841</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/airmspi/airmspi_podex/big_sur_ellipsoid_images','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/airmspi/airmspi_podex/big_sur_ellipsoid_images"><span>AirMSPI PODEX Big <span class="hlt">Sur</span> Ellipsoid Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-11</p> <p>... Browse Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Big <span class="hlt">Sur</span> target 02/03/2013 Ellipsoid-projected   Select link to ...   Version number   For more information, see the  Data Product Specifications (DPS) ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V21B2709S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V21B2709S"><span><span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Processes Driving Pre-explosive Harmonic Tremor in the 2009 Redoubt Volcano Eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Summers, P.; Dunham, E. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>During the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, gliding harmonic tremor was observed before many vulcanian explosions. Though harmonic tremor is relatively common at volcanoes, the high fundamental frequency of these tremors (up to 30 Hz) is unique and of particular interest. Hotovec et al. (JVGR, 2013) linked this tremor to rapidly repeating magnitude ~1 earthquakes located a few kilometers beneath the vent. These events might be occurring as brittle failure of the magma or as slip along the margins of an obstruction within the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Using a frictional faulting model, Dmitrieva et al. (Nature Geoscience, 2013) converted the seismicity and tremor signals into an estimate of the history of shear stresses acting on the fault surface and causing slip. Stressing rates increased, in a nonlinear manner, from less than 1 MPa/s to about 20 MPa/s over the final ten minutes before the explosions. Here we investigate what <span class="hlt">conduit</span> processes could plausibly be responsible for such high stressing rates. One possibility is that a blockage develops in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> prior to each explosion, perhaps from a crystal-rich magma plug or collapse of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> walls. This obstacle temporarily prevents upward flow of magma, while deeper influx from below thus compresses and pressurizes magma in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> beneath the blockage. This compression largely occurs between the base of the obstruction and the H2O exsolution depth, which petrologic estimates of volatile content and standard solubility laws suggest is nominally located about a kilometer or two deeper than the blockage. We solve the unsteady <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow equations (mass and momentum balance for a compressible, viscous mixture of gas and liquid). Gas exsolution is treated with Henry's law, and in our present models exsolution begins abruptly below a critical pressure. No flow is permitted past the blockage and the system is driven by steady influx at depth. We find that as magma accumulates within the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> beneath the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211147T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211147T"><span>Linking observations at active volcanoes to physical processes through <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Mark; Neuberg, Jurgen</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Low frequency seismic events observed on volcanoes such as Soufriere hills, Montserrat may offer key indications about the state of a volcanic system. To obtain a better understanding of the source of these events and of the physical processes that take place within a volcano it is necessary to understand the conditions of magma a depth. This can be achieved through <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow modelling (Collier & Neuberg, 2006). 2-D compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved through a Finite Element approach, for differing initial water and crystal contents, magma temperatures, chamber overpressures and geometric shapes of <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. In the fully interdependent modelled system each of these variables has an effect on the magma density, viscosity, gas content, and also the pressure within the flow. These variables in turn affect the magma ascent velocity and the overall eruption dynamics of an active system. Of particular interest are the changes engendered in the flow by relativity small variations in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry. These changes can have a profound local effect of the ascent velocity of the magma. By restricting the width of 15m wide, 5000m long vertical <span class="hlt">conduit</span> over a 100m distance a significant acceleration of the magma is seen in this area. This has implications for the generation of Low-Frequency (LF) events at volcanic systems. The strain-induced fracture of viscoelastic magma or brittle failure of melt has been previously discussed as a possible source of LF events by several authors (e.g. Tuffen et al., 2003; Neuberg et al., 2006). The location of such brittle failure however has been seen to occur at relativity shallow depths (<1000m), which does not agree with the location of recorded LF events. By varying the geometry of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and causing accelerations in the magma flow, localised increases in the shear strain rate of up to 30% are observed. This provides a mechanism of increasing the depth over witch brittle failure of melt may occur. A key observable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3860941','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3860941"><span>Lignes directrices canadiennes <span class="hlt">sur</span> la rhinosinusite chronique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kaplan, Alan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Résumé Objectif Présenter un résumé clinique des lignes directrices canadiennes <span class="hlt">sur</span> la rhinosinusite chronique (RSC) qui comporte des recommandations pertinentes aux médecins de famille. Qualité des données Les auteurs des lignes directrices ont effectué une recherche documentaire systématique dans la littérature médicale et ont rédigé une ébauche de recommandations. Une cote a été donnée à la fois en fonction de la fiabilité des données probantes et de la solidité des recommandations. On a sollicité les commentaires d’experts en contenu de l’extérieur, ainsi que l’aval des sociétés médicales (Association pour la microbiologie médicale et l’infectiologie Canada, Société canadienne d’allergie et d’immunologie clinique, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Association canadienne des médecins d’urgence et Regroupement canadien des médecins de famille en santé respiratoire). Message principal Le diagnostic d’une RSC se fonde <span class="hlt">sur</span> le type et la durée des symptômes et une constatation objective d’une inflammation de la muqueuse nasale ou des sinus paranasaux. La rhinosinusite chronique est catégorisée en fonction de la présence ou de l’absence de polypes nasaux et cette distinction entraîne des différences dans le traitement. On traite la rhinosinusite chronique avec polypes nasaux au moyen de corticostéroïdes par voie intranasale. Des antibiotiques sont recommandés quand les symptômes indiquent une infection (douleur ou purulence). Pour une RSC sans polypes nasaux, on recommande des corticostéroïdes par voie intranasale et des antibiotiques de deuxième ligne (par ex. combinaisons amoxicilline–acide clavulanique ou fluoroquinolones à activité accrue contre Gram positif). Une irrigation avec une solution saline, des stéroïdes par voie orale et des tests d’allergies pourraient être appropriées. Si le patient ne répond pas au traitement, il faudrait envisager d</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085857"><span>A comparison of the performance of mono- and bi-component electrospun <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in a rat sciatic model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cirillo, Valentina; Clements, Basak A; Guarino, Vincenzo; Bushman, Jared; Kohn, Joachim; Ambrosio, Luigi</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Synthetic nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> represent a promising strategy to enhance functional recovery in peripheral nerve injury repair. However, the efficiency of synthetic nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> is often compromised by the lack of molecular factors to create an enriched microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Here, we investigate the in vivo response of mono (MC) and bi-component (BC) fibrous <span class="hlt">conduits</span> obtained by processing via electrospinning poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and gelatin solutions. In vitro studies demonstrate that the inclusion of gelatin leads to uniform electrospun fiber size and positively influences the response of Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRGs) neurons as confirmed by the preferential extensions of neurites from DRG bodies. This behavior can be attributed to gelatin as a bioactive cue for the cultured DRG and to the reduced fibers size. However, in vivo studies in rat sciatic nerve defect model show an opposite response: MC <span class="hlt">conduits</span> stimulate superior nerve regeneration than gelatin containing PCL <span class="hlt">conduits</span> as confirmed by electrophysiology, muscle weight and histology. The G-ratio, 0.71 ± 0.07 for MC and 0.66 ± 0.05 for autograft, is close to 0.6, the value measured in healthy nerves. In contrast, BC implants elicited a strong host response and infiltrating tissue occluded the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> preventing the formation of myelinated axons. Therefore, although gelatin promotes in vitro nerve regeneration, we conclude that bi-component electrospun <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are not satisfactory in vivo due to intrinsic limits to their mechanical performance and degradation kinetics, which are essential to peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28138239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28138239"><span>Nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with a hybrid structure of a PLGA microfibrous bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured membrane.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Shih-Wen; Li, Ching-Wen; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Wang, Gou-Jen</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Nerve repair in tissue engineering involves the precise construction of a scaffold to guide nerve cell regeneration in the desired direction. However, improvements are needed to facilitate the cell migration/growth rate of nerves in the center of a nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. In this paper, we propose a nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with a hybrid structure comprising a microfibrous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured PLGA membrane. We applied sequential fabrication processes, including photolithography, nano-electroforming, and polydimethylsiloxane casting to manufacture master molds for the repeated production of the PLGA subelements. After demolding it from the master molds, we rolled the microfibrous membrane into a bundle and then wrapped it in the micro/nanostructured membrane to form a nerve-guiding <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. We used KT98/F1B-GFP cells to estimate the migration rate and guidance ability of the fabricated nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and found that both elements increased the migration rate 1.6-fold compared with a flat PLGA membrane. We also found that 90% of the cells in the hybrid nano/microstructured membrane grew in the direction of the designed patterns. After 3 days of culturing, the interior of the nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was filled with cells, and the microfiber bundle was also surrounded by cells. Our <span class="hlt">conduit</span> cell culture results also demonstrate that the proposed micro/nanohybrid and microfibrous structures can retain their shapes. The proposed hybrid-structured <span class="hlt">conduit</span> demonstrates a high capability for guiding nerve cells and promoting cell migration, and, as such, is feasible for use in clinical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S51D2728L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S51D2728L"><span>A Linearized Model for Wave Propagation through Coupled Volcanic <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>-crack Systems Filled with Multiphase Magma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, C.; Dunham, E. M.; OReilly, O. J.; Karlstrom, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Both the oscillation of magma in volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and resonance of fluid-filled cracks (dikes and sills) are appealing explanations for very long period signals recorded at many active volcanoes. While these processes have been studied in isolation, real volcanic systems involve interconnected networks of <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and cracks. The overall objective of our work is to develop a model of wave propagation and ultimately eruptive fluid dynamics through this coupled system. Here, we present a linearized model for wave propagation through a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with multiple cracks branching off of it. The fluid is compressible and viscous, and is comprised of a mixture of liquid melt and gas bubbles. Nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption (BGR) is quantified by introducing a time scale for mass exchange between phases, following the treatment in Karlstrom and Dunham (2015). We start by deriving the dispersion relation for crack waves travelling along the multiphase-magma-filled crack embedded in an elastic solid. Dissipation arises from magma viscosity, nonequilibrium BGR, and radiation of seismic waves into the solid. We next introduce coupling conditions between the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and crack, expressing conservation of mass and the balance of forces across the junction. Waves in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, like those in the crack, are influenced by nonequilibrium BGR, but the deformability of the surrounding solid is far less important than for cracks. Solution of the coupled system of equations provides the evolution of pressure and fluid velocity within the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>-crack system. The system has various resonant modes that are sensitive to fluid properties and to the geometry of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and cracks. Numerical modeling of seismic waves in the solid allows us to generate synthetic seismograms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JCHyd.110...34F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JCHyd.110...34F"><span>Laboratory analog and numerical study of groundwater flow and solute transport in a karst aquifer with <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and matrix domains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faulkner, Jonathan; Hu, Bill X.; Kish, Stephen; Hua, Fei</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>New mathematical and laboratory methods have been developed for simulating groundwater flow and solute transport in karst aquifers having <span class="hlt">conduits</span> imbedded in a porous medium, such as limestone. The Stokes equations are used to model the flow in the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and the Darcy equation is used for the flow in the matrix. The Beavers-Joseph interface boundary conditions are adopted to describe the flow exchange at the interface boundary between the two domains. A laboratory analog is used to simulate the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and matrix domains of a karst aquifer. The <span class="hlt">conduit</span> domain is located at the bottom of the transparent plexiglas laboratory analog and glass beads occupy the remaining space to represent the matrix domain. Water flows into and out of the two domains separately and each has its own supply and outflow reservoirs. Water and solute are exchanged through an interface between the two domains. Pressure transducers located within the matrix and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> domains of the analog provide data that is processed and stored in digital format. Dye tracing experiments are recorded using time-lapse imaging. The data and images produced are analyzed by a spatial analysis program. The experiments provide not only hydraulic head distribution but also capture solute front images and mass exchange measurements between the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and matrix domains. In the experiment, we measure and record pressures, and quantify flow rates and solute transport. The results present a plausible argument that laboratory analogs can characterize groundwater water flow, solute transport, and mass exchange between the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and matrix domains in a karst aquifer. The analog validates the predictions of a numerical model and demonstrates the need of laboratory analogs to provide verification of proposed theories and the calibration of mathematical models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5238773','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5238773"><span>Nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with a hybrid structure of a PLGA microfibrous bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured membrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peng, Shih-Wen; Li, Ching-Wen; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Wang, Gou-Jen</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Nerve repair in tissue engineering involves the precise construction of a scaffold to guide nerve cell regeneration in the desired direction. However, improvements are needed to facilitate the cell migration/growth rate of nerves in the center of a nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. In this paper, we propose a nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with a hybrid structure comprising a microfibrous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured PLGA membrane. We applied sequential fabrication processes, including photolithography, nano-electroforming, and polydimethylsiloxane casting to manufacture master molds for the repeated production of the PLGA subelements. After demolding it from the master molds, we rolled the microfibrous membrane into a bundle and then wrapped it in the micro/nanostructured membrane to form a nerve-guiding <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. We used KT98/F1B-GFP cells to estimate the migration rate and guidance ability of the fabricated nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and found that both elements increased the migration rate 1.6-fold compared with a flat PLGA membrane. We also found that 90% of the cells in the hybrid nano/microstructured membrane grew in the direction of the designed patterns. After 3 days of culturing, the interior of the nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was filled with cells, and the microfiber bundle was also surrounded by cells. Our <span class="hlt">conduit</span> cell culture results also demonstrate that the proposed micro/nanohybrid and microfibrous structures can retain their shapes. The proposed hybrid-structured <span class="hlt">conduit</span> demonstrates a high capability for guiding nerve cells and promoting cell migration, and, as such, is feasible for use in clinical applications. PMID:28138239</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoMP..171...60C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoMP..171...60C"><span>Confort 15 model of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> dynamics: applications to Pantelleria Green Tuff and Etna 122 BC eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Campagnola, S.; Romano, C.; Mastin, L. G.; Vona, A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Numerical simulations are useful tools to illustrate how flow parameters and physical processes may affect eruption dynamics of volcanoes. In this paper, we present an updated version of the Conflow model, an open-source numerical model for flow in eruptive <span class="hlt">conduits</span> during steady-state pyroclastic eruptions (Mastin and Ghiorso in A numerical program for steady-state flow of magma-gas mixtures through vertical eruptive <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 00-209, 2000). In the modified version, called Confort 15, the rheological constraints are improved, incorporating the most recent constitutive equations of both the liquid viscosity and crystal-bearing rheology. This allows all natural magma compositions, including the peralkaline melts excluded in the original version, to be investigated. The crystal-bearing rheology is improved by computing the effect of strain rate and crystal shape on the rheology of natural magmatic suspensions and expanding the crystal content range in which rheology can be modeled compared to the original version ( Conflow is applicable to magmatic mixtures with up to 30 vol% crystal content). Moreover, volcanological studies of the juvenile products (crystal and vesicle size distribution) of the investigated eruption are directly incorporated into the modeling procedure. Vesicle number densities derived from textural analyses are used to calculate, through Toramaru equations, maximum decompression rates experienced during ascent. Finally, both degassing under equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions are considered. This allows considerations on the effect of different fragmentation criteria on the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow analyses, the maximum volume fraction criterion ("porosity criterion"), the brittle fragmentation criterion and the overpressure fragmentation criterion. Simulations of the pantelleritic and trachytic phases of the Green Tuff (Pantelleria) and of the Plinian Etna 122 BC eruptions are performed to test the upgrades in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JHyd..440...26F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JHyd..440...26F"><span>Solute transport in solution <span class="hlt">conduits</span> exhibiting multi-peaked breakthrough curves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Field, Malcolm S.; Leij, Feike J.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>SummarySolute transport in karst aquifers is primarily constrained to solution <span class="hlt">conduits</span> where transport is rapid, turbulent, and relatively unrestrictive. Breakthrough curves generated from tracer tests are typically positively-skewed and may exhibit multiple peaks. In order to understand the circumstances under which multi-peaked positively skewed breakthrough curves occur, physical experiments utilizing single- and multiple-flow channels were conducted. Experiments also included waterfalls, short-term solute detention in pools, and flow obstructions. Results demonstrated that breakthrough curve skewness nearly always occurs to some degree but is magnified as immobile-flow regions are encountered. Multi-peaked breakthrough curves occurred when flow in the main channel became partially occluded from blockage in the main channel that forced divergence of solute into auxiliary channels and when waterfalls and detention in pools occurred. Currently, multi-peaked breakthrough curves are fitted by a multi-dispersion model in which a series of curves generated by the advection-dispersion equation are fitted to each measured peak by superimposing the measured breakthrough curve to obtain a combined model fit with a consequent set of estimated velocities and dispersions. In this paper, a dual-advection dispersion equation with first-order mass transfer between <span class="hlt">conduits</span> was derived. The dual-advection dispersion equation was then applied to the multi-peaked breakthrough curves obtained from the physical experiments in order to obtain some insight into the operative solute-transport processes through the acquisition of a consequent set of velocities, dispersions, and related parameters. Successful application of the dual-advection, dispersion equation to a tracer test that exhibited dual peaks for a karst aquifer known to consist of two connected but mostly separate <span class="hlt">conduits</span> confirmed the appropriateness of using a multi-dispersion type model when conditions warrant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25853547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25853547"><span>Orientated Guidance of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Using <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> with a Microtube Array Sheet (MTAS).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yueming; Wang, Wenjin; Wo, Yan; Gui, Ting; Zhu, Hao; Mo, Xiumei; Chen, Chien-Chung; Li, Qingfeng; Ding, Wenlong</p> <p>2015-04-29</p> <p>Material surface topography has been shown to affect the biological behavior of cells in vitro; however, the in vivo effect on peripheral nerve regeneration has not been explored. Here, we studied the potential of a microtube array sheet (MTAS) with a unique longitudinal surface topography to promote peripheral nerve regeneration efficiency, both in vivo and in vitro. Schwann cells, spinal cord motor neurons, and dorsal root ganglion neurons were seeded on the MTAS to study the effect of the construct on the biological properties and behaviors of neural cells. The MTAS guided the oriented migration of Schwann cells without affecting other critical biological properties, such as proliferation and neurotrophin expression. In addition, the MTAS guided the directed extension of neurites from both types of neurons. Next, we tested the capability of the MTAS to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration by bridging a 10 mm sciatic nerve defect in rats with a nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> equipped with an MTAS lining. The MTAS significantly promoted peripheral nerve regeneration, as suggested by the greater fiber caliber in the midconduit and the greater abundance of fibers in nerve segment distal to the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis suggested the orientated guidance of nerve regeneration by the MTAS, as indicated by the smaller eccentricity of the nerve fibers and the concordant arrangement of the collagen fiber in both the fibers and the matrix in the MTAS group. Our results collectively suggest that the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with the MTAS developed in this study have significant potential for facilitating peripheral nerve regeneration by modifying critical biological behaviors and guiding orientated nerve growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017TCry...11..303M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017TCry...11..303M"><span>The past, present, and future viscous heat dissipation available for Greenland subglacial <span class="hlt">conduit</span> formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mankoff, Kenneth D.; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Basal hydrology of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) influences its dynamics and mass balance through basal lubrication and ice-bed decoupling or efficient water removal and ice-bed coupling. Variations in subglacial water pressure through the seasonal evolution of the subglacial hydrological system help control ice velocity. Near the ice sheet margin, large basal <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are melted by the viscous heat dissipation (VHD) from surface runoff routed to the bed. These <span class="hlt">conduits</span> may lead to efficient drainage systems that lower subglacial water pressure, increase basal effective stress, and reduce ice velocity. In this study we quantify the energy available for VHD historically at present and under future climate scenarios. At present, 345 km3 of annual runoff delivers 66 GW to the base of the ice sheet per year. These values are already ˜ 50 % more than the historical 1960-1999 value of 46 GW. By 2100 under IPCC AR5 RCP8.5 (RCP4.5) scenarios, 1278 (524) km3 of runoff may deliver 310 (110) GW to the ice sheet base. Hence, the ice sheet may experience a 5-to-7-fold increase in VHD in the near future which will enhance opening of subglacial <span class="hlt">conduits</span> near the margin and will warm basal ice in the interior. The other significant basal heat source is geothermal heat flux (GHF), which has an estimated value of 36 GW within the present-day VHD area. With increasing surface meltwater penetration to the bed the basal heat budget in the active basal hydrology zone of the GIS will be increasingly dominated by VHD and relatively less sensitive to GHF, which may result in spatial changes in the ice flow field and in its seasonal variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..320...19P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..320...19P"><span>A robotic approach to mapping post-eruptive volcanic fissure <span class="hlt">conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parcheta, Carolyn E.; Pavlov, Catherine A.; Wiltsie, Nicholas; Carpenter, Kalind C.; Nash, Jeremy; Parness, Aaron; Mitchell, Karl L.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>VolcanoBot was developed to map volcanic vents and their underlying <span class="hlt">conduit</span> systems, which are rarely preserved and generally inaccessible to human exploration. It uses a PrimeSense Carmine 1.09 sensor for mapping and carries an IR temperature sensor, analog distance sensor, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) inside a protective shell. The first field test succeeded in collecting valuable scientific data but revealed several needed improvements, including more rugged cable connections and mechanical couplers, increased ground clearance, and higher-torque motors for uphill mobility. The second field test significantly improved on all of these aspects but it traded electrical ruggedness for reduced data collection speed. Data collected by the VolcanoBots, while intermittent, yield the first insights into the cm-scale geometry of volcanic fissures at depths of up to 25 m. VolcanoBot was deployed at the 1969 Mauna Ulu fissure system on Kīlauea volcano in Hawai'i. It collected first-of-its-kind data from inside the fissure system. We hypothesized that 1) fissure sinuosity should decrease with depth, 2) irregularity should be persistent with depth, 3) any blockages in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> should occur at the narrowest points, and 4) the fissure should narrow with depth until it is too narrow for VolcanoBot to pass or is plugged with solidified lava. Our field campaigns did not span enough lateral or vertical area to test sinuosity. The preliminary data indicate that 1) there were many irregularities along fissures at depth, 2) blockages occurred, but not at obviously narrow locations, and 3) the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> width remained a consistent 0.4-0.5 m for most of the upper 10 m that we analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23707012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23707012"><span>Type I collagen nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for median nerve repairs in the forearm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dienstknecht, Thomas; Klein, Silvan; Vykoukal, Jody; Gehmert, Sebastian; Koller, Michael; Gosau, Martin; Prantl, Lukas</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>To evaluate patients with median nerve damage in the distal forearm treated with type 1 collagen nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Nine patients with damage to the median nerve in the distal forearm underwent treatment with a type 1 collagen nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The nerve gaps ranged between 1 and 2 cm. An independent observer reexamined patients after treatment at a minimal follow-up of 14 months and a mean follow-up of 21 months. Residual pain was evaluated using a visual analog scale. Functional outcome was quantified by assessing static 2-point discrimination, nerve conduction velocity relative to the uninjured limb, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand outcome measure scoring. We also recorded quality of life measures including patients' perceived satisfaction with the results and return to work latency. We observed no implant-related complications. Of 9 patients, 7 were free of pain, and the mean visual analog scale was 0.6. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 6. The static 2-point discrimination was less than 6 mm in 3 patients, between 6 and 10 mm in 4 patients, and over 10 mm in 2 patients. Six patients reached a status of M4 or higher. Eight patients were satisfied with the procedure and would undergo surgery again. This study indicates that purified type 1 bovine collagen <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are a practical and efficacious method for the repair of median nerves in the distal forearm. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24186149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24186149"><span>Preparation and evaluation of novel nano-bioglass/gelatin <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for peripheral nerve regeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koudehi, Masoumeh Foroutan; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Mansoori, Kourosh; Jamalpoor, Zahra; Amiri, Afsaneh; Nourani, Mohammad Reza</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Peripheral nerves are exposed to physical injuries usually caused by trauma that may lead to a significant loss of sensory or motor functions and is considered as a serious health problem for societies today. This study was designed to develop a novel nano bioglass/gelatin <span class="hlt">conduit</span> (BGGC) for the peripheral nerve regeneration. The bioglass nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel technique and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction analysis. The interfacial bonding interaction between the nano-bioglass and gelatin in the developed <span class="hlt">conduits</span> was assessed by FTIR. The surface morphology and pore size of the nanocomposite were investigated through scanning electron microscopy with the pore size of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> being 10-40 μm. Biocompatibility was assessed by MTT assay which indicated the BGGC to have good cytocompatibility. The guidance channel was examined and used to regenerate a 10 mm gap in the right sciatic nerve of a male Wistar rat. Twenty rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups, one with the BGGC and the other being normal rats. The gastrocnemius muscle contractility was also examined at one, two and three months post-surgery in all groups using electromyography (EMAP). Histological and functional evaluation and the results obtained from electromyography indicated that at three months, nerve regeneration of the BGGC group was statistically equivalent to the normal group (p > 0.05). Our result suggests that the BGGC can be a suitable candidate for peripheral nerve repair.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5198762','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5198762"><span>Lower Extremity Arterial Bypass with Arm Vein <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> and Literature Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Dae-Joon; Park, Yang-Jin; Yoon, Kyoung Won; Heo, Seon-Hee; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Young-Wook</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The superiority of autogenous vein <span class="hlt">conduits</span> is well known in lower extremity arterial bypass (LEAB). Among various alternative <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for LEAB, long-term results of arm vein grafts were investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical characteristics of 28 patients who underwent infrainguinal LEAB with autogenous arm vein grafts at a single institute between January 2003 and December 2015. All procedures were performed in the absence of adequate saphenous veins. Graft patency was determined by periodic examinations with duplex ultrasonography. Results: Autologous arm vein grafts were implanted for 28 patients (mean age, 60.4±16.8 years; range, 20–82 years; male, 92.9%; atherosclerosis, 19 [67.9%]; and non-atherosclerotic disease 9 [32.1%] including 5 patients with Buerger’s disease). Source of arm vein were basilic 13 (46.4%), cephalic 4 (14.3%) and composition graft with other veins in 11 (39.3%) cases. The level of distal anastomosis was distributed as popliteal in 5 (17.9%), tibio-peroneal in 21 (75.0%) and inframalleolar artery in 2 (7.1%) cases. Mean duration of follow-up was 41.5±46.9 months (range, 1–138 months). Cumulative primary patency rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 66.5%, 60.9% and 60.9%, respectively. Assisted-primary patency rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 66.5%, 66.5% and 66.5%, respectively. Secondary patency rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 70.8%, 70.8% and 70.8%, respectively. There was one limb amputation during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Arm veins are a useful alternative <span class="hlt">conduit</span> when great saphenous veins are not available during LEAB. PMID:28042555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28042555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28042555"><span>Lower Extremity Arterial Bypass with Arm Vein <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> and Literature Review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Dae-Joon; Park, Yang-Jin; Yoon, Kyoung Won; Heo, Seon-Hee; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Young-Wook</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The superiority of autogenous vein <span class="hlt">conduits</span> is well known in lower extremity arterial bypass (LEAB). Among various alternative <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for LEAB, long-term results of arm vein grafts were investigated in this study. We retrospectively reviewed clinical characteristics of 28 patients who underwent infrainguinal LEAB with autogenous arm vein grafts at a single institute between January 2003 and December 2015. All procedures were performed in the absence of adequate saphenous veins. Graft patency was determined by periodic examinations with duplex ultrasonography. Autologous arm vein grafts were implanted for 28 patients (mean age, 60.4±16.8 years; range, 20-82 years; male, 92.9%; atherosclerosis, 19 [67.9%]; and non-atherosclerotic disease 9 [32.1%] including 5 patients with Buerger's disease). Source of arm vein were basilic 13 (46.4%), cephalic 4 (14.3%) and composition graft with other veins in 11 (39.3%) cases. The level of distal anastomosis was distributed as popliteal in 5 (17.9%), tibio-peroneal in 21 (75.0%) and inframalleolar artery in 2 (7.1%) cases. Mean duration of follow-up was 41.5±46.9 months (range, 1-138 months). Cumulative primary patency rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 66.5%, 60.9% and 60.9%, respectively. Assisted-primary patency rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 66.5%, 66.5% and 66.5%, respectively. Secondary patency rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 70.8%, 70.8% and 70.8%, respectively. There was one limb amputation during the follow-up period. Arm veins are a useful alternative <span class="hlt">conduit</span> when great saphenous veins are not available during LEAB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMDI31A4256K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMDI31A4256K"><span><span class="hlt">Conduit</span> entrainment surrounding sinking metal-silicate plumes during core formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klein, S. M.; Brand, D.; Weeraratne, D. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Although the Earth today is segregated into two distinct compositional regions of a silicate mantle and metallic core, the process of differentiation from their original chondritic form is not clear. Continuous meteorite bombardment melted impactors and target bodies causing dissociation of metal from silicates which may have formed magma reservoirs or oceans. The heavy liquid metal phase will sink quickly through a silicate magma ocean and settle at the base as a metal pond. A high density metal pond will be unstable and is expected to sink as a Rayleigh-Taylor instability descending as liquid metal plumes to the core. Previous experiments have shown that lighter silicate material from the magma ocean becomes entrained as a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> that trails behind sinking metal diapirs. These silicates are then transported to the base of the mantle with implications for mantle and core composition. We perform laboratory fluid experiments which model this process of entrainment and differentiation using glass and gallium spheres in high viscosity liquid sucrose solutions. We use high speed photography and dye to visualize and measure <span class="hlt">conduit</span> formation and entrainment surrounding a descending sphere. Preliminary experiments indicate that the volume of material that surrounds a sphere is highest at the top of the box when the sphere begins its descent. As the sphere sinks, the entrainment of dyed fluid around the sphere decreases exponentially with falling distance. We suggest this is the result of drag forces acting on walls of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The volume of entrained material reduces by 80% in the upper 1/3 of the drop trajectory. As much as 8-10% of the original fluid volume is carried to the base of the box and will segregate from the sphere or diffuse after it settles. Higher viscosity fluids are observed to entrain more material on average compared to lower viscosity fluids. These results have important implications for delivery of silicate materials to the base of the mantle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871940','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871940"><span>Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> having a gradual bend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ortiz, Marcos German; Boucher, Timothy J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A system for measuring fluid flow in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/675796','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/675796"><span>Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> having a gradual bend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.</p> <p>1998-10-27</p> <p>A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175419','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175419"><span>Systems and methods for coating <span class="hlt">conduit</span> interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.</p> <p>2005-07-12</p> <p>Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/917199','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/917199"><span>Methods for coating <span class="hlt">conduit</span> interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.</p> <p>2007-10-02</p> <p>Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12405605','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12405605"><span>A dual-pressure boundary condition for use in simulations of bifurcating <span class="hlt">conduits</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gin, Ron; Straatman, Anthony G; Steinman, David A</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>A dual-pressure boundary condition has been developed for computational modelling of bifurcating <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. The condition involves the imposition of a constant pressure on one branch while adjusting iteratively the pressure on the other branch until the desired flow division is obtained. The dual-pressure condition eliminates the need for specifying fully-developed flow conditions, which thereby enables significant reduction of the outlet branch lengths. The dual-pressure condition is suitable for both steady and time-periodic simulations of laminar or turbulent flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15003852','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15003852"><span>ITER Model Coil Tests Overview: Nb3Sn Strand Properties in Cable-in-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span>-Conductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martovetsky, N N</p> <p>2003-04-14</p> <p>During the ITER Model Coil Program two large coils and three Insert coils were built and tested. The test campaigns provided very valuable data on the Conductor in <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Cable (CICC) properties. The tests showed that the Nb3Sn strands in CICC behave differently than so-called witness strands, which underwent the same heat treatment. The paper describes Volt-temperature characteristics (VTC) and Volt-Ampere characteristics (VAC) measured in the tests, presents comparisons with the witness strands, and interprets the test results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/426003','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/426003"><span>Pressure drop measurements of prototype NET and CEA cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductors (CICCs)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maekawa, R.; Smith, M.R.; Van Sciver, S.W.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The pressure drop of two prototype cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductors (CICCs) were measured. The NET conductor is a conventional type CICC, while the CEA conductor has a central flow channel to reduce hydraulic impedance. The pressure drop measurements were conducted with helium at temperatures ranging from 2K to 4.7K, and pressure from the saturated vapor pressure to in excess of 3 bar. Computer image analysis was used to estimate the flow cross sectional area and wetted perimeter of the conductors. The data are expressed in terms of a classical friction factor, and compared with precious experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V21B4747M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V21B4747M"><span>Oxidation of shallow <span class="hlt">conduit</span> magma: Insight from μ-XANES analysis on volcanic ash particle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miwa, T.; Ishibashi, H.; Iguchi, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Redox state of magma is important to understand dynamics of volcanic eruptions because magma properties such as composition of degassed volatiles, stability field of minerals, and rheology of magma depend on redox state. To evaluate redox state of magma, Fe3+/ΣFe ratio [= Fe3+/( Fe3++ Fe2+)] of volcanic glass has been measured non-destructively by Fe-K edge μ-XANES (micro X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy (e.g., Cottrell and Kelly, 2011). We performed textural, compositional, and Fe-K edge μ-XANES analyses on volcanic ash to infer oxidation process of magma at shallow <span class="hlt">conduit</span> during eruption at Bromo Volcano, Indonesia. The volcanic ash particles were collected in 24th March 2011 by real-time sampling from ongoing activity. The activity was characterized by strombolian eruption showing magma head ascended to near the ground surface. The ash sample contains two type of volcanic glasses named as Brown and Black glasses (BrG and BlG), based on their color. Textual analysis shows microlite crystallinities are same in the two type of glasses, ranging from 0 to 3 vol.%. EPMA analyses show that all of the glasses have almost identical andesitic composition with SiO2 = 60 wt.%. In contrast, Fe-K edge μ-XANES spectra with the analytical method by Ishibashi et al. (in prep) demonstrate that BrG (Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.20-0.26) is more oxidized than BlG (Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.32-0.60). From combination of the glass composition, the measured Fe3+/ΣFe ratio and 1060 degree C of temperature (Kress and Carmichael, 1991), the oxygen fugacities are estimated to be NNO and NNO+4 for BrG and BlG, respectively. The volcanic glasses preserve syn-eruptive physicochemical conditions by rapid quenching due to their small size ranging from 125 to 250 μm. Our results demonstrate that BrG and BlG magmas are textually and chemically identical but their redox conditions are different at the eruption. The oxidation of magma can be caused by following two processes; 1) diffusive transport</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoJI.171.1406H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoJI.171.1406H"><span>The influence of viscous and latent heating on crystal-rich magma flow in a <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hale, Alina J.; Wadge, Geoff; Mühlhaus, Hans B.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The flow dynamics of crystal-rich high-viscosity magma is likely to be strongly influenced by viscous and latent heat release. Viscous heating is observed to play an important role in the dynamics of fluids with temperature-dependent viscosities. The growth of microlite crystals and the accompanying release of latent heat should play a similar role in raising fluid temperatures. Earlier models of viscous heating in magmas have shown the potential for unstable (thermal runaway) flow as described by a Gruntfest number, using an Arrhenius temperature dependence for the viscosity, but have not considered crystal growth or latent heating. We present a theoretical model for magma flow in an axisymmetric <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and consider both heating effects using Finite Element Method techniques. We consider a constant mass flux in a 1-D infinitesimal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> segment with isothermal and adiabatic boundary conditions and Newtonian and non-Newtonian magma flow properties. We find that the growth of crystals acts to stabilize the flow field and make the magma less likely to experience a thermal runaway. The additional heating influences crystal growth and can counteract supercooling from degassing-induced crystallization and drive the residual melt composition back towards the liquidus temperature. We illustrate the models with results generated using parameters appropriate for the andesite lava dome-forming eruption at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. These results emphasize the radial variability of the magma. Both viscous and latent heating effects are shown to be capable of playing a significant role in the eruption dynamics of Soufrière Hills Volcano. Latent heating is a factor in the top two kilometres of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and may be responsible for relatively short-term (days) transients. Viscous heating is less restricted spatially, but because thermal runaway requires periods of hundreds of days to be achieved, the process is likely to be interrupted. Our models show that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28764245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28764245"><span>Bilateral Staghorn Calculus with Forgotten Double J Stent in Ileal <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Patient - A Rare Urological Challenge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gupta, Rupesh; Dey, Ranjan Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh; Gupta, Sweta</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Forgotten DJ stent associated stone formation is not an uncommon entity. Here we are reporting the uncommon case of bilateral staghorn calculus due to forgotten DJ stent who had undergone radical cystectomy with ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> diversion six years back. Management of these cases is a challenging urological situation due to inaccessible ureteric orifices. Patient was successfully treated with minimally invasive therapy in the form of combined bilateral PCNL (Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy) and ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy) therapy. The purpose of reporting this case is to highlight the grave consequences of a forgotten DJ stent and to discuss the difficulties encountered during the surgical steps of stone removal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=287818','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=287818"><span>POST-TRAUMATIC APICAL LEFT VENTRICULAR ANEURYSM IN A PATIENT WITH LEFT VENTRICULAR APICAL-ABDOMINAL AORTIC <span class="hlt">CONDUIT</span>: CASE PRESENTATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ugorji, Clement C.; Cooley, Denton A.; Norman, John C.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A patient with a small aortic annulus had an apico-aortic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> implanted for aortic stenosis approximately three years before being admitted to our institution. Four months after sustaining a steering wheel injury to the chest, he developed chest pain and palpitations. X-ray films and left ventriculograms revealed a large apical aneurysm of unknown duration. At surgery, it was noted that the proximal portion of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> had been sewn directly to the myocardium without the use of a rigid or soft apical outlet prosthesis incorporating a sewing ring. The aneurysm was resected along with a small proximal segment of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> graft. A polished Pyrolite® rigid inlet tube with a sewing ring and graft extension was inserted into the residual left ventricular apex, and continuity was reestablished with the abdominal segment of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. It is postulated that the aneurysm was caused by either the direct anastomosis of the fabric graft to the apical myocardium at the original operation (with subsequent disruption and aneurysm formation prior to the steering wheel injury), or was the result of fixation of the heart at the diaphragm by the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, with increased vulnerability to deceleration injury at the direct left ventricular apex myocardium-fabric graft site. Images PMID:15216296</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000346','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000346"><span>Physical rock properties in and around a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> zone by well-logging in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ikeda, R.; Kajiwara, T.; Omura, K.; Hickman, S.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP) is not only to reveal the structure and eruption history of the Unzen volcano but also to clarify the ascent and degassing mechanisms of the magma <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> drilling (USDP-4) was conducted in 2004, which targeted the magma <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for the 1990-95 eruption. The total drilled length of USDP-4 was 1995.75??m. Geophysical well logging, including resistivity, gamma-ray, spontaneous potential, sonic-wave velocity, density, neutron porosity, and Fullbore Formation MicroImager (FMI), was conducted at each drilling stage. Variations in the physical properties of the rocks were revealed by the well-log data, which correlated with not only large-scale formation boundaries but also small-scale changes in lithology. Such variations were evident in the lava dike, pyroclastic rocks, and breccias over depth intervals ranging from 1 to 40??m. These data support previous models for structure of the lava <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, in that they indicate the existence of alternating layers of high-resistivity and high P-wave velocity rocks corresponding to the lava dikes, in proximity to narrower zones exhibiting high porosity, low resistivity, and low P-wave velocity. These narrow, low-porosity zones are presumably higher in permeability than the adjacent rocks and may form preferential <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for degassing during magma ascent. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10925&hterms=big+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dbig%2Bdata','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10925&hterms=big+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dbig%2Bdata"><span>Fires Burning near Big <span class="hlt">Sur</span>, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><p/> Fires near Big <span class="hlt">Sur</span>, Calif., continued to burn unchecked when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on Sunday, June 29. In Northern California alone, fires have consumed more than 346,000 acres.At least 18,000 people have deployed to attempt to extinguish or control the flames. Air quality as far away as San Francisco has been adversely impacted by the dense clouds of smoke and ash blowing towards the northwest. The satellite image combines a natural color portrayal of the landscape with thermal infrared data showing the active burning areas in red. The dark area in the lower right is a previous forest fire. <p/> ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. <p/> The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. <p/> The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. <p/> Size: 35.4 by 57 kilometers (21.9 by 34.2 miles) Location: 36.1 degrees North latitude, 121.6 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49 feet) Dates Acquired: June 29</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10925&hterms=Big+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBig%2Bdata','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10925&hterms=Big+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBig%2Bdata"><span>Fires Burning near Big <span class="hlt">Sur</span>, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><p/> Fires near Big <span class="hlt">Sur</span>, Calif., continued to burn unchecked when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on Sunday, June 29. In Northern California alone, fires have consumed more than 346,000 acres.At least 18,000 people have deployed to attempt to extinguish or control the flames. Air quality as far away as San Francisco has been adversely impacted by the dense clouds of smoke and ash blowing towards the northwest. The satellite image combines a natural color portrayal of the landscape with thermal infrared data showing the active burning areas in red. The dark area in the lower right is a previous forest fire. <p/> ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. <p/> The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. <p/> The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. <p/> Size: 35.4 by 57 kilometers (21.9 by 34.2 miles) Location: 36.1 degrees North latitude, 121.6 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49 feet) Dates Acquired: June 29</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3168829','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3168829"><span>In vitro biocompatibility testing of some synthetic polymers used for the achievement of nervous <span class="hlt">conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Florescu, IP; Coroiu, V; Oancea, A; Lungu, M</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Biocompatible synthetic polymers are largely used in the bio–medical domain, tissue engineering and in controlled release of medicines. Polymers can be used in the achievement of cardiac and vascular devices, mammary implants, eye lenses, surgical threads, nervous <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, adhesives, blood substitutes, etc. Our study was axed on the development of cytotoxicity tests for 3 synthetic polymers, namely polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl chloride. These tests targeted to determine the viability and morphology of cells (fibroblasts) that were in indirect contact with the studied polymers. Cell viability achieved for all the studied synthetic polymers allowed their frame in biocompatible material category. Cell morphology did not significantly change, thus accomplishing a new biocompatibility criterion. The degree of biocompatibility of the studied polymers varied. Polyvinyl alcohol presented the highest grade of biocompatibility and polyvinyl chloride placed itself at the lowest limit of biocompatibility. The results achieved allowed the selection of those polymers that (by enhancing their degrees of biocompatibility due to the association with various biopolymers) will be used in the development of new biocompatible materials, useful in nervous <span class="hlt">conduits</span> manufacture. PMID:22567047</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24334142','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24334142"><span>Three-dimensional printed trileaflet valve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> using biological hydrogels and human valve interstitial cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duan, B; Kapetanovic, E; Hockaday, L A; Butcher, J T</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Tissue engineering has great potential to provide a functional de novo living valve replacement, capable of integration with host tissue and growth. Among various valve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> fabrication techniques, three-dimensional (3-D) bioprinting enables deposition of cells and hydrogels into 3-D constructs with anatomical geometry and heterogeneous mechanical properties. Successful translation of this approach, however, is constrained by the dearth of printable and biocompatible hydrogel materials. Furthermore, it is not known how human valve cells respond to these printed environments. In this study, 3-D printable formulations of hybrid hydrogels are developed, based on methacrylated hyaluronic acid (Me-HA) and methacrylated gelatin (Me-Gel), and used to bioprint heart valve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> containing encapsulated human aortic valvular interstitial cells (HAVIC). Increasing Me-Gel concentration resulted in lower stiffness and higher viscosity, facilitated cell spreading, and better maintained HAVIC fibroblastic phenotype. Bioprinting accuracy was dependent upon the relative concentrations of Me-Gel and Me-HA, but when optimized enabled the fabrication of a trileaflet valve shape accurate to the original design. HAVIC encapsulated within bioprinted heart valves maintained high viability, and remodeled the initial matrix by depositing collagen and glyosaminoglycans. These findings represent the first rational design of bioprinted trileaflet valve hydrogels that regulate encapsulated human VIC behavior. The use of anatomically accurate living valve scaffolds through bioprinting may accelerate understanding of physiological valve cell interactions and progress towards de novo living valve replacements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/837117','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/837117"><span>Low-quality habitat corridors as movement <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for two butterfly species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Haddad, Nick, M.; Tewksbury, Joshua, J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Haddad, Nick, M, and Joshua J. Tewksbury. Low-quality habitat corridors as movement <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for two butterfly species. Ecol. Apps. 15(1):250-257. Abstract. Corridors are a primary conservation tool to increase connectivity, promote individual movement, and increase gene flow among populations in fragmented landscapes. The establishment of effective conservation corridors will depend on constructing or pre-serving connecting habitat that attracts dispersing individuals. Yet, it remains unclear whether corridors must necessarily be composed of high-quality habitat to be effective and promote dispersal and gene flow. We address this issue with two mobile, open-habitat butterfly species, Junonia coenia HuÈbner and Euptoieta claudia Cramer. Using experimental landscapes created explicitly to examine the effects of corridors on dispersal rates, we show that open-habitat corridors can serve as dispersal <span class="hlt">conduits</span> even when corridors do not support resident butterfly populations. Both butterfly species were rare near forest edges and equally rare in narrow corridors, yet both species dispersed more often between patches connected by these corridors than between isolated patches. At least for species that can traverse corridors within a generation, corridor habitat may be lower in quality than larger patches and still increase dispersal and gene flow. For these species, abundance surveys may not accurately represent the conservation value of corridors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1361612-cold-work-study-modified-alloy-iter-tf-coil-conduit','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1361612-cold-work-study-modified-alloy-iter-tf-coil-conduit"><span>Cold work study on a 316LN modified alloy for the ITER TF coil <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Walsh, Robert; Toplosky, V. J.; McRae, D. M.; ...</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The primary structural component of the cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor (CICC) magnets, such as the ITER TF coils is the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. This function creates requirements for 4 K strength, toughness, fatigue crack resistance, and ductility after exposure to the superconductor's reaction heat treatment. The tensile ductility of a steel is a quality factor related to fatigue and fracture resistance that can be evaluated more economically with tensile tests rather than fatigue and fracture tests. We subject 316LN modified base metal and welds to a range of cold work from 0% to 20% and a subsequent Nb3Sn reaction heat treatment to evaluate themore » effects on the tensile properties. With the addition of cold work, the 4 K yield strength increases while tensile elongation decreases in both the base metal and weld. Our results are compared to previously published data on the same alloy to evaluate the use of tensile ductility parameters as a materials qualification specification in magnet design.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5482720','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5482720"><span>Actively evolving subglacial <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and eskers initiate ice shelf channels at an Antarctic grounding line</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Drews, R.; Pattyn, F.; Hewitt, I. J.; Ng, F. S. L.; Berger, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Helm, V.; Bergeot, N.; Favier, L.; Neckel, N.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Ice-shelf channels are long curvilinear tracts of thin ice found on Antarctic ice shelves. Many of them originate near the grounding line, but their formation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we use ice-penetrating radar data from Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, to infer that the morphology of several ice-shelf channels is seeded upstream of the grounding line by large basal obstacles indenting the ice from below. We interpret each obstacle as an esker ridge formed from sediments deposited by subglacial water <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, and calculate that the eskers' size grows towards the grounding line where deposition rates are maximum. Relict features on the shelf indicate that these linked systems of subglacial <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and ice-shelf channels have been changing over the past few centuries. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation and ice-shelf stability. PMID:28485400</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3773896','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3773896"><span>Robotic Intracorporeal Ileal <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Formation: Initial Experience from a Single UK Centre</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bishop, Conrad V.; Adshead, James M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. To describe our technique of robotic intracorporeal ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span> formation (RICIC) during robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). To report our initial results of this new procedure. Patients and Methods. Seven male and one female patients underwent RARC with RICIC over a six-month period. Demographic, operative, and outcome data was collected prospectively. Median patient age was 75 years (range 62–78 years). Median followup was 9 months (range 7–14 months). Results. RARC with RICIC was performed successfully in all eight patients. The median total operating time was 360 minutes (range 310–440 minutes) with a median blood loss of 225 mL (range 50–1000 mL). The median length of stay was nine days (range 6–34 days). Four patients (50%) were discharged within seven days. Four patients (50%) experienced one or more complications. This included two Clavien I complications, two Clavien II complications, and two Clavien III complications. Two patients (25%) required transfusion of two units each. To date, there have been no complications associated with the ileal <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Conclusion. Whilst being technically challenging, this procedure is safe, feasible, and reproducible. Patients who avoid complication show potential for rapid recovery and early discharge. PMID:24072995</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3976766','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3976766"><span>3D Printed Trileaflet Valve <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> Using Biological Hydrogels and Human Valve Interstitial Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Duan, Bin; Kapetanovic, Edi; Hockaday, Laura A.; Butcher, Jonathan T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Tissue engineering has great potential to provide a functional de novo living valve replacement capable of integration with host tissue and growth. Among various valve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> fabrication techniques, 3D bioprinting enables deposition of cells and hydrogels into 3D constructs with anatomical geometry and heterogeneous mechanical properties. Successful translation of this approach is however constrained by the dearth of printable and biocompatible hydrogel materials. Furthermore, it is not known how human valve cells respond to these printed environments. In this study, we develop 3D printable formulations of hybrid hydrogels based on methacrylated hyaluronic acid (Me-HA) and methacrylated gelatin (Me-Gel), and utilize them to bioprint heart valve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> containing encapsulated human aortic valvular interstitial cells (HAVIC). Increasing Me-Gel concentration resulted in lower stiffness and higher viscosity, facilitated cell spreading, and better maintained HAVIC fibroblastic phenotype. Bioprinting accuracy was dependent upon the relative concentrations of Me-Gel and Me-HA, but when optimized enabled the fabrication of a trileaflet valve shape accurate to the original design. HAVIC encapsulated within bioprinted heart valves maintained high viability, and remodeled the initial matrix by depositing collagen and glyosaminoglycans. These findings represent the first rational design of bioprinted trileaflet valve hydrogels that regulate encapsulated human VIC behavior. The use of anatomically accurate living valve scaffolds through bioprinting may accelerate our understanding of physiological valve cell interactions and our progress towards de novo living valve replacements. PMID:24334142</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1361612','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1361612"><span>Cold work study on a 316LN modified alloy for the ITER TF coil <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walsh, Robert; Toplosky, V. J.; McRae, D. M.; Han, K.; Martovetsky, N. N.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The primary structural component of the cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor (CICC) magnets, such as the ITER TF coils is the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. This function creates requirements for 4 K strength, toughness, fatigue crack resistance, and ductility after exposure to the superconductor's reaction heat treatment. The tensile ductility of a steel is a quality factor related to fatigue and fracture resistance that can be evaluated more economically with tensile tests rather than fatigue and fracture tests. We subject 316LN modified base metal and welds to a range of cold work from 0% to 20% and a subsequent Nb<sub>3</sub>Sn reaction heat treatment to evaluate the effects on the tensile properties. With the addition of cold work, the 4 K yield strength increases while tensile elongation decreases in both the base metal and weld. Our results are compared to previously published data on the same alloy to evaluate the use of tensile ductility parameters as a materials qualification specification in magnet design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22567047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22567047"><span>In vitro biocompatibility testing of some synthetic polymers used for the achievement of nervous <span class="hlt">conduits</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mihai, R; Florescu, I P; Coroiu, V; Oancea, A; Lungu, M</p> <p>2011-08-15</p> <p>Biocompatible synthetic polymers are largely used in the bio-medical domain, tissue engineering and in controlled release of medicines. Polymers can be used in the achievement of cardiac and vascular devices, mammary implants, eye lenses, surgical threads, nervous <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, adhesives, blood substitutes, etc. Our study was axed on the development of cytotoxicity tests for 3 synthetic polymers, namely polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl chloride. These tests targeted to determine the viability and morphology of cells (fibroblasts) that were in indirect contact with the studied polymers. Cell viability achieved for all the studied synthetic polymers allowed their frame in biocompatible material category. Cell morphology did not significantly change, thus accomplishing a new biocompatibility criterion. The degree of biocompatibility of the studied polymers varied. Polyvinyl alcohol presented the highest grade of biocompatibility and polyvinyl chloride placed itself at the lowest limit of biocompatibility. The results achieved allowed the selection of those polymers that (by enhancing their degrees of biocompatibility due to the association with various biopolymers) will be used in the development of new biocompatible materials, useful in nervous <span class="hlt">conduits</span> manufacture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=324610','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=324610"><span>Preliminary Experience with GORE-TEX® Grafting for Right Ventricle-Pulmonary Artery <span class="hlt">Conduits</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Molina, J. Ernesto</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A consecutive series of 12 patients between the ages of 6½ and 37 years underwent implantation of venous ventricle-pulmonary artery <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. GORE-TEX material without prosthetic valves was used. Four patients had L-transposition of the great vessels with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and pulmonary stenosis; four had tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia; and one had double outlet right ventricle, pulmonary stenosis, and a complete form of A-V canal. Two patients had D-transposition of the great arteries, VSD, and pulmonary stenosis; and one patient had L-transposition of the great arteries and isolated pulmonary stenosis. All patients had low pulmonary resistance and pressures. The technique for implanting this noncrimped type of prosthesis is described in detail. Follow-up ranged from 2 months to 5½ years. GORE-TEX offers a good choice of material for the construction of this type of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> to prevent pseudointima formation and obstruction, which is often observed in woven Dacron grafts. PMID:15226844</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21421408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21421408"><span>Refilling embolized xylem <span class="hlt">conduits</span>: is it a matter of phloem unloading?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nardini, Andrea; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Salleo, Sebastiano</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Long-distance water transport in plants relies on negative pressures established in continuous water columns in xylem <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Water under tension is in a metastable state and is prone to cavitation and embolism, which leads to loss of hydraulic conductance, reduced productivity and eventually plant death. Experimental evidence suggests that plants can repair embolized xylem by pushing water from living vessel-associated cells into the gas-filled <span class="hlt">conduit</span> lumina. Most surprisingly, embolism refilling is known to occur even when the bulk of still functioning xylem is under tension, a finding that is in seemingly contradiction to basic principles of thermodynamics. This review summarizes our current understanding of xylem refilling processes and speculates that embolism repair under tension can be envisioned as a particular case of phloem unloading, as suggested by several events and components of embolism repair, typically involved in phloem unloading mechanisms. Far from being a challenge to irreversible thermodynamics, embolism refilling is emerging as a finely regulated vital process essential for plant functioning under different environmental stresses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1341685-mouthpart-conduit-sizes-fluid-feeding-insects-determine-ability-feed-from-pores','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1341685-mouthpart-conduit-sizes-fluid-feeding-insects-determine-ability-feed-from-pores"><span>Mouthpart <span class="hlt">conduit</span> sizes of fluid-feeding insects determine the ability to feed from pores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Lehnert, Matthew S.; Bennett, Andrew; Reiter, Kristen E.; ...</p> <p>2017-01-04</p> <p>Fluid-feeding insects, such as butterflies, moths, and flies (20% of all animal species), are faced with the common selection pressure of having to remove and feed on trace amounts of fluids from porous surfaces. Insects able to acquire fluids that are confined to pores during drought conditions would have an adaptive advantage and increased fitness over other individuals. Here we performed feeding trials using solutions with magnetic nanoparticles to show that butterflies and flies have mouthparts adapted to pull liquids from porous surfaces using capillary action as the governing principle. In addition, the ability to feed on the liquids collectedmore » from pores depends on a relationship between the diameter of the mouthpart <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and substrate pore size diameter; insects with mouthpart <span class="hlt">conduit</span> diameters larger than the pores cannot successfully feed, thus there is a limiting substrate pore size from which each species can acquire liquids for fluid uptake. In conclusion, given that natural selection independently favored mouthpart architectures that support these methods of fluid uptake (Diptera and Lepidoptera share a common ancestor 280 mya that had chewing mouthparts), we suggest that the convergence of this mechanism advocates this as an optimal strategy for pulling trace amounts of fluids from porous surfaces.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816389F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816389F"><span>A tool for computing time-dependent permeability reduction of fractured volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> margins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farquharson, Jamie; Wadsworth, Fabian; Heap, Michael; Baud, Patrick</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Laterally-oriented fractures within volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> margins are thought to play an important role in tempering eruption explosivity by allowing magmatic volatiles to outgas. The permeability of a fractured <span class="hlt">conduit</span> margin - the equivalent permeability - can be modelled as the sum of permeability contributions of the edifice host rock and the fracture(s) within it. We present here a flexible MATLAB® tool which computes the time-dependent equivalent permeability of a volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> margin containing ash-filled fractures. The tool is designed so that the end-user can define a wide range of input parameters to yield equivalent permeability estimates for their application. The time-dependence of the equivalent permeability is incorporated by considering permeability decrease as a function of porosity loss in the ash-filled fractures due to viscous sintering (after Russell and Quane, 2005), which is in turn dependent on the depth and temperature of each fracture and the crystal-content of the magma (all user-defined variables). The initial viscosity of the granular material filling the fracture is dependent on the water content (Hess and Dingwell, 1996), which is computed assuming equilibrium depth-dependent water content (Liu et al., 2005). Crystallinity is subsequently accounted for by employing the particle-suspension rheological model of Mueller et al. (2010). The user then defines the number of fractures, their widths, and their depths, and the lengthscale of interest (e.g. the length of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>). Using these data, the combined influence of transient fractures on the equivalent permeability of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> margin is then calculated by adapting a parallel-plate flow model (developed by Baud et al., 2012 for porous sandstones), for host rock permeabilities from 10-11 to 10-22 m2. The calculated values of porosity and equivalent permeability with time for each host rock permeability is then output in text and worksheet file formats. We introduce two dimensionless</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24041294','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24041294"><span>Behavioral evaluation of regenerated rat sciatic nerve by a nanofibrous PHBV <span class="hlt">conduit</span> filled with Schwann cells as artificial nerve graft.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biazar, Esmaeil; Heidari Keshel, Saeed; Pouya, Majid</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The aim of this study is to develop a nanofibrous polymeric nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with Schwann cells (SCs) and to evaluate its efficiency on the promotion of functional and locomotive activities in rats. The <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were implanted into a 30-mm gap in the sciatic nerves of the rats. Four months after surgery, the rats were monitored and evaluated by behavioral analyses such as toe out angle, toe spreading analysis, walking track analysis, extensor postural thrust, open-field analysis, swimming test and nociceptive function, four months post surgery. Four months post-operatively, the results from behavioral analyses demonstrated that in the grafted groups especially in the grafted group with SCs, the rat sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed with functional recovery such as walking, swimming and recovery of nociceptive function. This study proves the feasibility of artificial <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with SCs for nerve regeneration by bridging a longer defect in the rat model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BVol...78...50N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BVol...78...50N"><span>The earliest open <span class="hlt">conduit</span> eruptive center of the Etnean region: evidence from aeromagnetic, geophysical, and geological data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicolosi, Iacopo; D'Ajello Caracciolo, Francesca; Branca, Stefano; Ferlito, Carmelo; Chiappini, Massimo</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>At Mount Etna, the present-day active volcano is an open <span class="hlt">conduit</span> structure characterized by continuous eruptive activity. Such conditions have been thought unique in the evolution of the Etnean volcano as well as in the Mediterranean region. However, a review study of available geophysical data and models, combined with geological records, petrographic and geochemical considerations, has led us to consider that a large area of about 28 km2 located in Val Calanna, on the eastern side of Valle del Bove, can be interpreted as the site of an old open <span class="hlt">conduit</span> volcano. A dyke swarm outcrops in the area, whose deep alteration and fumarolization can be attributed to the sustained passage of volcanic gases over long periods. Radiometric dating yields an age of about 129 ka. This finding sheds new light on the evolution of Mount Etna volcano, indicating that the tectonic conditions leading to an open <span class="hlt">conduit</span> volcano must also have been active in the past.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27657936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27657936"><span>A Nerve <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Containing a Vascular Bundle and Implanted With Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Decellularized Allogenic Nerve Matrix.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaizawa, Yukitoshi; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Ohta, Soichi; Noguchi, Takashi; Takeuchi, Hisataka; Oda, Hiroki; Yurie, Hirofumi; Matsuda, Shuichi</p> <p>2017-02-16</p> <p>Cells, scaffolds, growth factors, and vascularity are essential for nerve regeneration. Previously, we reported that the insertion of a vascular bundle and the implantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) into a nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> promoted peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, the efficacy of nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> containing a vascular bundle, BM-MSCs, and thermally decellularized allogenic nerve matrix (DANM) was investigated using a rat sciatic nerve model with a 20-mm defect. Lewis rats were used as the sciatic nerve model and for the preparation of BM-MSCs, and Dark Agouti rats were used for the preparation of the DANM. The revascularization and the immunogenicity of the DANM were investigated histologically. The regeneration of nerves through nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> containing vessels, BM-MSCs, and DANM (VBD group) was evaluated based on electrophysiological, morphometric, and reinnervated muscle weight measurements and compared with that of vessel-containing <span class="hlt">conduits</span> that were implanted with BM-MSCs (VB group). The DANM that was implanted into vessel-containing tubes (VCTs) was revascularized by neovascular vessels that originated from the inserted vascular bundle 5-7 days after surgery. The number of CD8+ cells found in the DANM in the VCT was significantly smaller than that detected in the untreated allogenic nerve segment. The regenerated nerve in the VBD group was significantly superior to that in the VB group with regard to the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential detected in the pedal adductor muscle; the number, diameter, and myelin thickness of the myelinated axons; and the tibialis anterior muscle weight at 12 and 24 weeks. The additional implantation of the DANM into the BM-MSC-implanted VCT optimized the axonal regeneration through the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> constructed with vascularity, cells, and scaffolds could be an effective strategy for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries with significant segmental defects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7637361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7637361"><span>Composite and plain tubular synthetic graft <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in right ventricle-pulmonary artery position: fate in growing lambs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Molina, J E; Edwards, J E; Bianco, R W; Clack, R W; Lang, G; Molina, J R</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>Our goal was to identify the most appropriate material for right ventricle-pulmonary artery <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in growing animals. We used 100 lambs that were 3 to 4 weeks old (mean weight 11.7 kg). Follow-up was up to 24 months. Group I received plain tubular <span class="hlt">conduits</span>: (1) Dacron knitted fabric, (2) collagen-coated knitted fabric, (3) Milliknit and Microknit material, (4) woven Dacron fabric, (5) three-dimensional Dacron fabric (crossweave 500 and 800), or (6) polytetrafluoroethylene. Group II received either a (1) woven Dacron fabric <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with a built-in tissue valve or (2) polytetrafluoroethylene graft with a built-in St. Jude Medical valve. We did angiograms and catheterizations every 3 to 6 months and killed the lambs at 6, 12, 18, or 24 months. Tubular Dacron fabric woven or knitted grafts, regardless of matrix, pore size, thickness, or coating, caused formation of a thick acellular pseudointima buildup, which led to progressive obstruction starting as early as 3 months. Polytetrafluoroethylene grafts in groups I and II showed the formation of thin inner and outer capsules (0.5 mm) and none developed obstruction despite wall calcification. <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> of woven Dacron fabric with a built-in tissue valve degenerated rapidly, leading to calcification thrombosis and obstruction within 3 months; no lamb survived 12 months. Polytetrafluoroethylene <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with a St. Jude Medical valve in lambs receiving anticoagulants remained free of obstruction and continued to function well. It appears that synthetic <span class="hlt">conduits</span> of polytetrafluoroethylene perform well in either of the situations here tested and may be the best choice at present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10190411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10190411"><span>Functional evaluation of extracardiac ventriculopulmonary <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and of the right ventricle with magnetic resonance imaging and velocity mapping.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holmqvist, C; Oskarsson, G; Ståhlberg, F; Thilén, U; Björkhem, G; Laurin, S</p> <p>1999-03-15</p> <p>Extracardiac ventriculopulmonary <span class="hlt">conduits</span> tend to deteriorate over time, developing both obstruction and regurgitation. In this prospective study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was compared with Doppler echocardiography to determine whether MRI improves the noninvasive evaluation of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> patients. Twenty-five patients (median age 10 years, range 2.5 to 32) were investigated 27 times with Doppler echocardiography and an MRI protocol with spin echo sequences for morphology, velocity mapping, and multislice gradient echo technique for right ventricular volume measuring. Cardiac catheterization data were available in 6 patients. Echocardiography could assess the morphology of the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in 6 patients, whereas MRI demonstrated all <span class="hlt">conduits</span> efficiently. Doppler echocardiography could evaluate the occurrence of regurgitation in 18 patients and could quantify peak velocity in 20 of the patients. A technically adequate MRI velocity mapping was obtained in 25 patients. There was good agreement between MRI and Doppler echocardiography in establishing or not establishing regurgitation, but Doppler echocardiography was less reliable in evaluating the degree of regurgitation. The correlation between peak velocity determined with Doppler and magnetic resonance imaging was r = 0.63 [corrected]. Correlations between catheterization pressure gradients and noninvasive techniques were r = 0.97 for magnetic resonance imaging [corrected] versus catheterization, and r = 0.86 [corrected] for Doppler versus catheterization. MRI can provide complete information on the morphology and function of extracardiac ventriculopulmonary <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, as well as of the right ventricle. If the results of MRI and echocardiography with Doppler are in agreement, heart catheterization and angiography can be avoided, even in patients considered for <span class="hlt">conduit</span> replacement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26361830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26361830"><span>Evaluation of biodegradable polymer <span class="hlt">conduits</span>--poly(L-lactic acid)--for guiding sciatic nerve regeneration in mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goulart, Camila Oliveira; Lopes, Fátima Rosalina Pereira; Monte, Zulmira Oliveira; Dantas, Severino Valentim; Souto, Allana; Oliveira, Júlia Teixeira; Almeida, Fernanda Martins; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Pereira, Cristina Cardoso; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco</p> <p>2016-04-15</p> <p>Polymeric biomaterials are often used for stimulating nerve regeneration. Among different <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, poly(lactide acid) - PLA polymer is considered to be a good substrate due to its biocompatibility and resorbable characteristics. This polymer is an aliphatic polyester which has been mostly used in biomedical application. It is an organic compound with low allergenic potential, low toxicity, high biocompatibility and predictable kinetics of degradation. In this study we fabricated and evaluated a PLA microporous hollow fiber as a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for its ability to bridge a nerve gap in a mouse sciatic nerve injury model. The PLA <span class="hlt">conduit</span> was prepared from a polymer solution, throughout extrusion technique. The left sciatic nerve of C57BL/6 mouse was transected and the nerve stumps were placed into a resorbable PLA (PLA group) or a PCL <span class="hlt">conduit</span> (PCL group), n=5 each group. We have also used another group in which the nerves were repaired by autograft (autograft group, n=5). Motor function was analyzed according to sciatic functional index (SFI). After 56days, the regenerated nerves were processed for light and electron microscopy and morphometric analyses were performed. A quantitative analysis of regenerated nerves showed significant increase in the number of myelinated fibers and blood vessels in animals that received PLA <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The PLA group exhibited better overall tissue organization compared to other groups. Presenting well-organized bundles, many regenerating clusters composed of preserved nerve fibers surrounded by layers of compacted perineurium-like cells. Also the SFI revealed a significant improvement in functional recovery. This work suggests that PLA <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are suitable substrate for cell survival and it provides an effective strategy to be used to support axonal growth becoming a potential alternative to autograft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25317133','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25317133"><span>Use of nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for peripheral nerve injury repair: A Web of Science-based literature analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nan, Jinniang; Hu, Xuguang; Li, Hongxiu; Zhang, Xiaonong; Piao, Renjing</p> <p>2012-12-15</p> <p>To identify global research trends in the use of nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for peripheral nerve injury repair. Numerous basic and clinical studies on nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for peripheral nerve injury repair were performed between 2002-2011. We performed a bibliometric analysis of the institutions, authors, and hot topics in the field, from the Web of Science, using the key words peripheral nerve and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> or tube. peer-reviewed published articles on nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for peripheral nerve injury repair, indexed in the Web of Science; original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material, and news items. articles requiring manual searching or telephone access; documents not published in the public domain; and several corrected papers. (a) Annual publication output; (b) publication type; (c) publication by research field; (d) publication by journal; (e) publication by funding agency; (f) publication by author; (g) publication by country and institution; (h) publications by institution in China; (i) most-cited papers. A total of 793 publications on the use of nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> for peripheral nerve injury repair were retrieved from the Web of Science between 2002-2011. The number of publications gradually increased over the 10-year study period. Articles constituted the main type of publication. The most prolific journals were Biomaterials, Microsurgery, and Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. The National Natural Science Foundation of China supported 27 papers, more than any other funding agency. Of the 793 publications, almost half came from American and Chinese authors and institutions. Nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> have been studied extensively for peripheral nerve regeneration; however, many problems remain in this field, which are difficult for researchers to reach a consensus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMDI13A2150H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMDI13A2150H"><span>Geodynamic modeling of the capture and release of a plume <span class="hlt">conduit</span> by a migrating mid-ocean ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hall, P. S.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>plates over the relatively stationary, long-lived <span class="hlt">conduits</span> of mantle plumes. However, paleomagnetic data from the Hawaii-Emperor Seamount Chain suggests that the Hawaiian hotspot moved rapidly (~40 mm/yr) between 81 - 47 Ma [Tarduno et al., 2003]. Recently, Tarduno et al. [2009] suggested that this period of rapid motion might be the surface expression of a plume <span class="hlt">conduit</span> returning to a largely vertical orientation after having been captured and tilted as the result of being "run over" by migrating mid-ocean ridge. I report on a series of analog geodynamic experiments designed to characterize the evolution of a plume <span class="hlt">conduit</span> as a mid-ocean ridge migrates over. Experiments were conducted in a clear acrylic tank (100 cm x 70 cm x 50 cm) filled with commercial grade high-fructose corn syrup. Plate-driven flow is modeled by dragging two sheets of Mylar film (driven by independent DC motors) in opposite directions over the surface of the fluid. Ridge migration is achieved by moving the point at which the mylar sheets diverge using a separate motor drive. Buoyant plume flow is generated using a small electrical heater placed at the bottom of the tank. Plate velocities and ridge migration rate are controlled and plume temperature monitored using LabView software. Experiments are recorded using digital video which is then analyzed using digital image analysis software to track the position and shape of the plume <span class="hlt">conduit</span> throughout the course of the experiment. The intersection of the plume <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with the surface of the fluid is taken as an analog for the locus of hotspot volcanism and tracked as a function of time to obtain a hotspot migration rate. Results show that the plume <span class="hlt">conduit</span> experiences significant tilting immediately following the passage of the migrating ridge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Geomo.177..178B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Geomo.177..178B"><span>Fast evolving <span class="hlt">conduits</span> in clay-bonded sandstone: Characterization, erosion processes and significance for the origin of sandstone landforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bruthans, Jiri; Svetlik, Daniel; Soukup, Jan; Schweigstillova, Jana; Valek, Jan; Sedlackova, Marketa; Mayo, Alan L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>In Strelec Quarry, the Czech Republic, an underground <span class="hlt">conduit</span> network > 300 m long with a volume of ~ 104 m3 and a catchment of 7 km2 developed over 5 years by groundwater flow in Cretaceous marine quartz sandstone. Similar landforms at natural exposures (<span class="hlt">conduits</span>, slot canyons, undercuts) are stabilized by case hardening and have stopped evolving. The quarry offers a unique opportunity to study <span class="hlt">conduit</span> evolution in sandstone at local to regional scales, from the initial stage to maturity, and to characterize the erosion processes which may form natural landforms prior to stabilization. A new technique was developed to distinguish erodible and non-erodible sandstone surfaces. Based on measurements of relative erodibility, drilling resistance, ambient and water-saturated tensile strength (TS) at natural and quarry exposures three distinct kinds of surfaces were found. 1) Erodible sandstone exposed at ~ 60% of surfaces in quarry. This sandstone loses as much as 99% of TS when saturated. 2) Sub-vertical fracture surfaces that are non-erodible already prior to exposure at ground surface and which keep considerable TS if saturated. 3) Case hardened surfaces that start to form after exposure. In favorable conditions they became non-erodible and reach the full TS in just 6 years. An increase in the hydraulic gradient from ~ 0.005 to > 0.02 triggered <span class="hlt">conduit</span> evolution, based on long-term monitoring of water table in 18 wells and inflows to the quarry. Rapidly evolving major <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are characterized by a channel gradient of ~ 0.01, a flow velocity ~ 40 cm/s and sediment concentration ~ 10 g/l. Flow in openings with a discharge 1 ml/s and hydraulic gradient > 0.05 exceeds the erosion threshold and initiates piping. In the first phase of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> evolution, fast concentrated flow mobilizes erodible sandstone between sets of parallel fractures in the shallow phreatic zone. In the second phase the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> opening mainly expands vertically upward into the vadose zone by mass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1055329.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1055329.pdf"><span>Finding the <span class="hlt">Sur</span>PriSe: A Case Study of a Faculty Learning Community</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Michel, Roberta M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article details a faculty learning community (FLC) that started in 2009 on the campus of a Midwestern University and has evolved into an interdisciplinary research, teaching and social community of practice and learning called <span class="hlt">Sur</span>PriSe. <span class="hlt">Sur</span>PriSe is an acronym that reflects the interest area of the FLC; <span class="hlt">Sur</span> for surveillance, Pri for privacy,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V24A..05K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V24A..05K"><span>Coupled evolution of magma chambers and flow in <span class="hlt">conduits</span> during large volcanic eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karlstrom, L.; Manga, M.; Rudolph, M. L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The largest silicic and mafic volcanic eruptions in the geologic record, Supervolcano and Large Igneous Province (LIP) eruptions, are distinguished by differences in surface emplacement mode, geologic context, magma volatile content, viscosity, and reservoir depth. However, these large eruptions also share several common features. Individual eruptions of both types emplace roughly the same total volume (10^3 - 10^4 km^3) of remarkably homogeneous magma that likely comes from a single reservoir. In addition, they both release large quantities of volatiles, and hence individual eruptions may significantly perturb global climate. We have developed a model that couples <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow and magma chamber deformation, allowing us to study both eruption types. Steady, one-dimensional multiphase flow of magma containing crystals, exsolved water, and CO_2 in a cylindrical <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is coupled to pressure evolution within an ellipsoidal magma chamber beneath a free surface. LIP eruptions are characterized by gas-driven flow of mafic lava that may be sustained past the cessation of chamber overpressure, much like a siphon. Eruptions cease when the yield strength of the country rocks is reached and the (generally Moho-level) chamber or the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> implodes, resulting in steady discharge and atmospheric volatile loading. In contrast, more shallow silicic lavas such as the Fish Canyon Tuff erupt through rapid mobilization of a long-lived crystal-rich mush. The crystal-rich mush is a yield strength fluid, which we model using the von Mises criterion for mobilization. If the trigger for mobilization of the mush leads directly to eruption, time-progressive yielding due to mass removal results in a fluid magma chamber that grows as the eruption proceeds, until free-surface stresses induce roof collapse and caldera formation. Chamber pressure evolution may be buffered by the mobilization of the mush, maintaining overpressure and high discharge throughout the eruption. This model suggests</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..322..196B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..322..196B"><span>Families of similar events and modes of oscillation of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> at Yasur volcano (Vanuatu)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Battaglia, Jean; Métaxian, Jean-Philippe; Garaebiti, Esline</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>, sudden or progressive. These can be interpreted as representative of changes in the eruptive dynamics. The presence of similar EQs, especially for impulsive explosions, indicates that the source mechanism is reproducible and has a stable location for some periods. This favors a source process based on the oscillation of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> or oscillation of the edifice in response to the explosive decompression of gas slugs at the free surface of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Our results suggest that the seismic activity of Yasur is characterized by the presence of dominant modes of resonance of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> which may be influenced both by external and internal factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVGR..175...45G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVGR..175...45G"><span>Character and origin of lithofacies in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> of Unzen volcano, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goto, Yoshihiko; Nakada, Setsuya; Kurokawa, Masaru; Shimano, Taketo; Sugimoto, Takeshi; Sakuma, Sumio; Hoshizumi, Hideo; Yoshimoto, Mitsuhiro; Uto, Kozo</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Unzen, western Kyushu, Japan, is an andesitic to dacitic, polygenetic volcano that reaches an elevation of 1486 m above sea level. A 1996-m-long hole has been drilled on a slanted trajectory passing beneath the volcano, penetrating the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> zone of the volcano at 30-150 m below sea level. Spot drill cores, totalling 75 m in length, were recovered between lengths 1582 to 1996 m of the hole. The principal lithofacies of the cores are polymict volcanic breccia (74 vol.% of total drill cores), coherent dacite (13 vol.%), coherent andesite (6 vol.%), partly brecciated coherent dacite (5 vol.%), and volcaniclastic veins (2 vol.%). The polymict volcanic breccia is poorly sorted, non-graded and made up of various clasts of andesite/dacite composition, 1-120 cm across, in a matrix of andesite/dacite fragments, up to 5 mm across. The clasts are subangular to subrounded, non-vesicular to vesicular, and contain 62-66 wt.% SiO 2. This facies is interpreted as forming the subvertical body of a diatreme, and to have been produced by fragmentation of vent-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall rocks by explosive eruptions and associated gravitational failure. The coherent dacite (SiO 2 = 66-67 wt.%) is uniform to flow-banded and commonly has chilled margins. The dacite is porphyritic containing phenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, biotite and minor quartz in a non-vesicular groundmass. This facies is interpreted as representing dykes that have intruded into the polymict volcanic breccia. The coherent andesite (SiO 2 = 59 wt.%) and partly brecciated coherent dacite (SiO 2 = 69 wt.%) are massive to fractured, vesicular and porphyritic. These facies are interpreted to be lavas extruded during the old stage (500-300 ka) of the evolution of the Unzen volcano. The volcaniclastic veins occur within all the lithofacies described and range from 0.1 to 250 mm wide. The veins consist of volcanic lithic and mineral fragments up to several millimetres across, and are inferred to have formed by injection of high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8467T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8467T"><span>The sensitivity of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow models to basic input parameters: there is no need for magma trolls!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, M. E.; Neuberg, J. W.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Many <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow models now exist and some of these models are becoming extremely complicated, conducted in three dimensions and incorporating the physics of compressible three phase fluids (magmas), intricate <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometries and fragmentation processes, to name but a few examples. These highly specialised models are being used to explain observations of the natural system, and there is a danger that possible explanations may be getting needlessly complex. It is coherent, for instance, to propose the involvement of sub-surface dwelling magma trolls as an explanation for the change in a volcanoes eruptive style, but assuming the simplest explanation would prevent such additions, unless they were absolutely necessary. While the understanding of individual, often small scale <span class="hlt">conduit</span> processes is increasing rapidly, is this level of detail necessary? How sensitive are these models to small changes in the most basic of governing parameters? Can these changes be used to explain observed behaviour? Here we will examine the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow models to changes in the melt viscosity, one of the fundamental inputs to any such model. However, even addressing this elementary issue is not straight forward. There are several viscosity models in existence, how do they differ? Can models that use different viscosity models be realistically compared? Each of these viscosity models is also heavily dependent on the magma composition and/or temperature, and how well are these variables constrained? Magma temperatures and water contents are often assumed as "ball-park" figures, and are very rarely exactly known for the periods of observation the models are attempting to explain, yet they exhibit a strong controlling factor on the melt viscosity. The role of both these variables will be discussed. For example, using one of the available viscosity models a 20 K decrease in temperature of the melt results in a greater than 100% increase in the melt viscosity. With changes of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21816463','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21816463"><span>Combined use of decellularized allogeneic artery <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with autologous transdifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells for facial nerve regeneration in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Fei; Zhou, Ke; Mi, Wen-juan; Qiu, Jian-hua</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Natural biological <span class="hlt">conduits</span> containing seed cells have been widely used as an alternative strategy for nerve gap reconstruction to replace traditional nerve autograft techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a decellularized allogeneic artery <span class="hlt">conduit</span> containing autologous transdifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells (dADSCs) on an 8-mm facial nerve branch lesion in a rat model. After 8 weeks, functional evaluation of vibrissae movements and electrophysiological assessment, retrograde labeling of facial motoneurons and morphological analysis of regenerated nerves were performed to assess nerve regeneration. The transected nerves reconstructed with dADSC-seeded artery <span class="hlt">conduits</span> achieved satisfying regenerative outcomes associated with morphological and functional improvements which approached those achieved with Schwann cell (SC)-seeded artery <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, and superior to those achieved with artery <span class="hlt">conduits</span> alone or ADSC-seeded artery <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, but inferior to those achieved with nerve autografts. Besides, numerous transplanted PKH26-labeled dADSCs maintained their acquired SC-phenotype and myelin sheath-forming capacity inside decellularized artery <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and were involved in the process of axonal regeneration and remyelination. Collectively, our combined use of decellularized allogeneic artery <span class="hlt">conduits</span> with autologous dADSCs certainly showed beneficial effects on nerve regeneration and functional restoration, and thus represents an alternative approach for the reconstruction of peripheral facial nerve defects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3496350','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3496350"><span>L’opinion des étudiants en médecine de Québec <span class="hlt">sur</span> les punitions corporelles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Labbé, Jean; Laflamme, Nathalie; Makosso-Kallyth, Sun</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIF : L’objectif de la présente étude est de décrire l’opinion des étudiants en médecine de l’Université Laval <span class="hlt">sur</span> le sujet controversé des punitions corporelles envers les enfants. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Un sondage a été réalisé auprès des étudiants en quatrième année de médecine de l’Université Laval pendant cinq années consécutives, soit de l’année scolaire 2006–2007 jusqu’à celle de 2010–2011 inclusivement, à l’occasion d’un séminaire portant <span class="hlt">sur</span> la maltraitance envers les enfants. RÉSULTATS : <span class="hlt">Sur</span> les 712 étudiants interrogés, 74 % étaient de sexe féminin et 91 % étaient âgés de moins de 30 ans. Concernant les punitions corporelles envers les enfants, 22 % des répondants s’y sont déclarés favorables. Plus de garçons que de filles se sont prononcés en faveur de cette pratique disciplinaire, soit 31 % des garçons par rapport à 18 % des filles respectivement (RC rajusté = 2,2, IC 95 % :1,4 à 3,4; p=0,0003). Près de 36 % des étudiants ayant eu des punitions corporelles y étaient favorables, comparativement à seulement 4 % de ceux qui n’avaient pas connu cette forme de discipline (RC rajusté = 16,5, IC 95 % :8,6 à 31,4; p<0,0001). Parmi ceux qui ont mentionné avoir été victimes d’abus physique, 25 % se sont déclarés en faveur de cette pratique, ce qui est similaire au 21 % observés chez ceux qui n’en ont pas été victimes (p=0,52). CONCLUSION : Alors que plusieurs organismes médicaux se sont prononcés contre l’utilisation des punitions corporelles, plus d’un futur médecin <span class="hlt">sur</span> cinq à Québec se déclare favorable à cette méthode disciplinaire et pourrait influencer la <span class="hlt">conduite</span> des parents en ce sens. PMID:24179417</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MsT..........3N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MsT..........3N"><span>Effets du vieillisement de la batterie Li-ion <span class="hlt">sur</span> les performances d'un vehicule recreatif hybride branchable a trois roues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nadeau, Jonathan</p> <p></p> <p>La prediction de l'evolution du vieillissement de la batterie lithium-ion est source d'un grand defi, dans les applications liees aux vehicules electriques et hybrides. Sa meconnaissance est un risque considerable compromettant la viabilite d'un tel systeme. Invoquant les couts substantiels de la densite d'energie, liee a la degradation considerable des performances de la batterie au cours de sa duree de vie, il devient important d'en tenir compte des le processus de conception. La dependance de la strategie de controle du vehicule aux parametres de la batterie justifie aussi la necessite d'une telle prediction. Il est connu que le vieillissement, sensible aux facteurs tels que le courant, la temperature et la profondeur de decharge, a un impact considerable <span class="hlt">sur</span> la perte de capacite de la batterie ainsi que <span class="hlt">sur</span> l'augmentation de la resistance interne. Le premier est directement lie a l'autonomie electrique du vehicule, alors que le second mene a une surchauffe de la batterie, a une augmentation des pertes en puissance qui se manifeste par une diminution de la tension de bus. A cet egard, implique dans la conception d'un vehicule recreatif hybride branchable a trois roues, le Centre de Technologies Avancees s'interesse a l'etude du vieillissement de la batterie Li-ion pour une telle application. Pour ce faire, au contraire de la plupart des estimations empiriques de la duree de vie, basees <span class="hlt">sur</span> des profils de decharge a courant constant, un profil de courant plus approprie pour l'application donnee, base <span class="hlt">sur</span> un cycle de vitesse representatif de la <span class="hlt">conduite</span> d'une motocyclette, a ete utilise. Par le biais d'un simulateur complet du vehicule, le cycle de courant a ete extrait du cycle de vitesse. Ainsi, les travaux menes impliquent l'analyse experimentale de la decharge cyclique de quatre cellules LiFePO 4. Pendant plus de 1400 cycles, un banc d'essai complet a permis l'acquisition de la capacite, de la resistance interne, du courant, de la tension ainsi que de la</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1948/0013/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1948/0013/report.pdf"><span>Reconnaissance report on geology of Eklutna Lake dam site and <span class="hlt">conduit</span> route near Anchorage, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bateman, A.F.</p> <p>1947-01-01</p> <p>C. A foundation exploration program is recommended that includes deepening test pit No. 1 and drill hole No. 2, and drilling 11 new holes. It is suggested that one drill hold near the center of the valley be taken to bedrock to give a complete picture of the fill materials underlying the foundation. 3. Delivery of water from the forebay of the reservoir to the powerhouse eight miles downvalley by means of a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is regarded as infeasible because: difficult terrain of the route will require earthwork more extensive than the volume of the dam; the route is subject to land slides, and will require expensive maintenance; it is more or less completely exposed to adverse winter conditions that may engender icing conditions; and it is easily subject to sabotage. It is recommended that the water be taken to the powerhouse through a rock tunnel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21724865','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21724865"><span>A constituent-based model of age-related changes in <span class="hlt">conduit</span> arteries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Rachev, Alexander; Stergiopulos, Nikos</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>In the present report, a constituent-based theoretical model of age-related changes in geometry and mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> arteries is proposed. The model was based on the premise that given the time course of the load on an artery and the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in the arterial tissue, the initial geometric dimensions and properties of the arterial tissue can be predicted by a solution of a boundary value problem for the governing equations that follow from finite elasticity, structure-based constitutive modeling within the constrained mixture theory, continuum damage theory, and global growth approach for stress-induced structure-based remodeling. An illustrative example of the age-related changes in geometry, structure, composition, and mechanical properties of a human thoracic aorta is considered. Model predictions were in good qualitative agreement with available experimental data in the literature. Limitations and perspectives for refining the model are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V21C2006P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V21C2006P"><span>Open system degassing, bubble rise and flow dynamics within volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span>- an experimental approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pioli, L.; Azzopardi, B. J.; Bonadonna, C.; Marchetti, E.; Ripepe, M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Open <span class="hlt">conduit</span> basaltic volcanoes are characterized by frequent eruptions, usually consisting in mild Strombolian and Hawaiian explosions, alternating years to months of quiescence periods, with degassing activity from the central <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Recent improvements of thermal, video, radar and acoustic monitoring techniques have provided new powerful tools for the study of degassing processes and made available geophysical and geochemical datasets for many central volcanoes, such as Stromboli, Etna (Italy), Kilauea (Hawaii), Villarrica (Chile). These studies revealed that degassing is an unsteady, often pulsatory process, characterized by fluctuations in both intensity and composition of the emitted gases. Unambiguous interpretation of monitoring data of surface activity in terms of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> dynamics and flow processes is, however, not possible, due to partial knowledge of the physical processes controlling the dynamics of two-phase flows in magmas. We performed a series of experiments to gain further insights on the dynamics of the gas-bubble rise in magmas within a cylindrical <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, their ability to segregate and coalesce and the effect of these processes on the degassing dynamics. The experiments consisted in generating fluxes at variable intensities of air through stagnant water or glucose syrup in a bubble column apparatus 6.5 m high and with a diameter of 24 cm diameter. Glucose syrup and water are Newtonian liquids with viscosity ranging from 2.4 to 204.0 Pa*s and from 1.7 to 0.2 10 -3 Pa*s respectively, depending on temperature. Air was inserted at the base of the column through a variable number (1 to 25) of 5mm-diameter nozzles reaching surficial gas velocities of up to 0.5 m/s. The activity of the bubble column was monitored through temperature, pressure, void fraction and acoustic measurements and filmed by a high-speed camera with maximum resolution of 800x600 pixels. Pressure fluctuations, vesicularity and acoustic signal were then analyzed and correlated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3933158','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3933158"><span>Use of spider silk fibres as an innovative material in a biocompatible artificial nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Allmeling, Christina; Jokuszies, Andreas; Reimers, Kerstin; Kall, Susanne; Vogt, Peter M</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Defects of peripheral nerves still represent a challenge for surgical nerve reconstruction. Recent studies concentrated on replacement by artificial nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> from different synthetic or biological materials. In our study, we describe for the first time the use of spider silk fibres as a new material in nerve tissue engineering. Schwann cells (SC) were cultivated on spider silk fibres. Cells adhered quickly on the fibres compared to polydioxanone monofilaments (PDS). SC survival and proliferation was normal in Live/Dead assays. The silk fibres were ensheathed completely with cells. We developed composite nerve grafts of acellularized veins, spider silk fibres and SC diluted in matrigel. These artificial nerve grafts could be cultivated in vitro for one week. Histological analysis showed that the cells were vital and formed distinct columns along the silk fibres. In conclusion, our results show that artificial nerve grafts can be constructed successfully from spider silk, acellularized veins and SC mixed with matrigel. PMID:16989736</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/433710','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/433710"><span>Numerical modeling of thermal behavior of fluid <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow with transport delay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chow, T.T.; Ip, F.; Dunn, A.; Tse, W.L.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Fluid mass and energy flows in air-conditioning systems vary with the changing output demand. In lengthy or complex ductwork and pipework, the accuracy in simulating the dynamic network behavior is greatly affected by the accuracy in modeling the radial energy losses and the axial transport lag. Transport delay consideration is also vital in the study of heat exchanger dynamics. This paper reviews the development of transport delay models in fluid <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow. A new numerical model is recommended in which the thermal behavior of fluid elements can be traced per physical distance traveled in unit time step. Justifications by sensitivity and frequency response analyses were performed. The results of analytical, experimental, as well as intermodel comparisons demonstrate the promising accuracy of the numerical model introduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.103j2411F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.103j2411F"><span>Voltage-gated pinning in a magnetic domain-wall <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Franken, J. H.; Yin, Y.; Schellekens, A. J.; van den Brink, A.; Swagten, H. J. M.; Koopmans, B.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>In spintronic devices relying on magnetic domain-wall (DW) motion, robust control over the DW position is required. We use electric-field control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy to create a voltage-gated pinning site in a microstructured Pt/Co/AlOx DW <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. A DW pins at the edge of a gate electrode, and the strength of pinning can be tuned linearly and reversibly with an efficiency of 0.22(1) mT/V. This result is supported by a micromagnetic model, taking full account of the anisotropy step at the gate edge, which is directly caused by a change in the electron density due to the choice of material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140013097','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140013097"><span>Capillary Flows Along Open Channel <span class="hlt">Conduits</span>: The Open-Star Section</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weislogel, Mark; Geile, John; Chen, Yongkang; Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Callahan, Michael</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Capillary rise in tubes, channels, and grooves has received significant attention in the literature for over 100 years. In yet another incremental extension of such work, a transient capillary rise problem is solved for spontaneous flow along an interconnected array of open channels forming what is referred to as an 'open-star' section. This geometry possesses several attractive characteristics including passive phase separations and high diffusive gas transport. Despite the complex geometry, novel and convenient approximations for capillary pressure and viscous resistance enable closed form predictions of the flow. As part of the solution, a combined scaling approach is applied that identifies unsteady-inertial-capillary, convective-inertial-capillary, and visco-capillary transient regimes in a single parameter. Drop tower experiments are performed employing 3-D printed <span class="hlt">conduits</span> to corroborate all findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5631081','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5631081"><span>Thermal expulsion of helium from a quenching cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dresner, L.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Three problems are solved in this paper, all by similarity solutions. The first is thermal expulsion from an entire hydraulic circuit initially unpressurized but uniformly heated by the Joule power of the normal conductor. The second problem is expulsion from an unheated but initially pressurized conductor. In both of these problems, the ends of the conductor are imagined to intrude into constant-pressure chambers. The second problem has less practical importance in applied superconductivity than the first, but it teaches us some useful things that aid in the solution of the third problem. In the third problem, the ends of the heated part of the conductor intrude into unheated parts of identical construction rather than constant-pressure chambers. This problem sheds some light on normal-zone propagation in cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/884939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/884939"><span>SOME NATURAL <span class="hlt">CONDUIT</span> ANALOGUES FOR POTENTIAL IGNEOUS ACTIVITY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D.J. Krier; G.N. Keating; G.A. Valentine</p> <p>2005-08-26</p> <p>Eruptive <span class="hlt">conduit</span> geometry has direct relation to number of waste packages that would be damaged if a new volcano were to form at the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and therefore is a key factor in predicting the consequences of such an eruption. Current risk calculations treat <span class="hlt">conduits</span> as having circular plan view and range from a few meters to 150 m diameter at repository depths ({approx}300 m). We present new observations of shallow basaltic plumbing at analog sites aimed at testing these parameter values. East Grants Ridge. NM, is a remnant of a {approx}2.6 Ma alkali basaltic volcano with a chain of 2-3 vents that fed {approx}10-km long lava flows. The south side of the ridge exposes a plug of vertically jointed, dense basalt that intruded rhyolitic tuffs. The plug is exposed vertically for {approx}125 m, including 40 m beneath the paleosurface, and has a relatively constant width of {approx}135 m with no indication of downward narrowing. The size of the plug in the third dimension is not well known but could extend laterally up to {approx}1.5 km beneath the chain of vents. Paiute Ridge, NV, is an 8.6 Ma alkali basalt intrusion into Paleozoic carbonate and shale and Miocene silicic tuffs and includes extrusive equivalents. Dikes, small sills and lopoliths, scoria, and flows are exposed in a 2 km-wide graben. Depth of intrusion has been estimated at 100-250 m beneath the paleosurface. Dikes range from 3-20 m in width and produced limited contact vitrophyre in the host tuff. At least one sub-volcanic neck is preserved. The top of the plug is {approx}27 m lower than the base of related basalt flows 1 km distant. This neck is irregularly shaped by intersection of feeder dikes and has a sheath of mixed basaltic magma and host tuff (with both breccia and fluidal textures). The basalt interior of the plug is {approx}100 m x 70 m in map view but inclusion of the mixed zone increases this to {approx}220 m x 110 m. Basalt Ridge, NV, contains two</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20835756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20835756"><span>Role of lymphatic vessels in tumor immunity: passive <span class="hlt">conduits</span> or active participants?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lund, Amanda W; Swartz, Melody A</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Research in lymphatic biology and cancer immunology may soon intersect as emerging evidence implicates the lymphatics in the progression of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity as well as in tumor metastasis and immune escape. Like the blood vasculature, the lymphatic system comprises a highly dynamic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> system that regulates fluid homeostasis, antigen transport and immune cell trafficking, which all play important roles in the progression and resolution of inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. This review presents emerging evidence that lymphatic vessels are active modulators of immunity, perhaps fine-tuning the response to adjust the balance between peripheral tolerance and immunity. This suggests that the tumor-associated lymphatic vessels and draining lymph node may be important in tumor immunity which in turn governs metastasis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4960538','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4960538"><span>A novel approach to estimate the eruptive potential and probability in open <span class="hlt">conduit</span> volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Gregorio, Sofia; Camarda, Marco</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In open <span class="hlt">conduit</span> volcanoes, volatile-rich magma continuously enters into the feeding system nevertheless the eruptive activity occurs intermittently. From a practical perspective, the continuous steady input of magma in the feeding system is not able to produce eruptive events alone, but rather surplus of magma inputs are required to trigger the eruptive activity. The greater the amount of surplus of magma within the feeding system, the higher is the eruptive probability.Despite this observation, eruptive potential evaluations are commonly based on the regular magma supply, and in eruptive probability evaluations, generally any magma input has the same weight. Conversely, herein we present a novel approach based on the quantification of surplus of magma progressively intruded in the feeding system. To quantify the surplus of magma, we suggest to process temporal series of measurable parameters linked to the magma supply. We successfully performed a practical application on Mt Etna using the soil CO2 flux recorded over ten years. PMID:27456812</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4950127','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4950127"><span><span class="hlt">Conduit</span> dynamics and post explosion degassing on Stromboli: A combined UV camera and numerical modeling treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McGonigle, A. J. S.; James, M. R.; Tamburello, G.; Aiuppa, A.; Delle Donne, D.; Ripepe, M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Recent gas flux measurements have shown that Strombolian explosions are often followed by periods of elevated flux, or “gas codas,” with durations of order a minute. Here we present UV camera data from 200 events recorded at Stromboli volcano to constrain the nature of these codas for the first time, providing estimates for combined explosion plus coda SO2 masses of ≈18–225 kg. Numerical simulations of gas slug ascent show that substantial proportions of the initial gas mass can be distributed into a train of “daughter bubbles” released from the base of the slug, which we suggest, generate the codas, on bursting at the surface. This process could also cause transitioning of slugs into cap bubbles, significantly reducing explosivity. This study is the first attempt to combine high temporal resolution gas flux data with numerical simulations of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> gas flow to investigate volcanic degassing dynamics. PMID:27478285</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFD.H2004W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFD.H2004W"><span>Capillary Flows along Open Channel <span class="hlt">Conduits</span>: the Open-Star Section</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weislogel, Mark; Chen, Yongkang; Nguyen, Thanh; Geile, John; Callahan, Michael</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Capillary rise in tubes, channels, and grooves has received significant attention in the literature for over 100 years. In yet another incremental extension of related work, a transient capillary rise problem is solved for spontaneous flow along an interconnected array of open channels forming what is referred to as an ``open-star'' section. This geometry possesses several attractive characteristics including passive phase separations and high diffusive gas transport rates. Despite the complex geometry, novel and convenient approximations for capillary pressure and viscous resistance enable closed form predictions of the flow. As part of the solution, a combined scaling approach is applied that identifies unsteady-inertial-capillary, convective-inertial-capillary, and visco-capillary transient regimes in a single parameter. Drop tower experiments are performed employing 3-D printed <span class="hlt">conduits</span> to corroborate all findings. NASA NNX09AP66A, Glenn Research Center.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/286175','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/286175"><span>Detection of the normal zone with cowound sensors in cable-in <span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martovetsky, N.N.; Chaplin, M.R.</p> <p>1996-07-30</p> <p>Tokamaks in the future will use superconducting cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span>- conductors (CICC) in all poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) magnets. Conventional quench detection, the measurement of small resistive normal zone voltages ({lt}1 V) in the magnets will be complicated by the presence of large inductive voltages ({gt}4 kV). In the quench detection design for TPX, we have considered several different locations for internal co-wound voltage sensors in the cable cross-section as the primary mechanism to cancel this inductive noise. The Noise Rejection Experiment (NRE) at LLNL has been designed to evaluate which internal locations will produce the best inductive- noise cancellation, and provide us with experimental data for comparison with previously developed theory. The details of the experiments and resulting data are presented and analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6949404','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6949404"><span>Pressure drop measurements on supercritical helium cooled cable in <span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Daugherty, M.A.; Huang, Y.; Van Sciver, S.W. . Applied Superconductivity Center)</p> <p>1989-03-01</p> <p>Forced flow cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductors with large cooled surface areas provide excellent stability margins at the price of high frictional losses and large pumping power requirements. For extensive projects such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design cooperation it is essential to know the pressure drops to be expected from different conductor geometries and operating conditions. To measure these pressure drops a flow loop was constructed to circulate supercritical helium through different conductors. The loop is surrounded by a 5 K radiation shield to allow for stable operation at the required temperatures. A coil heat exchanger immersed in a helium bath is used to remove the heat generated by the pump. Pressure drops are measured across 1 meter lengths of the conductors for various mass flow rates. Friction factor versus Reynolds number plots are used to correlate the data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6357972','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6357972"><span>Pressure drop measurements on supercritical helium cooled cable in <span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Daugherty, M.A.; Huang, Y.; Van Sciver, S.W.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Forced flow cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductors with large cooled surface areas provide excellent stability margins at the price of high frictional losses and large pumping power requirements. For extensive projects such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design cooperation it is essential to know the pressure drops to be expected from different conductor geometries and operating conditions. To measure these pressure drops a flow loop was constructed to circulate supercritical helium through different conductors. The loop is surrounded by a 5 K radiation shield to allow for stable operation at the required temperatures. A coil heat exchanger immersed in a helium bath is used to remove the heat generated by the pump. Pressure drops are measured across 1 meter lengths of the conductors for various mass flow rates. Friction factor versus Reynolds number plots are used to correlate the data. 12 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3547574','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3547574"><span>Recurrent cervical esophageal stenosis after colon <span class="hlt">conduit</span> failure: Use of myocutaneous flap</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sa, Young Jo; Kim, Young Du; Kim, Chi Kyung; Park, Jong Kyung; Moon, Seok Whan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A 53-year-old male developed cervical esophageal stenosis after esophageal bypass surgery using a right colon <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The esophageal bypass surgery was performed to treat multiple esophageal strictures resulting from corrosive ingestion three years prior to presentation. Although the patient underwent several endoscopic stricture dilatations after surgery, he continued to suffer from recurrent esophageal stenosis. We planned cervical patch esophagoplasty with a pedicled skin flap of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. Postoperative recovery was successful, and the patient could eat a solid meal without difficulty and has been well for 18 mo. SCM flap esophagoplasty is an easier and safer method of managing complicated and recurrent cervical esophageal strictures than other operations. PMID:23345956</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Cryo...36..661Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Cryo...36..661Y"><span>A new cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor magnet with insulated strands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamaguchi, S.; Yamamoto, J.; Motojima, O.</p> <p></p> <p>Many studies have used cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor (CICC) coils in trying to develop an a.c. superconducting magnet. The strands in the most recent CICC magnets are coated with chromium or another metal with high electrical resistance in order to induce current redistribution among the strands and to avoid a quench caused by a current imbalance. If, however, the cable currents were well balanced, insulating the strands would be the best way to reduce a.c. losses. We propose a new CICC magnet structure featuring a current lead that balances the strand current via its resistance. Having calculated current balances, we find that strand currents are well within the present parameters for nuclear fusion experiments and superconducting magnet energy storages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/416682','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/416682"><span>Thermal hydraulic characteristics of a prototype CEA cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> conductor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maekawa, R.; Smith, M.R.; Van Sciver, S.W.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The thermal hydraulic characteristics of a prototype CEA Cable-in-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Conductor (CICC) have been studied in steady state and transient conditions. The supercritical helium velocity in the central channel was measured with a Pitot tube located at the down stream end of the conductor. An inductive heater, located at the center of the conductor, initiated thermally induced transient flow of the helium within the conductor. The induced flow velocity was measured as a function of Reynolds number and heat input. A calorimetric calibration technique was used to estimate the total heat input to the conductor. In a separate part of the experiment, a thermometer array was installed in the central channel to record the helium temperature. The associated reduction of central channel flow area significantly affects the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the conductor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27478285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27478285"><span><span class="hlt">Conduit</span> dynamics and post explosion degassing on Stromboli: A combined UV camera and numerical modeling treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pering, T D; McGonigle, A J S; James, M R; Tamburello, G; Aiuppa, A; Delle Donne, D; Ripepe, M</p> <p>2016-05-28</p> <p>Recent gas flux measurements have shown that Strombolian explosions are often followed by periods of elevated flux, or "gas codas," with durations of order a minute. Here we present UV camera data from 200 events recorded at Stromboli volcano to constrain the nature of these codas for the first time, providing estimates for combined explosion plus coda SO2 masses of ≈18-225 kg. Numerical simulations of gas slug ascent show that substantial proportions of the initial gas mass can be distributed into a train of "daughter bubbles" released from the base of the slug, which we suggest, generate the codas, on bursting at the surface. This process could also cause transitioning of slugs into cap bubbles, significantly reducing explosivity. This study is the first attempt to combine high temporal resolution gas flux data with numerical simulations of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> gas flow to investigate volcanic degassing dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27456812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27456812"><span>A novel approach to estimate the eruptive potential and probability in open <span class="hlt">conduit</span> volcanoes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Gregorio, Sofia; Camarda, Marco</p> <p>2016-07-26</p> <p>In open <span class="hlt">conduit</span> volcanoes, volatile-rich magma continuously enters into the feeding system nevertheless the eruptive activity occurs intermittently. From a practical perspective, the continuous steady input of magma in the feeding system is not able to produce eruptive events alone, but rather surplus of magma inputs are required to trigger the eruptive activity. The greater the amount of surplus of magma within the feeding system, the higher is the eruptive probability.Despite this observation, eruptive potential evaluations are commonly based on the regular magma supply, and in eruptive probability evaluations, generally any magma input has the same weight. Conversely, herein we present a novel approach based on the quantification of surplus of magma progressively intruded in the feeding system. To quantify the surplus of magma, we suggest to process temporal series of measurable parameters linked to the magma supply. We successfully performed a practical application on Mt Etna using the soil CO2 flux recorded over ten years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..210a2065A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..210a2065A"><span>Experimental investigation on momentum and drag reduction of Malaysian crop suspensions in closed <span class="hlt">conduit</span> flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahmed, S. M.; Kazi, S. N.; Khan, G.; Dahari, M.; Zubir, M. N. M.; Ahmad, P.; Montazer, E.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The study of frictional losses in fiber suspension flow is one of the significant scientific interests as the characteristics of suspension flow considerably changes with shear stress, fiber source, and treatments applied on fibers. Pressure drop measurements were obtained for different Malaysian crop fiber suspensions flowing through a closed <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The generated data were gathered over a range of flow rates and suspension concentrations. It was found that the magnitude of the pressure drop of the fiber suspensions is dependent on the concentration, characteristics, and fiber source. Considerable drag reduction is obtained for concentration of 0.6 wt. % at high flow rates. Such a reduction of pressure drop at the particular concentrations and the flow rates is interesting and useful as these data can be used for design and optimization of fiber handling equipment and piping systems. Furthermore, the effect of different fibers, fiber properties and flexibility on pressure drop were studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26504438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26504438"><span>Evaluation of Previously Cannulated Radial Arteries as Patent Coronary Artery Bypass <span class="hlt">Conduits</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watson, Timothy; Pope, Adele; van Pelt, Niels; Ruygrok, Peter N</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In coronary artery bypass grafting, good-quality <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are needed to maximize the potential for long-term patency. Revascularization has traditionally been achieved with use of the saphenous vein and the internal thoracic arteries. In recent years, total arterial revascularization with use of the radial arteries has been promoted. Meanwhile, use of the transradial approach for coronary angiography has also increased. The long-term effects of previous cannulation in radial artery bypass grafts are not known. Therefore, we used multidetector computed tomographic angiography to investigate radial-artery graft patency in a small series of patients who had undergone transradial angiography. We found a high patency rate, and we discuss those findings here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27631536','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27631536"><span>The side-to-side fashion for individual distal coronary anastomosis using venous <span class="hlt">conduit</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kato, Takayoshi; Tsunekawa, Tomohiro; Motoji, Yusuke; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Okawa, Yasuhide; Tomita, Shinji</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Regarding to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the end-to-side anastomosis (ESA) has been performed as a gold standard. Recently, the effectiveness of the distal side-to-side anastomosis (SSA) in CABG using internal mammary artery has been reported. The benefit of SSA comparing to ESA also has been disclosed by computing simulation. However, use of SSA by venous <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for individual CABG has not been reported. In this study, we investigated feasibility of SSA. From January 2013 to October 2014, we conducted 114 CABGs. There were 92 venous distal anastomoses without sequential anastomotic site (61 SSA and 31 ESA). The anastomosis was evaluated before discharge and at 1 year after the procedure by angiography or multi-detector row computed tomographic coronary angiography. The median values for time to anastomosis were 13 min in the two group (p = 0.89). There was no revision of anastomosis in both groups. Additional stitches for hemostasis were required significantly less in SSA than ESA (18.0 vs 45.2 %, respectively, p < 0.05). Early angiographic patency; 96.6 % for SSA vs 93.5 % for ESA (p = 0.50), and percentage of good anastomotic figure; 91.2 % for SSA vs 87.1 % for ESA (p = 0.54) were similar in both groups. The angiographic patency at 1 year were 92.9 % for SSA and 81.0 % for ESA (p = 0.16). There was no predictive factor for early and late graft failure. Our study showed feasibility of SSA using venous <span class="hlt">conduit</span> in individual CABG based on early and mid-term angiographic results. This anastomotic fashion is easy to perform and maybe beneficial in blood flow pattern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8256M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8256M"><span>Pockets, <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, channels, and plumes: links to volcanism and orogeny in the rollback dominated western Mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miller, Meghan S.; Sun, Daoyuan; O'Driscoll, Leland; Becker, Thorsten W.; Holt, Adam; Diaz, Jordi; Thomas, Christine</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Detailed mantle and lithospheric structure from the Canary Islands to Iberia have been imaged with data from recent temporary deployments and select permanent stations from over 300 broadband seismometers. The stations extended across Morocco and Spain as part of the PICASSO, IberArray, and Morocco-Münster experiments. We present results from S receiver functions (SRF), shear wave splitting, waveform modeling, and geodynamic models that help constrain the tectonic evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean, including orogenesis of the Atlas Mountains and occurrence of localized alkaline volcanism. Our receiver function images, in agreement with previous geophysical modeling, show that the lithosphere is thin (~65 km) beneath the Atlas, but thickens (~100 km) over a very short length scale at the flanks of the mountains. We find that these dramatic changes in lithospheric thickness also correspond to dramatic decreases in delay times inferred from S and SKS splitting observations of seismic anisotropy. Pockets and <span class="hlt">conduits</span> of low seismic velocity material below the lithosphere extend along much of the Atlas to Southern Spain and correlate with the locations of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism. Waveform analysis from the USC linear seismic array across the Atlas Mountains constrains the position, shape, and physical characteristics of one localized, low velocity <span class="hlt">conduit</span> that extends from the uppermost mantle (~200 km depth) up to the volcanoes in the Middle Atlas. The shape, position and temperature of these seismically imaged low velocity anomalies, topography of the base of the lithosphere, morphology of the subducted slab beneath the Alboran Sea, position of the West African Craton and correlation with mantle flow inferred from shear wave splitting suggest that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains and isolated recent volcanics are due to active mantle support that may be from material channeled from the Canary Island plume.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5556K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5556K"><span>Welding of Pyroclastic <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Infill: A Mechanism for Cyclical Explosive Eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kolzenburg, Stephan; Russell, James K.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Vulcanian style eruptions are small to moderate sized singular to cyclical events commonly having volcanic explosivity indices (VEI) of 1-3. They produce pyroclastic flows, disperse tephra over considerable areas and can occur as precursors to larger (e.g. Plinian) eruptions. Here we present a study on the evolution of the physical properties (strain, porosity, permeability and ultrasonic wave velocities) of breadcrust bombs recovered from the deposits of the 2350 B.P. eruption of Mt Meager, BC, Canada. These accessory lithics are fragments of welded intra vent deposits formed during compaction and deformation processes operating in the shallow (less than 2 km) <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The deformation experienced by these samples is a combination of compaction within the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and post-compaction stretching associated with the subsequent eruption. Our results highlight a profound directionality in the measured physical properties of these samples related to the deformation-induced fabric. Gas permeability varies drastically with increasing strain and decreasing porosity along the compaction direction of the fabric. However, permeability varies little along the elongation direction of the fabric. Similarly, ultrasonic wave velocities increase along the compaction direction and remain unaffected along the direction of fabric stretching; Poisons ratio increases along the fabric stretching direction. We combine these physical property measurements with models describing the timescales of porosity loss and to explore the timescales of permeability reduction and re-pressurization of the edifice. Modelling results and reconstruction of the deformation history also suggest the potential for a low-cost technique for monitoring the pressure build-up within volcanic systems based on fumarolic activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020732','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020732"><span>Tsivat Basin <span class="hlt">conduit</span> system persists through two surges, Bering Piedmont Glacier, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fleisher, P.J.; Cadwell, D.H.; Muller, E.H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The 1993-1995 surge of Bering Glacier, Alaska, occurred in two distinct phases. Phase 1 of the surge began on the eastern sector in July, 1993 and ended in July, 1994 after a powerful outburst of subglacial meltwater into Tsivat Lake basin on the north side of Weeping Peat Island. Within days, jokulhlaup discharge built a 1.5 km2 delta of ice blocks (25-30 m) buried in outwash. By late October 1994, discharge temporarily shifted to a vent on Weeping Peat Island, where a second smaller outburst dissected the island and built two new sandar. During phase 2, which began in spring 1995 and ended within five months, continuous discharge issued from several vents along the ice front on Weeping Peat Island before returining to the Tsivat Basin. Surge related changes include a five- to six-fold increase in meltwater turbidity; the redirection of supercooled water in two ice-contact lakes; and an increase in the rate of glaciolacustrine sedimentation. US Geological Survey aerial photos by Austin Post show large ice blocks in braided channels indicating excessive subglacial discharge in a similar position adjacent to Weeping Peat Island during the 1966-1967 surge. During the subsequent three decades of retreat, the location of ice-marginal, subglacial discharge vents remained aligned on a linear trend that describes the position of a persistent subglacial <span class="hlt">conduit</span> system. The presence of a major <span class="hlt">conduit</span> system, possibly stabilized by subglacial bedrock topography, is suggested by: 1) high-level subglacial meltwater venting along the northern side of Weeping Peat Island during the 1966-1967 surge, 2) persistent low-level discharge between surges, and 3) the recurrence of localizing meltwater outbursts associated with both phases of the 1993-1005 surge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18761499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18761499"><span>The mechanisms of refilling of xylem <span class="hlt">conduits</span> and bleeding of tall birch during spring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Westhoff, M; Schneider, H; Zimmermann, D; Mimietz, S; Stinzing, A; Wegner, L H; Kaiser, W; Krohne, G; Shirley, St; Jakob, P; Bamberg, E; Bentrup, F-W; Zimmermann, U</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Seasonal variations in osmolality and components of xylem sap in tall birch trees were determined using several techniques. Xylem sap was extracted from branch and trunk sections of 58 trees using the very rapid gas bubble-based jet-discharge method. The 5-cm long wood pieces were taken at short intervals over the entire tree height. The data show that large biphasic osmolality gradients temporarily exist within the conducting xylem <span class="hlt">conduits</span> during leaf emergence (up to 272 mosmol x kg(-1) at the apex). These gradients (arising mainly from glucose and fructose) were clearly held within the xylem <span class="hlt">conduit</span> as demonstrated by (1)H NMR imaging of intact twigs. Refilling experiments with benzene, sucrose infusion, electron and light microscopy, as well as (1)H NMR chemical shift microimaging provided evidence that the xylem of birch represents a compartment confined by solute-reflecting barriers (radial: lipid linings/lipid bodies; axial: presumably air-filled spaces). These features allow transformation of osmolality gradients into osmotic pressure gradients. Refilling of the xylem occurs by a dual mechanism: from the base (by root pressure) and from the top (by hydrostatic pressure generated by xylem-bound osmotic pressure). The generation of osmotic pressure gradients was accompanied by bleeding. Bleeding could be observed at a height of up to 21 m. Bleeding rates measured at a given height decreased exponentially with time. Evidence is presented that the driving force for bleeding is the weight of the static water columns above the bleeding point. The pressure exerted by the water columns and the bleeding volume depend on the water-filling status of (communicating) vessels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9504M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9504M"><span>Laboratory experiments on <span class="hlt">conduit</span> kinetics of 2001 and 2002 Mount Etna eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mincione, V.; Trigila, R.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>During the 2001and 2002 Mt. Etna eruptions lavas and ashes with peculiar mineralogical and textural characters, i.e. low porfiricity index, scarcity of plagioclase phenocrysts, appearance of amphibole among mineral phases, have been erupted. Moreover, the eruptions of these peculiar products took place with an anomalously high explovity index for Etna volcano. In order to constrain <span class="hlt">conduit</span> parameters responsible for these volcanological features, two sets of experiments have been run, using a rapid quenching TZM externally heated pressure vessel. One set of experiments was performed at eruptive temperature and constant pressure (T = 950°-1050°; P = 200 MPa) to investigate the rock paragenesis, the order of crystallization and the amount of dissolved gases pertinent to magmatic chamber conditions. The experiments were run at controlled NNO oxygen fugacity and samples were satured initially with water or oxalic acid diidrated. Samples were collected from different vents and showed different porfiricity and paragenesis. All the samples run at such conditions show the same crystalline assemblage: plagioclase, diopsidic clinopyroxene, olivine, titanomagnetite and amphibole. These results may indicate that the differences in the porfiricity and paragenesis observed in natural products are not related to a different source of the magmatic masses but simply to a different kinetics of the magma ascent. Therefore, the second set of experiments was performed on purpose at the same temperatures and different decompression rate (from 200MPa to 20MPa in 1 hour, 12 hour and 24h), in order to investigate the role of ascent velocity in the volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The samples were decompressed acting manually on the TZM purge valve, connected on purpose with a fluximeter. Preliminary results show a straight influence of decompression kinetics on some features of the experimental products, as the porfiric index, the occurence of amphibole among mineral species and the amount of gases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10190593','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10190593"><span>Theory and modelling of quench in cable-in-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> superconducting magnets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shajii, A.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>A new simple, self consistent theoretical model is presented that describes the phenomena of quench propagation in Cable-In-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span> superconducting magnets. The model (Quencher) circumvents many of the difficulties associated with obtaining numerical solutions in more general existing models. Specifically, a factor of 30-50 is gained in CPU time over the general, explicit time dependent codes used to study typical quench events. The corresponding numerical implementation of the new model is described and the numerical results are shown to agree very well with those of the more general models, as well as with experimental data. Further, well justified approximations lead to the MacQuench model that is shown to be very accurate and considerably more efficient than the Quencher model. The MacQuench code is suitable for performing quench studies on a personal computer, requiring only several minutes of CPU time. In order to perform parametric studies on new conductor designs it is required to utilize a model such as MacQuench because of the high computational efficiency of this model. Finally, a set of analytic solutions for the problem of quench propagation in Cable-In-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Conductors is presented. These analytic solutions represent the first such results that remain valid for the long time scales of interest during a quench process. The assumptions and the resulting simplifications that lead to the analytic solutions are discussed, and the regimes of validity of the various approximations are specified. The predictions of the analytic results are shown to be in very good agreement with numerical as well as experimental results. Important analytic scaling relations are verified by such comparisons, and the consequences of some of these scalings on currently designed superconducting magnets are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V51D..06V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V51D..06V"><span>Listening to Stromboli Volcano as a tool into its Volcanic <span class="hlt">Conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vergniolle, S.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Breaking of metric bubbles at the top of a magma column is observed during most basaltic eruptions: it is called "gas-piston" activity during hawaiian eruptions or explosions for strombolian volcanoes. Because these bubbles are the trademark of basaltic activity, one needs to understand their behaviour both when they arrive at the surface and when they formed at depth. By combining acoustic measurements at Stromboli with a model for sound generation, the bubble length and radius as well as its overpressure have been estimated at the vent. Because bubbles are significantly overpressurised when they break at the top of the magma column, they are also overpressurised when they leave the shallow magma chamber. Here, simplified equations for the rise of an overpressurised bubble show that such a bubble oscillates while rising. The change in volume of the rising bubble pushes the magma column up and down, vigourously enough to produce sound waves of low frequency (bubble volume mode around 0.5 Hz). Furthermore, the initial oscillations of strombolian bubbles are strong enough to produce gravity waves at the surface of the magma column (sloshing waves of 1-3 Hz), which can be detected acoustically. The model for bubble rise predicts that a precursory peak in acoustic pressure, i.e. ahead from the explosion itself, should occur simultaneously both around 0.5 Hz (bubble volume mode) and 2 Hz (sloshing modes) when the bubble starts its rise in the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. First, the amplitude of the precursory peak in acoustic pressure measures the initial overpressure in the bubble (≈ 11 MPa). Second, the time delay between the precursory peak and the explosion itself corresponds to the time needed for a bubble to rise from the magma chamber to the surface. Its depth is then estimated around a few hundred meters at Stromboli. A mechanism for the origin of bubble overpressure at the base of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> will be proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H52E..03B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H52E..03B"><span>Plumbing the Aquatic <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> for Terrestrial Carbon: How far can we get with Hydrological Connectivity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bishop, K. H.; Campeau, A.; Billett, M. F.; Wallin, M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The water cycle is maddeningly difficultyto pin down with the level of detail that is desired for resolving issues about the fate of pollutants, nutrient cycling and the global carbon balance, etc. "Connectivity" is increasingly talked of in hydrology and water resources management as a way to better conceptualize how different parts of the catchment dynamically interact to influence runoff generation and water quality. Runoff is a major C flux (aquatic <span class="hlt">conduit</span>) that is particularly sensitive to changes in climate and hydrological regimes. This paper uses three dimensions of connectivity (vertical, latitudinal and longitudinal), to plumb the sources of carbon leaving a boreal landscape via the aquatic <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. We used the distributed sources and age of aquatic C export to help assess the role and stability of a boreal landscape in the global C cycle. We combined hydrometric data and mass balances with isotopic tracers of water and carbon, including both radiogenic (14C) and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of DOC, CO2 and CH4 in catchment soils and the stream network to define the connectivity of riparian, peatland and upland sources to the carbon in runoff throughout the year. The radiocarbon age of DOC, CO2 and CH4were predominantly modern, even in peat catotelm, but with localized excursions to millennial ages. The sources and processes that transport dissolved C species varied strongly with flow rates and the associated patterns of connectivity, mediated by seasonal variation that influence carbon cycling. The age of the C and other tracers exported to streams enabled us to "connect" the aquatic C exports to their origins in the mosaic of landscape elements. The effort also identified ways in which the concept of hydrological connectivity can be refined to strengthen the testing of biogeochemical hypotheses across temporal and spatial scales in specific landscapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4459924','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4459924"><span>Endothelial barrier dysfunction in diabetic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> arteries: a novel method to quantify filtration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lu, Xiao; Huxley, Virginia H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The endothelial barrier plays an important role in atherosclerosis, hyperglycemia, and hypercholesterolemia. In the present study, an accurate, reproducible, and user-friendly method was used to further understand endothelial barrier function of <span class="hlt">conduit</span> arteries. An isovolumic method was used to measure the hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of the intact vessel wall and medial-adventitial layer. Normal arterial segments with diameters from 0.2 to 5.5 mm were used to validate the method, and femoral arteries of diabetic rats were studied as an example of pathological specimens. Various arterial segments confirmed that the volume flux of water per unit surface area was linearly related to intraluminal pressure, as confirmed in microvessels. Lp of the intact wall varied from 3.5 to 22.1 × 10−7 cm·s−1·cmH2O−1 over the pressure range of 7–180 mmHg. Over the same pressure range, Lp of the endothelial barrier changed from 4.4 to 25.1 × 10−7 cm·s−1·cmH2O−1. During perfusion with albumin-free solution, Lp of rat femoral arteries increased from 6.1 to 13.2 × 10−7 cm·s−1·cmH2O−1 over the pressure range of 10–180 mmHg. Hyperglycemia increased Lp of the femoral artery in diabetic rats from 2.9 to 5.5 × 10−7 cm·s−1·cmH2O−1 over the pressure range of 20–135 mmHg. In conclusion, the Lp of a <span class="hlt">conduit</span> artery can be accurately and reproducibly measured using a novel isovolumic method, which in diabetic rats is hyperpermeable. This is likely due to disruption of the endothelial glycocalyx. PMID:23220330</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3788774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3788774"><span>Ventricular pump performance in patients with obstructed right ventricular-pulmonary artery <span class="hlt">conduits</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Palik, I; Graham, T P; Burger, J</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>Postoperative data were obtained from 18 patients with partially obstructed right ventricular (RV) to pulmonary artery (PA) <span class="hlt">conduits</span>, who were studied 1 to 9 years following a Rastelli operation. Age at operation was 1 to 8 months in seven patients (group I: infant group) and 2 to 9 years in the remaining 11 patients (group II: childhood group). The diagnosis was pulmonary atresia in eight patients, truncus arteriosus in seven, and transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis in three. Porcine-valved <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were inserted in 17 patients and an aortic homograft in one. All but seven patients were free of symptoms at the time of postoperative study. Neither peak RV pressures nor RV to PA gradients were different between groups. RV ejection fraction (EF) was decreased in group II (0.43 +/- 0.11) but was normal (0.60 +/- 0.10) in group I. In addition, there was a significant inverse relationship between RVEF and age at repair (r = 0.714; p less than 0.005). RV end-diastolic volume (EDV) was normal or increased in all patients and did not differ between the two groups. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction was also decreased in the older group (0.56 +/- 0.10 vs 0.68 +/- 0.08; p less than 0.05), and there was a decrease in RVEF and/or LVEF from pre- to postoperative studies in one of six group I patients compared with four of five group II patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.2560B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.2560B"><span>Boundary layer sources for the Asian anticyclone: Regional contributions to a vertical <span class="hlt">conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergman, John W.; Fierli, Federico; Jensen, Eric J.; Honomichl, Shawn; Pan, Laura L.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>transport of air from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) into the Asian Summer Monsoon anticyclone is investigated using backward trajectories initiated within the anti-cyclone at 100 mb and 200 mb during August 2011. Transport occurs through a well-defined <span class="hlt">conduit</span> centered over the southern Tibetan plateau, where convection lofts air parcels into the anticyclone. The <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, as a dynamical feature, is distinct from the anticyclone. Thus, while the anticyclone influences transport through the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, it does not by itself define a transport pipeline through that region. To quantify model sensitivities, parcel trajectories are calculated using wind fields from multiple analysis data sets (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, National Center for Environmental Prediction's Global Forecasting System, and NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications [MERRA]) and from synthetically modified data sets that explore the roles of vertical motion and horizontal resolution for discrepancies among these calculations. All calculations agree on the relative contributions to PBL sources for the anticyclone from large-scale regions with Tibetan Plateau and India/SE Asia being the most important. However, they disagree on the total fraction of air within the anticyclone that was recently in the PBL. At 200 mbar, calculations using MERRA are clear outliers due to problematic vertical motion in those data. Large differences among the different data sets at 100 mbar are more closely related to horizontal resolution. It is speculated that this reflects the importance of deep, small-scale convective updrafts for transport to 100 mbar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6206S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6206S"><span>Integrating Laboratory and Numerical Decompression Experiments to Investigate Fluid Dynamics into the <span class="hlt">Conduit</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spina, Laura; Colucci, Simone; De'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald Bruce</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The study of the fluid dynamics of magmatic melts into the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, where direct observations are unattainable, was proven to be strongly enhanced by multiparametric approaches. Among them, the coupling of numerical modeling with laboratory experiments represents a fundamental tool of investigation. Indeed, the experimental approach provide invaluable data to validate complex multiphase codes. We performed decompression experiments in a shock tube system, using pure silicon oil as a proxy for the basaltic melt. A range of viscosity comprised between 1 and 1000 Pa s was investigated. The samples were saturated with Argon for 72h at 10MPa, before being slowly decompressed to atmospheric pressure. The evolution of the analogue magmatic system was monitored through a high speed camera and pressure sensors, located into the analogue <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The experimental decompressions have then been reproduced numerically using a multiphase solver based on OpenFOAM framework. The original compressible multiphase Openfoam solver twoPhaseEulerFoam was extended to take into account the multicomponent nature of the fluid mixtures (liquid and gas) and the phase transition. According to the experimental conditions, the simulations were run with values of fluid viscosity ranging from 1 to 1000 Pa s. The sensitivity of the model has been tested for different values of the parameters t and D, representing respectively the relaxation time for gas exsolution and the average bubble diameter, required by the Gidaspow drag model. Valuable range of values for both parameters are provided from experimental observations, i.e. bubble nucleation time and bubble size distribution at a given pressure. The comparison of video images with the outcomes of the numerical models was performed by tracking the evolution of the gas volume fraction through time. Therefore, we were able to calibrate the parameter of the model by laboratory results, and to track the fluid dynamics of experimental decompression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12794092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12794092"><span>Exercise training improves <span class="hlt">conduit</span> vessel function in patients with coronary artery disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walsh, Jennifer H; Bilsborough, William; Maiorana, Andrew; Best, Matthew; O'Driscoll, Gerard J; Taylor, Roger R; Green, Daniel J</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>It is well established that endothelial dysfunction is present in coronary artery disease (CAD), although few studies have determined the effect of training on peripheral <span class="hlt">conduit</span> vessel function in patients with CAD. A randomized, crossover design determined the effect of 8 wk of predominantly lower limb, combined aerobic and resistance training, in 10 patients with treated CAD. Endothelium-dependent dilation of the brachial artery was determined, by using high-resolution vascular ultrasonography, from flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) after ischemia. Endothelium-independent vasodilation was measured after administration of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Baseline function was compared with that of 10 control subjects. Compared with matched healthy control subjects, FMD and GTN responses were significantly impaired in the untrained CAD patients [3.0 +/- 0.8 (SE) vs. 5.8 +/- 0.8% and 14.5 +/- 1.9 vs. 20.4 +/- 1.5%, respectively; both P < 0.05]. Training significantly improved FMD in the CAD patients (from 3.0 +/- 0.8 to 5.7 +/- 1.1%; P < 0.05) but not responsiveness to GTN (14.5 +/- 1.9 vs. 12.1 +/- 1.4%; P = not significant). Exercise training improves endothelium-dependent <span class="hlt">conduit</span> vessel dilation in subjects with CAD, and the effect, evident in the brachial artery, appears to be generalized rather than limited to vessels of exercising muscle beds. These results provide evidence for the benefit of exercise training, as an adjunct to routine therapy, in patients with a history of CAD.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V43B1806C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V43B1806C"><span>The Rheological Effect of Crystals on Volcanic-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Eruption Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caricchi, L.; Ardia, P.; Burlini, L.; Ulmer, P.; Gerya, T.; Vassalli, M.; Papale, P.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The results of an experimental study designed to investigate the complex rheology of crystal bearing magmas as a function of the degree of crystallinity and stress conditions are incorporated in a numerical code utilized to predict volcanic-<span class="hlt">conduit</span> eruption dynamics that now, for the first time, is able to account for the non-linear rheology of two-phase (melt and crystals) magmas. Quartz particles are used as suspended crystals in a normatively quartz saturated haplogranite melt. This system has been selected because the addition of variable proportions of quartz does not significantly affect the liquid composition under the applied experimental conditions. Torsion and compression experiments were performed in a high-pressure, high-temperature Paterson apparatus at 250 MPa and temperatures between 800 and 900°C. The viscosities of the suspending haplogranitic melt were measured by falling sphere experiments in conventional and centrifuging piston cylinder apparatus. Experimental data combined with the existing literature data on the rheology of two-phase systems at solid fractions between 0 and 0.4 were utilized to develop a semi-empirical, parameterized equation that accounts for the effects of increasing crystal fractions and strain rate on the relative viscosity of magma. This new parameterization is included in the numerical code of Papale (JGR, 106, 11043 (2001)) to model multiphase magma ascent. In order to study the effect of crystal content and strain-rate on the two-phase (liquid+crystal) homogeneous mixture, we carried out parametric simulations comparing the results obtained employing simple Newtonian behavior and our newly formulated parameterization that accounts for the complex rheology of two-phases magmas. The results show that strain-rate dependent rheology significantly modifies the predicted dynamics inside the volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, particularly affecting the magma fragmentation conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P21A1838M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P21A1838M"><span>Imaging of a lava dome in Unzen, Japan and a shallow <span class="hlt">conduit</span> in Stromboli, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miyamoto, S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Montesi, C.; Naganawa, N.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tanaka, H.; Tioukov, V.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The latest lava dome in Mt. Unzen was formed in the eruption from January 1991 to early 1995 and the activity was calmed down in 1995. The researchers kept to observe the eruption in this period precisely. Some of them proposed the growth model, another person proposed different model from their data[1,2]. It is significant for the growth model and the landslide prediction to investigate the density structure in the lava dome. The observation of the lava dome density 2D map was performed by using cosmic-ray muon and muon detector in Unzen. The muon detector, nuclear emulsion films which has high position resolution and 0.85m2 effective areas, was installed in a natural cave from early December 2010 to the end of March. The developed nuclear emulsion films have been scanned by automated muon readout system. The systematic analysis of efficiency and random noise ratio estimation are performed by taking a pattern match and making a connection of muon tracks between several films. Stromboli is one of the Aeolian Islands, which is located at a volcanic arc north of Sicily Island Italy. 1.0m2 nuclear emulsion films were installed at the site which is 500m far from active volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. The shape of volcanic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is critical information to the study of the dynamics of eruption. After three month exposure, the films were developed and we started to analyze them in the beginning of May 2012. We will report the results of Unzen and Stromboli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V23C2854H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V23C2854H"><span>Frictional melting dynamics in the upper <span class="hlt">conduit</span>: A chemical answer to a complex physical question</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Henton De Angelis, S.; Lavallee, Y.; Kendrick, J. E.; Hornby, A.; von Aulock, F. W.; Clesham, S.; Hirose, T.; Perugini, D.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>During volcanic eruptions the generation of frictional heat along the walls of the shallow <span class="hlt">conduit</span> leads to melting of the rocks along the slip interface. Frictional melting has previously been described as a process out of thermodynamic equilibrium, but upon slip and mingling of the melt batches, homogeneity can be achieved, and may have an h important rheological control on the dynamics of slip. To test melt homogenization in the frictional melt zones of volcanic <span class="hlt">conduits</span> we performed constant-rate slip experiments under controlled stress conditions using a high-velocity rotary shear apparatus. Volcanic dome samples from three different volcanoes (Volcán De Colima, Soufrière Hills Volcano and Santiaguito Volcano) were investigated. Each sample was subjected to a stress of 1 MPa and slip rate of 1 m/s. For each sample set 5 experiments were conducted: 1) experiment stopped at the onset of melting; 2) experiment stopped on the formation of a full melt layer; 3) experiment stopped after 5m of slip at steady state conditions; 4) experiment stopped after 10m of slip at steady state conditions; 5) experiment stopped after 15m of slip at steady state conditions. We analyzed the resulting proto-melt zones using micron sized X-ray spectroscopy in the high-brightness synchrotron beamline I18 (at Diamond Light Source UK). Particular focus was given to the concentration variance analysis of Rare Earth Elements as their mobilities can be used to precisely quantify the degree and timescale of homogenisation involved during frictional melting. This study refines our understanding of the chemical process of melting and mixing which carry important consequences for the rheological control on the physical dynamics of slip.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22689468','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22689468"><span>A polylactic acid non-woven nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> for facial nerve regeneration in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsumine, Hajime; Sasaki, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Sakurai, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>This study developed a biodegradable nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with PLA non-woven fabric and evaluated its nerve regeneration-promoting effect. The buccal branch of the facial nerve of 8 week-old Lewis rats was exposed, and a 7 mm nerve defect was created. A nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> made of either PLA non-woven fabric (mean fibre diameter 460 nm), or silicone tube filled with type I collagen gel, or an autologous nerve, was implanted into the nerve defect, and their nerve regenerative abilities were evaluated 13 weeks after the surgery. The number of myelinated neural fibres in the middle portion of the regenerated nerve was the highest for PLA tubes (mean ± SD, 5051 ± 2335), followed by autologous nerves (4233 ± 590) and silicone tubes (1604 ± 148). Axon diameter was significantly greater in the PLA tube group (5.17 ± 1.69 µm) than in the silicone tube group (4.25 ± 1.60 µm) and no significant difference was found between the PLA tube and autograft (5.53 ± 1.93 µm) groups. Myelin thickness was greatest for the autograft group (0.65 ± 0.24 µm), followed by the PLA tube (0.54 ± 0.18 µm) and silicone tube (0.38 ± 0.12 µm) groups, showing significant differences among the three groups. The PLA non-woven fabric tube, composed of randomly-connected PLA fibres, is porous and has a number of advantages, such as sufficient strength to maintain luminal structure. The tube has demonstrated a comparable ability to induce peripheral nerve regeneration following autologous nerve transplantation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42078','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42078"><span>Coastal management at Ojo de Liebre, Baja California <span class="hlt">Sur</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Frederico Salinas-Zavala; Alfredo Ortega-Rubio; Diego Valez-Zamudio; Aradit. Castelanos-Vera</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We analyzed the biotic, abiotic, and human components interacting at the coastal zone of the Ojo de Liebre Lagoon, Baja California <span class="hlt">Sur</span>, Mexico. Using geographic information systems, satellite images, and the main biological, physical, and socioeconomic components, we developed an environmental characterization of the zone. According with the natural features of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/36036','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/36036"><span>Mining activities and arsenic in a Baja California <span class="hlt">Sur</span> watershed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Alejandro Naranjo-Pulido; Alfredo Ortega-Rubio; Baudillo Acost-Vargas; Lia Rodriguez-Mendez; Marcos Acevedo-Beltran; Cerafina Arguelles-Mendez</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Mining is one of the most important sources of income for the Baja California <span class="hlt">Sur</span> state. This state is the second most important area for mineral (gold, silver, copper) and non-mineral (salt) mining activities in the Mexican Republic. In the San Antonio-El Triunfo region, mineral-mining activities flourished during the 19th century. Tons of debris containing a high...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3796019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3796019"><span>Traditional medicine of Baja California <span class="hlt">Sur</span> (Mexico). I.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dimayuga, R E; Agundez, J</p> <p>1986-08-01</p> <p>This study deals with the medicinal use of 30 plants collected in the Municipio de Los Cabos and part of the Municipio de la Paz, Baja California <span class="hlt">Sur</span>, Mexico. The plants were all taxonomically identified at least to genus level, and their medicinal use, as described to us by elder people, is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2023427','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2023427"><span>Antimicrobial screening of medicinal plants from Baja California <span class="hlt">Sur</span>, Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Encarnación Dimayuga, R; Keer Garcia, S</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>The ethanolic extracts of 72 plants belonging to 35 different families, and used in traditional medicine in Baja California <span class="hlt">Sur</span> (México), were tested for antimicrobial activity in vitro using the filter paper disk assay method. Activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis (Gram-positive microorganisms), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative microorganisms) and Candida albicans (yeast) is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-03/pdf/2011-33641.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-03/pdf/2011-33641.pdf"><span>77 FR 102 - Turnbull Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing for Exemption for a Small <span class="hlt">Conduit</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-03</p> <p>... Energy Regulatory Commission Turnbull Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing for Exemption for a Small <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Hydroelectric Facility and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Protests...: September 23, 2011. d. Applicant: Turnbull Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Mary Taylor Hydroelectric Project...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28531139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28531139"><span>Dual-Component Gelatinous Peptide/Reactive Oligomer Formulations as <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Material and Luminal Filler for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kohn-Polster, Caroline; Bhatnagar, Divya; Woloszyn, Derek J; Richtmyer, Matthew; Starke, Annett; Springwald, Alexandra H; Franz, Sandra; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Kaplan, Hilton M; Kohn, Joachim; Hacker, Michael C</p> <p>2017-05-21</p> <p>Toward the next generation of nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (NGCs), novel biomaterials and functionalization concepts are required to address clinical demands in peripheral nerve regeneration (PNR). As a biological polymer with bioactive motifs, gelatinous peptides are promising building blocks. In combination with an anhydride-containing oligomer, a dual-component hydrogel system (cGEL) was established. First, hollow cGEL tubes were fabricated by a continuous dosing and templating process. <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> were characterized concerning their mechanical strength, in vitro and in vivo degradation and biocompatibility. Second, cGEL was reformulated as injectable shear thinning filler for established NGCs, here tyrosine-derived polycarbonate-based braided <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Thereby, the formulation contained the small molecule LM11A-31. The biofunctionalized cGEL filler was assessed regarding building block integration, mechanical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity, and growth permissive effects on human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. A positive in vitro evaluation motivated further application of the filler material in a sciatic nerve defect. Compared to the empty <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and pristine cGEL, the functionalization performed superior, though the autologous nerve graft remains the gold standard. In conclusion, LM11A-31 functionalized cGEL filler with extracellular matrix (ECM)-like characteristics and specific biochemical cues holds great potential to support PNR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5455012','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5455012"><span>Dual-Component Gelatinous Peptide/Reactive Oligomer Formulations as <span class="hlt">Conduit</span> Material and Luminal Filler for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kohn-Polster, Caroline; Bhatnagar, Divya; Woloszyn, Derek J.; Richtmyer, Matthew; Starke, Annett; Springwald, Alexandra H.; Franz, Sandra; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Kaplan, Hilton M.; Kohn, Joachim; Hacker, Michael C.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Toward the next generation of nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (NGCs), novel biomaterials and functionalization concepts are required to address clinical demands in peripheral nerve regeneration (PNR). As a biological polymer with bioactive motifs, gelatinous peptides are promising building blocks. In combination with an anhydride-containing oligomer, a dual-component hydrogel system (cGEL) was established. First, hollow cGEL tubes were fabricated by a continuous dosing and templating process. <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> were characterized concerning their mechanical strength, in vitro and in vivo degradation and biocompatibility. Second, cGEL was reformulated as injectable shear thinning filler for established NGCs, here tyrosine-derived polycarbonate-based braided <span class="hlt">conduits</span>. Thereby, the formulation contained the small molecule LM11A-31. The biofunctionalized cGEL filler was assessed regarding building block integration, mechanical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity, and growth permissive effects on human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. A positive in vitro evaluation motivated further application of the filler material in a sciatic nerve defect. Compared to the empty <span class="hlt">conduit</span> and pristine cGEL, the functionalization performed superior, though the autologous nerve graft remains the gold standard. In conclusion, LM11A-31 functionalized cGEL filler with extracellular matrix (ECM)-like characteristics and specific biochemical cues holds great potential to support PNR. PMID:28531139</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371748','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371748"><span>FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED 316LN STAINLESS STEEL AT 4 K FOR HIGH FIELD CABLE-IN-<span class="hlt">CONDUIT</span> APPLICATIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Toplosky, V. J.; Walsh, R. P.; Han, K.</p> <p>2010-04-08</p> <p>Cable-In-<span class="hlt">Conduit</span>-Conductor (CICC) alloys, exposed to Nb{sub 3}Sn reaction heat-treatments, such as modified 316LN require a design specific database. A lack of fatigue life data (S-n curves) that could be applied in the design of the ITER CS and the NHMFL Series Connected Hybrid magnets is the impetus for the research presented here. The modified 316LN is distinguished by a lower carbon content and higher nitrogen content when compared to conventional 316LN. Because the interstitial alloying elements affect the mechanical properties significantly, it is necessary to characterize this alloy in a systematic way. In conjunction, to ensure magnet reliability and performance, several criteria and expectations must be met, including: high fatigue life at the operating stresses, optimal stress management at cryogenic temperatures and thin walled <span class="hlt">conduit</span> to reduce coil mass. Tension-tension load control axial fatigue tests have good applicability to CICC solenoid magnet design, thus a series of 4 K strength versus fatigue life curves have been generated. In-situ samples of 316LN base metal, seam welded, butt welded and seam plus butt welded are removed directly from the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> in order to address base and weld material fatigue life variability. The more than 30 fatigue tests show good grouping on the fatigue life curve and allow discretionary 4 K fatigue life predictions for <span class="hlt">conduit</span> made with modified 316LN.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4983313','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4983313"><span>Approaches to Peripheral Nerve Repair: Generations of Biomaterial <span class="hlt">Conduits</span> Yielding to Replacing Autologous Nerve Grafts in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Knipfer, Christian; Hadlock, Tessa</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Peripheral nerve injury is a common clinical entity, which may arise due to traumatic, tumorous, or even iatrogenic injury in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Despite advances in biomaterials and techniques over the past several decades, reconstruction of nerve gaps remains a challenge. Autografts are the gold standard for nerve reconstruction. Using autografts, there is donor site morbidity, subsequent sensory deficit, and potential for neuroma development and infection. Moreover, the need for a second surgical site and limited availability of donor nerves remain a challenge. Thus, increasing efforts have been directed to develop artificial nerve guidance <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (ANCs) as new methods to replace autografts in the future. Various synthetic <span class="hlt">conduit</span> materials have been tested in vitro and in vivo, and several first- and second-generation <span class="hlt">conduits</span> are FDA approved and available for purchase, while third-generation <span class="hlt">conduits</span> still remain in experimental stages. This paper reviews the current treatment options, summarizes the published literature, and assesses future prospects for the repair of peripheral nerve injury in craniomaxillofacial surgery with a particular focus on facial nerve regeneration. PMID:27556032</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22552954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22552954"><span>Regenerative effect of adipose tissue-derived stem cells transplantation using nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> therapy on sciatic nerve injury in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Bai-Shuan; Yang, Yi-Chin; Shen, Chiung-Chyi</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This study proposed a biodegradable GGT nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> containing genipin crosslinked gelatin annexed with tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramic particles for the regeneration of peripheral nerves. Cytotoxicity tests revealed that GGT-extracts were non-toxic and promoted proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the induction of stem cells (i-ASCs) derived from adipose tissue. Furthermore, the study confirmed the effectiveness of a GGT/i-ASCs nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span> as a guidance channel in the repair of a 10-mm gap in the sciatic nerve of rats. At eight weeks post-implantation, walking track analysis showed a significantly higher sciatic function index (SFI) (P < 0.05) in the GGT/i-ASC group than in the autograft group. Furthermore, the mean recovery index of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) differed significantly between GGT/i-ASCs and autograft groups (P < 0.05), both of which were significantly superior to the GGT group (P < 0.05). No severe inflammatory reaction in the peripheral nerve tissue at the site of implantation was observed in either group. Histological observation and immunohistochemistry revealed that the morphology and distribution patterns of nerve fibers in the GGT/i-ASCs nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> were similar to those of the autografts. These promising results achieved through a combination of regenerative cells and GGT nerve <span class="hlt">conduits</span> suggest the potential value in the future development of clinical applications for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol2-sec1-67-3T.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol2-sec1-67-3T.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.67-3T - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (temporary).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage... Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.67-3T Allocation of expenses by real estate... real estate mortgage investment <span class="hlt">conduit</span> or REMIC (as defined in section 860D) shall allocate to each...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15626438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15626438"><span>An in vivo evaluation of a biodegradable genipin-cross-linked gelatin peripheral nerve guide <span class="hlt">conduit</span> material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chang, Ju-Ying; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Liu, Bai-Shuan</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>We evaluated peripheral nerve regeneration using a biodegradable nerve <span class="hlt">conduit</span>, which was made of genipin-cross-linked gelatin. The genipin-cross-linked gelatin <span class="hlt">conduit</span> (GGC) was dark blue in appearance, which was concentric and round with a rough outer surface whereas its inner lumen was smooth. After subcutaneous implantation on the dorsal side of the rat, the GGC only evoked a mild tissue response, forming a thin tissue capsule surrounding the <span class="hlt">conduit</span>. Biodegradability of the GGC and its effectiveness as a guidance channel were examined as it was used to repair a 10 mm gap in the rat sciatic nerve. As a result, tube fragmentation was not obvious until 6 weeks post-implantation and successful regeneration through the gap occurred in all the <span class="hlt">conduits</span> at the three experimental periods of 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Histological observation showed that numerous regenerated nerve fibers, mostly unmyelinated and surrounded by Schwann cells, crossed through and beyond the gap region 6 weeks after operation. Peak amplitude and area under the muscle action potential curve both showed an increase as a function of the recovery period, indicating that the nerve had undergone adequate regeneration. Thus, the GGC can not only be an effective aids for regenerating nerves but can also lead to favorable nerve functional recovery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/journal/1976/vol4issue2/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/journal/1976/vol4issue2/report.pdf"><span>Rise of a variable-viscosity fluid in a steadily spreading wedge-shaped <span class="hlt">conduit</span> with accreting walls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lachenbruch, Arthur H.; Nathenson, Manuel</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Relatively rigid plates making up the outer 50 to 100 km of the Earth are steadily separating from one another along narrow globe-circling zones of submarine volcanism, the oceanic spreading centers. Continuity requires that the viscous underlying material rise beneath spreading centers and accrete onto the steadily diverging plates. It is likely that during the rise the viscosity changes systematically and that the viscous tractions exerted on the plates contribute to the unique pattern of submarine mountains and earthquake faults observed at spreading centers. The process is modeled by viscous creep in a wedge-shaped <span class="hlt">conduit</span> (with apex at the sea floor) in which the viscosity varies as rm where r is distance from the apex and m is a parameter. For these conditions, the governing differential equations take a simple form. The solution for the velocity is independent of r and of the sign of m. As viscous stresses vary as rm-1, the pattern of stress on the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> wall is sensitive to viscosity variation. For negative m, the viscous pressure along the base of the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> is quite uniform; for positive m, it falls toward zero in the axial region as the <span class="hlt">conduit</span> base widens. For small opening angles, viscous forces push the plates apart, and for large ones, they oppose plate separation. Though highly idealized, the solution provides a tool for investigating tectonic processes at spreading centers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title26-vol2-sec1-67-3T.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title26-vol2-sec1-67-3T.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.67-3T - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (temporary).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage... Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.67-3T Allocation of expenses by real estate... real estate mortgage investment <span class="hlt">conduit</span> or REMIC (as defined in section 860D) shall allocate to each...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title26-vol2-sec1-67-3T.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title26-vol2-sec1-67-3T.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.67-3T - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (temporary).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage... Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.67-3T Allocation of expenses by real estate... real estate mortgage investment <span class="hlt">conduit</span> or REMIC (as defined in section 860D) shall allocate to each...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title26-vol2-sec1-67-3T.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title26-vol2-sec1-67-3T.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.67-3T - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment <span class="hlt">conduits</span> (temporary).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage... Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.67-3T Allocation of expenses by real estate... real estate mortgage investment <span class="hlt">conduit</span> or REMIC (as defined in section 860D) shall allocate to each...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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