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Sample records for james webb space

  1. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is being developed by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian space agencies for launch during 2013. This mission is expected to carry the legacy of discovery of the Hubble Space Telescope through the next decade, and is designed with unique capability to address key questions about formation of the first galaxies after the Big Bang, their subsequelet volution, and the formation of stars and planets within our own galaxy. This talk will present an overview of the mission science objectives and the status of the mission development.

  2. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  3. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Proto planetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals.

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In this paper, the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals are reviewed.

  7. Milestone reached for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The primary mirror for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) - the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope - is complete after engineers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, US, put in place the craft's 18th and final mirror segment.

  8. Fine Guidance System for the James Webb Space Telescope Delivered

    NASA Video Gallery

    Video has music in the background but no dialogue. The second of four main instruments to fly aboard NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (Webb) has been delivered to NASA. The Fine Guidance Sensor (F...

  9. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb's capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, stellar populations, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this paper, we review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research. The James Webb Space Telescope was designed to meet science objectives in four themes: The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization, The Assembly of Galaxies, The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life. More recently, it has become clear that Webb will also make major contributions to studies of dark energy, dark matter

  10. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark

    The James Webb Space Telescope is a 6.5 m, infrared space telescope designed to be launched in 2013 aboard an Ariane 5. The JWST program is a cooperative program with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) managing the project for NASA. The prime contractor for JWST is Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST). JWST's international partners are the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). JWST will address four major science themes: end of the dark ages: first light and reionization; the assembly of galaxies, the birth of stars and protoplanetary systems; and the formation of planetary systems and the origins of life. We discuss the design of the observatory and review recent progress on the JWST program.

  11. The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 m2 aperture telescope that will extend humanities’ high angular resolution view of the universe into the infrared spectrum to reveal early epochs of the universe that the Hubble cannot see. The Webb’s science instrument payload includes four cryogenic near-infrared sensors that provide imagery, coronagraphy, and spectroscopy over the near- and mid-infrared spectrum. The JWST is being developed by NASA, in partnership with the European and Canadian Space Agencies, as a general user facility with science observations to be proposed by the international astronomical community in a manner similar to the Hubble. Construction, integration and verification testing is underway in all areas of the program. The JWST is on schedule for launch during 2018.

  12. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is ulxve uperk/rc (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 prnio 28 pn). JWS7 s primaryacicoce goal is k) detect and characterize the first galaxies. U will also study the uascrob|y of galaxies, uiur bzcrou1ion, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. Recent progress in hardware development for the observatory will he presented, including a discussion of the status of JWST's optical system and Beryllium mirror fabrication, progress with sunshield prototypes, and the integration and test configuration. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit imaging and spectroscopy. We will review the science goals, the capabilities of each science instrument, and the design and operation of the telescope.

  13. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitiess Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instrument(s) and the start of the integration and test phase.

  14. Building the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. JWST will make progress In almost every area of astronomy, from the first galaxies to form in the early universe to exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory Is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Innovations that make JWST possible include large-area low-noise infrared detectors, cryogenic ASICs, a MEMS micro-shutter array providing multi-object spectroscopy, a non-redundant mask for interferometric coronagraphy and diffraction-limited segmented beryllium mirrors with active wavefront sensing and control. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  15. James Webb Space Telescope Project (JWST) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project. The JWST is an infrared telescope designed to collect data in the cosmic dark zone. Specifically, the mission of the JWST is to study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. It is a deployable telescope with a 6.5 m diameter, segmented, adjustable primary mirror. outfitted with cryogenic temperature telescope and instruments for infrared performance. The JWST is several times more sensitive than previous telescope and other photographic and electronic detection methods. It hosts a near infrared camera, near infrared spectrometer, mid-infrared instrument and a fine guidance sensor. The JWST mission objection and architecture, integrated science payload, instrument overview, and operational orbit are described.

  16. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2014. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA.

  17. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dustenshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope with four instruments, capable of imaging and spectroscopy from 0.6 to 27 microns wavelength.

  18. James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-Earth/Moon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. This paper describes the results of an orbit determination (OD) analysis of the JWST mission emphasizing the challenges specific to this mission in various mission phases. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate OD solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cm/sec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.

  19. James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-EarthMoon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate orbit determination (OD) solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cmsec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.

  20. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope in orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is the successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  1. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have three instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, and the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns. I review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals.

  2. Progress on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    I will describe the scientific program anticipated for the James Webb Space Telescope and the progress in its construction. When the JWST was conceived in 1995 it was expected to make its greatest contributions in the study of the first objects to form after the Big Bang, in the evolution of galaxies, and in the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems. Since then, the age-distance-redshift relation has become clear with the precise measurement of the Hubble constant, the discovery of the accelerating universe, and the remarkable agreement of CMBR calculations with direct measurements of the large-scale structure. So what is left and what has changed? Galaxy formation and growth is still mysterious, star formation is still hidden, the dark matter and dark energy are still unobservable, and the tools at hand may or may not help enough. But the JWST, as a general-purpose observatory, will be available for imaginative use, and is just what Simon White's polemic seems to request. As an example, the JWST should be quite capable of observing transiting exoplanets with remarkable precision, even though there was no requirement to do so, and its coronagraphs will be very good even without a monolithic primary mirror. The JWST mission has now been officially approved by NASA and is in the Federal budget. It is planned for launch in 2014. Flight instruments will begin to arrive at Goddard in mid-2010, and the first flight mirror segments have already passed their first cryogenic tests. The flight detectors have been selected and have remarkable performance; for example, the near IR detectors have dark currents of the order of 10 electrons per pixel per hour.

  3. The James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Sullivan, Pamela C.; Boyce, Leslye A.; Glazer, Stuart D.; Johnson, Eric L.; McCloskey, John C.; Voyton, Mark F.

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module of the James Webb Space Telescope is described from a systems perspective with emphasis on unique and advanced technology aspects. The major subsystems of this flight element are described including: structure, thermal, command and data handling, and software.

  4. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Primary Mirror Material Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Feinberg, Lee D.; Russell, Kevin; Texter, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) conducted a phase down select process via the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) project to assess the Technology Readiness Level of various candidate mirror materials. This process culminated in the selection of Beryllium as the JWST primary mirror material. This paper outlines the mirror evaluation process, defines the selection criteria and summarizes the candidate mirror's performances.

  5. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  6. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss the top 10 astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  7. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  8. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  9. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a Rood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope.

  10. Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronstein, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, working to a 2018 launch date. Ground testing for the JWST will occur in two test campaigns, at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center. The talk describes the JWST and its optical ground testing, highlighting the roles of many of the University of Rochester Institute of Optics' alumni as well as current faculty and students.

  11. Seasonal Variations of the James Webb Space Telescope Orbital Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jonathan; Petersen, Jeremy; Villac, Benjamin; Yu, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    While spacecraft orbital variations due to the Earth's tilt and orbital eccentricity are well-known phenomena, the implications for the James Webb Space Telescope present unique features. We investigate the variability of the observatory trajectory characteristics, and present an explanation of some of these effects using invariant manifold theory and local approximation of the dynamics in terms of the restricted three-body problem.

  12. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.; Lunine, J.; Sonneborn, G.; Rieke, G.; Rieke, M.; Stansberry, J.; Schaller, E.; Orton, G.; Isaacs, J.

    2010-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is a large infrared space telescope currently scheduled for launch in 2014. Webb will reside in a elliptical orbit about the semi-stable second Lagrange point (L2). Its 6.5-meter primary mirror is designed to work primarily in the infrared, with some capability in the visible (i.e., from 0.6 to 27 microns). Webb has four science instruments: the Near InfraRed Camera (NIRCam), the Near InfraRed Spectrograph (NIRSpec), the Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI), and the Fine Guidance Sensor Tunable Filter Camera (FGS-TFI). One of Webb's science themes is "Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life" which includes observations of Solar System objects; the telescope will be able to track moving targets with rates up to 0.030 arcseconds per second. Its combination of broad wavelength range, high sensitivity, and near-diffraction limited imaging around 2 microns make it a superb facility for a variety of Solar System programs. In this poster, we present an overview of Webb's scientific capabilities and their relevance to current topics in planetary science.

  13. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the important discoveries of the last decade, from dwarf planets in the outer Solar System to the mysterious dark energy that overcomes gravity to accelerate the expansion of the Universe. The next decade will be equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. An infrared-optimized 6.5m space telescope, Webb is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the early universe and to peer into the dusty gas clouds where stars and planets are born. With MEMS technology, a deployed primary mirror and a tennis-court sized sunshield, the mission presents many technical challenges. I will describe Webb's scientific goals, its design and recent progress in constructing the observatory. Webb is scheduled for launch in 2014.

  14. An Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phillip A.

    2004-01-01

    The JWST project at the GSFC is responsible for the development, launch, operations and science data processing for the James Webb Space Telescope. The JWST project is currently in phase B with its launch scheduled for August 2011. The project is a partnership between NASA, ESA and CSA. The U.S. JWST team is now fully in place with the recent selection of Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) as the prime contractor for the telescope and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) as the mission operations and science data processing lead. This paper will provide an overview of the current JWST architecture and mission status including technology developments and risks.

  15. An Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phillip A.; Campbell, Doug; Clampin, Mark; Decker, John; Greenhouse, Matt; Johns, Alan; Menzel, Mike; Smith, Robert; Sullivan, Pam

    2005-01-01

    The JWST project at the GSFC is responsible for the development, launch, operations and science data processing for the James Webb Space Telescope. The JWST project is currently in phase B with its launch scheduled for August 2011. The project is a partnership between NASA, ESA and CSA. The U.S. JWST team is now fully in place with the selection of Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) as the prime contractor for the telescope and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) as the mission operations and science data processing lead. This paper will provide an overview of the current JWST architecture and mission status including technology developments and risks.

  16. Status of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the largest cryogenic, space telescope ever built, and will address a broad range of scientific goals from first light in the universe and re-ionization, to characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Recently, significant progress has been made in the construction of the observatory with the completion of all 21 flight mirrors that comprise the telescope's optical chain, and the start of flight instrument deliveries to the Goddard Space Flight Center. In this paper we discuss the design of the observatory, and focus on the recent milestone achievements in each of the major observatory sub-systems.

  17. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation review the mission objective, the organization of the mission planning, the design, and testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). There is also information about the orbit, in comparison to the Hubble Space Telescope, the mirror design, and the science instruments. Pictures of the full scale mockup of the JWST are given. A brief history of the universe is also presented from the big bang through the formation of galaxies, and the planets, to life itself. One of the goals of the JWST is to search for extra solar planets and then to search for signs of life.

  18. James Webb Space Telescope: The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Scheduled to begin its 10 year mission no sooner than 2013, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world's largest space telescope. This talk reviews science objectives for JWST and how they drive the JWST architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature. Additionally, the talk provides an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development and fabrication status.

  19. EMC Test Challenges for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  20. Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope for Exoplanet Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 m to 28 m. JWST s primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit photometry and spectroscopy, and direct coronagraphic imaging.

  1. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Scheduled to begin its 10 year mission after 2018, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world s largest space telescope. This talk reviews science objectives for JWST and how they drive the JWST architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature. Additionally, the talk provides an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development and fabrication status.

  2. The James Webb Space Telescope: Extending the Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks. to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb's capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this paper, I review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research.

  3. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), expected to launch in 2011, will study the origin and evolution of luminous objects, galaxies, stars, planetary systems and the origins of life. It is optimized for near infrared wavelength operation of 0.6-28 micrometers and will have a 5 year mission life (with a 10 year goal). This presentation reviews JWST's science objectives, the JWST telescope and mirror requirements and how they support the JWST architecture. Additionally, an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development effort is highlighted.

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Detector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission, it's scientific goals, and how these drive detector systems technology. We describe the specific technologies that were developed (2.5 um and 5 um cutoff HgCdTe HAWAIIW2RG arrays for the 3 near-IR instruments, SIDECAR ASICs for the near-IR instruments, and Si:As arrays for the raid-IR instrument). We describe status in each of these areas with an emphasis on the performance of the flight detector systems themselves.

  5. Status of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2008-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5-meter, space telescope designed for infrared imaging and spectroscopy. Its planned launch in 2013, aboard an Ariane 5, will place it in n L2 orbit. The JWST program is a cooperative program with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) managing the project for NASA. The prime contractor for JWST is Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST). JWST's international partners are the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). JWST will address four major science themes: First light and re-ionization; the assembly of galaxies, the birth of stars and protoplanetary systems; and the formation of planetary systems and the origins of life. We discuss the design of the observatory as it is currently base-lined, and review recent progress with the observatory.

  6. MEMS Microshutter Arrays for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary J.; Beamesderfer, Michael; Babu, Sachi; Bajikar, Sateesh; Ewin, Audrey; Franz, Dave; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Jhabvala, Murzy; Kelly, Dan; King, Todd; Kletetschkar, Gunther; Kutyrev, Alexander; Lynch, Barney; Moseley, Harvey; Mott, Brent; Oh, Lance; Rapchum, Dave; Ray, Chris; Sappington, Carol; Silverberg, Robert; Smith, Wayne; Snodgrass, Steve; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind; Valeriano

    2006-01-01

    MEMS microshutter arrays are being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use as an aperture array for a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NirSpec). The instruments will be carried on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next generation of space telescope after Hubble Space Telescope retires. The microshutter arrays are designed for the selective transmission of light with high efficiency and high contrast, Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size of 100x200 microns. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. Light shields are made on to each shutter for light leak prevention so to enhance optical contrast, Shutters are actuated magnetically, latched and addressed electrostatically. The shutter arrays are fabricated using MEMS technologies.

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope: Science and Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA for launch later this decade. The European and Canadian Space Agencies are mission partners. JWST will find and study the first galaxies that formed in the early universe and peer through dusty clouds to see star and planet formation at high spatial resolution. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of star formation and evolution in the Milky Way, including the Galactic Center, nearby galaxies, and the early universe. JWST will have a segmented primary mirror, approximately 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at 2 microns. The JWST observatory will be placed in a L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The observatory is designed for a 5- year prime science mission, with consumables for 10 years of science operations.

  8. The James Webb Space Telescope: Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Dean C.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.; Milam, S. N.; Kalirai, J. S.; Sonneborn, G.

    2013-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is poised to revolutionize many areas of astrophysical research including Solar System Science. Scheduled for launch in 2018, JWST is ~100 times more powerful than the Hubble and Spitzer observatories. It has greater sensitivity, higher spatial resolution in the infrared, and significantly higher spectral resolution in the mid infrared. Imaging and spectroscopy (both long-slit and integral-field) will be available across the entire 0.6 - 28.5 micron wavelength range. Herein, we discuss the capabilities of the four science instruments with a focus on Solar System Science, including instrument modes that enable observations over the huge range of brightness presented by objects within the Solar System. The telescope is being built by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems for NASA, ESA, and CSA. JWST development is led by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is the Science and Operations Center (S&OC) for JWST.

  9. High-Redshift Galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes and will continue their rich legacy of high-z galaxy studies with a combination of deep, high-resolution infrared photometry and multi-object or integral field spectroscopy. As a large (6.6m) cold (50K) space telescope, JWST is well optimized for studying high-z galaxies and the science goals include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe and the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies. Webb has four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction and test phase. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors and scientific instruments and the start of high-level assembly and cryogenic testing. Proposals for the first cycle of scientific observations will be due in February 2018; the community should begin planning their proposals now.

  10. Transit Imaging and Spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 microns to 28 microns. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. Recent progress in hardware development for the observatory will be presented, including a discussion of the status of JWST's optical system and Beryllium mirror fabrication, progress with sunshield prototypes, and recent changes in the integration and test configuration. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit imaging and spectroscopy. We will review the capabilities of each science instrument, and discuss the performance of each mode, with reference to current transiting systems.

  11. James Webb Space Telescope Launch Window Trade Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-EarthMoon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  12. Status Update on the James Webb Space Telescope Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold <50 K), infrared (IR)-optimized space observatory that will be launched in approx.2018. The observatory will have four instruments covering 0.6 to 28 micron, including a multi-object spectrograph, two integral field units, and grisms optimized for exoplanets. I will review JWST's key science themes, as well as exciting new ideas from the recent JWST Frontiers Workshop. I will summarize the technical progress and mission status. Recent highlights: All mirrors have been fabricated, polished, and gold-coated; the mirror is expected to be diffraction-limited down to a wavelength of 2 microns. The MIRI instrument just completed its cryogenic testing. STScI has released exposure time calculators and sensitivity charts to enable scientists to start thinking about how to use JWST for their science.

  13. Status Update on the James Webb Space Telescope Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold (<50 K), infrared (IR)-optimized space observatory that will be launched in approx.2018. The observatory will have four instruments covering 0.6 to 28 micron, including a multi-object spectrograph, two integral fie ld units, and grisms optimized for exoplanets. I will review JWST's k ey science themes, as well as exciting new ideas from the recent JWST Frontiers Workshop. I will summarize the technical progress and miss ion status. Recent highlights: All mirrors have been fabricated, polished, and gold-coated; the mirror is expected to be diffraction-limite d down to a wavelength of 2 micron. The MIRI instrument just complete d its cryogenic testing. STScI has released exposure time calculators and sensitivity charts to enable scientists to start thinking about how to use JWST for their science.

  14. The James Webb Space Telescope: Capabilities for Exoplanet Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 micron to 28 micron. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, stellar and planetary system formation, and the formation and evolution of planetary systems. We will review the design of JWST, and discuss the current status of the project, with emphasis on recent progress in the construction of the observatory. We also review the capabilities of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets and debris disks by means of coronagraphic imaging, and high contrast imaging and spectroscopy. This discussion will focus on the optical and thermal performance of the observatory, and will include the current predictions for the performance of the observatory, with special reference to the demands of exoplanet science observations.

  15. Launch Window Trade Analysis for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne H.; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-Earth/Moon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  16. Giant Planet Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, James; Moses, Julianne; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Atreya, Sushil; Rages, Kathy; Cavalié, Thibault; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo; Chanover, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This white paper examines the benefit of the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for studies of the Solar System's four giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. JWST's superior sensitivity, combined with high spatial and spectral resolution, will enable near- and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of these objects with unprecedented quality. In this paper, we discuss some of the myriad scientific investigations possible with JWST regarding the giant planets. This discussion is preceded by the specifics of JWST instrumentation most relevant to giant-planet observations. We conclude with identification of desired pre-launch testing and operational aspects of JWST that would greatly benefit future studies of the giant planets.

  17. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  18. The James Webb Space Telescope: Mission Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the Infrared successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 sq m aperture (6 m class) telescope yielding diffraction limited angular resolution at a wave1ength of 2 micron. The science instrument payload includes three passively cooled near-infrared instruments providing broad- and narrow-band imagery, coronagraphy, as well as multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy over the 0.6 Space Agencies, as a general user facility with science observations to be proposed by the international astronomical community in a manner similar to the Hubble Space Telescope. Technology development and mission design are complete, and construction is underway in all areas of the program.

  19. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, space telescope designed to provide imaging and spectroscopy over the near and mid-infrared from 1.0 μm to 28 μm. JWST is a passively cooled infrared telescope, employing a five layer sunshield to achieve an operating temperature of ~40 K. JWST will be launched to an orbit at L2 aboard an Ariane 5 launcher in 2013. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is the lead center for the JWST program and manages the project for NASA. The prime contractor for JWST is Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGST). JWST is an international partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). ESA will contribute the Ariane 5 launch, and a multi-object infrared spectrograph. CSA will contribute the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS), which includes the Tunable Filter Imager (TFI). A European consortium, in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), builds the mid-infrared imager (MIRI). In this paper we present an overview of the JWST science program, and discuss recent progress in the development of the observatory. In this paper we will discuss the scientific motivations for JWST, and discuss recent progress in the construction of the observatory, focusing on the telescope and its optics, which have recently completed polishing.

  20. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a cryogenic, 6.5 meter diameter space telescope. JWST has a unique architecture, compared to previous space telescopes, that is driven by its science requirements, ia passively cooled cryogenic design, and the need to stow the observatory for launch. JWST's large, segmented mirror meets the requirement for high angular resolution in the infrared coupled with a significant increase in collecting area compared to the Spitzer and Hubble Space telescopes in order to detect the first galaxies. JWST's unique five-layer sunshield allows the telescope and instrument module to passively cool to cryogenic temperatures. JWST will be launched on an Ariane 5, and so both its telescope optics, and the sunshield have to be stowed in order to fit the Ariane 5 fairing. Following launch the sunshield and telescope optics must be deployed, and the primary mirror phased for science operations. In this presentation we will review the design of the observatory and highlight recent progress in the construction of the JWST observatory. In particular, we address recent progress with the telescope optics, sunshield and spacecraft. We will discuss predicted observatory performance in terms of the scientific goals of JWST and address key operational considerations that might bear upon frontier science observations.

  1. Stray light field dependence for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightsey, Paul A.

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large space based astronomical telescope that will operate at cryogenic temperatures. The architecture has the telescope exposed to space, with a large sun shield providing thermal isolation and protection from direct illumination from the sun. The instruments will have the capability to observe over a spectral range from 0.6 μm to 29 μm wavelengths. Stray light analysis has been performed to characterize the stray light getting to the instrument focal planes from the celestial sky. A Radiance Transfer Function (RTF) is defined for the susceptibility of stray light to sky radiance relative to the observatory frame of reference. The stray light is calculated by overlaying the radiance maps of the celestial sky background (both galactic and zodiacal background) onto the RTF map. The product of the two is summed to obtain the total stray light background at the instrument detectors. The orientation of the observatory for observing a given field location in the sky depends on the direction of the sun, hence the day of the year. The variability of stray light with time of year for observing a given sky locations is determined.

  2. Solar System Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.; Norwood, J.; Chanover, N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J.; Lunine, J. I.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Milam, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.; Brown, M.

    2013-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will succeed the Hubble Space Telescope as NASA’s premier space-based platform for observational astronomy. This 6.5-meter telescope, which is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared, will be equipped with four state-of-the-art imaging, spectroscopic, and coronagraphic instruments. These instruments, along with the telescope’s moving target capabilities, will enable the infrared study of solar system objects with unprecedented detail (see companion presentation by Sonneborn et al.). This poster features highlights for planetary science applications, extracted from a white paper in preparation. We present a number of hypothetical solar system observations as a means of demonstrating potential planetary science observing scenarios; the list of applications discussed here is far from comprehensive. The goal of this poster and the subsequent white paper is to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community, and to encourage feedback to the JWST Project on any desired observing capabilities, data products, and analysis procedures that would enhance the use of JWST for solar system studies. The upcoming white paper updates and supersedes the solar system white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010), and is based in part on JWST events held at the 2012 DPS, the 2013 LPSC meeting, and this DPS (JWST Town Hall, Thursday, 10 October 2013, 12-1 pm).

  3. Cometary Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael S. P.; Woodward, Charles E.; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony L.; Gudipati, Murthy S.; Harker, David E.; Hines, Dean C.; Knight, Matthew M.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Li, Aigen; de Pater, Imke; Protopapa, Silvia; Russell, Ray W.; Sitko, Michael L.; Wooden, Diane H.

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as the largest space-based astronomical observatory with near- and mid-infrared instrumentation, will elucidate many mysterious aspects of comets. We summarize four cometary science themes especially suited for this telescope and its instrumentation: the drivers of cometary activity, comet nucleus heterogeneity, water ice in comae and on surfaces, and activity in faint comets and main belt asteroids. With JWST, we can expect the most distant detections of gas, especially CO2, in what we now consider to be only moderately bright comets. For nearby comets, coma dust properties can be simultaneously studied with their driving gases, measured simultaneously with the same instrument or contemporaneously with another. Studies of water ice and gas in the distant Solar System will help us test our understanding of cometary interiors, and coma evolution. The question of cometary activity in main belt comets will be further explored with the possibility of a direct detection of coma gas. We explore the technical approaches to these science cases and provide simple tools for estimating comet dust and gas brightness. Finally, we consider the effects of the observatory's non-sidereal tracking limits and provide a list of potential comet targets during the first five years of the mission.

  4. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope optical telescope element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Tiffany; Levi, Joshua; Liepmann, Till; Hahn, Walter; Bisson, Gary; Porpora, Dan; Hadjimichael, Theo

    2016-07-01

    The optical telescope element (OTE) of the James Webb Space Telescope has now been integrated and aligned. The OTE comprises the flight mirrors and the structure that supports them - 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, and the tertiary and fine steering mirrors (both housed in the aft optics subsystem). The primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror have actuators to actively control their positions during operations. This allows the requirements for aligning the OTE subsystems to be in the range of microns rather than nanometers. During OTE integration, the alignment of the major subsystems of the OTE structure and optics were controlled to ensure that, when the telescope is on orbit and at cryogenic temperatures, the active mirrors will be within the adjustment range of the actuators. Though the alignment of this flagship mission was complex and intricate, the key to a successful integration process turned out to be very basic: a clear, concise series of steps employing advanced planning, backup measurements, and cross checks that this multi-organizational team executed with a careful and methodical approach. This approach was not only critical to our own success but has implications for future space observatories.

  5. The Scientific Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and dark matter, gas, stars, metals morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. A comprehensive, top-level review of JWST sciences was published in the journal Space Science Reviews (Gardner et al. 2006, SSR, 123, 485). That paper gives details of the 4 JWST science themes, and describes the design of the observatory and ground system. Since that paper was published, the JWST Science Working Group, working with members of the astronomical community, has continued to develop the science case for JWST, giving more details in a series of white papers. In this poster, the main science themes and white papers are reviewed.

  6. Microshutter array development for the James Webb space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mary J.; Acuna, Nadine; Amatucci, Edward; Beamesderfer, Michael; Boucarut, Ray A.; Babu, Sachi; Bajikar, Sateesh; Ewin, Audrey J.; Fettig, Rainer; Franz, David E.; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Kelly, Daniel; King, Todd T.; Kletetschka, Gunther; Kotechi, Carl A.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Loughlin, James P.; Lynch, Bernard A.; Moseley, Harvey; Mott, Brent; Newell, Bill; Oh, Lance; Rapchun, David A.; Ray, Chris; Sappington, Carol; Schulte, Eric; Schwinger, Scott; Smith, Wayne; Snodgrass, Steve; Sparr, Leroy M.; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind; Wang, Liqin L.; Zheng, Yun; Zincke, Chris A.

    2005-02-01

    Micro Electromechanical System (MEMS) microshutter arrays are being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use as a field selector of the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The microshutter arrays are designed for the spontaneous selection of a large number of objects in the sky and the transmission of light to the NIRSpec detector with high contrast. The JWST environment requires cryogenic operation at 35 K. Microshutter arrays are fabricated out of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) silicon wafers. Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size of 100 x 200 μm. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. Light shields are processed for blocking light from gaps between shutters and frames. The mechanical shutter arrays are fabricated using MEMS technologies. The processing includes multi-layer metal depositions, the patterning of magnetic stripes and shutter electrodes, a reactive ion etching (RIE) to form shutters out of the nitride membrane, an anisotropic back-etch for wafer thinning, followed by a deep RIE (DRIE) back-etch to form mechanical supporting grids and release shutters from the silicon substrate. An additional metal deposition is used to form back electrodes. Shutters are actuated by a magnetic force and latched using an electrostatic force. Optical tests, addressing tests, and life tests are conducted to evaluate the performance and the reliability of microshutter arrays.

  7. Hartmann test for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J. Scott; Feinberg, Lee; Howard, Joseph; Acton, D. Scott; Whitman, Tony L.; Smith, Koby

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) end-to-end optical system will be tested in a cryogenic vacuum environment before launch at NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Apollo-era, historic Chamber A thermal vacuum facility. During recent pre-test runs with a prototype "Pathfinder" telescope, the vibration in this environment was found to be challenging for the baseline test approach, which uses phase retrieval of images created by three sub-apertures of the telescope. To address the vibration, an alternate strategy implemented using classic Hartmann test principles combined with precise mirror mechanisms to provide a testing approach that is insensitive to the dynamics environment of the chamber. The measurements and sensitivities of the Hartmann approach are similar to those using phase retrieval over the original sparse aperture test. The Hartmann test concepts have been implemented on the JWST Test Bed Telescope, which provided the rationale and empirical evidence indicating that this Hartmann style approach would be valuable in supplementing the baseline test approach. This paper presents a Hartmann approach implemented during the recent Pathfinder test along with the test approach that is currently being considered for the full optical system test of JWST. Comparisons are made between the baseline phase retrieval approach and the Hartmann approach in addition to demonstrating how the two test methodologies support each other to reduce risk during the JWST full optical system test.

  8. Navigation Concepts for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Anne; Leung, Dominic; Kelbel, David; Beckman, Mark; Grambling, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance that can be achieved using candidate ground and onboard navigation approaches for operation of the James Webb Space Telescope, which will be in an orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 libration point. The ground navigation approach processes standard range and Doppler measurements from the Deep Space Network The onboard navigation approach processes celestial object measurements and/or ground-to- spacecraft Doppler measurements to autonomously estimate the spacecraft s position and velocity and Doppler reference frequency. Particular attention is given to assessing the absolute position and velocity accuracy that can be achieved in the presence of the frequent spacecraft reorientations and momentum unloads planned for this mission. The ground navigation approach provides stable navigation solutions using a tracking schedule of one 30-minute contact per day. The onboard navigation approach that uses only optical quality celestial object measurements provides stable autonomous navigation solutions. This study indicates that unmodeled changes in the solar radiation pressure cross-sectional area and modeled momentum unload velocity changes are the major error sources. These errors can be mitigated by modeling these changes, by estimating corrections to compensate for the changes, or by including acceleration measurements.

  9. Integrated Modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project: Structural Analysis Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John; Mosier, Mark; Howard, Joe; Hyde, Tupper; Parrish, Keith; Ha, Kong; Liu, Frank; McGinnis, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs about structural analysis activities and integrated modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The topics include: 1) JWST Overview; 2) Observatory Structural Models; 3) Integrated Performance Analysis; and 4) Future Work and Challenges.

  10. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Cryogenic Component Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, Edward A.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the design, construction, and operation of a cryogenic chamber, and its use in testing the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

  11. The Role of Integrated Modeling in the Design and Verification of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosler, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Johnston, John D.; Hyde, T. Tupper; McGinnis, Mark A.; Bluth, A. Marcel; Kim, Kevin; Ha, Kong Q.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the architecture of the James Webb Space Telescope, and explains how integrated modeling is useful for analyzing wavefront, thermal distortion, subsystems, and image motion/jitter for the telescope design.

  12. Stationkeeping Monte Carlo Simulation for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dichmann, Donald J.; Alberding, Cassandra M.; Yu, Wayne H.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is scheduled to launch in 2018 into a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-Earth/Moon (SEM) L2 point, with a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years after a six-month transfer to the mission orbit. This paper discusses our approach to Stationkeeping (SK) maneuver planning to determine an adequate SK delta-V budget. The SK maneuver planning for JWST is made challenging by two factors: JWST has a large Sunshield, and JWST will be repointed regularly producing significant changes in Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). To accurately model SRP we employ the Solar Pressure and Drag (SPAD) tool, which uses ray tracing to accurately compute SRP force as a function of attitude. As an additional challenge, the future JWST observation schedule will not be known at the time of SK maneuver planning. Thus there will be significant variation in SRP between SK maneuvers, and the future variation in SRP is unknown. We have enhanced an earlier SK simulation to create a Monte Carlo simulation that incorporates random draws for uncertainties that affect the budget, including random draws of the observation schedule. Each SK maneuver is planned to optimize delta-V magnitude, subject to constraints on spacecraft pointing. We report the results of the Monte Carlo simulations and discuss possible improvements during flight operations to reduce the SK delta-V budget.

  13. James Webb Space Telescope Ka-Band Trade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Luers, Ed

    2004-01-01

    In August 2003 James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) had its Initial Review Confirmation Assessment Briefing with NASA HQ management. This is a major milestone as the project was approved to proceed from Phase A to B, and NASA will commit funds for the project towards meeting its science goals from the Earth-Sun s Lagrange 2 (L2) environment. At this briefing, the Project was asked, "to take another look" into using, the JPL s Deep Space Network (DSN) as the provider of ground stations and evaluate other ground station options. The current operations concept assumes S-band and X-band communications with a daily &hour contact using the DSN with the goal of transmitting over 250 Gigabit (Gb) of data to the ground. The Project has initiated a trade study to look at this activity, and we would like to share the result of the trade in the conference. Early concept trades tends to focus on the "normal" operation mode of supporting telemetry (science and engineering), command and radio metrics. Entering the design phase, we find that we have the unique ranging requirement for our L2 orbit using alternating ground stations located in different hemispheres. The trade must also address emergency operations (which are covered when using the DSN). This paper describes the issues confronting this Project and how the DSN and the JWST Project are working together to find an optimized approach for meeting these issues. We believe this trade is of major interest for future Code S and other L2 missions in that JWST will set the standard.

  14. Titan Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Ádámkovics, Máté; Bézard, Bruno; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Cornet, Thomas; Hayes, Alexander G.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lemmon, Mark T.; López-Puertas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Sotin, Christophe; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; West, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018, is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) but with a significantly larger aperture (6.5 m) and advanced instrumentation focusing on infrared science (0.6-28.0 μm). In this paper, we examine the potential for scientific investigation of Titan using JWST, primarily with three of the four instruments: NIRSpec, NIRCam, and MIRI, noting that science with NIRISS will be complementary. Five core scientific themes are identified: (1) surface (2) tropospheric clouds (3) tropospheric gases (4) stratospheric composition, and (5) stratospheric hazes. We discuss each theme in depth, including the scientific purpose, capabilities, and limitations of the instrument suite and suggested observing schemes. We pay particular attention to saturation, which is a problem for all three instruments, but may be alleviated for NIRCam through use of selecting small sub-arrays of the detectors—sufficient to encompass Titan, but with significantly faster readout times. We find that JWST has very significant potential for advancing Titan science, with a spectral resolution exceeding the Cassini instrument suite at near-infrared wavelengths and a spatial resolution exceeding HST at the same wavelengths. In particular, JWST will be valuable for time-domain monitoring of Titan, given a five- to ten-year expected lifetime for the observatory, for example, monitoring the seasonal appearance of clouds. JWST observations in the post-Cassini period will complement those of other large facilities such as HST, ALMA, SOFIA, and next-generation ground-based telescopes (TMT, GMT, EELT).

  15. XML: James Webb Space Telescope Database Issues, Lessons, and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detter, Ryan; Mooney, Michael; Fatig, Curtis

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present the current concept using extensible Markup Language (XML) as the underlying structure for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) database. The purpose of using XML is to provide a JWST database, independent of any portion of the ground system, yet still compatible with the various systems using a variety of different structures. The testing of the JWST Flight Software (FSW) started in 2002, yet the launch is scheduled for 2011 with a planned 5-year mission and a 5-year follow on option. The initial database and ground system elements, including the commands, telemetry, and ground system tools will be used for 19 years, plus post mission activities. During the Integration and Test (I&T) phases of the JWST development, 24 distinct laboratories, each geographically dispersed, will have local database tools with an XML database. Each of these laboratories database tools will be used for the exporting and importing of data both locally and to a central database system, inputting data to the database certification process, and providing various reports. A centralized certified database repository will be maintained by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. One of the challenges for the database is to be flexible enough to allow for the upgrade, addition or changing of individual items without effecting the entire ground system. Also, using XML should allow for the altering of the import and export formats needed by the various elements, tracking the verification/validation of each database item, allow many organizations to provide database inputs, and the merging of the many existing database processes into one central database structure throughout the JWST program. Many National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects have attempted to take advantage of open source and commercial technology. Often this causes a greater reliance on the use of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS), which is often limiting

  16. Observing supermassive dark stars with James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Cosmin; Freese, Katherine; Valluri, Monica; Iliev, Ilian T.; Shapiro, Paul R.

    2012-05-01

    We study the capability of theJames Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to detect supermassive dark stars (SMDSs). If the first stars are powered by dark matter (DM) heating in triaxial DM haloes, they may grow to be very large (>106 M⊙) and very bright (>109 L⊙). These SMDSs would be visible in deep imaging with JWST and even Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We use sensitivity limits from previous HST surveys to place bounds on the numbers of SMDSs that may be detected in future JWST imaging surveys. We showed that SMDS in the mass range 106-107 M⊙ are bright enough to be detected in all the wavelength bands of the NIRCam on JWST (but not in the less sensitive MIRI camera at higher wavelengths). If SMDSs exist at z˜ 10, 12 and 14, they will be detectable as J-, H- or K-band dropouts, respectively. With a total survey area of 150 arcmin2 (assuming a multiyear deep parallel survey with JWST), we find that typically the number of 106 M⊙ SMDSs found as H- or K-band dropouts is ˜105fSMDS, where the fraction of early DM haloes hosting DS is likely to be small, fSMDS≪ 1. If the SMDS survive down to z= 10 where HST bounds apply, then the observable number of SMDSs as H- or K-band dropouts with JWST is ˜1-30. While individual SMDS are bright enough to be detected by JWST, standard Population III stars (without DM annihilation) are not, and would only be detected in first galaxies with total stellar masses of 106-108 M⊙. Differentiating first galaxies at z > 10 from SMDSs would be possible with spectroscopy: the SMDS (which are too cool produce significant nebular emission) will have only absorption lines, while the galaxies are likely to produce emission lines as well. Of particular interest would be the He II emission lines at ?m as well as Hα lines which would be signatures of early galaxies rather than SMDSs. The detection of SMDSs with JWST would not only provide alternative evidence for weakly interacting massive particles, but also provide a possible pathway for

  17. Solar System Observing Capabilities With The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneborn, George; Milam, S. N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J. A.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide important new capabilities to study our Solar System. JWST is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018 into a L2 orbit. Imaging, spectroscopy, and coronography covers 0.6-29 microns. Integral-field spectroscopy is performed with apertures 3 to 7 arcsec square (spatial slices of 0.1 to 0.6 arcsec). JWST is designed to observe Solar System objects having apparent rates of motion up to 0.030 arcseconds/second. This tracking capability includes the planets, satellites, asteroids, Trans-Neptunian Objects, and comets beyond Earth’s orbit. JWST will observe in the solar elongation range of 85 to 135 degrees, and a roll range of +/-5 degrees about the telescope’s optical axis. During an observation of a moving target, the science target is held fixed in the desired science aperture by controlling the guide star to follow the inverse of the target’s trajectory. The pointing control software uses polynomial ephemerides for the target generated using data from JPL’s HORIZON system. The JWST guider field of view (2.2x2.2 arcmin) is located in the telescope focal plane several arcmin from the science apertures. The instrument apertures are fixed with respect to the telescope focal plane. For targets near the ecliptic, those apertures also have a nearly fixed orientation relative to the ecliptic. This results from the fact that the Observatory's sunshield and solar panels must always be between the telescope and the Sun. On-board scripts autonomously control the execution of the JWST science timeline. The event-driven scripts respond to actual slew and on-board command execution, making operations more efficient. Visits are scheduled with overlapping windows to provide execution flexibility and to avoid lost time. An observing plan covering about ten days will be uplinked weekly. Updates could be more frequent if necessary (for example

  18. Solar System Observing Capabilities With The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneborn, George; Milam, S. N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.

    2013-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide breakthrough capabilities to study our Solar System. JWST is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018 into a L2 orbit. Imaging, spectroscopy, and coronography covers 0.6-29 microns. JWST is designed to observe Solar System objects having apparent rates of motion up to 0.030 arcseconds/second. This capability includes the planets, satellites, asteroids, Trans-Neptunian Objects, and comets beyond Earth’s orbit. JWST can observe solar elongation of 85 to 135 degrees, and a roll range of +/-5 degrees about the telescope’s optical axis. During the observation of a moving target, the science target is held fixed in the desired science aperture by controlling the guide star to follow the inverse of the target’s trajectory. The pointing control software uses polynomial ephemerides for the target generated using JPL’s HORIZON system. The JWST guider field of view (2.2x2.2 arcmin) is located in the telescope focal plane several arcmin from the science apertures. The instrument apertures are fixed with respect to the telescope focal plane. For targets near the ecliptic, those apertures also have a nearly-fixed orientation relative to the ecliptic. This resultsfrom the fact that the Observatory's sun-shade and solar panels must always be between the telescope and the Sun. On-board scripts autonomously control the execution of the JWST science timeline. The event-driven scripts respond to actual slew and on-board command execution, making operations more efficient. Visits are scheduled with overlapping windows to provide execution flexibility and to avoid lost time. An observing plan covering about ten days will be uplinked weekly. Updates could be more frequent if necessary (for example, to accommodate a Target of Opportunity - TOO). The event-driven operations system supports time-critical observations and TOOs. The minimum response

  19. MEMS Microshutter Array System for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary J.; Adachi, Tomoko; Allen, Christine; Babu, Sachi; Bajikar, Sateesh; Beamesderfer, Michael; Bradley, Ruth; Denis, Kevin; Costen, Nick; Ewin, Audrey; Franz, Dave; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Jackson, Kamili; Jhabvala, Murzy; Kelly, Dan; King, Todd; Kletetschka, Gunther; Kutyrev, Alexander; Lynch, Barney; Miller, Timothy; Moseley, Harvey; Mikula, Vilem; Mott. Brent; Oh, Lance

    2008-01-01

    A complex MEMS microshutter array system has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use as a multi-object aperture array for a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec). The NIRSpec is one of the four major instruments carried by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next generation of space telescope after the Hubble Space Telescope retires. The microshutter arrays (MSAs) are designed for the selective transmission of light with high efficiency and high contrast. It is demonstrated in Figure 1 how a MSA is used as a multiple object selector in deep space. The MSAs empower the NIRSpec instrument simultaneously collect spectra from more than 100 targets therefore increases the instrument efficiency 100 times or more. The MSA assembly is one of three major innovations on JWST and the first major MEMS devices serving observation missions in space. The MSA system developed at NASA GSFC is assembled with four quadrant fully addressable 365x171 shutter arrays that are actuated magnetically, latched and addressed electrostatically. As shown in Figure 2, each MSA is fabricated out of a 4' silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer using MEMS bulk-micromachining technology. Individual shutters are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size close to 100x200 pm (Figure 3). Shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. In order to prevent light leak, light shields are made on to the surrounding frame of each shutter to cover the gaps between the shutters and the Game (Figure 4). Micro-ribs and sub-micron bumps are tailored on hack walls and light shields, respectively, to prevent sticktion, shown in Figures 4 and 5. JWST instruments are required to operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 35K, though they are to be subjected to various levels of ground tests at room temperature. The shutters should therefore maintain nearly flat in the entire temperature range

  20. James Webb Space Telescope: The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    NASA James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world's largest space telescope. Its architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature, is driven by JWST's science objectives. Introduction: Scheduled to start its 5 year mission after 2018, JWST will study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. Its science mission is to: Identify the first bright objects that formed in the early Universe, and follow the ionization history. Determine how galaxies form. Determine how galaxies and dark matter, including gas, stars, metals, overall morphology and active nuclei evolved to the present day. Observe the birth and early development of stars and the formation of planets. And, study the physical and chemical properties of solar systems for the building blocks of Life. Principle: To accomplish the JWST science objectives requires a larger aperture infrared cryogenic space telescope. A large aperture is required because the objects are very faint. The infrared spectral range is required because the objects are so far away that their ultraviolet and visible wavelength spectral lines are red-shifted into the infrared. Because the telescope is infrared, it needs to be cryogenic. And, because of the telescope is infrared, it must operate above the Earth's atmosphere, i.e. in space. JWST is probably the single most complicated mission that humanity has attempted. It is certainly the most difficult optical fabrication and testing challenge of our generation. The JWST 6.5 m diameter primary mirror is nearly a parabola with a conic constant of -0.9967 and radius of curvature at 30K of 15.880 m. The primary mirror is divided into 18 segments with 3 different prescriptions; each with its own off-axis distance and aspheric departure. The radius of curvature

  1. James Webb Space Telescope Studies of Dark Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Mather, John C.

    2010-01-01

    time-variable source gives the angular diameter distance through measured time delays of multiple images. Finally, the growth of structure can also be constrained by measuring the mass of the largest galaxy clusters over cosmic time. HST has contributed to the study of dark energy through SN1a and gravitational lensing, as discussed above. HST has also helped to characterize galaxy clusters and the HST-measured constraints on the current Hubble constant H(sub 0) are relevant to the interpretation of dark energy measurements (Riess et al 2009a). HST has not been used to constrain BAO as the large number of galaxy redshifts required, of order 100 million, is poorly matched to HST's capabilities. As the successor to HST, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST; Gardner et al 2006) will continue and extend HST's dark energy work in several ways.

  2. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Development History and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinber, Lee D.; Clampin, Mark; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Atkinson, Charlie; Texter, Scott; Bergeland, Mark; Gallagher, Benjamin B.

    2012-01-01

    In a little under a decade, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program has designed, manufactured, assembled and tested 21 flight beryllium mirrors for the James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element. This paper will summarize the mirror development history starting with the selection of beryllium as the mirror material and ending with the final test results. It will provide an overview of the technological roadmap and schedules and the key challenges that were overcome. It will also provide a summary or the key tests that were performed and the results of these tests.

  3. Line of Sight Stabilization of James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meza, Luis; Tung, Frank; Anandakrishnan, Satya; Spector, Victor; Hyde, Tupper

    2005-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) builds upon the successful flight experience of the Chandra Xray Telescope by incorporating an additional LOS pointing servo to meet the more stringent pointing requirements. The LOS pointing servo, referred to in JWST as the Fine Guidance Control System (FGCS), will utilize a Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) as the sensor, and a Fine Steering Mirror (FSM) as the actuator. The FSM is a part of the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and is in the optical path between the tertiary mirror and the instrument focal plane, while the FGS is part of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). The basic Chandra spacecraft bus attitude control and determination architecture, utilizing gyros, star trackers/aspect camera, and reaction wheels, is retained for JWST. This system has achieved pointing stability of better than 0.5 arcseconds. To reach the JWST requirements of milli-arcsecond pointing stability with this ACS hardware, the local FGCS loop is added to the optical path. The FGCS bandwidth is about 2.0 Hz and will therefore attenuate much of the spacecraft ACS induced low frequency jitter. In order to attenuate the higher frequency (greatet than 2.0 Hz) disturbances associated with reaction wheel static and dynamic imbalances, as well as bearing run-out, JWST will employ a two-stage passive vibration isolation system consisting of (1) 7.0 Hz reaction wheel isolators between each reaction wheel and the spacecraft bus, and (2) a 1.0 Hz tower isolator between the spacecraft bus and the Optical Telescope Element (OTE). In order to sense and measure the LOS, the FGS behaves much like an autonomous star tracker that has a very small field of view and uses the optics of the telescope. It performs the functions of acquisition, identification and tracking of stars in its 2.5 x 2.5 arcminute field of view (FOV), and provides the centroid and magnitude of the selected star for use in LOS control. However, since only a single star is being tracked

  4. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Cryogenic Component Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, Edward A.; Tolson, Julius; Or, Tak; Skocik, Christopher; Glazer, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: James Webb Space Telescope/Integrated Science Instrument Module (JWST/ISIM) Overview. ISIM Thermal Verification Requirements. Emittance Test Objectives. Cryochamber Design Requirements. Cryochamber Construction. Emittance Test Sample Selection and Configuration. Error Sources and Error Mitigation. Cryochamber Operation. Cryochamber and Emittance Sample Test Results.

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope: Inspiration and Context for Physics and Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Dan; Johnston, Tania; Davies, John

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the design, delivery, evaluation and impact of a CPD course for physics and chemistry teachers. A key aim of the course was to use the context of the James Webb Space Telescope project to inspire teachers and lead to enriched teaching of STEM subjects. (Contains 1 box and 3 figures.)

  6. Finding our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is planning a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with Hubble through to the present day. He will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. Webb is scheduled to launch in 201 3, and is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past and to penetrate the dusty clouds of gas where stars are still forming today. He will compare Webb to Hubble, and discuss recent progress in the construction of the observatory.

  7. Finding our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is planning a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with Hubble through to the present day. He will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. Webb is scheduled to launch in 2014, and is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past and to penetrate the dusty clouds of gas where stars are still forming today. He will compare Webb to Hubble, and discuss recent progress in the construction of the observatory.

  8. Finding our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with Hubble through to the present day. He will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. Webb is scheduled to launch in 2013, and is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past and to penetrate the dusty clouds of gas where stars are still forming today. He will compare Webb to Hubble, and discuss recent progress in the construction of the observatory.

  9. Using New Media to Spread the Word About the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, Maggie; Krishnamurthi, A.

    2008-05-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is a 6.5 m infrared telescope that will be launched in 2013. This modern telescope will look very different from the simple telescope Galileo used to look up at the skies 400 years ago. Modern technology, coupled with scientific curiosity, is enabling science to help us understand a Universe Galileo had not dreamed of in his time. The International Year of Astronomy presents an excellent opportunity to take the public along on the journey of the development of the Webb Telescope and its technological innovations. In keeping with the cutting-edge nature of the Webb, its education and public outreach (EPO) team is using a variety of new media to engage the public. We will discuss several of our EPO projects including our website, exhibits and displays in Second Life (an internet-based virtual world), and involvement in podcasts. Webb's EPO team is looking to expand past a passive web presence to engage the new and growing internet-savvy audiences. We are making our website more interactive through a variety of means, including a Flash game that allows the user to compare the Webb to a common reflecting telescope. This will enable the user to learn about the changes in telescopes that have come about since Galileo's time. We are also taking advantage of other new media opportunities as they present themselves - we participate in podcasts and have an engaging presence for the Webb Telescope on NASA's "islands” in Second Life.

  10. Wavefront Aberrations Due to Alignment and Figure Compensation of the NASA James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes wavefront aberrations due to the alignment and improper compensation of the NASA James Webb Space Telescope. The contents include: 1) James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); 2) Optical design of JWST; 3) Alignment Observables for JWST; 4) Low order Zernike Polynomials; 5) PM SM Ability to Target Low Order Aberrations; 6) Compensator definitions and Modes; 7) Field impact from compensation; 8) PM align error compensated by PM figure; 9) PM align error compensated by SM alignment; 10) SM align error compensated by PM figure; 11) SM figure error compensated by SM alignment; 12) Worst Case Pupil Maps; 13) Worst Case Pupil Maps at BEST FOCUS; 14) Field impact from compensation (+/- 1 arcmin FOV); and 15) Concluding Remarks.

  11. Optical Modeling of the Alignment and Test of the NASA James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Hayden, Bill; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Optical modeling challenges of the ground alignment plan and optical test and verification of the NASA James Webb Space Telescope are discussed. Issues such as back-out of the gravity sag of light-weighted mirrors, as well as the use of a sparse-aperture auto-collimating flat system are discussed. A walk-through of the interferometer based alignment procedure is summarized, and sensitivities from the sparse aperture wavefront test are included as examples.'

  12. Matlab based Toolkits used to Interface with Optical Design Software for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The viewgraph presentation provides an introduction to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first part provides a brief overview of Matlab toolkits including CodeV, OSLO, and Zemax Toolkits. The toolkit overview examines purpose, layout, how Matlab gets data from CodeV, function layout, and using cvHELP. The second part provides examples of use with JWST, including wavefront sensitivities and alignment simulations.

  13. Combining Social Media with Innovative Ways of Communicating about the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the cutting-edge nature of the James Webb Space Telescope, NASA is using a variety of social and interactive media to engage the public. While we do have a regularly updated static website, we are now also using various interactives (like Flash games and a 3D Tour of the spacecraft) to better explain what the Webb telescope is and how it works. To encourage future generations, we are a partner in an educational engineering design challenge which makes use of a virtual Second Life-like world. Additionally, the public can now watch Webb come together before their eyes by accessing our live webcam, which shows telescope hardware being built in our cleanroom. We are working to make Webb as much of a part of pop culture as the Hubble Space Telescope is. We facilitated the filming of a "Late Night with Jimmy Fallon” segment (called "Hubble Gotchu") featuring Webb and Webb scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A visit to the highly rated sitcom "The Big Bang Theory” resulted in Webb lithos, magnets, posters, a scale model, and more being regularly featured on the set of the show. The most important aspect to creating interesting ways to engage the public is having the ability to communicate and form relationships with as many people as possible. To that end, we are using tools like blogs (e.g., NASA Blueshift) and popular social media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr) to reach out to as many people as we can and to enable them to share and spread the content we provide.

  14. Astronomy from Space: The Hubble, Herschel and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Space-based astronomy is going through a renaissance, with three Great Observatories currently flying: Hubble in the visible and ultraviolet, Spitzer in the infrared and Chandra in X-rays. The future looks equally bright. The final servicing mission to Hubble will take place in February 2009 and promises to make the observatory more capable than ever with two new cameras, and refurbishment that will allow it to last at least five years. The upcoming launch of the Herschel Space Telescope will open the far-infrared to explore the cool and dusty Universe. Finally, we look forward to the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope in 2013, which wil provide a successor to both Hubble and Spitzer. In this talk, the author discusses some of the highlights of scientific discovery in the last 10 years and reveals the promise to the next 10 years.

  15. Detector Arrays for the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Alexander, David; Brambora, Clifford K.; Derro, Rebecca; Engler, Chuck; Fox, Ori; Garrison, Matthew B.; Henegar, Greg; Hill, robert J.; Johnson, Thomas; Lindler, Don J.; Manthripragada, Sridhar S.; Marshall, Ceryl; Mott, Brent; Parr, Thomas M.; Roher, Wayne D.; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin B.; Smith, Miles; Waczynski, Augustyn; Wen, Yiting; Wilson, Donna; Xia-Serafino, Wei

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) incorporates two 5 micron cutoff (lambda(sub co) = 5 microns) 2048x2048 pixel Teledyne HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG sensor chip assemblies. These detector arrays, and the two Teledyne SIDECAR application specific integrated circuits that control them, are operated in space at T approx. 37 K. In this article, we provide a brief introduction to NIRSpec, its detector subsystem (DS), detector readout in the space radiation environment, and present a snapshot of the developmental status of the NIRSpec DS as integration and testing of the engineering test unit begins.

  16. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) the First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Mission Objective: a) Study origin & evolution of galaxies, stars & planetary systems; b) Optimized for near infrared wavelength (0.6 - 28 microns); c) 5 year Mission Life (10 year Goal). Organization: a) Mission Lead: Goddard Space Flight Center; b) International collaboration with ESA & CSA; c) Prime Contractor: Northrop Grumman Space Technology Instruments: a) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) - Univ. of Arizona; b) Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) - ESA; c) Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) - JPL/ESA; d) Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) - CSA. Operations: Space Telescope Science Institute.

  17. Cryo-Vacuum Testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Davila, P. S.; Drury, M. P.; Glazer, S. D.; Krom, J. R.; Lundquist, R. A.; Mann, S. D.; McGuffey, D. B.; Perry, R. L.; Ramey, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    With delivery of the science instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) expected in 2012, current plans call for the first cryo-vacuum test of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) to be carried out at GSFC in early 2013. Plans are well underway for conducting this ambitious test, which will perform critical verifications of a number of optical, thermal, and operational requirements of the ISIM hardware, at its deep cryogenic operating temperature. We describe here the facilities, goals, methods, and timeline for this important Integration & Test milestone in the JWST program.

  18. Cryo-Vacuum Testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Davila, P. S.; Drury, M. P.; Glazer, S. D.; Krom, J. R.; Lundquist, R. A.; Mann, S. D.; McGuffey, D. B.; Perry, R. L.; Ramey, D. D.

    2011-01-01

    With delivery of the science instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) expected in 2012, current plans call for the first cryo-vacuum test of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) to be carried out at GSFC in early 2013. Plans are well underway for conducting this ambitious test, which will perform critical verifications of a number of optical, thermal, and operational requirements of the IS 1M hardware, at its deep cryogenic operating temperature. We describe here the facilities, goals, methods, and timeline for this important Integration & Test milestone in the JWST program.

  19. Pathways Towards Habitable Planets: Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 m to 28 m. JWST s primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit photometry and spectroscopy, and direct coronagraphic imaging and address its role in the search for habitable planets.

  20. Wavefront Sensing with the Fine Guidance Sensor for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David; Dean, Bruce H.; Howard,Joe; Shiri, Ron

    2008-01-01

    An analysis is presented that utilizes the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) for focal-plane wavefront sensing (WFS) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). WFS with FGS increases the number of wavefront measurements taken in field of the telescope, but has many challenges over the other JWST instruments that make it unique, such as; less sampling of the Point Spread Function (PSF), a smaller diversity-defocus range, a smaller image detector size, and a polychromatic object or source. Additionally, presented is an analysis of sampling for wavefront sensing. Results are shown based on simulations of flight and the cryogenic optical testing at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  1. Giving Birth to the James Webb Space Telescope: Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John

    2013-01-01

    In late October 1995, I found a remarkable message on my answering machine from Ed Weiler, then the Program Scientist for the Hubble Space Telescope. Would I work on the next generation space telescope, the successor to the beautiful HST? It took me mere moments to work out the answer: Of course! At the time, my work on the COsmic Background Explorer (COBE) was finished, I was writing a book about it (The Very First Light, with John Boslough), and I thought NASA might never do anything nearly as spectacular again. Wow, was I happy to be surprised by that call!

  2. An Automated SVD for Alignment and Control of James Webb Space Telescope Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiri, Sharam; Howard, Joseph M.; Aronstein, David L.; Ha, Kong; Smith, J. Scott; Dean, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a three-mirror anastigmatic telescope. The alignment of the segmented primary and secondary mirrors in the wavefront sensing and control process involves a series of actuators to control the six degrees-of-freedom motion on each surface in addition to the radius of curvature. The control matrix developed from the alignment parameters is over-determined and singular value decomposition (SVD) method is used to solve it in the least square sense. An automated SVD scheme has been developed to identify the most contributing modes in a typical alignment process and reduce the impact of error-prone modes from the control process.

  3. In-orbit commissioning of the NIRSpec instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böker, T.; Muzerolle, J.; Bacinski, J.; Alves de Oliveira, C.; Birkmann, S.; Ferruit, P.; Karl, H.; Lemke, R.; Lützgendorf, N.; Marston, A.; Mosner, P.; Rawle, T.; Sirianni, M.

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018, promises to revolutionize observational astronomy, due to its unprecedented sensitivity at near and mid-infrared wavelengths. Following launch, a ~6 month long commissioning campaign aims to verify the observatory performance. A key element in this campaign is the verification and early calibration of the four JWST science instruments, one of which is the Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). This paper summarizes the objectives of the NIRSpec commissioning campaign, and outlines the sequence of activities needed to achieve these objectives.

  4. Effects of ice on the transmission of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenberg, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has among its challenges the minimization of the effects of ice on its optical performance in terms of transmission. The ice is a result of JWST's architecture, mission design and materials selection. The optical properties of ice are introduced to illustrate why there is concern among JWST's designers about ice build up. Several alternate methods of determining the impact on mirror reflectance are compared. Two are derived from Beer's Law and the third is full thin film treatment. It is shown and argued that only the thin film method captures enough of the physics of interaction of the incident light with an ice coated mirror.

  5. System Definition of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray; Aymergen, Cagatay; VanCampen, Julie; Abell, James; Smith, Miles; Driggers, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides the critical functions and the environment for the four science instruments on JWST. This complex system development across many international organizations presents unique challenges and unique solutions. Here we describe how the requirement flow has been coordinated through the documentation system, how the tools and processes are used to minimize impact to the development of the affected interfaces, how the system design has matured, how the design review process operates, and how the system implementation is managed through reporting to ensure a truly world class scientific instrument compliment is created as the final product.

  6. Use of living technical budgets to manage risk on the James Webb Space Telescope optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porpora, Daniel A.; Barto, Allison A.; Lightsey, Paul A.; Knight, J. Scott

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Primary Mirror (PM) and Secondary Mirror (SM) are deployable relative to the rest of the optics. The PM consists of 18 assemblies which are aligned on-orbit using hexapod actuators. The complexity introduces risk that misalignments of individual components could result in a system with an unexpected optical train. In order to monitor risk throughout the life of the project, a series of interrelated technical budgets and independent cross-checks have been created and are continually updated with as-built data to provide confidence in the state of the system as well as the path to completion.

  7. Preparing the Public for the James Webb Space Telescope and its Exploration of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Joel D.; Smith, Denise A.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Jirdeh, Hussein; Office of Public Outreach

    2016-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. The challenges in ensuring the high profile of JWST (understanding the infrared, the vast distance to the telescope's final position, and the unfamiliar science territory) requires us to lay the proper background. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing outreach programs: for example, simulated, scientifically-inspired but aesthetic JWST scenes (illustrating the differences between JWST and previous missions); partnering with high impact science communicators such as MinutePhysics to produce timely and concise content; incorporating JWST science into activities at large scale events. JWST has unique observational capabilities that optimize its ability ot study the Solar System: monitoring weather, tracking and measuring dusty objects, collaborative parallax observations with other observatories, and more. We discuss some of the ways we engage the public on these concepts.

  8. Standardization of XML Database Exchanges and the James Webb Space Telescope Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Detter, Ryan; Jones, Ron; Fatig, Curtis C.

    2007-01-01

    Personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project have been working with various standard communities such the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) to assist in the definition of a common extensible Markup Language (XML) for database exchange format. The CCSDS and OMG standards are intended for the exchange of core command and telemetry information, not for all database information needed to exercise a NASA space mission. The mission-specific database, containing all the information needed for a space mission, is translated from/to the standard using a translator. The standard is meant to provide a system that encompasses 90% of the information needed for command and telemetry processing. This paper will discuss standardization of the XML database exchange format, tools used, and the JWST experience, as well as future work with XML standard groups both commercial and government.

  9. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Integrated Science Instrument Module (OTIS) Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Voyton, Mark; Lander, Julie; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Matthews, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated ScienceInstrument Module (ISIM)are integrated together to form the OTIS. Once integrated, the OTIS undergoes primary mirrorcenter of curvatureoptical tests, electrical and operational tests, acoustics and vibration testing at the Goddard SpaceFlight Center beforebeing shipped to the Johnson Space Center for cryogenic optical testing of the OTIS. In preparationfor the cryogenicoptical testing, the JWST project has built a Pathfinder telescope and has completed two OpticalGround SystemEquipment (OGSE) cryogenic optical tests with the Pathfinder. In this paper, we will summarize opticaltest results todate and status the final Pathfinder test and the OTIS integration and environmental test preparations

  10. James Webb Space Telescope optical telescope element/integrated science instrument module (OTIS) status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Voyon, Mark; Lander, Juli; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Matthews, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are integrated together to form the OTIS. Once integrated, the OTIS undergoes primary mirror center of curvature optical tests, electrical and operational tests, acoustics and vibration testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center before being shipped to the Johnson Space Center for cryogenic optical testing of the OTIS. In preparation for the cryogenic optical testing, the JWST project has built a Pathfinder telescope and has completed two Optical Ground System Equipment (OGSE) cryogenic optical tests with the Pathfinder. In this paper, we will summarize optical test results to date and status the final Pathfinder test and the OTIS integration and environmental test preparations.

  11. Finding Our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Origins program is a series of space telescopes designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, I will concentrate on the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with the Hubble Space Telescope through to the present day. I will introduce several of the tools that astronomers use to measure distances, measure velocities, and look backwards in time. I will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope, which is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past. I will finish with a short discussion of other missions in the Origins theme, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder.

  12. Finding our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    NASA s Origins program is a series of space telescopes designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, I will concentrate on the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with the Hubble Space Telescope through to the present day. I will introduce several of the tools that astronomers use to measure distances, measure velocities, and look backwards in time. I will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope, which is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past. I will finish with a short discussion of other missions in the Origins theme, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder.

  13. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element/Integrated Science Instrument Module (OTIS) Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Voyton, Mark; Lander, Juli; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Matthews, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are integrated together to form the OTIS. Once integrated, the OTIS undergoes primary mirror center of curvature optical tests, electrical and operational tests, acoustics and vibration testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center before being shipped to the Johnson Space Center for cryogenic optical testing of the OTIS. In preparation for the cryogenic optical testing, the JWST project has built a Pathfinder telescope and has completed two Optical Ground System Equipment (OGSE) cryogenic optical tests with the Pathfinder. In this paper, we will summarize optical test results to date and status the final Pathfinder test and the OTIS integration and environmental test preparations

  14. Prototype Motor Controllers Demonstrated for the James Webb Space Telescope Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammond, Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    NASA is in the process of designing the James Webb Space Telescope. This telescope will investigate images of objects in deep space (stars, galaxies, etc.) by using light in the infrared region of the light spectrum. To make such observations, the telescope must have light sensors that operate at very cold temperatures, near absolute zero. To achieve this low-temperature tolerance, designers must place the light sensors behind a Sun shield that will prevent sunlight, and its heat, from reaching the sensors. In this cold region inside the telescope, electric motors and some motor controls must operate at temperatures near 40 K (40 degrees above absolute zero). These motors will be used to position light filters needed by the telescope. There are motors that operate at the low temperatures, but there is little technology for low-temperature motor-control electronics. The drawing shows how the motors and their controls are positioned behind the Sun shield. Simplified version of the layout of the motor and control electronics that are located, as dictated by mission requirements, in the cold zone of the James Webb Space Telescope. A Sun shield provides protection and isolation of these electronics from the heat of the rays of the sun. Room temperature compoenets (control computer, motor select command, motor phase drive, power supply, parallel to serial, and sun shield) as well as 40-kelvin components (motor select, serial to parallel, and motors) are shown. The Low Temperature Electronics Group at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop motor control electronics that will operate at a temperature of 40 K. The group conducted tests to determine which electronic components will operate at such very low temperatures. Then, components that were determined to operate successfully at the low temperatures were used to design low-temperature motor-controller circuits. A prototype motor controller circuit was built, evaluated, and demonstrated to operate at

  15. Measurements of the Radiation Induced Conductivity of Insulating Polymeric Materials for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbridge, J.; Dennison, J. R.; Hodges, J.; Hoffmann, R. C.; Abbott, J.; Hunt, A.; Spaulding, R.

    2006-10-01

    We report on initial measurements of Radiation Induced Conductivity (RIC) for twelve thin film polymer materials that are used in the cabling of the James Webb Space Telescope. Results will be used to model possible detrimental arching due to space craft charging effects. RIC occurs when incident ionizing radiation deposits energy in a material and excites electrons into the conduction band of insulators. RIC is determined using a constant voltage test method as the difference in the equilibrium sample conductivity under no incident radiation and sample conductivity under an incident flux. An accelerator beam at the Idaho Accelerator Center provides the 2-5 MeV incident flux over a range of 10^2 to 10^+1 rad/sec. Measurements are made for a range of applied voltages and radiation dose rates.

  16. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Capability for for Exoplanet Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 .meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 micron to 28 micron. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. In this presentation we will discuss the status of the JWST project and review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit observations, and direct coronagraphic imaging. In particular we will discuss recent simulations of photometric and spectroscopic transit observations that demonstrate the capabilities of JWST to characterize superearth atmospheres in the light of recent Kepler and Corot discoveries

  17. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Potential for Exoplanet Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 microns to 28 microns. JWST s primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. Recent progress in hardware development for the observatory will be presented, including a discussion of the status of JWST s optical system and Beryllium mirror fabrication, progress with sunshield prototypes, and recent changes in the integration and test configuration. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit imaging and spectroscopy and direct imaging. We also review the recent discovery of Fomalhaut B and implications for debris disk imaging nd exoplanet detection with JWST.

  18. Operations Concept for Moving Target Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborne, George

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide breakthrough capabilities for the study of Solar System objects. JWST is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized, general purpose space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018. The JWST instrumentation will provide imaging. coronagraphy, and spectroscopy between 6000A to 29 microns. This spectral region contains many atomic, molecular, and particulate diagnostics that are especially relevant for the study of gaseous, rocky and icy bodies in the Solar System. This talk describes the concept for observations of moving targets, including the system design for acquiring and tracking guide stars to hold the science target fIxed in the instrument field of view.

  19. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, I: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Wright, G. S.; Böker, T.; Bouwman, J.; Colina, L.; Glasse, Alistair; Gordon, K. D.; Greene, T. P.; Güdel, Manuel; Henning, Th.; Justtanont, K.; Lagage, P.-O.; Meixner, M. E.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.-U.; Ray, T. P.; Ressler, M. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Waelkens, C.

    2015-07-01

    MIRI (the Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope [JWST]) operates from 5 to 28.5 μm and combines over this range: (1) unprecedented sensitivity levels; (2) subarcsecond angular resolution; (3) freedom from atmospheric interference; (4) the inherent stability of observing in space; and (5) a suite of versatile capabilities including imaging, low- and medium-resolution spectroscopy (with an integral field unit), and coronagraphy. We illustrate the potential uses of this unique combination of capabilities with various science examples: (1) imaging exoplanets; (2) transit and eclipse spectroscopy of exoplanets; (3) probing the first stages of star and planet formation, including identifying bioactive molecules; (4) determining star formation rates and mass growth as galaxies are assembled; and (5) characterizing the youngest massive galaxies.

  20. Exploring Extrasolar Planetary Systems: New Observations of Extrasolar Planets Enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has been increasingly success over the last few years. In excess of 700 systems are now known, and Kepler has approx.2500 additional candidate systems, yet to be confirmed. Recently, progress has also been made in directly imaging extrasolar planets, both from the ground and in space. In this presentation will discuss the techniques employed to discover planetary systems, and highlight the capabilities, enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). JWST is a large 6.5 meter aperture infrared telescope that is scheduled for launch in 2018, and will allow us to transition to characterizing the properties of these extrasolar planets and the planetary systems in which they reside.

  1. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Sciene Instrument Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vac 3 (CV3) Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, Ed

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the test objectives, test summary, test configuration and test performance of the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module CryoVac 3 Thermal Vacuum Test. Verify the ISIM System in its final configuration after environmental exposure and provide a post-environmental performance baseline, including critical ground calibrations needed for science data processing in flight.

  2. Crowded Field Photometry and Multiplexed Spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalirai, Jason

    2015-08-01

    The science case for the James Webb Space Telescope is often conveyed through a few broad bins; exoplanet characterization, studies of planet formation, tracking galaxy growth through cosmic time, and finding high redshift galaxies. While JWST offers tremendous scientific promise in these areas, the telescope is expected to have a very broad scientific impact across most areas of modern astrophysics. One of JWST's biggest scientific opportunities will be in the study of crowded fields such as star clusters. In this presentation, I'll give a brief status update on JWST with a focus on what tools the community will soon have to plan stellar population science programs. I will show simulated images of massive star clusters as seen through the eye of JWST, and use these to motivate what new frontiers can be enabled through powerful infrared sensitivity, ultra high resolution, and multiplexed spectroscopy.

  3. Detectors for the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Figer, Donald F.; Regan, Michael W.; Boeker, Torsten; Garnett, James; Hill, Robert J.; Bagnasco, Georgio; Balleza, Jesus; Barney, Richard; Bergeron, Louis E.

    2004-01-01

    The Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) is the James Webb Space Telescope's primary near-infrared spectrograph. NASA is providing the NIRSpec detector subsystem, which consists of the focal plane array, focal plane electronics, cable harnesses, and software. The focal plane array comprises two closely-butted lambda (sub co) approximately 5 micrometer Rockwell HAWAII- 2RG sensor chip assemblies. After briefly describing the NIRSpec instrument, we summarize some of the driving requirements for the detector subsystem, discuss the baseline architecture (and alternatives), and presents some recent detector test results including a description of a newly identified noise component that we have found in some archival JWST test data. We dub this new noise component, which appears to be similar to classical two-state popcorn noise in many aspects, "popcorn mesa noise." We close with the current status of the detector subsystem development effort.

  4. Demonstration of extended capture range for James Webb Space Telescope phase retrieval.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, R Elizabeth; Acton, D Scott

    2015-07-20

    A geometrical phase retrieval (GPR) algorithm is applied to the problem of image stacking in order to extend the capture range of normal phase retrieval (PR) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and potentially eliminate a lengthy image-stacking process that is based on centroids. Computer simulations are used to establish the capture range of the existing PR algorithm for JWST and demonstrate that it is increased by more than a factor of 10 when combined with GPR, guaranteeing PR capture 95% of the time. An experiment using a scale optical model of JWST was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the GPR algorithm in both coherent and incoherent imaging. PMID:26367828

  5. Integrated Modeling Activities for the James Webb Space Telescope: Optical Jitter Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, T. Tupper; Ha, Kong Q.; Johnston, John D.; Howard, Joseph M.; Mosier, Gary E.

    2004-01-01

    This is a continuation of a series of papers on the integrated modeling activities for the James Webb Space Telescope(JWST). Starting with the linear optical model discussed in part one, and using the optical sensitivities developed in part two, we now assess the optical image motion and wavefront errors from the structural dynamics. This is often referred to as "jitter: analysis. The optical model is combined with the structural model and the control models to create a linear structural/optical/control model. The largest jitter is due to spacecraft reaction wheel assembly disturbances which are harmonic in nature and will excite spacecraft and telescope structural. The structural/optic response causes image quality degradation due to image motion (centroid error) as well as dynamic wavefront error. Jitter analysis results are used to predict imaging performance, improve the structural design, and evaluate the operational impact of the disturbance sources.

  6. James Webb Space Telescope Initial Mid-Course Correction Monte Carlo Implementation using Task Parallelism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Jeremy; Tichy, Jason; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will be launched into a highly elliptical orbit that does not possess sufficient energy to achieve a proper Sun-Earth L2 libration point orbit. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers are planned to rectify the energy deficit: MCC-1a, MCC-1b, and MCC-2. To validate the propellant budget and trajectory design methods, a set of Monte Carlo analyses that incorporate MCC maneuver modeling and execution are employed. The first analysis focuses on the effects of launch vehicle injection errors on the magnitude of MCC-1a. The second on the spread of potential V based on the performance of the propulsion system as applied to all three MCC maneuvers. The final highlights the slight, but notable, contribution of the attitude thrusters during each MCC maneuver. Given the possible variations in these three scenarios, the trajectory design methods are determined to be robust to errors in the modeling of the flight system.

  7. Looking Back in Time: Building the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee

    2016-01-01

    When it launches in 2018, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will look back in time at the earliest stars and galaxies forming in the universe. This talk will look back in time at the development of the JWST telescope. This will include a discussion of the design, technology development, mirror development, wave front sensing and control algorithms, lightweight cryogenic deployable structure, pathfinder telescope, and integration and test program evolution and status. The talk will provide the engineering answers on why the mirrors are made of Beryllium, why there are 18 segments, where and how the mirrors were made, how the mirrors get aligned using the main science camera, and how the telescope is being tested. It will also look back in time at the many dedicated people all over the country who helped build it.

  8. James Webb Space Telescope Initial Mid-Course Correction Monte Carlo Implementation using Task Parallelism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Jeremy; Tichy, Jason; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will be launched into a highly elliptical orbit that does not possess sufficient energy to achieve a proper Sun-Earth/Moon L2 libration point orbit. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers are planned to rectify the energy deficit: MCC-1a, MCC-1b, and MCC-2. To validate the propellant budget and trajectory design methods, a set of Monte Carlo analyses that incorporate MCC maneuver modeling and execution are employed. The first analysis focuses on the effects of launch vehicle injection errors on the magnitude of MCC-1a. The second on the spread of potential V based on the performance of the propulsion system as applied to all three MCC maneuvers. The final highlights the slight, but notable, contribution of the attitude thrusters during each MCC maneuver. Given the possible variations in these three scenarios, the trajectory design methods are determined to be robust to errors in the modeling of the flight system.

  9. The James Webb Space Telescope's Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam): Making Models, Building Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. W., Jr.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2011-09-01

    Since 2003, the Near Infrared Camear (NIRCam) science team for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has conducted "Train the Trainer" workshops for adult leaders of the Girl Scout of the USA (GSUSA), engaging them in the process of scientific inquiry and equipping them to host astronomy-related activities at the troop level. Training includes topics in basic astronomy (night sky, phases of the Moon, the scale of the Solar System and beyond, stars, galaxies, telescopes, etc.) as well as JWST-specific research areas in extra-solar planetary systems and cosmology, to pave the way for girls and women to understand the first images from JWST. Participants become part of our world-wide network of 160 trainers teaching young women essential STEM-related concepts using astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, engineering, and critical thinking.

  10. Detectors for the James Webb Space Telescope near-infrared spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Figer, Donald F.; Regan, Michael W.; Boeker, Torsten; Garnett, James; Hill, Robert J.; Bagnasco, Giorgio; Balleza, Jesus; Barney, Richard; Bergeron, Louis E.; Brambora, Clifford; Connelly, Joe; Derro, Rebecca; DiPirro, Michael J.; Doria-Warner, Christina; Ericsson, Aprille; Glazer, Stuart D.; Greene, Charles; Hall, Donald N.; Jacobson, Shane; Jakobsen, Peter; Johnson, Eric; Johnson, Scott D.; Krebs, Carolyn; Krebs, Danny J.; Lambros, Scott D.; Likins, Blake; Manthripragada, Sridhar; Martineau, Robert J.; Morse, Ernie C.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Mott, D. Brent; Muench, Theo; Park, Hongwoo; Parker, Susan; Polidan, Elizabeth J.; Rashford, Robert; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin; Sharma, Rajeev; Strada, Paolo; Waczynski, Augustyn; Wen, Yiting; Wong, Selmer; Yagelowich, John; Zuray, Monica

    2004-10-01

    The Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) is the James Webb Space Telescope"s primary near-infrared spectrograph. NASA is providing the NIRSpec detector subsystem, which consists of the focal plane array, focal plane electronics, cable harnesses, and software. The focal plane array comprises two closely-butted λco ~ 5 μm Rockwell HAWAII-2RG sensor chip assemblies. After briefly describing the NIRSpec instrument, we summarize some of the driving requirements for the detector subsystem, discuss the baseline architecture (and alternatives), and presents some recent detector test results including a description of a newly identified noise component that we have found in some archival JWST test data. We dub this new noise component, which appears to be similar to classical two-state popcorn noise in many aspects, "popcorn mesa noise." We close with the current status of the detector subsystem development effort.

  11. James Webb Space Telescope Observations of Stellar Occultations by Solar System Bodies and Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; French, R. G.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Stansberry, J.; Lin, Z.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Vilenius, E.; Müller, Th.; Ortiz, J. L.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Bosh, A.; Duffard, R.; Lellouch, E.; Tancredi, G.; Young, L.; Milam, Stefanie N.; the JWST “Occultations” Focus Group

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the opportunities provided by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for significant scientific advances in the study of Solar System bodies and rings using stellar occultations. The strengths and weaknesses of the stellar occultation technique are evaluated in light of JWST's unique capabilities. We identify several possible JWST occultation events by minor bodies and rings and evaluate their potential scientific value. These predictions depend critically on accurate a priori knowledge of the orbit of JWST near the Sun-Earth Lagrange point 2 (L2). We also explore the possibility of serendipitous stellar occultations by very small minor bodies as a byproduct of other JWST observing programs. Finally, to optimize the potential scientific return of stellar occultation observations, we identify several characteristics of JWST's orbit and instrumentation that should be taken into account during JWST's development.

  12. Studies of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The coolest T and Y-class Brown Dwarf objects are very faint and are therefore very poorly understood, since they are barely detectable with the current astronomical instrumentation. The upcoming James Webb Space Telescope now in development for a launch in the Fall of 2018 will have vastly increased sensitivity in the near and mid-infrared compared to any current facilities and will not be affected by telluric absorption over its entire wavelength range of operations. As a result it will be an ideal tool to obtain information about the composition and temperature-pressure structure in these objects' atmospheres. This presentation will outline the JWST guaranteed time observing plans for these studies.

  13. Cryogenic Photogrammetry and Radiometry for the James Webb Space Telescope Microshutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Victor J.; Morey, Peter A.; Zukowski, Barbara J.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Collins, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) relies on several innovations to complete its five year mission. One vital technology is microshutters, the programmable field selectors that enable the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) to perform multi-object spectroscopy. Mission success depends on acquiring spectra from large numbers of galaxies by positioning shutter slits over faint targets. Precise selection of faint targets requires field selectors that are both high in contrast and stable in position. We have developed test facilities to evaluate microshutter contrast and alignment stability at their 35K operating temperature. These facilities used a novel application of image registration algorithms to obtain non-contact, sub-micron measurements in cryogenic conditions. The cryogenic motion of the shutters was successfully characterized. Optical results also demonstrated that shutter contrast far exceeds the NIRSpec requirements. Our test program has concluded with the delivery of a flight-qualified field selection subsystem to the NIRSpec bench.

  14. Challenges with Electrical, Electronics, and Electromechanical Parts for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jah, Muzar A.; Jeffers, Basil S.

    2016-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the space-based observatory that will extend the knowledge gained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Hubble focuses on optical and ultraviolet wavelengths while JWST focuses on the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, to see the earliest stars and galaxies that formed in the Universe and to look deep into nearby dust clouds to study the formation of stars and planets. JWST, which commenced creation in 1996, is scheduled to launch in 2018. It includes a suite of four instruments, the spacecraft bus, optical telescope element, Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM, the platform to hold the instruments), and a sunshield. The mass of JWST is approximately 6200 kg, including observatory, on-orbit consumables and launch vehicle adaptor. Many challenges were overcome while providing the electrical and electronic components for the Goddard Space Flight Center hardware builds. Other difficulties encountered included developing components to work at cryogenic temperatures, failures of electronic components during development and flight builds, Integration and Test electronic parts problems, and managing technical issues with international partners. This paper will present the context of JWST from a EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) perspective with examples of challenges and lessons learned throughout the design, development, and fabrication of JWST in cooperation with our associated partners including the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the European Space Agency (ESA), Lockheed Martin and their respective associated partners. Technical challenges and lessons learned will be discussed.

  15. The Hubble, the James Webb Space Telescope and Looking to the Future: Space Science at a Cross Road?

    SciTech Connect

    Mountain, Matt

    2008-04-30

    After eighteen years of observing the Universe, the Hubble Space Telescope is about to be upgraded and repaired by NASA's Shuttle astronauts in the summer of this year. This will breathe new life into a telescope that has been described as the most productive in history. This talk will discuss some of Hubble's results, describe what we hope to achieve in this last servicing mission, and how we manage the Hubble science operation on behalf of NASA and the science community. In addition I will show how some of the science programs and the way we operate Hubble are paving the way for a very different space observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The James Webb will open up new opportunities for space science in the same way the Hubble did in the 1990's. I will also discuss briefly the challenges of launching a 6.5m cryogenic telescope out to L2. As we look to the future, how this perspective has led the Space Telescope Science Institute to take another look at our successful partnership with NASA's human spaceflight program as we explore the types of space observatories we will need in the 2020 timeframe.

  16. Creating the Thermal Environment for Safely Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at the Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Lauterbach, John; Garcia, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. The chamber was originally built to support testing of the Apollo Service and Command Module for lunar missions, but underwent major modifications to be able to test the James Webb Space Telescope in a simulated deep space environment. To date seven tests have been performed in preparation of testing the flight optics for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Each test has had a uniquie thermal profile and set of thermal requirements for cooling down and warming up, controlling contamination, and releasing condensed air. These range from temperatures from 335K to 15K, with tight uniformity and controllability for maintining thermal stability and pressure control. One unique requirement for two test was structurally proof loading hardware by creating thermal gradients at specific temperatures. This paper will discuss the thermal requirements and goals of the tests, the original requirements of the chamber thermal systems for planned operation, and how the new requirements were met by the team using the hardware, system flexiblilty, and engineering creativity. It will also discuss the mistakes and successes to meet the unique goals, especially when meeting the thermal proof load.

  17. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now, and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein's biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA's plans for the next great telescope in space, the James Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where stars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  18. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now. and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein's biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA's plans for the next great telescope in space, the James Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where stars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  19. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now, and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA s Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein s biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA s plans for the next great telescope in space, the James Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where stars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  20. The integration and test program of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Davila, Pamela S.; Diaz, Charles E.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Glazer, Stuart D.; Jones, Gregory S.; Marsh, James M.; Matthews, Gary W.; McGuffey, Douglas B.; O'Rear, Patrick H.; Ramey, Deborah D.; Reis, Carl A.; Texter, Scott C.; Whitman, Tony L.

    2012-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project has entered into a comprehensive integration and test (I and T) program that over the coming years will assemble and test the various elements of the observatory and verify the readiness of the integrated system for launch. Highlights of the I and T program include a sequence of cryo-vacuum tests of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISHvf), to be carried out at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and an end-to- end cryo-vacuum optical and thermal test - of unprecedented scale - of the telescope plus instruments at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The I and T program, as replanned for a 2018 launch readiness date, contains a number of risk-reduction features intended to maximize the prospects for success of the critical tests, leading to reduced cost and schedule risk for those activities. For the JSC test, these include enhancement of the precursor Pathfinder program, the addition of a second cryo-vacuum thermal test of the observatory's Core region, and enhancement of the subsystem level testing program for the cryo-cooler for the Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MlRl). We report here on the I and T program for JWST, focusing on the I and T path for the instruments and telescope, and on the status of the hardware and plans that support it.

  1. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago started the expansion of our piece of the universe, and portions of it stopped expanding and made stars, galaxies, planets, and people. I summarize the history of the universe, and explain how humans have learned about its size, its expansion, and its constituents. The COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer) mission measured the remnant heat radiation from the Big Bang, showed that its color (spectrum) matches the predictions perfectly, and discovered hot and cold spots in the radiation that reveal the primordial density variations that enabled us to exist. My current project, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is the planned successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and will extend its scientific discoveries to ever greater distances and ever closer to the Big Bang itself. Its infrared capabilities enable it to see inside dust clouds to study the formation of stars and planets, and it may reveal the atmospheric properties of planets around other stars. Planned for launch in 2013, it is an international project led by NASA along with the European and Canadian Space Agencies.

  2. The Integration and Test Program of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project has entered into a comprehensive integration and test (I&T) program that over the coming years will assemble the various elements of the observatory (the Optical Telescope Element [OTE], the Integrated Science Instrument Module [ISIM], and the Spacecraft) and verify the readiness of the integrated system for launch. The I&T program as replanned for a 2018 launch readiness date has a number of interesting features. These include a streamlined ISIM cryo-vacuum test program at Goddard Space Flight Center, a streamlined OTIS (OTE + ISIM) test program at Johnson Space Center (JSC), the addition of a second Core cryo-vacuum thermal test, the enhancement of the Pathfinder program at JSC, and enhancement of the subsystem-level testing program for the MIRI cryo-cooler. These latter activities all serve to reduce the risk heading into the end-to-end optical and thermal testing of the telescope at JSC, leading to reduced cost and schedule risk for that critical activity. We report here on the overall I&T program for JWST and on the status of the hardware and plans that support it.

  3. An Overview of Integration and Test of the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drury, Michael; Becker, Neil; Bos, Brent; Davila, Pamela; Frey, Bradley; Hylan, Jason; Marsh, James; McGuffey, Douglas; Novak, Maria; Ohl, Raymond; Redman, Kevin; Sampler, Henry; Sullivan, Joseph; Walker, Ian; Wright, Geraldine; Young, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approx.40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The SIs and Guider are mounted to a composite metering structure with outer dimensions of 2.1x2.2x1.9m. The SI and Guider units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center as an instrument suite using a high-fidelity, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator that features a 1.5m diameter powered mirror. The SIs are integrated and aligned to the structure under ambient, clean room conditions. SI performance, including focus, pupil shear and wavefront error, is evaluated at the operating temperature. We present an overview of the ISIM integration within the context of Observatory-level construction. We describe the integration and verification plan for the ISIM element, including an overview of our incremental verification approach, ambient mechanical integration and test plans and optical alignment and cryogenic test plans. We describe key ground support equipment and facilities.

  4. LARGE SCALE REFRIGERATION PLANT FOR GROUND TESTING THE JAMES WEBB TELESCOPE AT NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    P. Arnold, Lutz Decker, D. Howe, J. Urbin, Jonathan Homan, Carl Reis, J. Creel, V. Ganni, P. Knudsen, A. Sidi-Yekhlef

    2010-04-01

    The James Webb Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Telescope and will be placed in an orbit of 1.5 million km from earth. Before launch in 2014, the telescope will be tested in NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC) space simulation chamber, Chamber A. The tests will be conducted at deep space conditions. Chamber A's helium cryo-panels are currently cooled down to 20 K by two Linde 3.5 kW helium refrigerators. The new 12.5 kW, 20-K helium coldbox described in this paper is part of the upgrade to the chamber systems for this large test program. The Linde coldbox will provide refrigeration in several operating modes where the temperature of the chamber is being controlled with a high accuracy due to the demanding NASA test requirements. The implementation of two parallel expansion turbine strings and the Ganni cycle—Floating Pressure process results in a highly efficient and flexible process that minimizes the electrical input power. This paper will describe the collaboration and execution of the coldbox project.

  5. James Webb Space Telescope Mid Infra-Red Instrument Pulse-Tube Cryocooler Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, D.; Flowers, T.; Liu, N.; Moore, K.; Tran, D.; Valenzuela, P.; Franklin, B.; Michaels, D.

    2013-01-01

    The latest generation of long life, space pulse-tube cryocoolers require electronics capable of controlling self-induced vibration down to a fraction of a newton and coldhead temperature with high accuracy down to a few kelvin. Other functions include engineering diagnostics, heater and valve control, telemetry and safety protection of the cryocooler subsystem against extreme environments and operational anomalies. The electronics are designed to survive the thermal, vibration, shock and radiation environment of launch and orbit, while providing a design life in excess of 10 years on-orbit. A number of our current generation high reliability radiation-hardened electronics units are in various stages of integration on several space flight payloads. This paper describes the features and performance of our latest flight electronics designed for the pulse-tube cryocooler that is the pre-cooler for a closed cycle Joule-Thomson cooler providing 6K cooling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI). The electronics is capable of highly accurate temperature control over the temperature range from 4K to 15K. Self-induced vibration is controlled to low levels on all harmonics up to the 16th. A unique active power filter controls peak-to-peak reflected ripple current on the primary power bus to a very low level. The 9 kg unit is capable of delivering 360W continuous power to NGAS's 3-stage pulse-tube High-Capacity Cryocooler (HCC).

  6. Warm molecular Hydrogen at high redshift with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillard, P.; Boulanger, F.; Lehnert, M. D.; Appleton, P. N.; Pineau des Forêts, G.

    2015-12-01

    The build-up of galaxies is regulated by a complex interplay between gravitational collapse, galaxy merging and feedback related to AGN and star formation. The energy released by these processes has to dissipate for gas to cool, condense, and form stars. How gas cools is thus a key to understand galaxy formation. Spitzer Space Telescope infrared spectroscopy revealed a population of galaxies with weak star formation and unusually powerful H_2 line emission. This is a signature of turbulent dissipation, sustained by large-scale mechanical energy injection. The cooling of the multiphase interstellar medium is associated with emission in the H_2 lines. These results have profound consequences on our understanding of regulation of star formation, feedback and energetics of galaxy formation in general. The fact that H_2 lines can be strongly enhanced in high-redshift turbulent galaxies will be of great importance for the James Webb Space Telescope observations which will unveil the role that H_2 plays as a cooling agent in the era of galaxy assembly.

  7. James Webb Space Telescope optical simulation testbed III: first experimental results with linear-control alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egron, Sylvain; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Leboulleux, Lucie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Pueyo, Laurent; Choquet, Élodie; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ygouf, Marie; Michau, Vincent; Bonnefois, Aurélie; Fusco, Thierry; Escolle, Clément; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel; Soummer, Rémi

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop experiment designed to study wavefront sensing and control for a segmented space telescope, including both commissioning and maintenance activities. JOST is complementary to existing testbeds for JWST (e.g. the Ball Aerospace Testbed Telescope TBT) given its compact scale and flexibility, ease of use, and colocation at the JWST Science and Operations Center. The design of JOST reproduces the physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) using three custom aspheric lenses. It provides similar quality image as JWST (80% Strehl ratio) over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, but at 633 nm. An Iris AO segmented mirror stands for the segmented primary mirror of JWST. Actuators allow us to control (1) the 18 segments of the segmented mirror in piston, tip, tilt and (2) the second lens, which stands for the secondary mirror, in tip, tilt and x, y, z positions. We present the full linear control alignment infrastructure developed for JOST, with an emphasis on multi-field wavefront sensing and control. Our implementation of the Wavefront Sensing (WFS) algorithms using phase diversity is experimentally tested. The wavefront control (WFC) algorithms, which rely on a linear model for optical aberrations induced by small misalignments of the three lenses, are tested and validated on simulations.

  8. Cryo Testing of tbe James Webb Space Telescope's Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanCampen, Julie

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope will be integrated and tested at the Environmental Test Facilities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The cryogenic thermal vacuum testing of the ISIM will be the most difficult and problematic portion of the GSFC Integration and Test flow. The test is to validate the coupled interface of the science instruments and the ISIM structure and to sufficiently stress that interface while validating image quality of the science instruments. The instruments and the structure are not made from the same materials and have different CTE. Test objectives and verification rationale are currently being evaluated in Phase B of the project plan. The test program will encounter engineering challenges and limitations, which are derived by cost and technology many of which can be mitigated by facility upgrades, creative GSE, and thorough forethought. The cryogenic testing of the ISIM will involve a number of risks such as the implementation of unique metrology techniques, mechanical, electrical and optical simulators housed within the cryogenic vacuum environment. These potential risks are investigated and possible solutions are proposed.

  9. Status of the James Webb Space Telescope and its Capabilities for Exoplanet Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, infrared telescope planned for launch in 2018. JWST is a facility observatory that will address a broad range of science goals covering four major themes: First light and Re-Ionization, the Assembly of Galaxies, the Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life. With a 6.5 meter diameter mirror it will be the largest space telescope ever flown, and is the first cryogenic telescope to incorporate passive cooling, achieved by means of a large sunshade, to reach its ~40 K operating temperature. JWST has a complement of four science instruments that offer a range of capabilities for exoplanet imaging and transit imaging and spectroscopy. I will present an overview of the observatory design, highlight recent progress towards integration, testing, and science operations. I will also discuss JWST’s launch and commissioning timeline. Finally, I will present the capabilities of JWST to conduct programs which address the observations of exoplanets.

  10. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z greater than 6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z greater than 10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (less than 50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In addition to JWST's ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems, and discuss recent progress in constructing the observatory.

  11. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan F.; Barbier, L. M.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D. D.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sakamoto, T.

    2006-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts 2-6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z>10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth- Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns. In addition to JWST s ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems.

  12. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Simulation Testbed I: overview and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Soummer, Rémi; Choquet, Élodie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Levecq, Olivier; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Ygouf, Marie; Leboulleux, Lucie; Egron, Sylvain; Anderson, Rachel; Long, Chris; Elliott, Erin; Hartig, George; Pueyo, Laurent; van der Marel, Roeland; Mountain, Matt

    2014-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop workbench to study aspects of wavefront sensing and control for a segmented space telescope, including both commissioning and maintenance activities. JOST is complementary to existing optomechanical testbeds for JWST (e.g. the Ball Aerospace Testbed Telescope, TBT) given its compact scale and flexibility, ease of use, and colocation at the JWST Science & Operations Center. We have developed an optical design that reproduces the physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat using three aspheric lenses; it provides similar image quality as JWST (80% Strehl ratio) over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, but at HeNe wavelength. A segmented deformable mirror stands in for the segmented primary mirror and allows control of the 18 segments in piston, tip, and tilt, while the secondary can be controlled in tip, tilt and x, y, z position. This will be sufficient to model many commissioning activities, to investigate field dependence and multiple field point sensing & control, to evaluate alternate sensing algorithms, and develop contingency plans. Testbed data will also be usable for cross-checking of the WFS&C Software Subsystem, and for staff training and development during JWST's five- to ten-year mission.

  13. Cryogenic Characterization and Testing of Magnetically-Actuated Microshutter Arrays for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, T. T.; Kletetschka, G.; Jah, M. A.; Li, M. J.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Wang, L. L.; Beamesderfer, M. A.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Silverberg, R. F.; Rapchun, D.; Schwinger, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional MEMS microshutter arrays (MSA) have been fabricated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to enable cryogenic (approximately 35 K) spectrographic astronomy measurements in the near-infrared region. Functioning as a focal plane object selection device, the MSA is a 2-D programmable aperture mask with fine resolution, high efficiency and high contrast. The MSA are close- packed silicon nitride shutters (cell size of 100 x 200 microns) patterned with a torsion flexure to allow opening to 90 degrees. A layer of magnetic material is deposited onto each shutter to permit magnetic actuation. Two electrodes are deposited, one onto each shutter and another onto the support structure side-wall, permitting electrostatic latching and 2-D addressing. New techniques were developed to test MSA under mission-similar conditions (8 K less than or equal to T less than 300K). The magnetic rotisserie has proven to be an excellent tool for rapid characterization of MSA. Tests conducted with the magnetic rotisserie method include accelerated cryogenic lifetesting of unpackaged 128 x 64 MSA and parallel measurement of the magneto-mechanical stiffness of shutters in pathfinder test samples containing multiple MSA designs. Lifetest results indicate a logarithmic failure rate out to approximately 10(exp 6) shutter actuations. These results have increased our understanding of failure mechanisms and provide a means to predict the overall reliability of MSA devices.

  14. A New Large Vibration Test Facility Concept for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brian P.; Hoksbergen, Joel; Johnson, Eric; Lund, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope consists of three main components, the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Element, the Optical Telescope Element (OTE), and the Spacecraft Element. The ISIM and OTE are being assembled at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC). The combined OTE and ISIM Elements, called OTIS, will undergo sine vibration testing before leaving Goddard. OTIS is the largest payload ever tested at Goddard and the existing GSFC vibration facilities are incapable of performing a sine vibration test of the OTIS payload. As a result, a new large vibration test facility is being designed. The new facility will consist of a vertical system with a guided head expander and a horizontal system with a hydrostatic slip table. The project is currently in the final design phase with installation to begin in early 2015 and the facility is expected to be operational by late 2015. This paper will describe the unique requirements for a new large vibration test facility and present the selected final design concepts.

  15. Focus determination for the James Webb Space Telescope Science Instruments: A Survey of Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Pamela S.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Boss, B.; Dean, B.; Hapogian, J.; Howard, J.; Unger, B.; Wilson, M.

    2006-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a segmented deployable telescope that will require on-orbit alignment using the Near Infrared Camera as a wavefront sensor. The telescope will be aligned by adjusting seven degrees of freedom on each of 18 primary mirror segments and five degrees of freedom on the secondary mirror to optimize the performance of the telescope and camera at a wavelength of 2 microns. With the completion of these adjustments, the telescope focus is set and the optical performance of each of the other science instruments should then be optimal without making further telescope focus adjustments for each individual instrument. This alignment approach requires confocality of the instruments after integration and alignment to the composite metering structure, which will be verified during instrument level testing at Goddard Space Flight Center with a telescope optical simulator. In this paper, we present the results from a study of several analytical approaches to determine the focus for each instrument. The goal of the study is to compare the accuracies obtained for each method, and to select the most feasible for use during optical testing.

  16. Studying Galaxy Formation and Reionization with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z>6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z>10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (<50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth- Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will review the current status of the project.

  17. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z>6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z>10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (<50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth- Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In addition to JWST's ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems.

  18. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts 2x3, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z>lO, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (<50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth- Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In addition to JWST's ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems.

  19. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Mclean, Kyle F.; McMann, Joseph; Melf, Markus; Miner, Linda; Ohl, Raymond G.; Redman, Kevin; Roedel, Andreas; Schweiger, Paul; Plate, Maurice T.; Wells, Martyn; Wenzel, Greg W.; Williams, Patrick K.; Young, Jerrod

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  20. James Webb Space Telescope: Supporting Multiple Ground System Transitions in One Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detter, Ryan; Fatig, Curtis; Steck, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Ideas, requirements, and concepts developed during the very early phases of the mission design often conflict with the reality of a situation once the prime contractors are awarded. This happened for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as well. The high level requirement of a common real-time ground system for both the Integration and Test (I&T), as well as the Operation phase of the mission is meant to reduce the cost and time needed later in the mission development for re-certification of databases, command and control systems, scripts, display pages, etc. In the case of JWST, the early Phase A flight software development needed a real-time ground system and database prior to the spacecraft prime contractor being selected. To compound the situation, the very low level requirements for the real-time ground system were not well defined. These two situations caused the initial real-time ground system to be switched out for a system that was previously used by the Bight software development team. To meet the high-!evel requirement, a third ground system was selected based on the prime spacecraft contractor needs and JWST Project decisions. The JWST ground system team has responded to each of these changes successfully. The lessons learned from each transition have not only made each transition smoother, but have also resolved issues earlier in the mission development than what would normally occur.

  1. Slitless spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Camera (JWST NIRCam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Chu, Laurie; Egami, Eiichi; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Leisenring, Jarron; Rieke, Marcia; Robberto, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Stansberry, John

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope near-infrared camera (JWST NIRCam) has two 2.02 x 2.02 fields of view that are capable of either imaging or spectroscopic observations. Either of two R ~ 1500 grisms with orthogonal dispersion directions can be used for slitless spectroscopy over λ = 2.4 - 5.0 μm in each module, and shorter wavelength observations of the same fields can be obtained simultaneously. We present the latest predicted grism sensitivities, saturation limits, resolving power, and wavelength coverage values based on component measurements, instrument tests, and end-to-end modeling. Short wavelength (0.6 - 2.3 μm) imaging observations of the 2.4 - 5.0 μm spectroscopic field can be performed in one of several different filter bands, either in-focus or defocused via weak lenses internal to NIRCam. Alternatively, the possibility of 1.0 - 2.0 μm spectroscopy (simultaneously with 2.4 - 5.0 μm) using dispersed Hartmann sensors (DHSs) is being explored. The grisms, weak lenses, and DHS elements were included in NIRCam primarily for wavefront sensing purposes, but all have significant science applications. Operational considerations including subarray sizes, and data volume limits are also discussed. Finally, we describe spectral simulation tools and illustrate potential scientific uses of the grisms by presenting simulated observations of deep extragalactic fields, galactic dark clouds, and transiting exoplanets.

  2. Transit spectroscopy with James Webb Space Telescope: systematics, starspots and stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, J. K.; Aigrain, S.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Kendrew, S.; Fletcher, L. N.

    2015-04-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is predicted to make great advances in the field of exoplanet atmospheres. Its 25 m2 mirror means that it can reach unprecedented levels of precision in observations of transit spectra, and can thus characterize the atmospheres of planets orbiting stars several hundred pc away. Its coverage of the infrared spectral region between 0.6 and 28 μm allows the abundances of key molecules to be probed during the transit of a planet in front of the host star, and when the same planet is eclipsed constraints can be placed on its temperature structure. In this work, we explore the possibility of using low-spectral-resolution observations by JWST/Near-Infrared Spectrograph and JWST/Mid-Infrared Instrumen-Low Resolution Spectrometer together to optimize wavelength coverage and break degeneracies in the atmospheric retrieval problem for a range of exoplanets from hot Jupiters to super-Earths. This approach involves stitching together non-simultaneous observations in different wavelength regions, rendering it necessary to consider the effect of time-varying instrumental and astrophysical systematics. We present the results of a series of retrieval feasibility tests examining the effects of instrument systematics and starspots on the recoverability of the true atmospheric state, and demonstrate that correcting for these systematics is key for successful exoplanet science with JWST.

  3. James Webb Space Telescope segment phasing using differential optical transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codona, Johanan L.; Doble, Nathan

    2015-04-01

    Differential optical transfer function (dOTF) is an image-based, noniterative wavefront sensing method that uses two star images with a single small change in the pupil. We describe two possible methods for introducing the required pupil modification to the James Webb Space Telescope, one using a small (<λ/4) displacement of a single segment's actuator and another that uses small misalignments of the NIRCam's filter wheel. While both methods should work with NIRCam, the actuator method will allow both MIRI and NIRISS to be used for segment phasing, which is a new functionality. Since the actuator method requires only small displacements, it should provide a fast and safe phasing alternative that reduces the mission risk and can be performed frequently for alignment monitoring and maintenance. Since a single actuator modification can be seen by all three cameras, it should be possible to calibrate the non-common-path aberrations between them. Large segment discontinuities can be measured using dOTFs in two filter bands. Using two images of a star field, aberrations along multiple lines of sight through the telescope can be measured simultaneously. Also, since dOTF gives the pupil field amplitude as well as the phase, it could provide a first approximation or constraint to the planned iterative phase retrieval algorithms.

  4. James Webb Space Telescope segment phasing using differential optical transfer functions

    PubMed Central

    Codona, Johanan L.; Doble, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Differential optical transfer function (dOTF) is an image-based, noniterative wavefront sensing method that uses two star images with a single small change in the pupil. We describe two possible methods for introducing the required pupil modification to the James Webb Space Telescope, one using a small (<λ/4) displacement of a single segment's actuator and another that uses small misalignments of the NIRCam's filter wheel. While both methods should work with NIRCam, the actuator method will allow both MIRI and NIRISS to be used for segment phasing, which is a new functionality. Since the actuator method requires only small displacements, it should provide a fast and safe phasing alternative that reduces the mission risk and can be performed frequently for alignment monitoring and maintenance. Since a single actuator modification can be seen by all three cameras, it should be possible to calibrate the non-common-path aberrations between them. Large segment discontinuities can be measured using dOTFs in two filter bands. Using two images of a star field, aberrations along multiple lines of sight through the telescope can be measured simultaneously. Also, since dOTF gives the pupil field amplitude as well as the phase, it could provide a first approximation or constraint to the planned iterative phase retrieval algorithms. PMID:27042684

  5. Science Opportunities with the Near-IR Camera (NIRCam) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Rieke, Marcia; Eisenstein, Daniel; Greene, Thomas P.; Krist, John; McCarthy, Don; Meyer, Michael; Stansberry, John

    2012-01-01

    The Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) offers revolutionary gains in sensitivity throughout the 1-5 micrometer region. NIRCam will enable great advances in all areas of astrophysics, from the composition of objects in our own Kuiper Belt and the physical properties of planets orbiting nearby stars to the formation of stars and the detection of the youngest galaxies in the Universe. NIRCam also plays an important role in initial alignment of JWST and the long term maintenance of its image quality. NIRCam is presently undergoing instrument Integration and Test in preparation for delivery to the JWST project. Key near-term milestones include the completion of cryogenic testing of the entire instrument; demonstration of scientific and wavefront sensing performance requirements; testing of replacement H2RG detectors arrays; and an analysis of coronagraphic performance in light of measured telescope wavefront characteristics. This paper summarizes the performance of NIRCam, the scientific and education/outreach goals of the science team, and some results of the on-going testing program.

  6. Statistical analysis of the surface figure of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Chaney, David; Gallagher, Benjamin B.; Brown, Bob J.; Smith, Koby; Schwenker, John

    2012-09-01

    The performance of an optical system is best characterized by either the point spread function (PSF) or the optical transfer function (OTF). However, for system budgeting purposes, it is convenient to use a single scalar metric, or a combination of a few scalar metrics to track performance. For the James Webb Space Telescope, the Observatory level requirements were expressed in metrics of Strehl Ratio, and Encircled Energy. These in turn were converted to the metrics of total rms WFE and rms WFE within spatial frequency domains. The 18 individual mirror segments for the primary mirror segment assemblies (PMSA), the secondary mirror (SM), tertiary mirror (TM), and Fine Steering Mirror have all been fabricated. They are polished beryllium mirrors with a protected gold reflective coating. The statistical analysis of the resulting Surface Figure Error of these mirrors has been analyzed. The average spatial frequency distribution and the mirror-to-mirror consistency of the spatial frequency distribution are reported. The results provide insight to system budgeting processes for similar optical systems.

  7. Science opportunities with the near-IR camera (NIRCam) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Rieke, Marcia; Eisenstein, Daniel; Greene, Thomas P.; Krist, John; McCarthy, Don; Meyer, Michael; Stansberry, John

    2012-09-01

    The Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) offers revolutionary gains in sensitivity throughout the 1-5 μm region. NIRCam will enable great advances in all areas of astrophysics, from the composition of objects in our own Kuiper Belt and the physical properties of planets orbiting nearby stars to the formation of stars and the detection of the youngest galaxies in the Universe. NIRCam also plays an important role in initial alignment of JWST and the long term maintenance of its image quality. NIRCam is presently undergoing instrument Integration and Test in preparation for delivery to the JWST project. Key near-term milestones include the completion of cryogenic testing of the entire instrument; demonstration of scientific and wavefront sensing performance requirements; testing of replacement H2RG detectors arrays; and an analysis of coronagraphic performance in light of measured telescope wavefront characteristics. This paper summarizes the performance of NIRCam, the scientific and education/outreach goals of the science team, and some results of the on-going testing program.

  8. Optical Testing and Verification Methods for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonille, Scott R.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rohrbach, Scott O.; Aronstein, David L.; Bartoszyk, Andrew E.; Bowers, Charles W.; Cofie, Emmanuel; Collins, Nicholas R.; Comber, Brian J.; Eichhorn, William L.; Glasse, Alistair C.; Gracey, Renee; Hartig, George F.; Howard, Joseph M.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Kirk, Jeffrey R.; Kubalak, David A.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Lindler, Don J.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Sabatke, Derek S.; Smith, Corbett T.; Smith, J. Scott; Sullivan, Joseph F.; Telfer, Randal C.; Plate, Maurice Te; Vila, M. Begona; Warner, Gerry D.; Wright, Raymond H.; Wright, David; Zhou, Julia; Zielinski, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (40K). The JWST Observatory includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) that contains four science instruments (SI) and the fine guider. The SIs are mounted to a composite metering structure. The SI and guider units were integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a suite using the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a full field, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator. SI performance, including alignment and wave front error, were evaluated using OSIM. We describe test and analysis methods for optical performance verification of the ISIM Element, with an emphasis on the processes used to plan and execute the test. The complexity of ISIM and OSIM drove us to develop a software tool for test planning that allows for configuration control of observations, associated scripts, and management of hardware and software limits and constraints, as well as tools for rapid data evaluation, and flexible re-planning in response to the unexpected. As examples of our test and analysis approach, we discuss how factors such as the ground test thermal environment are compensated in alignment. We describe how these innovative methods for test planning and execution and post-test analysis were instrumental in the verification program for the ISIM element, with enough information to allow the reader to consider these innovations and lessons learned in this successful effort in their future testing for other programs.

  9. Studies of Supernovae, SNR, and Dust with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George

    2012-01-01

    The james Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide breakthrough capabilities for the study of supernovae and supernova remnants, as well as many other science objectives. JWST is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized general purpose space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018. The JWST instrumentation will provide imaging, coronagraphy, and spectroscopy between 6000A to 29 microns. This spectral region contains many atomic, molecular, and particulate diagnostics that are especially relevant for the study of dust formation. The spectroscopic capabilities include velocity resolution down to approx. 100 km/sec, a near-IR multi-object spectrograph with a approx. 3x3 arcmin field of view array of approx. 250,000 addressable shutters, and near-IR and mid-IR approx. 3x3 arcsec integral field units. The JWST telescope will have a 6.5m-diameter segmented primary mirror and will be diffraction-limited at 2 microns (PSF FWHM - 0.07 arcsec). The imaging and spectroscopic sensitivities will be about 100x lower than previous capabilities in the near- and mid-IR. The JWST observatory will be placed in a L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The JWST telescope and instruments will be passively cooled to approx. 40K by a sunshield that will be unfolded after launch. The sunshield geometry limits the JWST pointing on the sky to be between 85 deg and 135 deg from the Sun. The observatory is designed for a 5-year prime science mission, with consumables for 10 years of science operations, and a Target of Opportunity response time of 48 hours.

  10. Thermal System Verification and Model Validation for NASA's Cryogenic Passively Cooled James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Paul E.; Parrish, Keith A.

    2005-01-01

    A thorough and unique thermal verification and model validation plan has been developed for NASA s James Webb Space Telescope. The JWST observatory consists of a large deployed aperture optical telescope passively cooled to below 50 Kelvin along with a suite of several instruments passively and actively cooled to below 37 Kelvin and 7 Kelvin, respectively. Passive cooling to these extremely low temperatures is made feasible by the use of a large deployed high efficiency sunshield and an orbit location at the L2 Lagrange point. Another enabling feature is the scale or size of the observatory that allows for large radiator sizes that are compatible with the expected power dissipation of the instruments and large format Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays. This passive cooling concept is simple, reliable, and mission enabling when compared to the alternatives of mechanical coolers and stored cryogens. However, these same large scale observatory features, which make passive cooling viable, also prevent the typical flight configuration fully-deployed thermal balance test that is the keystone to most space missions thermal verification plan. JWST is simply too large in its deployed configuration to be properly thermal balance tested in the facilities that currently exist. This reality, when combined with a mission thermal concept with little to no flight heritage, has necessitated the need for a unique and alternative approach to thermal system verification and model validation. This paper describes the thermal verification and model validation plan that has been developed for JWST. The plan relies on judicious use of cryogenic and thermal design margin, a completely independent thermal modeling cross check utilizing different analysis teams and software packages, and finally, a comprehensive set of thermal tests that occur at different levels of JWST assembly. After a brief description of the JWST mission and thermal architecture, a detailed description

  11. Progress in the Fabrication and Testing of Telescope Mirrors for The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Charles W.; Clampin, M.; Feinberg, L.; Stahl, P.; McKay, A.; Chaney, D.; Gallagher, B.

    2010-01-01

    The telescope of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an f/20, three mirror anastigmat design, passively cooled (40K) in an L2 orbit. The design provides diffraction limited performance (Strehl ≥ 0.8) at λ=2μm. To fit within the launch vehicle envelope (Arianne V), the 6.6 meter primary mirror and the secondary mirror support structure are folded for launch, then deployed and aligned in space. The primary mirror is composed of 18 individual, 1.3 meter (flat:flat) hexagonal segments, each adjustable in seven degrees of freedom (six rigid body + radius of curvature) provided by a set of high precision actuators. The actuated secondary mirror ( 0.74m) is similarly positioned in six degrees of rigid body motion. The 0.67m, fixed tertiary and 0.17m, flat fine steering mirror complete the telescope mirror complement. All telescope mirrors are made of Be with substantial lightweighting (21kg for each 1.3M primary segment). Additional Be mounting and supporting structure for the high precision ( 10nm steps) actuators are attached to the primary segments and secondary mirror. All mirrors undergo a process of thermal stabilization to reduce stress. An extensive series of interferometric measurements guide each step of the polishing process. Final polishing must account for any deformation between the ambient temperature of polishing and the cryogenic, operational temperature. This is accomplished by producing highly precise, cryo deformation target maps of each surface which are incorporated into the final polishing cycle. The flight mirrors are all close to readiness for this final step or have started cryo-testing at the X-Ray Calibration Facility. Each mirror will then be coated with a protected Au coating prior to attachment to the flight structure. We here review the process and status of the mirror fabrication program and discuss the predicted performance of the telescope based on initial results from cryogenic mirror measurements.

  12. Progress in the Fabrication and Testing of Telescope Mirrors for The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Charles W.; Clampin, M.; Feinberg, L.; Keski-Kuha, R.; McKay, A.; Chaney, D.; Gallagher, B.; Ha, K.

    2012-01-01

    The telescope of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an f/20, three mirror anastigmat design, passively cooled (40K) in an L2 orbit. The design provides diffraction limited performance (Strehl ≥ 0.8) at λ=2μm. To fit within the launch vehicle envelope (Arianne V), the 6.6 meter primary mirror and the secondary mirror support structure are folded for launch, then deployed and aligned in space. The primary mirror is composed of 18 individual, 1.3 meter (flat:flat) hexagonal segments, each adjustable in seven degrees of freedom (six rigid body + radius of curvature) provided by a set of high precision actuators. The actuated secondary mirror ( 0.74m) is similarly positioned in six degrees of rigid body motion. The .70x.51m, fixed tertiary and 0.17m, flat fine steering mirror complete the telescope mirror complement. The telescope is supported by a composite structure optimized for performance at cryogenic temperatures. All telescope mirrors are made of Be with substantial lightweighting (21kg for each 1.3M primary segment). Additional Be mounting and supporting structure for the high precision ( 10nm steps) actuators are attached to the primary segments and secondary mirror. All mirrors undergo a process of thermal stabilization to reduce stress. An extensive series of interferometric measurements guide each step of the polishing process. Final polishing must account for any deformation between the ambient temperature of polishing and the cryogenic, operational temperature. This is accomplished by producing highly precise, cryo deformation target maps of each surface which are incorporated into the final polishing cycle. All flight mirrors have now completed polishing, coating with protected Au and final cryo testing, and the telescope is on track to meet all system requirements. We here review the measured performance of the component mirrors and the predicted performance of the flight telescope.

  13. Progress in the Fabrication and Testing of Telescope Mirrors for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The telescope of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an f/20, three mirror anastigmat design, passively cooled (40K) in an L2 orbit. The design provides diffraction limited performance (Strehl > or = 0.8) at .=2 m. To fit within the launch vehicle envelope (Arianne V), the 6.6 meter primary mirror and the secondary mirror support structure are folded for launch, then deployed and aligned in space. The primary mirror is composed of 18 individual, 1.3 meter (flat flat) hexagonal segments, each adjustable in seven degrees of freedom (six rigid body + radius of curvature) provided by a set of high precision actuators. The actuated secondary mirror (approx.0.74m) is similarly positioned in six degrees of rigid body motion. The approx..70x.51m, fixed tertiary and approx. 0.17m, flat fine steering mirror complete the telescope mirror complement. The telescope is supported by a composite structure optimized for performance at cryogenic temperatures. All telescope mirrors are made of Be with substantial light-weighting (21 kg for each 1.3M primary segment). Additional Be mounting and supporting structure for the high precision (approx.10nm steps) actuators are attached to the primary segments and secondary mirror. All mirrors undergo a process of thermal stabilization to reduce stress. An extensive series of interferometric measurements guide each step of the polishing process. Final polishing must account for any deformation between the ambient temperature of polishing and the cryogenic, operational temperature. This is accomplished by producing highly precise, cryo deformation target maps of each surface which are incorporated into the final polishing cycle. All flight mirrors have now completed polishing, coating with protected Au and final cryo testing, and the telescope is on track to meet all system requirements. We here review the measured performance of the component mirrors and the predicted performance of the flight telescope.

  14. James Webb Space Telescope XML Database: From the Beginning to Today

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Fatig, Curtis C.

    2005-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project has been defining, developing, and exercising the use of a common eXtensible Markup Language (XML) for the command and telemetry (C&T) database structure. JWST is the first large NASA space mission to use XML for databases. The JWST project started developing the concepts for the C&T database in 2002. The database will need to last at least 20 years since it will be used beginning with flight software development, continuing through Observatory integration and test (I&T) and through operations. Also, a database tool kit has been provided to the 18 various flight software development laboratories located in the United States, Europe, and Canada that allows the local users to create their own databases. Recently the JWST Project has been working with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Object Management Group (OMG) XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE) personnel to provide all the information needed by JWST and JPL for exchanging database information using a XML standard structure. The lack of standardization requires custom ingest scripts for each ground system segment, increasing the cost of the total system. Providing a non-proprietary standard of the telemetry and command database definition formation will allow dissimilar systems to communicate without the need for expensive mission specific database tools and testing of the systems after the database translation. The various ground system components that would benefit from a standardized database are the telemetry and command systems, archives, simulators, and trending tools. JWST has exchanged the XML database with the Eclipse, EPOCH, ASIST ground systems, Portable spacecraft simulator (PSS), a front-end system, and Integrated Trending and Plotting System (ITPS) successfully. This paper will discuss how JWST decided to use XML, the barriers to a new concept, experiences utilizing the XML structure, exchanging databases with other users, and issues that have

  15. Active galactic nucleus and quasar science with aperture masking interferometry on the James Webb Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, K. E. Saavik; McKernan, Barry; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Martel, André R.; Koekemoer, Anton; Lafrenière, David; Parmentier, Sébastien

    2014-03-10

    Due to feedback from accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to play a key role in ΛCDM cosmology and galaxy formation. However, AGNs extreme luminosities and the small angular size of their accretion flows create a challenging imaging problem. We show that the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (JWST-NIRISS) Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode will enable true imaging (i.e., without any requirement of prior assumptions on source geometry) at ∼65 mas angular resolution at the centers of AGNs. This is advantageous for studying complex extended accretion flows around SMBHs and in other areas of angular-resolution-limited astrophysics. By simulating data sequences incorporating expected sources of noise, we demonstrate that JWST-NIRISS AMI mode can map extended structure at a pixel-to-pixel contrast of ∼10{sup –2} around an L = 7.5 point source, using short exposure times (minutes). Such images will test models of AGN feedback, fueling, and structure (complementary with ALMA observations), and are not currently supported by any ground-based IR interferometer or telescope. Binary point source contrast with NIRISS is ∼10{sup –4} (for observing binary nuclei in merging galaxies), significantly better than current ground-based optical or IR interferometry. JWST-NIRISS's seven-hole non-redundant mask has a throughput of 15%, and utilizes NIRISS's F277W (2.77 μm), F380M (3.8 μm), F430M (4.3 μm), and F480M (4.8 μm) filters. NIRISS's square pixels are 65 mas per side, with a field of view ∼2' × 2'. We also extrapolate our results to AGN science enabled by non-redundant masking on future 2.4 m and 16 m space telescopes working at long-UV to near-IR wavelengths.

  16. Prospects for Habitable World Detections Using James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake

    2010-01-01

    Doppler and transit surveys are finding extrasolar planets of ever smaller mass and radius, and are now sampling the domain of superEarths. Recent results from the Doppler surveys suggest that discovery of a transiting superEarth in the habitable zone of a lower main sequence star may be possible. We evaluate the prospects for an all-sky transit survey targeted to the brightest stars I that would find the most favorable cases for photometric and spectroscopic characterization using the James Webb Space Telescope. We use the proposed Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) as representative of an all-sky survey. We couple the simulated TESS yield to a sensitivity model for the MIRI and NIRSpec instruments on JWST. Our sensitivity model includes all currently known and anticipated sources of random and systematic error for these instruments. We focus on the TESS planets with radii between Earth and Neptune. Our simulations consider secondary eclipse filter photometry using JWST/MIRI, comparing the 11- and 15- micron bands to measure carbon dioxide absorption in superEarths, as well as JWST!NIRSpec spectroscopy of water absorption from 1.7-3.0 microns, and carbon dioxide absorption at 4.3 microns. We find that JWST will be capable of characterizing dozens of TESS superEarths with temperatures above the habitable range, using both MIRI and NIRspec. We project that TESS will discover about eight nearby habitable transiting superEarths, all orbiting lower main sequence stars. The principal sources of uncertainty in the prospects for JWST characterization of habitable superEarths are superEarth frequency and the nature of superEarth atmospheres. Based on our estimates of these uncertainties, we project that JWST will be able to measure the temperature, and identify molecular absorptions (water, carbon dioxide) in one to four nearby habitable TESS superEarths orbiting lower main sequence stars.

  17. DETECTABILITY OF FREE FLOATING PLANETS IN OPEN CLUSTERS WITH THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea; D'Onghia, Elena

    2013-12-01

    Recent observations have shown the presence of extra-solar planets in Galactic open stellar clusters, such as in Praesepe (M44). These systems provide a favorable environment for planetary formation due to the high heavy-element content exhibited by the majority of their population. The large stellar density, and corresponding high close-encounter event rate, may induce strong perturbations of planetary orbits with large semimajor axes. Here we present a set of N-body simulations implementing a novel scheme to treat the tidal effects of external stellar perturbers on planetary orbit eccentricity and inclination. By simulating five nearby open clusters, we determine the rate of occurrence of bodies extracted from their parent stellar system by quasi-impulsive tidal interactions. We find that the specific free-floating planet production rate N-dot {sub o} (total number of free-floating planets per unit of time, normalized by the total number of stars), is proportional to the stellar density ρ{sub *} of the cluster: N-dot {sub o}=αρ{sub ⋆}, with α = (23 ± 5) × 10{sup –6} pc{sup 3} Myr{sup –1}. For the Pleiades (M45), we predict that ∼26% of stars should have lost their planets. This raises the exciting possibility of directly observing these wandering planets with the James Webb Space Telescope in the near-infrared band. Assuming a surface temperature for the planet of ∼500 K, a free-floating planet of Jupiter size inside the Pleiades would have a specific flux of F {sub ν} (4.4 μm) ≈4 × 10{sup 2} nJy, which would lead to a very clear detection (S/N ∼ 100) in only one hour of integration.

  18. James Webb Space Telescope Can Detect Kilonovae in Gravitational Wave Follow-up Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos, I.; Huard, T. L.; Márka, S.

    2016-01-01

    Kilonovae represent an important electromagnetic counterpart for compact binary mergers, which could become the most commonly detected gravitational-wave (GW) source. Follow-up observations of kilonovae, triggered by GW events, are nevertheless difficult due to poor localization by GW detectors and due to their faint near-infrared peak emission, which has limited observational capability. We show that the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) on the James Webb Space Telescope will be able to detect kilonovae within the relevant GW-detection range of ∼200 Mpc in short (≲12-s) exposure times for a week following the merger. Despite this sensitivity, a kilonova search fully covering a fiducial localized area of 10 deg2 will not be viable with NIRCam due to its limited field of view. However, targeted surveys may be developed to optimize the likelihood of discovering kilonovae efficiently within limited observing time. We estimate that a survey of 10 deg2 focused on galaxies within 200 Mpc would require about 13 hr, dominated by overhead times; a survey further focused on galaxies exhibiting high star formation rates would require ∼5 hr. The characteristic time may be reduced to as little as ∼4 hr, without compromising the likelihood of detecting kilonovae, by surveying sky areas associated with 50%, rather than 90%, confidence regions of 3 GW events, rather than a single event. Upon the detection and identification of a kilonova, a limited number of NIRCam follow-up observations could constrain the properties of matter ejected by the binary and the equation of state of dense nuclear matter.

  19. Thermal-Stress Control of Microshutter Arrays in Cryogenic Applications for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Daniel P.; Chuang, Wen-Hsien; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Jhabvala, Murzy; King, Todd; Li, Mary J.; Loughlin, James; Moseley, S. Harvey; Ray, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    We report on methods to minimize thermally-induced deformation in a MEMS-based reconfigurable aperture. The device is an enabling component of the Near-Infrared Spectrometer, a principle instrument on NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. The Microshutter Array consists of 384 x 175 individually addressable shutters which can be magnetically rotated 90 deg into the plane of the array and electrostatically latched open. Each shutter is a 100 x 200 micron rectangular membrane suspended by a small neck region and torsion flexure. The primary materials in the shutter are a 5000A Si3N4 layer for mechanical rigidity, 2000A Al for opacity and electrostatic latching, and 2800A CoFe for magnetic actuation. This multi-layer stack presents a challenge due to the operating temperatures required for the device: both room temperature (300K) and cryogenic temperature (35K). Thermal expansion of the materials causes the shutters to bow out of plane excessively, which can prevent actuation of the shutters, cause damage to portions of the array, and allow light leakage around closed shutters. Here we present our investigation of several methods to prevent microshutter bowing including deposition of additional materials on the shutters to create a symmetrical layer stack and replacing the current stack with low-coefficient of thermal expansion materials. Using shutter-size suspended cantilever beams as a rapid-development test bed, we have reduced out-of-plane bowing between 300K and 35K to 10% or better. We are currently applying these results to microshutter arrays to develop shutters that remain flat from room temperature to cryogenic temperature while retaining the required mechanical, optical, and magnetic properties.

  20. Unique Spectroscopy and Imaging of Mars with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Gerónimo L.; Altieri, Francesca; Clancy, R. Todd; Encrenaz, Therese; Fouchet, Thierry; Hartogh, Paul; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lopéz-Valverde, Miguel A.; Mumma, Michael J.; Novak, Robert E.; Smith, Michael D.; Vandaele, Ann-Carine; Wolff, Michael J.; Ferruit, Pierre; Milam, Stefanie N.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the main capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for performing observations of Mars. The distinctive vantage point of JWST at the Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L2) will allow sampling the full observable disk, permitting the study of short-term phenomena, diurnal processes (across the east-west axis), and latitudinal processes between the hemispheres (including seasonal effects) with excellent spatial resolutions (0.″07 at 2 μm). Spectroscopic observations will be achievable in the 0.7-5 μm spectral region with NIRSpec at a maximum resolving power of 2700 and with 8000 in the 1-1.25 μm range. Imaging will be attainable with the Near-Infrared Camera at 4.3 μm and with two narrow filters near 2 μm, while the nightside will be accessible with several filters in 0.5 to 2 μm. Such a powerful suite of instruments will be a major asset for the exploration and characterization of Mars. Some science cases include the mapping of the water D/H ratio, investigations of the Martian mesosphere via the characterization of the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium CO2 emission at 4.3 μm, studies of chemical transport via observations of the O2 nightglow at 1.27 μm, high-cadence mapping of the variability dust and water-ice clouds, and sensitive searches for trace species and hydrated features on the Martian surface. In-flight characterization of the instruments may allow for additional science opportunities.

  1. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at the Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960's to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and the modifications were funded, by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to remove dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink and, the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in the overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive

  2. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.; Bachtel, Russell; Speed, John; O'Rear, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960 s to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and modifications were funded by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to remove dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink, and the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August of 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive modifications

  3. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at NASA Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.; Bachtel, Russell; Speed, John; O'Rear, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft.) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft.) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960 s to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and modifications were funded by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope, which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to minimize dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink, and the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August of 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive

  4. European agreement on James Webb Space Telescope's Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) signed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    Artist's impression of the JWST hi-res Size hi-res: 1601 kb Credits: ESA Artist's impression of the JWST An artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Artist's impression of the JWST Credits: ESA Artist's impression of the JWST An artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Observing the first light, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will help to solve outstanding questions about our place in the evolving Universe. MIRI, the Mid-Infrared Instrument, is one of the four instruments on board the JWST, the mission scheduled to follow on the heritage of Hubble in 2011. MIRI will be built in cooperation between Europe and the United States (NASA), both equally contributing to its funding. MIRI’s optics, core of the instrument, will be provided by a consortium of European institutes. According to this formal agreement, ESA will manage and co-ordinate the whole development of the European part of MIRI and act as the sole interface with NASA, which is leading the JWST project. This marks a difference with respect to the previous ESA scientific missions. In the past the funding and the development of the scientific instruments was agreed by the participating ESA Member States on the basis of purely informal arrangements with ESA. In this case, the Member States involved in MIRI have agreed on formally guaranteeing the required level of funding on the basis of a multi-lateral international agreement, which still keeps scientists in key roles. Over the past years, missions have become more complex and demanding, and more costly within an ever tighter budget. They also require a more and more specific expertise which is spread throughout the vast European scientific community. As a result, a new management procedure for co-ordination of payload development has become a necessity to

  5. Photogrammetric Metrology for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Maria; Crane, Allen; Davila, Pam; Eichhorn, William; Gill, James; Herrera, Acey; Hill, Michael; Hylan, Jason; Jetten, Mark; Marsh, James; Ohl, Raymond; Quigley, Rob; Redman, Kevin; Sampler, Henry; Wright, Geraldine; Young, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approximately 40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The ISM optical metering structure is a roughly 2.2x1.7x2.2m, asymmetric frame that is composed of carbon fiber and resin tubes bonded to invar end fittings and composite gussets and clips. The structure supports the SIs, isolates the SIs from the OTE, and supports thermal and electrical subsystems. The structure is attached to the OTE structure via strut-like kinematic mounts. The ISIM structure must meet its requirements at the approximately 40K cryogenic operating temperature. The SIs are aligned to the structure's coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using laser tracker and theodolite metrology. The ISIM structure is thermally cycled for stress relief and in order to measure temperature-induced mechanical, structural changes. These ambient-to-cryogenic changes in the alignment of SI and OTE-related interfaces are an important component in the JWST Observatory alignment plan and must be verified. We report on the planning for and preliminary testing of a cryogenic metrology system for ISIM based on photogrammetry. Photogrammetry is the measurement of the location of custom targets via triangulation using images obtained at a suite of digital camera locations and orientations. We describe metrology system requirements, plans, and ambient photogrammetric measurements of a mock-up of the ISIM structure to design targeting and obtain resolution estimates. We compare these measurements with those taken from a well known ambient metrology system, namely, the Leica laser tracker system. We also describe the data reduction algorithm planned to interpret cryogenic data from the Flight structure. Photogrammetry was

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope RealWorld-InWorld Design Challenge: Involving Professionals in a Virtual Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, Margaret; Bowers, S.

    2011-01-01

    Students around the country are becoming experts on the James Webb Space Telescope by designing solutions to two of the design challenges presented by this complex mission. RealWorld-InWorld has two parts; the first (the Real World portion) has high-school students working face to face in their classroom as engineers and scientists. The InWorld phase starts December 15, 2010 as interested teachers and their teams of high school students register to move their work into a 3D multi-user virtual world environment. At the start of this phase, college students from all over the country choose a registered team to lead InWorld. Each InWorld team is also assigned an engineer or scientist mentor. In this virtual world setting, each team refines their design solutions and creates a 3D model of the Webb telescope. InWorld teams will use 21st century tools to collaborate and build in the virtual world environment. Each team will learn, not only from their own team members, but will have the opportunity to interact with James Webb Space Telescope researchers through the virtual world setting, which allows for synchronous interactions. Halfway through the challenge, design solutions will be critiqued and a mystery problem will be introduced for each team. The top five teams will be invited to present their work during a synchronous Education Forum April 14, 2011. The top team will earn scholarships and technology. This is an excellent opportunity for professionals in both astronomy and associated engineering disciplines to become involved with a unique educational program. Besides the chance to mentor a group of interested students, there are many opportunities to interact with the students as a guest, via chats and presentations.

  7. The mid-infrared instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope: performance and operation of the Low-Resolution Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrew, Sarah; Scheithauer, Silvia; Bouchet, Patrice; Amiaux, Jerome; Azzollini, Ruymán.; Bouwman, Jeroen; Chen, Christine; Dubreuil, Didier; Fischer, Sebastian; Fox, Ori D.; Glasse, Alistair; Gordon, Karl; Greene, Tom; Hines, Dean C.; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Lahuis, Fred; Ronayette, Samuel; Wright, David; Wright, Gillian S.

    2016-07-01

    We describe here the performance and operational concept for the Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) of the mid-infrared instrument (MIRI) for the James Webb Space Telescope. The LRS will provide R˜100 slit and slitless spectroscopy from 5 to 12 micron, and its design is optimised for observations of compact sources, such as exoplanet host stars. We provide here an overview of the design of the LRS, and its performance as measured during extensive test campaigns, examining in particular the delivered image quality, dispersion, and resolving power, as well as spectrophotometric performance. The instrument also includes a slitless spectroscopy mode, which is optimally suited for transit spectroscopy of exoplanet atmospheres. We provide an overview of the operational procedures and the differences ahead of the JWST launch in 2018.

  8. Toward Direct Imaging of Low-mass Gas-Giant Planets with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, J. E.; Beichman, C. A.; Meyer, M. R.; Greene, T.

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), we have identified new members of the nearby, young M dwarf sample and compiled an up to date list of these stars. Here we summarize our efforts to identify young M dwarfs, describe the current sample, and detail its demographics in the context of direct planet imaging. We also describe our investigations of the unprecedented sensitivity of the JWST when imaging nearby, young M dwarfs. The JWST is the only near term facility capable of routinely pushing direct imaging capabilities around M dwarfs to sub-Jovian masses and will provide key insight into questions regarding low-mass gas-giant properties, frequency, formation, and architectures.

  9. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now. and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein's biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the univerre, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA's plans for the next great telescope in space, the Jarnes Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where rtars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  10. Science with the James Webb Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2011. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. Its science goals are to detect and identify the first galaxies to form in the universe, to trace the assembly of galaxies, and to study stellar and planetary system formation. JWST will have three instruments: The Near Infrared Camera and the Near Infrared multiobject Spectrometer will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, and the Mid Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns. In this special session, we review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of these major goals.

  11. Integrated Modeling Activities for the James Webb Space Telescope: Structural-Thermal-Optical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John D.; Howard, Joseph M.; Mosier, Gary E.; Parrish, Keith A.; McGinnis, Mark A.; Bluth, Marcel; Kim, Kevin; Ha, Kong Q.

    2004-01-01

    The James Web Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope scheduled for launch in 2011. This is a continuation of a series of papers on modeling activities for JWST. The structural-thermal-optical, often referred to as STOP, analysis process is used to predict the effect of thermal distortion on optical performance. The benchmark STOP analysis for JWST assesses the effect of an observatory slew on wavefront error. Temperatures predicted using geometric and thermal math models are mapped to a structural finite element model in order to predict thermally induced deformations. Motions and deformations at optical surfaces are then input to optical models, and optical performance is predicted using either an optical ray trace or a linear optical analysis tool. In addition to baseline performance predictions, a process for performing sensitivity studies to assess modeling uncertainties is described.

  12. The James Webb Telescope Instrument Suite Layout: Optical System Engineering Considerations for a Large, Deployable Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent; Davila, Pam; Jurotich, Matthew; Hobbs, Gurnie; Lightsey, Paul; Contreras, Jim; Whitman, Tony

    2003-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space-based, infrared observatory designed to study the early stages of galaxy formation in the Universe. The telescope will be launched into an elliptical orbit about the second Lagrange point and passively cooled to 30-50 K to enable astronomical observations from 0.6 to 28 microns. A group from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Northrop Grumman Space Technology prime contractor team has developed an optical and mechanical layout for the science instruments within the JWST field of view that satisfies the telescope s high-level performance requirements. Four instruments required accommodation within the telescope's field of view: a Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) provided by the University of Arizona; a Near-Mared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) provided by the European Space Agency; a Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and a European consortium; and a Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) with a tunable filter module provided by the Canadian Space Agency. The size and position of each instrument's field of view allocation were developed through an iterative, concurrent engineering process involving the key observatory stakeholders. While some of the system design considerations were those typically encountered during the development of an infrared observatory, others were unique to the deployable and controllable nature of JWST. This paper describes the optical and mechanical issues considered during the field of view layout development, as well as the supporting modeling and analysis activities.

  13. Eyes on the Universe: The Legacy of the Hubble Space Telescope and Looking to the Future with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straughn, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the Hubble Space Telescope has revolutionized our understanding of the Universe. Most recently, the complete refurbishment of Hubble in 2009 has given new life to the telescope and the new science instruments have already produced groundbreaking science results, revealing some of the most distant galaxy candidates ever discovered. Despite the remarkable advances in astrophysics that Hubble has provided, the new questions that have arisen demand a new space telescope with new technologies and capabilities. I will present the exciting new technology development and science goals of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, which is currently being built and tested and will be launched this decade.

  14. The Role of Integrated Modeling in the Design and Verification of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Johnston, John D.; Parrish, Keith A.; Hyde, T. Tupper; McGinnis, Mark A.; Bluth, Marcel; Kim, Kevin; Ha, Kong Q.

    2004-01-01

    The James Web Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope scheduled for launch in 2011. System-level verification of critical optical performance requirements will rely on integrated modeling to a considerable degree. In turn, requirements for accuracy of the models are significant. The size of the lightweight observatory structure, coupled with the need to test at cryogenic temperatures, effectively precludes validation of the models and verification of optical performance with a single test in 1-g. Rather, a complex series of steps are planned by which the components of the end-to-end models are validated at various levels of subassembly, and the ultimate verification of optical performance is by analysis using the assembled models. This paper describes the critical optical performance requirements driving the integrated modeling activity, shows how the error budget is used to allocate and track contributions to total performance, and presents examples of integrated modeling methods and results that support the preliminary observatory design. Finally, the concepts for model validation and the role of integrated modeling in the ultimate verification of observatory are described.

  15. Recent Developments in the Alignment and Test Plans for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approximately 40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The SIs and Guider are mounted to a composite metering structure with outer dimensions of 2.1 x 2.2 x 1.9m. The SI and Guider units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center as an instrument suite using an OTE SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a high-fidelity, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator that features a approximately 1.5m diameter powered mirror. The SIs are aligned to the structure's coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using laser tracker and theodolite metrology. Temperature-induced mechanical SI alignment and structural changes are measured using a photogrammetric measurement system at ambient and cryogenic temperatures. OSIM is aligned to the ISIM mechanical coordinate system at the cryogenic operating temperature via internal mechanisms and feedback from alignment sensors in six degrees of freedom. SI performance, including focus, pupil shear and wavefront error, is evaluated at the operating temperature using OSIM. We present an updated plan for the assembly and ambient and cryogenic optical alignment, test and verification of the ISIM element.

  16. Updates to the optical alignment and test plan for the James Webb Space Telescope integrated science instrument module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohl, R.

    2009-08-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (~40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The SIs and Guider are mounted to a composite metering structure with outer dimensions of ~2.2x2.2x1.7m. The SI and Guider units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as an instrument suite using a telescope simulator (Optical telescope element SIMulator; OSIM). OSIM is a high-fidelity, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator that features a ~1.5m diameter powered mirror. The SIs are aligned to the structure's coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using optomechanical metrology. OSIM is aligned to the ISIM mechanical coordinate system at the cryogenic operating temperature via internal mechanisms and feedback from alignment sensors in six degrees of freedom. SI performance, including focus, pupil shear, pupil roll, boresight, wavefront error, and image quality, is evaluated at the operating temperature using OSIM. This work updates the assembly and ambient and cryogenic optical alignment, test and verification plan for ISIM.

  17. Multi-Object Spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope’s Near Infrared Spectrograph: Observing Resolved Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Karoline; Karakla, Diane M.; Beck, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope’s (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) will provide a multi-object spectroscopy mode through the four Micro-Shutter Arrays (MSAs). Each MSA is a grid of contiguous shutters that can be configured to form slits on more than 100 astronomical targets simultaneously. The combination of JWST’s sensitivity and superb resolution in the infrared and NIRSpec’s full wavelength coverage from 0.6 to 5 μm will open new parameter space for studies of galaxies and resolved stellar populations alike. We describe a NIRSpec MSA observing scenario for obtaining spectroscopy of individual stars in an external galaxy, and investigate the technical challenges posed by this scenario. We examine the multiplexing capability of the MSA as a function of the possible MSA configuration design choices, and investigate the primary sources of error in velocity measurements and the prospects for minimizing them. We give examples of how this and other use cases are guiding development of the NIRSpec user interfaces, including proposal planning and pipeline calibrations.

  18. Qualifying the flight design of the focus and alignment mechanism of the near-infrared camera on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherspoon, Bear

    2011-10-01

    The Focus and Alignment Mechanism (FAM) is the opto-mechanical, cryogenic mechanism that positions the Pick Off Mirror (POM) for the Near Infrared Camera of the James Webb Space Telescope. The POM is used to direct the light collected by the telescope into the Near Infrared Camera. This paper is a follow on to SPIE Paper 7439C-49. In this paper, we will summarize the design and role of this opto-mechanical mechanism and present the results of the environmental testing of the Qualification Unit. The testing consisted of 7 thermal cycles from ambient temperature to 26 Kelvin, as well as a 2 × Mechanism Life test at this cryogenic temperature plateau. These results lead to the qualification of the POM and FAM designs for flight on the James Webb Space Telescope.

  19. Optical Modeling Activities for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). 3; Wavefront Aberrations due to Alignment and Figure Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This is part three of a series describing the ongoing optical modeling activities for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first two discussed modeling JWST on-orbit performance using wavefront sensitivities to predict line of sight motion induced blur, and stability during thermal transients. The work here investigates the aberrations resulting from alignment and figure compensation of the controllable degrees of freedom (primary and secondary mirrors), which may be encountered during ground alignment and on-orbit commissioning of the observatory. The optical design of the telescope is a three-mirror anastigmat, with an active fold mirror at the exit pupil for fine guiding. The primary mirror is over 6.5 meters in diameter, and is composed of 18 hexagonal segments that can individually positioned on hexapods, as well as compensated for radius of curvature. This effectively gives both alignment and figure control of the primary mirror. The secondary mirror can be moved in rigid body only, giving alignment control of the telescope. The tertiary mirror is fixed, however, as well as the location of the science instrumentation. Simulations are performed of various combinations of active alignment corrections of component figure errors, and of primary mirror figure corrections of alignment errors. Single field point and moderate field knowledge is assumed in the corrections. Aberrations over the field are reported for the varying cases, and examples presented.

  20. Global alignment optimization strategies, procedures, and tools for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Brent J.; Howard, Joseph M.; Young, Philip J.; Gracey, Renee; Seals, Lenward T.; Ohl, Raymond G.

    2012-09-01

    During cryogenic vacuum testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the global alignment of the ISIM with respect to the designed interface of the JWST optical telescope element (OTE) will be measured through a series of optical characterization tests. These tests will determine the locations and orientations of the JWST science instrument projected focal surfaces and entrance pupils with respect to their corresponding OTE optical interfaces. Thermal, finite element and optical modeling will then be used to predict the on-orbit optical performance of the observatory. If any optical performance non-compliances are identified, the ISIM will be adjusted to improve its performance. If this becomes necessary, ISIM has a variety of adjustments that can be made. The lengths of the six kinematic mount struts that attach the ISIM to the OTE can be modified and five science instrument focus positions and two pupil positions can be individually adjusted as well. In order to understand how to manipulate the ISIM’s degrees of freedom properly and to prepare for the ISIM flight model testing, we have completed a series of optical-mechanical analyses to develop and identify the best approaches for bringing a non-compliant ISIM Element back into compliance. During this work several unknown misalignment scenarios were produced and the simulated optical performance metrics were input into various mathematical modeling and optimization tools to determine how the ISIM degrees of freedom should be adjusted to provide the best overall optical performance.

  1. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Simulation Testbed II: design of a three-lens anastigmat telescope simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquet, Élodie; Levecq, Olivier; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Perrin, Marshall D.; Soummer, Rémi

    2014-08-01

    The JamesWebb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop experiment designed to reproduce the main aspects of wavefront sensing and control (WFS and C) for JWST. To replicate the key optical physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) design at optical wavelengths we have developed a three-lens anastigmat optical system. This design uses custom lenses (plano-convex, plano-concave, and bi-convex) with fourth-order aspheric terms on powered surfaces to deliver the equivalent image quality and sampling of JWST NIRCam at the WFS and C wavelength (633 nm, versus JWST's 2.12 μm). For active control, in addition to the segmented primary mirror simulator, JOST reproduces the secondary mirror alignment modes with five degrees of freedom. We present the testbed requirements and its optical and optomechanical design. We study the linearity of the main aberration modes (focus, astigmatism, coma) both as a function of field point and level of misalignments of the secondary mirror. We find that the linearity with the transmissive design is similar to what is observed with a traditional TMA design, and will allow us to develop a linear-control alignment strategy based on the multi-field methods planned for JWST.

  2. Reliable Transport over SpaceWire for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Focal Plane Electronics (FPE) Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn; Schnurr, Richard; Dailey, Christopher; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin

    2003-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) faces difficult technical and budgetary challenges to overcome before it is scheduled launch in 2010. The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), shares these challenges. The major challenge addressed in this paper is the data network used to collect, process, compresses and store Infrared data. A total of 114 Mbps of raw information must be collected from 19 sources and delivered to the two redundant data processing units across a twenty meter deployed thermally restricted interface. Further data must be transferred to the solid-state recorder and the spacecraft. The JWST detectors are kept at cryogenic temperatures to obtain the sensitivity necessary to measure faint energy sources. The Focal Plane Electronics (FPE) that sample the detector, generate packets from the samples, and transmit these packets to the processing electronics must dissipate little power in order to help keep the detectors at these cold temperatures. Separating the low powered front-end electronics from the higher-powered processing electronics, and using a simple high-speed protocol to transmit the detector data minimize the power dissipation near the detectors. Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) drivers were considered an obvious choice for physical layer because of their high speed and low power. The mechanical restriction on the number cables across the thermal interface force the Image packets to be concentrated upon two high-speed links. These links connect the many image packet sources, Focal Plane Electronics (FPE), located near the cryogenic detectors to the processing electronics on the spacecraft structure. From 12 to 10,000 seconds of raw data are processed to make up an image, various algorithms integrate the pixel data Loss of commands to configure the detectors as well as the loss of science data itself may cause inefficiency in the use of the telescope that are unacceptable given the high cost of the observatory. This

  3. Wavefront-Error Performance Characterization for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. Scott; Zielinski, Thomas P.; Telfer, Randal; Tournois, Severine C.; Moore, Dustin B.; Fienup, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The science instruments (SIs) comprising the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) were tested in three cryogenic-vacuum test campaigns in the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)'s Space Environment Simulator (SES) test chamber. In this paper, we describe the results of optical wavefront-error performance characterization of the SIs. The wavefront error is determined using image-based wavefront sensing, and the primary data used by this process are focus sweeps, a series of images recorded by the instrument under test in its as-used configuration, in which the focal plane is systematically changed from one image to the next. High-precision determination of the wavefront error also requires several sources of secondary data, including 1) spectrum, apodization, and wavefront-error characterization of the optical ground-support equipment (OGSE) illumination module, called the OTE Simulator (OSIM), 2) F-number and pupil-distortion measurements made using a pseudo-nonredundant mask (PNRM), and 3) pupil geometry predictions as a function of SI and field point, which are complicated because of a tricontagon-shaped outer perimeter and small holes that appear in the exit pupil due to the way that different light sources are injected into the optical path by the OGSE. One set of wavefront-error tests, for the coronagraphic channel of the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Longwave instruments, was performed using data from transverse translation diversity sweeps instead of focus sweeps, in which a sub-aperture is translated and/or rotated across the exit pupil of the system. Several optical-performance requirements that were verified during this ISIM-level testing are levied on the uncertainties of various wavefront-error-related quantities rather than on the wavefront errors themselves. This paper also describes the methodology, based on Monte Carlo simulations of the wavefront-sensing analysis of focus-sweep data, used to establish

  4. Wavefront-Error Performance Characterization for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. Scott; Zielinski, Thomas P.; Telfer, Randal; Tournois, Severine C.; Moore, Dustin B.; Fienup, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The science instruments (SIs) comprising the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) were tested in three cryogenic-vacuum test campaigns in the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)'s Space Environment Simulator (SES). In this paper, we describe the results of optical wavefront-error performance characterization of the SIs. The wavefront error is determined using image-based wavefront sensing (also known as phase retrieval), and the primary data used by this process are focus sweeps, a series of images recorded by the instrument under test in its as-used configuration, in which the focal plane is systematically changed from one image to the next. High-precision determination of the wavefront error also requires several sources of secondary data, including 1) spectrum, apodization, and wavefront-error characterization of the optical ground-support equipment (OGSE) illumination module, called the OTE Simulator (OSIM), 2) plate scale measurements made using a Pseudo-Nonredundant Mask (PNRM), and 3) pupil geometry predictions as a function of SI and field point, which are complicated because of a tricontagon-shaped outer perimeter and small holes that appear in the exit pupil due to the way that different light sources are injected into the optical path by the OGSE. One set of wavefront-error tests, for the coronagraphic channel of the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Longwave instruments, was performed using data from transverse translation diversity sweeps instead of focus sweeps, in which a sub-aperture is translated andor rotated across the exit pupil of the system.Several optical-performance requirements that were verified during this ISIM-level testing are levied on the uncertainties of various wavefront-error-related quantities rather than on the wavefront errors themselves. This paper also describes the methodology, based on Monte Carlo simulations of the wavefront-sensing analysis of focus-sweep data, used to establish the

  5. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets coronagraphic operations: lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, John H.; Ygouf, Marie; Choquet, Elodie; Hines, Dean C.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Golimowski, David A.; Lajoie, Charles-Phillipe; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi; van der Marel, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraphic instrument (CGI) currently proposed for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) mission will be the first example of a space-based coronagraph optimized for extremely high contrasts that are required for the direct imaging of exoplanets reflecting the light of their host star. While the design of this instrument is still in progress, this early stage of development is a particularly beneficial time to consider the operation of such an instrument. We review current or planned operations on the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope with a focus on which operational aspects will have relevance to the planned WFIRST-AFTA CGI. We identify five key aspects of operations that will require attention: (1) detector health and evolution, (2) wavefront control, (3) observing strategies/postprocessing, (4) astrometric precision/target acquisition, and (5) polarimetry. We make suggestions on a path forward for each of these items.

  6. EMC Testing on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) - A Summary of the EMC Test Campaign for the Science Payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft/observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  7. Wavefront-error performance characterization for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) science instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. S.; Zielinski, Thomas P.; Telfer, Randal; Tournois, Severine C.; Moore, Dustin B.; Fienup, James R.

    2016-07-01

    The science instruments (SIs) comprising the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) were tested in three cryogenic-vacuum test campaigns in the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)'s Space Environment Simulator (SES) test chamber. In this paper, we describe the results of optical wavefront-error performance characterization of the SIs. The wavefront error is determined using image-based wavefront sensing, and the primary data used by this process are focus sweeps, a series of images recorded by the instrument under test in its as-used configuration, in which the focal plane is systematically changed from one image to the next. High-precision determination of the wavefront error also requires several sources of secondary data, including 1) spectrum, apodization, and wavefront-error characterization of the optical ground-support equipment (OGSE) illumination module, called the OTE Simulator (OSIM), 2) f/# and pupil-distortion measurements made using a pseudo-nonredundant mask (PNRM), and 3) pupil-geometry predictions for each SI field point tested, which are complicated because of a tricontagon-shaped outer perimeter and small holes that appear in the exit pupil due to the way that different light sources are injected into the optical path by the OGSE. One set of wavefront-error tests, for the coronagraphic channel of the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Longwave instruments, was performed using data from transverse-translation diversity (TTD) sweeps instead of focus sweeps, in which a subaperture is translated and/or rotated across the exit pupil of the system from one image to the next. Several optical-performance requirements that were verified during this ISIM Element-level testing are levied on the uncertainties of various wavefront-error-related quantities rather than on the wavefront errors themselves. This paper also gives an overview of the methodology, based on Monte Carlo simulations of the wavefront-sensing analysis

  8. James Webb Space Telescope: Frequently Asked Questions for Scientists and Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    JWST will be tested incrementally during its construction, starting with individual mirrors and instruments (including cameras and spectrometers) and building up to the full observatory. JWST's mirrors and the telescope structure are first each tested individually, including optical testing of the mirrors and alignment testing of the structure inside a cold thermal-vacuum chamber. The mirrors are then installed on the telescope structure in a clean room at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In parallel to the telescope assembly and alignment, the instruments are being built and tested, again first individually, and then as part of an integrated instrument assembly. The integrated instrument assembly will be tested in a thermal-vacuum chamber at GSFC using an optical simulator of the telescope. This testing makes sure the instruments are properly aligned relative to each other and also provides an independent check of the individual tests. After both the telescope and the integrated instrument module are successfully assembled, the integrated instrument module will be installed onto the telescope, and the combined system will be sent to Johnson Space Flight Center (JSC) where it will be optically tested in one of the JSC chambers. The process includes testing the 18 primary mirror segments acting as a single primary mirror, and testing the end-to-end system. The final system test will assure that the combined telescope and instruments are focused and aligned properly, and that the alignment, once in space, will be within the range of the actively controlled optics. In general, the individual optical tests of instruments and mirrors are the most accurate. The final system tests provide a cost-effective check that no major problem has occurred during assembly. In addition, independent optical checks of earlier tests will be made as the full system is assembled, providing confidence that there are no major problems.

  9. James Webb Space Telescope - L2 Communications for Science Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Jones, Ronald; Fatig, Curtis; Wasiak, Francis

    2008-01-01

    JWST is the first NASA mission at the second Lagrange point (L2) to identify the need for data rates higher than 10 megabits per second (Mbps). JWST will produce approximately 235 Gigabits of science data every day that will be downlinked to the Deep Space Network (DSN). To get the data rates desired required moving away from X-band frequencies to Ka-band frequencies. To accomplish this transition, the DSN is upgrading its infrastructure. This new range of frequencies are becoming the new standard for high data rate science missions at L2. With the new frequency range, the issues of alternatives antenna deployment, off nominal scenarios, NASA implementation of the Ka-band 26 GHz, and navigation requirements will be discussed in this paper. JWST is also using Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard process for reliable file transfer using CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). For JWST the use of the CFDP protocol provides level zero processing at the DSN site. This paper will address NASA implementations of Ground Stations in support of Ka-band 26 GHz and lesson learned from implementing a file base (CFDP) protocol operational system.

  10. Testing the equipment for the cryogenic optical test of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, Tony L.; Dziak, K. J.; Huguet, Jesse; Knight, J. Scott; Reis, Carl; Wilson, Erin

    2014-08-01

    After integration of the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) to the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) to become the OTIS, the JWST optics are tested at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in the cryogenic vacuum Chamber A for alignment and optical performance. Tens of trucks full of custom test equipment are being delivered to the JSC, in addition to the large pieces built at the Center, and the renovation of the chamber itself. The facility is tested for the thermal stability control for optical measurements and contamination control during temperature transitions. The support for the OTIS is also tested for thermal stability control, load tested in the cryogenic environment, and tested for isolation of the background vibration for the optical measurements. The Center of Curvature Optical Assembly (COCOA) is tested for the phasing and wavefront error (WFE) measurement of an 18 segment mirror and for cryogenic operation. A photogrammetry system is tested for metrology performance and cryogenic operation. Test mirrors for auto-collimation measurements are tested for optical performance and cryogenic operation. An assembly of optical test sources are calibrated and tested in a cryogenic environment. A Pathfinder telescope is used as a surrogate telescope for cryogenic testing of the OTIS optical test configuration. A Beam Image Analyzer (BIA) is used as a surrogate ISIM with the Pathfinder in this test. After briefly describing the OTIS optical test configuration, the paper will overview the list and configuration of significant tests of the equipment leading up to the OTIS test.

  11. The Mechanical Design of a Kinematic Mount for the Mid Infrared Instrument Focal Plane Module on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thelen, Michael P.; Moore, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    The detector assembly for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is mechanically supported in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) Assembly with an efficient hexapod design. The kinematic mount design allows for precision adjustment of the detector boresight to assembly alignment fiducials and maintains optical alignment requirements during flight conditions of launch and cryogenic operations below 7 Kelvin. This kinematic mounting technique is able to be implemented in a variety of optical-mechanical designs and is capable of micron level adjustment control and stability over wide dynamic and temperature ranges.

  12. Cryogenic metrology for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module alignment target fixtures using laser radar through a chamber window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjimichael, T.; Kubalak, D.; Slotwinski, A.; Davila, P.; Eegholm, B.; Eichhorn, W.; Hayden, J.; Mentzell, E.; Ohl, R.; Scharfstein, G.; Telfer, R.

    2010-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module utilizes two fixtures to align the Optical Telescope Element Simulator (OSIM) to the coordinate systems established on the ISIM and the ISIM Test Platform (ITP). These fixtures contain targets which are visible to the OSIM Alignment Diagnostics Module (ADM). Requirements on these fixtures must be met under ambient and cryogenic conditions. This paper discusses the cryogenic metrology involving Laser Radar measurements through a chamber window that will be used to link photogrammetry target measurements used during ISIM structure cryogenic verification and the ADM targets, including evaluation of distortion introduced from the window.

  13. The Near-Infrared Camera on the James Webb Space Telescope: The Next Great Step in Exoplanet Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, C.; Doyon, R.; Greene, T.; Hodapp, K.; Horner, S.; Krist, J.; McCarthy, D.; Meyer, M.; Rieke, M.; Stansberry, J.; Stauffer, J.; Trauger, J.; NIRCam Team

    2014-03-01

    The Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) offers revolutionary gains in sensitivity throughout the 1-5 mm region. NIRCam will enable great advances in all areas of astrophysics, from the composition of objects in our own Kuiper Belt and the physical properties of planets orbiting nearby stars to the formation of stars and the detection of the youngest galaxies in the Universe. NIRCam will make some of its most dramatic contributions in the field of exoplanets: • Coronagraphy at 3 and 5 mm offers a very stable Point Spread Function (PSF) outside of ~5 l/D, or ~300 mas at 3.5 mm, plus the great sensitivity possible with a cooled telescope in the low background of space. While large ground-based telescopes with Adaptive Optics can achieve smaller working angles, they will be hard-pressed to find planets as small as 1 MJup whereas simulations suggest NIRCam will be able to find planets as small as Saturn on orbits from 10 to a few 100 AU around nearby young stars. • The great stability of NIRCam photometry will enable precision observations of known transiting systems to determine the vertical structure of exoplanet atmospheres and to measure complete phase curves to study atmospheric circulation. The use of sub-array mode and defocused images produced by a weak lenses in the pupil wheel will permit observations of transit host stars as bright as K~4 mag. • NIRCam's grism mode will be used to obtain R~2000 spectra in the 3 - 5 mm region to investigate the composition and atmospheric structure of transiting planets with radii as small as that of Uranus and perhaps super-Earths with hydrogen rich atmospheres. The use of sub-array mode and high spectral resolution will permit observations of objects as bright as K~ 6 mag. Laboratory tests suggest that NIRCam's HgCdTe detectors will be able to achieve (spectro-)photometric precision better than 50 mmag consistent with these goals. • NIRCam grism spectroscopy will reveal the

  14. Una mirada hacia el pasado -- El Telescopio Espacial James Webb

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA planea usar el nuevo Telescopio Espacial James Webb para mirar el pasado. Al observar la luz de las estrellas que se formaron al principio del universo, la NASA está a punto de arrojar nuev...

  15. Results of environmental testing of the focus and alignment mechanism of the near-infrared camera on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherspoon, Bear; Huff, Lynn; Jacoby, Michael; Mammini, Paul

    2009-08-01

    The Focus and Alignment Mechanism (FAM) is an opto-mechanical, cryogenic mechanism that positions the Pick-Off Mirror (POM) for the Near Infrared Camera of the James Webb Space Telescope. The POM is used to direct the light collected by the telescope into the Near Infrared Camera. The POM is a spherical, fused silica mirror. In order to retain high surface quality at cryogenic temperatures, the POM is attached to the mechanism via a titanium flexure-mount assembly. Three linear actuators are employed to position the POM in tip, tilt and piston. These linear actuators are stepper motor driven, with harmonic drive gear reduction. In this paper, we will summarize the design and role of this opto-mechanical mechanism and present the results of the environmental testing of the Engineering Test Unit. The tests performed were thermal-vacuum cryogenic cycling, and vibration testing.

  16. Noise properties and signal-dependent interpixel crosstalk of the detectors of the Near-Infrared Spectrograph of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Giovanna; Sirianni, Marco; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Lindler, Don; Böker, Torsten; Ferruit, Pierre; De Marchi, Guido; Stuhlinger, Martin; Jensen, Peter; Strada, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    The Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) is one of the four science instruments of the James Webb Space Telescope. Its focal plane consists of two HAWAII-2RG sensors operating in the wavelength range of 0.6 to 5.0 μm and, as part of characterizing NIRSpec, the noise properties of these detectors under dark and illuminated conditions were studied. Under dark conditions, and as already known, 1/f noise in the detector system causes somewhat higher noise levels than can be accounted for by a simple model that includes white read noise and shot noise on integrated charge. More surprisingly, for high levels of accumulated charge, significantly lower total noise than expected was observed. This effect is shown to be due to pixel-to-pixel correlations introduced by signal-dependent interpixel crosstalk, with an interpixel coupling factor, α, that ranges from ˜0.01 for zero signal to ˜0.03 close to saturation.

  17. An Update on the Role of Systems Modeling in the Design and Verification of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muheim, Danniella; Menzel, Michael; Mosier, Gary; Irish, Sandra; Maghami, Peiman; Mehalick, Kimberly; Parrish, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The James Web Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope scheduled for launch in 2014. System-level verification of critical performance requirements will rely on integrated observatory models that predict the wavefront error accurately enough to verify that allocated top-level wavefront error of 150 nm root-mean-squared (rms) through to the wave-front sensor focal plane is met. The assembled models themselves are complex and require the insight of technical experts to assess their ability to meet their objectives. This paper describes the systems engineering and modeling approach used on the JWST through the detailed design phase.

  18. Jwst from Below: An Overview of the Construction of the James Webb Space Telescope, Interesting Metrology, and Cryogenic-Vacuum Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, R.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (40K). The JWST Observatory includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) that contains four science instruments (SI) and the guider. The SIs are mounted to a composite metering structure. The SI and guider units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a suite using a telescope simulator (Optical Telescope Element SIMulator; OSIM). OSIM is a full field, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator. SI performance, including alignment and wavefront error, is evaluated using OSIM. This is an overview presentation to undergraduate students and other personnel at the University of Richmond, planned for 12 Oct, 2016. It uses material previously released by NASA on the Internet (e.g., via Flickr) or at engineering conferences (e.g., SPIE). This presentation provides an overview of the status of the project, with an emphasis on optics and measurement.

  19. The Use of the Molecular Adsorber Coating Technology to Mitigate Vacuum Chamber Contamination During Pathfinder Testing for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This paper describes the recent use of the MAC technology during Pathfinder testing of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap persistent outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone based diffusion pump oil, from within JSC's cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This paper summarizes the sample fabrication, installation, laboratory testing, post-test chemical analysis results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination.

  20. Optical Modeling Activities for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). 4; Overview and Introduction of Matlab Based Toolkits used to Interface with Optical Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This is part four of a series on the ongoing optical modeling activities for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first two discussed modeling JWST on-orbit performance using wavefront sensitivities to predict line of sight motion induced blur, and stability during thermal transients. The third investigates the aberrations resulting from alignment and figure compensation of the controllable degrees of freedom (primary and secondary mirrors), which may be encountered during ground alignment and on-orbit commissioning of the observatory. The work here introduces some of the math software tools used to perform the work of the previous three papers of this series. NASA has recently approved these in-house tools for public release as open source, so this presentation also serves as a quick tutorial on their use. The tools are collections of functions written in Matlab, which interface with optical design software (CodeV, OSLO, and Zemax) using either COM or DDE communication protocol. The functions are discussed, and examples are given.

  1. Stretching Webb's Wings

    NASA Video Gallery

    Behind the Webb shows how the James Webb Space Telescope's protective sunshield will be folded up inside the rocket that carries it into orbit. Engineers explain to "Behind the Webb" how the sunshi...

  2. Relative Throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments of the James Webb Space Telescope as Measured in the Ground Testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malumuth, Eliot; Birkmann, Stephan; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Martel, Andre; Ohl, Raymond George; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Te Plate, Maurice

    2016-06-01

    Data were obtained for the purpose of measuring the relative throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments (SIs) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of the second and third cryogenic-vacuum tests (CV2/CV3) of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 2014 and 2015/2016, at the beginning and end of the environmental test program, respectively. In this work we focus on data obtained as part of the Initial Optical Baseline and as part of the Final Performance test -- two epochs that roughly bracket the CV3 test.The purpose of the test is to trend relative throughput to monitor for any potential changes from gross problems such as contamination or degradation of an optical element. Point source data were taken at a variety of wavelengths for NIRCam Module A and Module B, NIRSpec, NIRISS, Guider 1 and Guider 2 using the Laser Diode (LD) 1.06 micron, LD 1.55 micron, 2.1 micron LED and 3.5 micron LED, as well as for NIRCam Mod A and B and NIRISS using a tungsten source and the F277W, and F480M filters. Spectra were taken using the G140M, G235M, and G395M gratings for NIRSpec, the GRISMR grism for NIRCam Mod A and B and the GR150C grism for NIRISS. The results of these measurements will be compared to what would be expected given the efficiency of each of the optical elements in each SI.Although these data were taken as a check against gross problems, they can also be used to provide the first relative throughput estimate for each SI through the various filters/source wavelengths measured in their flight-like configurations.The data, the reduction steps and the resulting cross calibration are presented.

  3. Relative Throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope as Measured During Ground Testing the Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malumuth, Eliot; Birkmann, Stephan; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Martel, Andre; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Te Plate, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Data were obtained for the purpose of measuring the relative throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments (SIs) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of the second and third cryogenic-vacuum tests (CV2CV3) of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 2014 and 20152016, at the beginning and end of the environmental test program, respectively. This Poster focuses on data obtained as part of the Initial Optical Baseline and as part of the Final Performance test -- two epochs that roughly bracket the CV3 test. The purpose of the test is to trend relative throughput to monitor for any potential changes from gross problems such as contamination or degradation of an optical element. Point source data were taken at a variety of wavelengths for NIRCam Module A and Module B, NIRSpec, NIRISS, Guider 1 and Guider 2 using the Laser Diode (LD) 1.06 micron, LD 1.55 micron, 2.1 micron LED and 3.5 micron LED, as well as for NIRCam Mod A and B and NIRISS using a tungsten source and the F277W, and F480M filters. Spectra were taken using the G140M, G235M, and G395M gratings for NIRSpec, the GRISMR grism for NIRCam Mod A and B and the GR150C grism for NIRISS. The results of these measurements are compared to what would be expected given the efficiency of each of the optical elements in each SI. Although these data were taken as a check against gross problems, they can also be used to provide the first relative throughput estimate for each SI through the various filters source wavelengths measured in their flight-like configurations.

  4. THE SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF THE FIRST GALAXIES. I. JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE DETECTION LIMITS AND COLOR CRITERIA FOR POPULATION III GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zackrisson, Erik; Rydberg, Claes-Erik; Oestlin, Goeran; Tuli, Manan; Schaerer, Daniel

    2011-10-10

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the high-redshift universe, and may be able to test the prediction that the first, chemically pristine (Population III) stars are formed with very high characteristic masses. Since isolated Population III stars are likely to be beyond the reach of JWST, small Population III galaxies may offer the best prospects of directly probing the properties of metal-free stars. Here, we present Yggdrasil, a new spectral synthesis code geared toward the first galaxies. Using this model, we explore the JWST imaging detection limits for Population III galaxies and investigate to what extent such objects may be identified based on their JWST colors. We predict that JWST should be able to detect Population III galaxies with stellar population masses as low as {approx}10{sup 5} M{sub sun} at z {approx} 10 in ultra deep exposures. Over limited redshift intervals, it may also be possible to use color criteria to select Population III galaxy candidates for follow-up spectroscopy. The colors of young Population III galaxies dominated by direct starlight can be used to probe the stellar initial mass function (IMF), but this requires almost complete leakage of ionizing photons into the intergalactic medium. The colors of objects dominated by nebular emission show no corresponding IMF sensitivity. We also note that a clean selection of Population III galaxies at z {approx} 7-8 can be achieved by adding two JWST/MIRI filters to the JWST/NIRCam filter sets usually discussed in the context of JWST ultra deep fields.

  5. The Spectral Evolution of the First Galaxies. I. James Webb Space Telescope Detection Limits and Color Criteria for Population III Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zackrisson, Erik; Rydberg, Claes-Erik; Schaerer, Daniel; Östlin, Göran; Tuli, Manan

    2011-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the high-redshift universe, and may be able to test the prediction that the first, chemically pristine (Population III) stars are formed with very high characteristic masses. Since isolated Population III stars are likely to be beyond the reach of JWST, small Population III galaxies may offer the best prospects of directly probing the properties of metal-free stars. Here, we present Yggdrasil, a new spectral synthesis code geared toward the first galaxies. Using this model, we explore the JWST imaging detection limits for Population III galaxies and investigate to what extent such objects may be identified based on their JWST colors. We predict that JWST should be able to detect Population III galaxies with stellar population masses as low as ~105 M sun at z ≈ 10 in ultra deep exposures. Over limited redshift intervals, it may also be possible to use color criteria to select Population III galaxy candidates for follow-up spectroscopy. The colors of young Population III galaxies dominated by direct starlight can be used to probe the stellar initial mass function (IMF), but this requires almost complete leakage of ionizing photons into the intergalactic medium. The colors of objects dominated by nebular emission show no corresponding IMF sensitivity. We also note that a clean selection of Population III galaxies at z ≈ 7-8 can be achieved by adding two JWST/MIRI filters to the JWST/NIRCam filter sets usually discussed in the context of JWST ultra deep fields.

  6. Bringing it all together: a unique approach to requirements for wavefront sensing and control on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contos, Adam R.; Acton, D. Scott; Atcheson, Paul D.; Barto, Allison A.; Lightsey, Paul A.; Shields, Duncan M.

    2006-06-01

    The opto-mechanical design of the 6.6 meter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), with its actively-controlled secondary and 18-segment primary mirror, presents unique challenges from a system engineering perspective. To maintain the optical alignment of the telescope on-orbit, a process called wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) is employed to determine the current state of the mirrors and calculate the optimal mirror move updates. The needed imagery is downloaded to the ground, where the WFS&C algorithms to process the images reside, and the appropriate commands are uploaded to the observatory. Rather than use a dedicated wavefront sensor for the imagery as is done in most other applications, a science camera is used instead. For the success of the mission, WFS&C needs to perform flawlessly using the assets available among the combination of separate elements (ground operations, spacecraft, science instruments, optical telescope, etc.) that cross institutional as well as geographic borders. Rather than be yet another distinct element with its own set of requirements to flow to the other elements as was originally planned, a novel approach was selected. This approach entails reviewing and auditing other documents for the requirements needed to satisfy the needs of WFS&C. Three actions are taken: (1) when appropriate requirements exist, they are tracked by WFS&C ; (2) when an existing requirement is insufficient to meet the need, a requirement change is initiated; and finally (3) when a needed requirement is missing, a new requirement is established in the corresponding document. This approach, deemed a "best practice" at the customer's independent audit, allows for program confidence that the necessary requirements are complete, while still maintaining the responsibility for the requirement with the most appropriate entity. This paper describes the details and execution of the approach; the associated WFS&C requirements and verification documentation; and the

  7. James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Calibration and Verification of High-Accuracy Instrumentation to Measure Heat Flow in Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comber, Brian; Glazer, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an upcoming flagship observatory mission scheduled to be launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. The requirement for multiple thermal zoned results in the instruments being thermally connected to five external radiators via individual high purity aluminum heat straps. Thermal-vacuum and thermal balance testing of the flight instruments at the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element level will take place within a newly constructed shroud cooled by gaseous helium inside Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Space environment Simulator (SES). The flight external radiators are not available during ISIM-level thermal vacuum/thermal testing, so they will be replaced in test with stable and adjustable thermal boundaries with identical physical interfaces to the flight radiators. Those boundaries are provided by specially designed test hardware which also measures the heat flow within each of the five heat straps to an accuracy of less than 2 mW, which is less than 5% of the minimum predicted heat flow values. Measurement of the heat loads to this accuracy is essential to ISIM thermal model correlation, since thermal models are more accurately correlated when temperature data is supplemented by accurate knowledge of heat flows. It also provides direct verification by test of several high-level thermal requirements. Devices that measure heat flow in this manner have historically been referred to a "Q-meters". Perhaps the most important feature of the design of the JWST Q-meters is that it does not depend on the absolute accuracy of its temperature sensors, but rather on knowledge of precise heater power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between sensors on two stages, for which a table is empirically developed during a

  8. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vacuum (CV) Test at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yew, Calinda M.

    2014-01-01

    JWST ISIM has entered into its system-level testing program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In December 2013, ISIM successfully completed the first in a series of three cryo-vacuum tests, which included two flight science instruments. Since then, there have been full-fledged efforts towards the CV2 test scheduled to finish at the end of 2014. The complexity of the mission has generated challenging requirements that demand highly reliable system performance and capabilities from the Space Environment Simulator (SES) vacuum chamber. In order to satisfy the program requirements, GSFC had to develop unique structural and thermal hardware to test ISIM. Most noteworthy is a helium shroud structure and cooling system built in order to achieve operational temperatures below 20K (-253C). This paper: (1) provides an overview of the integrated mechanical and thermal facility systems required to achieve the objectives of JWST ISIM testing, (2) communicates the performance and challenges of the SES during the first ISIM test, and (3) summarizes the action plan to improve the system prior to the next test.

  9. Development of a Cryogenic Thermal Distortion Measurement Facility for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope Instrument Support Integration Module 2-D Test Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Franklin; Bagdanove, paul; Blake, Peter; Canavan, Ed; Cofie, Emmanuel; Crane, J. Allen; Dominquez, Kareny; Hagopian, John; Johnston, John; Madison, Tim; Miller, Dave; Oaks, Darrell; Williams, Pat; Young, Dan; Zukowski, Barbara; Zukowski, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Instrument Support Integration Module (ISIM) is being designed and developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The ISM Thermal Distortion Testing (ITDT) program was started with the primary objective to validate the ISM mechanical design process. The ITDT effort seeks to establish confidence and demonstrate the ability to predict thermal distortion in composite structures at cryogenic temperatures using solid element models. This-program's goal is to better ensure that ISIM meets all the mechanical and structural requirements by using test results to verify or improve structural modeling techniques. The first step to accomplish the ITDT objectives was to design, and then construct solid element models of a series 2-D test assemblies that represent critical building blocks of the ISIM structure. Second, the actual test assemblies consisting of composite tubes and invar end fittings were fabricated and tested for thermal distortion. This paper presents the development of the GSFC Cryo Distortion Measurement Facility (CDMF) to meet the requirements of the ISIM 2-D test. assemblies, and other future ISIM testing needs. The CDMF provides efficient cooling with both a single, and two-stage cryo-cooler. Temperature uniformity of the test assemblies during thermal transients and at steady state is accomplished by using sapphire windows for all of the optical ports on the radiation shields and by using .thermal straps to cool the test assemblies. Numerical thermal models of the test assemblies were used to predict the temperature uniformity of the parts during cooldown and at steady state. Results of these models are compared to actual temperature data from the tests. Temperature sensors with a 0.25K precision were used to insure that test assembly gradients did not exceed 2K lateral, and 4K axially. The thermal distortions of two assemblies were measured during six thermal cycles from 320K to 35K using laser interferometers. The standard

  10. TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF TRANSITING PLANET ATMOSPHERES: MODEL VALIDATION AND SIMULATIONS OF THE HOT NEPTUNE GJ 436b FOR THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Shabram, Megan; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Greene, Thomas P.; Freedman, Richard S.

    2011-02-01

    We explore the transmission spectrum of the Neptune-class exoplanet GJ 436b, including the possibility that its atmospheric opacity is dominated by a variety of nonequilibrium chemical products. We also validate our transmission code by demonstrating close agreement with analytic models that use only Rayleigh scattering or water vapor opacity. We find broad disagreement with radius variations predicted by another published model. For GJ 436b, the relative coolness of the planet's atmosphere, along with its implied high metallicity, may make it dissimilar in character compared to 'hot Jupiters'. Some recent observational and modeling efforts suggest low relative abundances of H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} present in GJ 436b's atmosphere, compared to calculations from equilibrium chemistry. We include these characteristics in our models and examine the effects of absorption from methane-derived higher-order hydrocarbons. To our knowledge, the effects of these nonequilibrium chemical products on the spectra of close-in giant planets have not previously been investigated. Significant absorption from HCN and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} is found throughout the infrared, while C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} are less easily seen. We perform detailed simulations of James Webb Space Telescope observations, including all likely noise sources, and find that we will be able to constrain chemical abundance regimes from this planet's transmission spectrum. For instance, the width of the features at 1.5, 3.3, and 7 {mu}m indicates the amount of HCN versus C{sub 2}H{sub 2} present. The NIRSpec prism mode will be useful due to its large spectral range and the relatively large number of photo-electrons recorded per spectral resolution element. However, extremely bright host stars like GJ 436 may be better observed with a higher spectroscopic resolution mode in order to avoid detector saturation. We find that observations with the MIRI low-resolution spectrograph should also have high signal

  11. James Webb Telescope's Near Infrared Camera: Making Models, Building Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2010-10-01

    The Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders is a science education program sponsored by NASA's next large space telescope: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The E/PO team for JWST's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam), in collaboration with the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council, has developed a long-term relationship with adult leaders from all GSUSA Councils that directly benefits troops of all ages, not only in general science education but also specifically in the astronomical and technology concepts relating to JWST. We have been training and equipping these leaders so they can in turn teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, i.e., the night sky environment. We model what astronomers do by engaging trainers in the process of scientific inquiry, and we equip them to host troop-level astronomy-related activities. It is GSUSA's goal to foster girls’ interest and creativity in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math, creating an environment that encourages their interests early in their lives while creating a safe place for girls to try and fail, and then try again and succeed. To date, we have trained over 158 leaders in 13 camps. These leaders have come from 24 states, DC, Guam, and Japan. While many of the camp activities are related to the "First Light” theme, many of the background activities relate to two of the other JWST and NIRCam themes: "Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems” and "Planetary Systems and the Origin of Life.” The latter includes our own Solar System. Our poster will highlight the Planetary Systems theme: 1. Earth and Moon: Day and Night; Rotation and Revolution. 2. Earth/Moon Comparisons. 3. Size Model: The Diameters of the Planets. 4. Macramé Planetary (Solar) Distance Model. 5.What is a Planet? 6. Planet Sorting Cards. 7. Human Orrery 8. Lookback Time in Our Daily Lives NIRCam E/PO website: http://zeus.as.arizona.edu/ dmccarthy/GSUSA

  12. Design and Lessons Learned on the Development of a Cryogenic Pupil Select Mechanism Used in the Testing and Calibration of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Alissa; Capon, Thomas; Guzek, Jeffrey; Hakun, Claef; Haney, Paul; Koca, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Calibration and testing of the instruments on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is being performed by the use of a cryogenic, full-field, optical simulator that was constructed for this purpose. The Pupil Select Mechanism (PSM) assembly is one of several mechanisms and optical elements that compose the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator, or OSIM. The PSM allows for several optical elements to be inserted into the optical plane of OSIM, introducing a variety of aberrations, distortions, obscurations, and other calibration states into the pupil plane. The following discussion focuses on the details of the design evolution, analysis, build, and test of this mechanism along with the challenges associated with creating a sub arc-minute positioning mechanism operating in an extreme cryogenic environment. In addition, difficult challenges in the control system design will be discussed including the incorporation of closed-loop feedback control into a system that was designed to operate in an open-loop fashion.

  13. Design and Lessons Learned on the Development of a Cryogenic Pupil Select Mechanism used in the Testing and Calibration of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Alissa; Capon, Thomas; Guzek, Jeffrey; Hakun, Claef; Haney, Paul; Koca, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Calibration and testing of the instruments on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is being performed by the use of a cryogenic, full-field, optical simulator that was constructed for this purpose. The Pupil Select Mechanism (PSM) assembly is one of several mechanisms and optical elements that compose the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator, or OSIM. The PSM allows for several optical elements to be inserted into the optical plane of OSIM, introducing a variety of aberrations, distortions, obscurations, and other calibration states into the pupil plane. The following discussion focuses on the details of the design evolution, analysis, build, and test of this mechanism along with the challenges associated with creating a sub arc-minute positioning mechanism operating in an extreme cryogenic environment. In addition, difficult challenges in the control system design will be discussed including the incorporation of closed-loop feedback control into a system that was designed to operate in an open-loop fashion.

  14. Behind the Webb: 'Spinning a Webb'

    NASA Video Gallery

    The James Webb Space Telescope will be launched into orbit using an Ariane 5 rocket from French Guiana. While the launch is a short-lived phase of the mission, it is a very stressful one. Engineers...

  15. Behind the Webb Episode: All Sewn Up

    NASA Video Gallery

    The newest video in the "Behind the Webb" series takes viewers behind the scenes to reveal how the pieces that make up each layer of the James Webb Space Telescope's thin sunshield are bonded toget...

  16. Extra Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph and Science Requirements for the James Webb Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2004-01-01

    1) Extra solar planetary imaging coronagraph. Direct detection and characterization of Jovian planets, and other gas giants, in orbit around nearby stars is a necessary precursor to Terrestrial Planet Finder 0 in order to estimate the probability of Terrestrial planets in our stellar neighborhood. Ground based indirect methods are biased towards large close in Jovian planets in solar systems unlikely io harbor Earthlike planets. Thus to estimate the relative abundances of terrestrial planets and to determine optimal observing strategies for TPF a pathfinder mission would be desired. The Extra-Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is such a pathfinder mission. Upto 83 stellar systems are accessible with a 1.5 meter unobscured telescope and coronagraph combination located at the Earth-Sun L2 point. Incorporating radiometric and angular resolution considerations show that Jovians could be directly detected (5 sigma) in the 0.5 - 1.0 micron band outside of an inner working distance of 5/D with integration times of -10 - 100 hours per observation. The primary considerations for a planet imager are optical wavefront quality due to manufacturing, alignment, structural and thermal considerations. pointing stability and control, and manufacturability of coronagraphic masks and stops to increase the planetary-to- stellar contrast and mitigate against straylight. Previously proposed coronagraphic concepts are driven to extreme tolerances. however. we have developed and studied a mission, telescope and coronagraphic detection concept, which is achievable in the time frame of a Discovery class NASA mission. 2) Science requirements for the James Webb Space Telescope observatory. The James Webb Space Observatory (JWST) is an infrared observatory, which will be launched in 201 1 to an orbit at L2. JWST is a segmented, 18 mirror segment telescope with a diameter of 6.5 meters, and a clear aperture of 25 mA2. The telescope is designed to conduct imaging and spectroscopic

  17. Webb Telescope: Planetary Evolution

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stars and planets form in the dark, inside vast, cold clouds of gas and dust. The James Webb Space Telescope's large mirror and infrared sensitivity will let astronomers peer inside dusty knots whe...

  18. Webb Telescope Backplane Arrives at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Video Gallery

    Webb Telescope's Backplane arrived at Joint Base Andrews on Monday, August 24, 2015 aboard a U.S. Air Force C-5 cargo plane. The Backplane, inside the Space Telescope Transporter for Air Road and S...

  19. Behind the Webb Episode 29: Working Stiff

    NASA Video Gallery

    The James Webb Space Telescope needs to be kept as cold as possible in order to detect infrared light from faint and very distant objects. A key component of this is the observatory’s tennis court-...

  20. The James Webb Space Telescope: Capabilities for Transiting Exoplanet Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Emission from zodiacal dust disks in other planetary systems, is both a noise source for future exoplanet imaging missions and a signpost of rocky material in, or near, the habitable zone. The LBT Interferometer has been designed to discover and characterize faint exozodiacal dust around nearby stars. I will summarize what we currently know about this dust and what we aim to learn with the LBTI's survey, the Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Planets (HOSTS), along with its companion survey, LEECH, designed to identify wide-orbit giant planets a similar sample of stars. As an example of this, I will discuss the characterization the beta Leo system with both HOSTS and LEECH.

  1. Testing the James Webb Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    JWST in-process optical testing and cryogenic requirement compliance certification, verification andvalidation was probably the most difficult metrology job of our generation in astronomical optics. But, the challenge was met: by hard work of dozens of optical metrologists; development and qualification of multiple custom test setups; and several new inventions, including 4D PhaseCam and Leica Absolute Distance Meter. This paper summarizes the metrology tools, test setups and processes used to characterize the JWST primary mirror.

  2. Active Galactic Nuclei with James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    I'll discuss several ways in which JWST will probe the cosmic history of accretion onto supermassive black holes, and the co-evolution of host galaxies. Key investigations include: 1) Measurements of redshift, luminosity, and AGN fraction for obscured AGN candidates identified by other missions. 2) Measurements of AGN hosts at all redshifts, including stellar masses, morphology, interactions, and star formation rates. 3) Measurements of stellar mass and black hole mass in AGN at high redshift, to chart the early history of black hole and galaxy growth.

  3. Seasonal Variations of the James Webb Space Telescope Orbital Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jonathan; Peterson, Jeremy; Villac, Benjamin; Yu, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    LV separation state is fixed ECEF, so inertial states vary with hourly, daily, monthly, and yearly frequencies The net effect of all frequencies leads to significant variations in orbit geometry Injection states can be matched with invariant manifolds of periodic orbits in the CR3BP to explain observed final orbit.

  4. James Webb Space Telescope Deployment Brushless DC Motor Characteristics Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Ahn N.

    2016-01-01

    A DC motor's performance is usually characterized by a series of tests, which are conducted by pass/fail criteria. In most cases, these tests are adequate to address the performance characteristics under environmental and loading effects with some uncertainties and decent power/torque margins. However, if the motor performance requirement is very stringent, a better understanding of the motor characteristics is required. The purpose of this paper is to establish a standard way to extract the torque components of the brushless motor and gear box characteristics of a high gear ratio geared motor from the composite geared motor testing and motor parameter measurement. These torque components include motor magnetic detent torque, Coulomb torque, viscous torque, windage torque, and gear tooth sliding torque. The Aerospace Corp bearing torque model and MPB torque models are used to predict the Coulomb torque of the motor rotor bearings and to model the viscous components. Gear tooth sliding friction torque is derived from the dynamo geared motor test data. With these torque data, the geared motor mechanical efficiency can be estimated and provide the overall performance of the geared motor versus several motor operating parameters such as speed, temperature, applied current, and transmitted power.

  5. Space perception and William James's metaphysical presuppositions.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Martin J

    2011-05-01

    William James's overtly philosophical work may be more continuous with his psychological work than is sometimes thought. His Essays in Radical Empiricism can be understood as an explicit statement of the absolute presupposition that formed the basis of Jamesian psychology: that direct experience is primary and has to be taken at face value. An examination of James's theory of space perception suggests that, even in his early work, he presupposed the primacy of direct experience, and that later changes in his account of space perception can be understood as making his view more consistent with this presupposition. In his earlier view of space perception, James argued that sensations were directly experienced as spatial, though he accepted that spatial relations between sensations may be constructed by higher order thought. In his later view, however, James argued that spatial relations were just as directly experienced as sensations. The work of T. H. Green may have prompted James to recognize the full consequence of his ideas and to realize that taking experience at face value required that spatial relations be thought of as intrinsic to experience rather than the result of intellectual construction.

  6. Desafíos de la ingeniería -- El Telescopio Espacial James Webb

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cómo colocas un telescopio del tamaño de una cancha de tenis en un cohete ancho como una camioneta? Este es el tipo de preguntas que la gente de la NASA responde acerca del Telescopio Espacial Jame...

  7. Space Station Live: Historic Vacuum Chamber to Test Webb Telescope

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot recently visited Johnson Space Center’s 400,000 cubic foot vacuum chamber, Chamber A, and spoke with Mary Cerimele, the lab manager for this historic facility.

  8. Behind the Webb Episode 27

    NASA Video Gallery

    This episode of "Behind the Webb" explores the multi-tasking capabilities of one of the cameras on the Webb Space Telescope, the Near-Infrared Spectrograph. Newly designed technology known as "micr...

  9. Elastic Distribution of Microshutters, Measurements Obtainable on James Web Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kletetschka, Gunther; King, Todd; Mikula, Vilem

    2008-01-01

    Spectrographic astronomy measurements in the near-infrared region will be done by functional two-dimensional microshutter arrays that are being fabricated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). These micro-shutter arrays will represent the first mission-critical MEMS devices to be flown in space. JWST will use microshutter arrays to select focal plane object. 2-D programmable aperture masks of more than 200,000 elements select such space object. The use of silicon wafer material promises high efficiency and high contrast. Microshutter operation temperature is around 35K. Microshutter arrays are fabricated as close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a unit cell size of 105 x 204 micrometers. A layer of magnetic material is deposited onto each shutter. Individual shutters are equipped with a torsion flexure. Reactive ion etching (RIE) releases the shutters so they can open up to 90 degrees using the torsion flexure. Shutter rotation is initiated into a silicon support structure via an external magnetic field. Two electrically independent aluminum electrodes are deposited, one onto each shutter and another onto the support structure side-wall, permitting electrostatic latching and 2-D addressing to hold specific shutters open via external electronics.

  10. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, VI: The Medium Resolution Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Martyn; Pel, J.-W.; Glasse, Alistair; Wright, G. S.; Aitink-Kroes, Gabby; Azzollini, Ruymán; Beard, Steven; Brandl, B. R.; Gallie, Angus; Geers, V. C.; Glauser, A. M.; Hastings, Peter; Henning, Th.; Jager, Rieks; Justtanont, K.; Kruizinga, Bob; Lahuis, Fred; Lee, David; Martinez-Delgado, I.; Martínez-Galarza, J. R.; Meijers, M.; Morrison, Jane E.; Müller, Friedrich; Nakos, Thodori; O'Sullivan, Brian; Oudenhuysen, Ad; Parr-Burman, P.; Pauwels, Evert; Rohloff, R.-R.; Schmalzl, Eva; Sykes, Jon; Thelen, M. P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Vandenbussche, Bart; Venema, Lars B.; Visser, Huib; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Wright, David

    2015-07-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) for the JWST-MIRI instrument. The MRS incorporates four coaxial spectral channels in a compact opto-mechanical layout that generates spectral images over fields of view up to 7.7 × 7.7'' in extent and at spectral resolving powers ranging from 1300 to 3700. Each channel includes an all-reflective integral field unit (IFU): an "image slicer" that reformats the input field for presentation to a grating spectrometer. Two 1024 × 1024 focal plane detector arrays record the output spectral images with an instantaneous spectral coverage of approximately one third of the full wavelength range of each channel. The full 5-28.5 μm spectrum is then obtained by making three exposures using gratings and pass-band-determining filters that are selected using just two three-position mechanisms. The expected on-orbit optical performance is presented, based on testing of the MIRI Flight Model and including spectral and spatial coverage and resolution. The point spread function of the reconstructed images is shown to be diffraction limited and the optical transmission is shown to be consistent with the design expectations.

  11. The James Webb Space Telescope: Observatory Status and the Path to Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael; Bowers, Chuck; Clampin, Mark; Niedner, Mal

    2016-01-01

    JWST will carry out transformative science from the very early universe and across cosmic time. JWST OTE and ISIM have been combined to form OTIS, which will commence environmental testing. The full JWST team has made tremendous progress since the last AT+I meeting in 2014.JWST on track following 2011 replan and remains on schedule to launch in October 2018.

  12. Shedding light on cosmic reionization with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevallard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Current observational constraints on cosmic reionization mainly rely on CMB-based measures of the electron Thomson scattering optical depth τE, and on the absorption signatures of neutral hydrogen on the spectra of distant QSOs and GRBs afterglow. These, however, only probe the last phase of reionization (QSOs and GRBs), or its duration (τE), therefore leaving most of the reionization history unconstrained. The origin of H-ionizing photons is also largely uncertain. While several observations suggest that star forming galaxies may be the primary sources of these photons, many uncertain quantities prevent a rigorous quantification of their role in ionizing the IGM. With the launch of JWST, scheduled in 2018, a new window will open to study cosmic reionization. The large wavelength coverage, unique sensitivity and different spectroscopic and imaging capabilities of JWST will provide new constraints on both the reionization history and contribution of different sources to the Universe ionizing budget. In this contribution, I will review current observational constraints on cosmic reionization, and discuss the role of JWST to improve our understanding of this phase.

  13. Adding Context to James Webb Space Telescope Surveys with Current and Future 21 cm Radio Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, A. P.; Morales, M. F.; Lidz, A.; Malloy, M.; Sutter, P. M.

    2015-02-01

    Infrared and radio observations of the Epoch of Reionization promise to revolutionize our understanding of the cosmic dawn, and major efforts with the JWST, MWA, and HERA are underway. While measurements of the ionizing sources with infrared telescopes and the effect of these sources on the intergalactic medium with radio telescopes should be complementary, to date the wildly disparate angular resolutions and survey speeds have made connecting proposed observations difficult. In this paper we develop a method to bridge the gap between radio and infrared studies. While the radio images may not have the sensitivity and resolution to identify individual bubbles with high fidelity, by leveraging knowledge of the measured power spectrum we are able to separate regions that are likely ionized from largely neutral, providing context for the JWST observations of galaxy counts and properties in each. By providing the ionization context for infrared galaxy observations, this method can significantly enhance the science returns of JWST and other infrared observations.

  14. Reducing the Read Noise of the James Webb Space Telescope Near Infrared Spectrograph Detector Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard; Arendt, Richard G.; Fixsen, D. J.; Lindler, Don; Loose, Markus; Moseley, S. H.; Wilson, D. V.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Wiener optimal approach to using the reference output and reference pixels that are built into Teledyne's HAWAII-2RG detector arrays. In this way, we are reducing the total noise per approximately 1000 second 88 frame up-the-ramp dark integration from about 6.5 e- rms to roughly 5 e- rms. Using a principal components analysis formalism, we achieved these noise improvements without altering the hardware in any way. In addition to being lower, the noise is also cleaner with much less visible correlation. For example, the faint horizontal banding that is often seen in HAWAII-2RG images is almost completely removed. Preliminary testing suggests that the relative gains are even higher when using non flight grade components. We believe that these techniques are applicable to most HAWAII-2RG based instruments.

  15. Integrated Modeling Activities for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): Structural-Thermal-Optical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John D.; Parrish, Keith; Howard, Joseph M.; Mosier, Gary E.; McGinnis, Mark; Bluth, Marcel; Kim, Kevin; Ha, Hong Q.

    2004-01-01

    This is a continuation of a series of papers on modeling activities for JWST. The structural-thermal- optical, often referred to as "STOP", analysis process is used to predict the effect of thermal distortion on optical performance. The benchmark STOP analysis for JWST assesses the effect of an observatory slew on wavefront error. The paper begins an overview of multi-disciplinary engineering analysis, or integrated modeling, which is a critical element of the JWST mission. The STOP analysis process is then described. This process consists of the following steps: thermal analysis, structural analysis, and optical analysis. Temperatures predicted using geometric and thermal math models are mapped to the structural finite element model in order to predict thermally-induced deformations. Motions and deformations at optical surfaces are input to optical models and optical performance is predicted using either an optical ray trace or WFE estimation techniques based on prior ray traces or first order optics. Following the discussion of the analysis process, results based on models representing the design at the time of the System Requirements Review. In addition to baseline performance predictions, sensitivity studies are performed to assess modeling uncertainties. Of particular interest is the sensitivity of optical performance to uncertainties in temperature predictions and variations in metal properties. The paper concludes with a discussion of modeling uncertainty as it pertains to STOP analysis.

  16. Ambient optomechanical alignment and pupil metrology for the flight instruments aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffery S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Mclean, Kyle F.; McMann, Joseph; Melf, Markus; Miner, Linda; Ohl, Raymond G.; Redman, Kevin; Roedel, Andreas; Schweiger, Paul; Te Plate, Maurice; Wells, Martyn; Wenzel, Greg W.; Williams, Patrick K.; Young, Jerrod

    2014-09-01

    While efforts within the optics community focus on the development of high-quality systems and data products, comparatively little attention is paid to their use. Our standards for verification and validation are high; but in some user domains, standards are either lax or do not exist at all. In forensic imagery analysis, for example, standards exist to judge image quality, but do not exist to judge the quality of an analysis. In litigation, a high quality analysis is by default the one performed by the victorious attorney's expert. This paper argues for the need to extend quality standards into the domain of imagery analysis, which is expected to increase in national visibility and significance with the increasing deployment of unmanned aerial vehicle—UAV, or "drone"—sensors in the continental U. S.. It argues that like a good radiometric calibration, made as independent of the calibrated instrument as possible, a good analysis should be subject to standards the most basic of which is the separation of issues of scientific fact from analysis results.

  17. Updated point spread function simulations for JWST with WebbPSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Elliott, Erin; Pueyo, Laurent; Ravindranath, Swara; Albert, Loïc.

    2014-08-01

    Accurate models of optical performance are an essential tool for astronomers, both for planning scientific observations ahead of time, and for a wide range of data analysis tasks such as point-spread-function (PSF)-fitting photometry and astrometry, deconvolution, and PSF subtraction. For the James Webb Space Telescope, the WebbPSF program provides a PSF simulation tool in a flexible and easy-to-use software package available to the community and implemented in Python. The latest version of WebbPSF adds new support for spectroscopic modes of JWST NIRISS, MIRI, and NIRSpec, including modeling of slit losses and diffractive line spread functions. It also provides additional options for modeling instrument defocus and/or pupil misalignments. The software infrastructure of WebbPSF has received enhancements including improved parallelization, an updated graphical interface, a better configuration system, and improved documentation. We also present several comparisons of WebbPSF simulated PSFs to observed PSFs obtained using JWST's flight science instruments during recent cryovac tests. Excellent agreement to first order is achieved for all imaging modes cross-checked thus far, including tests for NIRCam, FGS, NIRISS, and MIRI. These tests demonstrate that WebbPSF model PSFs have good fidelity to the key properties of JWST's as-built science instruments.

  18. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Views of James Bay, Canada     View Larger ... for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, ...

  19. Contamination control requirements implementation for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), part 2: spacecraft, sunshield, observatory, and launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, Eve M.; Schweiss, Andrea; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly; Woronowicz, Michael; Patel, Jignasha; Macias, Matthew; McGregor, R. Daniel; Farmer, Greg; Schmeitzky, Olivier; Jensen, Peter; Rumler, Peter; Romero, Beatriz; Breton, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    This paper will continue from Part 1 of JWST contamination control implementation. In addition to optics, instruments, and thermal vacuum testing, JWST also requires contamination control for a spacecraft that must be vented carefully in order to maintain solar array and thermal radiator thermal properties; a tennis court-sized sunshield made with 1-2 mil Kapton™ layers that must be manufactured and maintained clean; an observatory that must be integrated, stowed and transported to South America; and a rocket that typically launches commercial payloads without contamination sensitivity. An overview of plans developed to implement contamination control for the JWST spacecraft, sunshield, observatory and launch vehicle will be presented.

  20. Contamination control requirements implementation for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), part 1: optics, instruments and thermal vacuum testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly; Woronowicz, Michael; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Perry, Radford L.; Macias, Matthew; Arenberg, Jon; Egges, Joanne

    2014-09-01

    The derivation of contamination control (CC) requirements for the JWST Optical Telescope Element (OTE) was presented at the SPIE conference in 20081. Since then, much work has been done to allocate contamination at each phase of Integration and Test (IandT) and to plan for achieving the allocations. Because JWST is such a large and complicated observatory, plans for meeting the requirements are many and varied. There are primary mirror segments that must be cleaned early and maintained clean; there are four science instruments that each have tight contamination requirements but cannot be cleaned after they are integrated onto the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) structure; there is the composite ISIM structure that is fragile and must be minimally handled; there are numerous cryo-vacuum tests that must be controlled and monitored in order to minimize molecular contamination during return to ambient; … and more. An overview of plans developed to implement contamination control for JWST optics, instruments, and thermal vacuum testing for JWST will be presented.

  1. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, V: Predicted Performance of the MIRI Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaletti, A.; Lagage, P.-O.; Baudoz, P.; Beichman, C.; Bouchet, P.; Cavarroc, C.; Dubreuil, D.; Glasse, Alistair; Glauser, A. M.; Hines, D. C.; Lajoie, C.-P.; Lebreton, J.; Perrin, M. D.; Pueyo, L.; Reess, J. M.; Rieke, G. H.; Ronayette, S.; Rouan, D.; Soummer, R.; Wright, G. S.

    2015-07-01

    The imaging channel on the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) is equipped with four coronagraphs that provide high-contrast imaging capabilities for studying faint point sources and extended emission that would otherwise be overwhelmed by a bright point-source in its vicinity. Such targets might include stars that are orbited by exoplanets and circumstellar material, mass-loss envelopes around post-main-sequence stars, the near-nuclear environments in active galaxies, and the host galaxies of distant quasars. This paper describes the coronagraphic observing modes of MIRI, as well as performance estimates based on measurements of the MIRI flight model during cryo-vacuum testing. A brief outline of coronagraphic operations is also provided. Finally, simulated MIRI coronagraphic observations of a few astronomical targets are presented for illustration.

  2. Cryogenic filter- and spectrometer wheels for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, D.; Böhm, A.; de Bonis, F.; Ebert, M.; Gross, T.; Grözinger, U.; Henning, T.; Hinz, M.; Hofferbert, R.; Huber, A.; Krause, O.; Kuhlmann, S.; Luichtel, G.; Ramos, J.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Stein, C.; Trunz, M.; Übele, M.; Weidlich, K.

    2006-06-01

    Following a warm launch in 2013 the MIRI instrument aboard JWST will be operated for a lifetime of 5-10 years in the L2-orbit at a temperature of ~6 K. The main requirements for its three wheel mechanisms include: (1) reliability, (2) optical precision, (3) low power dissipation, (4) high vibration capability, (5) functionality at 4 < T < 300 K. The filter wheel carries broad and narrow band spectral filters, coronographic masks and a prism on its 18 positions. Each of the two spectrometer wheels is equipped with two disks on both sides of a central torque motor, one of them carries 6 gratings, the other a dichroic/mirror arrangement. The optical positions are defined by a ratchet mechanism. No closed loop control is required; therefore the long time average heat dissipation is negligible. A new ratchet mechanism had to be developed to satisfy a 120° increment of only three positions for the spectrometer wheels. Extensive cold and warm tests were performed on the development models of the filter and spectrometer wheels at MPIA. These results stimulated numerous improvements in the mechanical and thermal design which are now to be implemented in the qualification and flight models developed jointly with Carl Zeiss. Synergies are expected from a similar development of the NIRSPEC wheels, in which MPIA and Carl Zeiss are involved.

  3. ADDING CONTEXT TO JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE SURVEYS WITH CURRENT AND FUTURE 21 cm RADIO OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Beardsley, A. P.; Morales, M. F.; Lidz, A.; Malloy, M.; Sutter, P. M.

    2015-02-20

    Infrared and radio observations of the Epoch of Reionization promise to revolutionize our understanding of the cosmic dawn, and major efforts with the JWST, MWA, and HERA are underway. While measurements of the ionizing sources with infrared telescopes and the effect of these sources on the intergalactic medium with radio telescopes should be complementary, to date the wildly disparate angular resolutions and survey speeds have made connecting proposed observations difficult. In this paper we develop a method to bridge the gap between radio and infrared studies. While the radio images may not have the sensitivity and resolution to identify individual bubbles with high fidelity, by leveraging knowledge of the measured power spectrum we are able to separate regions that are likely ionized from largely neutral, providing context for the JWST observations of galaxy counts and properties in each. By providing the ionization context for infrared galaxy observations, this method can significantly enhance the science returns of JWST and other infrared observations.

  4. Measuring the cryogenic optical alignment between the telescope element and the instruments module of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, Tony; Olczak, Eugene

    2011-09-01

    The alignment between the Aft Optical Subsystem (AOS) and the Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) is non-adjustable in orbit, so the alignment must be carefully verified in a cryogenic vacuum environment prior to launch. Optical point source locations calibrated by optical metrology instruments are imaged through the AOS onto the Science Instruments to determine focal, lateral, and clock angle alignment. The pupil image of the AOS is overlaid onto the pupil image of the NIRCam to determine the tip and tilt alignment. In addition, an image from fiducial lights at the Primary Mirror checks the pupil alignment between the telescope entrance pupil, the telescope pupil mask, and the NIRCam aperture stop. The image positions are combined to determine the relative alignment between the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the ISIM in all six degrees of freedom with corresponding alignment uncertainties. Uncertainties in the position of focused images of the test sources and images from the pupils are derived from sensitivities of an optical model of the system and the Science Instrument sensing capability. Additional uncertainty in the pupil alignment measurement is due to uncertainty in the analytical removal of gravity effects that simulate the on-orbit alignment environment.

  5. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  6. Magnetic Characterization of Micro Shutters for James Web Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P. (Technical Monitor); Kletetschka, Gunther

    2005-01-01

    Summary of Research that was part of the grant: NASA NAG5 - 13405: Magnetic Characterization of Micro Shutters for James Web Space Telescope (JWST) Period: May 1 2003-October 31 2005 The above funding resulted in following major achievements related to microshutter system for JWST. 1. The original rectangular pattern of magnetic material was changed into magnetic striped pattern to prevent unnecessary twisting during the actuation. The Original geometry favored magnetic remanence vector being oriented along the longer side of the shutter and thus resulting torque caused out of plane twist. Stripe pattern minimizes the out of plane motion and thus prolongs the life-time of microshutter device. 2. We built a new magnetic system (magnetic rotisserie) allowing an accelerated life test of microshutters at various temperatures. This system identified that shutter are capable to withstand as many as several millions of actuating cycles. Our system also identified fabrication related features, like bowing with temperature, collisions with the frame due to misalignment, delaminating of the light shields due to uncontrolled voltage release and poorly fabricated light shields.

  7. Behind the Webb Episode 28 - Strong and Steady

    NASA Video Gallery

    Because the Webb Telescope will be launched into space and operate in an extremely cold environment, it needs to be built with materials that are both lightweight and stable. It needs to maintain i...

  8. Preservation of Thermal Control Specular Gold Baffle Surface on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Electronics Compartment (IEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MonteedeGarcia, Kristina; Patel, Jignasha; Perry, Radford, III

    2010-01-01

    Extremely tight thermal control property degradation allowances on the vapor-deposited, gold-coated IEC baffle surface, made necessary by the cryogenic JWST Observatory operations, dictate tight contamination requirements on adjacent surfaces. Theoretical degradation in emittance with contaminant thickness was calculated. Maximum allowable source outgassing rates were calculated using worst case view factors from source to baffle surface. Tight requirements pushed the team to change the design of the adjacent surfaces to minimize the outgassing sources

  9. NASA James Webb Space Telescope Engineering of the Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA) and the Primary Mirror Backplane Support Structure (PMBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Lester M.

    2015-01-01

    The design, engineering tests of the PMSAs PMBSS show that we have a robust system that not only meets but exceeds (better than) the design requirements for these components. In the next 2 years the Telescope Observatory will be subjected to a simulated launch environment (sine vibeacoustics) and operations tests at cryogenic temperatures. Launch is schedule for the last quarter of 2018.

  10. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Electronics Compartment (IEC) Conformal Shields Composite Bond Structure Qualification Test Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yew, Calinda; Stephens, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The JWST IEC conformal shields are mounted onto a composite frame structure that must undergo qualification testing to satisfy mission assurance requirements. The composite frame segments are bonded together at the joints using epoxy, EA 9394. The development of a test method to verify the integrity of the bonded structure at its operating environment introduces challenges in terms of requirements definition and the attainment of success criteria. Even though protoflight thermal requirements were not achieved, the first attempt in exposing the structure to cryogenic operating conditions in a thermal vacuum environment resulted in approximately 1 bonded joints failure during mechanical pull tests performed at 1.25 times the flight loads. Failure analysis concluded that the failure mode was due to adhesive cracks that formed and propagated along stress concentrated fillets as a result of poor bond squeeze-out control during fabrication. Bond repairs were made and the structures successfully re-tested with an improved LN2 immersion test method to achieve protoflight thermal requirements.

  11. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Hudson Bay and James Bay, Canada     View Larger ... Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data ...

  12. Space Geoengineering: James A. Van Allen's Role in Detecting and Disrupting the Magnetosphere, 1958-1962 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    James A. Van Allen’s celebrated discovery of Earth’s radiation belts in 1958 using Explorer 1 and 3 satellites was immediately followed by his agreement to monitor tests of nuclear weapons in space aimed at disrupting the magnetosphere. This is “space geoengineering” on a planetary scale. “Space is radioactive,” noted Van Allen’s colleague Eric Ray, and the military wanted to make it even more radioactive by nuclear detonations that, in time of war might disrupt enemy radio communications from half a world away and damage or destroy enemy intercontinental ballistic missiles. This study of Van Allen’s participation in Project Argus (1958) and Project Starfish (1962) is based on new posthumous accessions to the Van Allen Papers. At the time radio astronomers protested that, “No government has the right to change the environment in any significant way without prior international study and agreement.” Van Allen later regretted his participation in experiments that disrupted the natural magnetosphere. In a larger policy framework, the history of these space interventions and the protests they generated serve as a cautionary tale for today’s geoengineers who are proposing heavy-handed manipulation of the planetary environment as a response to future climate warming. Anyone claiming that geoengineering has not yet been attempted should be reminded of the planetary-scale engineering of these nukes in space. N. Christofilos describing the intended effect of the Argus nuclear explosions on the magnetosphere, which would direct a stream of radioactive particles along magnetic lines of force half a world away.

  13. Little Theatres from Modest Spaces, Based on the Design Practices of James Hull Miller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hub Electric Co., Inc., Chicago, IL.

    A reference manual of principles for renovation or new construction of small theaters in schools, community centers, and churches. Contents include--(1) turning space into small theaters, (2) rules of thumb, (3) an example of remodeling, and (4) three budget theaters--an 80-seat elementary school classroom theater--a 90-seat school or community…

  14. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  15. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Green Summer and Icy Winter in James Bay     View Larger Image ... winter. The left-hand image was acquired on August 9, 2000 (Terra orbit 3427), and the right-hand image is from January 16, 2001 (Terra ...

  16. Mounting small optics for cryogenic space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Holmes, Howard C.; Jacoby, Mike S.; Kvamme, E. Todd

    2011-09-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) includes numerous optical assemblies. The instrument will operate at 35K after experiencing launch loads at ~293K and the optic mounts must accommodate all associated thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain exceptional optical quality during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) conceived, designed, analyzed, assembled, tested, and integrated the optical assemblies for the NIRCam instrument. With using examples from NIRCam, this paper covers techniques for mounting small mirrors and lenses for cryogenic space missions.

  17. Hydrogeology of Webb County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Webb County, in semiarid South Texas on the U.S.-Mexico border, is a region confronted by increasing stresses on natural resources. Laredo (fig. 1), the largest city in Webb County (population 193,000 in 2000), was one of the 10 fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the country during 1990-2000 (Perry and Mackun, 2001). Commercial and industrial activities have expanded throughout the region to support the maquiladora industry (manufacturing plants in Mexico) along the border and other growth as a result of the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The Rio Grande currently (2002) is the primary source of public water supply for Laredo and other cities along the border in Webb County (fig. 1). Other cities, such as Bruni and Mirando City in the southeastern part of the county, rely on ground-water supplies to meet municipal demands. Increased water demand associated with development and population growth in the region has increased the need for the City of Laredo and Webb County to evaluate alternative water sources to meet future demand. Possible options include (1) supplementing the surface-water supply with ground water, and (2) applying artificial storage and recovery (ASR) technology to recharge local aquifers. These options raise issues regarding the hydraulic capability of the aquifers to store economically substantial quantities of water, current or potential uses of the resource, and possible effects on the quality of water resulting from mixing ground water with alternative source waters. To address some of these issues, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Laredo, began a study in 1996 to assess the ground-water resources of Webb County. A hydrogeologic study was conducted to review and analyze available information on the hydrogeologic units (aquifers and confining units) in Webb County, to locate available wells in the region with water-level and water-quality information from the aquifers, and

  18. James Johnson on Asteroid Mission Simulation Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks to James Johnson, the test director for a simulated mission to an asteroid taking place at the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at the Johnson Space Cente...

  19. Obituary: James Houck (1940 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedman, Daniel; Barry, Donald; Soifer, Thomas

    's priorities for the 1990s (the "Bahcall Report"), and his persuasive advocacy convinced the panel that SIRTF should be the decade's highest priority. Subsequently, Jim chaired the NASA HQ Astrophysics Advisory Committee and played a crucial role in organizing and participating in legislative advocacy for the SIRTF "new start" that was needed. Jim's extraordinary technical expertise was vital to the essential redesign of SIRTF required to meet NASA targets for the mission cost. Following the success of IRAS, SIRTF was intended primarily as a photometric mission. Jim was the advocate for spectroscopy which subsequently turned out to be the instrument in greatest demand for the cryogenic Spitzer mission. Jim's first scientific paper with the IRS in 2005 announced the presence of a large population of quasars in the early universe so heavily obscured by dust that they had been invisible to optical telescopes. The legacy of the Spitzer IRS is now permanently in place as the "Cornell Atlas of Spitzer IRS Sources" (CASSIS at cassis.sirtf.com), providing an easily accessible archive of mid-infrared spectra (5-37 micron) for everything from outer planet satellites to quasars at the edge of the observable universe. CASSIS will be the fundamental reference archive of mid-infrared spectra for the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. During all these years of major research projects, Jim maintained a consistent dedication to high quality undergraduate teaching, simultaneously with advising numerous PhD students. His most notable legacy for undergraduates at Cornell was his development by 1974 of a research quality telescope close to campus to teach instrumentation and observational techniques. The 25 inch telescope of the Hartung-Boothroyd Observatory not only trained Cornell students for decades, but was also a testbed for spectrographs. What students felt about Jim was summarized by a former undergraduate who told us, "It is no stretch whatsoever to say that I would not be anything

  20. Cryogenic Test Capability at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Cryogenic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegley, Jeffrey; Baker, Mark; Carpenter, Jay; Eng, Ron; Haight, Harlan; Hogue, William; McCracken, Jeff; Siler, Richard; Wright, Ernie

    2006-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray & Cryogenic Test Facility (XRCF) has been performing sub-liquid nitrogen temperature testing since 1999. Optical wavefront measurement, thermal structural deformation, mechanism functional & calibration, and simple cryo-conditioning tests have been completed. Recent modifications have been made to the facility in support of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program. The chamber's payload envelope and the facility s refrigeration capacity have both been increased. Modifications have also been made to the optical instrumentation area improving access for both the installation and operation of optical instrumentation outside the vacuum chamber. The facility's capabilities, configuration, and performance data will be presented.

  1. Optical Modeling Activities for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project. II; Determining Image Motion and Wavefront Error Over an Extended Field of View with a Segmented Optical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Ha, Kong Q.

    2004-01-01

    This is part two of a series on the optical modeling activities for JWST. Starting with the linear optical model discussed in part one, we develop centroid and wavefront error sensitivities for the special case of a segmented optical system such as JWST, where the primary mirror consists of 18 individual segments. Our approach extends standard sensitivity matrix methods used for systems consisting of monolithic optics, where the image motion is approximated by averaging ray coordinates at the image and residual wavefront error is determined with global tip/tilt removed. We develop an exact formulation using the linear optical model, and extend it to cover multiple field points for performance prediction at each instrument aboard JWST. This optical model is then driven by thermal and dynamic structural perturbations in an integrated modeling environment. Results are presented.

  2. How to constrain the physical properties of very hot super-earths with the James Web Space Telescope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, B.; Rouan, D.; Léger, A.; Cavarroc, C.

    2012-12-01

    Space missions dedicated to exoplanet transit detection led to the discovery of the first super-earths with a measured radius. Surprisingly, the two first rocky planets discovered, CoRoT-7b and Kepler 10b (Léger et al. 2009; Batalha et al. 2011) show very similar parameters: their radius is respectively 1.7 and 1.4 {R_{oplus}} and they orbitate around (resp.) a K and a G star in 0.85 days. The properties of this two objects are expected to be very exotic (Léger et al. 2011). We expect them to be phase locked, with a large lava ocean on the irradiated face (with T reaching 2500 K and 3000 K, respectively) and cold hemisphere with a temperature lower than 50-75 K. We look for observational tests to validate this model among a larger family of models. We suggest to make an observation with the instrument NIRCam on the futur JWST. We investigate the amount of information that such an observation would provide on the physical and dynamical properties of CoRoT-7b, and we focus in particular on two parameters that could influence the surface nature of the very hot super-earth: the albedo, and the phase-locking.

  3. William James's Moral Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Wesley

    2003-01-01

    James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…

  4. Phase and Pupil Amplitude Recovery for JWST Space-Optics Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, B. H.; Zielinski, T. P.; Smith, J. S.; Bolcar, M. R.; Aronstein, D. L.; Fienup, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the phase and pupil amplitude recovery for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam). It includes views of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the NIRCam, examples of Phase Retrieval Data, Ghost Irradiance, Pupil Amplitude Estimation, Amplitude Retrieval, Initial Plate Scale Estimation using the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs lambda, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs. number of Images, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs Rotation (clocking), and Typical Phase Retrieval Results Also included is information about the phase retrieval approach, Non-Linear Optimization (NLO) Optimized Diversity Functions, and Least Square Error vs. Starting Pupil Amplitude.

  5. Simulating PSFs for WFIRST and JWST with WebbPSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Joseph D.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Van Der Marel, Roeland P.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate models of a telescope's point spread function are key to predicting its performance and extracting information from observations. Developed at STScI since 2010, WebbPSF is a flexible Python-based PSF simulation tool initially developed for JWST's imaging, spectroscopy, and coronagraphic instruments. We present improvements that allow this tool to simulate PSFs for the WFIRST wide-field imaging mode, as well as additional spectroscopy modes for the NIRSpec, MIRI, and NIRISS instruments on JWST. The WFIRST wide field imaging mode is also the first WebbPSF model to simulate PSF variation across the entire field of view. These variations are included in the Fraunhofer-domain PSF calculation as Zernike polynomial terms up to Z22. As WFIRST is still early in its development, high-spatial-frequency wavefront errors (beyond Z22) are incorporated using an optical path difference map from another notable 2.4 meter space telescope. Common infrastructure to build simulated optical instruments has been made available as POPPY (Physical Optics Propagation in Python), an open-source library that has seen contributions from users in astronomy and beyond.

  6. James Welch's Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velie, Alan R.

    1979-01-01

    This article examines Surrealism, its definition, and history through example. Special emphasis is on James Welch, a Blackfeet poet from Montana with a comic way of viewing the world in a surrealistic fashion. (RTS)

  7. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 16, 1934 DETAIL OF PORTICO (SOUTH ELEVATION) - Kentucky School for the Blind, 1867 Frankfort Avenue, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  8. Conference James F.Buckli

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    L'association du personnel a le plaisir d'accueillir Mons. James F.Buckli, astronaute, né en 1947. Il a participé à la mission Space Lab D1 qui pour la première fois mettait 8 personnes sur orbite.L'ass.du pers. remercie aussi Gordon White(s) de la mission américaine d'avoir permis d'organiser cette conférence

  9. Manufacture of Cryoshroud Surfaces for Space Simulation Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Gary S.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental test chambers for space applications use internal shrouds to simulate temperature conditions encountered in space. Shroud temperatures may range from +150 C to -253 C (20 K), and internal surfaces are coated with special high emissivity/absorptivity paints. To obtain temperature uniformity over large areas, detailed thermal design is required for placement of tubing for gaseous or liquid nitrogen and helium and other exotic heat exchange fluids. The recent increase in space simulation activity related to the James Webb Space Telescope has led to the design of new cryogenic shrouds to meet critical needs in instrument package testing. This paper will review the design and manufacturing of shroud surfaces for several of these programs, including fabrication methods and the selection and application of paints for simulation chambers.

  10. Space astronomy and astrophysics program by NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertz, Paul L.

    2014-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration recently released the NASA Strategic Plan 20141, and the NASA Science Mission Directorate released the NASA 2014 Science Plan3. These strategic documents establish NASA's astrophysics strategic objectives to be (i) to discover how the universe works, (ii) to explore how it began and evolved, and (iii) to search for life on planets around other stars. The multidisciplinary nature of astrophysics makes it imperative to strive for a balanced science and technology portfolio, both in terms of science goals addressed and in missions to address these goals. NASA uses the prioritized recommendations and decision rules of the National Research Council's 2010 decadal survey in astronomy and astrophysics2 to set the priorities for its investments. The NASA Astrophysics Division has laid out its strategy for advancing the priorities of the decadal survey in its Astrophysics 2012 Implementation Plan4. With substantial input from the astrophysics community, the NASA Advisory Council's Astrophysics Subcommittee has developed an astrophysics visionary roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions5, to examine possible longer-term futures. The successful development of the James Webb Space Telescope leading to a 2018 launch is an Agency priority. One important goal of the Astrophysics Division is to begin a strategic mission, subject to the availability of funds, which follows from the 2010 decadal survey and is launched after the James Webb Space Telescope. NASA is studying a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope as its next large astrophysics mission. NASA is also planning to partner with other space agencies on their missions as well as increase the cadence of smaller Principal Investigator led, competitively selected Astrophysics Explorers missions.

  11. Utopian Totalism versus Utopian Realism: A Reply to Darren Webb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, David

    2009-01-01

    Over one half of Darren Webb's article on the concept of utopia in contemporary educational theory (Webb, 2009) reviews critically the "utopian realist" approach the author has advocated in various publications about education over the past nine years. The conception of utopianism to which the author subscribes also stresses the role of patient…

  12. James Joule and meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.

    1989 was the hundredth anniversary of the death of James Prescott Joule, the Prescott being his mother's family name and the Joule, rhyming with cool, originating from the Derbyshire village of Youlgreave. Joule is rightly famous for his experimental efforts to establish the law of conservation of energy, and for the fact that J, the symbol known as the mechanical equivalent of heat, is named after him. Astronomically his "light has been hidden under a bushel". James Joule had a major influence on the physics of meteors.

  13. Reliability of Electronics for Cryogenic Space Applications Being Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2005-01-01

    Many future NASA missions will require electronic parts and circuits that can operate reliably and efficiently in extreme temperature environments below typical device specification temperatures. These missions include the Mars Exploration Laboratory, the James Webb Space Telescope, the Europa Orbiter, surface rovers, and deep-space probes. In addition to NASA, the aerospace and commercial sectors require cryogenic electronics in applications that include advanced satellites, military hardware, medical instrumentation, magnetic levitation, superconducting energy management and distribution, particle confinement and acceleration, and arctic missions. Besides surviving hostile space environments, electronics capable of low-temperature operation would enhance circuit performance, improve system reliability, extend lifetime, and reduce development and launch costs. In addition, cryogenic electronics are expected to result in more efficient systems than those at room temperature.

  14. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  15. James Parkinson: Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2013-11-01

    Parkinson's disease is a condition that anyone with a modicum of medical knowledge can recognise in the street--as indeed how it was studied by James Parkinson himself. Its three characteristic features are: 1. Increase in the tone of the voluntary muscles (rigidity). 2. Slowness of movement (bradykinesis). 3. Tremor (the characteristic 'pill rolling' movements of the fingers).

  16. The James Report Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William

    2008-01-01

    The 1972 Report of the Government's Committee of Inquiry into Teacher Education and Training (James Report) suggested radical changes, many of which conflicted both with the interests of existing providers and with emerging policies on the organisation of higher education. Its proposals concerning in-service education, whilst generally welcomed,…

  17. Winter Naming: James Welch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1970s James Welch enters American literature as an Indian postmodernist, a fractured classicist of the West, drawing fragments from both sides of the Buckskin Curtain. Reading the likes of Cesar Vallejo and early modernists from Ezra Pound to Theodore Roethke and decreationists such as Ray Carver (through Richard Hugo's tutelage at…

  18. Reply to James Muir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John

    2004-01-01

    In "EPAT", vol. 36, no. 1, 2004, James Muir takes the author and fellow philosophers of education to task for their ignorance of the history of philosophy of education. "[T]oo many currently influential educationists, Professor White in particular, are literally unaware that educational philosophy has a history more than three hundred years in…

  19. Teaching James Baldwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopate, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Advocates using James Baldwin's essays to motivate high school and college students to write and think critically. Contends Baldwin is the greatest American essayist since World War II. Cites Baldwin's love of language and his carefully crafted prose. Describes assignments in which students write about their mother or father or about growing up.…

  20. Learning from James Coleman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2001-01-01

    Examines three works by James Coleman: "Equality of Educational Opportunity" (the Coleman Report), 1966; Coleman's study of school busing and white flight in the 1970s; and his 1980s research on the advantages of private schools. His conclusions included: social composition is more important than school spending and socioeconomic integration is…

  1. Address by James C. Fletcher, Administrator National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C., 10 November 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Future plans and programs of the space agency are discussed. Topics discussed include solar energy, space stations, planetary exploration, interstellar exploration, the space shuttles, and satellites.

  2. William James on Teaching Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes philosopher William James' writings on political representation and participatory democracy. Although he argued in favor of democratic principles, James also strongly supported the role of a well-educated elite serving as leaders. Attempts to reconcile these contradictory positions and considers James' influence on the development of…

  3. William James's Talks about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    More than 100 years after it was published, William James's (1899/1939) book, "Talks to Teachers on Psychology," is relevant and helpful for teachers and those who aspire to teach. In this article, I highlight certain memorable points in "Talks" and relate them to James's (1890) classic work, "The Principles of Psychology." Many of James's…

  4. Studying microbiology with Glenn F. Webb.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Martin J

    2015-08-01

    I began working with Glenn F. Webb in 1997. At that time, I was on the faculty of Vanderbilt University, in the School of Medicine, in the Department of Medicine, in its Division of Infectious Diseases. As with mathematics, modern medicine has its different disciplines (e.g. Surgery and Internal Medicine), and then further subdivisions (e.g. Cardiology and Infectious Diseases). Within Internal Medicine, most of the divisions are based on the treatment of conditions that relate to a single organ or group of organs -- the heart, the lungs, the kidneys, the digestive system. But the discipline of Infectious Diseases was based on a different concept: the war between humans and microbes.

  5. An Improved Wavefront Control Algorithm for Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Wavefront sensing and control is required throughout the mission lifecycle of large space telescopes such as James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). When an optic of such a telescope is controlled with both surface-deforming and rigid-body actuators, the sensitivity-matrix obtained from the exit pupil wavefront vector divided by the corresponding actuator command value can sometimes become singular due to difference in actuator types and in actuator command values. In this paper, we propose a simple approach for preventing a sensitivity-matrix from singularity. We also introduce a new "minimum-wavefront and optimal control compensator". It uses an optimal control gain matrix obtained by feeding back the actuator commands along with the measured or estimated wavefront phase information to the estimator, thus eliminating the actuator modes that are not observable in the wavefront sensing process.

  6. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Jan. 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Jan. 31, 1934 WAREHOUSE, BUILDING NO. 2, (SOUTHEAST) FRONT + SIDE - Textile Mill & Storage Warehouse, U.S. Route 60, Grahamton, Meade County, KY

  7. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Feb. 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Feb. 3, 1934 FIREPLACE AND PANELING (LIVING ROOM SOUTHEAST) - Colonel William Whitley House, Stanford-Crab Orchard Pike, Stanford, Lincoln County, KY

  8. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 28, 1934 DETAIL INSIDE OF DOOR, DINING ROOM TO PORCH (SHOWING WOODEN LOCK) - Mount Lebanon, Peacock Road, Paris, Bourbon County, KY

  9. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 16, 1934 DETAIL OF WINDOW (EAST RECEPTION ROOM) - Kentucky School for the Blind, 1867 Frankfort Avenue, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  10. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 16, 1934 CORNICE DETAIL, WING (FROM MAIN ROOF) - Kentucky School for the Blind, 1867 Frankfort Avenue, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  11. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 16, 1934 DETAIL OF INTERIOR DOOR (RECEPTION ROOM) - Kentucky School for the Blind, 1867 Frankfort Avenue, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  12. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 16, 1934 DETAIL OF PORTICO CORNICE AND COLUMN CAP - Kentucky School for the Blind, 1867 Frankfort Avenue, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  13. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Mar. 16, 1934 DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE (SOUTH ELEVATION) - Kentucky School for the Blind, 1867 Frankfort Avenue, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  14. James Ferguson: A Commemoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenhall, Clive

    2010-11-01

    James Ferguson (1710-1776) was a renowned author and lecturer on scientific subjects and maker of scientific instruments. His Astronomy Explained upon Sir Isaac Newton's Principles of 1756 was an extremely popular non-mathematical exposition of Newton's ideas in English. He wrote numerous other books, some of which remained in print until the mid-nineteenth century. Ferguson rose from humble beginnings as a shepherd in northeast Scotland to become a wealthy lecturer, author and Fellow of the Royal Society, enjoying an international reputation. April 2010 marked the three hundredth anniversary of Ferguson's birth, and the present short communication briefly commemorates this event.

  15. James Van Allen and His Namesake NASA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.; Hoxie, V. C.; Jaynes, A.; Kale, A.; Kanekal, S. G.; Li, X.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2013-12-01

    In many ways, James A. Van Allen defined and "invented" modern space research. His example showed the way for government-university partners to pursue basic research that also served important national and international goals. He was a tireless advocate for space exploration and for the role of space science in the spectrum of national priorities.

  16. Servicing Mission 4 and the Extraordinary Science of the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Just two years ago, NASA astronauts performed a challenging and flawless final Space Shuttle servicing mission to the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope. With science instruments repaired on board and two new ones installed, the observatory. is more powerful now than ever before. I will show the dramatic highlights of the servicing mission and present some of the early scientific results from the refurbished telescope. Its high sensitivity and multi-wavelength capabilities are revealing the highest redshift galaxies ever seen, as well as details of the cosmic web of intergalactic medium, large scale structure formation, solar system bodies, and stellar evolution. Enlightening studies of dark matter, dark energy, and exoplanet atmospheres add to the profound contributions to astrophysics that are being made with Hubble, setting a critical stage for future observatories such as the James Webb Space Telescope.

  17. Sir James Lighthill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crighton, D. G.

    1999-05-01

    James Lighthill died on 17 July 1998, at the end of a ten-hour swim round the Channel Island of Sark. He had earlier, at age 49, been the first person ever to do this, and he was carrying out the swim for the seventh time when the exertion revealed a mitral valve weakness which had never been diagnosed, and which led to his sudden death in the water. The swim was one of many long ‘adventure swims’ which Lighthill liked to take, all characterized by strong tidal currents and often heavy seas. And Lighthill took much pleasure through exercising his comprehensive understanding of fluid mechanics first in preparing for them through study of local conditions and then in adapting his performance when, as often, he found that in practice the currents were not as charted and, in fact, often more treacherous.

  18. Concept-Development of a Structure Supported Membrane for Deployable Space Applications - From Nature to Manufacture and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zander, Martin; Belvin, W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Current space applications of membrane structures include large area solar power arrays, solar sails, antennas, and numerous other large aperture devices like the solar shades of the new James Webb Space Telescope. These expandable structural systems, deployed in-orbit to achieve the desired geometry, are used to collect, reflect and/or transmit electromagnetic radiation. This work, a feasibility study supporting a diploma thesis, describes the systematic process for developing a biologically inspired concept for a structure supported (integrated) membrane, that features a rip stop principle, makes self-deployment possible and is part of an ultra-light weight space application. Novel manufacturing of membrane prototypes and test results are presented for the rip-stop concepts. Test data showed that the new membrane concept has a higher tear resistance than neat film of equivalent mass.

  19. Astronaut James Lovell checks body temperature with oral temperature probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 7 pilot Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. has temperature check with oral temperature probe attached to his space suit during final preflight preparations for the Gemini 7 space mission. The temperature probe allows doctors to monitor astronauts body temperature at any time during the mission.

  20. Upgrades to Electronic Speckle Interferometer (ESPI) Operation and Data Analysis at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, Joseph; Blake, Peter; Jones, Joycelyn

    2008-01-01

    The authors report operational upgrades and streamlined data analysis of a commissioned electronic speckle interferometer (ESPI) in a permanent in-house facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Our ESPI was commercially purchased for use by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) development team. We have quantified and reduced systematic error sources, improved the software operability with a user-friendly graphic interface, developed an instrument simulator, streamlined data analysis for long-duration testing, and implemented a turn-key approach to speckle interferometry. We also summarize results from a test of the JWST support structure (previously published), and present new results from several pieces of test hardware at various environmental conditions.

  1. Improved Cryogenic Optical Test Capability at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Cryogenic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegley, Jeffrey; Haight, Harlan; Hogue, William; Carpenter, Jay; Siler, Richard; Wright, Ernie; Eng, Ron; Baker, Mark; McCracken, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray & Cryogenic Test Facility (XRCF) has been performing optical wavefront testing and thermal structural deformation testing at subliquid nitrogen cryogenic temperatures since 1999. Recent modifications have been made to the facility in support of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program. The test article envelope and the chamber's refrigeration capacity have both been increased. A new larger helium-cooled enclosure has been added to the existing enclosure increasing both the cross-sectional area and the length. This new enclosure is capable of supporting six JWST Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies. A second helium refrigeration system has been installed essentially doubling the cooling capacity available at the facility. Modifications have also been made to the optical instrumentation area. Improved access is now available for both the installation and operation of optical instrumentation outside the vacuum chamber. Chamber configuration, specifications, and performance data will be presented.

  2. James E. Keeler Pioneer Astrophysicist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Gives a short biography of James E. Keeler, and describes some of his outstanding discoveries, and his pioneering work in observational research where he applied physical methods to the analysis of planets, stars and nebulae. (GA)

  3. Webb Telescope Snapshot: Cryo-Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    The ISIM structure is inspected inside NASA’s Space Environment Simulator at the Goddard Space Flight Center after enduring weeks of temperatures less than minus 300 degrees Fahrenheit; the same ...

  4. Monitoring: a vital component of science at USGS WEBB sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, J. B.; Peters, N. E.; Campbell, D. H.; Clow, D. W.; Walker, J. F.; Hunt, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey launched its Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program in 1991 with the establishment of five long-term research watersheds. Monitoring of climate, hydrology, and chemistry is the cornerstone of WEBB scientific investigations. At Loch Vale, CO, long-term streamflow and climate monitoring indicated an increase rather than the expected decrease in the runoff:precipitation ratio during a drought in the early 2000s, indicating the melting of subsurface and glacial ice in the basin. At Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico, monitoring of mercury in precipitation revealed the highest recorded mercury wet deposition rates in the USA, an unexpected finding given the lack of point sources. At Panola Mountain, GA, long-term monitoring of soil- and groundwater revealed step shifts in chemical compositions in response to wet and drought cycles, causing a corresponding shift in stream chemistry. At Sleepers River, VT, WEBB funding has extended a long- term (since 1960) weekly snow water equivalent dataset which is a valuable integrating signal of regional climate trends. At Trout Lake, WI, long-term monitoring of lakes, ground-water levels, streamflow and subsurface water chemistry has generated a rich dataset for calibrating a watershed model, and allowed for efficient design of an automated procedure for sampling mercury during runoff events. The 17-plus years of monitoring at the WEBB watersheds provides a foundation for generating new scientific hypotheses, a basis for trend detection, and context for anomalous observations that often drive new research.

  5. Comment on "Symplectic integration of magnetic systems" by Stephen D. Webb [J. Comput. Phys. 270 (2014) 570-576

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuangxi; Jia, Yuesong; Sun, Qizhi

    2015-02-01

    Webb [1] proposed a method to get symplectic integrators of magnetic systems by Taylor expanding the discrete Euler-Lagrangian equations (DEL) which resulted from variational symplectic method by making the variation of the discrete action [2], and approximating the results to the order of O (h2), where h is the time step. And in that paper, Webb thought that the integrators obtained by that method are symplectic ones, especially, he treated Boris integrator (BI) as the symplectic one. However, we have questions about Webb's results. Theoretically the transformation of phase-space coordinates between two adjacent points induced by symplectic algorithm should conserve a symplectic 2-form [2-5]. As proved in Refs. [2,3], the transformations induced by the standard symplectic integrator derived from Hamilton and the variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [2,6] from Lagrangian should conserve a symplectic 2-forms. But the approximation of VSI to O (h2) obtained by that paper is hard to conserve a symplectic 2-form, contrary to the claim of [1]. In the next section, we will use BI as an example to support our point and will prove BI not to be a symplectic one but an integrator conserving discrete phase-space volume.

  6. James Carroll: a biography.

    PubMed

    del Regato, J A

    1998-10-01

    James Carroll was born in England in 1854; at the age of 15, he emigrated to Canada where he worked at various odd jobs. At age 20, he crossed the border and volunteered for the US Army, in which he remained for the rest of his life. Appointed as Hospital Steward, he became interested in medicine. He was permitted to take basic courses at St Paul University and later at Bellevue Hospital in New York. He received his MD degree in 1891 from the University of Maryland while still a sergeant. He then took the course in bacteriology offered by Welch at Hopkins. At an 1893 international exposition in Chicago, Carroll was put in charge of the Army's exhibit on bacteriology. He was then called to become Assistant Professor of Microscopy at the new Army Medical School; his senior there was Walter Reed. Both men were offered professorships in pathology and bacteriology at George Washington University, and in 1900, both were appointed to the US Board sent to Havana. After several weeks, the Board determined that the alleged agent causing yellow fever was Bacillus cholerae suis (Sanarelli). Visiting British researchers informed the Board of their favorable view of Carlos Finlay's theory that the disease was transmitted by the mosquito. The Board then visited Finlay, who gave them eggs of the particular species of mosquito that he had discovered to be the culprit. Board members Lazear and Carroll submitted themselves to the bite of an infected mosquito; both developed severe fever and Lazear died. The Board then carried out a well-planned experiment which proved that Finlay had been right for 20 years. Further experiments by Carroll showed that the agent could pass through a Berkefeld filter and was not bacterial.

  7. Electronics for Low Temperature Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2007-01-01

    Exploration missions to outer planets and deep space require spacecraft, probes, and on-board data and communication systems to operate reliably and efficiently under severe harsh conditions. On-board electronics, in particular those in direct exposures to the space environment without any shielding or protection, will encounter extreme low temperature and thermal cycling in their service cycle in most of NASA s upcoming exploration missions. For example, Venus atmosphere, Jupiter atmosphere, Moon surface, Pluto orbiter, Mars, comets, Titan, Europa, and James Webb Space Telescope all involve low-temperature surroundings. Therefore, electronics for space exploration missions need to be designed for operation under such environmental conditions. There are ongoing efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to establish a database on the operation and reliability of electronic devices and circuits under extreme temperature operation for space applications. This work is being performed under the Extreme Temperature Electronics Program with collaboration and support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The results of these investigations will be used to establish safe operating areas and to identify degradation and failure modes, and the information will be disseminated to mission planners and system designers for use as tools for proper part selection and in risk mitigation. An overview of this program along with experimental data will be presented.

  8. NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach: The Impact of the Space Telescope Science Institute Office of Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Denise Anne; Jirdeh, Hussein; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Villard, Ray; Green, Joel David

    2015-08-01

    As the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is uniquely positioned to captivate the imagination and inspire learners of all ages in humanity’s quest to understand fundamental questions about our universe and our place in it. This presentation will provide an overview of the impact of the STScI’s Office of Public Outreach’s efforts to engage students, educators, and the public in exploring the universe through audience-based news, education, and outreach programs.At the heart of our programs lies a tight coupling of scientific, education, and communications expertise. By partnering scientists and educators, we assure current, accurate science content and education products and programs that are classroom-ready and held to the highest pedagogical standards. Likewise, news and outreach programs accurately convey cutting-edge science and technology in a way that is attuned to audience needs. The combination of Hubble’s scientific capabilities, majestic imagery, and our deep commitment to create effective programs to share Hubble science with the education community and the public, has enabled the STScI Office of Public Outreach programs to engage 6 million students and ½ million educators per year, and 24 million online viewers per year. Hubble press releases generate approximately 5,000 online news articles per year with an average circulation of 125 million potential readers per press release news story. We will also share how best practices and lessons learned from this long-lived program are already being applied to engage a new generation of explorers in the science and technology of the James Webb Space Telescope.

  9. Timelapse: Webb's Ambient Optical Assembly Stand

    NASA Video Gallery

    The clean room at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., has received a giant structural steel frame called "AOAS," the Ambient Optical Assembly Stand that will be used to assemble t...

  10. Astronaut James Lovell hoisted from water by recovery helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, is hoisted from the water by a recovery helicopter from the Aircraft Carrier U.S.S. Wasp. Astronaut Frank Borman, command pilot, waits in the raft to be hoisted aboard the helicopter.

  11. John James Audubon & the Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    In the first half of the 1800s, John James Audubon roamed the wilds of America attempting to draw all the birds in their natural habitat. He published his life-sized paintings in a huge book entitled "Birds of America." Audubon developed a unique system of depicting the birds in natural poses, such as flying. After shooting the bird, he would wire…

  12. James B. Macdonald: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Dale L., Comp.; Brookbank, Gayle, Comp.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of James B. Macdonald's writings and printed speeches arranged chronologically according to the educator's themes of inquiry. Macdonald's videotaped autobiography identifies four explorative stages: (1) Scientism, (2) person-centered humanism, (3) sociopolitical humanism, and (4) transcendentalism, signaling a need for…

  13. Captain James Cook's antimony cup.

    PubMed

    McCallum, R I

    2001-12-01

    Medicinal cups made of pure antimony metal were once common but are now rare and only about ten have been described. An unusual cup which belonged to Captain James Cook, the explorer, which has not previously been reported in the medical literature is described here. PMID:11958223

  14. Formation Flying: The Future of Remote Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, Jesse

    2004-01-01

    Over the next two decades a revolution is likely to occur in how remote sensing of Earth, other planets or bodies, and a range of phenomena in the universe is performed from space. In particular, current launch vehicle fairing volume and mass constraints will continue to restrict the size of monolithic telescope apertures which can be launched to little or no greater size than that of the Hubble Space Telescope, the largest aperture currently flying in space. Systems under formulation today, such as the James Webb Space Telescope will be able to increase aperture size and, hence, imaging resolution, by deploying segmented optics. However, this approach is limited as well, by our ability to control such segments to optical tolerances over long distances with highly uncertain structural dynamics connecting them. Consequently, for orders of magnitude improved resolution as required for imaging black holes, imaging planets, or performing asteroseismology, the only viable approach will be to fly a collection of spacecraft in formation to synthesize a virtual segmented telescope or interferometer with very large baselines. This paper provides some basic definitions in the area of formation flying, describes some of the strategic science missions planned in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and identifies some of the critical technologies needed to enable some of the most challenging space missions ever conceived which have realistic hopes of flying.

  15. STS-104 MS James Reilly inside Atlantis during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-104 Mission Specialist James F. Reilly checks out equipment inside Atlantis. He and other crew members are taking part in a simulated countdown exercise, which is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The launch of Atlantis on mission STS-104 is scheduled July 12. The mission is the 10th flight to the International Space Station and carries the Joint Airlock Module and High Pressure Gas Assembly.

  16. STS-74 Pilot James D. Halsell in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-74 Pilot James D. Halsell Jr. gets ready to enter the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Assisting him are the white room closeout crew: (from left) KSC NASA quality assurance technician Eartha Shoemaker; KSC Lockheed closeout crew lead Mike Mangione; and Johnson Space Center Lockheed suit technician Ray Villalobos. Atlantis is scheduled for liftoff at about 7:30 a.m. EST, Nov. 12.

  17. Reflecting on Space Benefits: A Shining Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA has long been known for having developed the thin, shiny reflective material used to insulate everything from the Hubble Space Telescope to hikers, from the Mars rovers to marathon runners, from computers to campers, from satellites to sun shields, and from rockets to residences. It is one of the simplest, yet most versatile spinoffs to come out of the Agency. The insulating material, a strong, plastic, vacuum-metallized film with a highly-efficient, infrared-reflective, vapor-deposited coating of aluminum, was created to be very lightweight in order to minimize weight impact on vehicle payload while also protecting spacecraft, equipment, and personnel from the extreme temperature fluctuations of space. It has been employed on virtually all manned and unmanned NASA missions. The shiny insulation which coated the base of the Apollo lunar landing vehicles is perhaps one of the most memorable early displays of this technology, and the bright, reflective honeycomb on the James Webb Space Telescope prototype is a testament to its lasting usefulness.

  18. Obituary: James Houck (1940 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedman, Daniel; Barry, Donald; Soifer, Thomas

    James R. Houck, the leading figure in developing infrared spectroscopy for astrophysics, died in Ithaca, NY, on September 18, 2015, at age 74 from complications of Alzheimer's Disease. He was born on October 5, 1940, in Mobile, Alabama, but lived much of his early life in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he received his undergraduate degree from Carnegie Institute of Technology. Jim spent his scientific career at Cornell University. He came to Cornell as a physics graduate student in 1962 and remained until his retirement as the Kenneth A. Wallace Professor of Astronomy in 2012. His only year away from Ithaca was as a Guggenheim Fellow at Caltech, and he declined job offers from other universities because of his opinion that Ithaca provided the best environment for raising his family. His passion for learning, doing, and teaching science by building instruments and understanding physics led to great benefits for his students and astronomy colleagues. After receiving his PhD in condensed matter physics, he changed fields to work in astronomy at Cornell. He first collaborated with colleague Martin Harwit to develop a rocket program at Cornell for infrared observations and made numerous treks to the White Sands Missile Range flying payloads on Aerobee sounding rockets. Jim emphasized building spectrographs and making pioneering observations with ground based, airborne, and rocket-borne infrared instrumentation. Jim flew on every airplane NASA provided for astronomy. Those were pioneering times. One of his survival stories was of the Learjet in which both engines flamed out over the Pacific when the pilot did a celebratory barrel role after successful completion of their observations. His observations with rockets and airplanes were primarily of a variety of Galactic objects, including planetary nebulae, HII regions, and stars. But the most notable was an observation on the Convair 990 that produced a prescient discovery paper in 1973 led by Jim which discovered bound

  19. Improving active space telescope wavefront control using predictive thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica; Perrin, Marshall D.

    2015-01-01

    Active control algorithms for space telescopes are less mature than those for large ground telescopes due to differences in the wavefront control problems. Active wavefront control for space telescopes at L2, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), requires weighing control costs against the benefits of correcting wavefront perturbations that are a predictable byproduct of the observing schedule, which is known and determined in advance. To improve the control algorithms for these telescopes, we have developed a model that calculates the temperature and wavefront evolution during a hypothetical mission, assuming the dominant wavefront perturbations are due to changes in the spacecraft attitude with respect to the sun. Using this model, we show that the wavefront can be controlled passively by introducing scheduling constraints that limit the allowable attitudes for an observation based on the observation duration and the mean telescope temperature. We also describe the implementation of a predictive controller designed to prevent the wavefront error (WFE) from exceeding a desired threshold. This controller outperforms simpler algorithms even with substantial model error, achieving a lower WFE without requiring significantly more corrections. Consequently, predictive wavefront control based on known spacecraft attitude plans is a promising approach for JWST and other future active space observatories.

  20. An Evolvable Space Telescope for Future Astronomical Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.; Breckinridge, James B.; Lillie, Charles F.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Flannery, Martin; Dailey, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical flagship missions after the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will require lower cost space telescopes and science instruments. Innovative spacecraft-electro-opto-mechanical system architectures matched to the science requirements are needed for observations for exoplanet characterization, cosmology, dark energy, galactic evolution formation of stars and planets, and many other research areas. The needs and requirements to perform this science will continue to drive us toward larger and larger apertures.Recent technology developments in precision station keeping of spacecraft, interplanetary transfer orbits, wavefront/sensing and control, laser engineering, macroscopic application of nano-technology, lossless optical designs, deployed structures, thermal management, interferometry, detectors and signal processing enable innovative telescope/system architectures with break-through performance.Unfortunately, NASA's budget for Astrophysics is unlikely to be able to support the funding required for the 8-m to 16-m telescopes that have been studied for the follow-on to JWST using similar development/assembly approaches without accounting for too large of a portion of the Astrophysics Division's budget. Consequently, we have been examining the feasibility of developing an 'Evolvable Space Telescope' that would be 3 to 4-m when placed on orbit and then periodically augmented with additional mirror segments, structures, and newer instruments to evolve the telescope and achieve the performance of a 16-m space telescope.This paper reviews the technologies required for such a mission, identifies candidate architectures, and discusses different science measurement objectives for these architectures.

  1. STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk, Ph.D., tosses mission hats to his two children shortly after arrival at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. The crew of STS-90 arrived at KSC in preparation for their mission, scheduled for launch from KSC's Launch Pad 39B on April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT. The flight of Neurolab is scheduled to last nearly 17 days.

  2. JAMES RIVER FACE WILDERNESS, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C. Ervin; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey concluded that the James River Face Wilderness, Virginia, had little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Two major rock units in the area do contain large nonmetallic mineral resources of quartzite and shale that have been mined for silica products and for brick and expanded aggregate, respectively. Because large deposits of the same material are more easily available in nearby areas, demand for the deposits within the wilderness is highly unlikely. No energy resources were identified in the course of this study.

  3. James Hillman (1926-2011).

    PubMed

    Stern, E Mark

    2012-09-01

    Presents an obituary for James Hillman. James Hillman, the third child of Madeline and Julian Hillman, died of metastatic bone cancer at his home in Thompson, Connecticut, on October 27, 2011. The parent of "archetypal psychology," he was born on April 12, 1926, at the Breakers, a then-opulent hotel founded by his family that overlooked the boardwalk and beach in Atlantic City, New Jersey. With an extensive footing in the classics and classical humanism, Jim established the foundations for his emerging archetypal psychology. With archetypal psychology, he was to move away from a dependence on the concept of a personal ego in favor of larger sources that relied on his notion of variegated identity. He proposed a profusion of mythical images that emerge under the rubric of "soul." Soul stands as an appellation indicating a deepening of psychic events, such as when dreams, chaos, and "pathologizing" (the struggles of imagination) are most experienced. For Hillman, psychology could not be taken as a separate discipline isolated from mythology, literature, art, philosophy, politics, religion, natural science, and the ordinary affairs of individuals. Hillman envisioned archetypes as processes that bear evidence to personal suffering and, in so doing, prompt the expansion of compassion. In 1975, Jim was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize for his book Re-Visioning Psychology (Harper & Row). In addition to many other citations, Jim had the high honor in 2001 of receiving the Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic. PMID:22963419

  4. Exploring the Birth and Evolution of the Universe: How Detectors Have Revolutionized Space Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Samuel H.

    2012-01-01

    The past century has seen tremendous advances in the capability of instruments used for astronomical imaging and spectroscopy. Capabilities of instruments have expanded in many dimensions; the scale of telescopes has grown tremendously, the wavelengths used for astronomy have grown from visible light to the full electromagnetic spectrum, extending from gamma rays to low frequency radio waves. Additional advances have been enabled by the availability of space facilities, which eliminate the effects of the earths atmosphere and magnetosphere, and allow cooling of instruments to avoid instrumental thermal radiation. Even with all these advances, the increase in capability of detection systems has produced truly revolutionary improvements in capability. Today, I will describe the advances in astronomical detection from the photographic plates of the early 20th century to the giant high efficiency focal planes being developed for modern space and ground based astronomical instrument. I will review the demanding performance requirements set by space astronomy, and show how the detector community has risen to the challenge in producing high performance detectors for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the James Webb Space Telescope, now under development.

  5. Active Space Telescope Systems - A New Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Coulter, D. R.; Gallagher, D. B.; Hickey, G. S.; Laskin, R. A.; Redding, D. C.; Traub, W. A.; Werner, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    New active optics technologies are rapidly maturing that will enable outstanding scientific performance for the next generation of astronomical space telescopes, while dramatically reducing cost drivers such as mass and manufacturing time. Using these technologies, NASA can, with modest further development, field high-performance space telescopes at a cost, risk and development schedule substantially below historical norms. Many key elements of this new system architecture are currently, or soon will be, demonstrated at TRL 6 or even space qualified through previous and ongoing work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This paper describes the overall architecture, discusses the current status of the relevant active optics technologies, and proposes a technology development path to address the remaining elements for some specific NASA science mission examples. Our approach is a new paradigm for moderate-to-large space telescopes, building on the advancements incorporated into the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) including primary and secondary mirror deployment, segmented optics and a modest level of active control. The primary new ingredients of the flight system are lightweight, easily replicable, mirror segments, incorporating actuators which can control the segment figure on orbit; a robust Wavefront Sensing and Control system to establish the overall figure, phasing, and alignment; and a real time, high dynamic range, high precision control system which maintains the rigid body alignment of the segments to the required precision. This controllability makes it possible to fabricate and assemble to looser tolerances, while reducing overall mission risk. In addition, the control system can greatly simplify the lengthy and expensive integration and test process that is faced by all large telescope missions. The research described in this talk was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National

  6. Writing siblings: Alice James and her brothers.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anne Golomb

    2015-02-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of writing to embodiment, through representations of bodily sensation and fantasy in the journal of Alice James. It considers Alice James's writing in relation to her two writer brothers, William and Henry, and in light of their father's experiences of impairment and breakdown.

  7. Henry James on the Art of Acting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David W.

    Henry James, the nineteenth-century American novelist, also served on occasion as a theatre critic. Between 1875 and 1890 he reviewed several productions in Boston, New York, London, and Paris for "Atlantic Monthly" and other periodicals. The reviews are of interest because of James' high standards regarding acting and his often devasting comments…

  8. James Paget Henry--a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Meehan, J P; Meehan, W P

    1997-01-01

    James Paget Henry really began his productive research career at the outset of the second world war. His studies of acceleration and the anoxia of high altitude were supported by the development of then new techniques of measuring and recording critical physiologic parameters such as vascular pressures, respiratory functions and haemoglobin saturation. His inquisitive mind made productive use of the instruments that had to be made by skilled instrument makers working in university shops. Much of this instrumentation has now found its way into the clinical arena where it is now the main armamentarium of cardiac diagnostic and respiratory function laboratories. His work in the space program preceeded that of the Russians but did not get recognition until Sputnik awakened the world to the possibilities of space flight. His development of the concept of a cardiovascular basis for fluid volume control and the supportive investigative work undertaken constitute a milestone in the annals of experimental physiology. The chimpanzees used in Project Mercury were found to be hypertensive which was related to the method of capture used by the commercial suppliers. This lead Jim to study the effect of early experience on resting blood pressure, an effort that soon developed into provocative studies of the biological basis of the stress response.

  9. James Paget Henry--a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Meehan, J P; Meehan, W P

    1997-01-01

    James Paget Henry really began his productive research career at the outset of the second world war. His studies of acceleration and the anoxia of high altitude were supported by the development of then new techniques of measuring and recording critical physiologic parameters such as vascular pressures, respiratory functions and haemoglobin saturation. His inquisitive mind made productive use of the instruments that had to be made by skilled instrument makers working in university shops. Much of this instrumentation has now found its way into the clinical arena where it is now the main armamentarium of cardiac diagnostic and respiratory function laboratories. His work in the space program preceeded that of the Russians but did not get recognition until Sputnik awakened the world to the possibilities of space flight. His development of the concept of a cardiovascular basis for fluid volume control and the supportive investigative work undertaken constitute a milestone in the annals of experimental physiology. The chimpanzees used in Project Mercury were found to be hypertensive which was related to the method of capture used by the commercial suppliers. This lead Jim to study the effect of early experience on resting blood pressure, an effort that soon developed into provocative studies of the biological basis of the stress response. PMID:9401600

  10. Potential large missions enabled by NASA's space launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David A.; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-07-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and a LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-Ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8 or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45-mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper reviews the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, discusses potential implications of these capacities for designing large space telescope missions, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  11. Potential Large Decadal Missions Enabled by Nasas Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David Alan; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and a LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-Ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8 or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45-mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper reviews the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, discusses potential implications of these capacities for designing large space telescope missions, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  12. Developing and Testing SpaceWire Devices and Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; Mills, Stuart

    2014-08-01

    SpaceWire is a data-handling network for use on-board spacecraft, which connects together instruments, mass-memory, processors, downlink telemetry, and other on-board sub-systems [1]. SpaceWire is simple to implement and has some specific characteristics that help it support data-handling applications in space: high-speed, low-power, simplicity, relatively low implementation cost, and architectural flexibility making it ideal for many space missions. SpaceWire provides high-speed (2 Mbits/s to 200 Mbits/s), bi-directional, full-duplex data-links, which connect together SpaceWire enabled equipment. Data-handling networks can be built to suit particular applications using point-to-point data-links and routing switches. Since the SpaceWire standard was published in January 2003, it has been adopted by ESA, NASA, JAXA and RosCosmos for many missions and is being widely used on scientific, Earth observation, commercial and other spacecraft. High-profile missions using SpaceWire include: Gaia, ExoMars rover, Bepi-Colombo, James Webb Space Telescope, GOES-R, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Astro-H. The development and testing of the SpaceWire links and networks used on these and many other spacecraft currently under development, requires a comprehensive array of test equipment. In this paper the requirements for test equipment fulfilling key test functions are outlined and then equipment that meets these requirements is described. Finally the all-important software that operates with the test equipment is introduced.

  13. Doctors, disease and James Joyce.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert M

    2008-08-01

    The Irish author James Joyce is regarded as the greatest modernist writer of his time. His works, notably The Dead, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ulysses and Finnegans Wake--are intensely autobiographic including meticulous descriptions of illness and states of health--no surprise in view of Joyce's medical history and hypochondria. The Dead revolves around the tragic love of a doomed tubercular youth. Ulysses has a graphic description of Mary Joyce-s death, a funeral and a birth; Stephen Dedalus, the character based on Joyce, attends a drinking session with medical students at the lying-in hospital just as Joyce had done as a student; references to syphilis, alcoholism and other illnesses abound. PMID:18704219

  14. Doctors, disease and James Joyce.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert M

    2008-08-01

    The Irish author James Joyce is regarded as the greatest modernist writer of his time. His works, notably The Dead, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ulysses and Finnegans Wake--are intensely autobiographic including meticulous descriptions of illness and states of health--no surprise in view of Joyce's medical history and hypochondria. The Dead revolves around the tragic love of a doomed tubercular youth. Ulysses has a graphic description of Mary Joyce-s death, a funeral and a birth; Stephen Dedalus, the character based on Joyce, attends a drinking session with medical students at the lying-in hospital just as Joyce had done as a student; references to syphilis, alcoholism and other illnesses abound.

  15. Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT): An Architecture Demonstration for Cost-effective Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Hagopian, John; Budinoff, Jason; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to demonstrate a new type of space telescope architecture that builds on the rigid, segmented telescope heritage of the James Webb Space Telescope but that solves several key challenges for future space telescopes. The architecture is based on a cost-effective segmented spherical primary mirror combined with a unique wavefront sensing and control system that allows for continuous phasing of the primary mirror. The segmented spherical primary allows for cost-effective 3-meter class (eg, Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enables 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time and for a reasonable amount of money. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions in low-earth-orbit and missions that do not require expensive stable structures and thermal control systems. For the 30-meter class applications, the paper discusses considerations for assembling and testing the telescopes in space. The paper also summarizes the scientific and technological roadmap for the architecture and also gives an overview of technology development, design studies, and testbed activities underway to demonstrate it s feasibility.

  16. Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT): An Architecture Demonstration for Cost-effective Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Hagopian, John; Budinoff, Jason; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to demonstrate a new type of space telescope architecture that builds on the rigid segmented telescope heritage of the James Webb Space Telescope but that solves several key challenges for future space telescopes. The architecture is based on a cost-effective segmented spherical primary mirror combined with a unique wavefront sensing and control system that allows for continuous phasing of the primary mirror. The segmented spherical primary allows for cost-effective 3-meter class (e.g., Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enables 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time and for a reasonable amount of money. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions in low-earth-orbit and missions that do not require expensive stable structures and thermal control systems. For the 30-meter class applications, the paper discusses considerations for assembling and testing the telescopes in space. The paper also summarizes the scientific and technological roadmap for the architecture and also gives an overview of technology development, design studies, and testbed activities underway to demonstrate its feasibility.

  17. Breakthrough Capability for UVOIR Space Astronomy: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present a proof of concept case study in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. We also present flight dynamics analysis which illustrates that this concept can be extended beyond Explorers to substantially improve the sensitivity performance of heavier (7000 kg) flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope by using high power SEP that is being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission.

  18. Breakthrough Capability for UVOIR Space Astronomy: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffery W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present two case studies in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class and 7000 kg flagship-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. Similarly, we find that astrophysics utilization of high power SEP being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission (ARRM) can have a substantial impact on the sensitivity performance of heavier flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope.

  19. Pupil Alignment Considerations for Large, Deployable Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent J.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Kubalak, Daivd A.

    2011-01-01

    For many optical systems the properties and alignment of the internal apertures and pupils are not critical or controlled with high precision during optical system design, fabrication or assembly. In wide angle imaging systems, for instance, the entrance pupil position and orientation is typically unconstrained and varies over the system s field of view in order to optimize image quality. Aperture tolerances usually do not receive the same amount of scrutiny as optical surface aberrations or throughput characteristics because performance degradation is typically graceful with misalignment, generally only causing a slight reduction in system sensitivity due to vignetting. But for a large deployable space-based observatory like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), we have found that pupil alignment is a key parameter. For in addition to vignetting, JWST pupil errors cause uncertainty in the wavefront sensing process that is used to construct the observatory on-orbit. Furthermore they also open stray light paths that degrade the science return from some of the telescope s instrument channels. In response to these consequences, we have developed several pupil measurement techniques for the cryogenic vacuum test where JWST science instrument pupil alignment is verified. These approaches use pupil alignment references within the JWST science instruments; pupil imaging lenses in three science instrument channels; and unique pupil characterization features in the optical test equipment. This will allow us to verify and crosscheck the lateral pupil alignment of the JWST science instruments to approximately 1-2% of their pupil diameters.

  20. Breakthrough capability for UVOIR space astronomy: Reaching the darkest sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-02-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present a proof of concept case study in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. We also present flight dynamics analysis which illustrates that this concept can be extended beyond Explorers to substantially improve the sensitivity performance of heavier (7000 kg) flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope by using high power SEP that is being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission.

  1. Breakthrough capability for UVOIR space astronomy: reaching the darkest sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2014-08-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present two case studies in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class and 7000 kg flagship-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. Similarly, we find that astrophysics utilization of high power SEP being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission (ARRM) can have a substantial impact on the sensitivity performance of heavier flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope.

  2. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY AND MODELS FOR SOLAR ANALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlin, R. C.

    2010-04-15

    Absolute flux distributions for seven solar analog stars are measured from 0.3 to 2.5 {mu}m by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectrophotometry. In order to predict the longer wavelength mid-IR fluxes that are required for James Webb Space Telescope calibration, the HST spectral energy distributions are fit with Castelli and Kurucz model atmospheres; and the results are compared with fits from the MARCS model grid. The rms residuals in 10 broadband bins are all <0.5% for the best fits from both model grids. However, the fits differ systematically: the MARCS fits are 40-100 K hotter in T {sub eff}, 0.25-0.80 higher in log g, 0.01-0.10 higher in log z, and 0.008-0.021 higher in the reddening E(B - V), probably because their specifications include different metal abundances. Despite these differences in the parameters of the fits, the predicted mid-IR fluxes differ by only {approx}1%; and the modeled flux distributions of these G stars have an estimated ensemble accuracy of 2% out to 30 {mu}m.

  3. Green Summer and Icy Winter in James Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    One year ago, in late February 2000, MISR began acquiring Earth imagery. Its 'first light' images showed a frozen James Bay in the Ontario-Quebec region of Canada. These more recent nadir-camera views of the same area illuminate stark contrasts between summer and winter. The left-hand image was acquired on August 9, 2000 (Terra orbit 3427), and the right-hand image is from January 16, 2001 (Terra orbit 5757).

    James Bay lies at the southern end of Hudson Bay. It is named for the English explorer Thomas James, who first explored the area in 1631 while searching for the Northwest Passage. Visible in these images are some of the many rivers that flow into the bay; starting at the southern tip and moving clockwise on the western side are the Harricana, Moose, Albany, and Attawapiskat. The latter enters the bay just to the west of the large, crescent-shaped Akimiski Island.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  4. The Teaching Spirit of William James

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, James H.

    2003-01-01

    William James provided not only practical advice to teachers but also wisdom concerning values in living. Statements from his students show his qualities as a teacher, although some of his statements convey his ambivalence about teaching.

  5. Far-Infrared Space Interferometers: Future Windows on Star and Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    2004-01-01

    Far-IR space interferometers will provide observational access to a spectral region containing many important cooling and diagnostic spectral lines and the bulk of the thermal emission from dust at angular scales critical to advancing our understanding of the star and planet formation process. We will describe concepts for the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS). Both of these candidate NASA missions are imaging and spectral Michelson interferometers operating in the wavelength range -40 - 800 microns. SPIRIT, which could be launched in a decade as a NASA Origins Probe, is built on a deployable boom and has a maximum baseline length of -30 - 50 m, yielding sub-arcsecond resolution in the far-IR. SPIRIT will thus provide far-IR/sub-mm measurements complementary to the near- and mid-IR measurements obtainable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and well matched to JWST observations in angular resolution. Ultimately SPECS, a NASA Vision Mission, will use formation flying to attain baseline lengths up to 1 km, and thus angular resolution comparable to that of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. We will report preliminary results of the NASA-sponsored SPIRIT and SPECS mission studies, which are now underway.

  6. Astronaut James S. Voss Performs Tasks in the Destiny Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut James S. Voss, Expedition Two flight engineer, works with a series of cables on the EXPRESS Rack in the United State's Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). The EXPRESS Rack is a standardized payload rack system that transports, stores, and supports experiments aboard the ISS. EXPRESS stands for EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to the Space Station, reflecting the fact that this system was developed specifically to maximize the Station's research capabilities. The EXPRESS Rack system supports science payloads in several disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, ecology, and medicine. With the EXPRESS Rack, getting experiments to space has never been easier or more affordable. With its standardized hardware interfaces and streamlined approach, the EXPRESS Rack enables quick, simple integration of multiple payloads aboard the ISS. The system is comprised of elements that remain on the ISS, as well as elements that travel back and forth between the ISS and Earth via the Space Shuttle.

  7. NASA/BAE SYSTEMS SpaceWire Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments of SpaceWire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements SpaceWire in Register Transfer Level (RTL) VHDL for a SpaceWire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the SpaceWire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for Spaceflight worthy FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented on their .25micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS drivers/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed SpaceWire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for SpaceWire has been identified by both NASA And ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach that works end-to-end. This layer needs to be implemented in hardware to prevent bottlenecks.

  8. NASA Astrophysics E/PO: A Quarter Century of Discovery and Inspiration with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirdeh, Hussein; Straughn, Amber; Smith, Denise Anne; Eisenhamer, Bonnie

    2015-08-01

    April 24, 2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. In its quarter-century in orbit, the Hubble Space Telescope has transformed the way we understand the Universe, helped us find our place among the stars, and paved the way to incredible advancements in science and technology.In this presentation, we explain how NASA and ESA, including the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and partners, is using the 25th anniversary of Hubble’s launch as a unique opportunity to communicate to students, educators, and the public the significance of the past quarter-century of discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope. We describe the various programs, resources, and experiences we are utilizing to enhancethe public understanding of Hubble’s many contributions to the scientific world. These include educator professional development opportunities, exhibits, events, traditional and social media, and resources for educators (formal k-12, informal, and higher education). We also highlight how we are capitalizing on Hubble’s cultural popularity to make the scientific connection to NASA’s next Great Observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope.This presentation highlights many of the opportunities by which students, educators, and the public are joining in the anniversary activities, both in-person and online. Find out more at hubble25th.org and follow #Hubble25 on social media.

  9. St. James marine terminal facility description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  10. Using Webb gliders to maintain a sustained ocean presence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, O.; Kohut, J.; Glenn, S.

    2009-05-01

    Buoyancy driven Slocum gliders were a vision of Douglas Webb, which Henry Stommel championed in a vision published in 1989. Slocum gliders have transitioned from a concept to a technology serving research and environmental stewardship. The long duration and low costs of gliders allow them to anchor spatial time series. Large distances, over 600 km, can be covered using a set of alkaline batteries. Lithium batteries can anchor missions that are thousands of kilometers in length. Since the initial tests, a wide range of physical and optical sensors have been integrated into the glider allowing measurements of temperature, salinity, depth averaged currents, surface currents, fluorescence, apparent/inherent optical properties active and passive acoustics. A command/control center, entitled Dockserver, has been developed that allows users to fly fleets of gliders simultaneously in multiple places around the world via the Internet. Since October 2003, Rutgers gliders have conducted 157 missions, traversed >55,000 kilometers, logged >2600 days at sea, and logged ~350,000 vertical profiles. The capabilities of the glider make them an indispensable tool for the growing global effort to build integrated ocean observatories. For example, gliders are now a central tool within the National Science Foundation Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Gliders provide a new magnet in which to attract young people into the ocean science and engineering. For example Rutgers undergraduates now anchor long duration flights of gliders world-wide beginning their freshmen year. This is critical to training the next generation.

  11. STS-114 Crew Interview: James M. Kelly, PLT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Pilot James M. Kelly, Lieutenant Colonel USAF, is shown during a prelaunch interview. He expresses the major goals of the mission which are to replace the Expedition Six crew of the International Space Station (ISS), install the Raffello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, deliver the External Stowage Platform to the ISS, and replace the Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG). The major task that he has is to be the backup pilot for Commander Eileen Collins. He talks about the three new research racks brought up to the International Space Station inside the U.S. Destiny Laboratory along with the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), Human Research Facility 2 (HRF-2), and a Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer (MELF-1). Kelly also explains how he uses the ISS' Robotic arm to lift the MPLM out of Atlantis' payload bay and attach it to the Unity node to unload hardware, supplies and maintenance items. This will be his second trip to the International Space Station.

  12. STS-83 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr. suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-83 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr., gives a thumbs-up after he is assisted into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. Halsell is on his third space flight, having served as pilot of both STS-74 and STS-65. He is a lieutenant colonel in the Air Force and a former SR-71 Blackbird test pilot and holds master's degrees in management and space operations. Halsell will have responsibility for the success of the mission and will operate and maintain Columbia during the Red, or second shift. He will also assist with a materials science experiment and a protein crystal growth payload during the 16-day mission. Halsell and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 2:00 p.m. EST, April 4.

  13. Space astronomy and astrophysics program by CSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurin, Denis; Ouellet, Alain; Dupuis, Jean; Chicoine, Ruth-Ann

    2014-07-01

    Canada became actively engaged in space astronomy in the 1990s by contributing two fine guidance sensors to the FUSE Far-UV mission (NASA 1999-2008). In the same period, Canada contributed to ODIN's infrared instrument (ESA 2001-2006) and correlators for VSOP (JAXA 1997-2005). In early 2000, Canada developed its own space telescope, Micro-variability and Observations of STars (MOST), a 15-cm telescope on a microsatellite, operating since 2003, and more recently contributed to the realization of the BRITE nanosatellites constellation. Canada also provided hardware to the European Space Agency's Herschel HIFI instrument and simulators to the SPIRE instrument and data analysis tools for Planck. More recently the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) delivered detector units for the UVIT instrument on board the Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) ASTROSAT. The CSA's most important contribution to a space astronomy mission to date is the Fine Guidance Senor (FGS) and Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) instrument to NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. The CSA is currently building the laser metrology system for JAXA's ASTRO-H hard X-ray telescope. Canadian astronomers contributed to several high profile stratospheric balloon projects investigating the CMB and the CSA recently established a balloon launch facility. As expressed in Canada's new Space Policy Framework announced in February 2014, Canada remains committed to future space exploration endeavors. The policy aims at ensure that Canada is a sought-after partner in the international space exploration missions that serve Canada's national interests; and continuing to invest in the development of Canadian contributions in the form of advanced systems and optical instruments. In the longer term, through consultations and in keeping the Canadian astronomical community's proposed Long Range Plan, the CSA is exploring possibilities to contributions to important missions such as WFIRST, SPICA and Athena

  14. NASA Astrophysics E/PO: The Impact of the Space Telescope Science Institute Office of Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Denise A.; Jirdeh, Hussein; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Villard, Ray

    2015-01-01

    As the science operations center for Hubble and Webb, the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is uniquely positioned to captivate the imagination and inspire learners of all ages in humanity's quest to understand fundamental questions about our universe and our place in it. With the 25th anniversary of Hubble's launch and deployment approaching in April 2015, this presentation will provide an overview of the impact of the STScI's Office of Public Outreach's programs to engage students, educators, and the public in exploring the universe through audience-based news, education, and outreach programs. At the heart of our programs lies a tight coupling of scientific, education, and communications expertise. By partnering scientists and educators, we assure current, accurate science content and education products and programs that are classroom-ready and held to the highest pedagogical standards. Likewise, news and outreach programs accurately convey cutting-edge science and technology in a way that is attuned to audience needs. The combination of Hubble's scientific capabilities and majestic imagery, together with a deep commitment to creating effective programs to share Hubble science with the education community and the public, has enabled the STScI Office of Public Outreach programs to engage 6 million students and ½ million educators per year, and 24 million online viewers per year. Hubble press releases generate approximately 5,000 online news articles per year with an average circulation of 125 million potential readers per press release news story. We will also share how best practices and lessons learned from this long-lived program are already being applied to engage a new generation of explorers in the science and technology of the James Webb Space Telescope.

  15. William james, gustav fechner, and early psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Stephanie L

    2011-01-01

    American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James's unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the "hard problems" of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James's reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his "radically empiricist" ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James's long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more "wayward and fitful" aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James's thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his "transmission theory" of consciousness, his ideas on the "knowing of things together," and, finally, the related concept of "the compounding of consciousness," which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to "know" the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a "distributive model," based on his understanding of consciousness as an "awareness" that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to, its environment.

  16. William james, gustav fechner, and early psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Stephanie L

    2011-01-01

    American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James's unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the "hard problems" of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James's reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his "radically empiricist" ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James's long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more "wayward and fitful" aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James's thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his "transmission theory" of consciousness, his ideas on the "knowing of things together," and, finally, the related concept of "the compounding of consciousness," which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to "know" the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a "distributive model," based on his understanding of consciousness as an "awareness" that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to, its environment. PMID:22016738

  17. Selected achievements, science directions, and new opportunities for the WEBB small watershed research program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Larsen, Matthew C.; Greene, Earl A.; Buss, Heather L.; Clow, David W.; Hunt, Randall J.; Mast, M. Alisa; Murphy, Sheila F.; Peters, Norman E.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Shanley, James B.; Walker, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Over nearly two decades, the Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) small watershed research program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented how water and solute fluxes, nutrient, carbon, and mercury dynamics, and weathering and sediment transport respond to natural and humancaused drivers, including climate, climate change, and atmospheric deposition. Together with a continued and increasing focus on the effects of climate change, more investigations are needed that examine ecological effects (e.g., evapotranspiration, nutrient uptake) and responses (e.g., species abundances, biodiversity) that are coupled with the physical and chemical processes historically observed in the WEBB program. Greater use of remote sensing, geographic modeling, and habitat/watershed modeling tools is needed, as is closer integration with the USGS-led National Phenology Network. Better understanding of process and system response times is needed. The analysis and observation of land-use and climate change effects over time should be improved by pooling data obtained by the WEBB program during the last two decades with data obtained earlier and (or) concurrently from other research and monitoring studies conducted at or near the five WEBB watershed sites. These data can be supplemented with historical and paleo-environmental information, such as could be obtained from tree rings and lake cores. Because of the relatively pristine nature and small size of its watersheds, the WEBB program could provide process understanding and basic data to better characterize and quantify ecosystem services and to develop and apply indicators of ecosystem health. In collaboration with other Federal and State watershed research programs, the WEBB program has an opportunity to contribute to tracking the short-term dynamics and long-term evolution of ecosystem services and health indicators at a multiplicity of scales across the landscape. 

  18. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Display model of space station concept--Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory in Saturn S-IVB Orbit configuration. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995).

  19. Speculation on Curriculum from the Perspective of William James.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, William H; Zissis, Georgiana

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses the implications for curriculum theory, research, and practice of William James' thought. Also considered is the question of what curriculum theory and research might be like if James had garnered greater influence than Thorndike. (IAH)

  20. William James, Philosophical Father of Experience-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, George W.; Vinson, Richard

    1979-01-01

    The article briefly describes the life of William James, nineteenth-century philosopher and psychologist, noting the development of his pragmatist philosophy. The article uses James' work and ideas to support 11 principles of contemporary experience-based education. (SB)

  1. Apollo 8 Astronaut James Lovell On Phone With President Johnson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 8 Astronaut James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot of the first manned Saturn V space flight into Lunar orbit, accepted a phone call from the U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson prior to launch. Lovell, along with astronauts William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) pilot, and Frank Borman, commander, launched aboard the Apollo 8 mission on December 21, 1968 and returned safely to Earth on December 27, 1968. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

  2. James E. Healy Greeted By Astronauts and MSFC Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Bayport, New York high school student, James E. Healy, is greeted by (left to right): Astronauts Russell L. Schweickart, and Owen K. Garriott; Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Skylab Program Manager, Leland Belew; and MSFC Director of Administration and Technical Services, David Newby, during a tour of MSFC. Healy was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.

  3. James Bernard Russell: Scholar, collaborator, mentor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the time of his untimely death in 2009, ARS scientist Dr. James B. Russell had established himself as the premier rumen microbiologist of his generation. Dr. Russell’s many contributions to the field, including much of the early work on the Cornell Net Carbohydrate System model, were the product ...

  4. James Madison and the Constitutional Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Part 1 of this three-part article traces James Madison's life and focuses primarily on those events that prepared him for leadership in the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787. It describes his early love of learning, education, and public service efforts. Part 2 chronicles Madison's devotion to study and preparation prior to the Constitutional…

  5. The Religion Journalism of James Gordon Bennett.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddenbaum, Judith M.

    A study was conducted to examine the journalism work of James Gordon Bennett, who founded the "New York Herald" in the 1830s, and to determine the nature of his coverage of religion before, during, and after the "Moral War" waged in 1840 against Bennett's popular newspaper. In addition, the study analyzed what Bennett's religion coverage reveals…

  6. The James Bay Project: Reaction or Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackwood, Gae

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the plan to restructure northern Quebec's landscape through the James Bay hydroelectric project. Suggests that the project offers opportunities to study development versus preservation, federal versus provincial powers, and the conflict between business and Native communities. Explores the need to teach students to care about social…

  7. Astronaut James Buchli wearing extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut James F. Buchli, wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), is about to be submerged in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) to simulate a contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for STS 61-A. In this portrait view, Buchli is wearing a communications carrier assembly (CCA).

  8. Committed to the Cause: James Forman Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Steeped in the values of the civil rights movement, James Forman Jr. has charted a path into academia that has demonstrated both a keen commitment to social justice as well as impressive legal and academic achievements. Among his most notable accomplishments prior to his Georgetown appointment in 2003, Forman co-founded the nationally acclaimed…

  9. A Reflective Conversation with James H. Borland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy-Lynne; Borland, James H.

    2014-01-01

    James H. Borland, Ph.D. is Professor of Education in the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City. In this reflective conversation, he reflects on his experiences in an urban environment and the current challenges in gifted education. He argues for ongoing diagnosis of learners' needs…

  10. A Conversation with James Cross Giblin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Violet J.; McCarthey, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with James Cross Giblin. Discusses how writing non-fiction books for children aged 8 to 12 gives him the opportunity to pursue his research interests, meet interesting and stimulating experts in various fields, and share his enthusiasm with a young audience. (SG)

  11. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-08-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ˜ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/Hβ line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ˜40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/Hβ gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ˜ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  12. Ka-Band High-Rate Telemetry System Upgrade for the NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBelle, Remi; Bernardo, Abner; Bowen, James; Britcliffe, Michael; Bucknam, Neil; Link, Christopher; Long, Ezra; Manalo, Leslie; O'Dea, James A.; Rochblatt, David; Sosnowski, John; Veruttipong, Watt

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has a new requirement to support high-data-rate Category A (Cat A) missions (within 2 million kilometers of Earth) with simultaneous S-band uplink, S-band downlink and Ka-band downlink. The S-band links are required for traditional TT&C (Telemetry, Tracking, and Command) support to the spacecraft, while the Ka-band link is intended for high-data-rate science returns. The new Ka-band system combines the use of proven DSN cryogenic designs, for low system temperature, and high data rate capability using commercial telemetry receivers. The initial Cat A support is required for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2013 and possibly other missions. The upgrade has been implemented into 3 different 34-meter Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas in the DSN, one at each of the complexes in Canberra (Australia), Goldstone (California) and Madrid (Spain). System test data is presented to show that the requirements were met and the DSN is ready for Cat A Ka-band operational support.

  13. The Darwinian Center to the Vision of William James.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredo, Eric

    The essence of William James's vision can sometimes be hard to discover due to emotional volatility and exploratory impulsiveness. On the other hand, beneath James's apparent inconsistency was a constancy of purpose that can be easily underestimated. This paper argues that the center of James's vision lay in an interpretation of Darwinism. By…

  14. 7. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West Parcels, May 17, 1926, (John and James Dobson, Inc. East Falls, Aero Service Corp., Neg. No. 5986, May 17, 1926, Free Library of Philadelphia, Print Collection). - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Accuracy and Generalizability in Summaries of Affect Regulation Strategies: Comment on Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Adam A.; Hemenover, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    In their examination of the effectiveness of affect regulation strategies, Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012) offered the results of a broad meta-analysis of studies on regulatory interventions. Their analysis provides an alternative to our earlier, more focused meta-analysis of the affect regulation literature (Augustine & Hemenover, 2009).…

  16. Obituary: James Adolph Westphal, 1930-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, G. Edward

    2004-12-01

    James A. Westphal died September 8, 2004. He had battled a neurological disease related to Alzheimer's for the past year. He was 74. James A. Westphal was born in Dubuque, Iowa, on June 13, 1930. He was raised in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and in Little Rock, Arkansas. Westphal earned his bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Tulsa in 1954, a year after he went to work as geophysical research group leader at Sinclair Research Lab in Tulsa. Westphal first got into the business of scientific instrumentation right after high school, when he did well-logging in Texas and Gulf Coast oil fields. In fact, his work at Sinclair Research Labs involved devising unorthodox methods for oil discovery; one of his discoveries of a new way of processing seismic data first brought him to the attention of Caltech professor Hewitt Dix, who is often considered the father of exploration geophysics. Westphal arrived at Caltech initially on a four-month leave of absence to devise a data processor for Dix, but never left. He discovered that the academic freedom individual professors enjoy was amenable to his own predilections, so he soon began branching out to other areas of scientific investigation at Caltech. Before long, he had teamed up with Bruce Murray to do thermal infrared scans of the moon in order to see if humans could even walk on the lunar surface without sinking into the dusty soil. Westphal and Murray's work showed that rocky areas could be identified with the thermal imaging, which in turn led to the inference that the Apollo astronauts could safely walk on the soil without sinking. Westphal and Murray also teamed up to do the first infrared imaging of Venus and Jupiter. Other projects at Caltech led to Westphal's being hired on permanently by Bob Sharp, who at the time was the geology division chairman. In the following years, Westphal involved himself in novel ways of studying volcanism in Hawaii and Mount St. Helens. He invented a simple and very sensitive tilt meter

  17. JWST Mirror Installation

    NASA Video Gallery

    The first six of 18 hexagonal shaped segments that will form NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope’s primary mirror for space observations were readied this week to begin final cryogenic testing at...

  18. Time-Lapse of Backplane of the JWST Being Moved Into Clean Room

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a time-lapse video of the center section of the 'pathfinder' backplane for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope being moved into the clean room at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbe...

  19. JWST Secondary Mirror Deploy Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    Setting up NASA's James Webb Space Telescope's secondary mirror in space will require special arms that resemble a tripod that was recently demonstrated in a NASA cleanroom. TRT: 1:25 / Credit: NAS...

  20. Movie Trailer: 'Back to the Beginning'

    NASA Video Gallery

    The James Webb Space Telescope, the last of NASA's Great Observatories, will take us farther back in time than even the Hubble Space Telescope. Set to launch in 2014, NASA's "Ultimate Time Machine"...

  1. 77 FR 38090 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY... Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics Subcommittee (APS) of the NASA Advisory Council... the following topics: --Astrophysics Division Update --James Webb Space Telescope Update...

  2. 75 FR 74089 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY... Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC... meeting includes the following topics: --Astrophysics Division Update --James Webb Space Telescope...

  3. The Biblical Chronology of James Ussher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in James Ussher and his chronological work saw a re-awakening as the date of 22nd October 1996 approached and it was realised that we were commencing the 6000th year from Archbishop Ussher's estimated date of Creation, viz. the beginning of the night of the 22nd October 4004 BC. In the popular press some, playing on the inherent uncertainty of our existence, suggested that Ussher had predicted that the world would end on the evening of 22 October 1996; thus the Irish Times headline of this date `An early tea would be advisable as the world may end at 6 p.m.', but this certainly misrepresents Ussher's work, for he made no such prediction. Who then was James Ussher and why is he so strongly associated with chronological matters in the public mind?

  4. The Health of the James Bay Cree

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    The health of the James Bay Cree of Quebec reflects their history and environment. Their ancestors were living in Northern Quebec for centuries before the Europeans arrived bringing new infectious diseases and developing a health-care structure that has relegated traditional Cree medicine to the background. The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement of 1975 led to the creation of the Cree Board of Health and Social Services under the Quebec Ministry of Health. Various changes have resulted in the eight Cree villages over the past 15 years, both in the socio-economic situation and in the health status of the Cree. Improvements in health will come about through increased participation of Native people in the delivery and control of health services, more accessible health services, and the creation of healthy and health-promoting environments. PMID:21253035

  5. God, James Watt, and the public's land

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, R.

    1981-05-01

    The political career of James Watt, Secretary of the Interior, is chronicled. His current reputation as archenemy of the environmental movement is largely the outgrowth of three and a half years of activity on behalf of the Mountain States Legal Foundation. Since taking office in January 1981, Watt has moved swiftly to impose his individual standards on USDI. Various programs and agencies are being terminated, and public lands may soon be open for mineral and energy exploitation. (7 drawings, 1 photo)

  6. [Delocalizing the mind. Peirce, James, Wittgenstein, Descombes].

    PubMed

    Chauviré, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive sciences have breathed fresh air into the old problem of localizing mental functions, which was often laughed off. Regarding the most philosophical form of the question on the localization of the mind, authors such as Peirce, James, Wittgenstein, and most recently Descombes have imagined delocalizing the mind in order to spread the conviction that the idea itself of a location of the mental is meaningless and to criticize the localisationism of today's cognitive scientists.

  7. Obituary: James Adolph Westphal, 1930-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, G. Edward

    2004-12-01

    James A. Westphal died September 8, 2004. He had battled a neurological disease related to Alzheimer's for the past year. He was 74. James A. Westphal was born in Dubuque, Iowa, on June 13, 1930. He was raised in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and in Little Rock, Arkansas. Westphal earned his bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Tulsa in 1954, a year after he went to work as geophysical research group leader at Sinclair Research Lab in Tulsa. Westphal first got into the business of scientific instrumentation right after high school, when he did well-logging in Texas and Gulf Coast oil fields. In fact, his work at Sinclair Research Labs involved devising unorthodox methods for oil discovery; one of his discoveries of a new way of processing seismic data first brought him to the attention of Caltech professor Hewitt Dix, who is often considered the father of exploration geophysics. Westphal arrived at Caltech initially on a four-month leave of absence to devise a data processor for Dix, but never left. He discovered that the academic freedom individual professors enjoy was amenable to his own predilections, so he soon began branching out to other areas of scientific investigation at Caltech. Before long, he had teamed up with Bruce Murray to do thermal infrared scans of the moon in order to see if humans could even walk on the lunar surface without sinking into the dusty soil. Westphal and Murray's work showed that rocky areas could be identified with the thermal imaging, which in turn led to the inference that the Apollo astronauts could safely walk on the soil without sinking. Westphal and Murray also teamed up to do the first infrared imaging of Venus and Jupiter. Other projects at Caltech led to Westphal's being hired on permanently by Bob Sharp, who at the time was the geology division chairman. In the following years, Westphal involved himself in novel ways of studying volcanism in Hawaii and Mount St. Helens. He invented a simple and very sensitive tilt meter

  8. STS-88 Mission Specialist James Newman suits up before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-88 Mission Specialist James H. Newman takes part in a complete suit check before launch. Newman holds a toy dog, 'Pluto,' representing the crew nickname Dog Crew 3 and Newman's nickname, Pluto. Mission STS-88 is expected to launch at 3:56 a.m. EST with the six-member crew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Dec. 3. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module, which the crew will be mating with the Russian-built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. The mission is expected to last 11 days, 19 hours and 49 minutes, landing at 10:17 p.m. EST on Dec. 14.

  9. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes

  10. STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee after landing at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee shakes hands with KSC Director Roy D. Bridges Jr. following landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. From left are Kent Rominger, Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations, Wetherbee, Dr. Daniel R. Mulville, NASA Associate Deputy Administrator, and Bridges. Commander Wetherbee earlier guided Space Shuttle Endeavour to a flawless touchdown on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility after completing the 13-day, 18-hour, 48-minute, 5.74-million mile STS-113 mission to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown was at 2:37:12 p.m. EST, nose gear touchdown was at 2:37:23 p.m., and wheel stop was at 2:38:25 p.m. Poor weather conditions thwarted landing opportunities until a fourth day, the first time in Shuttle program history that a landing has been waved off for three consecutive days. The orbiter also carried the other members of the STS-113 crew, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, as well as the returning Expedition Five crew, Commander Valeri Korzun, ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson and Flight Engineer Sergei Treschev. The installation of the P1 truss on the International Space Station was accomplished during the mission.

  11. STS-94 Commander James D. Halsell suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-94 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr., puts his left glove on while he is assisted into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. Halsell is on his fourth space flight, having served as commander of STS-83 and pilot of both STS-74 and STS-65. He is a lieutenant colonel in the Air Force and a former SR-71 Blackbird test pilot and holds masters degrees in management and space operations. Halsell will have uresponsibility for the success of the mission and will operate and maintain Columbia during the Red, or second shift. He will also assist with a materials science experiment and a protein crystal growth payload during the 16-day mission. Halsell and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 1:50 a.m. EDT, July opportunity to lift off before Florida summer rain showers reached the space center.

  12. The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerk Maxwell, James; Niven, W. D.

    2011-01-01

    27. On the viscosity or internal friction of air and other gases; 28. On the dynamical theory of gases; 29. On the theory of the maintenance of electric currents by mechanical work without the use of permanent magnets; 30. On the equilibrium of a spherical envelope; 31. On the best arrangement for producing a pure spectrum on a screen; 32. The construction of stereograms of surfaces; 33. On reciprocal diagrams in space and their relation to Airy's function of stress; 34. On governors; 35. Experiment in magneto-electric induction; 36. On a method of making a direct comparison of electrostatic with electromagnetic force; 37. On the cyclide; 38. On a bow seen on the surface of ice; 39. On reciprocal figures, frames, and diagrams of forces; 40. On the displacement in a case of fluid motion; 41. Address to the mathematical and physical sections of the British Association, 1870; 42. On colour-vision at different points of the retina; 43. On hills and dales; 44. Introductory lecture on experimental physics; 45. On the solution of electrical problems by the transformation of conjugate functions; 46. On the mathematical classification of physical quantities; 47. On colour vision; 48. On the geometrical mean distance of two figures on a plane; 49. On the induction of electric currents in an infinite plane sheet of uniform conductivity; 50. On the condition that, in the transformation of any figure by curvilinear co-ordinates in three dimensions, every angle in the new figure shall be equal to the corresponding angle in the original figure; 51. Reprint of Papers on electrostatics and magnetism. By Sir W. Thomson. (Review); 52. On the proof of the equations of motion of a connected system; 53. On a problem in the calculus of variations in which the solution is discontinuous; 54. On action at a distance; 55. Elements of natural philosophy. By Sir W. Thomson and P. G. Tait. (Review); 56. On the theory of a system of electrified conductors, and other physical theories involving

  13. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Fine Guidance Sensor Performance Analysis with Respect to Guide Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Amber; Taylor, Denise; Reinhart, Merle

    2016-06-01

    The Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) onboard HST include one of Hubble’s first-generation instruments still in operation today. After several servicing missions and even some refurbishment to the FGSs, the interferometers, although aged, perform at a level exceeding expectations. Since launch in April 1990, FGS3 has performed within operational standards while FGS1 & 2 underwent replacements or refurbishments during SM2, SM3A and SM4. Up until 1999 FGS3 was used for astrometry science when FGS1R took over that role. Currently FGS1R is the only FGS used as a primary science instrument. While very few observing programs request the FGS as their prime instrument nearly all GO observations executed onboard HST use the interferometers to lock onto guide stars. Most observations execute successfully onboard HST while 1.93% of all orbits executed onboard HST have an issue that requires repeating the observations. Of all failed visits, roughly 65% are due to a variation of suboptimal guide star options that test the boundaries of FGS capabilities. In this poster we present the limitations of the FGS interferometers regarding guide stars, their surprising capabilities, and suggest specific guidelines to astronomers who are faced with “shared risk” opportunities for their observations. We hope to share this knowledge with the HST community to improve guide star execution onboard Hubble and to make comparisons to the future James Webb Space Telescope FGS instrument, where astronomers will take part in guide star selection.

  14. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and its Complementarity to ALMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, Dave

    2007-01-01

    We report results of a pre-Formulation Phase study of SPIRIT, a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission. SPIRIT is a spatial and spectral interferometer with an operating wavelength range 25 - 400 microns. SPIRIT will provide sub-arcsecond resolution images and spectra with resolution R = 3000 in a 1 arcmin field of view to accomplish three primary scientific objectives: (1) Learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks, and how they acquire their chemical organization; (2) Characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets of different types form; and (3) Learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. In each of these science domains, SPIRIT will yield information complementary to that obtainable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), and all three observatories could operate contemporaneously. Here we shall emphasize the SPIRIT science goals (1) and (2) and the mission's complementarity with ALMA.

  15. Multi-Objective Multi-User Scheduling for Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Giuliano, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an architecture called MUSE (Multi-User Scheduling Environment) to enable the integration of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms with existing domain planning and scheduling tools. Our approach is intended to make it possible to re-use existing software, while obtaining the advantages of multi-objective optimization algorithms. This approach enables multiple participants to actively engage in the optimization process, each representing one or more objectives in the optimization problem. As initial applications, we apply our approach to scheduling the James Webb Space Telescope, where three objectives are modeled: minimizing wasted time, minimizing the number of observations that miss their last planning opportunity in a year, and minimizing the (vector) build up of angular momentum that would necessitate the use of mission critical propellant to dump the momentum. As a second application area, we model aspects of the Cassini science planning process, including the trade-off between collecting data (subject to onboard recorder capacity) and transmitting saved data to Earth. A third mission application is that of scheduling the Cluster 4-spacecraft constellation plasma experiment. In this paper we describe our overall architecture and our adaptations for these different application domains. We also describe our plans for applying this approach to other science mission planning and scheduling problems in the future.

  16. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  17. Broadband spectral photography of the James River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    On May 28, 1974, a photographic mission from 5.3 kilometers altitude was flown over the James River from Norfolk to Hopewell. During the mission 252 photographs were exposed over the river. The photographs are divided into four simultaneously exposed groups with each group exposed through a different broadband optical filter. The four filters isolated blue-green, green, yellow, and near-infrared radiation from the water body. The document summarizes the mission photography in relation to flight altitude, sunglint, and photographic exposure.

  18. Water resources of St. James Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. James Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  19. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey James R. Dunlop, Inc., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey James R. Dunlop, Inc., Photographer, n.d. STABLES, INTERIOR DEMOLISHED - Larz Anderson House, 2118 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey James R. Dunlop, Inc., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey James R. Dunlop, Inc., Photographer, n.d. ARCHWAY TOWARD ENTRANCE - Larz Anderson House, 2118 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer April 8, 1936 FRONT VIEW REAR WING (NORTH ELEVATION) - Hope Farm (Villa), Auburn Avenue & Homochitto Street, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  2. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer, April 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer, April 14, 1936. FRONT VIEW OF SERVANTS HOME (WEST ELEVATION) - Auburn, Auburn Boulevard, Duncan Memorial Park, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  3. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer April 8, 1936 GENERAL REAR VIEW (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION) - Hope Farm (Villa), Auburn Avenue & Homochitto Street, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer. Mar, 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer. Mar, 28, 1936. GENERAL FRONT VIEW (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION) - Marschalk Printing Office, Wall & Franklin Streets, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  5. Wavefront Sensing & Control for a Large Segmented Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redding, David; ATLAST Concept Study Team

    2009-01-01

    This poster presents an active optics control architecture for ATLAS-T16 - a proposed 16 m aperture space telescope, with a Primary Mirror composed of 32 separate hexagonal segments. ATLAS-T16 is intended to be launched in a in a large ARES rocket in the 2020 time frame. Like the James Webb Space Telescope, it would be launched in a folded configuration, and deployed after orbital insertion. The ATLAS wavefront control problem is to align the PM segments and other optics following deployment, with initial errors in the mm and mrad range, to achieve diffraction limited performance in the UV and visible wavelengths at under 50 nm WF error (RMS) across the field. In this it is similar to JWST, though with considerably tighter WF error requirements. ATLAS differs from JWST by being twice as large, with 4 times the collecting area, and with a correspondingly lighter and more flexible structure - factors that may require a continuous but low bandwidth WF and pointing control system to preserve optical quality throughout extended operational periods. The poster will describe a WFSC architecture that provides both the initial WF control and continuous metrology of the various PM segments and other optics to assure excellent optical quality throughout the mission. Control requirements will be driven by scientific mission objectives, with the most taxing being high dynamic-range imaging for exoplanet observation. Initialization will utilized image- and spectrum-based measurements for WF sensing. Continuous metrology will be provided by an "optical truss," made up of multiple Laser Distance Gauges to measure and maintain the optical state of all major optical elements in the telescope. Results from multiple testbeds and telescopes will be provided to illustrate control performance.

  6. Cosmic Reionization and Early Star-forming Galaxies: A Joint Analysis of New Constraints from Planck and the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Dunlop, James S.

    2015-04-01

    We discuss new constraints on the epoch of cosmic reionization and test the assumption that most of the ionizing photons responsible arose from high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Good progress has been made in charting the end of reionization through spectroscopic studies of z ≃ 6-8 QSOs, gamma-ray bursts, and galaxies expected to host Lyα emission. However, the most stringent constraints on its duration have come from the integrated optical depth, τ, of Thomson scattering to the cosmic microwave background. Using the latest data on the abundance and luminosity distribution of distant galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we simultaneously match the reduced value τ =0.066+/- 0.012 recently reported by the Planck collaboration and the evolving neutrality of the intergalactic medium with a reionization history within 6≲ z≲ 10, thereby reducing the requirement for a significant population of very high redshift (z\\gg 10) galaxies. Our analysis strengthens the conclusion that star-forming galaxies dominated the reionization process and has important implications for upcoming 21 cm experiments and searches for early galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  7. 78 FR 20356 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY... Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC... following topics: --Astrophysics Division Update --Report from Astrophysics Roadmap Team --James Webb...

  8. 76 FR 5405 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY... Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC... meeting includes the following topics: --Astrophysics Division Update --Update from the James Webb...

  9. Dr. Wernher Von Braun leads a tour of the S-IC checkout area.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Eberhard Rees, Charles Schultze, James Webb, Elmer Staats, Comptroller General of the United States, and Dr. Wernher Von Braun tour the S-IC checkout area in the Marshall Space Flight Center quality lab.

  10. NES Live Video Chat: Dr. John C. Mather

    NASA Video Gallery

    NES welcomed Nobel Prize winner Dr. John C. Mather for a video webchat on May 17, 2011. He spoke about the James Webb Space Telescope and how it gives us a look into the past to see how galaxies ha...

  11. JWST Full Scale Model Being Built

    NASA Video Gallery

    : The full-scale model of the James Webb Space Telescope is constructed for the 2010 World Science Festival in Battery Park, NY. The model takes about five days to construct. This video contains a ...

  12. Contamination Control and Hardware Processing Solutions at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, DeWitt H.; Hampton, Tammy; Huey, LaQuieta; Mitchell, Mark; Norwood, Joey; Lowrey, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    The Contamination Control Team of Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory supports many Programs/ Projects that design, manufacture, and test a wide range of hardware types that are sensitive to contamination and foreign object damage (FOD). Examples where contamination/FOD concerns arise include sensitive structural bondline failure, critical orifice blockage, seal leakage, and reactive fluid compatibility (liquid oxygen, hydrazine) as well as performance degradation of sensitive instruments or spacecraft surfaces such as optical elements and thermal control systems. During the design phase, determination of the sensitivity of a hardware system to different types or levels of contamination/FOD is essential. A contamination control and FOD control plan must then be developed and implemented through all phases of ground processing, and, sometimes, on-orbit use, recovery, and refurbishment. Implementation of proper controls prevents cost and schedule impacts due to hardware damage or rework and helps assure mission success. Current capabilities are being used to support recent and on-going activities for multiple Mission Directorates / Programs such as International Space Station (ISS), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Space Launch System (SLS) elements (tanks, engines, booster), etc. The team also advances Green Technology initiatives and addresses materials obsolescence issues for NASA and external customers, most notably in the area of solvent replacement (e.g. aqueous cleaners containing hexavalent chrome, ozone depleting chemicals (CFC s and HCFC's), suspect carcinogens). The team evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection and cleaning technologies (e.g. plasma cleaning), and maintains databases for processing support materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for spaceflight environments.

  13. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 14637; dated March 26, 2010... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things,...

  14. 76 FR 12295 - James Luehman; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 James Luehman; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking AGENCY: Nuclear... Commission (NRC or the Commission) is denying a petition for rulemaking (PRM) submitted by James Luehman (the... was decided by the Commission in the Tennessee Valley Authority (Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit...

  15. 2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirtyeighth and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200 Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 3. Photocopy of Plate #13, 'Interior of St. James, Thirtyeighth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of Plate #13, 'Interior of St. James, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200. Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 13. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-upper left, elevation-upper right, and survey-below, 1885. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys, 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1885, pp. 1890-1891. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 10. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-lower right, and surrounding environs, 1875. Hopkins, Griffith Morgan. City Atlas of Philadelphia by Wards, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. M. Hopkins and Co., 1875, pp. 46-47. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 18. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-lower left, and surrounding environs, 1925. Bromley, George Washington and Bromley, Walter Scott. Atlas of the City of Philadelphia (North Philadelphia), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: George W. and Walter S. Bromley, 1925, p. 106. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 15. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-lower right, and surrounding environs, 1901. Baist, George William. Northern District of Baist's Detail Property Atlases of the City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. W. Bromley and Co., 1901, Plan 17. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical plan, 1986. Barton and Martin, Engineers. 'Topographical Plan for Dobson Mills.' Prepared for Rouse Urban Housing, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1986. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 11. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-upper left, elevation-lower left, and survey-right, 1877. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys, 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1877, pp. 1095-1096. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 17. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West Parcels, site plan, revised through 1914. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Insurance Maps of the City of Philadelphia, Vol. 21., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1893. Revisions, 1914, p. 446. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 8. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West Parcels, site plan, and survey lower left, 1865. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys, 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1865, p. 279. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 9. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, portion of West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, portion of West parcel, site plan-left, elevation-upper right, and survey-lower right, 1873. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1873, pp. 670-671. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 14. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan, revised through 1895. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Insurance Maps of the City of Philadelphia, Vol. 21., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1893. Revisions, 1895, p. 446. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 12. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, West Parcel, site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, West Parcel, site plan-upper right, and surrounding environs, 1884. Hopkins, Griffith Morgan. City Atlas of Philadelphia by Wards, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. M. Hopkins and Co., 1884, Plate 9. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 16. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-right, and western environs, 1908. Smith, Elvino Victor. Atlas of the 38th and Part of the 37th Ward of the City of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elvino V. Smith, 1908, Plate 24. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Metacognition and Self-Regulation in James, Piaget, and Vygotsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Emily; Riconscente, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the intertwined constructs of metacognition and self-regulation as they emerge in the works and theories of James, Piaget, and Vygotsky. To coordinate this exploration, we use an interpretive framework based on the relation of subject and object. In this framework, James's perspective on metacognition and self-regulation…

  10. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things,...

  11. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes

  12. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Mock-up of Manned Space Laboratory. 'Two Langley engineers test an experimental air lock between an arriving spacecraft and a space station portal in January 1964.' : Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 299.

  13. James Hillman: Toward a poetic psychology.

    PubMed

    Avens, R

    1980-09-01

    InThe Dream and the Underworld James Hillman continues to deepen and to refine Jung's recovery of the spontaneous image-making of the soul. Hillman's contribution lies in his "imaginai reduction"-relating of images to their archetypal background in Greek mythology. Myth is seen as the maker of the psyche, and, in turn, the soul-making ispoesis-a return to the imaginal and poetic basis of consciousness. Dreams, understood poetically, are neither messages to be deciphered and used for the benefit of the rational ego (Freud) nor compensatory to the ego (Jung); they are complete in themselves and must be allowed to speak for themselves. Hillman also sees dreams as initiations into the underworld of death-the other side of life where our imaginal substance is unobstructed by the literal and dualistic standpoints of the dayworld.

  14. James Clerk Maxwell 150 years on.

    PubMed

    Reid, John S; Wang, Charles H-T; Thompson, J Michael T

    2008-05-28

    This paper is the preface to a special Issue of Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A reporting selected proceedings of the international conference marking the 150th anniversary of James Clerk Maxwell's professorial debut at Marischal College, Aberdeen. Following an introduction to Marischal College, a brief historical note summarizes Maxwell's life prior to his entering the college as professor of natural philosophy. The preface provides a short summary of the event and overviews the contributed papers devoted to subjects covering a wide range of Maxwell's research interests and their modern developments. The mixture of review and research papers reflects both the fundamental importance and the diverse applicability of Maxwell's works in electromagnetics, colour science, dynamics and kinetics. Acknowledgements are given to the individuals and bodies who made the conference the success that it was.

  15. William James, Gustav Fechner, and Early Psychophysics

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James’s unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the “hard problems” of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James’s reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his “radically empiricist” ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James’s long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more “wayward and fitful” aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James’s thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his “transmission theory” of consciousness, his ideas on the “knowing of things together,” and, finally, the related concept of “the compounding of consciousness,” which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to “know” the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a “distributive model,” based on his understanding of consciousness as an “awareness” that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to

  16. STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk is suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk, Ph.D., stands ready for launch during suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building. Pawelczyk and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. His first trip into space, Pawelczyk is participating in this life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  17. A generalization of Gompertz law compatible with the Gyllenberg-Webb theory for tumour growth.

    PubMed

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Fasano, Antonio; Monechi, Bernardo

    2011-03-01

    We present a new extension of Gompertz law for tumour growth and anti-tumour therapy. After discussing its qualitative and analytical properties, we show, in the spirit of [16], that, like the standard Gompertz model, it is fully compatible with the two-population model of Gyllenberg and Webb, formulated in [14] in order to provide a theoretical basis to Gompertz law. Compatibility with the model proposed in [17] is also investigated. Comparisons with some experimental data confirm the practical applicability of the model. Numerical simulations about the method performance are presented.

  18. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Webb Consolidated Independent School District in Bruni, TX - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Webb Consolidated Independent School District (Webb CISD) in Bruni, TX. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effect...

  19. NASA/BAE Systems SpaceWire Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments using Spacewire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements Spacewire in Register Transfer Level VHDL for a Spacewire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the Spacewire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for some spaceflight qualified FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented in their 0.25 micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS driver/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed Spacewire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for Spacewire has been identified by both NASA and ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach. The Transport layer needs to be implemented in hardware-to prevent bottlenecks.

  20. GISMO, an ELT in space: a giant (30-m) far-infrared and submillimeter space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawarden, Timothy G.; Johnstone, Callum; Johnstone, Graeme

    2004-07-01

    We describe GISMO, a concept for a 30-m class achromatic diffractive Fesnel space telescope operating in the far-IR and submillimeter from ~20 μm to ~700 μm. The concept is based on the precepts of Hyde (1999). It involves two units, the Lens and Instrument spacecraft, 3 km apart in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L2 point. The primary lens, L1, is a 30.1-m, 32-zone f/100 Fresnel lens, fabricated from ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE). It is 1.0 to 3.4 mm thick (the features are 2.4 mm high for a "design wavelength" of 1.2 mm) and made in 5 strips linked by fabric hinges. It is stowed for launch by folding and rolling. It is deployed warm, unrolled by pneumatic or mechanical means, unfolded by carbon-fiber struts with Shape Memory Alloy hinges and stiffened until cold by a peripheral inflatable ring. Re-oriented edgeways-on to the Sun behind a 5-layer sunshade, L1 will then cool by radiation to space, approaching ~10K after 200 - 300 days. The low equilibrium temperature occurs because the lens is very thin and has a huge view factor to space but a small one to the sunshade. The Instrument spacecraft resembles a smaller, colder (~4K) version of the James Webb Space Telescope and shares features of a concept for the SAFIR mission. A near-field Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 3-segment off-axis 6m x 3m primary acts as field lens, re-imaging L1 on a 30-cm f/1 Fresnel Corrector lens of equal and opposite dispersion, producing an achromatic beam which is directed to a focal plane equipped with imaging and spectroscopic instruments. The "design wavelength" of the telescope is 1.2 mm and it is employed at its second and higher harmonics. The shortest wavelength, ~20μm, is set by the transmission properties of the lens material (illustrated here) and determines the design tolerances of the optical system. The overall mass is estimated at ~5 tonnes and the stowed length around 14 m. Technical challenges and areas of uncertainty for the design concept

  1. The Impact of Traffic Prioritization on Deep Space Network Mission Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther; Segui, John; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren; Abraham, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    A select number of missions supported by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) are demanding very high data rates. For example, the Kepler Mission was launched March 7, 2009 and at that time required the highest data rate of any NASA mission, with maximum rates of 4.33 Mb/s being provided via Ka band downlinks. The James Webb Space Telescope will require a maximum 28 Mb/s science downlink data rate also using Ka band links; as of this writing the launch is scheduled for a June 2014 launch. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched June 18, 2009, has demonstrated data rates at 100 Mb/s at lunar-Earth distances using NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN) and K-band. As further advances are made in high data rate space telecommunications, particularly with emerging optical systems, it is expected that large surges in demand on the supporting ground systems will ensue. A performance analysis of the impact of high variance in demand has been conducted using our Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) simulation tool. A comparison is made regarding the incorporation of Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms and the resulting ground-to-ground Wide Area Network (WAN) bandwidth necessary to meet latency requirements across different user missions. It is shown that substantial reduction in WAN bandwidth may be realized through QoS techniques when low data rate users with low-latency needs are mixed with high data rate users having delay-tolerant traffic.

  2. FIVE DEBRIS DISKS NEWLY REVEALED IN SCATTERED LIGHT FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE NICMOS ARCHIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall D.; Pueyo, Laurent; Choquet, Élodie; Chen, Christine; Golimowski, David A.; Brendan Hagan, J.; Moerchen, Margaret; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Wolff, Schuyler; Debes, John; Hines, Dean C.; Mittal, Tushar; Rajan, Abhijith; Schneider, Glenn

    2014-05-10

    We have spatially resolved five debris disks (HD 30447, HD 35841, HD 141943, HD 191089, and HD 202917) for the first time in near-infrared scattered light by reanalyzing archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/NICMOS coronagraphic images obtained between 1999 and 2006. One of these disks (HD 202917) was previously resolved at visible wavelengths using the HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys. To obtain these new disk images, we performed advanced point-spread function subtraction based on the Karhunen-Loève Image Projection algorithm on recently reprocessed NICMOS data with improved detector artifact removal (Legacy Archive PSF Library And Circumstellar Environments (LAPLACE) Legacy program). Three of the disks (HD 30447, HD 35841, and HD 141943) appear edge-on, while the other two (HD 191089 and HD 202917) appear inclined. The inclined disks have been sculpted into rings; in particular, the disk around HD 202917 exhibits strong asymmetries. All five host stars are young (8-40 Myr), nearby (40-100 pc) F and G stars, and one (HD 141943) is a close analog to the young Sun during the epoch of terrestrial planet formation. Our discoveries increase the number of debris disks resolved in scattered light from 19 to 23 (a 21% increase). Given their youth, proximity, and brightness (V = 7.2-8.5), these targets are excellent candidates for follow-up investigations of planet formation at visible wavelengths using the HST/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph coronagraph, at near-infrared wavelengths with the Gemini Planet Imager and Very Large Telescope/SPHERE, and at thermal infrared wavelengths with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRCam and MIRI coronagraphs.

  3. Five Debris Disks Newly Revealed in Scattered Light from the Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall D.; Pueyo, Laurent; Choquet, Élodie; Chen, Christine; Golimowski, David A.; Brendan Hagan, J.; Mittal, Tushar; Moerchen, Margaret; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Rajan, Abhijith; Wolff, Schuyler; Debes, John; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn

    2014-05-01

    We have spatially resolved five debris disks (HD 30447, HD 35841, HD 141943, HD 191089, and HD 202917) for the first time in near-infrared scattered light by reanalyzing archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/NICMOS coronagraphic images obtained between 1999 and 2006. One of these disks (HD 202917) was previously resolved at visible wavelengths using the HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys. To obtain these new disk images, we performed advanced point-spread function subtraction based on the Karhunen-Loève Image Projection algorithm on recently reprocessed NICMOS data with improved detector artifact removal (Legacy Archive PSF Library And Circumstellar Environments (LAPLACE) Legacy program). Three of the disks (HD 30447, HD 35841, and HD 141943) appear edge-on, while the other two (HD 191089 and HD 202917) appear inclined. The inclined disks have been sculpted into rings; in particular, the disk around HD 202917 exhibits strong asymmetries. All five host stars are young (8-40 Myr), nearby (40-100 pc) F and G stars, and one (HD 141943) is a close analog to the young Sun during the epoch of terrestrial planet formation. Our discoveries increase the number of debris disks resolved in scattered light from 19 to 23 (a 21% increase). Given their youth, proximity, and brightness (V = 7.2-8.5), these targets are excellent candidates for follow-up investigations of planet formation at visible wavelengths using the HST/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph coronagraph, at near-infrared wavelengths with the Gemini Planet Imager and Very Large Telescope/SPHERE, and at thermal infrared wavelengths with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRCam and MIRI coronagraphs.

  4. Obituary: James Alfred Van Allen, 1914-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, George H.; McIlwain, Carl Edwin

    2006-12-01

    James Alfred Van Allen, world-renowned space scientist, died 9 August 2006 at the age of ninety-one. He succumbed to heart failure after a ten-week period of declining health. Van Allen served for his entire sixty-seven-year professional career as an amazingly productive researcher, space science spokesman, inspired teacher, and valued colleague. The realization by him and his associates that charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field began a whole new field of research, magnetospheric physics. Following that initial discovery, he and his associates quickly extended their observations, first to the inner planets, and then to the rest of the planets and beyond. During his tenure at Iowa, he and his group flew instruments on more than sixty successful Earth satellites and planetary spacecraft, including the first missions to the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Van Allen's lifetime publication list numbers more than 275, of which many are widely-cited, seminal papers. He was the sole author of more than 125 of those papers. Beyond the research laboratory, Van Allen worked energetically throughout his career in establishing space research as a new branch of human inquiry. He was among the most sought-after as a committee member and adviser, working at the highest levels of government, including the White House and Congress, and at all levels of the national and international research establishments. Many presentations in the non-scientific arena helped to bring the exciting discoveries and challenges of space research to the attention of the general public. James Van Allen (Van to his many friends and colleagues) was born on 7 September 1914 on a small farm near Mount Pleasant, Iowa, the second of four sons of Alfred Morris Van Allen and Alma Olney Van Allen. After high school in Mount Pleasant, he entered Iowa Wesleyan College, majoring in physics and graduating summa cum laude. While there, he was introduced to geophysics

  5. James J. Jenkins (1923-2012).

    PubMed

    Foss, Donald J; Overmier, J Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Presents an obituary for James J. Jenkins. Jim Jenkins, fondly known as "J-cubed," was born on July 29, 1923, in St. Louis, Missouri. He attended William Jewell College but enlisted in the Army in 1942. He received a bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Chicago in 1944 as part of his training as a meteorologist. After serving in the South Pacific, he returned to William Jewell College, obtaining a bachelor's degree in psychology in 1947. Jenkins received a master's degree (1948) and a doctorate (1950) from the University of Minnesota under a giant in industrial psychology, Donald G. Paterson. He joined the Minnesota Psychology Department faculty upon graduation (turning down an offer from General Motors at triple the salary). Jenkins helped lead psychology's "cognitive revolution" from the second half of the 20th century into the present one. His work advanced multiple research areas: learning and memory, sentence processing, aphasia, speech perception, and perceptual organization. His remarkable combination of abilities led to nearly 200 scholarly publications and 500 conference and meeting presentations; multiple leadership positions, teaching awards, and professional accolades; and intense devotion from generations of students. PMID:23895612

  6. James F. T. Bugental (1915-2008).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kirk J; Greening, Tom

    2009-01-01

    James F. T. Bugental died peacefully at age 92 at his Petaluma, California, home on September 18, 2008. Jim was a leading psychotherapist and a founding father, with Abraham Maslow and others, of humanistic psychology, or the "third force" (in contrast to psychoanalysis and behaviorism). Jim was also the creator, along with Rollo May, of existential-humanistic psychotherapy. Jim was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on Christmas Day in 1915. Jim earned his doctorate in 1948 from Ohio State University, where he was influenced by Victor Raimy and George Kelly. After a brief time on the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) faculty in psychology, Jim resigned in 1953 to found the first group practice of psychotherapy, Psychological Service Associates, with Alvin Lasko. With Abraham Maslow and others, Jim was a cofounder of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology (JHP) and the Association for Humanistic Psychology in 1961. Jim also wrote many books on the topic of psychotherapy during his lifetime. Jim was a great and bold spirit--his many writings and teachings are cherished today widely, and the field of psychology is much richer for his efforts.

  7. A Conversation with James J. Morgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, James J.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2015-05-01

    In conversation with professor Dianne Newman, Caltech geobiologist, James "Jim" J. Morgan recalls his early days in Ireland and New York City, education in parochial and public schools, and introduction to science in Cardinal Hayes High School, Bronx. In 1950, Jim entered Manhattan College, where he elected study of civil engineering, in particular water quality. Donald O'Connor motivated Jim's future study of O2 in rivers at Michigan, where in his MS work he learned to model O2 dynamics of rivers. As an engineering instructor at Illinois, Jim worked on rivers polluted by synthetic detergents. He chose to focus on chemical studies, seeing it as crucial for the environment. Jim enrolled for PhD studies with Werner Stumm at Harvard, who mentored his research in chemistry of particle coagulation and oxidation processes of Mn(II) and (IV). In succeeding decades, until retirement in 2000, Jim's teaching and research centered on aquatic chemistry; major themes comprised rates of abiotic manganese oxidation on particle surfaces and flocculation of natural water particles, and chemical speciation proved the key.

  8. James F. T. Bugental (1915-2008).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kirk J; Greening, Tom

    2009-01-01

    James F. T. Bugental died peacefully at age 92 at his Petaluma, California, home on September 18, 2008. Jim was a leading psychotherapist and a founding father, with Abraham Maslow and others, of humanistic psychology, or the "third force" (in contrast to psychoanalysis and behaviorism). Jim was also the creator, along with Rollo May, of existential-humanistic psychotherapy. Jim was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on Christmas Day in 1915. Jim earned his doctorate in 1948 from Ohio State University, where he was influenced by Victor Raimy and George Kelly. After a brief time on the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) faculty in psychology, Jim resigned in 1953 to found the first group practice of psychotherapy, Psychological Service Associates, with Alvin Lasko. With Abraham Maslow and others, Jim was a cofounder of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology (JHP) and the Association for Humanistic Psychology in 1961. Jim also wrote many books on the topic of psychotherapy during his lifetime. Jim was a great and bold spirit--his many writings and teachings are cherished today widely, and the field of psychology is much richer for his efforts. PMID:19203148

  9. James Moores Ball: Ophthalmologist, medical historian, bibliophile.

    PubMed

    Feibel, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    James Moores Ball (1862-1929) was an ophthalmologist in St. Louis, Missouri, who excelled as a medical historian and collector of rare and historic books about the history of anatomy. During his lifetime, he was best known as the author of a comprehensive, authoritative, and popular textbook titled Modern Ophthalmology First published in 1904, there were five further editions. Ball was very interested in the history of anatomy and wrote two books on this subject, the first being a biography of Andreas Vesalius, one of the earliest in English, and the second a history of the resurrection men or grave robbers who sold corpses to professors of anatomy and surgery for teaching purposes. His legacy today is the 470 volumes of his personal library, which are now in the Archives and Rare Books department of the Becker Medical Library of the Washington University School of Medicine. These texts are one of their major collections, concentrating on the history of anatomy, beginning with a first edition of Vesalius's De Humani Corporis Fabrica and holding many important and beautiful landmark volumes of anatomical atlases. PMID:27316691

  10. Sir James Elliott, medical journalist supreme.

    PubMed

    Wright-St Clair, R

    1995-01-25

    James Sands Elliott was editor of the New Zealand Medical Journal from 1911 to 1933. He was a powerful writer in a flamboyant style, erudite and filled with classical and literary allusions and quotations. We are told that doctors of the time, on receiving their journals, would turn first to the editorial to see "what JSE has got to say." He served the profession in numerous ways, as chairman of council and president of the New Zealand Branch of the British Medical Association (BMA), as president from 1929 to 1955 of the New Zealand Branch of the British Empire Cancer Campaign (now the Cancer Society), and as a member of the Medical Council, the Board of Health and the Medical Research Council. It was his outstanding ability as a medical journalist, however, which made him one of the most powerful figures in New Zealand medicine in his time. He ardently upheld worthy causes in the interests of the medical profession as he saw them and wrote trenchant editorials on those subjects.

  11. James L. Outtz (1947-2016).

    PubMed

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Cascio, Wayne

    2016-09-01

    This article memorializes James L. Outtz, who passed away March 26, 2016. For more than 40 years, Outtz was a leading researcher, practitioner, and consultant in the areas of hiring and promotion, employment discrimination, selection-test design and implementation, and legal issues pertaining to employment. He worked tirelessly to enhance opportunities for workforce diversity through greater inclusion of minorities and women. Another important focus was on strategies to minimize adverse impact through alternative approaches to selection. His work significantly influenced best practices in equal employment opportunity, and he was a highly sought-after legal-compliance consultant and testifying expert, advisor to courts, and participant on consent decrees with experts and lawyers from all sides of an issue. His efforts involved some of the most prominent corporations in America and most visible public-sector jurisdictions. In his final 2 years, he became president-elect of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27571534

  12. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer May 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer May 16, 1936 LIVING? (MUSIC) ROOM FIREPLACE (LOOKING NORTH? SOUTH) - Thaddeus Burr Homestead, 491 Old Post Road, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  13. Astronaut James D. van Hoften examines student experiment on Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut James D. van Hoften, 41-C mission specialist, holds an aluminum box full of honeybees. The experiment in earth orbit is duplicated with another colony of the bees on earth. This is an experiment submitted by student researchers.

  14. 3. James Cant Ranch, view from NW showing Feed Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. James Cant Ranch, view from NW showing Feed Storage Shed and Chicken Coop (in foreground), Barn, and Watchman's Hut - Cant Ranch, East side of State Route 19, North of U.S. 26, Dayville, Grant County, OR

  15. Young James Madison: His Character and Civic Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the life of James Madison, Founding Father and "theoretic statesman." Focuses specifically on Madison's education and character, his friendship with Thomas Jefferson, and his civic legacy: a selfless devotion to republican government and union. (JDH)

  16. Plan of the entresol (third floor) of James H. Windrim ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan of the entresol (third floor) of James H. Windrim and George Summers’s competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 1867 - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 5. William Beardsley standing along canal section. Photographer James Dix ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. William Beardsley standing along canal section. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903. Source: Schuyler report. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 82. REGENTS' ROOM WEST WALL, WITH ORIGINAL CHAIRS BY JAMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. REGENTS' ROOM WEST WALL, WITH ORIGINAL CHAIRS BY JAMES RENWICK, JR. MANTELPIECE AND MIRROR ARE NOT ORIGINAL TO THE ROOM. - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 MAIN (SOUTH) ENTRANCE (4x5' b&w film copy neg. from 35mm slide) - Albert F. Madlener House, 4 West Burton Place, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  20. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 MAIN (SOUTH) ENTRANCE DETAIL (4x5' b&w film copy neg. from 35mm slide) - Albert F. Madlener House, 4 West Burton Place, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. 77 FR 25592 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; James River, Hopewell, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the SR 156/Benjamin Harrison... schedule, the SR 156/Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge, at mile 65.0, across the James River, at...

  2. 3. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman, photographers January 6, 1964 INNER COURT FROM SECOND TIER (THIRD FLOOR), LOOKING EAST - The Dunster, Dunster Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  3. 2. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman, photographers January 6, 1964 INNER COURT FROM SECOND TIER (THIRD FLOOR), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - The Dunster, Dunster Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey James O. Milmoe, Photographer Winter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey James O. Milmoe, Photographer Winter 1979 GENERAL VIEW OF PLYMOUTH PLACE WITH CAPTIOL IN BACKGROUND - Plymouth Place, 1560-1572 Broadway, Denver, Denver County, CO

  5. 6. Watchman Robert 'Jerry' Jones at Camp Dyer. Photographer James ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Watchman Robert 'Jerry' Jones at Camp Dyer. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903. Source: Schuyler report. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. Capacity of Pulse-Position Modulation (PPM) on Gaussian and Webb Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.; Divsalar, D.; Hamkins, J.; Pollara, F.

    2000-01-01

    This article computes the capacity of various idealized soft-decision channels modeling an optical channel using an avalanche photodiode detector (APD) and pulse-position modulation (PPM). The capacity of this optical channel depends in a complicated way on the physical parameters of the APD and the constraints imposed by the PPM orthogonal signaling set. This article attempts to identify and separate the effects of several fundamental parameters on the capacity of the APD-detected optical PPM channel. First, an overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) parameter is de ned such that the capacity as a function of a bit-normalized version of this SNR drops precipitously toward zero at quasi-brick-wall limits on bit SNR that are numerically the same as the well-understood brick-wall limits for the standard additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. A second parameter is used to quantify the effects on capacity of one unique facet of the optical PPM channel (as compared with the standard AWGN channel) that causes the noise variance to be higher in signal slots than in nonsignal slots. This nonuniform noise variance yields interesting capacity effects even when the channel model is AWGN. A third parameter is used to measure the effects on capacity of the difference between an AWGN model and a non-Gaussian model proposed by Webb (see reference in [2]) for approximating the statistics of the APD-detected optical channel. Finally, a fourth parameter is used to quantify the blending of a Webb model with a pure AWGN model to account for thermal noise. Numerical results show that the capacity of M-ary orthogonal signaling on the Webb channel exhibits the same brick-wall Shannon limit, (M ln 2)=(M 1), as on the AWGN channel ( 1:59 dB for large M). Results also compare the capacity obtained by hard- and soft-output channels and indicate that soft-output channels o er a 3-dB advantage.

  7. Legacy extragalactic UV survey (LEGUS) with the Hubble space telescope. I. Survey description

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetti, D.; Andrews, J. E.; Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S. N.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T. M.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L. J.; Chandar, R.; Clayton, G. C.; Silva, R. da; Mink, S. E. de; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; and others

    2015-02-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ∼kiloparsec-size clustered structures. Five-band imaging from the near-ultraviolet to the I band with the Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3), plus parallel optical imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), is being collected for selected pointings of 50 galaxies within the local 12 Mpc. The filters used for the observations with the WFC3 are F275W(λ2704 Å), F336W(λ3355 Å), F438W(λ4325 Å), F555W(λ5308 Å), and F814W(λ8024 Å); the parallel observations with the ACS use the filters F435W(λ4328 Å), F606W(λ5921 Å), and F814W(λ8057 Å). The multiband images are yielding accurate recent (≲50 Myr) star formation histories from resolved massive stars and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. The extensive inventories of massive stars and clustered systems will be used to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of star formation within galaxies. This will, in turn, inform theories of galaxy evolution and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas–star formation relation and the nature of star formation at high redshift. This paper describes the survey, its goals and observational strategy, and the initial scientific results. Because LEGUS will provide a reference survey and a foundation for future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope and with ALMA, a large number of data products are planned for delivery to the community.

  8. [James Parkinson (1755-1824) revisited].

    PubMed

    Poirier, Jacques

    2013-03-01

    The name of Parkinson is universally famous because of the eponymous disease. But as a man, James Parkinson (1755-1824), is poorly known. He was born, married and passed away in his St-Leonard parish in Shoreditch (London). After having studied Latin, Greek, natural philosophy, and stenography (shorthand), which he considered as the basic tools of any doctor, he studied for six months at the London Hospital Medical College, and served his apprenticeship as an apothecary-surgeon with his father for six years. Then he was qualified as a surgeon in 1784 at the age of 29 years. His activity has been deployed in three areas: 1) medicine, 2) political activism and social reformism, 3) paleontology and oryctology. As a physician, Parkinson has published several books, the most important concerned paralysis agitans (future Parkinson's disease), gout, complications of lightning (future Lichtenberg figures and keraunoparalysis), acute appendicitis (with his son John Parkinson) and hernias (diagnosis, development, dangers of hernia ruptures, and design of a simple truss). Its ideological and political commitment was manifested by joining two secret societies and publishing numerous pamphlets, many of which are signed by the pseudonym Old Hubert; he campaigned for a better representation of the people in Parliament, for greater social justice, for the defense and recognition of the rights of the poor, the insane, the children, and against children abuse. He published a small compendium of chemistry, he was one of the thirteen members who create the British Geological Society and is recognized as one of the founders of paleontology; as was Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), he remained a strong supporter of creationism and catastrophism. Distinguished oryctologist, he gave his name to several fossils, mainly molluscs. PMID:23508322

  9. Optimization of a lossless object-based compression embedded on GAIA, a next-generation space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oseret, Emmanuel; Timsit, Claude

    2007-09-01

    Until now space telescopes, like Humbble, did not require a strong data compression. In fact, images were captured on demand and their proximity to Earth gave them a sufficient downlink bandwidth. Yet, the next generation space telescopes like GAIA (ESA) and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST, ESA & NASA) will observe even wider sky fields at even higher resolutions. Moreover, they will be dramatically farther from Earth than Hubble (1.5 million versus 600 kilometers). This will imply a poor downlink bandwidth, and thus require a fast, on-board strong data compression (better than 1:200 ratios). To achieve GAIA scientific objectives, a real-time «selectively lossless» compression is needed. With standard schemes, it is simply not possible today, even without time constraints (because of the entropy limit...). This paper explains why the GAIA Compression, which is based on Object-Based Compression (OBC), is efficient for stellar images. Since the baseline implementation did not meet all the ESA requirements (compression speed and ratio), we have also brought our contribution to optimize the GAIA Compression. It consists mainly in using (i) non-rectangular regions for large objects and (ii) and (inter-objects) differential predictive coding to improve the effficiency of the final lossless compression. We have tested our algorithms on the GAIA sky generator (GIBIS) which stimulates flight-realistic conditioins (CCD read-noise, cosmic rays...). Without any loss on signal, we have obtained promising ratios up to 1:270 for the worst case sky.

  10. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  11. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  12. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    'Langley's Otto Trout suggested as early as 1963 that zero-gravity activities could be simulated by immersing astronauts in a large tank of water. Years later, Marshall Space Flight Center turned Trout's abortive idea into a major component of NASA's astronaut training program.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 303.

  13. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'William N. Gardner, head of the MORL Studies Office, explains the interior design of the space station at the 1964 NASA inspection.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 300.

  14. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'A Langley engineer takes a walk-in simulated zero gravity around a mock-up of a full-scale, 24-foot-diameter space station.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 282.

  15. Inflatable Hangar for Assembly of Large Structures in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Human Space Flight program is interested in projects where humans, beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO), can make an important and unique contribution that cannot be reasonably accomplished purely by robotic means, and is commensurate with the effort and cost associated with human spaceflight. Robotic space telescope missions have been conceived and launched as completed assemblies (e.g., Hubble) or as jack-in-the-box one-time deployments (e.g., James Webb). If it were possible to assemble components of a very large telescope from one or two launches into a telescope that was vastly greater in light-gathering power and resolution, that would constitute a breakthrough. Large telescopes on Earth, like all one-off precision assembly tasks, are done by humans. Humans in shirtsleeves (or cleanroom bunny suits) can perform tasks of remarkable dexterity and precision. Unfortunately, astronauts in pressure suits cannot perform such dexterous and precise tasks because of the limitations of the pressurized gloves. If a large, inflatable hangar were placed in high orbit, along with all the components needed for a large assembly such as a large telescope, then humans in bunny suits could perform the same sorts of extremely precise and dexterous assembly that they could be expected to perform on Earth. Calculations show that such an inflatable hangar, and the necessary gas to make it safe to occupy by shirtsleeves humans wearing oxygen masks, fits within the mass and volume limitations of the proposed "Space Launch System" heavy-lift rocket. A second launch could bring up all the components of an approximately 100-meter-diameter or larger telescope. A large [200 ft (approximately 61 m) in diameter] inflated fabric sphere (or hangar) would contain four humans in bunny suits. The sphere would contain sufficient atmospheric pressure so that spacesuits would not be necessary [about 3.2 psi (approximately 22 kPa)]. The humans would require only oxygen masks and small backpacks

  16. Obituary: Michael James Ledlow, 1964-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puxley, Philip John; Grashuis, Randon M.

    2004-12-01

    Michael James Ledlow died on 5 June 2004 from a large, unsuspected brain tumor. Since 2000 he had been on the scientific staff of the Gemini Observatory in La Serena, Chile, initially as a Science Fellow and then as a tenure-track astronomer. Michael was born in Bartlesville, Oklahoma on 1 October 1964 to Jerry and Sharon Ledlow. He obtained his Bachelor Degree in astrophysics at the University of Oklahoma in 1987 and attended the University of New Mexico for his graduate work, obtaining his PhD while studying Galaxy Clusters under Frazer Owen in 1994. From 1995-1997 Michael held a postdoctoral position with Jack Burns at New Mexico State University where he used various astronomical facilities including the VLA and Apache Point Observatory to study distant galaxies. From 1998-2000 Michael rejoined the Physics and Astronomy Department at the University of New Mexico where he was a visiting professor until he moved on to Gemini. At the Gemini Observatory, Mike shared in the excitement, hard work and many long days and nights associated with bringing on-line a major new astronomical facility and its instrumentation. Following its commissioning he assisted visiting observers, supported and took data for many more remote users via the queue system, and for each he showed the same care and attention to detail evident in his own research to ensure that all got the best possible data. His research concentrated on the radio and optical properties of galaxy clusters, especially rich Abell clusters such as A2125, on luminous radio galaxies, including the detection of a powerful double radio source in the "wrong sort of galaxy," the spiral system 0313-192, and on EROs (extremely red objects), dusty galaxies barely detectable at optical wavelengths. Michael thoroughly enjoyed living in Chile and enthusiastically immersed himself in the culture of his surroundings. He and his family were actively involved with the International English Spanish Association in La Serena. He had a

  17. Space Launch System for Exploration and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, K.

    2013-12-01

    low-risk, direct return of Martian material. For the Europa Clipper mission the SLS eliminates Venus and Earth flybys, providing a direct launch to the Jovian system, arriving four years earlier than missions utilizing existing launch vehicles. This architecture allows increased mass for radiation shielding, expansion of the science payload and provides a model for other outer planet missions. SLS provides a direct launch to the Uranus system, reducing travel time by two years when compared to existing launch capabilities. SLS can launch the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST 16 m) to SEL2, providing researchers 10 times the resolution of the James Webb Space Telescope and up to 300 times the sensitivity of the Hubble Space Telescope. SLS is the only vehicle capable of deploying telescopes of this mass and size in a single launch. It simplifies mission design and reduces risks by eliminating the need for multiple launches and in-space assembly. SLS greatly shortens interstellar travel time, delivering the Interstellar Explorer to 200 AU in about 15 years with a maximum speed of 63 km/sec--13.3 AU per year (Neptune orbits the sun at an approximate distance of 30 AU ).

  18. Obituary: James C. Kemp, 1927-1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.

    2009-01-01

    James C. Kemp was born in Detroit, Michigan on 9 February 1927, and died in Eugene, Oregon, on 29 March 1988. He went to high school in Mexico City and did undergraduate studies at the University of Michigan and University of California at Berkeley. Kemp was an active observational astronomer, having migrated from earlier interests in Slavic languages, in which he majored, electrical engineering, and physics. He obtained a PhD in electrical engineering at Berkeley in 1960 and did post-doctoral work there with Erwin Hahn on spin resonance. He went to the University of Oregon in 1961 and conducted research in magneto-optics, developing, in the process, a piezo-optical birefringence modulator to measure circular polarization. The modulator is described by Tinbergen (1996). Kemp explored new areas as he measured magnetic fields in the sunspots with polarized infrared light, and developed polarimeters and photometers to study the behavior of such astronomical sources as white dwarfs, the relativistic jets of binary SS 433, the x-ray binary Cyg X-1, and the bright eclipsing binaries Algol and e Aurigae on the 61- and, later, 81-cm telescope at the Pine Mountain Observatory, of which Kemp was director until his death from cancer. His measurement of circularly polarization in the continuum light of the white dwarf GJ 742 (Grw +70∘ 8247, Kemp et al. 1970b) was an important discovery, and through his study of Algol (Kemp et al. 1983; Wilson & Liou 1993), he appears to have been the first to discover the limb polarization in eclipsing binaries predicted by Chandrasekhar (1946ab). Although it has taken twenty years for the BAAS to publish his obituary notice, it is somewhat appropriate that his former student, Gary Henson, who provided much of the background for this article, is involved with a polarimetry team to observe and analyze data from e Aurigae, as it approaches ingress of the next primary minimum beginning summer, 2009. The author acknowledges with gratitude the

  19. Obituary: James N. Kile, 1958-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, Edward W.; Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    James N. Kile, of Needham Heights, Massachusetts, died on 17 August 2007, following a brave two-year battle with cancer. One of three children of David R. Kile and Betty Jane Kile, Jim was born in Niagara Falls, New York, on 20 April 1958 and lived in the nearby village of Lewiston before his family settled in Alden, an hour east of Niagara Falls, when Jim was nine. Jim's father worked for American Telephone and Telegraph for 37 years, and his mother was a homemaker. Jim earned his Bachelor's degree in Physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1980, a Master's degree from Northwestern University in 1982, and a Doctorate from Tufts University in 1996 under the direction of Robert Willson. His thesis involved comparison of radio data from the Very Large Array and the Russian RATAN 600 telescope with Yohkoh soft X-ray data, with an emphasis on understanding the relationship between solar noise storms and coronal magnetic fields. While working on his thesis, Jim collaborated with one of us (EWC) at the Air Force Research Laboratory on an investigation of the 154-day periodicity in solar flares. The resulting publication (ApJ 370, 442, 1991) is his most cited work. Jim co-authored four other papers in refereed journals. Jim's professional affiliations included the American Astronomical Society, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Geophysical Union, and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Jim worked as a contractor in the defense industry from 1982 until the time of his death, settling in the Boston area in the early 1980s. He worked for Calspan Corporation from 1982-1989, the Ultra Corporation from 1989-1994, and the Riverside Research Institute from 1994-2007. He was a highly-respected expert in radar systems, including radar data and systems analysis, systems engineering, and planning support for radar acquisition programs and technology development. The work entailed frequent extended travel to Norway for system testing

  20. Obscurity and Gender Resistance in Patricia Duncker's James Miranda Barry

    PubMed Central

    Funke, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Since his death in 1865, military surgeon James Barry has alternately been classified as a cross-dressing woman or as an intersexed individual. Patricia Duncker's novel James Miranda Barry (1999) poses an important challenge to such readings, as it does not reveal any foundational truth about Barry's sex. Resting on obscurity rather than revelation, the text frustrates the desire to know the past in terms of gender binaries and stable sexual identity categories. Drawing on feminist and queer theorisations of the relation between gender and time, this essay demonstrates that Duncker's use of obscurity opens up alternative strategies of gender resistance. PMID:25400502