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Sample records for janeiro brasil um

  1. Resultados do desenvolvimento de um propulsor à plasma no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, I. S.; Ferreira, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    Uma das partes mais importantes de um satélite é o controle de atitude do mesmo. E se tratando de um satélite científico, a atenção para este sistema deve ser redobrada. Uma possibilidade atraente para executar esta tarefa é a propulsão elétrica. Aqui, mostraremos resultados obtidos pelo propulsor à plasma PHALL-01, desenvolvido na Universidade de Brasília entre 2000 e 2003. Este é derivado do propulsor russo SPT-100 (Stationary Plasma Thruster), mas com o emprego inovador de um arranjo de imãs permanentes como fonte do campo magnético, este último o agente da aceleração do plasma. Esta alteração foi motivada pelo objetivo de que o mesmo operasse com o mínimo de potência elétrica. A partir da formulação teórica do mecanismo de aceleração, tendo como base as equações da magnetohidrodinâmica, pode-se obter vínculos sob os quais o propulsor pudesse ser construído. O mais forte destes é o que dita a topologia do campo magnético. Sendo assim, foram realizadas simulações computacionais, que definiram a geometria do propulsor. Após construído, este foi diagnosticado usando-se sondas de Langmuir e analisadores de energia. Como resultados, obtivemos a distribuição espacial da temperatura, densidade e potencial do plasma, bem como a distribuição angular do feixe produzido pelo mesmo em vários regimes de operação. O espectro de energia do feixe de plasma também foi medido, indicando íons de até 560eV. Combinando estes resultados, calculou-se o empuxo do propulsor: 84mN; e o impulso específico: 1083s. Estes demonstram que o mesmo estará qualificado, num futuro próximo, para o emprego no controle de atitude de satélites científicos, ou até mesmo como parte do conjunto propulsor primário, responsáveis pela transferência de órbitas.

  2. Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient ( β), Ångström's wavelength exponent ( α), aerosol single scattering albedo ( ω o ), forward scatterance ( F c ) and average surface albedo ( ρ g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27″ S, 43° 13' 58″ W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water ( u w ) and ozone concentration ( u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent α were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient β, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December

  3. Landslide Susceptibility Analysis by the comparison and integration of Random Forest and Logistic Regression methods; application to the disaster of Nova Friburgo - Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (January 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Carlo; Barra, Anna; Evans, Stephen G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele; Delaney, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The study of landslide susceptibility by multivariate statistical methods is based on finding a quantitative relationship between controlling factors and landslide occurrence. Such studies have become popular in the last few decades thanks to the development of geographic information systems (GIS) software and the related improved data management. In this work we applied a statistical approach to an area of high landslide susceptibility mainly due to its tropical climate and geological-geomorphological setting. The study area is located in the south-east region of Brazil that has frequently been affected by flood and landslide hazard, especially because of heavy rainfall events during the summer season. In this work we studied a disastrous event that occurred on January 11th and 12th of 2011, which involved Região Serrana (the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro State) and caused more than 5000 landslides and at least 904 deaths. In order to produce susceptibility maps, we focused our attention on an area of 93,6 km2 that includes Nova Friburgo city. We utilized two different multivariate statistic methods: Logistic Regression (LR), already widely used in applied geosciences, and Random Forest (RF), which has only recently been applied to landslide susceptibility analysis. With reference to each mapping unit, the first method (LR) results in a probability of landslide occurrence, while the second one (RF) gives a prediction in terms of % of area susceptible to slope failure. With this aim in mind, a landslide inventory map (related to the studied event) has been drawn up through analyses of high-resolution GeoEye satellite images, in a GIS environment. Data layers of 11 causative factors have been created and processed in order to be used as continuous numerical or discrete categorical variables in statistical analysis. In particular, the logistic regression method has frequent difficulties in managing numerical continuous and discrete categorical variables

  4. Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A dengue fever outbreak has plagued Rio de Janeiro since January 2002. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease. The elimination of standing water, which is a breeding ground for the mosquitoes, is a primary defense against mosquito-borne diseases like dengue. Removing such water remains a difficult problem in many urban regions. The International Space Station astronauts took this image (ISS001-ESC-5418) of Rio de Janeiro in December 2000. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  5. IDD-BRASIL: Implementation and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.; Almeida, W. G.; Yoksas, T.; Cutrim, E. M.; Garrana, D.

    2007-05-01

    In response to the academic meteorological community's demand for real-time weather data, and access to datasets not readily available, the Unidata Program of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed the Internet Data Distribution, IDD system. With a modest beginning in the early 1990's, IDD has grown to become the leading Internet2 advanced-application by delivering over 20 terabytes of data per week to over 160 institutions in the US and around the world. Meteorological and related real-time data, model output, and a vast amount of experimental products are delivered at no cost to the Unidata participating institutions. In 2004, through a collaboration among three leading universities and research centers in Brazil, the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE), the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), the Unidata IDD has expanded into Brazil creating a data sharing peer, the IDD-Brasil. Throughout a series of outreach initiatives, the IDD-Brasil is extending its reach, providing data to universities in Argentina, Chile, Africa and Portugal. By lowering the barrier between distant institutions, participants are now cooperating and sharing many datasets that were not generally available outside their organizations. Future plans include the deployment of a new data-relay node in cooperation with Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal in order to provide a local source of data for institutions in Portugal and Africa, and the distribution of products derived from the GOES-10 satellite, which covers mainly South America, through IDD in real-time. Jointly, the IDD and IDD-Brasil are fostering new collaborations among universities, WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers, and national meteorological agencies, empowering the Atmospheric Sciences across several countries.

  6. History of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro*

    PubMed Central

    Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Vianna, Francisco Reis

    2014-01-01

    The record of the first cases of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro dates from the seventeenth century. The first local host of leprosy patients was created from 1741, and the first colonies hospitals were built in the early twentieth century, in order to avoid contagion of the population. The first structures dedicated to research also date from this time: the Leprosy International Institute, the Leprology Institute, and the Leprosy Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, where the most prestigious leprologists of Rio de Janeiro worked. Currently, investigations are focused on the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation; additionally, leprosy patients are treated at municipal health centers and state hospitals, and former colony hospitals only accept patients with severe disabilities. PMID:24937834

  7. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, José P; Moreira, M Elisabeth; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Rabello, Renata S; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Salles, Tania S; Zin, Andrea A; Horovitz, Dafne; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Pilotto, José H; Medialdea-Carrera, Raquel; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Pone, Marcos; Machado Siqueira, André; Calvet, Guilherme A; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Neves, Elizabeth S; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Hasue, Renata H; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Janzen, Carla; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2016-12-15

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to central nervous system malformations in fetuses. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnant women and infants, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in infants. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed women prospectively to obtain data on pregnancy and infant outcomes. Results A total of 345 women were enrolled from September 2015 through May 2016; of these, 182 women (53%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 6 to 39 weeks of gestation. Predominant maternal clinical features included a pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 27% had fever (short-term and low-grade). By July 2016, a total of 134 ZIKV-affected pregnancies and 73 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies had reached completion, with outcomes known for 125 ZIKV-affected and 61 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies. Infection with chikungunya virus was identified in 42% of women without ZIKV infection versus 3% of women with ZIKV infection (P<0.001). Rates of fetal death were 7% in both groups; overall adverse outcomes were 46% among offspring of ZIKV-positive women versus 11.5% among offspring of ZIKV-negative women (P<0.001). Among 117 live infants born to 116 ZIKV-positive women, 42% were found to have grossly abnormal clinical or brain imaging findings or both, including 4 infants with microcephaly. Adverse outcomes were noted regardless of the trimester during which the women were infected with ZIKV (55% of pregnancies had adverse outcomes after maternal infection in the first trimester, 52% after infection in the second trimester, and 29% after infection in the third trimester

  8. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Brasil, P.; Pereira, J.P.; Moreira, M.E.; Nogueira, R.M. Ribeiro; Damasceno, L.; Wakimoto, M.; Rabello, R.S.; Valderramos, S.G.; Halai, U.-A.; Salles, T.S.; Zin, A.A.; Horovitz, D.; Daltro, P.; Boechat, M.; Gabaglia, C. Raja; de Sequeira, P. Carvalho; Pilotto, J.H.; Medialdea-Carrera, R.; da Cunha, D. Cotrim; de Carvalho, L.M. Abreu; Pone, M.; Siqueira, A. Machado; Calvet, G.A.; Baião, A.E. Rodrigues; Neves, E.S.; de Carvalho, P.R. Nassar; Hasue, R.H.; Marschik, P.B.; Einspieler, C.; Janzen, C.; Cherry, J.D.; de Filippis, A.M. Bispo; Nielsen-Saines, K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to central nervous system malformations in fetuses. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnant women and infants, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in infants. METHODS We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed women prospectively to obtain data on pregnancy and infant outcomes. RESULTS A total of 345 women were enrolled from September 2015 through May 2016; of these, 182 women (53%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 6 to 39 weeks of gestation. Predominant maternal clinical features included a pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 27% had fever (short-term and low-grade). By July 2016, a total of 134 ZIKV-affected pregnancies and 73 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies had reached completion, with outcomes known for 125 ZIKV-affected and 61 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies. Infection with chikungunya virus was identified in 42% of women without ZIKV infection versus 3% of women with ZIKV infection (P<0.001). Rates of fetal death were 7% in both groups; overall adverse outcomes were 46% among offspring of ZIKV-positive women versus 11.5% among offspring of ZIKV-negative women (P<0.001). Among 117 live infants born to 116 ZIKV-positive women, 42% were found to have grossly abnormal clinical or brain imaging findings or both, including 4 infants with microcephaly. Adverse outcomes were noted regardless of the trimester during which the women were infected with ZIKV (55% of pregnancies had adverse outcomes after maternal infection in the first trimester, 52% after infection in the second trimester, and 29% after infection in the third trimester

  9. MtDNA ancestry of Rio de Janeiro population, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Suellen; Hermida, Rose; Desidério, Márcia; Silva, Dayse A; de Carvalho, Elizeu F

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphism studies concerning HVI and HVII regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have improved the understanding of the admixture genetic process related to the occupation of the continents by human population groups. We have analyzed the mtDNA lineages of 190 healthy and maternally unrelated individuals born in the metropolitan region of the Rio de Janeiro city, the capital of the State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The data showing that 57.9, 25.3 and 16.8 % of the matrilineages found in Rio de Janeiro come from African, Amerindian and European population groups. They are, respectively, in close agreement with historical records which indicate that the admixture population of Brazil is the resulting of interethnic asymmetry crosses between individuals from those population groups. The high proportion of African mtDNA lineages in the population of Rio de Janeiro is in accordance with studies related to other Brazilian states.

  10. Carbon emissions in energy production and use in the tropical region: The case of the state of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Porto, R.M.G. Jr.; Peres, F.M. Jr.; Cecchi, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    The Brasil is one of the most important region in the tropics. An efficient management in energy use and production in this state of Rio de Janeiro could be an excellent model to others development regions in the tropics. In 1994, the State of the Rio de Janeiro represented around 13 millions of inhabitants, an economy of 42 billions US$ (gross national products), the biggest brazilian producer in petroleum and natural gas and a large market to energy products (electric power and fossil fuels). This state was responsible for 8.6 millions tonnes of carbon in CO2 emissions in 1994, issue to combustion of petroleum products (65.9%), coal (27.8%), natural gas (3.7%), charcoal and fuelwood (2.6%). The principals responsibles to these carbon emissions are the industrial activities (40%), the transport (35.7%) and energy production (12%). The main objectives of this work are analyze the carbon emissions in energy production and use in Rio de Janeiro between 1980 and 1994, the possibilities to reduction this amount and the perspectives to renewable energy.

  11. Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1985-02-01

    Brazil's capital city, Rio de Janeiro, has been called Latin America's slum capital, and is slowly losing its political position to Brasilia and its cultural and economic leadership to Sao Paolo. Rio's metropolitan area includes 14 municipalities and had a population of 9.64 million in 1984, making it Latin America's 4th largest and the world's 14th largest metropolitan area. The 452-square mile central city contains 5.35 million people. Projections predict that Rio will be the world's 9th largest city in the year 2000, with a population of 13.3 million. Rio encompasses sharp social and economic contrasts; population density varies from 30,686 to 124 people per square mile and per capita municipal budgets range from $100 to $12.50. Like most metropolitan areas, Rio's suburbs show its greatest growth. The peripheral municipalities which held only 24% of the population in 1940, now have about 45%. Low land prices and government housing attact poor families to these areas which tend to be economically sluggish. Rio's fertility rate (2.8%) is the lowest in Brazil (4.2%) and life expectancy is somewhat higher than the national average. Low fertility and declining migration result in small households and increasing age structure. 2.2 million households, with 3.8 persons on an average, and 1.3 million households, with 3.6 persons, inhabited the metropolitan area and its municipality, respectively. Less of Rio's population are black (10%) or of mixed descent (39%) than in the rest of Brazil; the population is 97% Brazilian-born. Most metropolitan homes are owner occupied, but Rio also has many highly visible slums. Rio has an 84% literacy rate; 5% of the population have university degrees. The area's geography requires massive daily movement by nearly 60% of the population, and several municpalities function largely as commuter towns. Service jobs (especially for women) account for 27% of all jobs with manufacturing and tourism next in importance. Median monthly income

  12. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Stuttering in Rio De Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Britto Pereira, Monica Medeiros; Rossi, Jamile Perni; Van Borsel, John

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the results of an investigation of public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total number of 606 street recruited respondents answered questions on various aspects of stuttering, including prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different cultures, cause, treatment, intelligence, and…

  13. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Stuttering in Rio De Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Britto Pereira, Monica Medeiros; Rossi, Jamile Perni; Van Borsel, John

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the results of an investigation of public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total number of 606 street recruited respondents answered questions on various aspects of stuttering, including prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different cultures, cause, treatment, intelligence, and…

  14. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis. PMID:16485488

  15. Network of healthy communities of Rio de Janeiro--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Becker, Daniel; Edmundo, Katia B; Guimarães, Wanda; Vasconcelos, Maria S; Bonatto, Daniella; Nunes, Nilza R; Baptista, Ana Paula

    2007-01-01

    Poor communities in Rio de Janeiro, which are known as favelas, suffer from various problems related to poor housing, poverty, unemployment, violence and organized crime, and lack of access to basic services, such as health care and education. In order to tackle these determinants, and inspired by WHO's international Healthy Communities/Cities movement, the etwork of Healthy Communities of Rio de Janeiro was formed in 2004. The Network is coordinated by the Center for Health Promotion (CEDAPS) and now includes more than 100 community groups and organizations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Their aim is to promote health, community development and equity through community empowerment, participation, capacity building and advocacy. The paper describes the work that has been done since the Network's inception and the challenges which they face to reach their goals in the context of a country like Brazil. The Network represents an important landmark of how poor populations can organize themselves in a collective, participatory and constructive way to influence public policy and strive for better conditions of life in disadvantaged settings, like the favelas.

  16. Newborn screening program for hemoglobinopathies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Clarisse Lopes de Castro; Ballas, Samir K; Domingos, Ana Carolina Bonini; Moura, Patricia G; do Nascimento, Emilia Matos; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez; de Carvalho, Silvia Maia Farias

    2014-01-01

    Newborn screening for hemoglobinopathy in Brazil has been decentralized until 2001 when the Health Ministry of Brazil established the National Newborn Hemoglobinopathy Screening Program. The State of Rio de Janeiro started a program in collaboration with the State Health Department and the Institute of Hematology in Rio (HEMORIO). The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the first 10 years of the Newborn Hemoglobinopathy Screening Program in identifying and managing infants with Sickle cell disease (SCD) in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Blood samples from 1,217,833 neonates were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Infants with SCD were enrolled in comprehensive treatment programs. Data showed that 4.87% of the newborns were heterozygous for a hemoglobin variant, 0.08% were homozygous or doubly heterozygous for abnormal hemoglobins and 95.02% had normal hemoglobin. All the 912 newborns with SCD were referred for treatment at HEMORIO, 34 (3.7%) of these died due to acute chest syndrome, sepsis or splenic sequestration. Four more children died of unknown causes. The implementation of the Rio de Janeiro Newborn Screening Program gradually increased the area of the State covered by the program. Data collected during the 10 years of the program showed reduction in mortality of patients with SCD in comparison to available historical statistical data before the implementation of the national screening program. This 10-year study showed that early diagnosis and treatment of newborns was associated with improved survival and quality of life of Brazilian children with SCD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Social Entrepreneurs in Rio De Janeiro: Learning Experiences and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain insight into how social entrepreneurs dedicated to violence prevention in Rio de Janeiro learn to take on the role of a social entrepreneur. Based on a two-tiered interview process with 27 social entrepreneurs in Rio de Janeiro conducted over a period of nine months, the study explores the breadth of…

  18. Social Entrepreneurs in Rio De Janeiro: Learning Experiences and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain insight into how social entrepreneurs dedicated to violence prevention in Rio de Janeiro learn to take on the role of a social entrepreneur. Based on a two-tiered interview process with 27 social entrepreneurs in Rio de Janeiro conducted over a period of nine months, the study explores the breadth of…

  19. [Urban sporotrichosis: a neglected epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Margarete Bernardo Tavares da; Costa, Mônica Motta de Mattos; Torres, Carla Carrilho da Silva; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do; Magalhães, Mônica de Avelar F M; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães de

    2012-10-01

    In the scientific literature, sporotrichosis has traditionally been associated with agricultural work, since the causative agent is found naturally in the soil. However, cases have been reported recently in an urban area, related to zoonotic transmission. The current study aimed to contribute to knowledge on sporotrichosis in an urban area through an exploratory analysis of its socio-spatial distribution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2007, identifying the areas with the heaviest transmission. The database from the Health Surveillance Service at the Evandro Chagas Institute for Clinical Research, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, was used to estimate incidence rates and spatial distribution. During the study period, 1,848 cases of sporotrichosis were reported, predominantly in adult women not currently in the labor market. The leading source of infection was wounds caused by domestic cats, which contributed to the spread of sporotrichosis in this urban area. Georeferencing of 1,681 cases showed a transmission belt along the border between the city of Rio de Janeiro and the adjacent municipalities in the Greater Metropolitan Area.

  20. Homicides and territorial struggles in Rio de Janeiro favelas

    PubMed Central

    Barcellos, Christovam; Zaluar, Alba

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risk of homicide in Rio de Janeiro’s favelas, taking into account the territorial disputes taking place in the city. METHODS The study is based on data on mortality from homicide in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 2006 and 2009. Risks in favelas and in surrounding areas were evaluated, as was the domination of armed groups and drug dealing. Geographic and ethnographic concepts and methods were employed, using participant observation, interviews and analysis of secondary data on health. RESULTS Within the favelas, mortality rates from homicide were equivalent to, or lower than, the rest of the city, although they were considerably higher in areas surrounding the favelas, especially in areas where there was conflict between armed rival gangs. CONCLUSIONS The presence of trafficking crews and turf war in strategic areas of the city increases homicide rates and promotes the “ecology of danger” in these areas. PMID:24789642

  1. Being Yoruba in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sandra Lauderdale

    2011-01-01

    Through the experiences of two West Africans shipped to Bahia as slaves, probably in the 1840s, then sold south to Rio de Janeiro where they met, became lovers, bought their freedom, married, and divorced, I comment on an ongoing debate over the refashioning or transfer of African ethnic identities in American slave societies. The sources in this Brazilian case suggest that previous identities were not suddenly erased, but rather, new layers of understanding and ways of responding were added. Whatever the dynamic of cultural formation, it was memory that crucially bridged the distance between the past they carried with them and the present into which they were thrust; and so it becomes illuminating to reconstruct the plausibly remembered African pasts on which this couple drew to make sense of an unfamiliar Brazilian present.

  2. Factors associated with bovine leptospirosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lilenbaum, W; Souza, G N

    2003-12-01

    Serum samples from 379 adult cows with lowered fertility farmed in the Rio de Janeiro region of Brazil. They were examined for Leptospira antibodies. A questionnaire was completed for each herd. Antibodies were detected in 46.9% of these cows, mainly to serovar hardjo. Main risk factor associated with seropositivity was co-grazing with other species, mainly pigs (OR = 3.17; p<0.04). Absence of or infrequent veterinary assistance (OR = 1.74) has also been suggested to be associated to the overall seroprevalence to leptospirosis. We suggest that a successful control programme for bovine leptospirosis should include a complete investigation of herd management practices, which could influence in the occurrence of the infection.

  3. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  4. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Coutinho, Felipe H; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E M; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A B; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km(2). In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay's degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay's water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  5. Analysis of the spatial distribution of dengue cases in the city of Rio de Janeiro, 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Silvia; Magalhães, Mônica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2017-08-17

    Analyze the spatial distribution of classical dengue and severe dengue cases in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Exploratory study, considering cases of classical dengue and severe dengue with laboratory confirmation of the infection in the city of Rio de Janeiro during the years 2011/2012. The georeferencing technique was applied for the cases notified in the Notification Increase Information System in the period of 2011 and 2012. For this process, the fields "street" and "number" were used. The ArcGis10 program's Geocoding tool's automatic process was performed. The spatial analysis was done through the kernel density estimator. Kernel density pointed out hotspots for classic dengue that did not coincide geographically with severe dengue and were in or near favelas. The kernel ratio did not show a notable change in the spatial distribution pattern observed in the kernel density analysis. The georeferencing process showed a loss of 41% of classic dengue registries and 17% of severe dengue registries due to the address in the Notification Increase Information System form. The hotspots near the favelas suggest that the social vulnerability of these localities can be an influencing factor for the occurrence of this aggravation since there is a deficiency of the supply and access to essential goods and services for the population. To reduce this vulnerability, interventions must be related to macroeconomic policies. Analisar a distribuição espacial dos casos de dengue clássico e dengue grave no município do Rio de Janeiro. Estudo exploratório, considerando casos de dengue clássico e de dengue grave com comprovação laboratorial da infecção, ocorridos no município do Rio de Janeiro nos anos de 2011/2012. Foi aplicada a técnica de georreferenciamento dos casos notificados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, no período de 2011 e 2012. Para esse processo, utilizaram-se os campos "logradouro" e "número". Foi realizado o processo automático da

  6. Possibility of profitable air traffic between Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherz, Walter

    1923-01-01

    Different aspects of an airship line between Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro are presented. Some of the factors discussed are: the number of passengers, fuel consumption, design, itinerary, airports, flight times, and income.

  7. STS-65 Earth observation of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil taken from OV-102

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-07-23

    STS065-88-001 (8-23 July 1994) --- Rio de Janeiro, a port city in Brazil with a population of 11.6 million people, can be seen to the left of Governador Island in the Bay of Guanabara. Aeroporto Galeao is visible on the left, or western half of Governador Island. Below Governador Island is the Ponte Rio Niteroi bridge which connects the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Niteroi. Several ships can be seen in the Bay of Guanabara.

  8. Streblidae (Diptera) on bats (Chiroptera) in an area of Atlantic Forest, state of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.

  9. [Income inequality and health: the case of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Szwarcwald, C L; Bastos, F I; Esteves, M A; de Andrade, C L; Paez, M S; Medici, E V; Derrico, M

    1999-01-01

    This ecological analysis addresses the association between income inequality and health status in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. Data were analyzed using geo-processing and multiple regression techniques. The following health indicators were used: infant mortality rate; standardized mortality rate; life expectancy at birth; and homicide rate among 15-29-year-old males. Patterns of income inequality were assessed through income distribution indicators: Gini index, Robin Hood index, and top 10 %/bottom 40% average income ratio. The results indicate significant correlations between income distribution indicators and health indicators, providing additional empirical evidence of the association between health status and income inequality. For the homicide rate, the effect of the indicator "density of slum residents" was also relevant, suggesting that further deterioration in health standards may be due to social disruption of deprived communities and the resultant increase in criminal activity. The geo-epidemiological analysis presented here highlights the association between adverse health outcomes and residential concentration of poverty. Social policies focused on slum residents are needed to reduce the harmful effects of relative deprivation.

  10. [Newborn hearing screening in Rio de Janeiro's municipal network, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Priscila Tavares; Goldbach, Márcia Goldfeld; Monteiro, Márcia Cavadas; Ribeiro, Márcia Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Hearing deficiencies are a prevalent disease and justify the need for regulation of the Laws and their execution through Hearing Health Care Ordinances. In line with public policies, maternity hospitals that were part of the network began to implement the Newborn Hearing Screening (NHS) service, as had occurred in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The otoacoustic emissions test is used for NHS as it is a rapid and highly reliable method that is easy to perform and gives objective results. The scope of this article is to get fully acquainted with the assistance and care for the hearing health of newborns in maternity wards of the Municipal Health Grid. It is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis with frequency distribution, and was conducted at SMS-RJ Maternity hospitals that perform NHS. Three maternity hospitals with NHS (A, B and C) were identified, in which 1,865 live newborns were recorded. Of this total, 40.5% performed the NHS exam. In maternity hospitals A and B, the NHS exam was applied to 54.6%, of which 97.3% passed and only 1.8% failed and needed to be referred to the high complexity unit. The NHS is the initial stage of the Hearing Health Care Program for the newborn. It is important that the NHS services should be fully integrated into the network through the Hearing Health Care Program.

  11. Paediatric x-ray examinations in Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, A. C. P.; Osibote, O. A.; Boechat, M. C. B.

    2006-08-01

    This work presents the results of a dose survey performed for paediatric patients and carried out in two large paediatric public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro city. The entrance surface dose (ESD) and the effective dose (ED) were evaluated for chest, skull, abdomen, lumbar spine, cervical spine and pelvis in antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections. For each examination, four age groups 0-1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 years were studied. The DoseCal software was used to calculate these doses. Wide variations for the same type of examination and projection have been detected. These variations were evident, in Brazil, from previous work. In spite of the present results being still preliminary, they can give an idea of what paediatric ESDs are like in Brazil. Also, with respect to the entrance surface dose, some of the results are above the reference levels, which cause high ED, as well. On the other hand, the wide range of ESD reflects the disparity of radiographic techniques and demonstrates that the ALARA principle is not being applied in Brazilian hospitals and becomes a concern in terms of public health.

  12. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa.

    PubMed

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2008-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas.

  13. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  14. [Revisiting the Spanish flu: the 1918 influenza pandemic in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Goulart, Adriana da Costa

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzes the political and social impacts of the 1918 Spanish flu epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, then Brazil's federal capital. Based on an analysis of Rio de Janeiro press reports and of other documentation (including annals, reports, and bulletins from a federal ministry, the Mayor's Office, and the Chamber of Deputies, along with studies from the Brazilian National Academy of Medicine and dissertations from Rio de Janeiro's Faculdade de Medicina), we explore use of the epidemic as a means of political engineering. Our focus is on how the epidemic impacted not only the representation of certain political and social actors but also the reaffirmation of a group of sanitarians as an intelligentsia with a vocation for political leadership who played a key role in the process of modernizing Brazilian society.

  15. Emerging Demands for Public Policies in Rio De Janeiro: Educational Prevention of Social Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes Da Silva, Magda Maria Ventura; Garcia, Maria del Pilar Quicios

    2016-01-01

    This paper disseminates some results of an international research on the social risk manifestations published in eight periodicals in Rio de Janeiro from July 2013 to December 2014. A sample of the research coincides with the population: 541 news, which constitutes 1255 analytical units. The methodology consisted of a content analysis of the news,…

  16. The Museum as a Catalyst for Education and Citizenship: Breaking Barriers in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottrel Tostes, Vera Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Brazil's National History Museum in Rio de Janeiro is reaching out to the most marginalized young people and establishing itself as an important partner in offering them alternatives to a life of crime and addiction. The target population for its programs includes disenfranchised children and young people aged 10 to 20--those living in the…

  17. Outcomes of a Scientific Nonformal Educational Initiative for Youth in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand how former students view their professional and academic paths after taking part in a specific scientific nonformal educational initiative during high school. This program is called Vocational Scientific Program (Provoc) and is carried out in the Oswald Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.…

  18. The Museum as a Catalyst for Education and Citizenship: Breaking Barriers in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottrel Tostes, Vera Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Brazil's National History Museum in Rio de Janeiro is reaching out to the most marginalized young people and establishing itself as an important partner in offering them alternatives to a life of crime and addiction. The target population for its programs includes disenfranchised children and young people aged 10 to 20--those living in the…

  19. Early Evidence for Zika Virus Circulation among Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ayllón, Tania; Campos, Renata de Mendonça; Brasil, Patrícia; Morone, Fernanda Cristina; Câmara, Daniel Cardoso Portela; Meira, Guilherme Louzada Silva; Tannich, Egbert; Yamamoto, Kristie Aimi; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Pedro, Renata Saraiva; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Cadar, Daniel; Ferreira, Davis Fernandes; Honório, Nildimar Alves

    2017-08-01

    During 2014-2016, we conducted mosquito-based Zika virus surveillance in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results suggest that Zika virus was probably introduced into the area during May-November 2013 via multiple in-country sources. Furthermore, our results strengthen the hypothesis that Zika virus in the Americas originated in Brazil during October 2012-May 2013.

  20. Computer Skills and Digital Media Uses among Young Students in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Rosalia; Cazelli, Sibele; Migliora, Rita; Coimbra, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is provide information relevant for the formulation of new policies for the integration of technology in education from the discussion of research results that analyse computer skills and digital media uses among students (between 12 to 18 years old) from schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The schools…

  1. Outcomes of a Scientific Nonformal Educational Initiative for Youth in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand how former students view their professional and academic paths after taking part in a specific scientific nonformal educational initiative during high school. This program is called Vocational Scientific Program (Provoc) and is carried out in the Oswald Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.…

  2. Zika Virus Screening among Spanish Team Members After 2016 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Valero, Natalia; Borobia, Alberto M; Lago, Mar; Sánchez-Seco, Maria Paz; de Ory, Fernando; Vázquez, Ana; Pérez-Arellano, Jose Luis; Rodríguez, Cristina Carranza; Martínez, Miguel J; Capón, Alicia; Cañas, Elias; Salas-Coronas, Joaquin; Galparsoro, Arkaitz Azcune; Muñoz, Jose

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the risk for the Spanish Olympic Team acquiring Zika virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2016. We recruited 117 team members, and all tested negative for Zika virus. Lack of cases in this cohort supports the minimum risk estimates made before the Games.

  3. Measuring Between-School Segregation in an Open Enrollment System: The Case of Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholo, Tiago Lisboa

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in Rio de Janeiro public schools has brought to light a "Hidden Quasi-Market" that combines purported freedom of choice for parents with school control over their pupil intake. The article analyzes patterns of segregation among schools, from 2004 to 2010, according to three indicators of potentially disadvantaged pupils:…

  4. Zika Virus Screening among Spanish Team Members After 2016 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Olympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Borobia, Alberto M.; Lago, Mar; Sánchez-Seco, Maria Paz; de Ory, Fernando; Vázquez, Ana; Pérez-Arellano, Jose Luis; Rodríguez, Cristina Carranza; Martínez, Miguel J.; Capón, Alicia; Cañas, Elias; Salas-Coronas, Joaquin; Galparsoro, Arkaitz Azcune

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the risk for the Spanish Olympic Team acquiring Zika virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2016. We recruited 117 team members, and all tested negative for Zika virus. Lack of cases in this cohort supports the minimum risk estimates made before the Games. PMID:28628450

  5. Measuring Between-School Segregation in an Open Enrollment System: The Case of Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholo, Tiago Lisboa

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in Rio de Janeiro public schools has brought to light a "Hidden Quasi-Market" that combines purported freedom of choice for parents with school control over their pupil intake. The article analyzes patterns of segregation among schools, from 2004 to 2010, according to three indicators of potentially disadvantaged pupils:…

  6. Exploratory Practice: Work at the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwright, Dick; Lenzuen, Rosa

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the aim of the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which is the development of a new, fully sustainable concept for classroom-based research--exploratory practice--and its assimilation into the normal working and professional-development practices of Rio Cultura teachers. (Author/VWL)

  7. Exploratory Practice: Work at the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwright, Dick; Lenzuen, Rosa

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the aim of the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which is the development of a new, fully sustainable concept for classroom-based research--exploratory practice--and its assimilation into the normal working and professional-development practices of Rio Cultura teachers. (Author/VWL)

  8. Early Evidence for Zika Virus Circulation among Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ayllón, Tania; Campos, Renata de Mendonça; Brasil, Patrícia; Morone, Fernanda Cristina; Câmara, Daniel Cardoso Portela; Meira, Guilherme Louzada Silva; Tannich, Egbert; Yamamoto, Kristie Aimi; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Pedro, Renata Saraiva; Cadar, Daniel; Ferreira, Davis Fernandes; Honório, Nildimar Alves

    2017-01-01

    During 2014–2016, we conducted mosquito-based Zika virus surveillance in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results suggest that Zika virus was probably introduced into the area during May–November 2013 via multiple in-country sources. Furthermore, our results strengthen the hypothesis that Zika virus in the Americas originated in Brazil during October 2012–May 2013. PMID:28628464

  9. Heavy metal contamination in sandy beach macrofauna communities from the Rio de Janeiro coast, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cabrini, Tatiana M B; Barboza, Carlos A M; Skinner, Viviane B; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Rocha, Rafael C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Valentin, Jean L; Cardoso, Ricardo S

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated concentrations of eight heavy metals Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Co and V, in tissues of representative macrofauna species from 68 sandy beaches from the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The links between contamination levels and community descriptors such as diversity, evenness, density and biomass, were also investigated. Metal concentrations from macrofaunal tissues were compared to maximum permissible limits for human ingestion stipulated by the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA). Generalized linear models (GLM's) were used to investigate the variability in macrofauna density, richness, eveness and biomass in the seven different regions. A non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (n-MDS) was used to investigate the spatial pattern of heavy metal concentrations along the seven regions of Rio de Janeiro coast. Variation partitioning was applied to evaluate the variance in the community assemblage explained by the environmental variables and the heavy metal concentrations. Our data suggested high spatial variation in the concentration of heavy metals in macrofauna species from the beaches of Rio de Janeiro. This result highlighted a diffuse source of contamination along the coast. Most of the metals concentrations were under the limits established by ANVISA. The variability in community descriptors was related to morphodynamic variables, but not with metal contamination values, indicating the lack of direct relationships at the community level. Concentration levels of eight heavy metals in macrofauna species from 68 sandy beaches on Rio de Janeiro coast (Brazil) were spatially correlated with anthropogenic activities such as industrialization and urbanization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Antonio G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M da; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G; Moreira, Rodrigo de C; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Friedman, Ruth K; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls-FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events.

  11. 78 FR 57619 - Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ..., October 7-10, 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Amendment... Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil scheduled for October 7-10, 2013, to revise...

  12. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in two cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: first report of natural infection with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Schubach, T M; Figueiredo, F B; Pereira, S A; Madeira, M F; Santos, I B; Andrade, M V; Cuzzi, T; Marzochi, M C; Schubach, A

    2004-03-01

    We describe the isolation of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis from two female cats with American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolates were identified as L. (V.) braziliensis by isoenzyme electrophoresis.

  13. Um Infixation and Prefixation in Toba Batak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Megan J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the behavior of the morpheme, um, in Toba Batak and Tagalog, which alternates as a prefix or an infix, arguing that the variation is conditioned by constraints on consonant clusters. Three patterns of variation that occur with um are described, noting that the stages involved in changing from infixed to prefixed positions over time are…

  14. [Quality assessment of the public water supply in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    d'Aguila, P S; Roque, O C; Miranda, C A; Ferreira, A P

    2000-01-01

    This study proposes to develop methodologies for public water supply quality control by implementing evaluation and control mechanisms and enhancing environmental health surveillance decision-making. These objectives were based on data for waterborne diseases recorded at the Rio de Janeiro State Health Department. We selected the following neighborhoods: Posse (1st Township) and Caioaba (5th Township), with dissimilar situations, allowing us to produce a model of water supply coverage in the Municipality of Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State. The study underscored the poor quality of the water supply in the two townships, since 61% of the samples were positive on bacteriological examination, showing the undesirable effects of differential sanitation, especially in developing countries.

  15. FIRST REPORT OF ACUTE CHAGAS DISEASE BY VECTOR TRANSMISSION IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    SANGENIS, Luiz Henrique Conde; DE SOUSA, Andréa Silvestre; SPERANDIO DA SILVA, Gilberto Marcelo; XAVIER, Sérgio Salles; MACHADO, Carolina Romero Cardoso; BRASIL, Patrícia; DE CASTRO, Liane; DA SILVA, Sidnei; GEORG, Ingebourg; SARAIVA, Roberto Magalhães; do BRASIL, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano; HASSLOCHER-MORENO, Alejandro Marcel

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease (CD) is an endemic anthropozoonosis from Latin America of which the main means of transmission is the contact of skin lesions or mucosa with the feces of triatomine bugs infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. In this article, we describe the first acute CD case acquired by vector transmission in the Rio de Janeiro State and confirmed by parasitological, serological and PCR tests. The patient presented acute cardiomyopathy and pericardial effusion without cardiac tamponade. Together with fever and malaise, a 3 cm wide erythematous, non-pruritic, papule compatible with a "chagoma" was found on his left wrist. This case report draws attention to the possible transmission of CD by non-domiciled native vectors in non-endemic areas. Therefore, acute CD should be included in the diagnostic workout of febrile diseases and acute myopericarditis in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26422165

  16. [Under the aegis of urgency: management practices by public hospital directors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Creuza da Silva; Fernandes, Maria Inês Assumpção; Carreteiro, Tereza Cristina

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses management practices in public hospitals (general hospitals with emergency services) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, based on a psychosociological approach to organizational analysis. Of the 12 existing hospitals, 8 were included in the current study, conducted from July 2003 to April 2004. The research, drawing on hospital directors' narratives, identified three management models. The first focuses on processes of change, highlighting symbolic and imaginative elements for building a vision of the future for the hospitals. The second concentrates on specific projects, which absorbs all the management efforts. A third pattern (predominant in the study) is marked by the struggle to keep the hospital working, with the image of urgency as the driving force. The imposition of continuous action leaves no room for reflection. The crisis in Rio de Janeiro's public hospitals has led to a "wartime" environment and thus the dissemination of the urgency-based model.

  17. Determination of cocaine in Real banknotes circulating at the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, V G K; Cassella, R J; Pacheco, W F

    2015-06-01

    This paper shows the result of a study on the extent of cocaine contamination in Real banknotes in circulation in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). A study of the percentage of contaminated banknotes was made, as well as a study on the contamination of banknotes based on different values, and a study of contamination depending on the region where the banknote was collected. The idea of this last study was to verify if the peculiar characteristics of the region of study (in particular, the city of Rio de Janeiro) influence the amount of cocaine in the banknotes. Some regions have higher consumption/drug trafficking of cocaine than others. Also, some contaminated banknotes confiscated directly from drug dealers and users were analyzed. Also, is showed in this paper all the optimization of the available analytical techniques for making the measurements possible.

  18. Slave mortality during the cholera epidemic in Rio de Janeiro (1855-1856): a preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Kaori; Pimenta, Tânia Salgado; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Bellido, Jaime Gregorio

    2012-12-01

    The article offers a preliminary analysis of the sociodemographic profile of deaths recorded during the first cholera epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, based on data gathered from death records at Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital. After cholera appeared in the country in 1855, Brazilian medical reports indicated a social bias, with slaves and the free poor suffering high mortality. From a historical perspective, however, little research has been done on the epidemic and its dynamics. The recovery of original data on cholera and the analysis of cholera mortality rates help us to better understand aspects of the slave universe in the urban zone of Rio de Janeiro in the period following the end of the slave trade.

  19. The historiography of psychoanalysis in Brazil: the case of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Cristiana; De Castro, Rafael Dias

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyze the background of the historiography of psychoanalysis in Rio de Janeiro. Three different phases and approaches are analyzed, based on the viewpoints of different groups of authors. The first group features authors who displayed an early interest in the subject, in the 1920's-1930's. The second refers to psychiatrists/psychoanalysts who worked with mental health institutes and societies between the 1940's and 1970's, while the third perspective comes from the academic/university environment, from the end of the 70's to the present. This distinction was made not only to better define the timeframe of the arrival and dissemination of psychoanalysis in Rio de Janeiro, but also to provide a better understanding of the relation between the specific professional and intellectual interests of each group and the respective historical context.

  20. Detection of Carbapenemase Genes in Aquatic Environments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Carlos Felipe Machado; Silva, Dalton Marcondes; Carneiro, Marcos Tavares; Ribeiro, Sthefanie; Fontana-Maurell, Marcela; Alvarez, Patricia; Asensi, Marise Dutra; Zahner, Viviane; Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula D'Alincourt

    2016-07-01

    This study reveals the presence of different carbapenemase genes (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaGES, and blaOXA48-like genes) detected directly from water samples and clonal dispersion (by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) of KPC-2-producing Enterobacteriaceae in two important urban aquatic matrixes from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, highlighting the role of aquatic environments as gene pools and the possibility of community spreading.

  1. Ergonomic work analysis of urban bus drivers in Rio de Janeiro city.

    PubMed

    Querido, Aloá; Nogueira, Tainan; Gama, Rafael; Orlando, José

    2012-01-01

    This article is the result of a case study on ergonomic work analysis carried out in an urban bus company located in Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro. The methodology used in this work follows the French-tradition Ergonomic Analysis of the Work (EWA) combined with the best tradition from anglo-saxon ergonomic work analysis. The situated diagnosis was performed to provide relevant information about the work conditions of a bus driver.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Elder Abuse in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Blay, Sergio L; Laks, Jerson; Marinho, Valeska; Figueira, Ivan; Maia, Deborah; Coutinho, Evandro S F; Quintana, Ines M; Mello, Marcelo F; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mari, Jair J; Andreoli, Sergio B

    2017-09-12

    To assess the prevalence of elder abuse and to investigate potential sociodemographic, health behavior, and medical correlates. Cross-sectional data were collected in face-to-face assessments. São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Individuals aged 60 to 75. Information on elder abuse was obtained using the Brazil-adapted, nine-item Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test. Sampling design-adjusted descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in analyses. The overall prevalence of abuse was 14.4% (n = 46/259, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.82-20.61) in São Paulo and 13.3% (n = 27/197, 95% CI = 8.76-19.74) in Rio de Janeiro. Unadjusted analyses indicated that poor education, low physical activity, unemployment, heart disease, and psychiatric problems were associated with abuse, but in adjusted analyses, self-reported elder abuse was significantly associated only with psychiatric problems (São Paulo: OR = 4.48, 95% CI = 1.75-11.45; Rio de Janeiro: OR = 21.61, 95% CI = 6.39-73.14). Elder abuse is prevalent in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but whether concomitants of abuse are cause, effect, or both is unclear because this was a cross-sectional study. These findings highlight the importance of the problem, as well as the need to develop measures to increase awareness, facilitate prevention, and fight against abuse of elderly adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. The first record of American visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alba Valéria Machado; de Souza Cândido, Claudia Dias; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first to report visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A relatively high seroprevalence of 25% was observed although none of them have presented any symptom. Our results support the observation of previous authors, suggesting that cats may be considered as alternative domestic hosts of visceral leishmaniasis and should be included in serological investigations performed in endemic areas.

  4. Bottom water throughflows at the Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande Fracture Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Herlé; Weatherly, Georges L.; Arhan, Michel

    2000-05-01

    Bottom water throughflows at the Rio de Janeiro Fracture Zone (22°S) and Rio Grande Fracture Zone (26°S) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are identified from hydrographic anomalies observed along 9°W in the Angola Basin. The throughflow water is supplied by a meridional band of cold and fresh water lying against the western flank of the Ridge.

  5. Determinants of gestational night blindness in pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Cláudia; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Neves, Paulo Augusto Ribeiro; Padilha, Patricia de Carvalho; da Silva, Letícia Barbosa Gabriel; Schilithz, Arthur Orlando Corrêa

    2016-04-01

    To describe the prevalence and determinants of gestational night blindness in pregnant women receiving care in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cross-sectional study of pregnant and postpartum women receiving care in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro from 1999 to 2001 (group I; n 225) or from 2005 to 2008 (group II; n 381). Night blindness was identified through a standardized and validated interview (WHO, 1996). The determinants of gestational night blindness were identified through a hierarchical logistic regression model. Public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Adult pregnant and postpartum women (n 606), aged ≥20 years. The prevalence of gestational night blindness was 9·9 %. The final model revealed that not living in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro (distal level: adjusted OR=1·846; 95 % CI 1·002, 3·401), belonging to group I (intermediate level: adjusted OR=2·183; 95 % CI 1·066, 4·471) and for the proximal level, having a history of abortion (adjusted OR=2·840; 95 % CI 1·134, 7·115) and having anaemia during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy (adjusted OR=3·776; 95 % CI 1·579, 9·029) were determinants of gestational night blindness. Gestational night blindness should be assessed for during the prenatal care of all pregnant women, especially those living in deprived areas of the city and/or who have a history of abortion or anaemia. Nutritional monitoring is recommended during pregnancy to control gestational night blindness.

  6. Detection of Carbapenemase Genes in Aquatic Environments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Carlos Felipe Machado; Silva, Dalton Marcondes; Carneiro, Marcos Tavares; Ribeiro, Sthefanie; Fontana-Maurell, Marcela; Alvarez, Patricia; Asensi, Marise Dutra; Zahner, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    This study reveals the presence of different carbapenemase genes (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaGES, and blaOXA48-like genes) detected directly from water samples and clonal dispersion (by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) of KPC-2-producing Enterobacteriaceae in two important urban aquatic matrixes from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, highlighting the role of aquatic environments as gene pools and the possibility of community spreading. PMID:27139469

  7. Culex quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro Is Not Competent to Transmit the Local Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rosilainy Surubi; Campos, Stéphanie Silva; Ferreira-de-Brito, Anielly; Miranda, Rafaella Moraes de; Barbosa da Silva, Keli Antunes; Castro, Marcia Gonçalves de; Raphael, Lidiane M S; Brasil, Patrícia; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Bonaldo, Myrna C; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    The Americas have suffered a dramatic epidemic of Zika since May in 2015, when Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Brazil. Mosquitoes belonging to subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes, particularly Aedes aegypti, are considered the primary vectors of ZIKV. However, the rapid spread of the virus across the continent raised several concerns about the transmission dynamics, especially about potential mosquito vectors. The purpose of this work was to assess the vector competence of the house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus from an epidemic Zika area, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for local circulating ZIKV isolates. Culex quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti (positive control of ZIKV infection) from Rio de Janeiro were orally exposed to two ZIKV strains isolated from human cases from Rio de Janeiro (Rio-U1 and Rio-S1). Fully engorged mosquitoes were held in incubators at 26 ± 1°C, 12 h:12 h light:dark cycle and 70 ± 10% humidity. For each combination mosquito population-ZIKV strain, 30 specimens were examined for infection, dissemination and transmission rates, at 7, 14 and 21 days after virus exposure by analyzing body (thorax plus abdomen), head and saliva respectively. Infection rates were minimal to completely absent in all Cx. quinquefasciatus-virus combinations and were significantly high for Ae. aegypti. Moreover, dissemination and transmission were not detected in any Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes whatever the incubation period and the ZIKV isolate. In contrast, Ae. aegypti ensured high viral dissemination and moderate to very high transmission. The southern house mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro was not competent to transmit local strains of ZIKV. Thus, there is no experimental evidence that Cx. quinquefasciatus likely plays a role in the ZIKV transmission. Consequently, at least in Rio, mosquito control to reduce ZIKV transmission should remain focused on Ae. aegypti.

  8. Culex quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro Is Not Competent to Transmit the Local Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-de-Brito, Anielly; de Miranda, Rafaella Moraes; Barbosa da Silva, Keli Antunes; de Castro, Marcia Gonçalves; Raphael, Lidiane M. S.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Bonaldo, Myrna C.; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Background The Americas have suffered a dramatic epidemic of Zika since May in 2015, when Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Brazil. Mosquitoes belonging to subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes, particularly Aedes aegypti, are considered the primary vectors of ZIKV. However, the rapid spread of the virus across the continent raised several concerns about the transmission dynamics, especially about potential mosquito vectors. The purpose of this work was to assess the vector competence of the house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus from an epidemic Zika area, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for local circulating ZIKV isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings Culex quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti (positive control of ZIKV infection) from Rio de Janeiro were orally exposed to two ZIKV strains isolated from human cases from Rio de Janeiro (Rio-U1 and Rio-S1). Fully engorged mosquitoes were held in incubators at 26 ± 1°C, 12 h:12 h light:dark cycle and 70 ± 10% humidity. For each combination mosquito population—ZIKV strain, 30 specimens were examined for infection, dissemination and transmission rates, at 7, 14 and 21 days after virus exposure by analyzing body (thorax plus abdomen), head and saliva respectively. Infection rates were minimal to completely absent in all Cx. quinquefasciatus-virus combinations and were significantly high for Ae. aegypti. Moreover, dissemination and transmission were not detected in any Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes whatever the incubation period and the ZIKV isolate. In contrast, Ae. aegypti ensured high viral dissemination and moderate to very high transmission. Conclusions/Significance The southern house mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro was not competent to transmit local strains of ZIKV. Thus, there is no experimental evidence that Cx. quinquefasciatus likely plays a role in the ZIKV transmission. Consequently, at least in Rio, mosquito control to reduce ZIKV transmission should remain focused on Ae. aegypti. PMID

  9. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Denise Amaro; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  10. [Zika Virus - Impact on the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Warnke, K; Paul, J

    2016-08-01

    There is an ongoing discussion in the media about the Zika virus and the question of whether or not athletes and visitors will be at risk of an infection during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. According to an assessment published on 31 May 2016 by the IOC and the WHO, participants and visitors have no reason to panic. However, increasing public pressure has caused the WHO to re-evaluate the current situation, and further recommendations will likely be given before the Olympic Games start. The current facts are as follows: 1) The Olympic Summer Games will be held during the winter months in Brazil, when the appearance of mosquitoes is expected to be low. 2) Extensive use of insecticides every 6 to 8 weeks in Rio de Janeiro and all Olympic venues has almost eradicated the mosquito population. 3) Individual protection of athletes, trainers and visitors is crucial (wearing appropriate clothing with skin coverage, sleeping under mosquito nets, using contact insecticides for clothing and mosquito nets, and applying insect repellents on a regular basis). 4) Pregnant women should avoid travelling to any country with current Zika virus activity. In sum, the risk to incur a Zika virus infection during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro will likely be comparable to the risk in other countries where cases of Zika virus infections are registered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Characterization of the zoonotic potential of Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Rio de Janeiro State.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Sabrina S; da Silva, Andressa F; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; de Oliveira, Francisco C R; Consalter, Angélica; Padilha, Felipe G F; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz M; Ferreira, Ana M Reis

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a survey on the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in horses from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. From 2012 to 2013, a total of 624 blood samples were collected from horses from the eight regions comprising Rio de Janeiro State (Baixadas Litorâneas, Serrana, Norte Fluminense, Noroeste Fluminense, Centro-Sul, Metropolitana, Médio Paraíba, and Costa Verde). All sera samples were tested for anti-T. gondii antibodies by performing the modified agglutination test with a cut-off of 1:25. Positive serology for T. gondii was detected in 22.8% (142/624) of the horses studied. Seropositivity was detected in all regions sampled; furthermore, statistical significance was observed when all locations were compared at once. The Médio Paraíba region had the highest number of positive animals 54.76% (23/42) in the Bonferroni correction among Costa Verde, Centro Sul, Metropolitana, and Serrana (p<0.001). Seropositivity was 39.58% (38/96) in Norte Fluminense, which was the second most prevalent region. The results indicated that the T. gondii parasite is widely distributed in horses in Rio de Janeiro State and represents a risk to public and animal health. These findings emphasize the need to increase control and prevention of this disease in horses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Family Healthcare Units in Portugal and Family Clinics in Rio de Janeiro - their essence and similarities].

    PubMed

    Carrapiço, Eunice Isabel do Nacimento; Ramires, João Henrique Vaz; Ramos, Victor Manuel Borges

    2017-03-01

    The authors address parallel developments in Family Healthcare Units (USF) in Portugal (since 2006) and in primary care Family Clinics (CF) in Rio de Janeiro (since 2009). In this essay, they highlight the meeting that took place in Portugal with Brazilian Health Ministry and Rio de Janeiro Department of Health members in October 2009. Being directly involved (since May 2016) in the development of USF in the Lisbon Region, and having visited, in November 2016, several CF in Rio de Janeiro, they analyze aspects such as: organization in permanent structural multi-professional teams; main common characteristics of the teams; teambuilding processes; organization and technical autonomy; instruments to regulate autonomy; responsibility and accountability - contracting processes; monitoring and evaluation; leadership system; motivational factors for professionals and for the team as a whole; learning organizations. All these aspects converge to a "3P" framework: "purposes" - organizing and orienting multi-professional teams towards health gains and the wellbeing of the individuals and the population; "people" - both those who are beneficiaries of health care services, as well as the health care professionals; "processes" - that must be permanently questioned, evaluated and enhanced.

  13. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.

  14. Supply and usage of hemodynamic services in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andreazzi, Maria de Fatima Siliansky de; Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch de; Sancho, Leyla; Freitas, Heitor Alarico Gonçalves de

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the supply of equipment and procedures inherent to public hemodynamic services in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We conducted an exploratory study based on official data banks: AMS survey of IBGE, CNES, AIH and APAC, and ANS. The examination period of the supply was from 1999 to 2009, and of the use, from 2008 to October 2012. Since 1999 there has been a growth in the acquisition of hemodynamic equipment. The private sector concentrates most of the offer, but has been reducing its availability to the Unified Health System (SUS). The ratio of the equipment and the population exceeds that of some rich countries. On the supply side, there was, in Rio de Janeiro, in 2009, a rate of 4.1 units per million inhabitants, higher than in Brazil as a whole, of 3.4; however, when considering only the offer for the SUS (SUS), the values are similar, 1.6 and 1.5. The procedures of interventional cardiology grew between 2008 and 2011 in Rio de Janeiro, but the majority of public hospitals have reduced production and the private have increased it, resulting in the referral of SUS users to be submitted to procedures great distances from home.

  15. Using uh and um in spontaneous speaking.

    PubMed

    Clark, Herbert H; Fox Tree, Jean E

    2002-05-01

    The proposal examined here is that speakers use uh and um to announce that they are initiating what they expect to be a minor (uh), or major (um), delay in speaking. Speakers can use these announcements in turn to implicate, for example, that they are searching for a word, are deciding what to say next, want to keep the floor, or want to cede the floor. Evidence for the proposal comes from several large corpora of spontaneous speech. The evidence shows that speakers monitor their speech plans for upcoming delays worthy of comment. When they discover such a delay, they formulate where and how to suspend speaking, which item to produce (uh or um), whether to attach it as a clitic onto the previous word (as in "and-uh"), and whether to prolong it. The argument is that uh and um are conventional English words, and speakers plan for, formulate, and produce them just as they would any word.

  16. The Disease Burden Attributable to Smoking in the State Of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil in 2000

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves; Leite, Iuri Costa

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Smoking is one of the main risk factors for morbidity and mortality. An estimated 59 million (4.4%) disability-adjusted life years were lost due to smoking throughout the world in 2000. OBJECTIVE To estimate the disease burden attributable to smoking in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the year 2000. METHODS Based on estimates of smoking prevalence and relative death risks, the smoking-attributable fraction was calculated for each selected cause, by age and gender. The disease burden attributable to smoking was estimated by multiplying the fractions by the corresponding disability-adjusted life years. RESULTS In the State of Rio de Janeiro, 7% of all disability-adjusted life years were due to smoking. For individuals 30 or more years old, the fraction increased to 10.6% (13.6% in males and 7.5% in females). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer accounted for 32.2%, 15.7%, 13.2%, and 11.1% of the estimated total DALYs, respectively, amounting to 72.2% of the smoking-attributable disease burden. DISCUSSION Limitations related to parameter estimates were not unique to this study, and therefore should not compromise the comparability of our results. Outcomes were similar to those obtained in other countries, despite methodological differences. CONCLUSION Smoking is an important risk factor and places a significant disease burden on Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showing a pattern similar to that observed in high income countries. PMID:18438576

  17. Zika in Rio de Janeiro: Assessment of basic reproduction number and comparison with dengue outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Villela, D A M; Bastos, L S; DE Carvalho, L M; Cruz, O G; Gomes, M F C; Durovni, B; Lemos, M C; Saraceni, V; Coelho, F C; Codeço, C T

    2017-06-01

    Zika virus infection was declared a public health emergency of international concern in February 2016 in response to the outbreak in Brazil and its suspected link with congenital anomalies. In this study, we use notification data and disease natural history parameters to estimate the basic reproduction number (R 0) of Zika in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also obtain estimates of R 0 of dengue from time series of dengue cases in the outbreaks registered in 2002 and 2012 in the city, when DENV-3 and DENV-4 serotypes, respectively, had just emerged. Our estimates of the basic reproduction number for Zika in Rio de Janeiro based on surveillance notifications (R 0 = 2·33, 95% CI: 1·97-2·97) were higher than those obtained for dengue in the city (year 2002: R 0 = 1·70 [1·50-2·02]; year 2012: R 0 = 1·25 [1·18-1·36]). Given the role of Aedes aegypti as vector of both the Zika and dengue viruses, we also derive R 0 of Zika as a function of both dengue reproduction number and entomological and epidemiological parameters for dengue and Zika. Using the dengue outbreaks from previous years allowed us to estimate the potential R 0 of Zika. Our estimates were closely in agreement with our first Zika's R 0 estimation from notification data. Hence, these results validate deriving the potential risk of Zika transmission in areas with recurring dengue outbreaks. Whether transmission routes other than vector-based can sustain a Zika epidemic still deserves attention, but our results suggest that the Zika outbreak in Rio de Janeiro emerged due to population susceptibility and ubiquitous presence of Ae. aegypti.

  18. Spatial distribution and socioeconomic context of tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alessandra Gonçalves Lisbôa; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade; Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Valencia, Luis Iván Ortiz; Magalhães, Mônica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of risk for tuberculosis and its socioeconomic determinants in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS An ecological study on the association between the mean incidence rate of tuberculosis from 2004 to 2006 and socioeconomic indicators of the Censo Demográfico (Demographic Census) of 2000. The unit of analysis was the home district registered in the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Notifiable Diseases Information System) of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. The rates were standardized by sex and age group, and smoothed by the empirical Bayes method. Spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by Moran’s I. Multiple linear regression models were studied and the appropriateness of incorporating the spatial component in modeling was evaluated. RESULTS We observed a higher risk of the disease in some neighborhoods of the port and north regions, as well as a high incidence in the slums of Rocinha and Vidigal, in the south region, and Cidade de Deus, in the west. The final model identified a positive association for the variables: percentage of permanent private households in which the head of the house earns three to five minimum wages; percentage of individual residents in the neighborhood; and percentage of people living in homes with more than two people per bedroom. CONCLUSIONS The spatial analysis identified areas of risk of tuberculosis incidence in the neighborhoods of the city of Rio de Janeiro and also found spatial dependence for the incidence of tuberculosis and some socioeconomic variables. However, the inclusion of the space component in the final model was not required during the modeling process. PMID:26270014

  19. Immune status at presentation for human immunodeficiency virus clinical care in Rio de Janeiro and Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Luz, Paula M.; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Morgado, Mariza; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Keruly, Jeanne C.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Moore, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Late presentation to HIV clinical care increases individual risk of (multiple) clinical events and death, and decreases successful response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In Brazil, provision of HAART free of charge to all HIV-infected individuals could lead to increased testing and linkage to care. Methods We assessed the immune status of 2,555 patients who newly presented for HIV clinical care between 1997 and 2009 at the Johns Hopkins Clinical Cohort, in Baltimore, USA and at the Instituto de Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas Clinical Cohort, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mean change in the CD4 cell count per year was estimated using multivariate linear regression models. Results Overall, from 1997 to 2009, 56% and 54% of the patients presented for HIV clinical care with CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/mm3 in Baltimore and Rio de Janeiro, respectively. On average, 75% of the patients presented with viral load > 10,000 copies/mL. In Rio de Janeiro only, the overall adjusted per year increase in the mean CD4 cell count was statistically significant [5 cells/mm3 (95% CI 1, 10 cells/mm3)]. Discussion We found that, over years, the majority of patients presented late, that is, with a CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3. Our findings indicate that, despite the availability of HAART for more than a decade, and mass media campaigns stimulating HIV testing in both countries, the proportion of patients who start therapy at an advanced stage of the disease is still high. PMID:21857314

  20. Immune status at presentation for HIV clinical care in Rio de Janeiro and Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ronaldo I; Luz, Paula M; Struchiner, Claudio J; Morgado, Mariza; Veloso, Valdilea G; Keruly, Jeanne C; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Moore, Richard D

    2011-08-01

    Late presentation to HIV clinical care increases individual risk for (multiple) clinical events and death, and decreases successful response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In Brazil, provision of HAART free of charge to all individuals infected with HIV could lead to increased testing and linkage to care. We assessed the immune status of 2555 patients who newly presented for HIV clinical care between 1997 and 2009 at the Johns Hopkins Clinical Cohort, in Baltimore, Md, and at the Instituto de Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas Clinical Cohort, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mean change in the CD4 cell count per year was estimated using multivariate linear regression models. Overall, from 1997 to 2009, 56% and 54% of the patients presented for HIV clinical care with CD4 count ≤350 cells per cubic millimeter in Baltimore and Rio de Janeiro, respectively. On average, 75% of the patients presented with viral load >10,000 copies per millimeter. In Rio de Janeiro only, the overall adjusted per year increase in the mean CD4 cell count was statistically significant (5 cells/mm, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 10 cells/mm). We found that, over years, the majority of patients presented late, that is, with a CD4 count <350 cells per cubic millimeter. Our findings indicate that, despite the availability of HAART for more than a decade, and mass media campaigns stimulating HIV testing in both countries, the proportion of patients who start therapy at an advanced stage of the disease is still high.

  1. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  2. Taxonomic implications of Rhodotorula rubra isolates from polluted sea water in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hagler, A N; Mendonça-Hagler, L C

    1979-04-01

    Sixty two strains of Rhodotorula rubra which were all isolated from marine and estuarine waters of Rio de Janeiro were found variable for 19 to 32 carbon assimilation tests used in yeast taxonomy. Two R. rubra strains which had latent assimilation of maltose and melizitose appeared to be intermediate with R. pilimanae. Strains of R. glutinis var dairenensis which differed from R. rubra only by weak assimilation of nitrate appeared to be intermediated between these two species. Our physiological tests suggested that R. rubra, R. pilimanae, and part of R. glutinis should be combined and this was supported by DNA base composition and coezyme Q data existing in the literature.

  3. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention. PMID:25830996

  4. Results of the Rio de Janeiro magnetic observations 1781-1788

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.

    2005-07-01

    We have compiled a relatively extensive catalogue of geomagnetic declination measurements performed by the Portuguese Bento Sanches Dorta in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) between 1781 and 1788. All the information was retrieved from printed documents compiled in the first three volumes of the Memories of the Portuguese Royal Academy of Sciences. During this period Sanches Dorta performed roughly 20000 individual observations, however, only a fraction of this data is presently available. In this work, all available information about these measurements is analysed. The annual change (variability and trend) and the daily cycle of geomagnetic declination at monthly scale are discussed. Keywords. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism, History of geophysics, Geomagnetic field declination

  5. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus infection in domestic cats in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Nadia R; Danelli, Maria G M; da Silva, Lucia H P; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Mazur, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Peripheral blood smears of 1094 domestic cats were collected and tested by indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay for p27 antigen in cells to study the prevalence and risk factors for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Sex, age, breed, outdoor access, neutering status, type of habitation (household, shelter, veterinary clinics and other places), number of household cats and clinical signs were registered on a form. Among the tested samples, 11.52% were positive. Risk factors for FeLV infection included outdoor access, age range between 1 and 5 years old, and cohabitation with numerous cats.

  6. Conflicts in developing countries: a case study from Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect

    Bredariol, Celso Simoes; Magrini, Alessandra

    2003-07-01

    In developing countries, environmental conflicts are resolved mainly in the political arena. In the developed nations, approaches favoring structured negotiation support techniques are more common, with methodologies and studies designed especially for this purpose, deriving from Group Communications and Decision Theory. This paper analyzes an environmental dispute in the City of Rio de Janeiro, applying conflict analysis methods and simulating its settlement. It concludes that the use of these methodologies in the developing countries may be undertaken with adaptations, designed to train community groups in negotiating while fostering the democratization of the settlement of these disputes.

  7. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention.

  8. Multiclonal expansion of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing-NDM-1 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aires, Caio Augusto Martins; Pereira, Polyana Silva; de Araujo, Carlos Felipe Machado; Chagas, Thiago Pavoni Gomes; Oliveira, Jane Cleide; Buonora, Sibelle Nogueira; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula D'Alincourt; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2017-02-06

    We characterized NDM-1-producing Klebsiella spp. isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PCR was applied for resistance and virulence determinants. The genetic context of blaNDM was determined by S1 PFGE and hybridization. The genotyping were performed by PFGE and MLST. Most isolates carried multiple resistance genes and remained susceptible to amikacin, fosfomycin/trometamol, polymyxin B and tigecycline. The spread of NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae was not associated with a clonal expansion and appears to be associated with Tn3000.

  9. Radiocarbon measurements of stromatolite heads and crusts at the Salgada Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, Melayne M.; Silva, Cleverson G.; Barbosa, Cátia F.; Mueller, Ken A.

    2000-10-01

    In this work, we prepared and measured some stromatolite carbonate samples, from Salgada Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Stromatolites are bio-sedimentary, laminated, carbonate structures produced by sedimentary, chemical and biological processes related to the development and growth of microbial benthic communities, mainly dominated by blue algae and cyanobacteria. These structures are present in the geological record in rocks older than 3.0 billion years and have been used to study the origin of primitive life and variations in past environmental conditions. Detailed AMS measurements were performed at PRIME Lab (Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory, Purdue University, IN, USA).

  10. Diversity of yellow fever mosquito vectors in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Mello, Cecilia Ferreira de; Barbosa, Leandro Silva; Gil-Santana, Hélcio Reinaldo; Maia, Daniele de Aguiar; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Environmental modifications caused by human activities have led to changes in mosquito vector populations, and sylvatic species have adapted to breeding in urban areas. Mosquitoes were collected using ovitraps in three sampling sites in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We collected 2,162 Culicidae specimens. Haemagogus janthinomys and Haemagogus leucocelaenus, both sylvatic yellow fever virus vectors, were the most common species found. There is a potential for the transmission of arboviruses in and around these natural reserves. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain entomological surveillance programs in the region.

  11. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of skin lesions from sporotrichosis epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cassio Porto; Oliveira de Almeida, Ana Cristina; Corte-Real, Suzana

    2015-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy can yield useful information in a range of scientific fields; it is capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes and has been a very useful tool in the identification of morphological changes of the dermis as well as assessment of changes in the extracellular matrix. Our aim is to characterize by electron microscopy the cellular profile of lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii from the sporotrichosis epidemic in its zoonotic form that occurs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  12. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is

  13. Immature mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a eutrophic landfill tank from State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Morone, Fernanda; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio Reinaldo; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2013-01-01

    To determine the faunal composition of immature culicids inhabiting a percolation tank in the landfill of Sapucaia, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, immature mosquitoes were collected over a two-day period during the third weeks of April, August and October 2011. The species found were Culex usquatus, Lutzia bigoti, Anopheles argyritarsis and Limatus durhamii. This study is the first to report the colonization of eutrophic breeding sites by these species. The oviposition behavior observed in this study suggests a secondary adaptation or change in habit to select eutrophic environments during the developmental stages of the observed species.

  14. Spatial Evaluation and Modeling of Dengue Seroprevalence and Vector Density in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Nildimar Alves; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhães, Mônica; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; de Araújo, Eliane Saraiva Machado; Gomes, Marcelo Quintela; Pinheiro, Luciane Silva; da Silva Pinel, Célio; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, experienced a severe dengue fever epidemic in 2008. This was the worst epidemic ever, characterized by a sharp increase in case-fatality rate, mainly among younger individuals. A combination of factors, such as climate, mosquito abundance, buildup of the susceptible population, or viral evolution, could explain the severity of this epidemic. The main objective of this study is to model the spatial patterns of dengue seroprevalence in three neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles in Rio de Janeiro. As blood sampling coincided with the peak of dengue transmission, we were also able to identify recent dengue infections and visually relate them to Aedes aegypti spatial distribution abundance. We analyzed individual and spatial factors associated with seroprevalence using Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Methodology/Principal Findings Three neighborhoods were investigated: a central urban neighborhood, and two isolated areas characterized as a slum and a suburban area. Weekly mosquito collections started in September 2006 and continued until March 2008. In each study area, 40 adult traps and 40 egg traps were installed in a random sample of premises, and two infestation indexes calculated: mean adult density and mean egg density. Sera from individuals living in the three neighborhoods were collected before the 2008 epidemic (July through November 2007) and during the epidemic (February through April 2008). Sera were tested for DENV-reactive IgM, IgG, Nested RT-PCR, and Real Time RT-PCR. From the before–after epidemics paired data, we described seroprevalence, recent dengue infections (asymptomatic or not), and seroconversion. Recent dengue infection varied from 1.3% to 14.1% among study areas. The highest IgM seropositivity occurred in the slum, where mosquito abundance was the lowest, but household conditions were the best for promoting contact between hosts and vectors. By fitting spatial GAM we found dengue

  15. 77 FR 1667 - Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, Respondent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil... a last known address of Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, and...

  16. Paleoparasitological results from XVIII century human remains from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Taglioretti, Veronica; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Dias, Ondemar; Neto, Jandira; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2013-03-01

    Paleoparasitological studies of the Brazilian colonial period are scarce. A paleoparasitological analysis was performed on human remains from the archeological site Praça XV Cemetery in Rio de Janeiro, dating from the early 18th to 19th Centuries. The samples were obtained from the Institute of the Brazilian Archaeology collection, and showed evidence of washing and brushing. Sediments were extracted from sacral foramina by scraping. Sediments from skulls were used as negative paleoparasitological controls. Spontaneous sedimentation method was performed prior to microscopic analysis. The results revealed that 8 of 10 individuals were infected with intestinal helminths and/or protozoa. Eggs of the nematodes Trichuris sp. and Ascaris sp. as well as a single taeniid egg were found. Protozoa cysts suggestive of Entamoeba sp. were also observed. Trichuris sp. was the most frequent and abundant parasite, found in 70% of individuals (26 eggs). The study showed the importance of analysis of sediment from human remains preserved in museum or scientific collections, even those subjected to a curating procedure. The levels of infection revealed here should be considered underestimations. This is the first paleoparasitological study from Rio de Janeiro city for the Brazilian colonial period and the first report of human Taenia sp. in the New World.

  17. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  18. Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis strains from naturally infected dogs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Renata Fernandes; Cerqueira, Aloysio de Mello Figueiredo; Castro, Tatiana Xavier de; Ferreira, Eliane de Oliveira; Neves, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves; Barbosa, André Victor; Macieira, Daniel de Barros; Almosny, Nádia Regina Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Ehrlichia canis strains from naturally infected dogs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In addition, all the clinical and hematological findings observed in these dogs were reported. PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used for diagnostic purposes, and the TRP19 and TRP36 genes were sequenced to evaluate the genetic diversity. Fifteen samples were positive for E. canis. The polymerase chain reaction for the TRP19 gene resulted in 11 amplicons (11/15), which were cloned into the pGEM-T easy vector for sequencing. The complete sequence of TRP19 gene was compared to those in the GenBank, revealing high identicalness. Phylogenetic analysis on the TRP36 gene sequences demonstrated two distinct strains from two dogs, named 56C and 70C. The 56C strain was grouped with the strain Cuiaba 16, which is a hybrid strain formed by Brazilian and US genogroups; and the 70C strain was grouped with other strains of the US genogroup, thus suggesting that there are at least two genogroups of E. canis in Rio de Janeiro (US and Brazilian). Those animals, in which the 70C and 56C strains were isolated, showed distinct clinical and hematological manifestations of the disease. The appearance of different genotypes may express new phenotypes, thus resulting in different forms of presentation of the disease and making its diagnosis more complex.

  19. Macrofauna associated to Mycale microsigmatosa (Porifera, Demospongiae) in Rio de Janeiro State, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Suzi M.; Omena, Elianne P.; Muricy, Guilherme

    2003-08-01

    The macrofauna (endo- and epi-biotic) associated to the sponge Mycale ( Carmia) microsigmatosa Arndt, 1927 was studied at three sites in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Arraial do Cabo, Niterói, and Rio de Janeiro). A total of 2235 individuals (over 1 mm long) of 75 invertebrate species were found associated to 19 specimens of the sponge. The most abundant and diverse taxa were the crustaceans (83%, 31 spp.), polychetes (10%, 18 spp.), and molluscs (3.7%, 15 spp.). Cnidarians, platyhelminthes, ascidians, echinoderms, pycnogonids, bryozoans, and sponges were also represented. Amphipod crustaceans were the dominant group, comprising 61% of all individuals collected. Species richness and abundance of associated fauna were highly correlated with sponge volume, but diversity and evenness were not. The site of collection influenced the species composition of the fauna associated to M. microsigmatosa but did not change significantly its diversity, abundance, richness, and dominance patterns of higher taxa. Pregnant females and juvenile stages of 29% of the species associated, including crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, and pycnogonids were frequently found inside M. microsigmatosa. Although many of these organisms do occur and reproduce in other habitats outside the sponge as well, M. microsigmatosa is also important for their reproduction and survivorship, thus contributing for the maintenance of biodiversity in Southwestern Atlantic sublittoral rocky shores.

  20. Official information systems for cryptococcal meningitis, state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leimann, Beatriz Consuelo Quinet; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2009-08-01

    The study aimed to compare the epidemiological profile of crytococcal meningitis in different information systems, thus assessing to what extent the profile available in the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases) reflected cryptococcal meningitis occurrences in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, between 2002 and 2004. That database was compared to a new database comprised of cryptococcal meningitis cases from this System, from the Assessoria de Meningite da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (State Department of Health Meningitis Advisory Committee), and from the Instituto Estadual de Infectologia São Sebastião (State Institute of Infectious Diseases) laboratory records. The System detected 65.7% of the cases present in the new database. The percentage of patients with AIDS as a pre-existing disease was similar in both databases (26% and 24.9%). Thus, even though cryptococcal meningitis incidence is underreported in the System, the profile of notified cases reflects the profile of the total number of cases.

  1. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Daniel Tavares Cassilhas; Vrcibradic, Davor; Avilla, Leonardo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo), and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]). We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]). The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered. PMID:25632263

  2. Nosocomial candidiasis in Rio de Janeiro State: Distribution and fluconazole susceptibility profile

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Paulo Murillo; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Ribeiro, Marcos Dornelas; Amorim, Efigênia de Lourdes Teixeira; da Silva, Manuela; Lazéra, Marcia dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species (45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:26273262

  3. [Spatial distribution of leptospirosis in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1996-1999].

    PubMed

    Tassinari, Wagner de Souza; Pellegrini, Débora da Cruz Payão; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Carvalho, Marilia Sá

    2004-01-01

    Leptospirosis, one of the most widely disseminated zoonoses in the world, is endemic in Brazil and is characterized by outbreaks during seasons with the greatest rainfall. In 1996 the city of Rio de Janeiro experienced one of the largest urban epidemics in the country, shortly after heavy rainstorms in the month of February, with 1,732 reported cases and 51 deaths. The objective of this work was to describe the spatial distribution of leptospirosis in the city of Rio de Janeiro during the period 1996-1999. Data were from the National Information System for Reportable Diseases. The kernel ratio for cases and population generated a smoothed surface, which estimates the intensity of the leptospirosis incidence rate. In the resulting maps over the course of the study period, the sites with the highest leptospirosis intensity were not repeated, and the sites normally considered as having the highest risk -- slum areas and flooded areas -- were not always the most heavily affected. The techniques used can represent an important methodological acquisition for establishing territory-based surveillance.

  4. Nosocomial candidiasis in Rio de Janeiro State: Distribution and fluconazole susceptibility profile.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Paulo Murillo; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Ribeiro, Marcos Dornelas; Amorim, Efigênia de Lourdes Teixeira; da Silva, Manuela; Lazéra, Marcia dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species (45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  5. Induced alkoxyresorufin-O-dealkylases in tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) from Guandu river, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Parente, Thiago E M; De-Oliveira, Ana C A X; Silva, Igor B; Araujo, Francisco G; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2004-03-01

    The activity of fish monooxygenases has been extensively used as a monitoring tool to detect contamination of water bodies by cytochrome P450-inducing agents. In this study we evaluated the activities of ethoxy- (EROD), methoxy- (MROD) and pentoxy- (PROD) resorufin-O-dealkylases in the liver of Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) collected at the Guandu river, at a reference clean site (Lake 1) and at two other sampling sites (Lakes 2 and 3) in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Alkoxyresorufin-O-dealkylases were measured fluorimetrically in the hepatic S9 fraction. EROD (17.7-fold), MROD (14.2-fold) as well as PROD activities were considerably higher in tilapias from Guandu river. A moderate increase of EROD (5.0-fold) and MROD (5.4-fold) was also found in tilapias from Lake 3. These findings suggest that Guandu river watershed, the main source of urban drinking water supply in Rio de Janeiro, is polluted with CYP1A-inducing xenobiotics. Furthermore, we also found a good linear relationship between EROD and MROD, a finding that agrees with the hypothesis that the two reactions are catalysed by the same CYP1A isoform in O. niloticus.

  6. Agronomic performance of arabica coffee genotypes in northwest Rio de Janeiro State.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, W P; Vieira, H D; Barbosa, D H S G; Sousa Filho, G R; Partelli, F L

    2014-07-25

    Considering the productive potential of arabica coffee in the Rio de Janeiro State and the shortage of breeding programs for this species in the state, this study aimed to evaluate the vegetative and productive characteristics of 25 arabica coffee genotypes to indicate 1 or more varieties for the northwest Rio de Janeiro region. The experiment was in Varre e Sai, RJ, Brazil, and plants were planted in 2007 with a spacing of 2.5 x 0.8 m. Five plots were used, consisting of 8 plants per plot to measure vegetative growth, height, stem diameter, and plagiotropic branch number characteristics and productivity in the biennia 2009/2010 and 2011/2012. The classification by sieve was performed at harvest in 2011. The variables were subjected to analysis of variance and means grouped by the Scott Knott test at 5% probability, and the productivity was subjected to joint analysis of variance. Pearson's correlation coefficients between growth and productivity variables were estimated. The best genotypes were Catucaí Amarelo 2 SL, Catiguá MG 02, Acauã, Palma II, Sabiá 398, IPR 103, IPR 100, Catucaí Amarelo 24/137, and Catucaí Amarelo 20/15.

  7. Heart rate and energy expenditure during garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Luiz A; Ferreira, João A; Damião, Jorginete J

    2007-11-01

    Physiological workload is used to estimate the physical demand of tasks in the workforce, but limited information is available for the various work activities in developing countries. Eighty-three randomly selected male workers participated in the present study, aimed at assessing the physiological workload of garbage collection (GC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Heart rate (HR) was obtained on four consecutive workdays. Energy expenditure (EE) was extrapolated from heart rate data based on individual laboratory-established heart rate/oxygen consumption curve in 70 workers. Mean HR during GC was 104.0 +/- 11.7 bpm (+/- SD), representing 56.9 +/- 7.5% of maximum heart rate. EE was 1608.3 +/- 738.5 kcal for an average of 293.1 +/- 103.9 minutes of work per day. Based on all measurements, work in garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro can be considered excessively heavy. These data emphasize the need to develop appropriate classification of workload to be used in health-related research and in the development of maximum acceptable work time in association with the physiological workload, particularly in developing countries.

  8. [The pharmacist's perceptions about their job at communitarian pharmacies of the state of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Bastos, Cláudia Regina Garcia; Caetano, Rosângela

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the pharmacist's perceptions that work at communitarian pharmacies from Rio de Janeiro about their professional practices and how this vision can be related to the practice implementation of Pharmaceutical Attention. A qualitative research was developed with the execution of semi-structured interviews; subsequently discourse was submitted to content analysis, through the thematic analysis. This research have been made with 15 pharmaceuticals of Rio de Janeiro state pharmacies with proportional distribution corresponding to the following typology: state pharmacy network; local network; and familiar, without branches. The speech classification which was made here has shown at least three convergences: the continue difficulties of the population about the use of medicines, certain migration of the pharmaceutical practice, in the meaning of (re)valuing the patient and the superficial knowledge about the Attention Pharmaceutical conception. It is necessary to intensify a reflection on this issue to lead us to identify elements that can guarantee that this pharmaceutical practice can be implemented as a complementary health service.

  9. Hematological changes associated with hemoplasma infection in cats in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Juliana Macedo; Guimarães, Andresa; Botelho, Camila Flávia Magalhães; Peixoto, Maristela Peckel; Pires, Marcus Sandes; Machado, Carlos Henrique; Santos, Huarrisson Azevedo; Massard, Carlos Luiz; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Baldani, Cristiane Divan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to detect Mycoplasma spp. in naturally infected cats from Rio de Janeiro and to evaluate hematological abnormalities and factors associated with this infection. Out of the 197 cats sampled, 11.2% presented structures compatible with hemoplasma organisms on blood smears. In contrast, 22.8% were positive for Mycoplasma spp. by means of 16S rRNA gene real-time polymerase chain reaction, which reflects the weak concordance between techniques. The infection rates, by means of 16S rRNA gene conventional polymerase chain reaction, was 4.6%, 4.6% and 11.7% for Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' (CMt) and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm), respectively. Mhf and CMhm infections are more frequent in the summer (p>0.05). Presence of anemia (p < 0.02), lymphocytosis (p < 0.03), thrombocytopenia (p < 0.04) and activated monocytes (p < 0.04) was associated with Mhf infection. No hematological abnormality was associated with CMt or CMhm infection. Male cats were more prone to be infected by Mhf or CMhm (p < 0.01). Adult cats had more chance to be infected by CMhm. Three hemoplasma species occur in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro and Mhf seems to be the most pathogenic of them. Anemia is the most important hematological abnormality.

  10. Three hundred and three dogs with cataracts seen in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baumworcel, Natasha; Soares, Ana M B; Helms, Gustavo; Rei, Paulo R L; Castro, Maria Cristina N

    2009-01-01

    To describe the most common canine breeds affected with cataracts in Rio de Janeiro. Three hundred and three dogs were included in this retrospective study. Animal ages ranged from 6 months to 14.8 years. All records of dogs seen by the Ophthalmology Service of Policlínica Veterinária Botafogo between January 2005 and June 2008 were reviewed. Animals with cataracts were separated, and breed and age were evaluated. Most of the dogs presented with cataracts were Toy Poodles with a mean age of 8.2 years, followed by Cocker Spaniels and Bichon Frises. The percentage of Toy Poodles affected with cataracts was 13.8% while 33.3% of Bichon Frise was diagnosed with cataracts. Toy Poodles are a popular breed in Rio de Janeiro. Without regulations on breeding, the prevalence of cataracts may increase rapidly. Furthermore, due to the relatively late onset of cataract formation in the Toy Poodle (mean 8.2 years of age), affected animals may have produced several litters of puppies. This study emphasizes the importance of screening for the presence of inherited ocular abnormalities such as cataracts prior to breeding.

  11. Health inequalities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: lower healthy life expectancy in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas.

    PubMed

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; da Mota, Jurema Corrêa; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Pereira, Tatiana Guimarães Sardinha

    2011-03-01

    We investigated deprivation and inequalities in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by location in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We conducted a health survey of 576 adults in 2006. Census tracts were stratified by income level and categorization as a slum. We determined health status by degree of functional limitation, according to the approach proposed by the World Health Organization. We calculated healthy life expectancies by Sullivan's method with abridged life table. We found the worst indicators in the slum stratum. The life expectancy at birth of men living in the richest parts of the city was 12.8 years longer than that of men living in deprived areas. For both men and women older than age 65 years, healthy life expectancy was more than twice as high in the richest sector as in the slum sector. Our analysis detailed the excess burden of poor health experienced by disadvantaged populations of Rio de Janeiro. Policy efforts are needed to reduce social inequalities in health in this city, especially among the elderly.

  12. [Culture and empowerment: health promotion and AIDS prevention among prostitutes in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    De Meis, Carla

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulties that can arise when health promotion projects are developed within marginalized groups. This could be documented using the example of AIDS prevention among prostitutes. We applied questionnaires and focus group interviews were performed with prostitutes in Mangue, Rio de Janeiro in 1989. Later, during the decade of 1990, we accomplished open interviews with prostitutes who frequented São João Square in Niterói and with the leaders of the prostitutes' movement of Rio de Janeiro. During the analysis of the interviews we observed that although, from a public health point of view, prostitutes are considered as a group, they seldomly represent themselves in this way. In other words, while the goal of health promotion agencies and the prostitute movement is to build a prostitutes' grassroots movement able to organize and fight for prostitutes' rights and citizenship, most of the subjects studied believed that prostitution was an evil activity and consequently created narratives which denied their belonging to the prostitutes' community.

  13. Freedom, Revolt and "Citizenship": Three Pillars of Identity for Youngsters Living on the Streets of Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Udi Mandel

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the experiences, identities and aspirations of children and adolescents living on the streets of Rio de Janeiro, formed as they are around the conditions of exclusion, violence and discrimination. Significant here are experiences of "revolta"--revolt or rage--the aspiration for freedom through life on the street…

  14. 78 FR 38687 - Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United...

  15. In vitro antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Penna, B.; Thomé, S.; Martins, R.; Martins, G.; Lilenbaum, W.

    2011-01-01

    Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (167) were obtained from 528 samples of canine otitis externa, identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials. The most effective drug was ciprofloxacin. The study reports alarming resistance among P. aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:24031774

  16. To Be "Cool" or Not to Be "Cool": Young People's Insights on Consumption and Social Issues in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrozo, Sueila

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of material goods consumption to young people and the perception that to be "cool" is fundamental to identity construction, this study investigates consumption in relation to social, economic and cultural inequalities. Qualitative individual interviews took place in November 2005, in Rio de Janeiro, with 14 high…

  17. To Be "Cool" or Not to Be "Cool": Young People's Insights on Consumption and Social Issues in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrozo, Sueila

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of material goods consumption to young people and the perception that to be "cool" is fundamental to identity construction, this study investigates consumption in relation to social, economic and cultural inequalities. Qualitative individual interviews took place in November 2005, in Rio de Janeiro, with 14 high…

  18. Kluyveromyces aestuarii, a potential environmental quality indicator yeast for mangroves in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, F.V.; Hagler, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    Kluyveromyces aestuarii was found in sediments from 7 of 8 mangroves in Rio de Janeiro; and absent only at one site with heavy plastic bag pollution. Its presence suggests influence in other habitats from a mangrove and its absence in a mangrove suggests some non- fecal pollution or other habitat alteration. PMID:24031711

  19. Freedom, Revolt and "Citizenship": Three Pillars of Identity for Youngsters Living on the Streets of Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Udi Mandel

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the experiences, identities and aspirations of children and adolescents living on the streets of Rio de Janeiro, formed as they are around the conditions of exclusion, violence and discrimination. Significant here are experiences of "revolta"--revolt or rage--the aspiration for freedom through life on the street…

  20. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M.; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G.; Moreira, Rodrigo de C.; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. Methods We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls–FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Results Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. Conclusions We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events. PMID:27391355

  1. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  2. First Report of the East-Central South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Thiara Manuele Alves; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Badolato-Corrêa, Jessica; Damasco, Paulo Vieira; Santos, Carla; Petitinga-Paiva, Fabienne; Nunes, Priscila Conrado Guerra; Barbosa, Luciana Santos; Cipitelli, Márcio Costa; Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Faria, Nieli Rodrigues Costa; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; de Bruycker-Nogueira, Fernanda; dos Santos, Flavia Barreto

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus that causes an acute febrile syndrome with a severe and debilitating arthralgia. In Brazil, the Asian and East-Central South African (ECSA) genotypes are circulating in the north and northeast of the country, respectively. In 2015, the first autochthonous cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were reported but until now the circulating strains have not been characterized. Therefore, we aimed here to perform the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of CHIKV strains circulating in the 2016 outbreak occurred in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: The cases analyzed in this study were collected at a private Hospital, from April 2016 to May 2016, during the chikungunya outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All cases were submitted to the Real Time RT-PCR for CHIKV genome detection and to anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA. Chikungunya infection was laboratorially confirmed by at least one diagnostic method and, randomly selected positive cases (n=10), were partially sequenced (CHIKV E1 gene) and analyzed. Results: The results showed that all the samples grouped in ECSA genotype branch and the molecular characterization of the fragment did not reveal the A226V mutation in the Rio de Janeiro strains analyzed, but a K211T amino acid substitution was observed for the first time in all samples and a V156A substitution in two of ten samples. Conclusions: Phylogenetic analysis and molecular characterization reveals the circulation of the ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and two amino acids substitutions (K211T and V156A) exclusive to the CHIKV strains obtained during the 2016 epidemic, were reported. PMID:28286701

  3. [Maria Bandeira: a pioneering botanist at the Botanic Garden of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Bediaga, Begonha; Peixoto, Ariane Luna; Filgueiras, Tarciso S

    2016-01-01

    This article sheds light on Maria Bandeira, the first female botanist to work at the Botanic Garden of Rio de Janeiro. She was active in the 1920s, but is absent from the historiography and little cited in the scientific literature. The significant number of plant, fungus, and lichen specimens she collected, her capacity to reach far-flung places, her extensive correspondence with foreign experts, and her studies at Sorbonne are all sources for the analysis of the way botany was practiced and the social networks at play in science at the time. The end of her scientific career, when she adopted a cloistered life with the Barefoot Carmelite nuns, can be interpreted variously, and partially explains why her contributions to Brazilian botany have been forgotten.

  4. New morphological data of Litomosoides chagasfilhoi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) parasitizing Nectomys squamipes in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Muniz-Pereira, Luís Cláudio; Gonçalves, Paula Araujo; Guimarães, Erick Vaz; Fonseca, Fábio de Oliveira; Santos, José Augusto Albuquerque Dos; Maldonado-Júnior, Arnaldo; Moraes, Antonio Henrique Almeida de

    2016-01-01

    Litomosoides chagasfilhoi, originally described by Moraes Neto, Lanfredi & De Souza (1997) parasitizing the abdominal cavity of the wild rodent, Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887), was found in the abdominal cavity of Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827), from the municipality of Rio Bonito, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. This study led to addition of new morphological data and a new geographical distribution for this filarioid in Brazil. Several characters were detailed and emended to previous records of L. chagasfilhoi in N. squamipes, and confirming the original description in A. cursor: buccal capsule longer than wide with walls thinner than the lumen, right spicule slightly sclerotized, with membranous distal extremity slender, with a small tongue-like terminal portion, left spicule with handle longer than the blade, whose edges form large membranous wings folded longitudinally.

  5. [Obstetric care during childbirth in Rio de Janeiro: hospital practices and user access].

    PubMed

    Campos, T P; Carvalho, M S

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe Rio de Janeiro maternity hospital profiles and the route between the mother's place of residence and the hospital. Data sources were: the State Live Birth Information System (1995) and the National Survey on Medical Care (1992). Two groups of maternity hospitals were identified using multivariate cluster analysis. Group A had an extremely high cesarean rate (81%), with mothers and neonates presenting good health conditions. Cesarean rates were lower in Group B, although still high (32%), and other variables reflected worse neonatal conditions. Cesarean rate was the indicator which best discriminated between the groups, followed by proportion of adolescent mothers and mothers with a high school education. The uneven spatial distribution of maternity hospitals, which were concentrated in the richest area of the city, was a factor in the long routes used by women to reach medical care for childbirth.

  6. Molecular diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in a slum area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Joycenea Matsuda; Machado, Silvia Maria Almeida; Lourenço, Maria Cristina; Ferreira, Rosa Maria Carvalho; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Saad, Maria Helena Feres

    2008-12-01

    This retrospective molecular study involving restriction fragment length polymorphism, using insertion sequence 6110 as a marker, was conducted in order to provide an initial insight into the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in the slums of the Complexo de Manguinhos, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Of the 67 strains evaluated, 23 (34.3%) were found to belong to clusters (total clusters, 10). Household and social chains of transmission were associated with clustering, in 20% and 60%, respectively. Living in the Conjunto Habitacional Programado 2 slum was associated with clustering. Although not significant, it is relevant that 26% of the clustered strains presented primary resistance. These findings, although possibly underestimating the prevalence due to the failure to analyze all strains, could help improve the local tuberculosis control program.

  7. [Bodies and pleasures in male homosocial circuits of downtown Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Rios, Luis Felipe

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ethnographic research investigating the cultural bases that guide the construction of corporeal events, especially those related to sex/eroticism, in the homosocial circuits of downtown Rio de Janeiro. Data were gathered by means of biographic narrative interviews, direct observations and research-interventions. The main argument presented in this paper is that the diverse corporeal events in the studied community are based on the same conceptual structure that focuses on transgression of the "body/flesh" in the sense of St. Paul's concept: an exaltation of forbidden 'tesão', erotic pleasure only admissible for the purpose of reproduction. 'Flesh' instead of sublimated being exalted, constantly inspired and attracted to more and more erotic pleasure.

  8. Clonal multidrug-resistant Corynebacterium striatum within a nosocomial environment, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Baio, Paulo Victor Pereira; Mota, Higor Franceschi; Freitas, Andréa D'avila; Gomes, Débora Leandro Rama; Ramos, Juliana Nunes; Sant'Anna, Lincoln Oliveira; Souza, Mônica Cristina; Camello, Thereza Cristina Ferreira; Hirata, Raphael; Vieira, Verônica Viana; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum is a potentially pathogenic microorganism with the ability to produce outbreaks of nosocomial infections. Here, we document a nosocomial outbreak caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) C. striatum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. C. striatum identification was confirmed by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing. Fifteen C. striatum strains were isolated from adults (half of whom were 50 years of age and older). C. striatum was mostly isolated in pure culture from tracheal aspirates of patients undergoing endotracheal intubation procedures. The analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated the presence of four PFGE profiles, including two related clones of MDR strains (PFGE I and II). The data demonstrated the predominance of PFGE type I, comprising 11 MDR isolates that were mostly isolated from intensive care units and surgical wards. A potential causal link between death and MDR C. striatum (PFGE types I and II) infection was observed in five cases. PMID:23440110

  9. [Scientific diffusion in Rio de Janeiro: some considerations about the 20s].

    PubMed

    Moreira, I de C; Massarani, L

    In this article, we collate data about the activities aimed at the diffusion of scientific knowledge, which were developed in Rio de Janeiro in the 20s, and we discuss their main characteristics. We also point out the significant involvement of members of the scientific and academic communities in such activities. The main research questions guiding the investigation are concerned with the identification of the main characteristics of scientific diffusion at the time, the main actors in such a process, their form of organization, the research means and instruments used. We also provide a general analysis of the motivations, interests, and the philosophical and political perspectives of science in the 20s, as reflected in the type of scientific diffusion produced at the time.

  10. Family Health Teams workers in Rio de Janeiro: leadership aspects in a study on organizational climate.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leda Jung Dos; Paranhos, Maurício Sangama

    2017-03-01

    Organizational climate is understood as the formal or informal perception of policies, practices, actions and organizational procedures, and is a factor of influence in the efficiency of the results, as well as in the conduct of people that are part of an organization. This paper describes one of organizational climate realms, namely, leadership, comparing the strata of professional categories of the Family Health Teams in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Thus, an administrative-based survey was carried out with a sample of n = 9,590 people in 187 primary healthcare units (71 Family Clinics and 116 Municipal Health Centers). The results show that all items that measure the realm of "leadership" were positively evaluated with differences between strata (p-value <0.001). We recommend conducting regular studies and holding leadership workshops in the very health units, as well as using distance-learning tools to exchange information and train staff.

  11. Urban informality as a signifier: Performing urban reordering in suburban Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Müller, Frank I

    2017-07-01

    Urban informality is typically ascribed to the urban poor in cities of the Global South. Drawing on Judith Butler's concept of performativity and taking the case of Rio de Janeiro in the context of the 2016 Olympic Games, this article conceptualizes informality as a signifier and a procedural, relational category. Specifically, it shows how different class actors have employed the signifier informality (1) to legitimize the confinement of marginalized populations; (2) to justify the organized efforts of the upper middle class to protect their 'self-enclosed' gated communities; and (3) to warrant the formation of opposition and alliances between inhabitants, activists, and researchers on the edges of the urban order. This article offers new perspectives to better understand the relationship between informality and confinement by examining the active role that inhabitants of marginalized settlements assume in the Olympic City.

  12. [Operational control of water fluoridation in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Maia, Lucianne Cople; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim; Soares, Eduardo Lúcio; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational control of water fluoridation at the city water supply plant in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to December 2000. The water treatment supervisor filled out a questionnaire on the control of water fluoridation. In addition, water samples were collected every two weeks for fluoride analysis before and after treatment. Samples were analyzed by an independent laboratory using an ion-specific electrode. According to the water treatment supervisor, the entire process for controlling fluoride concentration in the water was rigorous and complied with Brazilian guidelines, but according to testing, 96% of samples were inadequate in terms of risks/benefits of fluoride use from water. The information obtained from the plant supervisor and the test data were thus mutually inconsistent. Based on these data, an independent water fluoride concentration control program is needed to ensure the benefits of dental caries prevention for the population.

  13. Hepatitis a outbreak in a public school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Villar, Livia Melo; Esteves da Costa, Maria do Carmo; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra

    2002-04-01

    From June 1 to July 1 1999, an outbreak involving 25 cases of hepatitis A occurred in a public school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since these cases were notified to the State Health Department, the National Reference Center for Hepatitis Viruses (CNRHV) was required to investigate the extent of hepatitis A virus (HAV) dissemination. Blood samples from all students were tested for IgM and total anti-HAV antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). At the same time, a questionnaire was completed in order to identify possible risk factors for HAV infection. The environmental investigation showed that there was no fecal contamination of the water supply. The epidemiological investigation demonstrated that almost 50% of this population was susceptible to HAV infection and probably person-to-person transmission was the principal mode of virus dissemination. In this situation, a massive vaccination campaign could control the HAV infection.

  14. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quinete, Natalia Soares; de Oliveira, Elba dos Santos; Fernandes, Daniella R; Avelar, Andre de Souza; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2011-12-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments.

  15. Geochronology and heavy metal flux to Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro state: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Baptista Neto, José A; Peixoto, Tomás C S; Smith, Bernard J; McAlister, John J; Patchineelam, Soraya M; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R; Fonseca, Estefan M

    2013-01-01

    Guanabara Bay, located in Rio de Janeiro state. It is surrounded by the second most important metropolitan area of the country. Over recent decades, land disturbance and urbanization in the surrounding area has significantly increased sediment input to the bay and had a negative effect on its overall environmental. This is especially related to high volumes of untreated sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluates the history of this human impact through detailed examination of a sediment core taken from the northern portion of Guanabara Bay. A geochronology is established using ²¹⁰Pb dating and related to organic carbon and heavy metal fluxes to the sediments. This gave a calculated net average sedimentation rate for the core of 0.67 cm.year⁻¹. The organic carbon and heavy metals flux started to increase at the beginning of the last century and the highest values was observed in the top of the cores.

  16. [Emil Kraepelin and psychiatric science in Rio de Janeiro, 1903-1933].

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Cristiana; Muñoz, Pedro Felipe Neves de

    2013-03-01

    The article addresses the penetration of German psychiatric science in early twentieth-century Brazil. More specifically, it explores how the theory and practices of Emil Kraepelin were absorbed by both Juliano Moreira, director of the National Hospital for the Insane (Hospício Nacional de Alienados) and of the agency for Assistance to the Insane (Assistência a Alienados) in the Federal District (Rio de Janeiro), and also by the circle of physicians with close ties to Moreira from 1903 to 1933. It discusses the ways in which Kraepelin's work was adopted, taking into account the day's medical-mental repertoire, the political and scientific context, and the controversies within the Brazilian psychiatric field. Lastly, the study analyzes these choices based on the prevailing relations between Brazilian and German psychiatry back then.

  17. HIV risk behaviors among outpatients with severe mental illness in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    WAINBERG, MILTON L.; MCKINNON, KAREN; ELKINGTON, KATHERINE; MATTOS, PAULO E.; GRUBER MANN, CLAUDIO; DE SOUZA PINTO, DIANA; OTTO-SALAJ, LAURA; COURNOS, FRANCINE; AND THE INVESTIGATORS OF PRISSMA

    2008-01-01

    We conducted the first study to examine rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors, sexual protective behaviors, injection drug use (IDU), needle sharing, and knowledge about HIV/AIDS among outpatients with severe mental illness (SMI) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a measure with demonstrated reliability, we found that 42% of 98 patients engaged in vaginal or anal sex within the past three months. Comorbid substance use disorder was significantly associated with sexual activity. Only 22% of sexually active patients used condoms consistently, despite having better HIV knowledge than those who were sexually abstinent. Overall, 45% of patients reported not engaging in any HIV protective behaviors. There were no reports of drug injection. Adults with SMI in Brazil are in need of efficacious HIV prevention programs and policies that can sustain these programs within mental health treatment settings. PMID:18836542

  18. [Directions in hospital assistance in Rio de Janeiro (1923-31)].

    PubMed

    Sanglard, Gisele; Costa, Renato da Gama-Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Focusing on the construction of three hospitals (Gaffrée e Guinle, Hospital do Câncer, and Hospital das Clínicas), the article discusses transformations in Rio de Janeiro's public health sector during the 1920s. The three facilities' architectural design - all under the responsibility of architect and engineer A. Porto d' Ave (1890-1952) - reflected concerns of both sanitary reform and new concepts in bacteriology. Some points are particularly relevant: the relation between advances in bacteriology and architectural development; the concepts and conceptions of bacteriology, on the one hand, and new paradigms in hospital construction, on the other . Discussions were taking place at a critical moment, when there was a shortage of hospital beds throughout Rio, at the same time that adoption of the traditional pavilion structure was hindered by the advances introduced by modern architecture in block.

  19. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) metabolism in normal subjects from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, B A; Rosenthal, D

    1987-01-01

    Kinetic studies of T4 and T3 metabolism were performed on 5 healthy volunteers from Rio de Janeiro to obtain normal values for thyroid hormone metabolism. 125I-T4 and 131I-T3 were administered in bolus and blood samples taken during 7 days. Circulating tracers were isolated by Sephadex G-25 chromatography. The kinetic parameters of T4 and T3 metabolism were calculated by noncompartmental methods. Metabolic clearance rates were 1.04 l/day for T4 and 20.7 l/day for T3. The daily production rate was estimated at 94 micrograms/day for T4 and 23 micrograms/day for T3 and their exchangeable pools at 914 micrograms and 25.5 micrograms, respectively. These values are well within the range of those reported by North American or European authors for normal subjects.

  20. Fecundity of the Hypostomus affinis (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) in the Lajes Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Silvana; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2002-03-01

    The armored catfish Hypostomus affinis is a widespread Loricariidae fish in the Lajes Reservoir (22 degrees 42'-22 degrees 50' S; 43 degrees 53'-44 degrees 05' W), the largest lentic environment in the Rio de Janeiro State, but little is known about their reproductive biology. One hundred and twenty five females, captured from January 1996 to December 1997, were used to assess ovarian development (29 were used to determine fecundity). The oocyte distribution by size-diameter classes revealed the occurrence of two modes suggesting an asynchronic development of the ovaries. The total fecundity ranged from 1235 to 4304, averaging 2374. An exponential relationship between fecundity and total length was determined, and a direct linear relationship was found between fecundity and total weight and gonad weight.

  1. Emergency care necessity for sickle cell disease patients at Rio de Janeiro State Coordinating Blood Bank

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Mario Sant'Anna; de Matos, Haroldo José; Fidlarczyk, Delaine

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, in particular sickle cell disease, is the most prevalent group of genetically transmitted diseases in the Brazilian population and should thus be treated as a public health problem. Many of these patients frequently present with complications and require emergency care at the blood bank Coordinator in Rio de Janeiro. This study was developed with the aim of characterizing the emergency assistance required by sickle cell disease patients registered in the blood bank from January 2007 to December 2008. A retrospective study of medical records was made of 78, mostly children, patients from the date of their registration until December 2009. Most attendances (63.7%) were not considered emergency care. The use of specialized services for cases that do not require this level of complexity may saturate the capacity of these centers. However, delay of intervention for complications due to the transportation of patients to specialist centers may lead to deterioration in the clinical condition. PMID:23284258

  2. Urban informality as a signifier: Performing urban reordering in suburban Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Frank I

    2017-01-01

    Urban informality is typically ascribed to the urban poor in cities of the Global South. Drawing on Judith Butler’s concept of performativity and taking the case of Rio de Janeiro in the context of the 2016 Olympic Games, this article conceptualizes informality as a signifier and a procedural, relational category. Specifically, it shows how different class actors have employed the signifier informality (1) to legitimize the confinement of marginalized populations; (2) to justify the organized efforts of the upper middle class to protect their ‘self-enclosed’ gated communities; and (3) to warrant the formation of opposition and alliances between inhabitants, activists, and researchers on the edges of the urban order. This article offers new perspectives to better understand the relationship between informality and confinement by examining the active role that inhabitants of marginalized settlements assume in the Olympic City. PMID:28781405

  3. [Healthcare in times of epidemics in Rio de Janeiro in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Tânia Salgado

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to examine the provision of healthcare for the population of Rio de Janeiro in the mid-19th century and describe its reorganization during the crisis caused by outbreaks of yellow fever and cholera. In this context, it is essential to consider the significant changes taking place in healthcare during this period, also affecting the spaces in which hospital care was offered. Therefore, we focussed our investigation on Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital, the most important hospital in the capital of the Brazilian Empire. The sources used are the correspondence between the government and the hospital, the hospital annual reports, archives of the Central Board of Public Hygiene, and wide-circulation medical journals.

  4. Characteristics of children hospitalized with dengue fever in an outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Diana; Sant'Anna, Clemax; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos; March, Maria de Fatima Pombo; Souza, Ana Paula; Mendes, Analucia; Bonfim, Marcia; Hofer, Cristina B

    2011-10-01

    During a dengue epidemic in Rio de Janeiro in 2007-2008 the Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira Hospital was a reference for admitted children. The World Health Organization (WHO) considered several manifestations as warning signs of severe dengue This is a retrospective cohort study of all children admitted with dengue fever. Clinical variables considered warning signs by WHO were evaluated in the multivariate analysis, to investigate if they were independently associated with severe dengue. One hundred and eighty one children were admitted, aged from 4 months to 15 years; 30 were classified as severe dengue. Abdominal pain (OR=2.63, 95% CI 1.06-6.53) and lethargy (OR=3.40, 95% CI 1.45-7.99) were independently associated with severe dengue. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro prisons, Brazil: an urgent public health problem].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Massari, Véronique; Gerhardt, Germano; Barreto, Angela W; Cesconi, Vanderci; Pires, Janete; Espínola, Ana Beatriz; Biondi, Edison; Larouzé, Bernard; Camacho, Luiz Antônio Bastos

    2007-03-01

    The tuberculosis incidence rate in prisons in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was 30 times higher in 2004 than in the general population and is probably underestimated, particularly given the difficult access to care in the prison setting. To obtain a better estimate, a survey used systematic X-ray screening and showed a prevalence rate of 4.6% in one such detention facility, A (n = 1,052). Two additional surveys, in facilities B (n = 590) and C (n = 1,372), showed even higher prevalence rates (6.3% and 8.6% respectively). A comparison of socio-demographic characteristics between A, B, and C showed a heterogeneous prison population. As compared to facility A, inmates in B and C come from poorer urban communities and have more frequent histories of incarceration and tuberculosis. These differences, consistent with the prevalence data, imply the necessary adaptation of tuberculosis control programs to each detention facility's epidemiological and socio-demographic profile.

  6. Multilocus sequence types of invasive Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolated in the Rio de Janeiro urban area, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viguetti, S Z; Pacheco, L G C; Santos, L S; Soares, S C; Bolt, F; Baldwin, A; Dowson, C G; Rosso, M L; Guiso, N; Miyoshi, A; Hirata, R; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L; Azevedo, V

    2012-04-01

    Invasive infections caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae in vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals have been reported increasingly. In this study we used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to study genetic relationships between six invasive strains of this bacterium isolated solely in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during a 10-year period. Of note, all the strains rendered negative results in PCR reactions for the tox gene, and four strains presented an atypical sucrose-fermenting ability. Five strains represented new sequence types. MLST results did not support the hypothesis that invasive (sucrose-positive) strains of C. diphtheriae are part of a single clonal complex. Instead, one of the main findings of the study was that such strains can be normally found in clonal complexes with strains related to non-invasive disease. Comparative analyses with C. diphtheriae isolated in different countries provided further information on the geographical circulation of some sequence types.

  7. [Arterial hypertension in Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I. Methodology].

    PubMed

    Klein, C H; Silva, N A; Nogueira, A R; Bloch, K V; Campos, L H

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper (first of a series of two) is to present the main methodological aspects used in a cross-sectional study whose proposals were to establish the prevalence of arterial hypertension in adults in Ilha do Governador (a district of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and to examine its relationship to other risk factors, including those for cardiovascular diseases, so as to establish its control status. Sampling design (of clusters in strata, according to mean household income) is described in detail, in addition to measurement methods, and training of observers. Indicators of performance in field work and quality control are also presented as results of the application of the metodology of study.

  8. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the results of an investigation into the possible association between air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. This investigation employed multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise method) for infant mortality from pneumonia in 1980, including the study population's areas of residence, incomes, and pollution exposure as independent variables. With the income variable included in the regression, a statistically significant association was observed between the average annual level of particulates and infant mortality from pneumonia. While this finding should be accepted with caution, it does suggest a biological association between these variables. The authors' conclusion is that air quality indicators should be included in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

  9. A new age to an old site: the earliest Tupiguarani settlement in Rio de Janeiro State?

    PubMed

    Scheel-Ybert, Rita; Macario, Kita; Buarque, Angela; Anjos, Roberto M; Beauclair, Mariana

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents unexpectedly early dates for a Tupiguarani settlement in Southeastern Brazil. One radiocarbon dating of 1740 +/- 90 yr BP (1820-1390 cal yr BP) was already available for the Morro Grande site (Araruama, southeastern coast of Rio de Janeiro State). Two new dates, obtained from charcoal samples, are reported here. An age of 2920 +/- 70 yr BP (3220-2790 cal yr BP) was obtained from a specialized hearth, probably used for cooking ceramics; a funerary hearth at the same archaeological locus was dated at 2600 +/- 160 yr BP (3000-2150 cal yr BP). Both measurements were made independently, indifferent laboratories, arguing for their validity. These results considerably age the arrival time of Tupiguarani populations to the coastal region of Southeastern Brazil. They may have important implications to the hypotheses about the origin and dispersion of these populations from Amazonia, supporting the claim of recent authors who consider that their expansion must have begun well before 2000 yrs BP.

  10. Desmodus rotundus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, L M; Esbérard, C E L

    2011-08-01

    Since the 1990s, attacks by hematophagous bats on humans and domestic animals have been reported both on the continent and on the islands on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The density of vampire bats was investigated based on percentage of captures during control of Desmodus rotundus samplings and during bat diversity research. In the present work, 203 individuals of D. rotundus were captured from 1993 to 2009, which corresponds to 11.88% of all bat captures carried out for species control in local villages and 1.58% of all captures in faunistic inventories. The density of D. rotundus is high even on the recently occupied islands where domestic animals have been introduced. It is probable that this species dispersed from the continent to the islands due to the introduction of domestic animals.

  11. The Navy of Brazil: An Emerging Power at Sea (Marinha do Brasil: Um Poder Emergente no Mar),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    neighboring countries were solved through diplomacy. Second, the Brazilian economy remained essentially based on agricultural production, with little...emphasis on the industrialization process that took place in other parts of the world. As a result, the technological base gained by the war effort...industrial base , many problems were not solved and dependence on foreign support was almost absolute. These facts became more evident when Brazil, after having

  12. Clonal Dissemination of OXA-370-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Polyana Silva; Borghi, Mirla; de Araújo, Carlos Felipe Machado; Aires, Caio Augusto Martins; Oliveira, Jane Cleide Ribeiro; Asensi, Marise Dutra; Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula D'Alincourt

    2015-08-01

    Enzymes of the OXA-48 family have become some of the most important beta-lactamases in the world. A new OXA-48 variant (OXA-370) was first described for an Enterobacter hormaechei strain isolated in Rio Grande do Sul (southern region of Brazil) in 2013. Here we report detection of the blaOXA-370 gene in 24 isolates belonging to three Enterobacteriaceae species (22 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 1 Enterobacter cloacae isolate, and 1 Enterobacter aerogenes isolate) collected from five hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2013 and 2014. The isolates showed a multidrug resistance profile, and 12.5% were resistant to polymyxin B. Besides blaOXA-370, no other carbapenemase genes were observed by PCR, whereas blaOXA-1 was found in all isolates and 22 isolates (91.6%) possessed blaCTX-M-15. Molecular typing of the K. pneumoniae isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed the presence of two clonal groups, i.e., KpA (21 isolates) and KpB (1 isolate). KpA was characterized as sequence type 16 (ST16) and KpB as ST1041 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). ST16 has been observed for KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Rio de Janeiro. Plasmid analysis performed with six representative OXA-370-producing isolates showed plasmids harboring the blaOXA-370 gene in all strains, ranging from 25 kb to 150 kb. This study suggests that there is an urgent need to investigate the presence of OXA-370 and dissemination of the K. pneumoniae ST16 clone carrying this gene in Brazil.

  13. Urinary Dysfunction in Women with Multiple Sclerosis: Analysis of 61 Patients from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Camila Rodrigues; Carneiro, Kennedy; Fiorelli, Rossano; Orsini, Marco; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe the type and frequency of bladder dysfunction in a series of female patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) from Rio de Janeiro, and analyze the role of the urologist in the multidisciplinary team. A team of urologists and a neurologist from the Hospital da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed female patients with MS about illness onset, urologic follow-up since diagnosis, current stage of the disease and current urological symptoms. The interview was followed by an urodynamic testing, ultrasound of the urinary tract and urinalysis. Data resulting from the interviews and exam results were gathered and submitted to statistical evaluation. Sixty one patients were evaluated, with average age of 41.4 years. Urinary symptoms such as urinary incontinence, urinary hesitancy, urinary retention, urinary urgency and incomplete bladder emptying were reported in 44% of patients as initial signs of MS disease. Mean disease duration was 8 years and all patients (100%) with the primary progressive form of the disease and 63.5% with the relapsingremitting presentation had urological symptoms. Analysis of complementary exams showed that 37.7% of urinalysis, 8.2% of the urinary tract ultrasound exams and 66.7% of the urodynamic evaluations were abnormal and the most frequent abnormality were overactive neurogenic bladder. Only 4 patients (6.6%) had seen an urologist during the course of their disease and only 1.6% had performed an urodynamic evaluation. This study shows a high prevalence (68%) of urinary dysfunction in a female population with MS. Urologic care should be part of the multidisciplinary team since the beginning of the disease. An urodynamic evaluation and simple urinalysis should be included in the routine testing during disease follow-up due to the high incidence of neurogenic bladder and other urologic complications. PMID:24416487

  14. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in the vaccine era in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Tuyama, Mari; Corrêa-Antônio, Jessica; Schlackman, Jessica; Marsh, Jane W; Rebelo, Maria C; Cerqueira, Elaine O; Nehab, Márcio; Kegele, Fabíola; Carmo, Getúlio F; Thielmann, Dominique CA; Barroso, Paulo F; Harrison, Lee H; Barroso, David E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was incorporated into the infant immunisation schedule in Brazil in 1999, where Hib was one of the major etiologic sources of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to describe the molecular epidemiology of invasive Hi disease in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, before and after vaccine introduction. METHODS Surveillance data from 1986 to 2014 were analysed. Hi isolates recovered from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood from 1993 to 2014 were serotyped by slide agglutination, genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the capsule type evaluation, differentiation of serologically non-typeable isolates, and characterisation of the capsule (cap) locus was done by polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using E-test. FINDINGS From 1986 to 1999 and from 2000 to 2014, 2580 and 197 (42% without serotype information) confirmed cases were reported, respectively. The case fatality rate was 17% and did not correlate with the strain. Hib and b- variant isolates belonged to ST-6, whereas serotype a isolates belonged to the ST-23 clonal complex. Serotype a appeared to emerge during the 2000s. Non-encapsulated isolates were non-clonal and distinct from the encapsulated isolates. Ampicillin-resistant isolates were either of serotype b or were non-encapsulated, and all of them were β-lactamase-positive but amoxicillin-clavulanic acid susceptible. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Although Hi meningitis became a relatively rare disease in Rio de Janeiro after the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine, the isolates recovered from patients have become more diverse. These results indicate the need to implement an enhanced surveillance system to continue monitoring the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine. PMID:28225904

  15. Clonal Dissemination of OXA-370-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Polyana Silva; Borghi, Mirla; de Araújo, Carlos Felipe Machado; Aires, Caio Augusto Martins; Oliveira, Jane Cleide Ribeiro; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes of the OXA-48 family have become some of the most important beta-lactamases in the world. A new OXA-48 variant (OXA-370) was first described for an Enterobacter hormaechei strain isolated in Rio Grande do Sul (southern region of Brazil) in 2013. Here we report detection of the blaOXA-370 gene in 24 isolates belonging to three Enterobacteriaceae species (22 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 1 Enterobacter cloacae isolate, and 1 Enterobacter aerogenes isolate) collected from five hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2013 and 2014. The isolates showed a multidrug resistance profile, and 12.5% were resistant to polymyxin B. Besides blaOXA-370, no other carbapenemase genes were observed by PCR, whereas blaOXA-1 was found in all isolates and 22 isolates (91.6%) possessed blaCTX-M-15. Molecular typing of the K. pneumoniae isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed the presence of two clonal groups, i.e., KpA (21 isolates) and KpB (1 isolate). KpA was characterized as sequence type 16 (ST16) and KpB as ST1041 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). ST16 has been observed for KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Rio de Janeiro. Plasmid analysis performed with six representative OXA-370-producing isolates showed plasmids harboring the blaOXA-370 gene in all strains, ranging from 25 kb to 150 kb. This study suggests that there is an urgent need to investigate the presence of OXA-370 and dissemination of the K. pneumoniae ST16 clone carrying this gene in Brazil. PMID:25987619

  16. Sublethal exposure from microcystins to renal insufficiency patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Raquel M; Yuan, Moucun; Servaites, Jerome C; Delgado, Alvimar; Magalhães, Valéria F; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Carmichael, Wayne W; Azevedo, Sandra M F O

    2006-04-01

    In November 2001, a cyanobacterial bloom dominated by Microcystis and Anabaena occurred in the Funil Reservoir and the Guandu River, both of which supply drinking water to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using ELISA, microcystins were detected at a concentration of 0.4 microg/L in the drinking water, whereas a concentration of 0.32 microg/L was detected in activated carbon column-treated water for use at the renal dialysis center of Clementino Fraga Filho Hospital (HUCFF) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 44 hemodialysis patients who received care at this center were believed to be exposed. Initial ELISA analyses confirmed the presence of serum microcystin concentrations > or = 0.16 ng/mL in 90% of serum samples collected from these patients. Twelve patients were selected for continued monitoring over the following 2-month period. Serum microcystin concentrations ranged from < 0.16 to 0.96 ng/mL during the 57 days after documented exposure. ELISA-positive samples were found throughout the monitoring period, with the highest values detected 1 month after initial exposure. ESI LC/MS analyses indicated microcystins in the serum; however, MS/MS fragmentation patterns typical of microcystins were not identified. LC/MS analyses of MMPB for control serum spiked with MCYST-LR. and patient sera revealed a peak at retention time of 8.4 min and a mass of 207 m/z. These peaks are equivalent to the peak observed in the MMPB standard analysis. Taken together ELISA, LC/MS, and MMPB results indicate that these renal dialysis patients were exposed to microcystins. This documents another incident of human microcystin exposure during hemodialysis treatment.

  17. Multivariate analysis applied to monthly rainfall over Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Thábata T.; Oliveira-Júnior, José F.; Lyra, Gustavo B.; Gois, Givanildo; Zeri, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall were identified over the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. The proximity to the coast and the complex topography create great diversity of rainfall over space and time. The dataset consisted of time series (1967-2013) of monthly rainfall over 100 meteorological stations. Clustering analysis made it possible to divide the stations into six groups (G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6) with similar rainfall spatio-temporal patterns. A linear regression model was applied to a time series and a reference. The reference series was calculated from the average rainfall within a group, using nearby stations with higher correlation (Pearson). Based on t-test (p < 0.05) all stations had a linear spatiotemporal trend. According to the clustering analysis, the first group (G1) contains stations located over the coastal lowlands and also over the ocean facing area of Serra do Mar (Sea ridge), a 1500 km long mountain range over the coastal Southeastern Brazil. The second group (G2) contains stations over all the state, from Serra da Mantiqueira (Mantiqueira Mountains) and Costa Verde (Green coast), to the south, up to stations in the Northern parts of the state. Group 3 (G3) contains stations in the highlands over the state (Serrana region), while group 4 (G4) has stations over the northern areas and the continent-facing side of Serra do Mar. The last two groups were formed with stations around Paraíba River (G5) and the metropolitan area of the city of Rio de Janeiro (G6). The driest months in all regions were June, July and August, while November, December and January were the rainiest months. Sharp transitions occurred when considering monthly accumulated rainfall: from January to February, and from February to March, likely associated with episodes of "veranicos", i.e., periods of 4-15 days of duration with no rainfall.

  18. A forensic-psychiatric study of sexual offenders in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valença, Alexandre Martins; Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Freire, Rafael; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-04-01

    Sexual violence is defined as any sexual act forced upon a person who did not give his or her consent. Our objective is to investigate the socio-demographic features, clinical correlates, criminal behaviour characteristics, and the level of penal responsibility of sexual offenders who were referred to forensic psychiatric assessment in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. All written reports made in the year of 2008 by court-appointed psychiatric experts on individuals charged with having committed sexual crimes and referred to the main forensic hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for assessment were reviewed. Forty-four expert reports were identified. All alleged offenders were male. Nineteen (43.2%) offenders did not receive any psychiatric diagnostic. Nine offenders (20.4%) were diagnosed with mental retardation. In 16 cases (36.4%), some form of mental or neurological disorder was diagnosed. Thirty-one (70.4%) offenders were considered fully responsible, eight (18.2%) partially responsible, and five (11.4%) not responsible by reason of insanity. The sexual crimes allegedly perpetrated by the offenders were rape (n=14, 32%), attempted rape (n=4, 9%), indecent assault (n=26, 59%), and indecent exposure (n=5, 11.4%). In 10 cases (22.7%), the offender was under alcohol influence at the moment of the crime. The profile of Brazilian sex offenders subject to forensic psychiatric assessment were male, caucasian, single, working part time, with no mental disorder, who perpetrated indecent assault. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in the vaccine era in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tuyama, Mari; Corrêa-Antônio, Jessica; Schlackman, Jessica; Marsh, Jane W; Rebelo, Maria C; Cerqueira, Elaine O; Nehab, Márcio; Kegele, Fabíola; Carmo, Getúlio F; Thielmann, Dominique Ca; Barroso, Paulo F; Harrison, Lee H; Barroso, David E

    2017-02-16

    Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was incorporated into the infant immunisation schedule in Brazil in 1999, where Hib was one of the major etiologic sources of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. The purpose of this study is to describe the molecular epidemiology of invasive Hi disease in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, before and after vaccine introduction. Surveillance data from 1986 to 2014 were analysed. Hi isolates recovered from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood from 1993 to 2014 were serotyped by slide agglutination, genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the capsule type evaluation, differentiation of serologically non-typeable isolates, and characterisation of the capsule (cap) locus was done by polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using E-test. From 1986 to 1999 and from 2000 to 2014, 2580 and 197 (42% without serotype information) confirmed cases were reported, respectively. The case fatality rate was 17% and did not correlate with the strain. Hib and b- variant isolates belonged to ST-6, whereas serotype a isolates belonged to the ST-23 clonal complex. Serotype a appeared to emerge during the 2000s. Non-encapsulated isolates were non-clonal and distinct from the encapsulated isolates. Ampicillin-resistant isolates were either of serotype b or were non-encapsulated, and all of them were β-lactamase-positive but amoxicillin-clavulanic acid susceptible. Although Hi meningitis became a relatively rare disease in Rio de Janeiro after the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine, the isolates recovered from patients have become more diverse. These results indicate the need to implement an enhanced surveillance system to continue monitoring the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine.

  20. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in the vaccine era in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tuyama, Mari; Corrêa-Antônio, Jessica; Schlackman, Jessica; Marsh, Jane W; Rebelo, Maria C; Cerqueira, Elaine O; Nehab, Márcio; Kegele, Fabíola; Carmo, Getúlio F; Thielmann, Dominique Ca; Barroso, Paulo F; Harrison, Lee H; Barroso, David E

    2017-03-01

    Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was incorporated into the infant immunisation schedule in Brazil in 1999, where Hib was one of the major etiologic sources of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. The purpose of this study is to describe the molecular epidemiology of invasive Hi disease in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, before and after vaccine introduction. Surveillance data from 1986 to 2014 were analysed. Hi isolates recovered from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood from 1993 to 2014 were serotyped by slide agglutination, genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the capsule type evaluation, differentiation of serologically non-typeable isolates, and characterisation of the capsule (cap) locus was done by polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using E-test. From 1986 to 1999 and from 2000 to 2014, 2580 and 197 (42% without serotype information) confirmed cases were reported, respectively. The case fatality rate was 17% and did not correlate with the strain. Hib and b- variant isolates belonged to ST-6, whereas serotype a isolates belonged to the ST-23 clonal complex. Serotype a appeared to emerge during the 2000s. Non-encapsulated isolates were non-clonal and distinct from the encapsulated isolates. Ampicillin-resistant isolates were either of serotype b or were non-encapsulated, and all of them were β-lactamase-positive but amoxicillin-clavulanic acid susceptible. Although Hi meningitis became a relatively rare disease in Rio de Janeiro after the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine, the isolates recovered from patients have become more diverse. These results indicate the need to implement an enhanced surveillance system to continue monitoring the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine.

  1. Environmental and socio-demographic factors associated to asthma in adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Alves da Cunha, Antônio José Ledo

    2007-03-01

    Although asthma is of frequent occurrence, little is known about the factors associated with this disease in Brazil. We studied the association between asthma, environmental and socio-demographic factors in adolescents in Nova lguacu, Rio de Janeiro State. Cross-sectional study using the questionnaires about asthma and environmental factors from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). We performed bivariate analyses between asthma and the factors studied using prevalence ratio (PR), confidence intervals of 95% (95% Cl) and Chi-squared test. Factors associated to asthma in a bivariate analysis were studied using logistic regression and odds ratio (OR). We included 3,033 students, aged 13-14 yrs, selected from 37 schools. The prevalence of asthma was 13.1%. Being female (OR = 1.40; 95%Cl:1.11-1.77), the presence of a mother who smokes (OR = 1.32; 95%Cl:1.04-1.66), a cat in the domicile (OR = 1.32; 95%Cl:1.04-1.69), being the firstborn (OR = 1.34; 95%Cl:1.07-1.68), frequent use of paracetamol (OR = 1.45; 95%Cl: 1.15-1.84), the presence of rhinitis (OR = 5.15; 95%:3.89-6.82) and eczema (OR = 2.35; 95%Cl:1.73-3.19) were independently associated to asthma. Environmental and socio-demographic factors were associated to asthma in adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, irrespective of the presence of others allergic diseases. Interventions acting on these factors may decrease the occurrence of asthma in this population.

  2. The Impact of Epidemic Violence on the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Quintana, Maria Inês; Dewey, Michael E.; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Aims To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007–2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001). Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027), depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006) generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021) and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027). Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses – e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001) and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001). Conclusion Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying such factors

  3. Studies on the flight medical aspects of the German Lufthansa non-stop route from Frankfurt to Rio de Janeiro, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegmann, H. M.; Klein, K. E.; Goeters, K. M.; Samel, A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of crew size for regularly scheduled flights between Frankfurt and Rio de Janeiro is discussed. Factors affecting crew performance are examined, comparisons are drawn to regulations of other countries and crew questionnaires and tests are presented.

  4. Evaluation of Primary Health Care Units in the Rio De Janeiro City According to the Results of PMAQ 2012

    PubMed Central

    Tonini, Teresa; Sousa da Silva, Alexandre; Dutt-Ross, Steven; de Souza Velasque, Luciane

    2017-01-01

    To assess the quality of the primary health care network, the Ministry of Health created the Program for Improving Access and Quality in Primary Care (PMAQ), a national evaluation of family health teams. Thus, this study aims to present the geolocation of PMAQ 2012 quality indicators in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The PMAQ data show that, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, 65% of the teams achieved the performances “good” or “excellent,” 34.7% “regular,” and 0.3% “unsatisfactory.” The results show a clear PMAQ polarization between teams units classified as optimal and regular in program areas 5 and 3, respectively. PMID:28252504

  5. [Brazilian physician José Pinto de Azeredo (1766?-1810) and the chemical examination of Rio de Janeiro's atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Manuel Serrano; Cecchini, Marco Antonio G; Malaquias, Isabel Maria; Moreira-Nordemann, Lycia Maria; Pita, João Rui

    2005-01-01

    José Pinto de Azeredo, of Rio de Janeiro, studied medicine and conducted notable experimental research in Edinburgh (1786-88), presenting his graduate thesis on gout in Leiden. Already appointed surgeon-general of Angola, he returned to Rio in 1789 and practiced medicine in Brazil. In 1790 he moved to Luanda, where he practiced at the Hospital Real and founded a medical school that did not survive his departure for Portugal in 1797. He worked at Lisbon's main military hospital and as a private physician until his death. His written works (some ten manuscripts and five publications) warrant an examination from the perspective of the history of medicine. In an article published in 1790 on Rio de Janeiro's air quality, he reveals the skills of an analytical chemist, his interest in the effects of different air components on organisms, and his concern with air quality in Brazil and Europe.

  6. [Marina de Vasconcellos and the social sciences in Rio de Janeiro: a study of the social circles].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Adelia Maria Miglievich

    2008-06-01

    An investigation of the career of one of the "founding mothers" of the social sciences in Rio de Janeiro, Marina de Vasconcellos, successor of Arthur Ramos, is one way of understanding how anthropology was established in Rio de Janeiro. Conflicts and alliances, continuities and discontinuities, lie behind the pioneering Brazilian Society of Anthropology and Ethnology and the Institute of Social Sciences, both at Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia. Marina de Vasconcellos' professional life bore the marks of the clash between different schools of thought regarding anthropology at a time when university courses were being introduced. As a professor, she was committed to educating new professionals, and in 1968, she was steadfast in the struggle for university autonomy. The study leads to a reflection upon the criteria for success in academia, countering the view that this depends entirely on the publication of books and articles.

  7. FIRST CASE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE URBAN CENTER OF RIO DE JANEIRO: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; de Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement. PMID:24553614

  8. A saprobic index for biological assessment of river water quality in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states).

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Marilia Vilela; Friedrich, Günther; Pereira de Araujo, Paulo Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Based upon several years of experience in investigations with macrozoobenthos in rivers in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, a biological assessment system has been developed to indicate pollution levels caused by easily degradable organic substances from sewers. The biotic index presented here is aimed at determining water's saprobic levels and was, therefore, named the "Saprobic Index for Brazilian Rivers in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states" (ISMR). For this purpose, saprobic valences and weights have been established for 122 taxa of tropical macrozoobenthos. Investigations were carried out in little, medium sized and big rivers in mountains and plains. Through ISMR, a classification of water quality and the respective cartographic representation can be obtained. Data collection and treatment methods, as well as the limitations of the biotic index, are thoroughly described. ISMR can also be used as an element to establish complex multimetric indexes intended for an ecological integrity assessment, where it is essential to indicate organic pollution.

  9. Characterization of rickettsia rickettsii in a case of fatal Brazilian spotted fever in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Cristiane; Favacho, Alexsandra; Rozental, Tatiana; Bóia, Márcio N; Kirsten, Andrei H; Guterres, Alexandro; Barreira, Jairo; de Lemos, Elba Regina S

    2008-04-01

    A lethal case of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is presented. Clinical features were initially of gastrointestinal involvement and evolved with progression to septic shock, meningoencephalitis and death on the 6th day of illness. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR) was non-reactive. Diagnosis was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the nucleotide sequencing of a fragment of the ompA gene showed 100% homology to Rickettsia rickettsii. BSF has not been reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro in the last three decades, and the present description should alert the clinicians to its presence in urban Rio de Janeiro, and to the differential diagnosis with dengue fever, gastroenteritis, leptospirosis and bacterial septic shock, among others.

  10. An illustrated catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Couri, Márcia Souto; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes

    2016-02-26

    A catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) is presented. A total number of 50 type specimens of 18 valid Neotropical species were recognized and are listed in alphabetical order of subfamily, genus and specific epithet. Photos of 12 primary types of the species and bibliographical data of the original descriptions, labels and condition of all type specimens are also provided.

  11. Molecular identification of Bartonella henselae in a seronegative cat scratch disease patient with AIDS in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favacho, Alexsandra R M; Roger, Isabelle; Akemi, Amanda K; Pessoa, Adonai A; Varon, Andrea G; Gomes, Raphael; Godoy, Daniela T; Pereira, Sandro; Lemos, Elba R S

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including cat scratch disease, endocarditis and meningoencephalitis, in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. We report the first molecularly confirmed case of B. henselae infection in an AIDS patient in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although DNA sequence of B. henselae has been detected by polymerase chain reaction in a lymph node biopsy, acute and convalescent sera were nonreactive.

  12. The panorama of animal leptospirosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, regarding the seroepidemiology of the infection in tropical regions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an important disease caused by various serovars of Leptospira sp. It can affect humans as well as domestic and wild animals; therefore, it has importance for public health, animal production, and wild species. The aim of this paper is to discuss the epidemiology of animal leptospirosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as a possible model for other tropical regions. In several studies conducted in the last 20 years, a total of 47 rats, 120 dogs, 875 cows, 695 horses, 1,343 goats, 308 sheep and 351 pigs from all regions of the state, in addition to 107 wild mammals and 73 golden-lion tamarins were tested (MAT) for anti-Leptospira antibodies. Results Seroreactivity was frequent in all studied species, confirming that the infection is endemic in Rio de Janeiro. Serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Sejroe were the most prevalent in urban and rural scenarios, respectively. This paper reviews the current knowledge on animal leptospirosis in Rio de Janeiro and describes important differences between urban versus rural cycles of the infection in various species. Conclusion Identification of the prevailing serogroups and their reservoirs is essential for understanding agent-host-environment interactions under tropical conditions. PMID:24289165

  13. FIRST REPORT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BY Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi IN AN URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Lyra, Janine Pontes de Miranda; Fagundes, Aline; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L.) infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement). We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases.

  14. Archaeological sites at Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with their contents enhanced by the use of ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrucio da Rocha, Paul L.; da Silva Cezar, Glroia; Buarque, Angela; da Costa, Ariovaldo

    2000-04-01

    This presentation refers to the application of the Ground Penetrating Radar on two archaeological sites: Serrano and Morro Grande, situated at Araruama County, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the purpose of contributing to the knowledge concerning a prehistoric indigenous culture, associated with the 'Tupinamba' that inhabited the region at prehistoric times. This research is being realized with the partnership of the Anthropology Department of the National Museum and the Geology Department, both departments pertaining to the Rio de Janeiro Federal University. The archaeological remains of the study area are mainly characterized by pottery appliance for several uses, including funeral urns, which were buried within layers of sand and clay. Several profiles were made, using a RAMAC device, with a 200 MHz frequency antenna, surrounding some partially exposed potters, in the sand quarry, at the Serrano site. The resultant radargrams conceived a response model for the archaeological and soil characteristics of the area. These radargrams are being used as correlative models for the interpretation of profiles performed at the Morro Grande site, which presents similar characteristics of the Serrano site. The generated models are intended to guide the future excavations in the archeological sites of Ri de Janeiro.

  15. The panorama of animal leptospirosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, regarding the seroepidemiology of the infection in tropical regions.

    PubMed

    Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2013-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an important disease caused by various serovars of Leptospira sp. It can affect humans as well as domestic and wild animals; therefore, it has importance for public health, animal production, and wild species. The aim of this paper is to discuss the epidemiology of animal leptospirosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as a possible model for other tropical regions. In several studies conducted in the last 20 years, a total of 47 rats, 120 dogs, 875 cows, 695 horses, 1,343 goats, 308 sheep and 351 pigs from all regions of the state, in addition to 107 wild mammals and 73 golden-lion tamarins were tested (MAT) for anti-Leptospira antibodies. Seroreactivity was frequent in all studied species, confirming that the infection is endemic in Rio de Janeiro. Serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Sejroe were the most prevalent in urban and rural scenarios, respectively. This paper reviews the current knowledge on animal leptospirosis in Rio de Janeiro and describes important differences between urban versus rural cycles of the infection in various species. Identification of the prevailing serogroups and their reservoirs is essential for understanding agent-host-environment interactions under tropical conditions.

  16. Access to tuberculosis diagnosis in Itaboraí City, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the patient’s point of view

    PubMed Central

    Motta, M. C. S.; Villa, T. C. S.; Golub, J.; Kritski, A. L.; Ruffino-Netto, A.; Silva, D. F.; Harter, R. G.; Scatena, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING Itaboraí Municipality in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. OBJECTIVE To evaluate access to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis for users of the Family Health Program (FHP) and Reference Ambulatory Units (RAUs). DESIGN A cross-sectional study was conducted in Itaboraí City, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between July and October 2007, a sample of 100 TB patients registered consecutively with the TB Control Program was interviewed using the primary care assessment tool. The two highest scores, describing ‘almost always’ and ‘always’, or ‘good’ and ‘very good’, were used as a cut-off point to define high quality access to diagnosis. RESULTS FHP patients were older and had less education than RAU interviewees. Sex and overcrowding did not differ in the two groups. Patient groups did not differ with regard to the number of times care was sought at a unit, transport problems, cost of attending units and availability of consultation within 24 h. Adequate access to diagnosis was identified by 62% of the FHP patients and 53% of the RAU patients (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION In Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro, TB patients believe that the FHP units provide greater access to TB diagnosis than RAUs. These findings will be used by the Department of Health to improve access to diagnosis in Itaboraí. PMID:19723404

  17. Evaluation of InnoTyper® 21 in a sample of Rio de Janeiro population as an alternative forensic panel.

    PubMed

    Moura-Neto, R S; Mello, I C T; Silva, R; Maette, A P C; Bottino, C G; Woerner, A; King, J; Wendt, F; Budowle, B

    2017-07-26

    The use of bi-allelic markers such as retrotransposable element insertion polymorphisms or Innuls (for insertion/null) can overcome some limitations of short tandem repeat (STR) loci in typing forensic biological evidence. This study investigated the efficiency of the InnoTyper® 21 Innul markers in an urban admixed population sample in Rio de Janeiro (n = 40) and one highly compromised sample collected as evidence by the Rio de Janeiro police. No significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected after the Bonferroni correction (α' ≈ 0.05/20, p < 0.0025), and no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between markers. Assuming loci independence, the cumulative random match probability (RMP) was 2.3 × 10(-8). A lower mean Fis value was obtained for this sample population compared with those of three North American populations (African-American, Southwest Hispanic, US Caucasian). Principal component analysis with the three North American populations and one from 21 East Asian population showed that African Americans segregated as an independent group while US Caucasian, Southwest Hispanic, East Asian, and Rio de Janeiro populations are in a single large heterogeneous group. Also, a full Innuls profile was produced from an evidence sample, despite the DNA being highly degraded. In conclusion, this system is a useful complement to standard STR kits.

  18. FIRST REPORT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BYLeishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi IN AN URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ANTONIO, Liliane de Fátima; LYRA, Janine Pontes de Miranda; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L.) infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement). We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases. PMID:26603237

  19. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Bruno Moreira; Maximo, Michele; Costa, Wagner Alexandre; de Santana, Antonio Luís Ferreira; da Costa, Simone Miranda; da Costa Rego, Taiana Amancio Neves; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2013-11-13

    The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis from the

  20. Epidemiology of Psychotropic Drug Use in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Gaps in Mental Illness Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Maria Ines; Andreoli, Sergio B.; Moreira, Fernanda G.; Ribeiro, Wagner S.; Feijo, Marcelo M.; Bressan, Rodrigo A.; Coutinho, Evandro S. F.; Mari, Jair J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drugs use in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and establish its relationship with the presence of mental disorders. Methods A probabilistic sample of non-institutionalized individuals, from the general population of Rio de Janeiro (n = 1208;turn out:81%), 15 years or older, who were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (depression, anxiety-phobia, OCD\\PTSD, alcoholism sections), and asked about their psychotropic use during a 12 and one-month period before the interview. Data were collected between June/2007-February/2008.The prevalence was estimated with a confidence interval of 95%. The associations between psychotropics use and mental disorders were analyzed through a logistic regression model (Odds Ration – OR). Results The one-month prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 6.55%, 3.19% for men and 9.13% for women. Antidepressants were the most frequently used drug (2.78%), followed by anorectics (1.65%), tranquilizers (1.61%) and mood stabilizers (1.23%). General practitioners issued the highest number of prescriptions (46.3%), followed by psychiatrists (29.3%); 86.6% of the psychotropic drugs used were paid for by the patient himself. Individuals with increased likelihood of using psychotropic drugs were those that had received a psychiatric diagnosis during a one-month period before the study (OR:3.93), females (OR:1.82), separated/divorced (OR:2.23), of increased age (OR:1.03), with higher income (OR:2.96), and family history of mental disorder (OR:2.59); only 16% of the individuals with a current DSM IV diagnosis were using a psychotropic drug; 17% among individuals with a depression-related diagnosis and 8% with Phobic Anxiety Disorders-related diagnosis used psychotropics. Conclusion Approximately 84% of individuals displaying some mental disorder did not use psychotropic drugs, which indicates an important gap between demand and access to treatment. A

  1. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Siqueira, André Machado; Wakimoto, Mayumi; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Nobre, Aline; Quintana, Marcel de Souza Borges; de Mendonça, Marco Cesar Lima; Lupi, Otilia; de Souza, Rogerio Valls; Romero, Carolina; Zogbi, Heruza; Bressan, Clarisse da Silveira; Alves, Simone Sampaio; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Carvalho, Marilia Sá

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2015, Brazil was faced with the cocirculation of three arboviruses of major public health importance. The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between diseases caused by ZIKV, Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult. Methodology / Principal Findings The outpatient service for acute febrile illnesses in Fiocruz initiated a syndromic clinical observational study in 2007 to capture unusual presentations of DENV infections. In January 2015, an increase of cases with exanthematic disease was observed. Trained physicians evaluated the patients using a detailed case report form that included clinical assessment and laboratory investigations. The laboratory diagnostic algorithm included assays for detection of ZIKV, CHIKV and DENV. 364 suspected cases of Zika virus disease were identified based on clinical criteria between January and July 2015. Of these, 262 (71.9%) were tested and 119 (45.4%) were confirmed by the detection of ZIKV RNA. All of the samples with sequence information available clustered within the Asian genotype. Conclusions / Significance This is the first report of a ZIKV outbreak in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a large number of suspected (n = 364) and laboratory confirmed cases (n = 119). We were able to demonstrate that ZIKV was circulating in Rio de Janeiro as early as January 2015. The peak of the outbreak was documented in May/June 2015. More than half of the patients reported headache, arthralgia, myalgia, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and lower back pain, consistent with the case definition of suspected ZIKV disease issued by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). However, fever, when present, was low-intensity and short-termed. In our opinion, pruritus, the second most common clinical sign presented by the confirmed cases, should be added

  2. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Patrícia; Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Siqueira, André Machado; Wakimoto, Mayumi; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Nobre, Aline; Quintana, Marcel de Souza Borges; Mendonça, Marco Cesar Lima de; Lupi, Otilia; de Souza, Rogerio Valls; Romero, Carolina; Zogbi, Heruza; Bressan, Clarisse da Silveira; Alves, Simone Sampaio; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Jaenisch, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, Brazil was faced with the cocirculation of three arboviruses of major public health importance. The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between diseases caused by ZIKV, Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult. The outpatient service for acute febrile illnesses in Fiocruz initiated a syndromic clinical observational study in 2007 to capture unusual presentations of DENV infections. In January 2015, an increase of cases with exanthematic disease was observed. Trained physicians evaluated the patients using a detailed case report form that included clinical assessment and laboratory investigations. The laboratory diagnostic algorithm included assays for detection of ZIKV, CHIKV and DENV. 364 suspected cases of Zika virus disease were identified based on clinical criteria between January and July 2015. Of these, 262 (71.9%) were tested and 119 (45.4%) were confirmed by the detection of ZIKV RNA. All of the samples with sequence information available clustered within the Asian genotype. This is the first report of a ZIKV outbreak in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a large number of suspected (n = 364) and laboratory confirmed cases (n = 119). We were able to demonstrate that ZIKV was circulating in Rio de Janeiro as early as January 2015. The peak of the outbreak was documented in May/June 2015. More than half of the patients reported headache, arthralgia, myalgia, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and lower back pain, consistent with the case definition of suspected ZIKV disease issued by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). However, fever, when present, was low-intensity and short-termed. In our opinion, pruritus, the second most common clinical sign presented by the confirmed cases, should be added to the PAHO case definition, while fever could be given less emphasis

  3. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered

  4. Water resource management: a comparative evaluation of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union, and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ronaldo S; da Gloria Alves, Maria; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa; Chrispim, Zélia M P; Mendes, M Paula; Silva Júnior, Gerson C

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of water resource management in Brazil, in particular the state of Rio de Janeiro, and in the European Union, with an emphasis on member country Portugal. The study examines the primary laws, governing bodies and water resource plans. The paper describes the concerns and interests of the scientific community and other sectors of society with regard to water resource management. The paper also draws attention to challenges and opportunities concerning the main objective of water resource management, which is to ensure the availability of water of high quality and sustainable quantity. Additionally, it also mentions good and poor management practices. Among the concerns highlighted are integrated water resource management and water resource monitoring. The objective of this study was to contribute to water resource management processes. The primary reasons for this study are the growing scarcity of freshwater in the world, recurrent problems in managing this resource and a desire to contribute to the improvement of the current situation. The study of water management in different contexts allows for a greater understanding of the subject, thereby assisting the decision-making of managers and society in general with regard to environmental quality and ecological and human health. There is an increasing interest in efficient water resource management, which creates a demand for information on the subject. Both Brazil and the European Union are facing problems related to quantity and quality of water. Problems like scarcity of freshwater, contamination, salinization, and floods. This makes the realities of them quite close, despite the physical distance between them. In general, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union and Portugal have similar water resource management requirements. If these regions are to supply a consistent quantity of high-quality water to present and future generations, then they need effective laws and plans

  5. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case

  6. Costs of Public Pharmaceutical Services in Rio de Janeiro Compared to Farmácia Popular Program

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rondineli Mendes; Caetano, Rosângela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the costs of public pharmaceutical services compared to Farmácia Popular Program (Popular Pharmacy Program). METHODS Comparison between prices paid by Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular Program (Farmácia Popular is available here) with the full costs of medicine provision by the Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro. The comparison comprised 25 medicines supplied by both the municipal pharmaceutical service and Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular Program. Calculating the cost per pharmaceutical unit of each medicine included expenditure by Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro with procurement (price), logistics, and local dispensation. The reference price of medicines paid by Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular was taken from the Brazilian Ministry of Health standard in force in 2012. Comparisons included full reference price; reference price minus 10.0% copayment by users; and maximum reference paid by the Ministry of Health (minus copayment and taxes). Simulations were carried out of the differences between the costs of Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro with the common medicines and those potentially incurred based on the reference price of Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular. RESULTS The Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro spent R$28,526,526.57 with 25 medicines of the common list in 2012; 58.7% accounted for direct procurement costs. The estimated costs of the Health Department were generally lower than the reference prices of the Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular Program for 20 medicines, regardless of reference prices. The potential costs incurred by Health Department if expenditure of its consumption pattern were based on the reference prices of Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular would be R$124,170,777.76, considering the best scenario of payment by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (90.0% of the reference price, minus taxes). CONCLUSIONS The difference in costs between public provision by Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro and

  7. [Medical assessments and measurements in ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Mill, Jose Geraldo; Pinto, Karina; Griep, Rosane Härter; Goulart, Alessandra; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Maestri, Marcelo K; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Andreão, Rodrigo Varejão; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Oliveira, Ilka; Fuchs, Sandra C; Cunha, Roberto de Sá; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The article describes assessments and measurements performed in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Some assessments including anthropometric assessment, casual blood pressure measurement, and ankle-brachial index have an established clinical application while others including pulse wave velocity, heart rate variability, and carotid intima-media thickness have no established application and do not have reference values for healthy Brazilian population but may be important predictors of cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure measurement following postural change maneuver was included in the ELSA-Brasil because it has not been much tested in epidemiological studies. Innovative approaches were developed for assessing the ankle-brachial index using an automatic device instead of the mercury column to measure blood pressure and for assessing the anterior-posterior diameter of the right lobe of the liver by ultrasound for quantitative assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. All ELSA-Brasil subjects were younger (35 years or more) than those included in other cohorts studying subclinical atherosclerosis. The inclusion of younger individuals and a variety of assessments make the ELSA-Brasil a relevant epidemiology study nationwide and worldwide.

  8. [Arterial hypertension among adolescents in Rio de Janeiro: prevalence and association with physical activity and obesity].

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Neto, Victor Gonçalves; Sperandei, Sandro; Silva, Luis Aureliano Imbiriba; Maranhão-Neto, Geraldo de Albuquerque; Palma, Alexandre

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this study was to identify the prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension among adolescent students (aged 17-19 years) in the third and final year of high school in state schools in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, and to investigate associations between systemic arterial hypertension and obesity and physical activity levels. Data on arterial pressure, body mass index and physical activity were gathered. The analysis included 854 individuals. Descriptive statistical analysis was applied to the sample, along with a Poisson regression model to determine the impact of the variables on the prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension. The prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension was 19.4%. Male sex, overweight and obesity presented significant positive associations with systemic arterial hypertension (p < 0.05), while physical activity was not shown to be significantly associated with systemic arterial hypertension (p > 0.05). The nature of these relationships should be interpreted in the light of reflection and not of passive labeling based on hegemonic concepts.

  9. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed.

  10. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, Amanda Codeço; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; SANTOS, Fernanda Nunes; de SOUZA, Marcos Barbosa; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ABRANTES, Tuanne Rotti; PÉRISSÉ, André Reynaldo Santos

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpiswas not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area. PMID:26422157

  11. [Analysis of the geographical distribution of cases of leprosy. Rio de Janeiro, 2001-2012].

    PubMed

    Gracie, Renata; Peixoto, Julia Novaes de Barros; Soares, Fabiane Bertoni Dos Reis; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea Vilas-Boas

    2017-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the geographical distribution of leprosy is related to different socioeconomic factors. This article aims to study the geographical distribution of leprosy in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The cases of leprosy reported in the 2001-2012 period were mapped according to municipality. Epidemiological and socioeconomic indicators were calculated. The ArcMap program was used for the construction of maps and Earth View to calculate the Bayesian rate. It was observed that leprosy is presented in hyper-endemic levels especially in the metropolitan area. However, there is also a reduction of the detection rate in the most recent study period. In municipalities in the metropolitan region and the north western region detection in children under 15 is high, indicating an active transmission situation. In municipalities in the south-central region and especially in the coastal region, there was a high proportion of cases diagnosed with level II disability, reflecting late diagnosis. There was no linear correlation between socioeconomic indicators and leprosy rate. These results contribute to the analysis of the geographical distribution of leprosy, important for the identification of areas for resource allocation, aiming to control and eliminate the disease.

  12. [Oral health of Guaraní Indians in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Pedro; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Vettore, Mario Viana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the oral health conditions of Guaraní Indians in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cross-sectional oral health survey was conducted in 508 subjects (90.7% of the Guaraní population) using World Health Organization criteria. At 5 years of age, 38.5% of children were caries-free. DMF-T was 1.7 at 12 years. 54.2% of subjects in the 35-44-year group and 12% in the 65-74-year group had at least 20 teeth. Numbers of teeth for the 35-44 and 65-74 age groups were 18.5 and 8.5, respectively. While caries index did not differ by gender for deciduous teeth, DMF-T and tooth loss was higher in women. Nearly 60% of the population showed no periodontal illness. Gingival bleeding and calculus were the most severe periodontal conditions. Gingival bleeding and calculus were more common in men and excluded sextants more common in women. Oral health promotion strategies are needed for this ethnic group and should consider the epidemiological profile according to age and gender.

  13. Nontargeted Screening of Halogenated Organic Compounds in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Mariana B; Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre; Santos-Neto, Elitieri; Torres, Joao P M; Malm, Olaf; Hoh, Eunha

    2017-02-07

    To catalog the diversity and abundance of halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) accumulating in high trophic marine species from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean, tissue from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded or incidentally captured along the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed by a nontargeted approach based on GC×GC/TOF-MS. A total of 158 individual HOCs from 32 different structural classes were detected in the blubber of 4 adult male T. truncatus. Nearly 90% of the detected compounds are not routinely monitored in the environment. DDT-related and mirex/dechlorane-related compounds were the most abundant classes of anthropogenic origin. Methoxy-brominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs) and chlorinated methyl- and dimethyl bipyrroles (MBPs and DMBPs) were the most abundant natural products. Reported for the first time in southwestern Atlantic cetaceans and in contrast to North American marine mammals, chlorinated MBPs and DMBPs were more abundant than their brominated and/or mixed halogenated counterparts. HOC profiles in coastal T. truncatus from Brazil and California revealed a distinct difference, with a higher abundance of MeO-BDEs, mirex/dechloranes and chlorinated bipyrroles in the Brazilian dolphins. Thirty-six percent of the detected HOCs had an unknown structure. These results suggest broad geographical differences in the patterns of bioaccumulative chemicals found in the marine environment and indicate the need to develop more complete catalogs of HOCs from various marine environments.

  14. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation.

    PubMed

    Krüger, E; Drach, P; Broede, P

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  15. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, E.; Drach, P.; Broede, P.

    2016-08-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  16. Organic micropollutants on river sediments from Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Vieira, Elisa Diniz Reis; Japenga, Jan; Koopmans, Gerwin Ferdinand

    2002-01-01

    The paper is a contribution for the knowledge upon concentrations and fate of different kinds of organic micropollutants in Tropical River system from a very industrialized region in Brazil. The presented data was obtained during three years of an International Research Project between Brazilian and Dutch institutions. The sediments were sampled at the Paraiba do Sul-Guandu river watershed, the most important watercourse of Rio de Janeiro state, where up 90% of the population depends on its water for domestic uses. After extraction with non-polar solvents in a hot sohxlet device and clean up using chromatographic columns, three classes of organic micropollutants were analyzed: organochlorine insecticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The organochlorines, including the PCBs were scarcely present in the collected samples probably reflecting the restrictions of use of this class of compounds in the Brazilian market. However, the PAHs levels were high at the vicinity of a huge steelworks located in the city of Volta Redonda. This contamination is probably due to the massive use of coal in the above-cited metallurgical plant.

  17. Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis Is Associated with Atypical Clinical Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been several recent changes in the taxonomy of Sporothrix schenckii as well as new observations regarding the clinical aspects of sporotrichosis. In this study, we determined the identification of the Sporothrix species associated with both classic and unusual clinical aspects of sporotrichosis observed in the endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings To verify whether S. brasiliensis is associated with clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis, a cross-sectional study was performed in which Sporothrix isolates from 50 patients with different clinical manifestations were analyzed and their isolates were studied by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Data from these patients revealed a distinct clinical picture and therapeutic response in infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis (n = 45) compared to patients with S. schenckii sensu stricto (n = 5). S. brasiliensis was associated with disseminated cutaneous infection without underlying disease, hypersensitivity reactions, and mucosal infection, whereas patients with S. schenckii presented with less severe and more often localized disease, similar to the majority of previously described sporotrichosis cases. Interestingly, S. brasiliensis-infected patients overall required shorter durations of itraconazole (median 16 weeks) compared to the individuals with S. schenckii (median 24 weeks). Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that Sporothrix species are linked to different clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis and that S. brasiliensis is effectively treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:25233227

  18. The genetic diversity and phenotypic characterisation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana Beatriz de Almeida; Silva, Lígia Guedes da; Pinto, Tatiana de Castro Abreu; Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Menezes de; Fernandes, Flávio Gimenis; Costa, Natalia Silva da; Mattos, Marcos Corrêa de; Fracalanzza, Sergio Eduardo Longo; Benchetrit, Leslie Claude

    2011-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae isolates are more common among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases compared to other demographic groups. In this study, we evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity in S. agalactiae strains from Rio de Janeiro (RJ) that were isolated from asymptomatic carriers. We analysed these S. agalactiae strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, as well as by determining the macrolide resistance phenotype, and detecting the presence of the ermA/B, mefA/E and lnuB genes. The serotypes Ia, II, III and V were the most prevalent serotypes observed. The 60 strains analysed were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levofloxacin. Resistance to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin and tetracycline was observed. Among the erythromycin and/or clindamycin resistant strains, the ermA, ermB and mefA/E genes were detected and the constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B-type resistance was the most prevalent phenotype observed. The lnuB gene was not detected in any of the strains studied. We found 56 PFGE electrophoretic profiles and only 22 of them were allocated in polymorphism patterns. This work presents data on the genetic diversity and prevalent capsular serotypes among RJ isolates. Approximately 85% of these strains came from pregnant women; therefore, these data may be helpful in developing future prophylaxis and treatment strategies for neonatal syndromes in RJ.

  19. Ergonomic risks on the operational activities of firefighters from Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Vitari, Flávia Curi; Francisco, Hilmar Soares; Mello, Márcia Gomide da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The Fire Brigade of the State of Rio de Janeiro (CBMERJ) is Brazil's most ancient and is one of the military forces of the state. It has the primary function of activities related to civil defense of the state. This study aims to contribute to the improvement of the current situation by proposing a solution of eliminating totally or at least mitigating risks of ergonomic injury, since all operating activities are based on the performance of man, applying techniques and equipment with intensive use of hands, teamwork, extended shifts and living with stressful situations, which enhance the occurrence of awkward postures among other ergonomic risk factors. This is a quantitative study. The fields of study were five operational units with the highest statistical service of the Corporation. The following items were analyzed: profile of the firemen, work environment, activity performed, adequacy of training received and epidemiological assessment of pain. In total, 208 questionnaires were answered. Data analysis was performed by frequency and presented in tables, charts and graphs. It is important to implement procedures aimed at occupational health and safety of firefighters in the light of ergonomic concepts, so that crews activities are carried out with increased safety and quality.

  20. Intelligent monitoring of Aedes aegypti in a rural area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sanavria, Argemiro; da Silva, Claudia Bezerra; Electo, Érica Heleno; Nogueira, Lidiane Cristina Rocha; Thomé, Sandra Maria Gomes; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Vita, Gilmar Ferreira; Sanavria, Talles Eduardo Cabral; Padua, Elisa Domingues; Gaiotte, Denise Glória

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to monitor the presence of females of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) on the Seropédica municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, from 2010 to 2013. For this purpose, the Intelligent Dengue Monitoring (IM-Dengue) and Intelligent Virus Monitoring (IM-Virus) developed by Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Ecovec – Minas Gerais, Brazil), were used. IM-Dengue is a tool that allows achieving a weekly overview of A. aegypti infestation, while IM-Virus is another tool that allows detecting dengue virus directly from the mosquito, by Real Time-PCR. Both tools were developed for diagnosis in a prepathogenesis period of the disease, before infection occurrence. Traps were distributed in 19 locations inside the municipality and the bugs were collected weekly during the years of the research. As a result, the presence of 163 females of A. aegypti was recorded over the period; there was no circulation of the virus in the municipality. In one of the 19 study sites, a high degree of disease transmission risk was verified. The study concluded that the municipality, as a whole, showed no risk of disease transmission throughout the field research period. PMID:28793020

  1. Staphylococcus saprophyticus Recovered from Humans, Food, and Recreational Waters in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Viviane Santos; da-Silva, Ana Paula de Souza; Sorenson, Leif; Paschoal, Raphael Paiva; Rabello, Renata Fernandes; Campana, Eloiza Helena; Pinheiro, Márcia Soares; dos Santos, Lyssa Oliveira Ferreira; Martins, Natacha; Botelho, Ana Carolina Nunes; Fracalanzza, Sérgio Eduardo Longo; Riley, Lee Woodland; Sensabaugh, George

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an important agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young women, but information about this pathogen in human microbiota and in common environment is lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize S. saprophyticus isolates from genitoanal microbiota of 621 pregnant women, 10 minas cheese packs, and five beaches in Rio de Janeiro city and compare PFGE profiles of these isolates with five UTI PFGE clusters described in this city. We investigated 65 S. saprophyticus isolates from microbiota, 13 from minas cheese, and 30 from beaches and 32 UTI isolates. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion, MIC by agar dilution, and PCR. Erythromycin-resistance genes erm(C), msr(A), msr(B), mph(C), and lin(A) were found in 93% of isolates. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance correlated with dfrG or dfrA genes. Three cefoxitin-resistant isolates carried the mecA gene. All isolates obtained from cheese were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents. Six of 10 pregnant women with >1 isolate had monoclonal colonization. Isolates from pregnant women shared 100% similarity with UTI PFGE cluster types A and E obtained almost 10 years previously, suggesting temporal persistence of S. saprophyticus. Antimicrobial resistance of beach isolates reflected the profiles of human isolates. Taken together, results indicate a shared source for human and environmental isolates. PMID:28630628

  2. Computer modeling study of ethanol and aldheyde reactivities in Rio de Janeiro urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Eduardo M.; Arbilla, Graciela

    An empirical kinetic modeling approach was used in order to simulate ozone, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations for an urban downtown area with high vehicular traffic. A base case was designed using experimental data for December 1999 in Presidente Vargas Avenue, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The simulated ozone peak was obtained at 3:15 PM (23.00 ppb) in good agreement with experimental results. Calculated acetaldehyde and formaldehyde concentrations peaked at 21-24 and 14-17 ppb, respectively, between 11:00 AM and 13:00 PM, depending on the effective solar flux. Tagged species were used to discriminate between primary and secondary compounds and to follow the reaction paths of individual species. Computational results show that the primary contribution to acetaldehyde and formaldehyde concentrations is higher in the early morning and reaches a maximum, which approximately coincides with the peak automobile traffic. The secondary contribution increases during the morning and reaches a maximum in the early afternoon. As a consequence, total acetaldehyde and formaldehyde levels peak after the primary pollutants' maximum, obtained in the early morning, and before the secondary pollutants' maximum as previously noted in experimental determinations. The simulations also confirm the experimental evidence that the high acetaldehyde/formaldehyde ratios are due to the use of alcohol-based fuels.

  3. Human papillomavirus infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M O O; Carestiato, F N; Perdigão, P H; Xavier, M P P T; Silva, Kc; Botelho, M O; Oliveira, L H S; Cavalcanti, S M B

    2005-10-01

    There is considerable data to support a central role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in the etiology of cervical cancer. More than a 100 HPV types have been described, and 40 have been isolated from benign and malignant genital lesions. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Few studies concerning the natural history of HPV infection have been conducted in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We determined the prevalence of HPV types in female genital lesions by using Hybrid Capture Assay (HCA) and we retrospectively analyzed the course of HPV infection. Our sample included 788 women attended at Laboratórios Sérgio Franco. The average age of the participants was 29.6 years. HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis were determined. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in the study group was 50.1% (395/788), ranging from 25% (NORMAL) to 100% in high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). High risk HPV was found in 12% inflammatory, 58.3% HPV, 63.2% LSIL and 100% HSIL. A retrospective analysis of 78 patients showed that 22 presented persistent lesions, 2 had progressive lesions, 4 had regressive lesions, 13 showed latent infections, 18 were transiently infected and 19 were submitted to curative treatment. No cases of cancer were registered in this population, which can afford private medical care and regular follow-up exams. We suggest that HCA be used in specific cases involving persistent and recurrent lesions.

  4. Dosimetric audits of photon beams in radiation therapy centres in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, L A R; Brito, R R A; Gonçalves, M; de Paiva, E; Dovales, A C M; Freire, B L V; Giannoni, R A; Di Prinzio, R; Velasco, A F; Castelo, L H R; Oliveira, R V

    2008-01-01

    Data related to 11 y of high-energy photon radiotherapy beam dosimetry are presented and analysed. Dosimetric evaluations were carried out using water phantoms and thimble ionisation chambers and are part of the radiation protection regulatory licensing process for medicine facilities of Brazilian government. Measurements were done at reference conditions for a standard absorbed dose of 100 cGy [cGy (=1 rad)]. The absolute per cent deviation between the measured and presumed delivered doses should not exceed the tolerance level of +/-3%. The first dosimetry survey from 1996 to 1998 showed a situation that was an object of concern. Deviations of 22 and 18.7% could be measured, although small deviations were also obtained. After 1998, the improvement in dosimetry quality control by the radiotherapy centres became clear, with most of the deviations situated within the +/-3% range. The decrease in the measured deviations presents the effective success of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry audit programme for the improvement in the control of radiotherapy photon beams in Rio de Janeiro. Also, it is possible to recommend to Brazilian regulatory organisation a decrease in the tolerance level for dosimetric deviations in order to achieve a more precise dose delivered to patients in radiotherapy centres.

  5. Mobile prehospital emergency care: an analysis of implementation in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Gisele; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Alves, Renan Paes; Salvador, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2016-06-01

    Mobile prehospital care is a key component of emergency care. The aim of this study was to analyze the implementation of the State of Rio de Janeiro's Mobile Emergency Medical Service (SAMU, acronym in Portuguese). The methodology employed included document analysis, visits to six SAMU emergency call centers, and semistructured interviews conducted with 12 local and state emergency care coordinators. The study's conceptual framework was based on Giddens' theory of structuration. Intergovernmental conflicts were observed between the state and municipal governments, and between municipal governments. Despite the shortage of hospital beds, the SAMUs in periphery regions were better integrated with the emergency care network than the metropolitan SAMUs. The steering committees were not very active and weaknesses were observed relating to the limited role played by the state government in funding, management, and monitoring. It was concluded that the SAMU implementation process in the state was marked by political tensions and management and coordination weaknesses. As a result, serious drawbacks remain in the coordination of the SAMU with the other health services and the regionalization of emergency care in the state.

  6. Highly endemic, waterborne toxoplasmosis in north Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bahia-Oliveira, Lílian Maria Garcia; Jones, Jeffrey L; Azevedo-Silva, Juliana; Alves, Cristiane C F; Oréfice, Fernando; Addiss, David G

    2003-01-01

    In Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, reports of uveitis consistent with toxoplasmosis led to a survey of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1997-1999. The survey population was selected randomly from schools, randomly chosen communities, and an army battalion. Serum samples from 1,436 persons were tested. With results adjusted for age, 84% of the population in the lower socioeconomic group was seropositive, compared with 62% and 23% of the middle and upper socioeconomic groups, respectively (p<0.001). When multivariate analysis was performed, drinking unfiltered water was found to increase the risk of seropositivity for the lower socioeconomic (odds ratio [OR]: 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 6.9) and middle socioeconomic (OR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.3) populations. We also found a high T. gondii seroprevalence in this Brazilian community. Drinking unfiltered water increased the risk of T. gondii seropositivity, indicating the potential importance of oocyst transmission in water in this region.

  7. Radium mass balance and submarine groundwater discharge in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Christian J.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.; Moore, Willard S.

    2012-11-01

    Radium-226 and 228Ra activities were determined in water samples from within and adjacent to Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in 1998, 2005 and 2007. Surface waters in Sepetiba Bay were substantially higher in 226Ra and 228Ra compared to ocean end member samples. Using the residence time of water in the bay we calculated the flux required to maintain the observed enrichment over the ocean end members. We then applied a radium mass balance to estimate the volume of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the bay. The estimates of SGD into Sepetiba Bay (in 1010 L day-1) were 2.56, 3.75, and 1.0, respectively for 1998, 2005, and 2007. These estimates are equivalent to approximately 1% of the total volume of the bay each day or 50 L m-2 day-1. It is likely that a substantial portion of the SGD in Sepetiba Bay consists of infiltrated seawater. This large flux of SGD has the potential to supply substantial quantities of nutrients, carbon and metals into coastal waters. The SGD found here is greater than what is typically found in SGD studies along the eastern United States and areas with similar geologic characteristics. Considering there are many coastal areas around the world like Sepetiba Bay, this could revise upward the already important contribution of SGD to coastal as well as oceanic budgets.

  8. BTEX Emissions from the Largest Landfill in Operation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Sá Borba, Priscilla Falcão; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro; Ritter, Elisabeth; Corrêa, Sergio Machado

    2017-03-02

    The emission rates and the ambient air concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) were measured over the intermediate cover layer and atmosphere of the Seropédica landfill, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. BTEX were sampled using coconut shell charcoal cartridges, followed by extraction with dichloromethane and analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Thirteen samples were collected in areas with and without cracks in the cover layer, and six samples were collected from the ambient air. The average emission rates were 11.7, 492.2, 153.7, 67.2, and 21.7 µg m(- 2) day(- 1), respectively, for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, m + p-xylenes and o-xylene. No benzene concentrations above the detection limit were observed in ambient air samples. The average concentrations of toluene, ethyl benzene, m + p-xylenes and o-xylene in ambient air samples were 2.14, 1.35, 0.49 and 0.08 µg m(- 3), respectively. Higher emissions were found in locations containing larger cracks during the collection.

  9. [Agency and victimization in the trajectory of women involved in drug trafficking in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Barcinski, Mariana

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to discuss the traditional victimization of women who get involved in criminal activities, focusing on agency and personal initiative as the main motivators. Through the discursive analysis of qualitative interviews with five women with a history in drug trafficking in Rio de Janeiro we sought to capture the dilemmas that characterize the ways in which these women justify their participation in a traditional male activity. At a micro level, the analysis focuses on the rhetoric efficacy of the different positions assumed by the participants(1). At a macro level, the analysis investigates how the participants appropriate different discourses about womanhood in order to give sense to their personal histories(2). The results show that the participants oscillate between appealing to external causes for justifying their choice (such as the lack of options characterizing the trajectory of marginalized populations and the personal involvement with criminal partners) and assuming responsibility for having been involved in drug trafficking. In this case, they often mention the power and respect they used to experience as traffickers as the main motivator for their criminal trajectory.

  10. Herpetofauna of Núcleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, A R; Bruno, S F; Navegantes, A Q

    2012-08-01

    The Atlantic Rain forest, which is considered the second largest pluvial forest in the American continent, has had an estimated 93% of its original area destroyed. Although studies concerning the herpetofaunal diversity in this biome have been intensified in the past years, its diversity is still underestimated. The Nucleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande (NEIG) is included in an Environmental Protection Area (APA de Sapeatiba) in the Iguaba Grande municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (22º 51' S and 42º 10' W). The goal of this study was to conduct an inventory of the reptile and amphibian species that occur in this area between July 2008 and December 2009. We recorded 19 species of amphibians (18 anurans and one caecilian) and 15 species of reptiles (three lizards, 11 snakes and one amphisbaenian). Leptodactylus latrans and L. mystacinus had the highest capture rates among amphibians captured, and among reptiles, Ameiva ameiva, Hemidactylus mabouia and Mabuya agilis had the highest capture rates. Rarefaction curves for both amphibians and reptiles did not reach the asymptote, indicating that the species richness in the NEIG is still underestimated.

  11. Staphylococcus saprophyticus Recovered from Humans, Food, and Recreational Waters in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Viviane Santos; da-Silva, Ana Paula de Souza; Sorenson, Leif; Paschoal, Raphael Paiva; Rabello, Renata Fernandes; Campana, Eloiza Helena; Pinheiro, Márcia Soares; Dos Santos, Lyssa Oliveira Ferreira; Martins, Natacha; Botelho, Ana Carolina Nunes; Picão, Renata Cristina; Fracalanzza, Sérgio Eduardo Longo; Riley, Lee Woodland; Sensabaugh, George; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an important agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young women, but information about this pathogen in human microbiota and in common environment is lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize S. saprophyticus isolates from genitoanal microbiota of 621 pregnant women, 10 minas cheese packs, and five beaches in Rio de Janeiro city and compare PFGE profiles of these isolates with five UTI PFGE clusters described in this city. We investigated 65 S. saprophyticus isolates from microbiota, 13 from minas cheese, and 30 from beaches and 32 UTI isolates. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion, MIC by agar dilution, and PCR. Erythromycin-resistance genes erm(C), msr(A), msr(B), mph(C), and lin(A) were found in 93% of isolates. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance correlated with dfrG or dfrA genes. Three cefoxitin-resistant isolates carried the mecA gene. All isolates obtained from cheese were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents. Six of 10 pregnant women with >1 isolate had monoclonal colonization. Isolates from pregnant women shared 100% similarity with UTI PFGE cluster types A and E obtained almost 10 years previously, suggesting temporal persistence of S. saprophyticus. Antimicrobial resistance of beach isolates reflected the profiles of human isolates. Taken together, results indicate a shared source for human and environmental isolates.

  12. Feeding Patterns of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Araújo, Andressa Nunes; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    The stomach contents of culicids from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were analyzed using the precipitin technique to evaluate the feeding patterns of the species. Sampling was performed from February 2012 to December 2013, using CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps to catch mosquitoes from 15 00 to 07 00 hours. The following antisera were used: bird, rodent, opossum, human, horse, capybara, lizard, and frog. Of the 325 adult bloodfed females caught and analyzed, 273 (84.0%) reacted in the precipitin test. The percentage of specimens with a positive reaction to a single antiserum included bird (39.2%), rodent (22.5%), opossum (13.2%), capybara (6.6%), horse (5.7%), frog (6.2%), human (4.0%), and lizard (2.6%). The specimens that reacted positively against more than one blood source (46) most frequently presented the following combinations: bird + rodent and bird + frog (17.4%), followed by bird + human (13.0%). The predominance of positive results for birds suggested that the avian-rich environment might have influenced the feeding behavior of the culicids.

  13. Health conditions of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of a quantitative and qualitative study on the living conditions and health of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The goal was to produce strategic information to support the action of public officials who work in prisons. The results show that prisoners are young (average age: 30 years), poor, mostly black and brown (70.5%), have little education (only 1.5% of them have a higher education), and have been in prison for less than four years. Among the problems that indirectly affect their health, we emphasize: overcrowding (1.39 prisoners per one vacancy), idleness (only 4.4% of them work), lack of perspective, violence and relationships of conflict. The most common physical health problems include: musculoskeletal problems, such as pain in the neck, back, and spine (76.7%), joint dislocation (28.2%), bursitis (22.9%), sciatica (22, 1%), arthritis (15.9%), bone fracture (15.3%), problems with bone and cartilage (12.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (15.7%); respiratory problems, such as sinusitis (55.6%), allergic rhinitis (47%), chronic bronchitis (15.6%), tuberculosis (4.7%) and others (11.9%); and skin diseases. Despite legal requirements that include prison health care among the Universal Health System's (SUS) obligations, services are scarce and inefficient and a major cause of inmate dissatisfaction.

  14. [Nurses of large public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro: socio demographic and work related characteristics].

    PubMed

    Griep, Rosane Härter; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Rotenberg, Lucia

    2013-09-01

    The study aimed at analyzing socio-demographic and working characteristics of nurses from public hospitals. It was carried out a cross-sectional study, involving 3.229 nurses from the eighteen largest public hospitals of the city of Rio de Janeiro. It was observed a feminine predominance (87.3%), with mean age of 39.9 ± 10 years. Around 7% referred having master or doctorate degree, 58.5% got their degree from public institutions and 24.5% used to work at the health sector before becoming nurses. Half the group has thought of abandoning their career, and almost a quarter is unsatisfied with their profession. Around 10% searched for a job outside nursing area in the previous month and 30% searched for a job in the same working area. Night work, engagement in more than one job and long professional work hours were more frequently found among men. The study has pointed challengeable aspects of nurses' profession. Results can subsidize support strategies to improve the working conditions in public hospitals due to their comprehensiveness.

  15. Frequency of zoonotic bacteria among illegally traded wild birds in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Matias, Carlos Alexandre Rey; Pereira, Ingrid Annes; Reis, Eliane Moura Falavina Dos; Rodrigues, Dália Dos Prazeres; Siciliano, Salvatore

    The illegal wildlife trade may increase the risk of infectious disease transmission, and it may not only cause disease outbreaks in humans but also threaten livestock, native wild populations, and ecosystems' health. Bird species may act as carriers in the transmission of enteric pathogens. However, epidemiological studies on zoonotic bacteria in wild birds are rare in Brazil. From March 2011 to March 2012, we investigated the frequency of Enterobacteriaceae in cloacal swab samples from 109 birds of the passerine and Psittacidae families. These birds were recovered from illegal trade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and sent to a rehabilitation center. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 86 wild birds (78.9%). A mean (±SD) of 1.68 (±1.30) different bacterial species were isolated per bird, with a maximum of five bacterial species from three bird species. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, followed by Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and other enteric bacteria. Salmonella ser. Typhimurium was isolated from a Temminck's seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris), and two Salmonella ser. Panama were isolated from two specimens of chestnut-capped blackbird (Chrysomus ruficapillus). Of the 70 selected bacterial isolates, 60 exhibited antibiotic resistance. The resistance patterns varied from one to nine of the antibiotics tested. Resistance to ceftiofur was the most prevalent, followed by ampicillin and ceftriaxone. The dissemination potential of resistant strains in situations typically seen in the management of captive birds may become a problem for the conservation of natural bird populations and for public health.

  16. Evolution of mammographic image quality in the state of Rio de Janeiro*

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Vanessa Cristina Felippe Lopes; Seta, Marismary Horsth De; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares; Delamarque, Elizabete Vianna; de Azevedo, Ana Cecília Pedrosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the evolution of mammographic image quality in the state of Rio de Janeiro on the basis of parameters measured and analyzed during health surveillance inspections in the period from 2006 to 2011. Materials and Methods Descriptive study analyzing parameters connected with imaging quality of 52 mammography apparatuses inspected at least twice with a one-year interval. Results Amongst the 16 analyzed parameters, 7 presented more than 70% of conformity, namely: compression paddle pressure intensity (85.1%), films development (72.7%), film response (72.7%), low contrast fine detail (92.2%), tumor mass visualization (76.5%), absence of image artifacts (94.1%), mammography-specific developers availability (88.2%). On the other hand, relevant parameters were below 50% conformity, namely: monthly image quality control testing (28.8%) and high contrast details with respect to microcalcifications visualization (47.1%). Conclusion The analysis revealed critical situations in terms of compliance with the health surveillance standards. Priority should be given to those mammography apparatuses that remained non-compliant at the second inspection performed within the one-year interval. PMID:25987749

  17. [Psychic suffering among civil police officers in Rio de Janeiro State].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Figueiredo, Ana Elisa Bastos; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2013-03-01

    The paper discusses the relationship between work and psychic suffering among police officers in the State of Rio de Janeiro. A questionnaire was filled out by these professionals in three separate studies: Capital Baixada Fluminense and Interior. The socio-demographic profile, quality of life, health and working conditions were investigated. Psychic suffering was measured by the SRQ-20. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with psychic suffering. The results showed it to be associated with the following variables: level of satisfaction with the ability to react to difficult situations; performing the work for which the officers were trained; suffering some victimization; unit location; problems in the nervous system; and degree of satisfaction with life in general. Those who reported problems in the nervous system and victimization showed an OR of 7.25 and 3.08, respectively. The professionals who considered themselves dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with the ability to react to difficult situations and life in general showed an OR of 10.85 and 6.69, respectively, compared with those who considered themselves satisfied or very satisfied. Professionals from the Baixada showed an increased risk of psychic suffering compared to a reduced risk among those from the Interior.

  18. [High blood pressure among bank employees in Rio de Janeiro. Life-style and treatment].

    PubMed

    Chor, D

    1998-11-01

    This study estimates the frequency of treatment of high blood pressure and compares life-styles among hypertensives and non-hypertensives. Cross-sectional study in a systematic sample of 1183 employees in a government-owned bank in the State of Rio de Janeiro, through a self-administered questionnaire. Direct measurements of arterial pressure, weight and height were also taken in a sub-sample. Those who had been informed more than once as having high blood pressure, by a health professional, were classified as hypertensives. There were no important differences among hypertensives and non-hypertensives with respect to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol and physical activities. Dieting was more frequent among overweight/obese hypertensives than overweight/obese non-hypertensives. Only 44.7% were under treatment. Subjects with high level of education were more likely to be treated as were those who quit smoking, presented overweight/obesity or family history of cerebrovascular diseases. Access to information and health care was not sufficient to guarantee high blood pressure treatment or a healthy life-style which contributes to hypertension control.

  19. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, E.; Drach, P.; Broede, P.

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  20. A non-enteric adenovirus A12 gastroenteritis outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello; Rocha, Monica Simões; Rebelo, Maria Cristina; Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; de Assis, Rosane Maria; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-01-01

    A gastroenteritis outbreak that occurred in 2013 in a low-income community in Rio de Janeiro was investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, including species A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), astrovirus (HAstV), bocavirus (HBoV), aichivirus (AiV), and adenovirus (HAdV). Five of nine stool samples (83%) from patients were positive for HAdV, and no other enteric viruses were detected. Polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis, which revealed four strains and one strain of non-enteric HAdV-A12 and HAdV-F41, respectively. The HAdV-A12 nucleotide sequences shared 100% nucleotide similarity. Viral load was assessed using a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Stool samples that were positive for HAdV-A12 had high viral loads (mean 1.9 X 107 DNA copies/g stool). All four patients with HAdV-A12 were < 25 months of age and had symptoms of fever and diarrhoea. Evaluation of enteric virus outbreaks allows the characterisation of novel or unique diarrhoea-associated viruses in regions where RVA vaccination is routinely performed. PMID:27223654

  1. [Screening for alcohol use by pregnant women of public health care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo

    2007-10-01

    To assess the prevalence of suspected cases of alcohol use during pregnancy in women seeking care in public health services. Cross-sectional study comprising 537 women randomly selected in public maternity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, from March to October 2000. A well-trained team of female interviewers used the instruments Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener (CAGE), Tolerance Cut-down, Annoyed, Eye-opener (T-ACE) and Tolerance Worry Eye-opener Annoyed Cut-down (TWEAK) to assess suspect cases of alcohol misuse. The Chi-square test was used in the analysis according to socioeconomic and demographic variables. About 40% of women informed having used any type of alcoholic beverage during pregnancy. Beer was the most frequently used drink (83.9%). Depending on the measurement instrument used, estimates of alcohol misuse varied from 7.3% to 26.1%. Suspected cases of alcohol abuse were more common among non-white, older and less educated women; those not living with a partner; those reporting use of tobacco and illicit drugs either by one or both partners in a couple; and those with little social support. High prevalence of suspected alcohol misuse and its overlapping with several risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes indicate this is an important issue of public health concern requiring continuous screening during prenatal care.

  2. International workshop on insecticide resistance in vectors of arboviruses, December 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Vincent; Fonseca, Dina M; Weetman, David; Pinto, João; Achee, Nicole L; Chandre, Fabrice; Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Dusfour, Isabelle; Grieco, John; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Lenhart, Audrey; Martins, Ademir J; Moyes, Catherine; Ng, Lee Ching; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Vatandoost, Hassan; Vontas, John; Muller, Pie; Kasai, Shinji; Fouque, Florence; Velayudhan, Raman; Durot, Claire; David, Jean-Philippe

    2017-06-02

    Vector-borne diseases transmitted by insect vectors such as mosquitoes occur in over 100 countries and affect almost half of the world's population. Dengue is currently the most prevalent arboviral disease but chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever show increasing prevalence and severity. Vector control, mainly by the use of insecticides, play a key role in disease prevention but the use of the same chemicals for more than 40 years, together with the dissemination of mosquitoes by trade and environmental changes, resulted in the global spread of insecticide resistance. In this context, innovative tools and strategies for vector control, including the management of resistance, are urgently needed. This report summarizes the main outputs of the first international workshop on Insecticide resistance in vectors of arboviruses held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 5-8 December 2016. The primary aims of this workshop were to identify strategies for the development and implementation of standardized insecticide resistance management, also to allow comparisons across nations and across time, and to define research priorities for control of vectors of arboviruses. The workshop brought together 163 participants from 28 nationalities and was accessible, live, through the web (> 70,000 web-accesses over 3 days).

  3. [An evaluation of the services of state hospital pharmacies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Mario Jorge Sobreira; Magarinos-Torres, Rachel; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2013-12-01

    This article presents an evaluation of state-run hospital pharmacies in Rio de Janeiro. For the regulatory evaluation, 62 indicators of structure and procedures were used in order to establish the adequacy of the activities of the hospital pharmacy. The services were then stratified by level of complexity of the hospital. A scaled rating algorithm was applied to each stratum in accordance with the activities carried out. The hospitals were then hierarchically grouped for each stratum and the best and worst services at each level of complexity were chosen for the multiple case study, resulting in a total of six units. In these units 16 result indicators were applied and analysis of the resulting data was conducted by cross-case synthesis. The performance evaluation revealed that only one unit performed management and forecasting activities satisfactorily. Four units administered medication procurement inadequately. The worst results in terms of performance in the six hospitals studied were related to stock management and the best to distribution activities. The data are a cause for concern, since these are considered the core activities of the hospital pharmacy.

  4. Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control.

    PubMed

    Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Fagundes, Aline; Andrade, Moacir Vieira de; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman

    2009-01-01

    From 1977 (index case) to 2006, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in periurban areas on the continental and coastal slopes of the Pedra Branca massif and the continental slopes of the Gericinó massif. The majority (65.5%) of the patients were more than five years old, predominantly males (61.5%), but without any difference between the sexes below the age of 14 years. The overall fatality rate was 10.4%. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were detected. Leishmania chagasi was isolated from human and canine cases. The associations between the presence of phlebotomines and human and canine migrations, disorderly occupation involving degradation of environmental preservation areas and poor socioeconomic conditions may have created a favorable setting for the establishment and propagation of the disease. Close epidemiological surveillance associated with traditional control measures and others (active case researches, land clearing and health education), reduced the incidence of human cases from 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1981 to less than 0.01 per 100,000 since 1997. The canine infection rates decreased from 4.6% in 1984 to 1.6% in 2008. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected in some locations where human and canine cases occurred. In the years 2007 and 2008, no new human cases were reported, but there is a persistent and worrisome residual canine seroprevalence.

  5. [Detection of child abuse: missed opportunities in emergency rooms in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moura, Anna Tereza Miranda Soares de; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    Emergency rooms require special consideration since their often-distressful routines may hamper the detection and handling of family violence cases. This study estimated the magnitude of violence against children reported by users of two emergency hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It also evaluated the degree of underreporting by contrasting the present findings to cases reported routinely. 524 parents/guardians of children under 12 treated at the hospitals from January to March 2005 were interviewed. Twelve-month prevalence of family violence was measured with the Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-Child (CTSPC). All cases reported by staff and officially recorded in the preceding year were identified. Prevalence of psychological aggression, negligence, and physical violence were 94.8% (95%CI: 92.9-96.2), 60.3% (95%CI: 55.9-64.7), and 47.2% (95%CI: 42.7-51.8), respectively. However, the corresponding prevalence rates according to routinely reported information were 0.007% (95%CI: 0.003-0.013), 0.24% (95%CI: 0.22-0.27), and 0.03% (95%CI: 0.02-0.04). This striking difference suggests that case identification and strategies to report violence against children in emergency rooms need to be reevaluated.

  6. Outcomes of a scientific nonformal educational initiative for youth in Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral Félix de Sousa, Isabela

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this research is to understand how former students view their professional and academic paths after taking part in a specific scientific nonformal educational initiative during high school. This program is called Vocational Scientific Program (Provoc) and is carried out in the Oswald Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This institution has for over 100 years played a pioneer role in public health research in the country. This institution has many graduate programs and a high school dedicated to training students in health issues. Provoc was originated in this school and has been part of it for the last 25 years. Since its beginning, this program has been characterized by a significant predominance of women which relates to the female predominance of professionals in this institution working in the traditional areas of Fiocruz, which are Biology, Medicine, Public Health, Humanities and Social Sciences. This study was qualitative in nature and involved observations and 34 individual interviews, which followed a semi structured questionnaire, designed for this research. The results indicate that the majority of participants see their program participation experiences as an asset in their academic and professional careers. Many describe feeling empowered by presenting their work in seminars and a few by writing a research article. Many former students also testified to the establishment of social long lasting relationships in the research work environment. And finally, the interviews reveal a few moments and the factors involved in the selection of a profession by youth.

  7. [Consumption of licit and illicit substances by police officers in the city of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Schenker, Miriam; Constantino, Patrícia; Correia, Bruna Soares Chaves

    2013-03-01

    The consumption of psychoactive substances by civil and military police of the city of Rio de Janeiro was investigated. Data was gathered from two cross-sectional studies on a questionnaire on work and health conditions given to a sample from the two corporations. The results show higher frequencies of regular consumption of tobacco (23.3% by civil police and 19.1% by military police), daily use of alcohol (12% by civil police and 11% by military police) and tranquilizers in the past year (13.3% by civil police and 10.1% by military police). The consumption of marijuana among officers was 0.1% by civil police and 1.1% by military police, and cocaine use among the military police was 1.1%. Alcohol consumption proved to be intense and causes problems at work and in the social and family relationships of these officers. The need for preventive policies for addiction and the possible underestimation of information on illicit substances is emphasized.

  8. [Work-related accidents on oil drilling platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, C M; Souza, C A; Machado, J M; Porto, M F

    2001-01-01

    The offshore oil industry is characterized by complex systems in relation to technology and organization of work. Working conditions are hazardous, resulting in accidents and even occasional full-scale catastrophes. This article is the result of a study on work-related accidents in the offshore platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro State. The primary objective was to provide technical back-up for both workers' representative organizations and public authorities. As a methodology, we attempt to go beyond the immediate causes of accidents and emphasize underlying causes related to organizational and managerial aspects. The sources were used in such a way as to permit classification in relation to the type of incident, technological system, operation, and immediate and underlying causes. The results show the aggravation of safety conditions and the immediate need for public authorities and the offshore oil industry in Brazil to change the methods used to investigate accidents in order to identify the main causes in the organizational and managerial structure of companies.

  9. [A perspective on living conditions: child and adolescent mortality in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Cruz Neto, Otavio; Sucena, Luiz Fernando Mazzei

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the Mortality Information System, this paper investigates the deaths of children and adolescents in the Manguinhos neighborhood from 1996 to 2000, to determine the main characteristics and associate key mortality aspects with local living conditions. An outlying working-class or "suburban" neighborhood of the city of Rio de Janeiro where the main campus of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation is located, Manguinhos consists of 12 "communities" characterized by poverty, social exclusion, drug traffic, and structural violence. In light of these factors and the cultural, social, and economic potential of the Manguinhos population, the authors begin with the theoretical/ practical premise that living conditions played a major role in the deaths of these young citizens. The study of these fatal events may therefore lead to the elucidation of issues and problems that must be included on the agendas and in forums involving both health promotion projects and the Municipal, State, and Federal governments so that they can be appropriately addressed in the scope of public policies.

  10. Community-randomized trial of enhanced DOTS for tuberculosis control in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, S. C.; Durovni, B.; Barnes, G. L.; Souza, F. B. A.; Silva, R. F.; Barroso, P. F.; Mohan, C. I.; Miller, A.; Golub, J. E.; Chaisson, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING Central Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. OBJECTIVE To compare the impact of routine DOTS vs. enhanced DOTS (DOTS-Ampliado or DOTS-A) on tuberculosis (TB) incidence. DESIGN Cluster-randomized trial in eight urban neighborhoods pair-matched by TB incidence and randomly assigned to receive either the DOTS-A or DOTS strategy. DOTS-A added intensive screening of household contacts of active TB cases and provision of treatment to secondary cases and preventive therapy to contacts with latent TB infection (LTBI) to the standard DOTS strategy. The primary endpoint was the TB incidence rates in communities after 5 years of intervention. RESULTS From November 2000 to December 2004, respectively 339 and 311 pulmonary TB cases were enrolled and 1003 and 960 household were identified in DOTS and DOTS-A communities. Among contacts from DOTS-A communities, 26 (4%) had active TB diagnosed and treated, 429 (61.3%) had LTBI detected and 258 (60.1%) started preventive therapy. TB incidence increased by 5% in DOTS communities and decreased by 10% in DOTS-A communities, for a difference of 15% after 5 years (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION DOTS-A was associated with a modest reduction in TB incidence and may be an important strategy for reducing the burden of TB. PMID:20074412

  11. Lessons learned from a landslide catastrophe in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno Monteiro Tavares; Morales, Wellington; Cardoso, Ricardo Galesso; Fiorelli, Rossano; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Briggs, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    On January, 2011, a devastating tropical storm hit the mountain area of Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil, resulting in flooding and mudslides and leaving 30,000 individuals displaced. This article explores key lessons learned from this major mass casualty event, highlighting prehospital and hospital organization for receiving multiple victims in a short period of time, which may be applicable in similar future events worldwide. A retrospective review of local hospital medical/fire department records and data from the Health and Security Department of the State were analyzed. Medical examiner archives were analyzed to determine the causes of death. The most common injuries were to the extremities, the majority requiring only wound cleaning, debridement, and suture. Orthopedic surgeries were the most common operative procedures. In the first 3 days, 191 victims underwent triage at the hospital with 50 requiring admission to the hospital. Two hundred fifty patients were triaged at the hospital by the end of the fifth day. The mortis cause for the majority of deaths was asphyxia, either by drowning or mud burial. Natural disasters are able to generate a large number of victims and overwhelm the main channels of relief available. Main lessons learned are as follows: 1) prevention and training are key points, 2) key measures by the authorities should be taken as early as possible, and 3) the centralization of the deceased in one location demonstrated greater effectiveness identifying victims and releasing the bodies back to families.

  12. Surface modification of a granite building stone in central Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Baptista-Neto, José A; Smith, Bernard J; McAllister, John J; Silva, Maria Augusta M; Castanheira, Fabio S

    2006-06-01

    In order to evaluate environmental controls on the soiling formation and decay of building stones a set of mapping and physical and chemical analyses were carried out on granite from a historical church in the polluted centre of Rio de Janeiro. These techniques highlight the increasing of threatening damage on generally perceived as a durable building material, caused by granular disaggregation and contour scaling in areas close to ground level. Mapping also indicated the formation of black crusts over entire building façades, concentrated on areas sheltered from rain-wash. Analyses demonstrated the influence of marine aerosols, rock and mortar composition and mostly of the atmospheric pollutants on the decay and soiling of the granite. Much of the decay is associated specifically with the presence of halite (NaCl) and gypsum ((CaS04)2H2O). The fact that black, gypsum crusts are able to develop over entire façades in a humid subtropical environment is testimony to the high levels of local pollution, especially particulate deposition. Reduced rainwash, in sheltered micro-environments of narrow, canyon-like streets, overcomes the gypsum tendency to be washed away from buildings façades. These observations further highlight that decay processes are primarily controlled by microclimatic conditions.

  13. Prevalence of IgG diphtheria antitoxin in blood donors in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Damasco, P V; Pimenta, F P; Filardy, A A; Brito, S M; Andrade, A F B; Lopes, G S; Hirata, R; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L

    2005-10-01

    The lack of information on the immunity of adults in Brazil against diphtheria prompted us to analyse sera from 234 blood donors aged 18-61 years (30.3% females and 69.7% males). IgG diphtheria antitoxin levels determined by means of an ELISA, validated by toxin neutralization test in Vero cells, showed that 30.7% (95% CI 25.0-37.1) of the population was fully protected (>or=1 IU/ml). The highest percentage of subjects fully protected was in the 31-40 years age group. Most of the subjects with uncertain or no protection (<1 IU/ml) were found in the 18-30 years age group (43.8%, OR 2.18, P=0.01). Antitoxin levels were not influenced by the increase in age. Males were more protected than females (80.5%, OR 0.44, P=0.01). The prevalence of 30% of individuals fully protected against diphtheria in blood donors in Rio de Janeiro supports the fact that immunity to diphtheria among healthy Brazilian adults is inadequate. To avoid diphtheria epidemics in the future the immunity among adults should be raised in the coming years.

  14. Quality evaluation of commercially available male condoms in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Janete Teixeira; de Almeida, Antonio Eugenio C C; de Mello Pereira Abrantes, Shirley

    2016-12-07

    The increased incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Brazil represents a significant public health issue. This issue has raised awareness among health authorities regarding the quality of condoms. In Brazil, male condoms need to be certified. The certification process evaluates in detail the manufacturing and quality of the final product; however, post-market surveillance is not part of the normal certification practice. From 2009 to 2011, we evaluated 20 male condoms brands per lot of 8 manufactures-both domestic and imported-marketed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sampling was performed per ISO 2859-1, and the condoms were evaluated on length, width, thickness, holes, integrity of primary packaging, bursting volume, bursting pressure, label and secondary packaging, following the criteria established in the Brazilian National Health Oversight Agency Resolution no. RDC 62/2008. Of the 20 evaluated brands, 17 brands were found to be noncompliant with the guidelines of the Brazilian National Health Oversight Agency Resolution no. RDC 62/2008 in at least one of the analyses performed. Any nonconforming unit has serious public health implications.

  15. An Analytical Investigation of Ozone Episodes in Bangu, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Geraldino, Claudio Gabriel Pinheiro; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro; da Silva, Cleyton Martins; Arbilla, Graciela

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the potential factors that contribute to frequent high levels of ozone as well as ozone episodes in Bangu, one of the most critical areas in the city of Rio de Janeiro regarding ozone levels. For 74 days in a two-year period (10.3%), the national air quality standard was exceeded. For the same period, a total of 378 days (51.8%) had ozone concentrations that were between 80 and 160 µg m(-3). A statistical analysis of pollutant concentrations and meteorological data as well as a kinetic and mechanistic analysis of VOC reactivity showed that the high ozone concentrations did not seem to be closely related to local emissions but, rather, were related to pollutant transport and triggered by photochemical activity. The mountains in the southern and northern part of the district contribute to the increase of surface temperatures and the accumulation of pollutants. The VOC/NOx ratios corresponded to a VOC-limited process.

  16. Geochronology of anthropogenic radionuclides in Ribeira Bay sediments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Gomes, Franciane; Godoy, José Marcus; Godoy, Maria Luiza D P; de Carvalho, Zenildo Lara; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Osvath, Iolanda; de Lacerda, Luiz Drude

    2011-09-01

    Ribeira Bay is located approximately 130 km south of the city of Rio de Janeiro and receives discharges of liquid effluent from the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant (NPP) site, where two pressurized water reactors are located. To test whether the presence of anthropogenic radionuclides in sediments in Ribeira Bay could be correlated to the NPP operations, we sampled seven sediment cores and determined accumulation rates and chronologies. Only one sediment core did not exhibit a superficial mixing layer; this sample was used for dating purposes. Cesium-137 and (207)Bi were observed in this sediment profile, but their presence was associated with atmospheric fall-out rather than the nearby NPP. The exponential decay of (210)Pb concentration with sediment layer depth was verified below a superficial mixing layer for all other sediment cores. Calculated accumulation rates ranged from 1.2 mm y(-1) in the inner bay to 6.2 mm y(-1) close to its entrance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water quality assessment with simultaneous Landsat-5 TM data at Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Braga, C.Z.F.; Setzer, A.W. ); Lacerda, L.D. de )

    1993-06-01

    This study aims at determining relationships between water quality parameters and digital data from the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). The study area was the Guanabara Bay, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected on two dates, coincident with Landsat passages, and when different tide conditions were present at the Bay. TM Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, band ratios 1 / 3 and 2 / 3, and principal component analysis of TM Bands 1-4 were compared with in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of water samples. Some water quality parameters were very well correlated with the digital remotely sensed data, especially during high tide: for instance, iron and manganese concentrations in total suspended solids; salinity and Secchi depth; temperature and Secchi depth; temperature and total suspended solids; total suspended solids and Bands 4 and 6; Secchi depth and Bands 4 and 6; temperature and Band 6. Lower correlation coefficients, although also significant, were found for the low tide condition. No correlation was found with chlorophyll-a concentrations. TM data were shown to be adequate to analyze temperature, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, and iron and manganese contents in the total suspended solids for the polluted estuary area studied.

  18. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Gleiser, Raquel M.

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed. PMID:27404496

  19. Amblyomma cajennense infestation on horses in two microregions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pires, Marcus Sandes; Santos, Tiago Marques dos; Santos, Huarrisson Azevedo; Vilela, Joice Aparecida Rezende; Peixoto, Maristela Peckle; Roier, Erica Cristina Rocha; Silva, Claudia Bezerra da; Barreira, Jairo Dias; Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio de; Massard, Carlos Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with infestation by Amblyomma cajennense on horses in two microregions of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Horses on 62 farms in the municipalities of the Itaguaí and Serrana microregions were evaluated between January and May 2009. The animals were examined to determine the presence of ticks and infestation level. The animals' rearing and management were assessed on each farm property using an epidemiological questionnaire. Out of the 635 horses evaluated, 41.6% were infested with A. cajennense. It was observed that farms in low-altitude regions (OR=3.69; CI: 2.3-5.8), with unsatisfactory zootechnical and sanitary management (OR=5.92; CI: 3.8-9.2) and an extensive rearing system (OR=4.25; CI: 2.1-8.5) were factors associated with tick infestation (p < 0.05) and also with cases of high infestation on horses. Use of chemical acaricides on horses was also associated with infestation (p < 0.05); the owners described different therapeutic approaches with different treatment intervals. From the present study, low altitudes, unsatisfactory management, extensive rearing and inappropriate use of acaricide products were factors associated with occurrences of A. cajennense at different infestation levels on horses in these municipalities.

  20. On norms and bodies: findings from field research on cosmetic surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorneles de Andrade, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Brazil has the second highest rate of cosmetic surgery worldwide, provided in a large number of public and private clinics and hospitals, especially in the southeast. This qualitative field research in Rio de Janeiro included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 18 women cosmetic surgery patients, 10 key informants (e.g. psychologists and sociologists) and 12 plastic surgeons. Fifteen of the women were either pre- or post-operative; three had not decided whether to have surgery. When asked about their motivations and expectations of the surgery, the majority of the women said they wanted to be "normal". Most of the surgeons said they acted as empathic companions from decision-making through surgery and beyond. Many of the key informants were critical of what was happening to medical ethics in relation to cosmetic surgery. With the growth in a consumer culture, they saw ethics in medicine becoming more bendable and subject to the "law" of the market. The cult of the body has become a mass phenomenon and taken on an important social dimension in a society where norms and images are broadcast widely by the media. The trend towards body-modification by cosmetic surgery at an early age is increasing dramatically. What demands critical thinking and further investigation are the consequences of cosmetic surgery for physical and mental health.

  1. Nutritional status of HIV-positive patients in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Senna, Andrea F Kroll; De Oliveira, Solange A; Velarde, Luis G C; Setúbal, Sérgio

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the nutritional status of HIV-positive patients in a hospital in the city of Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We studied 235 patients (130 men and 105 women) from May 2009 to June 2010. The frequency of undernourishment among women was 7.6%; 26.7% of the women were overweight, and 16.2% were obese. Among men, the frequency of undernourishment was 3.8%; 25.4% of the men were overweight, and 6.9% were obese. A logistic regression was done to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and potential predisposing factors. Women were more frequently affected by obesity and undernourishment than men. However, only the difference in obesity was significant, and women had almost three times higher odds of being obese (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.03-6.65). According to a nationwide survey done in Brazil during 2008-2009, 50.1% of the Brazilian healthy males were overweight, and 12.5% were obese; 48% of healthy females were overweight, and 16.9% were obese. Although the prevalence of undernourishment in HIV-positive patients is now lower than that observed in the beginning of the AIDS epidemic and excess weight is increasingly common among people living with HIV/AIDS, the proportion of excess weight was found lower and of undernourishment was higher in the present study than that found in the Brazilian population.

  2. Costs of Public Pharmaceutical Services in Rio de Janeiro Compared to Farmácia Popular Program.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rondineli Mendes da; Caetano, Rosângela

    2016-12-22

    To analyze the costs of public pharmaceutical services compared to Farmácia Popular Program (Popular Pharmacy Program). Comparison between prices paid by Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular Program (Farmácia Popular is available here) with the full costs of medicine provision by the Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro. The comparison comprised 25 medicines supplied by both the municipal pharmaceutical service and Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular Program. Calculating the cost per pharmaceutical unit of each medicine included expenditure by Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro with procurement (price), logistics, and local dispensation. The reference price of medicines paid by Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular was taken from the Brazilian Ministry of Health standard in force in 2012. Comparisons included full reference price; reference price minus 10.0% copayment by users; and maximum reference paid by the Ministry of Health (minus copayment and taxes). Simulations were carried out of the differences between the costs of Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro with the common medicines and those potentially incurred based on the reference price of Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular. The Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro spent R$28,526,526.57 with 25 medicines of the common list in 2012; 58.7% accounted for direct procurement costs. The estimated costs of the Health Department were generally lower than the reference prices of the Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular Program for 20 medicines, regardless of reference prices. The potential costs incurred by Health Department if expenditure of its consumption pattern were based on the reference prices of Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular would be R$124,170,777.76, considering the best scenario of payment by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (90.0% of the reference price, minus taxes). The difference in costs between public provision by Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro and Farmácia Popular Program indicates that some

  3. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  4. Parylene supported 20um*20um uncooled thermoelectric infrared detector with high fill factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Zadeh, Mohammad J.; Carpenter, Zachary S.; Rockley, Mark G.; Abdolvand, Reza

    2012-06-01

    Presented is a novel design for an uncooled surface-micromachined thermoelectric (TE) infrared (IR) detector. The detector features a P-doped polysilicon/Nichrome (Cr20-Ni80) thermocouple, which is embedded into a thin layer of Parylene-N to provide structural support. The low thermal conductivity (~0.1W/m.K), chemical resistance, and ease of deposition/patterning of Parylene-N make it an excellent choice of material for use in MEMS thermal detectors. This detector also features an umbrella-like IR absorber composed of a three layer stack of NiCr/SiN/NiCr to optimize IR absorption. The total device area is 20 um * 20 um per pixel with an absorber area of ~19 um * 19 um resulting in a fill factor of 90%. At room temperature, a DC responsivity of ~170V/W with a rise time of less than 8 ms is measured from the fabricated devices in vacuum when viewing a 500K blackbody without any concentrating optics. The dominant source of noise in thermoelectric IR detectors is typically Johnson noise when the detectors are operating in an open circuit condition. The fabricated detectors have resistances about 85KOhm which results in Johnson noise of about 38nV/Hz^0.5. The D* is calculated to be 9 * 106 cm*Hz0.5/ W. Preliminary finite element analysis indicates that the thermal conduction from the hot junction to the substrate through the TE wires is dominant ( GTE >> Gparylene) considering the fabricated dimensions of the parylene film and the TE wires. Thus, by further reducing the size of the TE wires, GTE can be decreased and hence, responsivity can be improved while the parylene film sustains the structural integrity of the cell.

  5. Prevalence of oral manifestations of HIV infection in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil from 1988 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sonia; Noce, Cesar; Júnior, Arley Silva; Gonçalves, Lúcio; Torres, Sandra; Meeks, Valli; Luiz, Ronir; Dias, Eliane

    2007-10-01

    After the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), several studies have shown a decrease in the prevalence of HIV-associated oral lesions. The goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of oral manifestations of HIV in Brazil. A retrospective epidemiologic analysis was performed of medical records of HIV-positive patients who attended Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital and the Stomatology Clinic of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro from 1988 to 2004. Gender, age, mode of HIV transmission, level of education, history of opportunistic infections, smoking, CD4 counts, viral load, antiretroviral therapy, and presence and site of oral lesions were assessed. One thousand twelve medical records were reviewed, resulting in 1230 entries in the study's database: 920 men and 310 women. There was a positive correlation between the prevalence of women, patients older than 40 years of age, and patients with 11 years or less of education. HAART was associated with a lower prevalence of oral manifestations. The prevalence of oral manifestations decreased throughout the years, while an increase occurred in the prevalence of oral warts and HIV-associated salivary gland disease (SGD). This study implies a social trend of AIDS in Brazil with an increase in the number of females, people 40 years of age and older, and with lower educational background. In Brazil, it can also be observed a reduction in the prevalence of oral manifestations reported worldwide and an increase in the prevalence of oral warts and SGD. To our knowledge, no study of this time frame has been done in a Brazilian population.

  6. Review of 21 cases of mycetoma from 1991 to 2014 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wanke, Bodo; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Coelho, Janice Mery Chicarino de Oliveira; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Lourenço, Maria Cristina da Silva; Paes, Rodrigo de Almeida; do Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi

    2017-01-01

    Mycetoma is caused by the subcutaneous inoculation of filamentous fungi or aerobic filamentous bacteria that form grains in the tissue. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiologic, clinic, laboratory, and therapeutic characteristics of patients with mycetoma at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1991 and 2014. Twenty-one cases of mycetoma were included in the study. There was a predominance of male patients (1.3:1) and the average patient age was 46 years. The majority of the cases were from the Southeast region of Brazil and the feet were the most affected anatomical region (80.95%). Eumycetoma prevailed over actinomycetoma (61.9% and 38.1% respectively). Eumycetoma patients had positive cultures in 8 of 13 cases, with isolation of Scedosporium apiospermum species complex (n = 3), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 2) and Acremonium spp. (n = 1). Two cases presented sterile mycelium and five were negative. Six of 8 actinomycetoma cases had cultures that were identified as Nocardia spp. (n = 3), Nocardia brasiliensis (n = 2), and Nocardia asteroides (n = 1). Imaging tests were performed on all but one patients, and bone destruction was identified in 9 cases (42.68%). All eumycetoma cases were treated with itraconazole monotherapy or combined with fluconazole, terbinafine, or amphotericin B. Actinomycetoma cases were treated with sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim or combined with cycles of amikacin sulphate. Surgical procedures were performed in 9 (69.2%) eumycetoma and in 3 (37.5%) actinomycetoma cases, with one amputation case in each group. Clinical cure occurred in 11 cases (7 for eumycetoma and 4 for actinomycetoma), and recurrence was documented in 4 of 21 cases. No deaths were recorded during the study. Despite of the scarcity of mycetoma in our institution the cases presented reflect the wide clinical spectrum and difficulties to take care of this neglected disease. PMID:28192433

  7. Blood Pressure in Adolescence, Adipokines and Inflammation in Young Adults. The Rio de Janeiro Study

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Erika Maria Gonçalves; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; Pozzan, Roberto; Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; Fonseca, Flávia Lopes; Pizzi, Oswaldo Luiz; de Freitas, Elizabete Viana; Brandão, Ayrton Pires

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of blood pressure (BP) during adolescence on other cardiovascular risk factors in young adults is important for the primary prevention. Objective To evaluate BP, anthropometric indexes, metabolic and inflammatory profiles in young individuals stratified by their BP behavior recorded for 18 years. Methods A total of 116 individuals, of whom 63 were males, from the Rio de Janeiro study (follow-up of 17.76 ± 1.63 years), were assessed at two moments: A1 (12.40 ± 1.49 years) and A2 (30.09 ± 2.01 years). The 116 individuals were divided into two groups: GN (n = 71), of participants with normal BP at A1; and GH (n = 45), of those with abnormal BP at A1. BP, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were measured at A1 and A2. At A2, abdominal circumference (AC) and laboratory, metabolic and inflammatory variables were included. Results 1) No difference was observed between the groups as regards age and gender; 2) At A2, GH showed higher mean weight, BMI, BP, insulin, HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), leptin (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 and A1 (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 / apolipoprotein A1 ratio (p < 0.010); and higher prevalences of overweight/obesity (p < 0.001), of increased AC (p < 0.001) and of hypertension (p < 0.02); 3) No difference was observed between the groups as regards the inflammatory variables; 4) There was a positive correlation of BP at A1 with BP, BMI, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR at A2 (p < 0.05). Conclusion BP in adolescence was associated with higher values of BP, and anthropometric and metabolic variables in young adulthood, but not with inflammatory variables. PMID:24263778

  8. Role of carbonyls and aromatics in the formation of tropospheric ozone in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Débora Bonfim Neves; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro; Corrêa, Sergio Machado

    2016-05-01

    The ozone in Rio de Janeiro has been in violation of national air quality standards. Among all of the monitoring stations, the Bangu neighbourhood has the most violations of the national standard of 160 μg m(-3) for the years 2012 and 2013. This study evaluated the reactivity of the carbonyls and aromatics in the tropospheric ozone formation processes. The samples were collected between July and October of 2013. Carbonyls were sampled using SiO2 cartridges coated with C18 and impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and were analysed by HPLC. Activated carbon cartridges and GC/MS were used to measure the concentration of monoaromatic hydrocarbons. An air quality monitoring station provided the concentrations of the criteria pollutants and the meteorological parameters. Cluster analysis and a Pearson correlation matrix were used to determine the formation of groups and the correlation of the variables. The evaluation of the volatile organic compounds (VOC) reaction with OH radicals and the MIR scale was used to extrapolate the reactivity of VOCs to the ozone formation. The average concentrations obtained were 19.7 and 51.9 μg m(-3) for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respectively. The mean concentrations obtained for aromatics were 1.5, 6.7, 1.5, 2.6 and 1.6 μg m(-3) for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, m+p-xylene and o-xylene, respectively. The cluster analysis indicated the presence of three similar groups, with one formed by gaseous criteria pollutants, another formed by the meteorological parameters, ozone and fine particles, and the last group formed by the aromatics. For the two reactivity scales evaluated, acetaldehyde and toluene were the main ozone precursors.

  9. Adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, Glauciene Santana; Guaraldo, Lusiele; Engstrom, Elyne Montenegro; Filha, Mariza Miranda Theme; Santos, Reinaldo Souza-; Vasconcelos, Ana Gloria Godoi; Rozenfeld, Suely

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize and estimate the frequency of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs in the population treated at the Centro de Saúde Escola Germano Sinval Faria, a primary health care clinic in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro City, and to explore the relationship between adverse drug reactions and some of the patients' demographic and health characteristics. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted via patient record review of incident cases between 2004 and 2008. RESULTS: Of the 176 patients studied, 41.5% developed one or more adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs, totaling 126 occurrences. The rate of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs was higher among women, patients aged 50 years or older, those with four or more comorbidities, and those who used five or more drugs. Of the total reactions, 71.4% were mild. The organ systems most affected were as follows: the gastrointestinal tract (29.4%), the skin and appendages (21.4%), and the central and peripheral nervous systems (14.3%). Of the patients who experienced adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs, 65.8% received no drug treatment for their adverse reactions, and 4.1% had one of the antituberculosis drugs suspended because of adverse reactions. “Probable reactions” (75%) predominated over “possible reactions” (24%). In the study sample, 64.3% of the reactions occurred during the first two months of treatment, and most (92.6%) of the reactions were ascribed to the combination of rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide (Regimen I). A high dropout rate from tuberculosis treatment (24.4%) was also observed. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a high rate of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs. PMID:23644852

  10. Prey selection by two benthic fish species in a Mato Grosso stream, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Carla Ferreira; Mazzoni, Rosana; Caramaschi, Erica Pellegrini; Rodrigues, Daniela; Moraes, Maíra

    2011-12-01

    Key to understand predator choice is the relationship between predator and prey abundance. There are few studies related to prey selection and availability. Such an approach is still current, because the ability to predict aspects of the diet in response to changes in prey availability is one of the major problems of trophic ecology. The general objective of this study was to evaluate prey selection by two species (Characidium cf. vidali and Pimelodella lateristriga) of the Mato Grosso stream, in Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Benthos and fishes were collected in June, July and September of 2006 and January and February of 2007. Fish were collected with electric fishing techniques and benthos with a surber net. Densities of benthic organisms were expressed as the number of individuals per/m2. After sampling, the invertebrates were fixed in 90% ethanol, and, in the laboratory, were identified to the lowest taxonomical level. Approximately, seventy individuals from each species were selected randomly in each month. Fishes were fixed in 10% formalin in the field and transferred to 70 degrees GL ethanol in the laboratory. Fishes had their stomachs removed for subsequent analysis. Fish diet was described according to the numeric frequency method. The Manly Electivity Index was applied in order to verify prey selection. The most abundant families in both benthos and diet of both fish species were the same, indicating that these species consume mainly most abundant prey in the environment. We concluded that prey selection occurs even for preys that had small abundance in the environment. However, it is the availability of the macroinvertebrate resources that determines the major composition of items in diet of fish, demonstrating that the abundance is the factor that most influences the choice of prey.

  11. The epidemiology of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro: environmental and domestic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L M; Werneck, G L; Cairncross, S; Coeli, C M; Costa, M C; Coletty, P E

    2001-10-01

    A serological study of hepatitis A was carried out in low-income areas scheduled for a major sanitation programme in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood spots were collected by finger puncture and transported on filter paper, and total antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected by ELISA. Households were also interviewed to collect information on their environmental conditions and socio-economic status. A generalized linear model using a complementary log-log function was fitted to the data, using the logarithm of age as an explanatory variable to derive adjusted rate ratios (RR). The risk of infection was greater among households with 2-3 members per room (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.04-1.8) or more than three per room (RR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0). People living on hilltops (RR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.02-2.2), near to open sewers (RR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.5) or lacking a kitchen (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.08-1.9) were also at greater risk than others. The number of taps and water-using fittings in the house was associated with a protective effect (RR = 0.9 for each tap; 95% CI = 0.9-0.98). A significant protective association was found with maternal education but not with gender or household income. The results do not suggest a strong association with water quality. Ownership of a ceramic water filter was associated with a protective effect on the margin of significance, but the practice of boiling drinking-water was not, nor was the type of water source used. The results suggest that that the risk of infection with hepatitis A is determined by environmental variables in the domestic and public domains.

  12. Mortality from Circulatory System Diseases and Malformations in Children in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Salim, Thais Rocha; Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes de

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiological profile of mortality in a population is important for the institution of measures to improve health care and reduce mortality Objective: To estimate mortality rates and the proportional mortality from cardiovascular diseases and malformations of the circulatory system in children and adolescents. This is a descriptive study of mortality from cardiovascular diseases, malformations of the circulatory system, from all causes, ill-defined causes and external causes in children and adolescents in the state of Rio de Janeiro from 1996 to 2012. Populations were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE) and deaths obtained from the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (DATASUS)/Ministry of Health. There were 115,728 deaths from all causes, 69,757 in males. The annual mortality from cardiovascular diseases was 2.7/100,000 in men and 2.6/100,000 in women. The annual mortality from malformations of the circulatory system was 7.5/100,000 in men and 6.6/100,000 in women. Among the specific causes of circulatory diseases, cardiomyopathies had the highest rates of annual proportional mortality, and from malformations of the circulatory system, it occurred due to unspecified malformations of the circulatory system, at all ages and in both genders. Mortality from malformations of the circulatory system was most striking in the first years of life, while cardiovascular diseases were more relevant in adolescents. Low access to prenatal diagnosis or at birth probably prevented the proper treatment of malformations of the circulatory system.

  13. Thirty-day Readmission Rates in an HIV-infected Cohort From Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Lara E; Ribeiro, Sayonara R; Japiassu, Andre M; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Lara, Priscila C; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Luz, Paula M

    2017-08-01

    The 30-day readmission rate is an indicator of the quality of hospital care and transition to the outpatient setting. Recent studies suggest HIV infection might increase the risk of readmission although estimates of 30-day readmission rates are unavailable among HIV-infected individuals living in middle/low-income settings. Additionally, factors that may increase readmission risk in HIV-infected populations are poorly understood. Thirty-day readmission rates were estimated for HIV-infected adults from the Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas/Fiocruz cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2013. Cox regression models were used to evaluate factors associated with the risk of 30-day readmission. Between January 2007 and December 2013, 3991 patients were followed and 1861 hospitalizations were observed. The estimated 30-day readmission rate was 14% (95% confidence interval: 12.3 to 15.9). Attending a medical visit within 30 days after discharge (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.73, P = 0.048) and being hospitalized in more recent calendar years (aHR = 0.89, P = 0.002) reduced the risk of 30-day readmission. In contrast, low CD4 counts (51-200 cells/mm³: aHR = 1.70, P = 0.024 and ≤ 50 cells/mm³: aHR = 2.05, P = 0.003), time since HIV infection diagnosis ≥10 years (aHR = 1.58, P = 0.058), and leaving hospital against medical advice (aHR = 2.67, P = 0.004) increased the risk of 30-day readmission. Patients with advanced HIV/AIDS are most at risk of readmission and should be targeted with prevention strategies to reduce this risk. Efforts to reduce discharge against medical advice and to promote early postdischarge medical visit would likely reduce 30-day readmission rates in our population.

  14. [Mortality by firearms in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a spatial analysis].

    PubMed

    Szwarcwald, C L; de Castilho, E A

    1998-09-01

    Mortality caused by firearms has been increasing at an alarming rate in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study analyzes the gradual evolution of firearm mortality rates in this Brazilian state from 1979 to 1992, according to sex, age, and area of residence (capital city, metropolitan area, or the state's interior), and uses spatial statistical techniques to describe the propagation of this firearm mortality epidemic in time and space. During the period analyzed, mortality due to firearms showed the greatest increase among 15- to 19-year-old male adolescents, with yearly rates ranging from 13 to 16%, according to area of residence. For children 10 to 14 years of age, mortality caused by firearms increased by 10% annually in the same period. The highest annual increase occurred in the state's interior. At the beginning of the period studied, dissemination of firearm mortality was observed to follow a definite direction parallel to the federal road that runs along the east coast of the state. Between 1990 and 1992, however, the increase in deaths by firearms spread out in practically every direction. Empirical confirmation of a general expansion of firearm wound mortality contradicts the usual claim that violence is concentrated in areas of extreme poverty within Brazil's largest cities. Programs for prevention and control of this epidemic should focus on its various aspects and take into consideration both collective issues (such as proliferation of firearms among persons involved with international firearm smuggling, increases in criminal activity, expansion of drug trafficking, and exclusion from social opportunities) and personal issues (relationships and interaction of young people with their families, schools, and social environment).

  15. Review of 21 cases of mycetoma from 1991 to 2014 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Felipe Maurício Soeiro; Wanke, Bodo; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Coelho, Janice Mery Chicarino de Oliveira; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Lourenço, Maria Cristina da Silva; Paes, Rodrigo de Almeida; do Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi

    2017-02-01

    Mycetoma is caused by the subcutaneous inoculation of filamentous fungi or aerobic filamentous bacteria that form grains in the tissue. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiologic, clinic, laboratory, and therapeutic characteristics of patients with mycetoma at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1991 and 2014. Twenty-one cases of mycetoma were included in the study. There was a predominance of male patients (1.3:1) and the average patient age was 46 years. The majority of the cases were from the Southeast region of Brazil and the feet were the most affected anatomical region (80.95%). Eumycetoma prevailed over actinomycetoma (61.9% and 38.1% respectively). Eumycetoma patients had positive cultures in 8 of 13 cases, with isolation of Scedosporium apiospermum species complex (n = 3), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 2) and Acremonium spp. (n = 1). Two cases presented sterile mycelium and five were negative. Six of 8 actinomycetoma cases had cultures that were identified as Nocardia spp. (n = 3), Nocardia brasiliensis (n = 2), and Nocardia asteroides (n = 1). Imaging tests were performed on all but one patients, and bone destruction was identified in 9 cases (42.68%). All eumycetoma cases were treated with itraconazole monotherapy or combined with fluconazole, terbinafine, or amphotericin B. Actinomycetoma cases were treated with sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim or combined with cycles of amikacin sulphate. Surgical procedures were performed in 9 (69.2%) eumycetoma and in 3 (37.5%) actinomycetoma cases, with one amputation case in each group. Clinical cure occurred in 11 cases (7 for eumycetoma and 4 for actinomycetoma), and recurrence was documented in 4 of 21 cases. No deaths were recorded during the study. Despite of the scarcity of mycetoma in our institution the cases presented reflect the wide clinical spectrum and difficulties to take care of this neglected disease.

  16. Mortality from Circulatory System Diseases and Malformations in Children in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Thais Rocha; Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile of mortality in a population is important for the institution of measures to improve health care and reduce mortality Objective To estimate mortality rates and the proportional mortality from cardiovascular diseases and malformations of the circulatory system in children and adolescents. Methods This is a descriptive study of mortality from cardiovascular diseases, malformations of the circulatory system, from all causes, ill-defined causes and external causes in children and adolescents in the state of Rio de Janeiro from 1996 to 2012. Populations were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE) and deaths obtained from the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (DATASUS)/Ministry of Health. Results There were 115,728 deaths from all causes, 69,757 in males. The annual mortality from cardiovascular diseases was 2.7/100,000 in men and 2.6/100,000 in women. The annual mortality from malformations of the circulatory system was 7.5/100,000 in men and 6.6/100,000 in women. Among the specific causes of circulatory diseases, cardiomyopathies had the highest rates of annual proportional mortality, and from malformations of the circulatory system, it occurred due to unspecified malformations of the circulatory system, at all ages and in both genders. Conclusion Mortality from malformations of the circulatory system was most striking in the first years of life, while cardiovascular diseases were more relevant in adolescents. Low access to prenatal diagnosis or at birth probably prevented the proper treatment of malformations of the circulatory system. PMID:27192384

  17. Spotted Fever: Epidemiology and Vector-Rickettsia-Host Relationship in Rio de Janeiro State

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Diego C.; Bitencourth, Karla; de Oliveira, Stefan V.; Borsoi, Ana P.; Cardoso, Karen M.; Sousa, Maria S. B.; Giordano-Dias, Cristina; Amorim, Marinete; Serra-Freire, Nicolau M.; Gazêta, Gilberto S.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.

    2017-01-01

    The eco-epidemiological scenario of spotted fever (SF), a tick-borne disease that affects humans and other animals in several countries around the world, was analyzed in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) State, Brazil. During the last 34 years, 990 SF cases were reported in RJ (the Brazilian state with the highest population density), including 116 cases confirmed by serology (RIFI) or PCR, among 42.39% of the municipalities with reported cases of SF. The epidemiologic dynamics of SF in RJ State are very heterogeneous in time and space, with outbreaks, high mortality rates and periods of epidemiological silence (no SF cases reported). Furthermore, it exhibited a changing epidemiological profile from being rural to becoming an urban disease. This study identified arthropods infected with Rickettsia felis, R. bellii and R. rickettsii, and found that the abundance of ectoparasites was associated with specific hosts. The R. rickettsii-vector-host relationship was most evident in species-specific parasitism. This suggests that the association between dogs, cattle, horses, capybaras and their main ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis, Rhipicephalus microplus, Dermacentor nitens, and Amblyomma dubitatum, respectively, has a key role in the dynamics of R. rickettsii transmission in enzootic cycles and the maintenance of carrier ectoparasites, thus facilitating the existence of endemic areas with the ability to produce epidemic outbreaks of SF in RJ. This study found confirmed human infections for only the R. rickettsii carrier Amblyomma sculptum, which reinforces the importance of this species as a vector of the pathogen in Brazil. This study can be adapted to different eco-epidemiological scenarios of spotted fever throughout the Americas. PMID:28424664

  18. APOE and LDLR Gene Polymorphisms and Dyslipidemia Tracking. Rio de Janeiro Study

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Rossana Ghessa Andrade; Campana, Erika Maria Gonçalves; Pozzan, Roberto; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; Brandão, Ayrton Pires; Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; da Silva, Dayse Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies show an association between changes in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and LDLR receptor with the occurrence of dyslipidemia. Objectives To investigate the association between polymorphisms of the APOE (ε2, ε3, ε4) and LDLR (A370T) genes with the persistence of abnormal serum lipid levels in young individuals followed up for 17 years in the Rio de Janeiro Study. Methods The study included 56 individuals (35 males) who underwent three assessments at different ages: A1 (mean age 13.30 ± 1.53 years), A2 (22.09 ± 1.91 years) and A3 (31.23 ± 1.99 years). Clinical evaluation with measurement of blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) was conducted at all three assessments. Measurement of waist circumference (WC) and serum lipids, and analysis of genetic polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP were performed at A2 and A3. Based on dyslipidemia tracking, three groups were established: 0 (no abnormal lipid value at A2 and A3), 1 (up to one abnormal lipid value at A2 or A3) and 2 (one or more abnormal lipid values at A2 and A3). Results Compared with groups 0 and 1, group 2 presented higher mean values of BP, BMI, WC, LDL-c and TG (p < 0.01) and lower mean values of HDL-c (p = 0.001). Across the assessments, all individuals with APOE genotypes ε2/ε4 and ε4/ε4 maintained at least one abnormal lipid variable, whereas those with genotype ε2/ε3 did not show abnormal values (χ2 = 16.848, p = 0.032). For the LDLR genotypes, there was no significant difference among the groups. Conclusions APOE gene polymorphisms were associated with dyslipidemia in young individuals followed up longitudinally from childhood. PMID:26131702

  19. Nutritional Status of HIV-positive Patients in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Solange A.; Velarde, Luis G.C.; Setúbal, Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the nutritional status of HIV-positive patients in a hospital in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We studied 235 patients (130 men and 105 women) from May 2009 to June 2010. The frequency of undernourishment among women was 7.6%; 26.7% of the women were overweight, and 16.2% were obese. Among men, the frequency of undernourishment was 3.8%; 25.4% of the men were overweight, and 6.9% were obese. A logistic regression was done to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and potential predisposing factors. Women were more frequently affected by obesity and undernourishment than men. However, only the difference in obesity was significant, and women had almost three times higher odds of being obese (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.03-6.65). According to a nationwide survey done in Brazil during 2008-2009, 50.1% of the Brazilian healthy males were overweight, and 12.5% were obese; 48% of healthy females were overweight, and 16.9% were obese. Although the prevalence of undernourishment in HIV-positive patients is now lower than that observed in the beginning of the AIDS epidemic and excess weight is increasingly common among people living with HIV/AIDS, the proportion of excess weight was found lower and of undernourishment was higher in the present study than that found in the Brazilian population. PMID:25895192

  20. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission among drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proper knowledge of HIV transmission is not enough for people to adopt protective behaviors, but deficits in this information may increase HIV/AIDS vulnerability. Objective To assess drug users' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the possible association between knowledge and HIV testing. Methods A Cross-sectional study conducted in 2006/7 with a convenience sample of 295 illicit drug users in Rio de Janeiro, assessing knowledge on AIDS/HIV transmission and its relationship with HIV testing. Information from 108 randomly selected drug users who received an educational intervention using cards illustrating situations potentially associated with HIV transmission were assessed using Multidimensional Scaling (MDS). Results Almost 40% of drug users reported having never used condoms and more than 60% reported not using condoms under the influence of substances. Most drug users (80.6%) correctly answered that condoms make sex safer, but incorrect beliefs are still common (e.g. nearly 44% believed HIV can be transmitted through saliva and 55% reported that HIV infection can be transmitted by sharing toothbrushes), with significant differences between drug users who had and who had not been tested for HIV. MDS showed queries on vaginal/anal sex and sharing syringes/needles were classified in the same set as effective modes of HIV transmission. The event that was further away from this core of properly perceived risks referred to blood donation, perceived as risky. Other items were found to be dispersed, suggesting inchoate beliefs on transmission modes. Conclusions Drug users have an increased HIV infection vulnerability compared to the general population, this specific population expressed relevant doubts about HIV transmission, as well as high levels of risky behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that possessing inaccurate HIV/AIDS knowledge may be a barrier to timely HIV testing. Interventions should be tailored to such specific characteristics. PMID:21324119

  1. The epidemiology of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro: environmental and domestic risk factors.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, L. M.; Werneck, G. L.; Cairncross, S.; Coeli, C. M.; Costa, M. C.; Coletty, P. E.

    2001-01-01

    A serological study of hepatitis A was carried out in low-income areas scheduled for a major sanitation programme in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood spots were collected by finger puncture and transported on filter paper, and total antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected by ELISA. Households were also interviewed to collect information on their environmental conditions and socio-economic status. A generalized linear model using a complementary log-log function was fitted to the data, using the logarithm of age as an explanatory variable to derive adjusted rate ratios (RR). The risk of infection was greater among households with 2-3 members per room (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.04-1.8) or more than three per room (RR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0). People living on hilltops (RR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.02-2.2), near to open sewers (RR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.5) or lacking a kitchen (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.08-1.9) were also at greater risk than others. The number of taps and water-using fittings in the house was associated with a protective effect (RR = 0.9 for each tap; 95% CI = 0.9-0.98). A significant protective association was found with maternal education but not with gender or household income. The results do not suggest a strong association with water quality. Ownership of a ceramic water filter was associated with a protective effect on the margin of significance, but the practice of boiling drinking-water was not, nor was the type of water source used. The results suggest that that the risk of infection with hepatitis A is determined by environmental variables in the domestic and public domains. PMID:11693510

  2. Stability and adaptability of popcorn genotypes in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pena, G F; do Amaral, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Candido, L S; Vittorazzi, C; Ribeiro, R M; Freitas, S P

    2012-08-31

    This study aimed to obtain estimates of stability and adaptability of phase launched materials and materials recommended in the country, for the northern and northwestern regions of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and made a comparative analysis of different methods to evaluate stability and adaptability of grain yield and popping expansion. To this end, 10 genotypes were evaluated (UNB2U-C3, UNB2U-C4, BRS Angela, Viçosa, Beija-Flor, IAC 112, IAC 125, Zélia, Jade, and UFVM2 Barão de Viçosa) in five environments. The Yates and Cochran method revealed that genotypes UFV2M Barão de Viçosa, BRS Angela and UNB2U-C3 were the most stable for grain yield. This method also indicated superiority of genotypes UNB2U-C3, UNB2U-C4, BRS Angela, Viçosa, IAC 125, and Zélia for popping expansion. The Plaisted and Peterson and Wricke methods demonstrated that genotypes Zélia and UNB2U-C4 were the most productive and stable. These methods indicated genotypes UNB2U-C3 and BRS Angela as the most stable for popping expansion. The Kang and Phan ranking system uses methods based on analysis of variance and classified population UNB2U-C4 as the genotype with the highest stability of grain production and confirmed cultivar BRS Angela as the most stable for popping expansion. Genotypes IAC 112 and UNB2U-C4 were the most stable and adapted for grain yield, according to the Lin and Binns method. The P(i) statistics also ranked UNB2U-C3 and UNB2U-C4 as the genotypes with the best predictability and capacity for popping expansion.

  3. Pregnancy rates and predictors in women with HIV/AIDS in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Ruth Khalili; Bastos, Francisco I; Leite, Iuri Costa; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Cardoso, Sandra W; Andrade, Angela C Vasconcelos de; Sampaio, Michelle Cristina; Currier, Judith; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2011-04-01

    To assess incidence and predictors of first pregnancy among women with HIV/AIDS. Prospective cohort study was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, between 1996 and 2003. This study comprised 225 women with HIV/AIDS followed up until their first pregnancy or first censored event (hysterectomy, tubal ligation, menopause, 50 years of age, loss to follow-up, death or the end of December 2003). Pregnancy and abortion rates were estimated, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify baseline characteristics associated with pregnancy risk. The women were followed up for 565 person/years with a median follow-up of 3 years per women. The mean age was 32 years (SD: 7), and 54.7% were white. There were 60 pregnancies in 39 women, and 18 were terminated (induced abortions), accounting for a rate of 6.9% and 2.1% women/year, respectively. Repeated pregnancies occurred in 33.3% of the women (13/39). Higher pregnancy risk was seen among younger women (HR=3.42; 95%CI: 1.69;6.95) and those living with their partners (HR=1.89; 95%CI: 1.00;3.57). Lower pregnancy risk was associated with higher education level (HR=0.43; 95%CI: 0.19;0.99) and use of antiretroviral therapy (HR=061; 95%CI: 0.31;1.17). Lower pregnancy rates were found in our cohort than in the general population. Sociodemographic characteristics should be taken into consideration in the management of reproductive health in HIV-positive childbearing age women. Reproductive and family planning counseling must be incorporated into HIV/AIDS programs for women to help preventing HIV transmission to their partners and offspring.

  4. Analysis of phytoestrogens, progestogens and estrogens in environmental waters from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Kuster, M; Azevedo, D A; López de Alda, M J; Aquino Neto, F R; Barceló, D

    2009-10-01

    The environment is currently exposed to a large variety of man-made chemicals (e.g. for industrial, medicinal use) which have potential adverse effects to its ecological status. In addition, the densely populated areas represent local high emissions of those chemicals leading to more aggravating consequences. Estrogenic compounds that end-up in environmental water directly affect living organisms by interfering with their endocrine metabolism. The assessment of their presence in the environment requires sensitive and selective analytical methods. Nineteen estrogenic compounds belonging to different classes (5 free estrogens, 6 conjugated estrogens, 3 progestogens and 5 phytoestrogens) have been studied. The analytical methodology developed is based on solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and has been applied to study the occurrence of the above mentioned analytes in environmental waters from the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Due to insufficient infra-structure in this region, waste waters are released onto the environment without or with incomplete previous treatment. The results show that high levels of the phytoestrogens daidzein, coumestrol and genistein of up to 366 ng/L and progesterone of up to 47 ng/L could be found in river water. Estrogens and their conjugated derivatives were detected in the lower ng/L range up to 7 ng/L. The main estrogens estrone, estradiol and the synthetic ethinyl estradiol could not be detected. The developed method showed overall good performance with recoveries above 80% (with one exception), limits of detection < or =2 ng/L, good linearity and reproducibility.

  5. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  6. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  7. Study of weather and thermal comfort influence on sport performance: prognostic analysis applied to Rio de Janeiro's city marathon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallotta, M.; Herdies, D. L.; Gonçalves, L. G.

    2013-05-01

    There is nowadays a growing interest in the influence and impacts of weather and climate in human life. The weather conditions analysis shows the utility of this type of tool when applied in sports. These conditions act as a differential in strategy and training, especially for outdoor sports. This study had as aim objective develop weather forecast and thermal comfort evaluation targeted to sports, and hoped that the results can be used to the development of products and weather service in the Olympic Games 2016 in Rio de Janeiro City. The use of weather forecast applied to the sport showed to be efficient for the case of Rio de Janeiro City Marathon, especially due to the high spatial resolution. The WRF simulations for the three marathons studied showed good results for temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. On the other hand, the forecast of the wind showed a pattern of overestimation of the real situation in all cases. It was concluded that the WRF model provides, in general, more representative simulations from 36 hours in advance, and with 18 hours of integration they were even better, describing efficiently the synoptic situation that would be found. A review of weather conditions and thermal comfort at specific points of the marathon route showed that there are significant differences between the stages of the marathon, which makes possible to plan the competition strategy under the thermal comfort. It was concluded that a relationship between a situation more thermally comfortable (uncomfortable) and the best (worst) time in Rio de Janeiro City Marathon

  8. STATUS OF THE AMERICAN TEGUMENTARY LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO , BRAZIL, FROM 2004 TO 2013

    PubMed Central

    VITA, Gilmar Ferreira; PEREIRA, Maria Angélica Vieira DA COSTA; FERREIRA, Ildemar; SANAVRIA, Argemiro; BARBOSA, Celso Guimarães; AURNHEIMER, Rita de Cássia Martins; de MELLO, Ericson Ramos; da SILVA, Claudia Bezerra; CABRAL, Rísia Brígida Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of the present study was to analyze the status of the American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, from 2004 to 2013, through its spatiotemporal distribution. We also described variables considered relevant to the epidemiology of the disease, such as the clinical form, gender, ethnic group, age group, and progression of disease. This is a descriptive study, which used notified secondary data from the Brazilian Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), Ministry of Health, Brazil, regarding confirmed diagnoses. To help the calculation of coefficients of detection and mortality, we used population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). We analyzed 1,470 cases of ATL with the predominance of the cutaneous clinical form (1,292/87.89%). The data has also revealed seven deaths, a predominance of males (922/62.72%), and a higher incidence of ATL in the white ethnic group (731/49.72%). We observed a high incidence of ATL in the group of 20 - 39 years old (477/32.44%). We concluded that there was a decrease in the number of ATL cases in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a coefficient of detection of 1.44/100.000 inhabitants in 2004 decreasing to 0.20/100.000 inhabitants in 2013. The localities with the highest occurrences of ATL were the metropolitan region (843 cases) and the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (740 cases). In 2005, the highest incidence of the disease was observed (351 cases) in the study. Among the variables selected to describe the epidemiology of the disease, the following categories: cutaneous clinical form, male patients, white ethnic group, and the age group of 20 - 39 years old were more affected than the others. PMID:27680176

  9. "Holy scan" or "picture of the baby?" Biomedicalization and stratification in the use of obstetric ultrasound in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Chazan, Lilian Krakowski; Faro, Livi F T

    2016-01-01

    Based on ethnographic studies conducted at public and private healthcare facilities in Rio de Janeiro, we argue that the dissemination of (bio)medicalization varies in accordance with the social stratum of the expectant mothers, thereby producing thoroughly distinct fetal and pregnant bodies, as well as different gestational processes. Starting from the basic premise that biomedicalization represents a transformation in the process of medicalization, characterized by the growing incorporation of technoscience into biomedicine, the observed universes displayed different stages in this transformation, consonant with the social stratification of the women who underwent the scans.

  10. Catalogue of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Alexandre Dias; Monteiro, Júlio César; Barbosa, André Favaretto; Salgado, Norma Campos; Coelho, Arnaldo Campos Dos Santos

    2014-03-20

    A curatorial revision of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) revealed the existence of 518 lots of type specimens (holotypes, neotypes, syntypes and paratypes) for 285 names of molluscan taxa from 88 families, including 247 gastropods, 30 bivalves, three cephalopods and five scaphopods. A total of 106 holotypes and one neotype are deposited in the MNRJ. Type material for ten nominal taxa described as being deposited in the MNRJ was not located; the probable reasons are discussed. Some previously published erroneous information about types in the MNRJ is rectified. A total of 37 type specimens are illustrated.

  11. PREVALENCE OF Calodium hepaticum (SYN. Capillaria hepatica) IN Rattus norvegicus IN THE URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Raquel O.; Luque, José L.; Faro, Marta Júlia; Motta, Ester; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The nematode Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a zoonotic helminth found mainly infecting rats. It was studied the prevalence of C. hepaticum infection in Rattus norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), with low urban planning and sanitation. The presence of C. hepaticum was identified through visible yellowish-white lesions in liver tissue and histological analyses. The total prevalence of infection was 45%, with no significant differences between sex and age. The presence of infected rodents near the peridomestic area poses substantial risk to human health. PMID:25229230

  12. Report of the Second International Symposium on Molecular Epidemiology in Childhood Leukaemia and Embryonal Tumours, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pombo de Oliveira, MS; Ferman, S; de Camargo, B

    2008-01-01

    The recent International Symposium on Molecular epidemiology in Embryonal Tumours and Paediatric Leukaemia was held on 4–6 March 2008 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It proved a very productive meeting in which studies relating to genetics, therapeutical trials, identification of risk factors in acute leukaemia neuroblastoma and Wilms’ tumours were presented. Over 120 participants gathered for three days of fruitful discussions, including representatives of paediatrics, haematology, laboratory, epidemiology and pathology. Debates were held about strategies of applications of important biomarkers for clinical trials. Highlights of each of the scientific presentations are summarized below. PMID:22275972

  13. Viral etiology of acute respiratory diseases in Rio de Janeiro: first two years of a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Sutmoller, F.; Nascimento, J. P.; Chaves, J. R. S.; Ferreira, V.; Pereira, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    A two-year study was undertaken to establish the incidence and possible viral etiology of acute respiratory diseases among the child population of a shanty town in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results demonstrated that nearly half of all the illnesses seen were respiratory infections, 10% of them affecting the lower respiratory tract. Viruses were isolated from 20% of the throat swabs collected. Of the viruses identified, 47% were adenoviruses, 25% were enteroviruses, 9% were influenza A, 8% herpes simplex, 7% parainfluenza, 3% respiratory syncytial and 1% influenza B viruses. PMID:6606500

  14. The impact of sports mega-events on health and environmental rights in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vilani, Rodrigo Machado; Machado, Carlos José Saldanha

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the contradictions of the Olympic Games legacy for health and environment in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Public policies for sports mega-events have been criticized for contributing to and deepening the city's historical socio-spatial inequalities. Based on document research and data analysis, the article focused on establishing a proposal for a sustainable city, as provided in Law 10,257/2001, the so-called City's Statute. The article concludes with remarks on Olympic urban planning, its market orientation, and failures to overcome public health and environmental sanitation problems that will persist as a legacy after 2016.

  15. [The challenges of otherness: thoughts on gender and sexuality among activists from a Rio de Janeiro AIDS NGO].

    PubMed

    Zaquieu, Ana Paula V

    2006-01-01

    The article analyzes the experiences of a group of activists in the AIDS movement who belonged to an AIDS NGO in Rio de Janeiro between 1989 and 2001. It examines the encounter between the various discourses that guided the action of NGOs in their battles against the advance of the disease and against the discrimination of AIDS victims: gender equity, sexual freedom, and experiences with sexuality, gender, and AIDS recounted by the institute's activists. Interviews were conducted with thirteen activists from the NGO known as Grupo Pela Vidda-RJ, nine of whom were HIV-positive. Interviewees comprised eight women, two male heterosexuals, two male homosexuals, and one male bisexual.

  16. [Pathogenic Vibrios in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) served at restaurants in Rio de Janeiro: a public health warning].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Christiane Soares; Viana, Célio Mauro; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres

    2007-01-01

    Forty oyster samples (Crassostrea rhizophorae) served raw in 15 restaurants in the city of Rio de Janeiro were evaluated in order to investigate the presence of Vibrio spp. The oyster samples were analyzed and subjected to enrichment in alkaline peptone water with the addition of 1 and 3% NaCl and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Following this, the cultures were seeded onto thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose agar (TCBS) and the suspected colonies were subjected to biochemical characterization. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio carchariae, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were the main species (> 60%) isolated from raw oysters.

  17. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  18. The sand fly fauna (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the region of Saquarema, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Pontes, Michelle C de Queiroz; Passos, Wagner Lança; Rodrigues, Andressa A Fuzari; Brazil, Beatriz Gomes

    2011-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, is sporadic in many rural and suburban areas of Rio de Janeiro State. An investigation was carried out during 2008/9 in the Municipality of Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil, in order to identify the phlebotomine sand fly fauna. More than 2,100 sand flies were collected in peridomestic areas in two chicken coops using CDC light traps. Nine species of phlebotomine sand flies were identified: Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia (P.) pessoai, Pintomyia (P.) fischeri, Pintomyia (P.) bianchigalatiae, Migonemyia (M.) migonei, Lutzomyia (L.) longipalpis, Brumptomyia cunhai and Brumptomyia guimaraesi. Based on the results of this study together with related studies in other CL foci in Rio de Janeiro, both Nissomyia intermedia and Migonemyia migonei can be considered suspect vectors of the disease in the region. The potential risk of VL due to the presence of its proven vector L. longipalpis is discussed. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. [ELSA-Brasil strategies for outcome identification, investigation and ascertainment].

    PubMed

    Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Bastos, Maria do Socorro Castelo Branco de Oliveira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Jesus, Elcimara Amorim de; Kelles, Silvana Márcia Bruschi; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de

    2013-06-01

    The article describes the strategies adopted by the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) for participation and retention of subjects. This is key to ensure internal validity of longitudinal studies, and to identify, investigate, and ascertain outcomes of interest. The follow-up strategies include annual telephone contacts with new assessments and interviews every three to four years this approach aims to identify transient outcomes (reversible or not), permanent outcomes as well as complications related to the progression of major diseases--cardiovascular diseases and diabetes--to be studied. Telephone interviews are designed to monitor subjects' health status and to identify potential health-related events such as hospital admissions, medical visits or pre-selected medical procedures. Subjects are also encouraged to report to the ELSA-Brasil team any new health-related events. When a potential event is identified, a thorough investigation is carried out to collect relevant information about that event from medical records. All data are blinded and reviewed and analyzed by a medical expert committee. Incident outcome ascertainment follows well-established international criteria to ensure data comparability and avoid misclassification. In addition to these strategies, the occurrence of health-related events is also investigated through linkage of secondary databases, such as national mortality and hospital admission databases. Accurate identification of outcomes will allow to estimating their incidence in the study cohort and to investigate the effect of the exposures studied in the ELSA-Brasil at baseline and at its subsequent waves.

  20. Synopsis of Commelina L. (Commelinaceae) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, reveals a new white-flowered species endemic to Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Marco Octávio de Oliveira; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A synopsis for the genus Commelina in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is presented here, including a new species, ten new synonyms, five designated lectotypes, two designated epitypes and an excluded name. Commelina huntii, a new species, is remarkable due to the combination of rusty to rusty-brown hairs at the margin of its leaf-sheaths, connate spathes, white flowers with auriculate medial petal, ovaries with sparse black papillae and dehiscent fruits. Additionally, we provide an identification key, illustrations, and conservation status for the species of Commelina recorded in the state of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:28781552

  1. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the region of Saquarema: potential area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Pontes, Michelle Cristina de Queiroz; Passos, Wagner Lança; Fuzari, Andressa Alencaste; Brazil, Beatriz Gomes

    2012-02-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas. Phlebotomine captures were conducted during 2008 and 2009 in a rural area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the municipality of Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro. Among other species captured, we observed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis. This is the first report of the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in this region, demonstrating the potential risk of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the coastal area of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Therefore, active vigilance by all municipalities in the area is necessary.

  2. Multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms may determine Crohn's disease behavior in patients from Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ana Teresa P; Fróes, Renata S B; Esberard, Barbara C; Santos, Juliana C V C; Rapozo, Davy C. M.; Grinman, Ana B; Simão, Tatiana A; Neto, Pedro Nicolau; Luiz, Ronir R; Carneiro, Antonio José V; de Souza, Heitor S P; Ribeiro-Pinto, Luis Felipe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Conflicting data from studies on the potential role of multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease may result from the analysis of genetically and geographically distinct populations. Here, we investigated whether multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases in patients from Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: We analyzed 123 Crohn's disease patients and 83 ulcerative colitis patients to determine the presence of the multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms C1236T, G2677T and C3435T. In particular, the genotype frequencies of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients were analyzed. Genotype-phenotype associations with major clinical characteristics were established, and estimated risks were calculated for the mutations. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the genotype frequencies of the multidrug resistance 1 G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. In contrast, the C1236T polymorphism was significantly more common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis (p = 0.047). A significant association was also found between the multidrug resistance 1 C3435T polymorphism and the stricturing form of Crohn's disease (OR: 4.13; p = 0.009), whereas no association was found with penetrating behavior (OR: 0.33; p = 0.094). In Crohn's disease, a positive association was also found between the C3435T polymorphism and corticosteroid resistance/refractoriness (OR: 4.14; p = 0.010). However, no significant association was found between multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms and UC subphenotypic categories. CONCLUSION: The multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphism C3435T is associated with the stricturing phenotype and an inappropriate response to therapy in Crohn's disease. This association with Crohn's disease may support additional pathogenic roles for the multidrug resistance 1 gene in regulating gut

  3. The Men Who Have Sex with Men HIV Care Cascade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Corrêa, Renato Girade; Derrico, Monica; Lemos, Katia; Grangeiro, Jose Roberto; de Jesus, Beto; Pires, Denise; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has a concentrated HIV epidemic and men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected. Yet, no data is available on the HIV care cascade for this population. This study aimed to assess the HIV care cascade among MSM newly diagnosed through innovative testing strategies in Rio de Janeiro. Data from 793 MSM and travestites/transgender women (transwomen) tested for HIV at a non-governmental LGBT organization and a mobile testing unit located at a gay friendly venue were analyzed. A 12-month-after-HIV-diagnosis-censored cohort was established using CD4, viral load and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) longitudinal data from those diagnosed with HIV. A cross-sectional HIV care cascade was built using this data. The relative risks of achieving each cascade-stage were estimated using generalized linear models according to age, self-declared skin-color, education, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), drug use and prior HIV testing. From Jan-2013 to Jan-2014, 793 MSM and transwomen were tested, 131 (16.5%) were HIV-infected. As of January 2015, 95 (72.5%) were linked to HIV care, 90 (68.7%) were retained in HIV care, 80 (61.1%) were on cART, and 50 (38.2%) were virally suppressed one year after HIV diagnosis. Being non-white (Relative risk [lower bound; upper bound of 95% confidence interval] = 1.709 [1.145; 2.549]) and having a prior HIV-test (1.954 [1.278; 2.986]) were associated with an HIV-positive diagnosis. A higher linkage (2.603 [1.091; 6.211]) and retention in care (4.510 [1.880; 10.822]) were observed among those who were older than 30 years of age. Using community-based testing strategies, we were able to access a high-risk MSM population and a small sample of transwomen. Despite universal care coverage and the test-and-treat policy adopted in Brazil, the MSM cascade of care indicates that strategies to increase linkage to care and prompt cART initiation targeted to these populations are critically needed. Interventions

  4. The Men Who Have Sex with Men HIV Care Cascade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rodolfo; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Corrêa, Renato Girade; Derrico, Monica; Lemos, Katia; Grangeiro, Jose Roberto; Jesus, Beto de; Pires, Denise; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has a concentrated HIV epidemic and men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected. Yet, no data is available on the HIV care cascade for this population. This study aimed to assess the HIV care cascade among MSM newly diagnosed through innovative testing strategies in Rio de Janeiro. Data from 793 MSM and travestites/transgender women (transwomen) tested for HIV at a non-governmental LGBT organization and a mobile testing unit located at a gay friendly venue were analyzed. A 12-month-after-HIV-diagnosis-censored cohort was established using CD4, viral load and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) longitudinal data from those diagnosed with HIV. A cross-sectional HIV care cascade was built using this data. The relative risks of achieving each cascade-stage were estimated using generalized linear models according to age, self-declared skin-color, education, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), drug use and prior HIV testing. From Jan-2013 to Jan-2014, 793 MSM and transwomen were tested, 131 (16.5%) were HIV-infected. As of January 2015, 95 (72.5%) were linked to HIV care, 90 (68.7%) were retained in HIV care, 80 (61.1%) were on cART, and 50 (38.2%) were virally suppressed one year after HIV diagnosis. Being non-white (Relative risk [lower bound; upper bound of 95% confidence interval] = 1.709 [1.145; 2.549]) and having a prior HIV-test (1.954 [1.278; 2.986]) were associated with an HIV-positive diagnosis. A higher linkage (2.603 [1.091; 6.211]) and retention in care (4.510 [1.880; 10.822]) were observed among those who were older than 30 years of age. Using community-based testing strategies, we were able to access a high-risk MSM population and a small sample of transwomen. Despite universal care coverage and the test-and-treat policy adopted in Brazil, the MSM cascade of care indicates that strategies to increase linkage to care and prompt cART initiation targeted to these populations are critically needed. Interventions

  5. Conservation of colonial built heritage: practical considerations and cultural constraints in Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B.; Neto, J.; Silva, M.; Warke, P.; Curran, J.

    2003-04-01

    As the 500th anniversary of European arrival in Brazil approached in the year 2000, it provided a stimulus for the country to review the cultural and economic significance of its remaining colonial built heritage. This is not least because of the growing awareness that built heritage is an important attractor for high income tourism and an increasing willingness amongst the population at large to accept colonial artefacts as a legitimate component of national history. Nowhere is this revision more apposite than in the adjacent cities of Rio de Janeiro and Niteroi. In both cities much of the colonial heritage was swept away during the late twentieth century in a tide of reconstruction that was symbolic of self-proclaimed Brazilian modernity and that signified for many a break with their colonial past. Those elements of colonial heritage that have survived have done so largely because of their ownership either by the church or the military. However, whilst this has often protected the overall building, the detailed fabric of such structures has at best been neglected and in many cases abused. As a consequence, stonework, in particular, can exhibit a range of decay features that must be addressed if this heritage is to be preserved and its educational and economic potential realised. In this presentation, we review changing attitudes towards conservation as illustrated by a number of key structures, including the large stone forts that guard the entrance to Guanabara Bay. This is combined with a detailed examination of threats to the integrity of their stonework consequent on prolonged exposure in a humid tropical maritime environment. Most of these structures are built of local, very durable augen gneiss. However, studies of natural rock outcrops show that this rock does weather, and that breakdown can be episodic as localised strength thresholds are breached. Surveys suggest that some buildings may be approaching such threshold conditions, whereby stresses

  6. Sporotrichosis: An Emerging Neglected Opportunistic Infection in HIV-Infected Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi; da Silva, Margarete Bernardo Tavares; Campos, Dayse Pereira; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; de Souza, Rogerio Valls; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis associated with zoonotic transmission remains a relevant public health problem in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, affecting a large at-risk population, which includes HIV-infected individuals. We assessed patients co-infected by Sporothrix spp. and HIV over time in the context of an unabated sporotrichosis epidemic. A retrospective cohort retrieved information from a National reference institute for infectious diseases regarding 48 patients with sporotrichosis-HIV co-infection (group 1) as well as 3,570 patients with sporotrichosis (group 2), from 1987 through March 2013. Most patients from group 1 were male (68.8%), whereas women were predominant in group 2 (69.1%; p<0.0001). Patients from group 1 were younger than those from group 2 (μ = 38.38±10.17 vs. 46.34±15.85; p<0.001) and differed from group 2 in terms of their race/ethnic background, with 70.8% non-white patients in group 1 vs. 38.6% from group 2 (p<0.0001). Close to half (∼44%) of the patients from group 1 were hospitalized due to sporotrichosis over time, whereas hospitalization was very unlikely in group 2, among whom approximately 1% were hospitalized over time. Dissemination of sporotrichosis was the main cause of hospitalization in both groups, although it was more common among hospitalized patients from group 1 (19/21 [90.5%] vs. 16/37 [43.2%]; p<0.001). Over the period under analysis, eight patients died due to sporotrichosis (3/48 vs. 5/3,570). The diagnosis of sporotrichosis elicited HIV testing and subsequent diagnosis in 19/48 patients, whereas 23/48 patients were simultaneously diagnosed with the two infections. HIV infection aggravates sporotrichosis, with a higher incidence of severe disseminated cases and a higher number of hospitalizations and deaths. Underserved populations, among whom sporotrichosis has been propagated, have been affected by different transmissible (e.g., HIV) and non-transmissible diseases. These populations should be targeted by community development

  7. Sporotrichosis: an emerging neglected opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do; da Silva, Margarete Bernardo Tavares; Campos, Dayse Pereira; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; de Souza, Rogerio Valls; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez

    2014-08-01

    Sporotrichosis associated with zoonotic transmission remains a relevant public health problem in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, affecting a large at-risk population, which includes HIV-infected individuals. We assessed patients co-infected by Sporothrix spp. and HIV over time in the context of an unabated sporotrichosis epidemic. A retrospective cohort retrieved information from a National reference institute for infectious diseases regarding 48 patients with sporotrichosis-HIV co-infection (group 1) as well as 3,570 patients with sporotrichosis (group 2), from 1987 through March 2013. Most patients from group 1 were male (68.8%), whereas women were predominant in group 2 (69.1%; p<0.0001). Patients from group 1 were younger than those from group 2 (μ = 38.38±10.17 vs. 46.34±15.85; p<0.001) and differed from group 2 in terms of their race/ethnic background, with 70.8% non-white patients in group 1 vs. 38.6% from group 2 (p<0.0001). Close to half (∼44%) of the patients from group 1 were hospitalized due to sporotrichosis over time, whereas hospitalization was very unlikely in group 2, among whom approximately 1% were hospitalized over time. Dissemination of sporotrichosis was the main cause of hospitalization in both groups, although it was more common among hospitalized patients from group 1 (19/21 [90.5%] vs. 16/37 [43.2%]; p<0.001). Over the period under analysis, eight patients died due to sporotrichosis (3/48 vs. 5/3,570). The diagnosis of sporotrichosis elicited HIV testing and subsequent diagnosis in 19/48 patients, whereas 23/48 patients were simultaneously diagnosed with the two infections. HIV infection aggravates sporotrichosis, with a higher incidence of severe disseminated cases and a higher number of hospitalizations and deaths. Underserved populations, among whom sporotrichosis has been propagated, have been affected by different transmissible (e.g., HIV) and non-transmissible diseases. These populations should be targeted by community development

  8. The BDS iGMAS RIOS station at Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Song, Shuli; Junqueira, Selma; Beauvalet, Laurene

    2016-07-01

    GNSS navigation satellites are currently being developed by all major players in the science and technology scene, to compete with the GPS system. Because their applications span many different areas, from traffic and cargo control, to geodesy and seismic monitoring, it is required to assess the coherence between the different constellations. BDS is the GNSS system currently developed in China. Its first generation of satellites consisted of 3 geostationnary satellites allowing geolocalisation in China only. In addition to these satellites, other satellites have been launched in geostationnary and geosynchronous orbits, as well as satellites orbiting with a classical GNSS semi-major axis. With these additions, the BDS system possesses 19 operating satellites, and though the system is mostly efficient for geolocalisation in Asia, the satellites are also visible in other parts of the globe. In parallel to the development of the BDS constellation, China has launched the iGMAS (International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment Service) project to develop a global tracking network of multi-GNSS geodetic receivers. One of the goals of this project is to evaluate the efficiency of the BDS constellation as well as the efficiency of the receivers developed by the Chinese laboratories. As part of the Brazilian program COSBAN leaded by the Foreign Affairs Ministry to foster up the science and technology partnership with China, materialized by the collaboration between the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory/CAS and the Observatório Nacional/MCTI, in Rio de Janeiro. Through it the RIOS-iGMAS station was installed at Observatório Nacional, where the RJEP GNSS station already operates as part of the Brazilian reference system. Thus at the Observatório Nacional can be observed satellites from any constellation with both systems of reception, leading to a direct, efficient way to compare the results obtained for each network. In this communication we focus on the determination of the

  9. Spatial variation, speciation and sedimentary records of mercury in the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covelli, Stefano; Protopsalti, Ioanna; Acquavita, Alessandro; Sperle, Marcelo; Bonardi, Maurizio; Emili, Andrea

    2012-03-01

    As part of the "TAGUBAR" (TAngential GUanabara Bay Aeration Recovery) project, surface and long core sediments of the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) were investigated for mercury (Hg). The main, but not the only, input of Hg into the Bay's waters is known to be a Chlor-Alkali Plant (CAP) located in the Acarì-São João de Merití River system, on the northwestern side of the Bay. Mercury distribution in surface sediments (<0.1-3.22 mg kg-1, average 0.87±0.80, n=40) seems to be controlled by the organic component, along with sulfur rather than grain-size, where Hg concentrations are less than 1 mg kg-1. Conversely, where the metal contents are higher than 1 mg kg-1, accumulation in surface sediments is mostly related to the presence of nearby contamination sources, such as industrial and urban settlements in the western sector of the Bay. Although total Hg contents in surface sediments exceed the values suggested by the effects-based standard quality guidelines as potentially toxic for the benthic community, results from a sequential extraction procedure showed that the contribution of the more soluble, easily exchangeable and eventually bioavailable Hg phases was found almost negligible (<0.1%). Most of the metal is strongly bound to the mineral lattice of the sedimentary matrix and should therefore be considered almost immobilized. The reduction in Hg accumulation in bottom sediments, expected as a consequence of the adoption of contamination control policies (i.e. Hg-free technologies in the CAP and sewage treating facilities), has not been clearly observed in the core profiles. Current estimates of Hg accumulation rates at the core top range from approximately 1 to 18 mg m-2 yr-1. Pre-industrial bottom core samples indicate that the central and northeastern sectors of the Bay are strongly affected by Hg enrichment: concentrations exceed the estimated baseline concentration by up to 20 factors. A cumulative Hg inventory suggests that the metal content

  10. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis: a cross-sectional clinical, epidemiological and laboratory study in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Livia Martins Veloso de; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Vasconcellos, Érica de Camargo Ferreira E; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Bedoya-Pacheco, Sandro Javier; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Atypical presentations of cutaneous leishmaniasis include sporotrichoid leishmaniasis (SL), which is clinically described as a primary ulcer combined with lymphangitis and nodules and/or ulcerated lesions along its pathway. To assess the differences between patients with sporotrichoid leishmaniasis and typical cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). From January 2004 to December 2010, 23 cases of SL (4.7%) were detected among 494 CL patients diagnosed at a reference center for the disease in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. These 23 cases were compared with the remaining 471 patients presenting CL. SL predominated in female patients (60.9%, p = 0.024), with older age (p = 0.032) and with lesions in upper limbs (52.2%, p = 0.028). CL affected more men (64.5%), at younger age, and with a higher number of lesions exclusively in lower limbs (34.8%). Differences in clinical and epidemiological presentation were found between SL patients as compared to CL ones, in a region with a known predominance of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The results are similar to the features of most of the sporotrichosis patients as described in literature, making the differential diagnosis between ATL and sporotrichosis more important in overlapping areas for both diseases, like in Rio de Janeiro State.

  11. Danger in the streets: exposures to bloodborne pathogens after community sharp injuries in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcellus Dias; Rapparini, Cristiane; Schmaltz, Carolina Arana Stanis; Tuyama, Mari; Lauria, Lilian de Mello; Saraceni, Valeria; Barroso, Paulo Feijó

    Exposures to sharps injuries occurring in the community are relatively frequent. We describe characteristics of community sharp exposures reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro from 1997 to 2010. A cross-sectional analysis of exposure reports to sharps in the community reported to a surveillance system, designed for health care workers, of the Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro. The characteristics of exposed individuals analyzed included types of exposure, the circumstances of the accident, and the prophylaxis offered. 582 exposures were studied. Median age was 30 years and 83 (14%) involved children with less than 10 years of age. Two hundred and seventeen (37%) occurred with sharps found in the streets. The exposure was percutaneous in 515 (89%) and needles where involved in 406 (70%) of them. The sharps were present in the trash in 227 (39%) or in the environment in 167 (29%) of the reports. Professionals who work with frequent contact with domestic or urban waste were 196 (38%). The source was known in 112 (19%) of the exposures and blood was involved in 269 (46%). Only 101 (19%) of the injured subjects reported a complete course of vaccination for hepatitis B. Antiretroviral prophylaxis was prescribed for 392 (68%) of the exposed subjects. Sharps injuries occurring in the community are an important health problem. A great proportion would be avoided if practices on how to dispose needles and sharps used outside health units were implemented. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Disaggregating health inequalities within Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2002-2010, by applying an urban health inequality index

    PubMed Central

    Bortz, Martin; Kano, Megumi; Ramroth, Heribert; Barcellos, Christovam; Weaver, Scott R.; Rothenberg, Richard; Magalhães, Monica

    2016-01-01

    An urban health index (UHI) was used to quantify health inequalities within Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the years 2002-2010. Eight main health indicators were generated at the ward level using mortality data. The indicators were combined to form the index. The distribution of the rank ordered UHI-values provides information on inequality among wards, using the ratio of the extremes and the gradient of the middle values. Over the decade the ratio of extremes in 2010 declined relative to 2002 (1.57 vs. 1.32) as did the slope of the middle values (0.23 vs. 0.16). A spatial division between the affluent south and the deprived north and east is still visible. The UHI correlated on an ecological ward-level with socioeconomic and urban environment indicators like square meter price of apartments (0.54, p < 0.01), low education of mother (-0.61, p < 0.01), low income (-0.62, p < 0.01) and proportion of black ethnicity (-0.55, p < 0.01). The results suggest that population health and equity have improved in Rio de Janeiro in the last decade though some familiar patterns of spatial inequality remain. PMID:26648367

  13. Assessment of the BTEX concentrations and reactivity in a confined parking area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Barbara Prestes; de Souza Machado, Gladson; Bauerfeldt, Glauco Favila; Nunes Fortes, Julio Domingos; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the contribution of evaporative emissions from light passenger vehicles to the degradation of the air quality was investigated on the basis of the indoor quantification of the monoaromatic volatile compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX), specifically, a confined shopping mall parking area in the northern zone of Rio de Janeiro, a site that represents the reality of the vehicular fleet of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro. In order to evaluate the concentration of the BTEX compounds, samples were collected, by an active sampling system using charcoal cartridge as adsorbent. The samples were extracted with organic solvent and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The average results were 54.14 μg m-3 (benzene), 209.24 μg m-3 (toluene), 45.87 μg m-3 (ethylbenzene) and 118.93 μg m-3 (xylenes). These results are compared with results from the literature of vehicular emissions in confined spaces such as garages and tunnels. Possible correlations with emissions from moving vehicles, obtained from previous studies in a tunnel of large circulation and emissions obtained in other underground parkings, are also investigated. The results suggest different emission sources.

  14. Brazilian city planners, American city planning? New perspectives on urban planning in Rio de Janeiro, 1930-1945.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Vera F

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the connections between the ideas and principles of American city planning from 1920 with those articulated by Brazilian city planners in the 1930s and implemented by the administration of the City of Rio de Janeiro, then the capital of Brazil, notably during the period of the Estado Novo [The New State] from 1937 to 1945. In a period characterized by the centralization of political power and the concentration of decision-making in the hands of the president and the state, the City of Rio de Janeiro undertook a series of restructuring projects which utilized new forms of administration and organization. This article explores the links between urban planning in Brazil and the USA that were a notable feature of these projects. It examines particular requirements set down in city plans, city planning commissions and funding for urban activities, such as 'excess condemnation', by focusing upon articles and books written by four Brazilian engineers and proposals put forward by the American City Planning Institute, detailed in the proceedings of the National Conference on City Planning, in the periodical, City Planning and works by affiliated authors.

  15. Adaptability and genotypic stability of Coffea arabica genotypes based on REML/BLUP analysis in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, W P; Vieira, H D; Barbosa, D H S G; Souza Filho, G R; Candido, L S

    2013-07-15

    Biannuality in coffee culture causes temporal variability in plant productivity. Consequently, it is essential to evaluate genotypes during various crop years to ensure selection of productive and stable genotypes. We evaluated the effectiveness of simultaneous selection of coffee genotypes along harvests, based on productivity, stability, and adaptability, via mixed models, for indication of varieties suitable for Rio de Janeiro State. We evaluated 25 genotypes during 4 crop seasons (2009-2012), in a randomized block design with 5 replications. The ranking of genotypes was obtained on the basis of the adaptability and temporal stability methods (harmonic average of genetic values, relative performance of genetic values, and harmonic mean of the relative performance of the genetic values), obtained via restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased procedure analysis. The selection accuracy (0.8717), associated with the high magnitude of mean heritability, indicate good reliability and prospects for success in the indication of agronomically superior genotypes. There was little variation in the ordering of genotypes among the environments, indicating low influence of harvests in the performance of the genotypes. Five of the 25 genotypes were superior and could be recommended for planting in the northwestern region of Rio de Janeiro State, due to high predicted productivity and stability. We recommend that these methodologies for evaluation of productivity, stability, and adaptability be included in the selection criteria for recommendation of genotypes for commercial plantings.

  16. Disaggregating health inequalities within Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2002-2010, by applying an urban health inequality index.

    PubMed

    Bortz, Martin; Kano, Megumi; Ramroth, Heribert; Barcellos, Christovam; Weaver, Scott R; Rothenberg, Richard; Magalhães, Monica

    2015-11-01

    An urban health index (UHI) was used to quantify health inequalities within Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the years 2002-2010. Eight main health indicators were generated at the ward level using mortality data. The indicators were combined to form the index. The distribution of the rank ordered UHI-values provides information on inequality among wards, using the ratio of the extremes and the gradient of the middle values. Over the decade the ratio of extremes in 2010 declined relative to 2002 (1.57 vs. 1.32) as did the slope of the middle values (0.23 vs. 0.16). A spatial division between the affluent south and the deprived north and east is still visible. The UHI correlated on an ecological ward-level with socioeconomic and urban environment indicators like square meter price of apartments (0.54, p < 0.01), low education of mother (-0.61, p < 0.01), low income (-0.62, p < 0.01) and proportion of black ethnicity (-0.55, p < 0.01). The results suggest that population health and equity have improved in Rio de Janeiro in the last decade though some familiar patterns of spatial inequality remain.

  17. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis: a cross-sectional clinical, epidemiological and laboratory study in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Livia Martins Veloso; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Vasconcellos, Érica de Camargo Ferreira e; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Bedoya-Pacheco, Sandro Javier; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Atypical presentations of cutaneous leishmaniasis include sporotrichoid leishmaniasis (SL), which is clinically described as a primary ulcer combined with lymphangitis and nodules and/or ulcerated lesions along its pathway. Aims To assess the differences between patients with sporotrichoid leishmaniasis and typical cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Methods From January 2004 to December 2010, 23 cases of SL (4.7%) were detected among 494 CL patients diagnosed at a reference center for the disease in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. These 23 cases were compared with the remaining 471 patients presenting CL. Results SL predominated in female patients (60.9%, p = 0.024), with older age (p = 0.032) and with lesions in upper limbs (52.2%, p = 0.028). CL affected more men (64.5%), at younger age, and with a higher number of lesions exclusively in lower limbs (34.8%). Conclusions Differences in clinical and epidemiological presentation were found between SL patients as compared to CL ones, in a region with a known predominance of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The results are similar to the features of most of the sporotrichosis patients as described in literature, making the differential diagnosis between ATL and sporotrichosis more important in overlapping areas for both diseases, like in Rio de Janeiro State. PMID:28591261

  18. Progression of Mortality due to Diseases of the Circulatory System and Human Development Index in Rio de Janeiro Municipalities.

    PubMed

    Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza E; Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes de

    2016-10-01

    Diseases of the circulatory system (DCS) are the major cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. To correlate the compensated and adjusted mortality rates due to DCS in the Rio de Janeiro State municipalities between 1979 and 2010 with the Human Development Index (HDI) from 1970 onwards. Population and death data were obtained in DATASUS/MS database. Mortality rates due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) and DCS adjusted by using the direct method and compensated for ill-defined causes. The HDI data were obtained at the Brazilian Institute of Applied Research in Economics. The mortality rates and HDI values were correlated by estimating Pearson linear coefficients. The correlation coefficients between the mortality rates of census years 1991, 2000 and 2010 and HDI data of census years 1970, 1980 and 1991 were calculated with discrepancy of two demographic censuses. The linear regression coefficients were estimated with disease as the dependent variable and HDI as the independent variable. In recent decades, there was a reduction in mortality due to DCS in all Rio de Janeiro State municipalities, mainly because of the decline in mortality due to CBVD, which was preceded by an elevation in HDI. There was a strong correlation between the socioeconomic indicator and mortality rates. The HDI progression showed a strong correlation with the decline in mortality due to DCS, signaling to the relevance of improvements in life conditions.

  19. Progression of Mortality due to Diseases of the Circulatory System and Human Development Index in Rio de Janeiro Municipalities

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Background Diseases of the circulatory system (DCS) are the major cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. Objective To correlate the compensated and adjusted mortality rates due to DCS in the Rio de Janeiro State municipalities between 1979 and 2010 with the Human Development Index (HDI) from 1970 onwards. Methods Population and death data were obtained in DATASUS/MS database. Mortality rates due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) and DCS adjusted by using the direct method and compensated for ill-defined causes. The HDI data were obtained at the Brazilian Institute of Applied Research in Economics. The mortality rates and HDI values were correlated by estimating Pearson linear coefficients. The correlation coefficients between the mortality rates of census years 1991, 2000 and 2010 and HDI data of census years 1970, 1980 and 1991 were calculated with discrepancy of two demographic censuses. The linear regression coefficients were estimated with disease as the dependent variable and HDI as the independent variable. Results In recent decades, there was a reduction in mortality due to DCS in all Rio de Janeiro State municipalities, mainly because of the decline in mortality due to CBVD, which was preceded by an elevation in HDI. There was a strong correlation between the socioeconomic indicator and mortality rates. Conclusion The HDI progression showed a strong correlation with the decline in mortality due to DCS, signaling to the relevance of improvements in life conditions. PMID:27849263

  20. Taphonomic aspects of the Pleistocene vertebrate assemblage of Itaboraí, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo Júnior, Hermínio Ismael de; Dominato, Victor Hugo; Bertoni-Machado, Cristina; Avilla, Leonardo dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Pleistocene vertebrates from Itaboraí Basin have not been taphonomically studied prior to this work, limiting the understanding of the deposition and preservation of the only Pleistocene vertebrate accumulation known for the state of Rio de Janeiro. In this work, the taphonomic signatures of the Pleistocene vertebrate assemblage of Itaboraí are identified and interpreted in order to increase the knowledge about the formation of this fossil association and the paleoecology of the region of Rio de Janeiro during the late Pleistocene. Our analysis shows that the thanatocoenosis was exposed to the biostratinomic processes during a small time span; that it is parautochthonous; and experienced short transport distances by normal fluvial streams and floods. Subsequently, the fossiliferous horizon was quickly covered by the superjacent soil. Yet, the skeletal elements were fractured and deformed during the sedimentary compaction. The differential preservation of megamammal bones is associated to the bone resistance against those destructive processes and to the specific anatomical features. Comparison between Itaboraí and other Brazilian Pleistocene vertebrate accumulations shows that the Itaboraí fossil accumulation was less affected by taphonomic processes, although it is also a time-averaged fossil concentration. Finally, some of the taphonomic features indicate an arid paleoclimate.

  1. Chironomid larvae inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest in Rio de Janeiro State.

    PubMed

    Sodré, V M; Rocha, O; Messias, M C

    2010-08-01

    A study of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae) occurring in phytotelmata of Bromeliaceae was carried out in a fragment of the Atlantic Rain Forest in an area of the city of Magé, Pau Grande, one of the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro City, during a period of 13 months between September 2006 and September 2007. Eight samplings were performed at intervals of 1 (1/2) months and the content of the phytotelmata of the bromeliad species Neoregelia concentrica (Vellozo) L.B. Smith, 1934 and Aechmea nudicaulis (Linnaeus) Grisebach, 1864, were examined. A taxonomical inventory and evaluation of the numerical abundance of Chironomidae larvae were performed in 50 specimens of the bromeliads, being 13 individuals of N. concentrica and 37 of A. nudicaulis. Three taxa of Chironomidae belonging to three distinct subfamilies were recorded: Polypedilum sp., Orthocladiinae genus A and Monopelopia sp. A total of 293 individuals of Chironomidae, were recorded, being 9 Polypedilum sp., 233 Orthocladiinae genus A, and 51 Monopelopia sp., the latter representing the first record of Monopelopia in phytotelmata in Rio de Janeiro State. Considering all samples, a mean density of 3.32 +/- 2.62 chironomid larvae per phytotelmata was recorded. There was a positive relationship between the chironomid abundance and both precipitation and the volume of water in the phytotelmata. Apparently there is no preference by the chironomids regarding the colonistion of the bromeliad species.

  2. Family food insecurity and nutritional risk in adolescents from a low-income area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Taís S; Sichieri, Rosely; Salles-Costa, Rosana; Veiga, Gloria V; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2013-09-01

    The study objective was to analyse the association between food insecurity and the weight and height status of adolescents from a low-income area in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The population-based cross-sectional survey included 523 adolescents aged 12-18 years, selected by a three-stage cluster sample. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire and family food insecurity was assessed with a validated questionnaire. The analysis estimated weighted means of energy and nutrient intakes by families' socioeconomic characteristics and the association between dietary intake with overweight and stunting. The prevalence of mild family food insecurity was 36%, and 24% of the families reported moderate or severe food insecurity. Overweight prevalence was 24%, and the prevalence of stunting was 9%, with no significant differences between sex or age groups. Family food insecurity was associated with unfavourable socioeconomic characteristics, but there was no association between socioeconomic characteristics (including family food insecurity) and overweight or stunting. Moderate or severe family food insecurity was inversely associated with intake of protein and calcium. In addition, stunting was associated with low calcium and iron intake. The co-existence of family food insecurity with overweight and stunting implies a high nutritional risk for adolescents from poor areas of Rio de Janeiro. Nevertheless, the observed absence of a statistical association between family food insecurity and weight status attests to the complexity of this issue.

  3. Genetic progress in the UNB-2U population of popcorn under recurrent selection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, R M; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Candido, L S; Silva, T R C; Pena, G F

    2012-05-15

    As part of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense recurrent selection program of popcorn, we evaluated full-sib families of the sixth cycle of recurrent selection and estimated genetic progress for grain yield and expansion capacity. We assessed 200 full-sib families for 10 agronomic traits, in a randomized block design, with two replications within sets in two environments: Campos dos Goytacazes and Itaocara, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. There were significant differences for families/"sets" for all traits, indicating genetic variability that could be exploited in future cycles. In the selection of superior progenies, the Mulamba and Mock index gave the best gains for popping expansion (PE) and grain yield (GY), with values of 10.97 and 15.30%, respectively, using random economic weights. By comparing the evolution of the means obtained for PE and GY in the cycles C(0), C(1), C(2), C(3), C(4), C(5), and predicted for C(6), a steady increase was observed for both PE and GY, with the addition of 1.71 mL/g (R(2) = 0.93) and 192.87 kg/ha (R(2) = 0.88), respectively, in each cycle. Given the good performance of this popcorn population in successive cycles of intrapopulation recurrent selection, we expect that a productive variety with high expansion capacity will soon be available for producers in the north and northwest regions of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

  4. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Renata Bortolasse; Peiter, Paulo Cesar; de Albuquerque, Hermano; Coura, José Rodrigues; Moza, Patrícia Ganzenmüller; Costa, Anielle de Pina; Brasil, Patricia; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecília

    2014-01-01

    The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 cases per year had parasitological malaria confirmation by thick smear. The number of malaria notifications due to Plasmodium falciparum increased over time. Imported cases reported during the period studied were spread among 51% of the municipalities (counties) of the state. Only 35 cases (4.3%) were autochthonous, which represents an average of 3.8 new cases per year. Eleven municipalities reported autochthonous cases; within these, six could be characterised as areas of residual or new foci of malaria from the Atlantic Forest system. The other 28 municipalities could become receptive for transmission reintroduction. Cases occurred during all periods of the year, but 62.9% of cases were in the first semester of each year. Assessing vulnerability and receptivity conditions and vector ecology is imperative to establish the real risk of malaria reintroduction in RJ. PMID:25185004

  5. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  6. Ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy for brain imaging at 6 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um resolution (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Akkin, Taner; Magnain, Caroline V.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Cramer, Avilash; Wang, Ruopeng; Sakadžic, Sava; Boas, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Neuroanatomical pathways form the basis for functional activity of brain circuits. In the past, we developed a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography with serial scanning to achieve large-scale brain imaging. The system was able to visualize 3D fiber tracts of ~20 um in diameter. To investigate the neuroanatomical pathways at finer scales, we have now built a polarization-maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscope (PS-OCM) at 1300 nm. The PS-OCM has an axial resolution of 3.5 um in tissue. The detection setup consists of two spectrometers, acquiring spectral interference on orthogonal polarization channels. With a single measurement, the setup generates four contrasts: reflectivity, cross-polarization, retardance and optic axis orientation. To investigate the capability of PS-OCM at different resolutions, we used three microscope objectives that yield lateral resolutions of 6.0 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um. Blocks of formalin fixed mouse brain and human brain were scanned. The cross-polarization and retardance images clearly depict the neuronal fiber structures, which are comparable with that generated by the maximum projection of volumetric reflectivity data. The optic axis orientation quantifies the in-plane fiber orientation. With the lateral resolution of 1.3 um, the retardance contrast is weak in white matter due to the shallow depth of focus. Overall, the ultra-high resolution PS-OCM provides a new tool to reveal neuroanatomical maps in the brain at cellular resolution.

  7. [List of the type species of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera, Nematocera) deposited in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Felippe-Bauer, M; Oliveira Sd, S

    2001-11-01

    A list of all type specimens of the Family Ceratopogonidae, present in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil is presented. This list includes the genera Bahiahelea, Culicoides, Dasyhelea, Downeshelea, Forcipomyia, Leptoconops, Mallochohelea, Monohelea, Neobezzia, Palpomyia and Sphaerohelea.

  8. Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) minutus (Schneider, 1866) among Alouatta guariba clamitans (Cabrera, 1940) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Dib, Laís Verdan; Uchôa, Claudia M Antunes; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira; Pissinatti, Alcides

    2017-03-27

    This study reports on infection by Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) minutus among Alouatta guariba clamitans through biometry on adults and eggs. A total of 58 adult helminths were recovered from the small segment of the animal's large intestine. This study is the first report of this parasite among A. guariba clamitans in Rio de Janeiro.

  9. Analysis of genetic ancestry in the admixed Brazilian population from Rio de Janeiro using 46 autosomal ancestry-informative indel markers.

    PubMed

    Manta, Fernanda Saloum Neves; Pereira, Rui; Caiafa, Alexandre; Silva, Dayse Aparecida; Gusmão, Leonor; Carvalho, Elizeu Fagundes

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian population is highly heterogeneous as a result of five centuries of inter-ethnic mating between native Amerindians, European colonizers and Africans arrived during slavery. This study aimed to assess the proportions of inter-ethnic admixture in the Brazilian population of Rio de Janeiro using autosomal Ancestry-Informative Markers (AIMs). The autosomal data were also compared to the results expected from uniparental genetic markers. A total of 413 individuals were genotyped for 46 AIM-Indels and ancestry estimates were then assessed using HGDP-CEPH samples as ancestral reference. Individuals from Rio de Janeiro presented highly diverse admixture patterns. The global admixture estimates showed a predominantly European ancestry, above 55%, followed by African and Amerindian contributions. A separate self-declared Afro-descendant group also included in this study revealed an increased African ancestry, from ∼30% to ∼50%. The inter-ethnic admixture landscape of Rio de Janeiro captured by autosomal AIM-Indels is in agreement with historical records and similar to that expected from uniparental mtDNA and Y-chromosome information. The AIM-Indel panel proved to be a rapid strategy to estimate autosomal genetic ancestry at individual and population levels in Rio de Janeiro, which is useful in population genetics and in case-control association studies.

  10. Cardiovascular mortality among a cohort of hypertensive and normotensives in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil - 1991-2009.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Nogueira, Armando da Rocha; Salis, Lucia Helena Alvares; de Souza E Silva, Nelson Albuquerque; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2015-07-08

    Although there is strong evidence of the benefits of antihypertensive treatment, the high prevalence of this important cardiovascular risk factor and its complications, as well as the low control rates of hypertension observed in many studies justify the investigation of these relationships in population studies. The objective was to investigate the ratio of cardiovascular disease mortality between hypertensives (non-treated, controlled and uncontrolled) and non-hypertensives in a cohort of a population sample of adults living in Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, who were classified in a survey conducted in 1991 and 1992 and whose death certificates were sought 19 years later. A cohort study was performed on probabilistic linkage between data from an epidemiological study of hypertension performed in Ilha do Governador, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1991 to 1992) and data from the Mortality Information System of Rio de Janeiro (1991 to 2009). The survey aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1,270 adults aged 20 years or older selected through a probabilistic sampling of households at three economic levels (low, middle and high income). We performed a probabilistic record linkage of these databases and estimated the risk of cardiovascular death using Kaplan-Meier method to plot survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models comparing hypertensive subjects all together, and by hypertension subgroups: untreated, controlled, and uncontrolled hypertensives with non-hypertensive ones. A total of 170 deaths occurred, of which 31.2 % attributed to cardiovascular causes. The hazard ratio for cardiovascular death was 6.1 times higher (95 % CI 2.7 - 13.7) in uncontrolled hypertensive patients relative to non-hypertensive patients. The hazard ratios for untreated hypertensive and controlled hypertensive patients were 2.7 times (95 % CI 1.1 - 6.3) and 2.1 times (95 % CI 0.38 - 11.5) higher than for

  11. Unveiling of HIV dynamics among transgender women: a respondent-driven sampling study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Jalil, Emilia M; Monteiro, Laylla; Velasque, Luciane; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Garcia, Ana Cristina F; Castro, Cristiane V; Krüger, Alícia; Luz, Paula M; Liu, Albert Y; McFarland, Willi; Buchbinder, Susan; Veloso, Valdilea G; Wilson, Erin C

    2017-04-01

    The burden of HIV in transgender women (transwomen) in Brazil remains unknown. We aimed to estimate HIV prevalence among transwomen in Rio de Janeiro and to identify predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections. We recruited transwomen from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by respondent-driven sampling. Eligibility criteria were self-identification as transwomen, being 18 years of age or older, living in Rio de Janeiro or its metropolitan area, and having a valid peer recruitment coupon. We recruited 12 seed participants from social movements and formative focus groups who then used peer recruitment coupons to refer subsequent peers to the study. We categorised participants as HIV negative, known HIV infected, or newly diagnosed as HIV infected. We assessed predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections by comparing newly diagnosed with HIV-negative participants. We derived population estimates with the Respondent-Driven Sampling II estimator. Between Aug 1, 2015, and Jan 29, 2016, we enrolled 345 eligible transwomen. 29·1% (95% CI 23·2-35·4) of participants had no previous HIV testing (adjusted from 60 participants), 31·2% (18·8-43·6) had HIV infections (adjusted from 141 participants), and 7·0% (0·0-15·9) were newly diagnosed as HIV infected (adjusted from 40 participants). We diagnosed syphilis in 28·9% (18·0-39·8) of participants, rectal chlamydia in 14·6% (5·4-23·8), and gonorrhoea in 13·5% (3·2-23·8). Newly diagnosed HIV infections were associated with black race (odds ratio 22·8 [95% CI 2·9-178·9]; p=0·003), travesti (34·1 [5·8-200·2]; p=0·0001) or transsexual woman (41·3 [6·3-271·2]; p=0·0001) gender identity, history of sex work (30·7 [3·5-267·3]; p=0·002), and history of sniffing cocaine (4·4 [1·4-14·1]; p=0·01). Our results suggest that transwomen bear the largest burden of HIV among any population at risk in Brazil. The high proportion of HIV diagnosis among young participants points to the need for tailored long-term health

  12. Shelf-edge sedimentary systems off Rio de Janeiro State, northern Santos basin-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, R. M. C.; Dos Reis, A. T.; Gorini, C.; Silva, C. G.; Rabineau, M.; Granjeon, D.

    2012-04-01

    The sedimentary record of the continental shelf off Rio de Janeiro State is related to the opening and evolution of Atlantic Ocean. The combined analysis of high resolution seismic acquired in the early 80's (Geomar cruises) and 2D seismic lines of petroleum industry, coupled with chronostratigraphic data from oil industry's exploratory wells, allowed us to observe two different orders of sequences: of 3-4th order, that represents sedimentary units related of the Milankovitch cycles (100/40/20ky), and of 2nd order (10-100my). High resolution seismic allowed us to outline a first architectural framework for the actual shelf that is composed of stacked seismic units making up the major seismic sequences bounded by angular unconformities. According to the intern and extern configuration of their clinoforms, the seismic sequences were grouped into two distinctive stratigraphic sets, identified as Set I (Pliocene) and Set II (Upper Quaternary). Some architectural components of note include: (1) the characteristic upbuilt-outbuilt geometry of sequences that compose Set I (SqA, SqB and SqC), indicating that deposition has probably been favoured by a combination of prevailing subsidence regime (upbuilt pattern) accompanied by forced regressive deposits (outbuilt pattern); (2) the majority of sequences that make up Set II outbuilts as a composite seaward-thickening progradational wedge formed under dominant forced regression conditions, implying that the generation of accommodation space was less important than during the build-up of Set I. However, these sequences consistently pinch out in a progressively landward direction, suggesting a prevailing and increasing subsidence regime able to induce the progressive seaward tilting of the margin during the middle-late Pleistocene, and the subsequent partial preservation of regressive sequences of about 100-200 m thick at the level of the present-day mid-shelf, that prograded seaward for circa 15-25 km. These architectural

  13. Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Ephydridae) from Brazil with an emphasis on the faunas from the states of Parana and Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Francisco de Assis; Mathis, Wayne Nielsen; Couri, Márcia Souto

    2014-01-10

    With more than 200 species worldwide, Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy is the largest genus of the family Ephydridae (Diptera). However, knowledge of this genus is much reduced in Brazil and throughout the Neotropical Region, where only 8 species are known, including one from Brazil (H. xanthocera Cresson). The objective of this study is to review the species of Hydrellia from Brazil, with an emphasis on the faunas of Paraná and Rio de Janeiro states. Six new species are described: H. bocaiuvensis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m), H. longiseta sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m),H. vilelai sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°16.6'S, 48°58.5'W, 770 m), H. simplex sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m) e H. schneiderae sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú (25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m), H. similis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m). Seven new registers are recorded: H. agitator (Pará), H. apalachee (Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. calverti (Amazonas and Paraná), H. cavator (Rio de Janeiro), H. tibialis (Amazonas, Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. vulgaris (Paraná, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro), H. wirthi (Pará, Paraná and Santa Catarina). Together with H. xanthocera, Hydrellia now includes 14 species from Brazil.

  14. [Theses on hepatitis at the Faculdade de Medicina of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 1837-2000].

    PubMed

    Gaze, Rosangela; Carvalho, Diana Maul de; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Martins, Carolina Passos Telles Taveira; Lobato, Vanessa Maria Tavares

    2012-06-01

    An inventory of the theses on hepatitis of the Faculdade de Medicina of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro between 1837 and 2000 is presented. The analysis indicates the potential and limits for discussion of the evolutionary framework of scientific knowledge on these health problems in Brazil. The theories are also discussed in light of their scientific reference points and the technological and social changes that influenced them. The landmarks in medical education and knowledge about hepatitis are identified and categorized, considering that the theses reveal at the very least the state of the art on the subject. The study makes it possible to explore the foundations upon which the scientific knowledge on hepatitis were built and indicate possibilities for research in the reconstruction of scientific knowledge of other health problems.

  15. [Production of transmission foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis: the case of Pau da Fome, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Kawa, Hélia; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães de; Barcellos, Christovam

    2010-08-01

    This study analyzes the characteristics of one of the main foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, examining its territorial configuration and the relations with spatial organization processes. An analytical model was applied to the process of occupation and organization of urban space on a local scale, considering the new functions acquired by the spatial elements expressed by different work relations, land use, and land value. The study employed geoprocessing techniques and classification of images obtained by remote sensing, localization of households, and cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, associated with qualitative data on the historical process of land occupation and use. The analysis detected areas with distinct conditions of vulnerability and showed that changes in these conditions allowed production of the epidemic in a given time period and its subsequent reduction. The study contributes to monitoring of the disease at the local level and application of effective measures for cutaneous leishmaniasis surveillance and control.

  16. DNA-based identification of forensically important species of Sarcophagidae (Insecta: Diptera) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Napoleão, K S; Mello-Patiu, C A; Oliveira-Costa, J; Takiya, D M; Silva, R; Moura-Neto, R S

    2016-05-06

    Sarcophagidae, or flesh flies, are of great importance in forensic entomology, but their effective application requires precise taxonomic identification, which relies almost exclusively on characteristics of the male genitalia. Given that female flies and larvae are most abundant in animal carcasses or on corpses, precise morphological identification can be difficult; therefore, DNA sequencing can be an additional tool for use in taxonomic identification. This paper analyzes part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from three Sarcophagidae species of forensic importance in the City of Rio de Janeiro: Oxysarcodexia fluminensis, Peckia chrysostoma, and Peckia intermutans. COI fragments of 400 bp from 36 specimens of these three species were sequenced. No intraspecific differences were found among specimens of O. fluminensis, but P. chrysostoma and P. intermutans each had two haplotypes, ranging from 0 to 0.7%. The interspecific divergence was 8.5-11.6%, corroborating previously reported findings.

  17. Extending municipal services by building on local initiatives: a project in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, A M; Giffin, K; Shluger, E; Ungaretti, M A

    1982-01-01

    Describes how municipal authorities build on the efforts of community groups in extending services to urban slums in a manner consistent with the communities' own priorities. The evolution of community initiative in the form of active sanitation, health, and community school groups in Rocinha, one of Rio's largest favelas, is detailed. The subsequent agreement between UNICEF and the Municipal Secretariat for Social Development (SMD) to establish an Urban Community Development Program in Rio de Janeiro was based on the preexistence of community initiative. Explains the methodology for this community development as planned by a multidisciplinary working group of 4 consultants and the process by which institutional adaptation of the Urban Community Development Program is accomplished. Emphasized is the nature of the UNICEF/SMD collaboration and the intended final status of the project, as the sole responsibility of the SMD.

  18. Outbreak of human malaria caused by Plasmodium simium in the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro: a molecular epidemiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Patrícia; Zalis, Mariano Gustavo; de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Siqueira, Andre Machado; Júnior, Cesare Bianco; Silva, Sidnei; Areas, André Luiz Lisboa; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Alvarenga, Denise Anete Madureira; da Silva Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria; Albuquerque, Hermano Gomes; Cravo, Pedro; Santos de Abreu, Filipe Vieira; Peterka, Cassio Leonel; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Suárez Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Pissinatti, Alcides; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves; de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria; Culleton, Richard; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2017-10-01

    Malaria was eliminated from southern and southeastern Brazil over 50 years ago. However, an increasing number of autochthonous episodes attributed to Plasmodium vivax have recently been reported from the Atlantic Forest region of Rio de Janeiro state. As the P vivax-like non-human primate malaria parasite species Plasmodium simium is locally enzootic, we performed a molecular epidemiological investigation to determine whether zoonotic malaria transmission is occurring. We examined blood samples from patients presenting with signs or symptoms suggestive of malaria as well as from local howler monkeys by microscopy and PCR. Samples were included from individuals if they had a history of travel to or resided in areas within the Rio de Janeiro Atlantic Forest, but not if they had malaria prophylaxis, blood transfusion or tissue or organ transplantation, or had travelled to known malaria endemic areas in the preceding year. Additionally, we developed a molecular assay based on sequencing of the parasite mitochondrial genome to distinguish between P vivax and P simium, and applied this assay to 33 cases from outbreaks that occurred in 2015, and 2016. A total of 49 autochthonous malaria cases were reported in 2015-16. Most patients were male, with a mean age of 44 years (SD 14·6), and 82% lived in urban areas of Rio de Janeiro state and had visited the Atlantic Forest for leisure or work-related activities. 33 cases were used for mitochondrial DNA sequencing. The assay was successfully performed for 28 samples, and all were shown to be P simium, indicative of zoonotic transmission of this species to human beings in this region. Sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome of three of these cases showed that P simium is most closely related to P vivax parasites from South America. The malaria outbreaks in this region were caused by P simium, previously considered to be a monkey-specific malaria parasite, related to but distinct from P vivax, and which has never

  19. Scientific and popular health knowledge in the education work of community health agents in Rio de Janeiro shantytowns.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, M S; Kolawole Salami, B; Perreault, M; Leite, L C

    2012-08-01

    Health education for socially marginalized populations challenges the efficacy of existing strategies and methods, and the pertinence of the educational and philosophical principles that underpin them. The Brazilian Community Health Agents Initiative (CHAI) hires residents of deprived marginalized communities to undertake health promotion and education in their communities. The ultimate goal of the CHAI is to connect populations with the public healthcare system by promoting social re-affiliation, protecting civil rights and enhancing equity of access to health services. In this article, we present the education work of community health agents through interplay between popular and scientific health knowledge in nine Rio de Janeiro shantytowns. A critical ethnographic research design, using thematic analysis, allowed us to explore agents' education work to enhance family health literacy in shantytowns. Local culture and social practices inspire Agents to create original strategies to reconcile forms of health knowledge in their work.

  20. [Illicit drug use and the critical perspectives of drug users' relatives and acquaintances in Northern Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the partial results of a multicenter, cross-temporal study, which was performed using multiple methods, and involved seven Latin-American countries and Canada. The results presented refer to the city center of Rio de Janeiro (n=108). The central question of the study was: 'How do illicit drug users' relatives and acquaintances describe protective and risk factors, prevention initiatives, treatment services, laws and policies regarding illicit drugs?' The quantitative data was collected using an instrument containing closed questions. In total, 108 young adults (18 years of age or older) were interviewed, who stated being affected by the drug although they were not users. For 104 interviewees (96%), negligence is the family dynamics that causes the greatest exposure to drugs, and 106 (98%) consider that parent support is what offers the greatest protection. Policies, the police and the criminal system have neither reduced drug use nor do they protect users.

  1. [Social representations of the body: a study of adolescents in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Passos, Michelle Delboni dos; Gugelmin, Sílvia Ângela; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Carvalho, Maria Claudia da Veiga Soares

    2013-12-01

    Body changes are central to adolescence as a stage of life. To approach conflicts experienced by adolescents with body changes, this study aimed to identify social representations of the body among adolescents in the last year of primary school in private and municipal schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants were 13 to 18 years of age and studied in schools in neighborhoods with the highest and lowest scores on the Social Development Index. Focus groups were used to produce social representation of the body. Groups began by evoking five words that came to mind when hearing the word "body". The EVOC program was used to treat evoked words, complemented by thematic content analysis. Many teenagers spoke of "beauty" as synonymous with "beautiful body" and described a model of beauty: a muscular body for teenage boys and a slender and shapely body for teenage girls.

  2. [Garbage, work, and health: a case study of garbage pickers at the metropolitan landfill in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza; Juncá, Denise Chrysóstomo de Moura; Gonçalves, Raquel de Souza; Filhote, Maria Izabel de Freitas

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the lives, work, and health conditions of garbage pickers in the largest metropolitan landfill in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a semi-structured questionnaire with open-ended and closed questions, the study interviewed these individuals and developed a discussion of their daily lives, work, and health conditions. According to a quantitative-qualitative analysis, the garbage pickers identified garbage as a source of survival and defined health simply as the ability to work. They thus tended to neglect the relationship between work and health. However, the risks and reported morbidity highlighted the hazardous nature of this activity, aggravated by their living and housing conditions. Finally, the article emphasizes the importance of establishing public policies that integrate different dimensions of the problem, such as social inclusion, environmental preservation, public health, and the dignity of these workers.

  3. Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Cheryl; de Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães; Zwetsch, Adriana; Motta-Silva, Daniel; Carvalho, Bruno Moreira; de Santana, Antônio Ferreira; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmental management actions were evaluated after health education practices. The frequency of ACL vectors Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei inside and outside houses varied according to environment characteristics, probably influenced by the way of life of the popular groups. In this kind of situation environmental management and community mobilization become essential, as they help both specialists and residents create strategies that can interfere in the dynamics of vector's population and the contact between man and vectors. PMID:22988458

  4. Traffic and catalytic converter - related atmospheric contamination in the metropolitan region of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lílian Irene Dias; de Souza Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo; Zotin, Fátima Maria Zanon; Carneiro, Manuel Castro; Neto, Arnaldo Alcover; da Silva, Alzira dos Santos Amaral Gomes; Cardoso, Mauri José Baldini; Monteiro, Maria Inês Couto

    2008-03-01

    In this work, 24-h PM10 samples were collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and analysed for trace elements (Cd, Ce, Cu, La, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pd, Rh, Sb and Sn). The sampling was carried out at five locations (Bonsucesso; Centro, downtown city; Copacabana; Nova Iguaçu and Sumaré) with different traffic densities and anthropogenic activities. An analytical method based on the EPA method for the determination of trace elements in airborne particulate matter (PM), using ultrasonic-assisted extraction and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied. Our results suggest that vehicular traffic is the most important source of environmental pollution at the studied sites. The presence of Mo, Pd and Rh in the analysed filters reflects an additional source of pollution caused by the erosion and deterioration of automotive catalytic converters.

  5. Free-living ixodid ticks in an urban Atlantic Forest fragment, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Sá-Hungaro, Iwine Joyce Barbosa de; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the importance of ticks in forests in protected areas, was conducted survey of species of free-living ticks in the Natural Park Municipal Curió, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Monthly samples were taken by dragging method, dry ice traps and visual search in two transects. Adults and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (n= 147), Amblyomma brasiliense (n= 4) and Amblyomma parvum (n= 1) were collected. This is the first occurrence of A. parvum in the state. No correlation was found between the abundance of stages of A. cajennense and rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The highest abundances of adults were in the months of January and May, and nymphs in September and October. The low diversity of parasites on Curió Park can be attributed to the proximity of households with pets, which would also explain the higher abundance of A. cajennense that is commonly found in areas impacted by anthropogenic pressure.

  6. Benthic foraminifera distribution in a tourist lagoon in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a response to anthropogenic impacts.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Claudia Gutterres; Batista, Daniele Silva; Baptista Neto, José Antonio; Ghiselli, Renato Olindo

    2011-10-01

    Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, located in the Rio de Janeiro City, receives several types of polluted discharges. The knowledge of the sediment microfauna correlated with heavy metal and organic matter concentrations could supply important data about the conditions of the lagoon. The benthic foraminiferal assemblage presented larger diversity and more abundant samples in the lagoon entrance than in the inner area. The Ammonia tepida - Elphidium excavatum foraminiferal assemblage is characterized by dwarf, corroded and weak organisms. Agglutinated species were found only near the entrance. Low abundance values and sterility of five samples in the inner area (north/northeast) can be caused by high levels of heavy metals and organic matter. A. tepida shows negative correlation with increasing heavy metals values. PAHs and coprostanol high indexes, and the absence or low presence of microfauna in samples around the lagoon margin confirm illegal flows from gas stations and domestic sewage.

  7. An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by both rotavirus and Shigella sonnei in a private school in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Sutmoller, F; Azeredo, R S; Lacerda, M D; Barth, O M; Pereira, H G; Hoffer, E; Schatzmayr, H G

    1982-04-01

    In May 1980 an extensive outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a private school in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Examination of faeces and paired sera showed that this outbreak was caused by both rotavirus and a virulent strain of Shigella sonnei. In the first 19 stool samples collected seven (37%) had rotavirus only, six (32%) had Sh. sonnei only, while four (21%) had both agents. Examination of the second and third stool collections revealed only the presence of Sh. sonnei. The 18 paired sera showed seroconversion for rotavirus in four cases (22%) and in seven cases (39%) for Sh. sonnei. The overall attack rate of the disease was approximately 75%, the nursery and kindergarten having higher attack rates. Students in all grades became sick at the same time, and the unimodal curve of the onset dates of symptoms indicates a common source outbreak. Evidence suggested a contaminated water supply.

  8. Clostridium baratii: a rare case of pneumonia associated with an Alzheimer patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Carla Ormundo Gonçalves Ximenes; da Rocha, Vinicius Magno; Filho, Joaquim Santos; Serradas, Lucia Rodrigues; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Domingues, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Clostridium baratii is rarely associated with human diseases. Infection is usuallcaused by ingestion of contaminated food, and infant botulism is the most common clinical presentation. Case Report: Here we report a case of pneumonia by a non-toxigenic strain of C. baratii in an Alzheimer 70-year-old male with sepsis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The micro-organism was identified by phenotypical tests, mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF), DNA amplification (PCR) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Testing for the presence of botulinum F toxin was made using multiplex PCR. Bioassay for a large number of colonies was performed in mice to evaluate the production of any lethal toxin, but the results were negative. Conclusion: To our knowledge, there are no cases of C. baratii infection reported in Brazil and we highlight the importance of anaerobic lab tests in the standard routine of diagnosis. PMID:28348769

  9. Detection of avian paramyxoviruses in migratory and resident birds in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fornells, Luz Alba M G; Travassos, Carlos E P F; Costa, Claudia M; Novelli, Ronaldo; Petrucci, Melissa P; Soffiati, Flavio L; Bianchi, Iliani; de Souza, Luiz F Lino; Veiga, Venício F; Liberal, Maíra H T; Couceiro, José Nelson S S

    2013-12-01

    Paramyxoviruses and avian influenza viruses are present worldwide, and wild birds are known natural reservoirs of these viruses. This study monitored the circulation of these viruses in migratory and resident coastal birds captured in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In total, 494 birds were trapped, and their fecal samples were collected and inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs. The allantoic fluids were evaluated using a hemagglutination test and PCR amplification of the genes of the M and L proteins of influenza A virus and paramyxovirus, respectively. Avian paramyxovirus was detected in 5 (1.01%) of the birds. The majority of these viruses were isolated from migratory birds classified into the order Charadriiformes (families Scolopacidae and Charadriidae). Four samples were characterized as avian paramyxovirus serotype-2 (APMV-2) by a hemagglutination inhibition test. These results reinforce the importance of continuous surveillance of wild species in Brazil.

  10. Spider diversity (Arachnida: Araneae) in Atlantic Forest areas at Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Pedro; Pérez-González, Abel; Baptista, Renner L C

    2016-01-01

    There has never been any published work about the diversity of spiders in the city of Rio de Janeiro using analytical tools to measure diversity. The only available records for spider communities in nearby areas indicate 308 species in the National Park of Tijuca and 159 species in Marapendi Municipal Park. These numbers are based on a rapid survey and on an one-year survey respectively. This study provides a more thorough understanding of how the spider species are distributed at Pedra Branca State Park. We report a total of 14,626 spider specimens recorded from this park, representing 49 families and 373 species or morphospecies, including at least 73 undescribed species. Also, the distribution range of 45 species was expanded, and species accumulation curves estimate that there is a minimum of 388 (Bootstrap) and a maximum of 468 species (Jackknife2) for the sampled areas. These estimates indicates that the spider diversity may be higher than observed.

  11. An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by both rotavirus and Shigella sonnei in a private school in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed Central

    Sutmoller, F.; Azeredo, R. S.; Lacerda, M. D.; Barth, O. M.; Pereira, H. G.; Hoffer, E.; Schatzmayr, H. G.

    1982-01-01

    In May 1980 an extensive outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a private school in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Examination of faeces and paired sera showed that this outbreak was caused by both rotavirus and a virulent strain of Shigella sonnei. In the first 19 stool samples collected seven (37%) had rotavirus only, six (32%) had Sh. sonnei only, while four (21%) had both agents. Examination of the second and third stool collections revealed only the presence of Sh. sonnei. The 18 paired sera showed seroconversion for rotavirus in four cases (22%) and in seven cases (39%) for Sh. sonnei. The overall attack rate of the disease was approximately 75%, the nursery and kindergarten having higher attack rates. Students in all grades became sick at the same time, and the unimodal curve of the onset dates of symptoms indicates a common source outbreak. Evidence suggested a contaminated water supply. PMID:6278017

  12. Risk perception and communication regarding pesticide use in rural work: a case study in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Frederico; Moreira, Josino C; Rodrigues, Karla M; Claudio, Luz

    2006-01-01

    In an agricultural region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, rapid assessment procedures were used for risk-perception studies based on methodologic triangulation that included semi-structured interviews, participatory observations, and focus groups. Data were qualitatively categorized. Women's risk perception was prioritized, as they did not recognize some risks they were exposed to during work activities. To reach women likely to be exposed to pesticides, a photographic soap opera (fotonovela) was constructed in collaboration with rural workers, using community-based participatory research methods. Contents of the risk-communication strategies included the harmful effects of pesticides. Results showed that the inclusion of risk-perception studies in the development of educative and risk-communication campaigns is very important, bridging research to action.

  13. Spatial distribution of pollen grains and spores in surface sediments of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Cintia F; Vilela, Claudia G; Baptista-Neto, José A; Barth, Ortrud M

    2012-09-01

    Aiming to investigate the deposition of pollen grains and spores in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, 61 surface sediment samples were analyzed. The results showed that the current deposition of palynomorphs in surface sediments of Guanabara Bay represents the regional vegetation of this hydrographic basin. The differential distribution of palynomorphs followed a pattern influenced by bathymetry, tidal currents speed, discharge of numerous rivers, and by human activity. The dominance of representatives of Field Vegetation reflects the changes of the original flora caused by intense human activities in the region. The continued presence and richness of pollen types of rain forest in the samples indicates that their source area might be the vegetation from riparian border of rivers in the western sector of the Bay, where the mangrove vegetation is being preserved. The large amount of damaged palynomorphs may be related to abrasion that occurs during river transport, indicating removal or reworking from their areas of origin.

  14. Calculating the survival rate and estimated population density of gravid Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Eiras, Alvaro E; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    Population size and daily survival rates of disease vectors are important determinants of vectorial capacity. A mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted in a dengue endemic urban neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to estimate population size, survival rate and vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti females using back-pack aspirators and gravid sticky traps (MosquiTRAP). Estimations of the gravid female population size were different when using data gathered from just the MosquiTRAP (3,505 individuals) or aspirator (1,470). However Ae. aegypti survival rates and longevity were similar irrespective of the method of capture. Up to 26.3% of released females would be able to survive for more than 10 days, the length of time of the extrinsic incubation period. Vectorial capacity value ranged between 0.01567 and 0.4215 and the basic reproductive number (R0) was estimated to be between 0.0695 and 1.88.

  15. [Communication related to pesticides use in a rural area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Peres, F; Rozemberg, B; Alves, S R; Moreira, J C; Oliveira-Silva, J J

    2001-12-01

    To assess communications aspects related to pesticide use in a rural area of the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The study was carried out in the area of São Lourenço stream. It was based on methodological triangulation comprising: semi-structured interviews and observation of a local population sample (about 600 inhabitants); structured questionnaire to collect data on the local community; and records of lectures given by argonomic engineers, pesticides traders and other public service professionals. This study pointed out to the historical misinformation on pesticides in rural areas; the emphasis on technical language in educational and training activities available which constitutes a barrier for rural workers knowledge acquisition and empowerment; and the industry/commerce's pressure to legitimate pesticide trading, reinforcing the existing communication process, resulting in unfavorable inclusion of the rural worker into a broader market economy.

  16. [Pregnancy and eating behavior in pregnant women from a low-income neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the meanings of acceptance attributed to pregnancy and their influence on the eating behavior of pregnant women attending a health unit located in a low-income neighborhood in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a qualitative approach with social representations as the analytical category. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with adolescent and adult pregnant women (primiparous or multiparous) in different stages of pregnancy. Discourse analysis drew on in-depth hermeneutics, using thematic analysis as the main technical resource. Two representational categories emerged from the set of discourses, namely accepting versus not accepting the pregnancy, which involved different eating behaviors. In the former, women tended to either eat adequately or overeat. For the latter, not accepting the pregnancy was associated with denial of eating, temporarily or throughout the pregnancy.

  17. First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calvet, Guilherme A; Filippis, Ana Maria B; Mendonça, Marcos Cesar L; Sequeira, Patricia C; Siqueira, Andre M; Veloso, Valdilea G; Nogueira, Rita M; Brasil, Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

  18. Species composition of Bromeliaceae and their distribution at the Massambaba restinga in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Pessôa, T C; Nunes-Freitas, A F; Cogliatti-Carvalho, L; Rocha, C F D

    2008-05-01

    We studied some ecological parameters such as richness, abundance, density, biomass and variation in species composition in four vegetation zones and in a zone with anthropic disturbance in the Massambaba Restinga in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro State. We sampled 100 plots of 100 m(2) (10 x 10 m) recording the bromeliad species and their abundance. We found a total of seven bromeliad species, with Vriesea neoglutinosa (5647 ramets) and Tillandsia stricta (1277 ramets) being the most abundant. The vegetation zone called Clusia shrubs had the highest richness (S = 5) and density (6360 ramets.ha(-1)) of bromeliads. The differences found in abundance and variation in species composition among vegetation zones seems to be related to the vegetation structure of each zone.

  19. [The end of food: dietary supplementation and diet among avid members of workout and fitness centers in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Sabino, César; Luz, Madel T; Carvalho, Maria Cláudia

    2010-06-01

    The article addresses the particular diet of a group of avid members of workout and fitness centers in Rio de Janeiro. It shows how diet is related to keeping in shape and to the prevailing type of sociability. Using direct and participatory ethnographic observation and open interviews, research was conducted at 12 fitness clubs on the North and South sides of Rio for three years. For the group under study, eating is about relying on a system of knowledge related to the science of nutrition for the benefit of managing one's physical shape and athletic performance. This movement produces the notion of food as a powerful chemical artifice that enhances the aesthetics of the body.

  20. [Hegemony and counter-hegemony in the process of implementing the Casa de Parto Birth Center in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo; Moura, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos

    2009-12-01

    This study addressed the process of implementing the first Casa de Parto Birth Center in the Unified Health System in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the determinants of the process of implementing the Birth Center and analyze the influence that hegemonic and counter-hegemonic groups have on that process. The theoretical framework used was the concept of hegemony. Data analysis was guided by the dialectic method of contradiction, totality and historicity. Semi-structured interviews were performed, from January to July 2007, with four municipal health administrators and 11 technical-administrative professionals assigned to implement the Birth Center. This study showed that the implementation of the Birth Center was determined by the counter-hegemony established in providing care during pregnancy and physiological deliveries.

  1. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Adult Psychiatric Outpatients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; McKinnon, Karen; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Collins, Pamela Y.; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the associations between perceived mental illness stigma and HIV risk and protective behaviors among adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We measured mental illness stigma across three domains (“Personal Experiences,” “Perceived Attractiveness,” and “Relationship Discrimination”), and examined the relationship between experiences of stigma in each domain and HIV risk and protective behaviors over the past three months in 98 outpatients with SMI. Those who reported greater “Relationship Discrimination” stigma were significantly more likely to be sexually active and to have unprotected sex; they were significantly less likely to report deliberately having fewer partners as a way to protect themselves from HIV. The role of stigma in unprotected sexual behavior should be examined further and considered in any HIV prevention intervention for people with SMI. PMID:19543974

  2. Relations between Representation and Involvement at the Rio de Janeiro Municipal Health Council (CMS): user sector, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Raphael Batista de; Moreira, Marcelo Rasga

    2016-05-01

    This article analyzes the influence of "Representative Configuration" of the Rio de Janeiro Municipal Health Council (CMS) on user counselor performance. Representative Configuration is defined as being a combination of two institutional rule axes: Axis 1 consists of eligibility and involvement rules, and Axis 2, of representation rules. The theoretical discussion was centered on the relationship between Representation and Involvement in its contemporary democratic context, and specifically relates to the Municipal Health Council (CMS). The study method focused on Participative Observation, Interviews, and Document Analysis. The results show that the district counsel representatives act based on the mandate of those they represent, since they create close ties with these institutions, whereas municipal counselors are more likely to lean towards autonomy in their representation, resulting in weaker ties with these bodies. The representatives' mandate-based posture is combined with a more in-depth involvement in meetings and greater expression of their represented citizens' interests.

  3. [Experts in 'dying well': causa mortis, rituals, and hierarchies at a monastery in colonial Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Souza, Jorge Victor de Araujo

    2013-06-01

    Benedictine monks, who settled in Portuguese America in the late sixteenth century, made it their tenet to always have death in mind. The article describes diverse aspects of the Benedictine approach towards death as displayed at an eighteenth-century monastery in Rio de Janeiro. Relying on documentation stored at the monastery and highlighting performance-like activities, the article analyzes hierarchical arrangements, the ways death was represented, and the forms of sociability manifested at the time of burials. Focusing on the relations that were established, including the reciprocities that were invented and re-invented throughout the rituals, it is demonstrated that these events provided a basis for the distinction earned by clerics in a society ruled in part by the logics of the Ancién Regime.

  4. Productive reorganization, outsourcing, and work relations in the offshore oil industry in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Marcelo; Alvarez, Denise; Athayde, Milton; Suarez, José Diego; Pereira, Renata; Soares, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between the intensive use of outsourcing and labor organizations on offshore oil platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The theoretical and methodological framework applied in our research is based on Ergonomics of Activity and the Psychodynamics of Work, from an ergological perspective. In addition to the more general trend of increasing precariousness, we highlight the potential loss of formal and informal knowledge resulting from the fragmentation of work collectives, as we consider the cohesion of these collectives to be a crucial element contributing to reliability in process operations. Increasing precariousness of work contributes to this fragmentation and one of its main causes is the uncontrolled increase in outsourcing of work. This situation has had nefarious consequences for workers' health and safety, suggesting that those who have adopted outsourcing as a labor management tool have failed to consider these harmful consequences as rigorously as necessary.

  5. [Vulnerability and health problems while traveling: the viewpoint of the tourist in the city of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Matos, Vanina; Barcellos, Christovam; Camargo, Luiz Octávio de Lima

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how a group of tourists perceives health issues related to safety, prevention and health care during their travels. Interviews were conducted with Brazilian tourists visiting the city of Rio de Janeiro, as well as local residents leaving the city on trips. The interviews were analyzed in accordance with the dimensions of vulnerability, information, prevention and health care, from which vulnerability emerged as a category of analysis. The reports of the trajectory of the tourists made it possible to identify problems and opportunities that could be used by the health sector for actions of prevention and promotion. The means of transport determines the trajectory of tourists and their security alternatives. Traveling in groups and visiting tourist attractions are seen as protective factors, which reinforces the role of information and social support networks as resources used by tourists in the absence of specific policies geared to this highly mobile and vulnerable population group.

  6. [Living conditions and life experiences of working-class groups in Rio de Janeiro: rethinking dengue control and popular mobilization].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, R M; Valla, V V

    2001-01-01

    Using narratives of an experience with popular mobilization during the 1986-91 dengue epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the authors discuss the scientific research and technical counseling involving basic sanitation conditions for vulnerable social groups. They present research results on water distribution in the slums from the Leopoldina area of the city. The research stemmed from demands by community leaders at local forums discussing health conditions. Gathering, systematizing, and analyzing the data were based on what they call "shared knowledge construction", resulting by crossing accumulated scientific knowledge with popular knowledge produced as a result of living conditions and life experiences among working-class groups. Finally, the authors comment on the need for local health professionals to be aware of relationships between epidemic and endemic processes and protection of life.

  7. [Silva Coutinho: his career and his contributions to the geological collections of the Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Silva, Marina Jardim E; Fernandes, Antonio Carlos Sequeira; Fonseca, Vera Maria Medina da

    2013-06-01

    The career of João Martins da Silva Coutinho is linked to the history of the Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro to whose collections (especially geological) he contributed scientific information and material. On the Brazilian scientific stage, Silva Coutinho took part in major exploratory commissions in the latter half of the nineteenth century, mainly in the Amazon and in the Northeast. He collected and sent samples to the Museu Nacional for analysis, establishing deep ties with the institution and its staff. The article presents his contributions through an analysis of these documents and an examination of the geological collections that he sent to the institution and that remain part of its holdings.

  8. Uh and um revisited: are they interjections for signaling delay?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers uh and um are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of uh and um and of silent pauses (delays) immediately following them in six media interviews of Hillary Clinton. Our evidence indicates that uh and um cannot serve as signals of upcoming delay, let alone signal it differentially: In most cases, both uh and um were not followed by a silent pause, that is, there was no delay at all; the silent pauses that did occur after um were too short to be counted as major delays; finally, the distributions of durations of silent pauses after uh and um were almost entirely overlapping and could therefore not have served as reliable predictors for a listener. The discrepancies between Clark and Fox Tree's findings and ours are largely a consequence of the fact that their LL analyses reflect the perceptions of professional coders, whereas our data were analyzed by means of acoustic measurements with the PRAAT software (www.praat.org). A comparison of our findings with those of O'Connell, Kowal, and Ageneau (2005) did not corroborate the hypothesis of Clark and Fox Tree that uh and um are interjections: Fillers occurred typically in initial, interjections in medial positions; fillers did not constitute an integral turn by themselves, whereas interjections did; fillers never initiated cited speech, whereas interjections did; and fillers did not signal emotion, whereas interjections did. Clark and Fox Tree's analyses were embedded within a theory of ideal delivery that we find inappropriate for the explication of these phenomena.

  9. Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; de Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2017-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. Methods/Principal findings The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015. Stool samples were collected and processed by sedimentation, flotation, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Graham methods, iron haematoxylin staining and safranin staining. Of the 3245 individuals analysed, 569 (17.5%) were infected with at least one parasite. The most common protozoa were Endolimax nana (28.8%), Entamoeba coli (14.8%), Complex Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13.5%), Blastocystis hominis (12.7%), and Giardia lamblia (8.1%). Strongyloides stercoralis (4.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6%), and hookworms (1.5%) were the most frequent helminths. There was a high frequency of contamination by protozoa (87%), and multiple infections were observed in 141 participants (24.8%). A positive association between age (young children) and gender (male) with intestinal parasites was observed. Geospatial distribution of the detected intestinal parasitic infections was not random or homogeneous, but was influenced by socioeconomic conditions (through the material deprivation index (MDI)). Participants classified in the highest levels of deprivation had higher risk of having intestinal parasites. Conclusions/Significance This study provides the first epidemiological information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Intestinal parasites, especially protozoa, are highly prevalent, indicating that

  10. Genotypic Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Isolates in Immunocompromised Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Perse da Silva, Amanda; Lopes, Amanda de Oliveira; Vieira, Yasmine Rangel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Sion, Fernando Samuel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wagner, Sandra; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including an increased risk of developing more severe disease in HIV-infected individuals. In Brazil, there is no information about the molecular epidemiology of HSV-1 infection, especially in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to perform the genotypic characterization of HSV-1 among HIV-infected patients. A total of 214 serum samples from HIV-positive patients without HSV infection symptoms were enrolled in one of two reference hospitals for HIV infection managing in Rio de Janeiro. The gG and gI genes were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and full nucleotide sequencing of the US8 (1601 bp), UL44 (1996 bp), and UL23 (1244 bp) regions was performed. A total of 38.3% (82/214) and 32.7% (70/214) of the serum samples tested positive for gG and gI genes, respectively. RFLP analysis classified the HSV-1 as belonging to genotype A. Phylogenetic analysis of the Brazilian samples for the US8, UL44, and UL23 regions demonstrated that the nucleotide identity between Brazilian samples was higher than 97% for all genes. No acyclovir mutation was detected in the patients. The shedding of HSV in the serum samples from HIV-positive patients who were asymptomatic for HSV infection was detected in this work. This is the first report of molecular characterization of HSV-1 in Brazilian samples since there is no previous data available in the literature concerning the genotypic classification and stable distribution of Brazilian strains of HSV-1 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:26407292

  11. Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants.

    PubMed

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; de Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2017-03-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015. Stool samples were collected and processed by sedimentation, flotation, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Graham methods, iron haematoxylin staining and safranin staining. Of the 3245 individuals analysed, 569 (17.5%) were infected with at least one parasite. The most common protozoa were Endolimax nana (28.8%), Entamoeba coli (14.8%), Complex Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13.5%), Blastocystis hominis (12.7%), and Giardia lamblia (8.1%). Strongyloides stercoralis (4.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6%), and hookworms (1.5%) were the most frequent helminths. There was a high frequency of contamination by protozoa (87%), and multiple infections were observed in 141 participants (24.8%). A positive association between age (young children) and gender (male) with intestinal parasites was observed. Geospatial distribution of the detected intestinal parasitic infections was not random or homogeneous, but was influenced by socioeconomic conditions (through the material deprivation index (MDI)). Participants classified in the highest levels of deprivation had higher risk of having intestinal parasites. This study provides the first epidemiological information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Intestinal parasites, especially protozoa, are highly prevalent, indicating that parasitic infections are still a serious public health problem

  12. Digital radiographic measurement of approximal caries progression in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, H P; Benn, D K; Sheiham, A

    1997-12-01

    The effect of fluoridation on approximal caries progression was investigated using serial digitized bitewing images and conventional film images of 290 12-16-year-old schoolchildren who were lifetime residents of either Rio de Janeiro (a fluoridated area) or Mangaratiba and Angra dos Reis (non-fluoridated areas) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One examiner scored a maximum of 28 approximal surfaces of posterior teeth per subject using both methods. The intraexaminer reliability for rating lesion depth with digital images was comparable with that of the conventional bitewing films (namely, intraclass correlation of 0.99 and weighted Kappa scores of 0.82, respectively). Approximal surface D1S was 3.17 +/- 0.25 (sx) in fluoridated areas and 6.64 +/- 0.44 in non-fluoridated areas. After 1 year, the rate of caries progression in approximal surfaces was significantly lower in the fluoridated areas (0.54 +/- 0.14) as compared with the non-fluoridated areas (1.41 +/- 0.20) using Pitts' scoring system for conventional bitewing radiographs (P < 0.001). Similarly, the digital radiographic method was able to detect subtle differences in approximal caries progression in the enamel and the dentin (overall mean: 0.34 mm/year in fluoridated areas vs 0.49 mm/year in non-fluoridated areas, P < 0.05). The two radiographic methods were strongly correlated (rs = 0.7). Assuming a constant rate over time, these results indicate that lesion progression from the outer half of the enamel into the outer half of the dentin takes approximately 3-4 years in schoolchildren from the fluoridated areas compared to 2 1/2 years in the non-fluoridated areas.

  13. Difficulties in access and estimates of public beds in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Goldwasser, Rosane Sonia; Lobo, Maria Stella de Castro; de Arruda, Edilson Fernandes; Angelo, Simone Aldrey; Lapa e Silva, José Roberto; de Salles, André Assis; David, Cid Marcos

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the required number of public beds for adults in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro to meet the existing demand and compare results with recommendations by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The study uses a hybrid model combining time series and queuing theory to predict the demand and estimate the number of required beds. Four patient flow scenarios were considered according to bed requests, percentage of abandonments and average length of stay in intensive care unit beds. The results were plotted against Ministry of Health parameters. Data were obtained from the State Regulation Center from 2010 to 2011. There were 33,101 medical requests for 268 regulated intensive care unit beds in Rio de Janeiro. With an average length of stay in regulated ICUs of 11.3 days, there would be a need for 595 active beds to ensure system stability and 628 beds to ensure a maximum waiting time of six hours. Deducting current abandonment rates due to clinical improvement (25.8%), these figures fall to 441 and 417. With an average length of stay of 6.5 days, the number of required beds would be 342 and 366, respectively; deducting abandonment rates, 254 and 275. The Brazilian Ministry of Health establishes a parameter of 118 to 353 beds. Although the number of regulated beds is within the recommended range, an increase in beds of 122.0% is required to guarantee system stability and of 134.0% for a maximum waiting time of six hours. Adequate bed estimation must consider reasons for limited timely access and patient flow management in a scenario that associates prioritization of requests with the lowest average length of stay.

  14. Difficulties in access and estimates of public beds in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Goldwasser, Rosane Sonia; Lobo, Maria Stella de Castro; de Arruda, Edilson Fernandes; Angelo, Simone Aldrey; Silva, José Roberto Lapa e; de Salles, André Assis; David, Cid Marcos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the required number of public beds for adults in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro to meet the existing demand and compare results with recommendations by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS The study uses a hybrid model combining time series and queuing theory to predict the demand and estimate the number of required beds. Four patient flow scenarios were considered according to bed requests, percentage of abandonments and average length of stay in intensive care unit beds. The results were plotted against Ministry of Health parameters. Data were obtained from the State Regulation Center from 2010 to 2011. RESULTS There were 33,101 medical requests for 268 regulated intensive care unit beds in Rio de Janeiro. With an average length of stay in regulated ICUs of 11.3 days, there would be a need for 595 active beds to ensure system stability and 628 beds to ensure a maximum waiting time of six hours. Deducting current abandonment rates due to clinical improvement (25.8%), these figures fall to 441 and 417. With an average length of stay of 6.5 days, the number of required beds would be 342 and 366, respectively; deducting abandonment rates, 254 and 275. The Brazilian Ministry of Health establishes a parameter of 118 to 353 beds. Although the number of regulated beds is within the recommended range, an increase in beds of 122.0% is required to guarantee system stability and of 134.0% for a maximum waiting time of six hours. CONCLUSIONS Adequate bed estimation must consider reasons for limited timely access and patient flow management in a scenario that associates prioritization of requests with the lowest average length of stay. PMID:27191155

  15. Temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti in different districts of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, measured by two types of traps.

    PubMed

    Honório, N A; Codeço, C T; Alves, F C; Magalhães, M A F M; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R

    2009-09-01

    Dengue dynamics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as in many dengue-endemic regions of the world, is seasonal, with peaks during the wet-hot months. This temporal pattern is generally attributed to the dynamics of its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.). The objectives of this study were to characterize the temporal pattern of Ae. aegypti population dynamics in three neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro and its association with local meteorological variables; and to compare positivity and density indices obtained with ovitraps and MosquiTraps. The three neighborhoods are distinct in vegetation coverage, sanitation, water supply, and urbanization. Mosquito sampling was carried out weekly, from September 2006 to March 2008, a period during which large dengue epidemics occurred in the city. Our results show peaks of oviposition in early summer 2007 and late summer 2008, detected by both traps. The ovitrap provided a more sensitive index than MosquiTrap. The MosquiTrap detection threshold showed high variation among areas, corresponding to a mean egg density of approximately 25-52 eggs per ovitrap. Both temperature and rainfall were significantly related to Ae. aegypti indices at a short (1 wk) time lag. Our results suggest that mean weekly temperature above 22-24 degrees C is strongly associated with high Ae. aegypti abundance and consequently with an increased risk of dengue transmission. Understanding the effects of meteorological variables on Ae. aegypti population dynamics will help to target control measures at the times when vector populations are greatest, contributing to the development of climate-based control and surveillance measures for dengue fever in a hyperendemic area.

  16. QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina Reads

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Guillaume; Yorke, James A.; Zimin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Illumina Sequencing data can provide high coverage of a genome by relatively short (most often 100 bp to 150 bp) reads at a low cost. Even with low (advertised 1%) error rate, 100 × coverage Illumina data on average has an error in some read at every base in the genome. These errors make handling the data more complicated because they result in a large number of low-count erroneous k-mers in the reads. However, there is enough information in the reads to correct most of the sequencing errors, thus making subsequent use of the data (e.g. for mapping or assembly) easier. Here we use the term “error correction” to denote the reduction in errors due to both changes in individual bases and trimming of unusable sequence. We developed an error correction software called QuorUM. QuorUM is mainly aimed at error correcting Illumina reads for subsequent assembly. It is designed around the novel idea of minimizing the number of distinct erroneous k-mers in the output reads and preserving the most true k-mers, and we introduce a composite statistic π that measures how successful we are at achieving this dual goal. We evaluate the performance of QuorUM by correcting actual Illumina reads from genomes for which a reference assembly is available. Results We produce trimmed and error-corrected reads that result in assemblies with longer contigs and fewer errors. We compared QuorUM against several published error correctors and found that it is the best performer in most metrics we use. QuorUM is efficiently implemented making use of current multi-core computing architectures and it is suitable for large data sets (1 billion bases checked and corrected per day per core). We also demonstrate that a third-party assembler (SOAPdenovo) benefits significantly from using QuorUM error-corrected reads. QuorUM error corrected reads result in a factor of 1.1 to 4 improvement in N50 contig size compared to using the original reads with SOAPdenovo for the data sets investigated

  17. QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina Reads.

    PubMed

    Marçais, Guillaume; Yorke, James A; Zimin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Illumina Sequencing data can provide high coverage of a genome by relatively short (most often 100 bp to 150 bp) reads at a low cost. Even with low (advertised 1%) error rate, 100 × coverage Illumina data on average has an error in some read at every base in the genome. These errors make handling the data more complicated because they result in a large number of low-count erroneous k-mers in the reads. However, there is enough information in the reads to correct most of the sequencing errors, thus making subsequent use of the data (e.g. for mapping or assembly) easier. Here we use the term "error correction" to denote the reduction in errors due to both changes in individual bases and trimming of unusable sequence. We developed an error correction software called QuorUM. QuorUM is mainly aimed at error correcting Illumina reads for subsequent assembly. It is designed around the novel idea of minimizing the number of distinct erroneous k-mers in the output reads and preserving the most true k-mers, and we introduce a composite statistic π that measures how successful we are at achieving this dual goal. We evaluate the performance of QuorUM by correcting actual Illumina reads from genomes for which a reference assembly is available. We produce trimmed and error-corrected reads that result in assemblies with longer contigs and fewer errors. We compared QuorUM against several published error correctors and found that it is the best performer in most metrics we use. QuorUM is efficiently implemented making use of current multi-core computing architectures and it is suitable for large data sets (1 billion bases checked and corrected per day per core). We also demonstrate that a third-party assembler (SOAPdenovo) benefits significantly from using QuorUM error-corrected reads. QuorUM error corrected reads result in a factor of 1.1 to 4 improvement in N50 contig size compared to using the original reads with SOAPdenovo for the data sets investigated. QuorUM is distributed

  18. [Psychiatry and criminology in Criminal Justice: Jury Trial Courts and Appellate Courts in the Federal District of Rio de Janeiro, during the 1930s].

    PubMed

    Dias, Allister Andrew Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    As part of a research study on the 1930s and 1940s medical-criminological debate in Brazil, this research paper analyzes some of the uses and criticisms of arguments of a psychiatric and criminological nature, among certain jurists who carried out important work in the city of Rio de Janeiro during the 1930s. In this context, these magistrates, tended to have significant psychiatric and criminological knowledge, in spite of all the heterogeneity, plurality and differences in perspectives that existed among them. We selected two principal areas to conduct an analysis of the activities of these jurists: the Appellate Court of the Federal District of Rio de Janeiro and Jury Trial Courts.

  19. Local Impacts of Religious Discourses on Rights to Express Same-Sex Sexual Desires in Peri-Urban Rio de Janeiro1

    PubMed Central

    García, Jonathan; Laboy, Miguel Muñoz; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion—in Roman Catholic, evangelical Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions—affected people’s rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors, and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the authors identified how sexual rights were constructed within religious discourses and conducted ethnographic interviews with 45 religious leaders. In the low-income and violent urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, religious leaders and institutions play key roles in molding community inclusion and exclusion. A comparison of the 3 major religious denominations shows a diversity of discourses about same-sex sexual desires and their impacts on community formation. PMID:20161503

  20. [New documental evidence on the history of homeopathy in Latin America: a case study of links between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Tarcitano, Conrado Mariano; Waisse, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Homeopathy began to spread soon after it was formulated by Samuel Hahnemann in the early 1800s, reaching the Southern Cone in the 1830s. In processes of this kind, one figure is often cited as being responsible for introducing it, often attaining quasi-mythical status. Little is known, however, about how homeopathy reached Argentina at that time. Through archival research, we discovered that medical and lay homeopaths circulated between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires. Given the well-known proselytizing of the circles gravitating around lay homeopaths B. Mure and J.V. Martins in Rio de Janeiro, the documents indicate that this movement actually went as far as Argentina, which had not been confirmed until now.

  1. Physical activity in Brazil: lessons from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Almeida, Maria Conceição Chagas; Queiroz, Ciro Oliveira; Aquino, Estela Maria Leão de; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was conducted among civil servants at six higher education institutions located in six Brazilian state capitals. The objective of this review was to identify the publications produced within the scope of ELSA-Brasil that analyzed the participants' physical activity. Review study using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review of Brazilian studies on physical activity produced using data from ELSA-Brasil participants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among ELSA-Brasil participants was low (44.1% among men and 33.8% among women). The main factors associated were social (higher schooling and family income), environmental (living in places with conditions and opportunities for physical activity) and individual (not being obese, being retired, not smoking and positive perception of body image). The perception of facilities for walking in the neighborhood was positively associated with both LTPA and commuting-related physical activity. An active lifestyle was a protective factor against several cardiometa-bolic variables (hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk over the next 10 years). Comparison between LTPA and commuting-related physical activity showed that only LTPA had a protective effect against arterial hypertension. The prevalence of physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants was low. The main determinants were social, environmental and personal. LTPA had a greater protective efect on cardio-metabolic outcomes than did commuting-related physical activity.

  2. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker's cooperatives: an alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina; Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city's main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers' cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker’s cooperatives: An alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina; Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► In the marketing of recyclable materials, the waste-pickers are the least wins. ► It is proposed creating a network of recycling cooperatives to achieve viability. ► The waste-pickers contribute to waste management to the city. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city’s main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers’ cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  4. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from blood in Rio de Janeiro displaying susceptibility profiles to non-β-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Zuma, Alexandra Vidal Pedinotti; Lima, Danielle Ferreira; Assef, Ana Paula D'Alincourt Carvalho; Marques, Elizabeth Andrade; Leão, Robson Souza

    The distinction between healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) and community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections has become increasingly blurred. We assessed the molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance profile for MRSA isolates from blood. Most of all (81.9%) isolates are related to known HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA epidemic lineages, such as, USA300, USA400, USA600, USA800 and USA1100. This is the first multicenter study in Rio de Janeiro.

  5. Universal Monitor (UM) for OTEC compact heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1981-09-01

    Universal Monitor (UM), is a device-independent concept to measure, with precision, the initiation and progression of fouling in any given OTEC Compact Heat Exchanger model with or without the application of countermeasures. Design description and supporting analyses for the Universal Monitor for OTEC Compact Heat Exchangers are presented.

  6. [Temporal analysis of the relationship between leptospirosis and the occurrence of flooding due to rainfall in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2007-2012].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Parreira, Viviane Gomes; Mazoto, Maíra Lopes; Vieira, Juliana Dias; Asmus, Carmen Ildes Rodrigues Fróes

    2014-09-01

    The scope of this study is to examine the effect of the average monthly rainfall on the risk of contracting leptospirosis in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 2007 and 2012. It involves an analytical ecological study conducted in the city of Rio de Janeiro in the 2007-2012 period. The variable for the outcome was the number of leptospirosis cases per month, and the independent variable was the average monthly rainfall recorded by the 32 monitoring stations per year. It was decided to model the relationship between cases of leptospirosis and the effects of rain by building a generalized linear model using negative binomial distribution. The rainfall-lag per month was found to be a strong explanatory factor for the number of cases of leptospirosis. This study indicates that the average monthly rainfall may constitute an indicator that enables the execution of actions in order to prepare the health sector for the probable increase in cases of this disease. Therefore, it is necessary to implement the interaction between the work of epidemiological surveillance, especially by situation rooms in periods of crisis, and the risk management teams of environmental surveillance, to increase the response capacity to natural disasters in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro.

  7. [Climate variables, living conditions and the health of the population: leptospirosis in the city of Rio de Janeiro from 1996 to 2009].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Teresa Vieira dos Santos; Marinho, Diana Pinheiro; Costa Neto, Cristina; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon

    2012-06-01

    Extreme climate events have major repercussions on the health of the population, especially when they cause disease or even result in victims due to accidents. The population of Rio de Janeiro is vulnerable to climate variations, mainly due to the socio-economic factors, as the city has a topography and climate that enhance this vulnerability. This article discusses the evolution of leptospirosis in the thirty-two administrative regions of the city of Rio de Janeiro from 1996 through 2009, testing the hypothesis that climate variations lead to an increase in the number of cases of the disease. The meteorological data examined were provided by the National Meteorology Institute and the Brazilian Airport Infrastructure Company. Data on the morbidity and mortality of leptospirosis was collected from Rio de Janeiro's Municipal Health and Civil Defense Department. In this work, it was concluded that there is a direct correlation between the incidence of leptospirosis and rainfall. However, in the final analysis, it must be emphasized that the oscillation of the number of cases is not only determined by rainfall, since other factors influence this dynamic, such as sanitation, in addition to environmental and social factors.

  8. The role of Primary Healthcare in the coordination of Health Care Networks in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Lisbon region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Rodrigues, Ludmila Barbosa Bandeira

    2017-03-01

    Considering the trajectory of Rio de Janeiro e Lisboa region regarding strengths of the their health local systems to achieve health for all and equity, the study aimed to compare the organization of the Primary Healthcare from both regions, searching to identify the advancement which in terms of the Delivery Health Networks' coordination. It is a case study with qualitative approach and assessment dimensions. It was used material available online such as scientific manuscripts and gray literature. The results showed the different grades regarding Delivery Health Networks. Lisboa region present more advancement, because of its historic issues, it has implemented Primary Healthcare expanded and nowadays it achieved enough maturity related to coordination of its health local system and Rio de Janeiro suffers still influence from historic past regarding Primary Healthcare selective. The both regions has done strong bids in terms of electronic health records and telemedicine. After of the study, it is clearer the historic, cultural and politics and legal issue that determined the differences of the Primary Healthcare coordinator of the Delivery Health Network in Rio de Janeiro and Lisboa region.

  9. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  10. Molecular Characterization of Giardia lamblia: First Report of Assemblage B in Human Isolates from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of giardiasis, the genetic characterization of Giardia lamblia has been poorly documented in Brazil and molecular epidemiology research has only been conducted in the last few years. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different G. lamblia assemblages and detect mixed infections among patients with giardiasis. The cross-section survey was conducted among patients attending the FIOCRUZ in Rio de Janeiro. In order to discriminate the genetic assemblages/sub-assemblages, G. lamblia isolates were characterized by PCR-RFLP and qPCR using four loci genes (bg, gdh, tpi and orfC4). Of the 65 positive samples, 41 (63.1%) were successfully amplified by nested-PCR of bg and gdh genes. Among them, 16 were typed as sub-assemblage AII, 7 as BIII, 4 as BIV and 8 as a mixture of BIII and BIV. After the analysis by qPCR assay, a total of 55 (84.6%) samples were amplified using at least one locus: bg gene was amplified in 38 (58.5%) samples, gdh in 41 (63.1%), tpi in 39 (60%), and orfC4 in 39 (60%). Multilocus genotyping results showed that 29 (52.7%) samples belonged to Assemblage A and 26 (47.3%) samples belonged to Assemblage B. In 2011 and 2012, 20 (74.1%) samples belonged to Assemblage A and 7 (25.9%) belonged to Assemblage B. In subsequent years (2013-2015) there was a predominance of Assemblage B, 19 (67.9%) versus 9 (32.1%) Assemblage A. This is the first time that Assemblage B of G. lamblia was reported in human clinical samples from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and is the first report about genetic characterization using four genes. The qPCR assemblage-specific showed no mixed infections by Assemblages A and B. A switch in genetic profile over the years was observed, firstly predominance of Assemblage A and lastly of Assemblage B.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Giardia lamblia: First Report of Assemblage B in Human Isolates from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the high prevalence of giardiasis, the genetic characterization of Giardia lamblia has been poorly documented in Brazil and molecular epidemiology research has only been conducted in the last few years. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different G. lamblia assemblages and detect mixed infections among patients with giardiasis. Methods and Principal Findings The cross-section survey was conducted among patients attending the FIOCRUZ in Rio de Janeiro. In order to discriminate the genetic assemblages/sub-assemblages, G. lamblia isolates were characterized by PCR-RFLP and qPCR using four loci genes (bg, gdh, tpi and orfC4). Of the 65 positive samples, 41 (63.1%) were successfully amplified by nested-PCR of bg and gdh genes. Among them, 16 were typed as sub-assemblage AII, 7 as BIII, 4 as BIV and 8 as a mixture of BIII and BIV. After the analysis by qPCR assay, a total of 55 (84.6%) samples were amplified using at least one locus: bg gene was amplified in 38 (58.5%) samples, gdh in 41 (63.1%), tpi in 39 (60%), and orfC4 in 39 (60%). Multilocus genotyping results showed that 29 (52.7%) samples belonged to Assemblage A and 26 (47.3%) samples belonged to Assemblage B. In 2011 and 2012, 20 (74.1%) samples belonged to Assemblage A and 7 (25.9%) belonged to Assemblage B. In subsequent years (2013–2015) there was a predominance of Assemblage B, 19 (67.9%) versus 9 (32.1%) Assemblage A. Conclusions This is the first time that Assemblage B of G. lamblia was reported in human clinical samples from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and is the first report about genetic characterization using four genes. The qPCR assemblage-specific showed no mixed infections by Assemblages A and B. A switch in genetic profile over the years was observed, firstly predominance of Assemblage A and lastly of Assemblage B. PMID:27517469

  12. [Intra-urban mobility in the city of Rio de Janeiro. From social stratification to spatial residential segregation].

    PubMed

    Smolka, M O

    1992-01-01

    The data used were derived from the IPPUR/ITBI/IPTU archive, which contains approximately 2 million annual real estate transactions for the period 1968-88 and more for 1990 for the city of Rio de Janeiro. These registers are maintained for levying taxes and they describe the property, the objective of the transaction, the type, location, size, value as well as participation in the financial system of residency (SFH). This information allows the construction of intraurban mobility matrices, first between 96 neighborhoods of the city and then for 24 administrative regions (RAs) of Rio de Janeiro. Problems were abundant: only 1483 (29%) of 5089 transactions for 1985-88 were used, and 35% for 1990 because of poor data quality. The determinants of intraurban mobility were: 1) demographic (life cycle of families), 2) socioeconomic (changes of employment), and 3) environmental and cultural (dilapidation, violence, pollution, and life style). Mobility trends demonstrated that 46.2% of changes were downward moves and only 33.1% were upward moves. Among upward changes 16.8% involved the acquisition of a new apartment, while among downward moves this constituted only 8.9%. SFH financially assisted the purchase of 14% of upward moves vs. 12.9% of downward moves. Among upward deals in the 6 most favored residential areas, 45.3% of transactions occurred in the city. The moves did not indicate a strong segmentation of the market reaffirming the process of residential segregation between rich and poor people. More than half of real estate acquisitions were realized by families residing in the same RA or in the adjacent RA. More than 75% of transactions for residents of 6 RAs were carried out in the same RA or in adjacent ones. The 10 most important moves (1.74% of all potential moves) involved 21.17% of transactions in the city. The most important moves affected the 3 RAs of Barra da Tijuca of the southern zone, which represented 57.1% of all transactions that occurred in the RA

  13. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE PAGES

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; ...

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  14. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.

  15. Biotic and abiotic effects on the intestinal helminth community of the brown rat Rattus norvegicus from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simões, R O; Luque, J L; Gentile, R; Rosa, M C S; Costa-Neto, S; Maldonado, A

    2016-01-01

    Rattus norvegicus has attracted much attention because of its role as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens. This work aimed to identify the intestinal helminth species in R. norvegicus and to analyse the effects of temperature, rainfall, host age and sex on the helminth community structure. Moreover, this study investigated the possible associations among helminth species in an urban population of R. norvegicus in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, sampled during the rainy and dry seasons over a span of 2 years. A total of 112 rats were infected by six species of helminths. The nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was the most prevalent and abundant species, with high mean intensity in both seasons, followed by Strongyloides venezuelensis, Heterakis spumosa, Raillietina sp., Hymenolepis nana and Moniliformis moniliformis. Co-occurrence was found between N. brasiliensis and S. venezuelensis and between N. brasiliensis and H. spumosa. The occurrence of S. venezuelensis was related to rainfall. The understanding of the helminth community structure in this synanthropic rat provides basic information on parasites of public health importance, as two helminth species (H. nana and M. moniliformis) recovered from rats in the urban area studied can infect humans.

  16. [Gender and age differences in social support and body mass index in adults in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    França-Santos, Debora; Oliveira, Aldair José de; Salles-Costa, Rosana; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-06-05

    The objective was to investigate gender and age differences in the association between dimensions of social support and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 1,465 adults (20 to 59 years) in a population-based study in Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Anthropometry was conducted by trained evaluators and social support obtained by the Medical Outcomes Study, adapted and validated for the Brazilian population. The analyses were performed with multiple linear regressions, stratified by gender and age bracket, considering the sample's expansion factor and complex design. Obesity prevalence was 28% in women and 16.2% in men. After adjusting for confounders, a negative association was observed between social support and BMI in men 40-49 years of age, and in emotional support/information (β = -2.04), and positive social interaction (β = -2.40). There was a positive association for social support and BMI in men 50-59 years of age in emotional support/information (β = 1.84). The study indicates that social support can protect against obesity in men in some dimensions and age brackets. However, social support does not appear to be a protective factor in women.

  17. A comparison of tuberculosis diagnostic systems in a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    David, Solange Gonçalves; Lovero, Kathryn L; Pombo March, Maria de Fátima B; Abreu, Thalita G; Ruffino Netto, Antonio; Kritski, Afranio L; Sant'Anna, Clemax C

    2017-06-01

    The diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) presents many challenges, and is further complicated in HIV-infected patients. While many diagnostic systems have been proposed, there is no pediatric TB diagnosis gold standard. The outcomes of four TB diagnostic systems in HIV-infected children were compared in this study. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a TB/HIV reference hospital in Rio de Janeiro. HIV-infected pediatric patients evaluated for TB from 1998 to 2010 were reassessed using four diagnostic systems: Kenneth Jones, 1969; Tidjani, 1986; Ben Marais, 2006; Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2010. Results were compared to standardized diagnoses made by an expert panel of physicians. Of the 121 patients in the study cohort, the expert panel diagnosed 64 as TB and 57 as not TB cases. The Tidjani system showed the highest diagnostic accuracy, with and without the inclusion of microbiological data. The Tidjani and Kenneth Jones systems produced fewer false-positives, and the Ben Marais and Ministry of Health fewer false-negatives. Across systems, there was little agreement between TB diagnoses. In HIV-infected pediatric patients, the Ben Marais and Ministry of Health systems are useful for TB diagnostic screening, whereas the Tidjani and Kenneth Jones systems are best used in a reference center setting. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. [Rabies in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: analysis of surveillance and control actions in the municipal field].

    PubMed

    Moutinho, Flavio Fernando Batista; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; Paixão, Rita Leal

    2015-02-01

    Rabies is an anthropozoonosis characterized by acute viral encephalitis with a lethality rate close to 100%, and it has undergone an epidemiologic transition in which the cycle involving chiroptera is increasing in importance. The scope of this research sought to analyze the rabies surveillance and control actions carried out in municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample of zoonosis control service managers proportionately calculated in accordance with the Health Regions, according to the State Regionalization Guidance Plan. The data gathered was recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. Based on the results attained, the conclusion reached is that the rabies surveillance and control actions were being unsatisfactorily conducted, especially for items related to the monitoring of vampire bat colonies, viral circulation surveillance, notification and monitoring of suspect or aggressive animals, quantification of dog population and population control of stray dogs. The surveillance and control of rabies was being neglected, and was not a priority in the health services in the municipalities evaluated.

  19. [Youths in the shantytowns (favelas) of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil: from social vulnerability to opportunities for human development].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Gustavo de Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Based on a review of living conditions in the complex and dynamic reality of the shantytowns ("favelas") of Rio de Janeiro and the main difficulties facing the human development of youths in this context, we analyze the social protection function involved in educational projects that offer new opportunities for life. In this article we analyze the relationship between the variables of social exclusion, poverty and violence, jointly grouped in the social vulnerability category, and the variables related to opportunities for human development grouped in the resilience category. The socio-educational projects constitute an important factor of resilience, able to influence the subjective development of young people and impact the improvement in the quality of life in the favelas. The social recognition and the relationship of trust established with educators and other youths in similar situations foster efforts to develop changes in attitude and to build new possibilities of life in spite of social vulnerability. The opportunity to experience interpersonal relationships, emotional bonds and positive social interaction can promote changes in the world view of youths and elicit a desire to change their living conditions and enhance their projects for the future.

  20. Infection of water buffalo in Rio de Janeiro Brazil with Anaplasma marginale strains also reported in cattle.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Barbosa, José D; de la Fuente, José

    2014-10-15

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and causes the disease bovine anaplasmosis. The importance of water buffalo in the world economy is increasing. In addition, while water buffalo may serve as a reservoir host for A. marginale, the susceptibility of this host for A. marginale cattle strains in Brazil has not been reported. The major surface protein 1 alpha (msp1α) gene has been shown to be a stable genetic marker for identification of A. marginale strains. Herein, we analyzed blood samples from 200 water buffalo and identified the A. marginale strains in an endemic area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where ticks were present and water buffalo and cattle co-mingled. Ticks that were feeding on the study buffalo were collected and identified. The prevalence of A. marginale in water buffalo in this study was low (10%). Sequence analysis of the msp1α gene demonstrated the presence of 8 different A. marginale strains. Two A. marginale strains in the water buffalo, (α-β-β-β-Γ) and (α-β-β-Γ), were similar to those reported in cattle from nearby regions. The results of this study suggested that water buffalo in this region are naturally infected with the same strains of A. marginale found in cattle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of prisons on the mental health of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Constantino, Patricia; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the mental health status of inmates and people in custody in the state of Rio de Janeiro and the association between mental health and imprisonment using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults. 1,573 individuals, via stratified sampling with probability proportional to size. more than half have up to 29 years old; 70.6% were black/brown; 77.4% had strong family ties; 42.9% had been incarcerated for under a year; and 22,9% performed work tasks in prison. Stress: 35.8% of men and 57.9% of women. Factors associated with stress among men: length of time in prison and family ties. Male prisoners who had been in prison for between 1 and 9 years are 0.55 times less likely to experience stress symptoms than those who had been in prison for less than a year; those with regular/weak family ties are more likely to experience stress than those with strong ties. Women with only regular/weak family ties are more likely to experience stress; work tasks performed in prison was a protective factor. Depression: 7.5% of women and 6.3% of men. Among men, practicing a religion, maintaining strong family ties, and performing prison work tasks are protective factors. Among women, an association was found between depression and family ties.

  2. [Spatial analysis of dengue occurrence and living conditions in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Machado, Juliana Pires; Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães de; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo

    2009-05-01

    The reemergence, spread, and persistence of dengue are currently challenging the Brazilian health system. Factors related to living conditions have been addressed to understand different health outcomes. This study examines the occurrence of dengue and its relationship to living conditions in the city of Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State, from 1996 to 2004. Data on dengue occurrence were obtained from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System (SINAN). A composite indicator of socioeconomic and urban infrastructure variables was created to characterize the prevailing living conditions, using 2000 census data. Operations between layers were used to identify spatial associations between the composite indicator and dengue incidence by neighborhood. The results do not show a linear relationship between poor living conditions and disease occurrence, but the spatial patterns indicated greater susceptibility of areas with inequalities in living conditions and behind highway access routes. The results also suggest that such inequalities can influence the dengue time trend. Thus, models that consider the interaction between socioeconomic variables (and not only the quantification of social indicators) can be useful for dengue surveillance.

  3. Exposure source prevalence is associated with gender in hepatitis C virus patients from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Olmedo, Daniele Blasquez; Precioso, Patrícia Marraccini; Lugdero-Correia, António; da Silva, Guida; dos Santos, Angela Maria Guimarães; Pôrto, Luís Cristóvão

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. A characterisation of the differences in exposure sources among genders will enable improvements in surveillance actions. METHODS Exposure data were obtained for 1180 confirmed HCV cases Brazil’s mandatory reporting to epidemiological surveillance, which was directed by a reference laboratory in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Chi-square test (χ2) was used to assess the associations between exposure sources and gender. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated for exposures that showed an association. RESULTS The results showed 57.7% cases were female, and associations with snorting drugs, sexual activity, surgery, aesthetic procedures, blood transfusions, and educational level were observed (p < 0.001). Men showed 2.53 (1.33-3.57), 4.83 (3.54-6.59), and 2.18 (1.33-3.57) times more exposure to sniffing drugs, risky sex and higher levels of education, respectively, than women. Women demonstrated 4.46 (3.21-6.21), 1.94 (1.43-2.63), and 3.10 (2.09-4.61) times more exposure to surgery, aesthetic procedures, and blood transfusions, respectively, than men. CONCLUSION Our results showed differences in risk behaviours associated with gender among HCV carriers. These data are likely to significantly influence clinical practice regarding the adoption of specific approaches for counselling and control policies to prevent the emergence of new cases and break the chain of transmission of the virus. PMID:28902289

  4. Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere of the Botanical Garden of the City of Rio de Janeiro: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cleyton Martins; Souza, Elaine Cesar C A; da Silva, Luane Lima; Oliveira, Rafael Lopes; Corrêa, Sergio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    2016-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a central role in atmospheric chemistry. In this work, VOCs in the Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro were determined using the TO-15 Method. The park occupies 1,370,000 m(2) in the southern area of the city and is next to the Tijuca Forest, which is considered the largest secondary urban forest in the world. The total VOC concentrations ranged from 43.52 to 168.75 µg m(-3), depending on the sampling site and dates. In terms of concentration isoprene represented 4 %-14 % of the total VOC masses. The results suggested that the differences in biomass, distance from the street and activities within the park affected the concentrations of VOCs. The ratios of isoprene/aromatic compounds were higher than those determined in other areas of the city, confirming that the atmosphere of this green area has the contribution of other sources. Kinetic and mechanistic reactivities were also evaluated.

  5. Leptospirosis as the most frequent infectious disease impairing productivity in small ruminants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Gabriel; Penna, Bruno; Hamond, Camila; Leite, Rachel Cosendey-Kezen; Silva, Andressa; Ferreira, Ana; Brandão, Felipe; Oliveira, Francisco; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2012-04-01

    Despite the importance of small ruminants breeding in developing countries, milk/meat productivity remains unsatisfactory. Infectious diseases, such as leptospirosis, brucellosis, and small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), contribute to this scenario. The objective of the present study was to determine the role of each of these diseases in the productivity of small ruminants breeding in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In goats, 343 samples were tested for leptospirosis, 560 for Brucella abortus, and 506 for caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE), whereas in sheep, 308 samples were tested for leptospirosis, 319 for B. abortus, 374 for Brucella ovis, and 278 for Maedi-Visna (MV). Regarding leptospirosis, 25.9% of goats and 47.4% sheep were seroreactive, with serovar Hardjo the most prevalent in both species. Anti-B. abortus agglutinins were found in 0.7% of all samples, exclusively in goats. In relation to SRLVs, 8.6% of goats and 3.2% of sheep samples were positive for CAE and MV, respectively. Leptospirosis was the major infectious problem in the small ruminants sampled and may contribute to impaired productivity of these animals.

  6. Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Primary Health Care Use for Children: Evidences from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Claudia Leite de; Oliveira, Aline Gaudard E Silva de; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Objectives To assess whether severe physical intimate partner violence (PIPV) after childbirth affects the number of pediatric visits in Primary Health Care (PHC) units during this period. Methods Cross-sectional study including 927 mothers of infants under 6 months, users of 27 PHC units in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PIPV from childbirth to the date of interview was measured using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). The number of pediatric visits in the first 6 months of life was the outcome measure of interest. Poisson and multinomial regression models were used for data analysis to control for confounders. Results Children of mothers who experienced severe PIPV had a reduced number of pediatric visits than those not reporting it. This finding was identified only among children who had health problems: relative to five or more baseline pediatric visits, the chance of 3-4 and 1-2 visits increased three- and five-fold, respectively, when severe PIPV was present. Conclusions The maternal experience of severe PIPV reduces the number of pediatric visits in PHC services among the most vulnerable children. This is a hindrance to adequate health promotion, prevention and care, required for the healthy growth and development of children. Early violence detection by pediatricians and other health professionals could be a step in the right direction.

  7. Distributions of indoor and outdoor air pollutants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Implications to indoor air quality in bayside offices

    SciTech Connect

    Brickus, L.S.R.; Cardoso, J.N.; De Aquino Neto, F.R.

    1998-11-15

    An indoor air quality survey was conducted on selected floors in an office building in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sampling sites comprised four offices located along the same vertical column of the building. Measurements were made on alternate days at the same time of day during working hours. Indoor and outdoor samples were collected for volatile organic compounds (VOC), formaldehyde, total suspended particles (TSP), nicotine, and ultraviolet respirable suspended particles (UV-RSP). Compared with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde was found in higher concentrations outdoors because of the use of ethanol or ethanol/gasoline blends as alternative fuels for automobiles in Brazil. The TVOC concentration ranged from 304.3 to 1679.9 {micro}g/m{sup 3} indoors and 22 to 643.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} outdoors. The indoor level of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) was especially high in the 13th floor office. A minor contribution from environmental tobacco smoke was found. TSP values exceed the Brazilian Legislation in both outdoor and indoor air in the office located near the street traffic. For all pollutants evaluated 1/0 ratios appeared to be higher in offices located on the top of the building. The characterization of indoor air pollutants allowed the suggestion of several remediation measures to improve air quality in the offices.

  8. Traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers in Rio de Janeiro: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bojahr, Lisa S; van Emmerik, Arnold A P

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the occurrence of traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers (FDCS) in Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, the authors examined the relationship between the number of traumatic events and symptom severity, and compared symptom severity in perpetrators versus victims of traumatic events. They found high exposure rates to traumatic events, with 83.5% of the FDCS (n = 97) and 57.9% of the controls (n = 95) having experienced more than 5 events. FDCS had higher mean scores for trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), depressive symptoms, and general mental health problems, compared to controls. More FDCS than controls satisfied DSM-IV symptom criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (36.4% vs. 15.8%) and reported severe depressive symptoms (25.8% vs. 8.3%). The number of traumatic events was strongly related to PTS among FDCS (r = .48). Furthermore, more FDCS than controls (23.7% vs. 10.5%) identified themselves as a perpetrator of 1 or more traumatic events. Among FDCS, perpetrators reported more PTS than victims. It is concluded that being a (former) drug cartel soldier is associated with elevated trauma exposure and severe trauma-related psychopathology. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Prediction of ozone concentration in tropospheric levels using artificial neural networks and support vector machine at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, A. S.; Paredes, M. L. L.; de Oliveira, G. C. G.; Corrêa, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that air quality is a complex function of emissions, meteorology and topography, and statistical tools provide a sound framework for relating these variables. The observed data were contents of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), scalar wind speed (SWS), global solar radiation (GSR), temperature (TEM), moisture content in the air (HUM), collected by a mobile automatic monitoring station at Rio de Janeiro City in two places of the metropolitan area during 2011 and 2012. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyze the behavior of the variables, using the method of PCA for exploratory data analysis; (2) to propose forecasts of O3 levels from primary pollutants and meteorological factors, using nonlinear regression methods like ANN and SVM, from primary pollutants and meteorological factors. The PCA technique showed that for first dataset, variables NO, NOx and SWS have a greater impact on the concentration of O3 and the other data set had the TEM and GSR as the most influential variables. The obtained results from the nonlinear regression techniques ANN and SVM were remarkably closely and acceptable to one dataset presenting coefficient of determination for validation respectively 0.9122 and 0.9152, and root mean square error of 7.66 and 7.85, respectively. For these datasets, the PCA, SVM and ANN had demonstrated their robustness as useful tools for evaluation, and forecast scenarios for air quality.

  10. Putting solid household waste to sustainable use: a case study in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Márcia da Silva; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Bufoni, André Luiz; Oliveira, Luciano Basto

    2012-12-01

    The management of solid residues has, in recent decades, been a source of concern for public administrators the world over. Experiments in the sustainable use of such residues are highly relevant in social and environmental terms, stimulating widespread interest and debate, with considerable research going into sustainability projects. In many areas, however, adequate public funding for sustainable-use projects is hard to come by. One of the major reasons for this is that public authorities, particularly in times of financial constraints, are reluctant to invest in undertakings in which the economic returns are difficult to quantify. Official scrutiny of the expenditures of public authorities is also normally heavily influenced by cost-benefit analyses. The specific objective of this article is to show that putting solid domestic residue (household solid waste) to sustainable use is capable of generating economic returns, as well as environmental benefits for society as a whole. These economic returns can be set out in financial statements, which may, in turn, be used to justify expenditures by public authorities on sustainable-use projects and as a basis for further investment in such incentives. We drew on the findings of existing research into sustainable use, undertaken by the Municipal Urban Cleaning Company in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to establish a conceptual framework for setting out the economic results of the collection of household solid waste.

  11. Abandonment of Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Socioeconomic Factors in Children and Adolescents: Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Angela Marcia Cabral; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Sant’Anna, Clemax Couto

    2016-01-01

    Background Routine data on the use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in children and adolescents are scarce in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. Objective To describe the factors related to abandonment of IPT in children and adolescents with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) receiving routine care. Methods Retrospective (2005–2009) descriptive study of 286 LTBI cases with indication of IPT and serviced at a pediatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Survival analysis of the risk of abandonment of IPT over six months was performed, including multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Out of the 245 cases of LTBI included, 62 abandoned IPT (25.3%; 95% CI: 20%-31%). On multivariate analysis, the variables related to the IPT abandonment hazard ratio were the Human Development Index (HDI) (hazard ratio—HR: 0.004; 0.000–0.569) of the place of residence and the contact with adults that were not undergoing anti-TB treatment (HR: 7.30; 1.00–53.3). Conclusion This study reveals the relevance of the relation of abandonment of IPT to the socioeconomic conditions at the place of residence and poor adherence to the active TB treatment. Educational measures to stimulate preventive treatment of child contacts and curative treatment of index cases should target the full familial setting. PMID:27149514

  12. Groundwater radon, radium and uranium concentrations in Região dos Lagos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, R M R; Lauria, D C; Ferreira, A C; Sracek, O

    2004-01-01

    Ground water from Região dos Lagos, a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro state, was analysed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (222)Rn, (238)U, major ion concentrations, and physico-chemical parameters were also measured. Concentrations values ranged from <0.002 to 0.492 Bq l(-1) for (226)Ra, from <0.01 to 1.50 Bq l(-1) for (228)Ra and from < 1.0 x 10(-4) to 8.0 x 10(-2) Bq l(-1) for (238)U. Detectable (222)Rn concentrations (>3 Bq l(-1)) were found only in two samples. The spatial distribution of Ra concentration delineated one distinct area and some hot spots with high Ra concentration. Low pH value is the most important water parameter linked to high radium concentration. This is probably related to limited adsorption of radium on soil ferric oxides and hydroxides at low pH range. There was a significant correlation between uranium concentrations and electrical conductivity values, and also between uranium concentrations and concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, K, and Cl, indicating sea water impact. Uranium concentrations were lower than maximum contaminant level for drinking water, whereas 17 out of the 88 ground water samples had levels of radium that exceeded the maximum contaminant level for tap water. The total annual effective dose for adult due to the water consumption reaches values up to 0.8 mSv.

  13. Socio-environmental determinants of the leptospirosis outbreak of 1996 in western Rio de Janeiro: a geographical approach.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, C; Sabroza, P C

    2000-12-01

    The environmental and social context in which a leptospirosis outbreak took place during the summer of 1996 in the Rio de Janeiro Western Region was examined by using spatial analysis of leptospirosis cases merged with population and environmental data in a Geographical Information System (GIS). Important differences were observed between places where residences of leptospirosis cases are concentrated and other places in the region. Water supply coverage, solid waste collection, sewerage system coverage and flood risk area were the main determining variables from an initial list of ten. The influence of these unfavorable social and environmental factors is verified hundreds of meters distant from the leptospirosis case residences, demonstrating a necessity to broaden the area of health surveillance practices. The geocoding indicated that some cases did not report contact with flood water, even though they were geographically adjacent to cases who did report this contact. Cases may only report exposures they believe are related to the disease. Geocoding is a useful tool for evaluating such bias in the exposure recall.

  14. Risk and management in hospital water systems for Legionella pneumophila: a case study in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco

    2004-12-01

    This article analyses the water used at hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The research, based on microbiological and physical-chemical aspects, suggests subsidies for normalization of hospital potable water systems and makes recommendations for standardization of operational procedures for inspection for Legionella pneumophila. A total of 16 hospitals were inspected and positive results for the presence of L. pneumophila were found at five hospitals. These hospitals were integrated in a research project aiming at the detection and quantification of this pathogen. During 10 consecutive weeks, four collections representing a total of 200 analyses were done at the five researched hospitals. In this way seven physical-chemical parameters and three microbiological parameters were observed to evaluate the quality of water in each hospital. The results showed that routine surveillance for a hospital water distribution system is fundamental for public health and must include, as a priority, monitoring of L. pneumophila. The water quality varies in accordance with the hospital water system involved. It is important and necessary to implement environmental culturing in order to minimize hospital infection, in particular, pneumonia data and also to provide the basis for disinfection of the water system.

  15. [Socio-demographic factors and the dengue fever epidemic in 2002 in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Tatiana Rodrigues de Araujo; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    This study analyzed the dengue fever epidemic in 2002 and the socio-demographic context of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using spatial analysis and statistical modeling. The incidence rate was calculated for resident dengue cases in the State in 2002. The study analyzed associations between incidence and socio-demographic variables and spatial autocorrelation using the Moran Global Index, which showed spatial dependence for both the outcome and the independent variables. A multivariate linear regression model was used. The variables' proportion of urban population, percentage of the population with running water, and percentage of coverage by the Family Health Program (FHP) explained 30.2% of the total variance in the epidemic's incidence rate. The model's residuals did not show spatial autocorrelation. The associations were in the expected direction, and the findings are corroborated by other studies that showed higher dengue incidence in areas characterized by growing urbanization and deficient running water and water supply, while highlighting the FHP as an important facilitator of vector control strategies.

  16. Characterization of ectoparasites in an urban cat (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) population of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Crissiuma, Ana Lucia; Gershony, Liza Crissiuma; Willi, Liliane Maria Valentin; Paiva, Jonimar Pereira; Guerrero, Jorge; Labarthe, Norma

    2011-06-01

    Ectoparasites are capable of transmitting infectious diseases and, therefore, are of zoonotic concern. Cats submitted to a spay/neuter program in the city of Rio de Janeiro were examined to determine the distribution of ectoparasites in cats from a city with a tropical climate. Independent of gender, breed, or age, 292 cats were combed and subjected to otoscopic examination. Ectoparasites were collected, and blood samples were taken to determine packed cell volume. The majority of the 292 cats were female (71%), and most of them were categorized as domestic short hair cats (92%). Different species of ectoparasites that produced both single agent and multi-agent infestations were detected in these cats. Most cats were infested by Ctenocephalides felis (60%); however, other ectoparasites were found to a lesser degree in the sampled population (Felicola subrostratus (5.4%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (1.4%), Lynxacarus radovskyi (1%), and Otodectes cynotis (6.2%)). Within the infested cats, 16.3% were also anemic, and there was a significant association between the occurrence of anemia and flea infestation. Of all sampled cats, 65% were infested by at least one species of ectoparasites, which suggests both a heavy infestation of the environment and owner negligence. Ectoparasites are not only nuisances to both cats and owners, but they are also significant carriers of disease. Therefore, the implementation of rigorous, safe preventive measures is of great importance.

  17. Testing multivariate analysis in paleoenvironmental reconstructions using pollen records from Lagoa Salgada, NE Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Mauro B de; Barth, Ortrud M; Silva, Cleverson G; Barros, Marcia A

    2009-12-01

    Despite the indisputable significance of identification of modern analogs for Paleoecology research, relatively few studies attempted to integrate modern and fossil samples on paleoenvironmental reconstructions. In Palynology, this general pattern is not different from other fields of Paleoecology. This study demonstrates the practical application of modern pollen deposition data on paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on fossil pollen by using multivariate analysis. The main goal of this study was to use Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) to compare pollen samples from two sediment cores collected at Lagoa Salgada, a coastal lagoon located at northeastern Rio de Janeiro State. Furthermore, modern surface samples were also statistically compared with samples from both cores, providing new paleoecological insights. DCA demonstrated that samples from both cores are more similar than previously expected, and that a strong pattern, related to a paleoenvironmental event, is present within the fossil data, clearly identifying in the scatter plot samples that represent pre- and post-environmental change. Additionally, it became apparent that modern vegetation and environmental conditions were established in this region 2500 years before present (BP). Multivariate Analysis allowed a more reliable integration of modern and fossil pollen data, proving to be a powerful tool in Paleoecology studies that should be employed more often on paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  18. Anxious and depressed women's experiences of emotional suffering and help seeking in a Rio de Janeiro favela.

    PubMed

    Athié, Karen; Dowrick, Christopher; Menezes, Alice Lopes do Amaral; Cruz, Luanda; Lima, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Pedro Gabriel Godinho; Favoretto, Cesar; Fortes, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Taking into consideration issues such as stigma and the mental health gap, this study explores narratives of anxious and depressed women treated in a community-based primary care service in a Rio de Janeiro favela about their suffering and care. We analysed 13 in-depth interviews using questions from Kadam's study. Framework analysis studied Access, Gateway, Trust, Psychosocial Issues, and Primary Mental Health Care, as key-concepts. Vulnerability and accessibility were the theoretical references. Thematic analysis found "suffering category", highlighting family and community problems, and "help seeking category", indicating how these women have coped with their emotional problems and addressed their needs through health services, community resources and self-help. Women's language patterns indicated links between implicit social rules and constraints to talk about suffering, especially if related to local violence. High medical turnover and overload are barriers for establishing a positive relationship with family physicians and continuity of care is a facilitator that promotes trust, security and adherence. Concluding, to plan community-based primary mental health care of this population, cultural and social factors must be comprehended as well as the work health teams conditions.

  19. Ticks on birds caught on the campus of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santolin, Isis Daniele Alves Costa; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Alchorne, Nívea Maria; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Melinski, Ramiro Dário; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Ferreira, Ildemar; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of parasitic infections, particularly those caused by ectoparasites, may influence the biology and ecology of wild birds. The aim of this study was to investigate occurrences and identify the species of ticks collected from wild birds caught on the campus of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro. The birds were caught using mist nets between October 2009 and December 2010. In total, 223 birds were caught, represented by 53 species and 19 families in nine orders. Nineteen birds (n = 7 species) were parasitized by immature ticks (prevalence of 8.5%). Forty-four ticks were collected, of which 23 were nymphs and 21 were larvae. There were associations between parasitism by ticks and non-Passeriformes birds, and between parasitism and ground-dwelling birds, which was possibly due to the presence (or inclusion among the captured birds) of Vanellus chilensis (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae). All the nymphs collected were identified as Amblyomma cajennense. In general terms, we must emphasize that wild birds in the study area may play the role of dispersers for the immature stages of A. cajennense, albeit non-preferentially.

  20. Characteristics of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Wild Birds Confiscated in Illegal Trade Markets, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Carlos Alexandre Rey; Pereira, Ingrid Annes; de Araújo, Maiara dos Santos; Santos, André Felipe Mercês; Lopes, Rudi Pereira; Christakis, Sandra; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was investigated in 109 wild birds poached in the illegal wildlife trade in Rio de Janeiro; most of them are passerines from Thraupidae family and three from Psittacidae. One strain of Salmonella ser. Typhimurium and two strains of Salmonella ser. Panama were isolated from passerine species and all of them showed resistance to multiple antimicrobial drugs, like ampicillin, ceftriaxone, ceftiofur, tetracycline, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. PFGE showed 100% similarity among the Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strain isolated from a Temminck's seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris) and the strains isolated from a human outbreak, in southern Brazil. The two Salmonella ser. Panama strains isolated from two chestnut-capped blackbirds (Chrysomus ruficapillus) present in the same catch showed the same clonal origin and have never been associated with epizooties and human outbreaks. Potential for dissemination of resistant Salmonella through situations offered by captive management and the isolation of the same strain from wild birds and human sources may become a problem for the conservation of natural populations and to public health. PMID:26881216

  1. Functional Capacity of Oldest Old Living in a Long-stay Institution in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fabiano Moura; Costa, Susana Ortiz; Pereira de Freitas, Jeter; Pinto, Adriana da Costa Rocha; Vigário, Patrícia dos Santos; Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] A significant increase in the number of oldest old has occurred worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize the functional capacity of the oldest old residents in a long-stay institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Subjects and Methods] All participants were evaluated according to the following metrics: anthropometry, body composition (bioelectrical impedance), handgrip strength, balance (Berg scale and stabilometry), ankle mobility (electrogoniometry), physical capacity (six-minute walk test), quality of life (WHOQOL-OLD), and dietary habits (questionnaire). [Results] Twenty elderly subjects with a mean age of 85.75 ± 5.22 years and a mean fat percentage of 39.02 ± 5.49% participated in the study. The group at risk of falls (n = 8) had a lower handgrip strength and walked a shorter distance over the course of six minutes compared with the group not at risk of falls. The obese group (n = 15) had higher values for stabilometric variables than the nonobese group. There was a positive and significant correlation between ankle joint mobility and physical capacity (r = 0.47). [Conclusion] High values for obesity and low values for handgrip strength and physical capacity were associated with worse body balance. Low values for ankle mobility were also associated with worse physical capacity in this population. PMID:25140105

  2. [Prenatal care and management of hypertension in pregnant women in the public healthcare system in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vettore, Marcelo Vianna; Dias, Marcos; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of prenatal care for pregnant women with hypertension as compared to those at low risk. Adequate management of hypertension and associated factors were also investigated. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,947 women, 187 of whom with hypertension, in public prenatal care units in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2007-2008. Demographic and socioeconomic data, obstetric history, and information on adequacy of prenatal care were collected using interviews and prenatal care cards. Adequacy of management of hypertension was evaluated according to performance of health professionals and health services and women's individual characteristics. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare groups and identify factors associated with management of hypertension. Adequacy of prenatal care was 79% and did not differ between groups. Only 27% of pregnant women with hypertension received appropriate management, with poor professional performance. Hypertensive pregnant women with better prenatal care were those with previous neonatal deaths and/or stillbirths and those with 35 years of age and older. Despite adequate use of prenatal care, management of hypertension in pregnant women was inadequate.

  3. [The perception of risk among police officers from different areas of the State of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Constantino, Patrícia; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto; Correia, Bruna Soares Chaves

    2013-03-01

    This article seeks to identify the perception of risk among police officers in the State of Rio de Janeiro based on their areas of operation: Capital, Interior and Baixada Fluminense (BF), by analyzing comparative victimization. It is a transversal study using the triangulation method. The quantitative research investigated 533 police officers in the Capital, 159 in the Interior and 222 in the BF; the qualitative approach included interviews with 17 police chiefs and 15 focus groups in the three areas. The results indicate that risk perceptions of officers, and the strategies used to minimize them are characteristics that unite them. Despite its universal nature, risk has differentiated gradations in relation to function and territory of operation. In the Capital there is greater exposure to the risk of confrontation with criminals, less respect for the police from the population, though there is greater operational support from the corporation. Contrary to perception, victimization is related to the territory: 67.8% of police officers were victimized in the Capital last year; 13.7% in the Interior; and 9.7% in the BF. The expectation is that the analyses will provide input for management of technical support and health assistance for police officers, considering the specificities of work in the different areas.

  4. [Professional self-image from the perspective of police officers of the State of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the viewpoint of civil and military police officers of the State of Rio de Janeiro on the issue of professional and human self-image. It adopts five qualitative indicators as parameter of analysis, namely dignity, achievement, recognition, security and promising prospects, drawn from the sociological theory of social roles and proposals for human resource management. From the methodological standpoint, the study provides a contextual analysis of texts written by these agents at the end of a closed questionnaire on work, health and life conditions, conducted in a series of studies that began in 2003 and provided material for two books about these categories. The analysis considered the relevance given by the authors themselves when they describe their situation, using the five indicators mentioned as parameters. The results of this study show that the two categories have serious problems with professional self-image, especially with regard to wages, housing conditions, access to health services and to institutional and psychological support.

  5. Edge effects on the blowfly fauna (Diptera, Calliphoridae) of the Tijuca National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, B Q; Ribeiro, A C; Aguiar, V M; Mello-Patiu, C A

    2015-11-01

    In this contribution we examine the diversity, abundance and species richness of Calliphoridae in the Tijuca National Park, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Specimens were collected monthly between September 2009 and August 2010, using sardines as bait, in three points: A, on the forest edge (22°56'846"S 43°17'496"W), B, 700 m from it (22°57'073"S 43°17'832"W) and C, 1,200 m into the forest (22°57'321"S 43°18'031"W), evaluating the indicator species at each point and the anthropogenic influences and abiotic factors that determine species distribution. A total of 16,364 Calliphoridae were collected and 17 species were identified. Species abundance was strongly positively correlated with temperature. The greatest number of flies was collected at A, but in this point, diversity was lower and most individuals collected belonged to the dominant species. Point C, conversely, had the lower abundance and the highest diversity. Chrysomya megacephala, an urban and synanthropic species, was dominant at point A, whereas Laneela nigripes and Mesembrinella peregrina, typically forest species, were considered indicators at points B and C, respectively, showing that the anthropogenic influence is more intense at the forest edge.

  6. Health literacy skills in type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients from an university-affiliated hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Simone H; Brito, Gilberto N O; Gomes, Marilia B

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder and has considerable impact on quality of life. Treatment of DM2 is complex and adherence to treatment requires sophisticated cognition which includes literacy skills. Health literacy skills of a cross-sectional nonrandom sample of 164 DM2 outpatients at the Diabetes Unit of the Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto at the State University of Rio de Janeiro were evaluated by the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (s-TOFHLA). Procedures available in the SPSS package were used in data analysis. Fourteen out of 164 patients (8.5%) were completely illiterate and therefore were not further assessed. The remaining 150 patients (75 men and 75 women) were the participants of this study. Data showed that 110 (73.3%) participants had adequate health literacy skills, 17 (11.3%) had marginal skills and 23 (15.3%) had inadequate skills. Moreover, older participants performed worse than younger patients. In addition, Caucasian and multiethnic participants performed better than Afro-Brazilians. Furthermore, participants with higher educational and occupational levels outperformed those with lower levels. However, only age and education, but not ethnic group and occupation, contributed significantly and independently to health literacy. This study showed that almost a quarter of the participants are illiterate or have inadequate health literacy skills. Therefore, our results indicate the need for the development of health care instructions properly calibrated to the health literacy skills of DM2 patients.

  7. [Obesity and poverty: the apparent paradox. A study among women from the Rocinha slum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Magalhães, Rosana

    2005-01-01

    In recent decades the Brazilian population has undergone intense changes in its nutritional conditions, especially with an increase in obesity. According to the National Survey on Health and Nutrition in 1989, 32.0% of adults were overweight. However, distribution of the problem is not homogeneous. The highest prevalence occurs among poor women in the Southeast. Understanding this apparent paradox requires the search for approaches capable of overcoming simplistic interpretations about eating practices. Thus, the objective of this study was to understand obesity combined with poverty, focusing beyond economic determinants on constraints of a cultural and symbolic nature. From this perspective, the study analyzed the daily lives of poor women who used a Municipal Health Center and resided in the Rocinha slum in Rio de Janeiro. The results showed the complexity of the relationship between obesity and poverty. Cultural and material life aspects as well as different concepts of eating and the body proved to be fundamental elements for the analysis of the multiple facets of obesity in Brazil.

  8. Paleogenetic and taphonomic analysis of human bones from Moa, Beirada, and Zé Espinho Sambaquis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Anderson Nonato do Rosario; Miranda, Newton Cardoso; Braz, Valéria; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Andrea Kely; de Souza, Sheila Maria Ferraz Mendonça

    2006-12-05

    The present paper discusses mtDNA and taphonomy of human remains from Moa, Beirada, and Zé Espinho sambaquis of Saquarema, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. New human bone dating by 14C-AMS for Moa archeological site (3810+50 BP - GX-31826-AMS) is included. Preservation of microscopic lamellae and DNA is not related to the macroscopic integrity of the bones. Results here suggest that the preservation of amplifiable DNA fragments may have relation to the preservation of the lamellar arrangement as indicated by optical microscopic examination (polarized light). In 13 human bone fragments from Moa, Beirada, and Zé Espinho it was possible to sequence mtDNA from the 3 individuals of Moa, and from 1 of 4 individuals of Beirada, whose bones also show extensive areas with preserved lamellar structures. The 6 human bone fragments of Zé Espinho and 3 of the 4 fragments of Beirada showed extensive destruction of cortical microstructure represented by cavities, intrusive minerals, and agglomerated microscopic bodies of fungi and bacteria; it was not possible to extract mtDNA from these samples. The results support the hypothesis that the preservation of the microscopic osteon organization is a good predictor for DNA preservation. It was also confirmed the C haplogroup antiquity in Brazil.

  9. Atypical lymphocytosis in leptospirosis: a cohort of hospitalized cases between 1996 and 2009 in State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Damasco, Paulo Vieira; Avila, Carlos André Lins; Barbosa, Angélica Tápia; Ribeiro Carvalho, Marilza de Moura; Pereira, Geraldo Moura Batista; Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio de; Bóia, Márcio Neves; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2011-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease found in tropical and temperate countries, and its clinical diagnostic confusion with arboviruses (dengue fever, oropouche fever and yellow fever), Brazilian spotted fever, viral hepatitis and hantaviruses has been an ongoing public health concern. The aim of this observational study was to demonstrate an association between findings of atypical lymphocytosis and the progression of endemic leptospirosis. A retrospective analysis was performed on the demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects of 27 human leptospirosis cases that occurred over a period of 13 years (1996-2009) with no reported epidemic outbreaks in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The overall mortality rate was 11.1% in our cohort of hospitalized cases. However, there was no mortality among patients with atypical lymphocytosis (OR = 11.1; 95% CI = 1.12-110.9; p = 0.04). Two patients who were in the septicemic phase showed signs of expansion of γδ T cell responses in peripheral blood. Atypical lymphocytosis may be observed in patients with leptospirosis. Our observations suggest that these atypical leukocyte subsets are associated with partial protection during the disease course of leptospirosis.

  10. Characterization of soil fauna under the influence of mercury atmospheric deposition in Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Teixeira, Daniel Cabral; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2015-06-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere arising from anthropogenic sources, have been the object of great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of strong importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transference to the soil through litter, playing an important role as sink of this element. Soil microarthropods are keys to understanding the soil ecosystem, and for such purpose were characterized by the soil fauna of two Units of Forest Conservation of the state of the Rio de Janeiro, inwhich one of the areas suffer quite interference from petrochemicals and industrial anthropogenic activities and other area almost exempts of these perturbations. The results showed that soil and litter of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil tend to stock high mercury concentrations, which could affect the abundance and richness of soil fauna, endangering its biodiversity and thereby the functioning of ecosystems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Profile evaluation of patients with cleft lip and palate undergoing surgery at a reference center in rio de janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Franco, Diogo; Iani, Marcella; Passalini, Ronaldo; Demolinari, Ivan; Arnaut, Marcio; Franco, Talita

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, the classic timeline for operating on cleft lip and palate is three months old for cheiloplasty and is 12 to 18 months old for palatoplasty. As from Brazilian treatment centers are usually located in major cities, patients living in more remote areas are often unable to receive treatment at the ideal ages. Data were analyzed retrospectively on 45 patients with cleft lip and/or palate, consecutively operated at the Reference Center, Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Brazil. Particularly noteworthy among these data are gender, clinical presentation, operations performed, age of surgery, and the distance between their homes and the hospital. The average age of patients undergoing primary cheiloplasty was 9.4 months, with primary palatoplasties performed at an average age of 7.2 years. As 67% of these patients lived in other towns, they encountered difficulties in seeking and continuing specialized care. Despite attempts to decentralize cleft palate care in Brazil, suitable conditions are not yet noted for following the treatment protocols in a full and adequate manner.

  12. Spider diversity (Arachnida: Araneae) in Atlantic Forest areas at Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Abel; Baptista, Renner L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background There has never been any published work about the diversity of spiders in the city of Rio de Janeiro using analytical tools to measure diversity. The only available records for spider communities in nearby areas indicate 308 species in the National Park of Tijuca and 159 species in Marapendi Municipal Park. These numbers are based on a rapid survey and on an one-year survey respectively. New information This study provides a more thorough understanding of how the spider species are distributed at Pedra Branca State Park. We report a total of 14,626 spider specimens recorded from this park, representing 49 families and 373 species or morphospecies, including at least 73 undescribed species. Also, the distribution range of 45 species was expanded, and species accumulation curves estimate that there is a minimum of 388 (Bootstrap) and a maximum of 468 species (Jackknife2) for the sampled areas. These estimates indicates that the spider diversity may be higher than observed. PMID:26929710

  13. [FIBRA-RJ Network: frailty and risk of hospitalization in the elderly in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Perez, Mariangela; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk profile and factors associated with frailty in elderly community residents. The population consisted of individuals 65 years or older living in the northern districts of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and who held private health insurance policies. The cross-sectional study was done at baseline in a cohort with a sample (N = 764) stratified by gender and age. Risk stratification used probability of repeated admissions (PRA) as the screening instrument. Following bivariate analyses, logistic regression analyses were performed to study associations between probability of repeated admissions and socio-demographic, health-status, functional, and cognitive variables. Of the total sample, 6.7% were classified as high risk. Cancer, falls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, use of medication, receiving a visit from a health professional, being bedridden at home, living alone, and level of activities of daily living were statistically associated with risk of hospitalization. The instrument appeared to be useful for stratifying risk in the elderly.

  14. Retention in Early Care at an HIV Outpatient Clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniel S; De Boni, Raquel B; Lake, Jordan E; Cardoso, Sandra W; Ribeiro, Sayonara; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Clark, Jesse L; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Luz, Paula M

    2016-05-01

    Retention in early HIV care has been associated with virologic suppression and improved survival, but remains understudied in Brazil. We estimated retention in early HIV care for the period 2000-2013, and identified socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with good retention in an urban cohort from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Antiretroviral therapy-naïve, HIV-infected persons ≥18 years old linked to care between 2000 and 2011 were included. Retention in the first 2 years post-linkage (i.e. early care) was defined by the proportion of 6-month intervals with ≥1 HIV laboratory result. "Good" retention was defined as ≥1 HIV laboratory result recorded in at least three intervals. Overall, 80 % of participants met criteria for good retention and retention significantly improved over the study period. Older age, higher education level and early antiretroviral therapy initiation were associated with good retention. Efforts to improve retention in early care in this population should target younger and less-educated HIV-infected persons.

  15. [Nutritional status and screen time among public school students in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Marcelo Barros de; Anjos, Luiz Antonio dos; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite de

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess nutritional status, sedentary behavior (TV, computer, and videogame time and screen time as the sum of these first three) and physical activity using a questionnaire with youth (10 to 18 years of age) enrolled in public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Anthropometry (body mass and stature), sedentary behavior, and information on physical activity were obtained in a probability sample of 10 to 18 year-old students (n = 328; 108 boys) stratified by school and selected in two stages (classes and students). Low height for age did not appear as a problem, but 25.7% of the youth presented excess weight (18% overweight and 7.7% obese). Total screen time did not differ between the sexes, but boys spent more time playing videogames than girls, regardless of age, while girls watched more TV. Boys spent twice as much time as girls of all ages in physical activity (three times more in the ≥ 14 year-old group). Screen time was significantly associated with excess weight. In conclusion, public school youth in Niterói show high prevalence rates of excess weight associated with inadequate lifestyle.

  16. Functional Capacity of Oldest Old Living in a Long-stay Institution in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fabiano Moura; Costa, Susana Ortiz; Pereira de Freitas, Jeter; Pinto, Adriana da Costa Rocha; Vigário, Patrícia Dos Santos; Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] A significant increase in the number of oldest old has occurred worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize the functional capacity of the oldest old residents in a long-stay institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Subjects and Methods] All participants were evaluated according to the following metrics: anthropometry, body composition (bioelectrical impedance), handgrip strength, balance (Berg scale and stabilometry), ankle mobility (electrogoniometry), physical capacity (six-minute walk test), quality of life (WHOQOL-OLD), and dietary habits (questionnaire). [Results] Twenty elderly subjects with a mean age of 85.75 ± 5.22 years and a mean fat percentage of 39.02 ± 5.49% participated in the study. The group at risk of falls (n = 8) had a lower handgrip strength and walked a shorter distance over the course of six minutes compared with the group not at risk of falls. The obese group (n = 15) had higher values for stabilometric variables than the nonobese group. There was a positive and significant correlation between ankle joint mobility and physical capacity (r = 0.47). [Conclusion] High values for obesity and low values for handgrip strength and physical capacity were associated with worse body balance. Low values for ankle mobility were also associated with worse physical capacity in this population.

  17. Sporotrichosis in HIV-infected patients: report of 21 cases of endemic sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; de Siqueira Hoagland, Brenda; do Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi; Fraga, Beatriz Barros; de Barros, Mônica Bastos; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; de Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Cuzzi, Tullia; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2012-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is endemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and cases have been reported to be associated with HIV. This article describes the clinical manifestations and evolution of sporotrichosis in HIV-positive patients and constitutes the largest case series reported to date. There were 21 HIV-positive patients with sporotrichosis diagnosed by the recovery of the etiologic agent from 1999-2009. Sixteen patients (76.2%) were men and five (23.8%) were women, with a mean age of 41.2 years. Seven of these individuals were previously unaware of their HIV infection. Mean CD4 count was 346.4 cells/μl. The most frequent clinical presentations of sporotrichosis in these patients were the lymphocutaneous and disseminated form (seven patients each, 33.3%), followed by the widespread cutaneous form in five (23.8%), and fixed form in the remaining two (9.5%). In patients with the disseminated forms, clinical manifestations involved the skin in six, mucosa (nasal, oral, or conjunctival) in four, bone in two, and meninges in two. Eleven (52.4%) patients received itraconazole and eight (38.1%) amphotericin B contributing to an overall cure rate of 81%. Spontaneous cure was observed in one patient. The clinical forms of sporotrichosis varied according to the patients' immune status. The results demonstrate the importance of sporotrichosis as an opportunistic infection associated with AIDS in countries where the mycosis occurs.

  18. Assessment of heavy metals in Egretta thula: case study: Coroa Grande mangrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A P

    2011-02-01

    This study focuses on metals analysis in kidney and liver tissues of Egretta thula which were collected prostrate or newly dead in Coroa Grande mangrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 2005 and October 2008. Kidney and liver were collected and analysed to evaluate heavy metal pollution. High values and widest range were detected for all metals in liver and kidney tissues. Geometric mean differences from metals concentrations for Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Cr, respectively, were found in both organs. Results from linear regression analysis were non-significant in kidney (r = -0.79975, P = 0.10428), and in liver (r = -0.53193, P = 0.35618). With ANOVA analysis for metal accumulation differences (kidney*liver), at the 0.05 level, the results were significantly different (F = 33.17676, P = 0.00000; F = 12.47880, P = 0.00000). These results indicate that Sepetiba Bay shows worrying levels of metals in this study with E. thula, showing potential power of widespread biological and mutagenic adverse effects in trophic levels, and therefore, signalling risk to human health.

  19. Herpetofauna of an Atlantic rainforest area (Morro São João) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Gomes, Mauricio; Vrcibradic, Davor; Siqueira, Carla C; Kiefer, Mara C; Klaion, Thaís; Almeida-Santos, Patrícia; Nascimento, Denise; Ariani, Cristina V; Borges-Junior, Vitor N T; Freitas-Filho, Ricardo F; van Sluys, Monique; Rocha, Carlos F D

    2008-06-01

    We studied the herpetofaunal community from the Atlantic forest of Morro São João, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and present data on species composition, richness, relative abundance and densities. We combined three sampling methods: plot sampling, visual encounter surveys and pit-fall traps. We recorded sixteen species of amphibians and nine of reptiles. The estimated densities (based on results of plot sampling) were 4.5 ind/100 m2 for amphibians and 0.8 ind/100 m2 for lizards, and the overall density (amphibians and lizards) was 5.3 ind/100 m2. For amphibians, Eleutherodactylus and Scinax were the most speciose genera with three species each, and Eleutherodactylus binotatus was the most abundant species (mean density of 3.0 frogs/100 m2). The reptile community of Morro São João was dominated by species of the families Gekkonidae and Gymnophtalmidae (Lacertilia) and Colubridae (Serpentes). The gymnophtalmid lizard Leposoma scincoides was the most abundant reptile species (mean density of 0.3 ind/100 m2). We compare densities obtained in our study data with those of other studied rainforest sites in various tropical regions of the world.

  20. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis PS2: First Autochthonous Paracoccidioidomycosis Case Report in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Priscila Marques; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Medeiros Muniz, Mauro; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Costa, Regina Lana Braga; do Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi

    2016-10-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by pathogenic dimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis complex. It is the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America, mainly in Brazil. Despite its severity and high mortality rates, it is considered a neglected disease. Species within the genus Paracoccidioides present genetics and morphological variations with probable clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. In fact, there are a very small number of detailed case reports with molecular identification of these fungal agents. Here, it is reported a case of PCM due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis PS2. Molecular identification of the isolate was performed by amplification and sequencing of the arf and gp43 genes. Clinical cases and strain reports with molecular identification in the literature are also reviewed. The case herein presented is the first autochthonous report of PCM due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis PS2 species in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an important endemic area. The patient presented a chronic pulmonary form of PCM and had a satisfactory response to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim although sequelae such as adrenal insufficiency and dysphonia were observed. This study may contribute to improve the knowledge about this severe disease, its causative cryptic species and their consequences to patients.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from newborns in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, M M; de Moraes, B A; Quadra, M R; Pinheiro, G S; Suffys, P N; Asensi, M D

    2000-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an organism that is frequently transmitted in hospitals and perinatal units. The MRSA is considered a public health problem in neonatology because of its strong potential for dissemination in the wards associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this study we describe the bacteriological, epidemiological and molecular characteristics of MRSA isolated from anterior nares and blood cultures of newborns hospitalized in a public maternity hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The frequency of MRSA isolated from nasal swabs of newborns was 47.8% (43/90). The genetic analysis of MRSA strains from anterior nares, showed 8 different pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (PFGE). Upon analysis of PFGE patterns of the 12 MRSA strains isolated from blood cultures, 8 different patterns were observed, 9 (75%) strains were genetic related to nasal secretion isolates patterns. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the importance of screening of newborns for the presence of MRSA in Brazilian hospitals and the usefulness of genetic typing of these pathogen during epidemiologic studies. This should lead to a better knowledge on the significancy and spreading of MRSA in the hospitals.

  2. PAEDIATRIC CT EXPOSURE PRACTICE IN THE COUNTY OF RIO DE JANEIRO: THE NEED TO ESTABLISH DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Fillipe M; Magalhães, Luis A G; Kodlulovich, Simone

    2016-11-01

    A pilot study of dose indicators in paediatric computed tomography (CT) was conducted to prove the need to establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for the county of Rio de Janeiro. The dose descriptors were estimated from the beam dosimetry by applying the protocols used in each examination. The total patient sample included 279 children. Regarding the comparison of the dose-length product values among the hospitals, the high-resolution chest CT scans were distinguished among the three types of examinations, due to the discrepancies of 1148 % (1-5 y age group) and 2248 % (5-10 y age group) presented in Hospital A's dose-length product values relative to Hospital D's dose-length product values. The results showed that without DRL, the dose variation can be significant between hospitals in the same county for the same age group in the same examination. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area.

  4. Marine protected area and the spatial distribution of the gill net fishery in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amorim, R B; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2016-01-22

    This study characterizes the gill net fishery at Colônia de Pescadores Z13 (CPZ13), in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, and its relationship with the marine protected area 'Monumento Natural do Arquipélago das Ilhas Cagarras - MoNa Cagarras', describing the fleet and fishing gears, identifying fishing spots, species and their associations by gillnet type. From June 2012 to May 2013, every Tuesday to Sunday, gill net landings were monitored and fishers interviewed regarding their catch. Small boats (dory whaleboats) are used to set three types of gillnets: "Corvineira" (target species - whitemouth croaker), "linguadeira" (target species - flounders) and "rede-alta" (target species - bluefish). Fifty-nine species within 37 families were captured at 14 fishing spots, showing association with bottom type and distance from shore. The use of fisher's local ecological knowledge defines gear placement at specific sites targeting fisheries resources. All fishing sites are not within the limits of MoNa Cagarras but would benefit from management plans including an MPA buffering zone.

  5. Marine protected area and the spatial distribution of the gill net fishery in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amorim, R B; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2016-02-01

    This study characterizes the gill net fishery at Colônia de Pescadores Z13 (CPZ13), in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, and its relationship with the marine protected area 'Monumento Natural do Arquipélago das Ilhas Cagarras - MoNa Cagarras', describing the fleet and fishing gears, identifying fishing spots, species and their associations by gillnet type. From June 2012 to May 2013, every Tuesday to Sunday, gill net landings were monitored and fishers interviewed regarding their catch. Small boats (dory whaleboats) are used to set three types of gillnets: "Corvineira" (target species - whitemouth croaker), "linguadeira" (target species - flounders) and "rede-alta" (target species - bluefish). Fifty-nine species within 37 families were captured at 14 fishing spots, showing association with bottom type and distance from shore. The use of fisher's local ecological knowledge defines gear placement at specific sites targeting fisheries resources. All fishing sites are not within the limits of MoNa Cagarras but would benefit from management plans including an MPA buffering zone.

  6. Characteristics of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Wild Birds Confiscated in Illegal Trade Markets, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matias, Carlos Alexandre Rey; Pereira, Ingrid Annes; de Araújo, Maiara dos Santos; Santos, André Felipe Mercês; Lopes, Rudi Pereira; Christakis, Sandra; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was investigated in 109 wild birds poached in the illegal wildlife trade in Rio de Janeiro; most of them are passerines from Thraupidae family and three from Psittacidae. One strain of Salmonella ser. Typhimurium and two strains of Salmonella ser. Panama were isolated from passerine species and all of them showed resistance to multiple antimicrobial drugs, like ampicillin, ceftriaxone, ceftiofur, tetracycline, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. PFGE showed 100% similarity among the Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strain isolated from a Temminck's seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris) and the strains isolated from a human outbreak, in southern Brazil. The two Salmonella ser. Panama strains isolated from two chestnut-capped blackbirds (Chrysomus ruficapillus) present in the same catch showed the same clonal origin and have never been associated with epizooties and human outbreaks. Potential for dissemination of resistant Salmonella through situations offered by captive management and the isolation of the same strain from wild birds and human sources may become a problem for the conservation of natural populations and to public health.

  7. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area. PMID:24141956

  8. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Errors using GDAPS (UM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Chang, K.; Byun, K.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    After the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began issuing official five-day tropical cyclone (TC) forecasts in 2003, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) started issuing official five-day forecasts of TCs in May 2012 after 2 year of beta test. Forming a selective consensus (SCON) by proper removal of a likely erroneous track forecast is hypothesized to be more accurate than the non-selective consensus (NCON) of all model tracks that are used for the five-day forecasts. Conceptual models describing large track error mechanisms, which are related to known tropical cyclone motion processes being misrepresented in the dynamical models, are applied to forecasts during the 2012 western North Pacific typhoon season by the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS (UM N512 L70)) which is KMA's main operational model. GDAPS (UM) is one of consensus members used in making KMA's five-day forecasts and thus analysis of its track error tendencies would be useful for forming a SCON forecast. All 72-h track errors greater than 320 km are examined on the basis of the approach developed by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b). Tropical-influenced error sources caused 37% (47 times / 126 erroneous forecasts) of the GDAPS (UM) large track forecast errors primarily because an incorrect beta effect-related process depicted by the model contributed to the erroneous forecasts. Midlatitude-influenced error sources accounted for 63% (79 times / 126 error cases) in the GDAPS (UM) erroneous forecasts mainly due to an incorrect forecast of the midlatitude system evolutions. It is proposed that KMA will be able to issue more reliable TC track information if a likely model track error is recognized by optimum use of conceptual models by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b) and a selective consensus track is then the basis for an improved warning.

  9. STS-40 Exp. No. 192 urine monitoring system (UMS) on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Experiment No. 192, Fluid-Electrolyte Regulation During Space Flight, urine monitoring system (UMS) is set up on the middeck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, at the side hatch. The UMS is attached to OV-102's waste collection system (WCS). The urine specimen tray with sample tubes appears to the right of the UMS equipment.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex detection in human remains: tuberculosis spread since the 17th century in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Leles, Daniela; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; da Silva, Laura da Piedade; Dias, Ondemar; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2012-06-01

    Paleogenetic analysis for tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on bone and sediment samples dating from the 17th to 19th centuries from the archeological site of Nossa Senhora do Carmo Church in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Forty samples were analyzed, corresponding to 32 individuals from 28 burials, 22 of primary type and 6 of secondary type. The samples were collected following strict paleogenetic investigation guidelines and submitted to ancient DNA (aDNA) extraction. In order to detect TB infection, aDNA hybridizations with the molecular targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) IS6110 and IS1081 were applied. Additionally, the ancestry of individuals was assessed by human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) sequence polymorphisms. The results of aDNA hybridizations demonstrated varying levels of MTC intensity in 17/32 individuals (53.1%), using the IS6110 target. The IS1081 MTC target showed lower sensitivity, confirming TB positivity in 10/32 (31.2%) individuals. The mtDNA analysis allowed the recovery of HVS-I sequences in 23/32 individuals (71.8%). The majority of these individuals (21/23, 91.3%) were of European ancestry, especially in primary burials. Haplogroups U, J, V, T, K, N, H and R, were identified with haplogroup U being the most frequent at 6/23 (26.1%). African and Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were observed in two individuals in secondary burials. In spite of the ecclesiastic and aristocratic bias of the population of the study, human ancestry analysis revealed the prominent contribution of Europeans in the introduction or spread of TB in the New World.

  11. Years worked at night and body mass index among registered nurses from eighteen public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Bastos, Leonardo S; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Silva-Costa, Aline; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Toivanen, Susanna; Rotenberg, Lucia

    2014-11-29

    Employees working night shifts are at a greater risk of being overweight or obese. Few studies on obesity and weight gain analyze the years of exposure to night work. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the years of exposure to night work and body mass index (BMI) among registered nurses. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 18 largest public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 2,372 registered nurses (2,100 women) completed a comprehensive questionnaire concerning sociodemographic, professional, lifestyle, and health behavioral data. Current and past exposures to night shifts as well as BMI values were measured as continuous variables. A gamma regression model was used with an identity link function to establish the association. The association between years of exposure to night work and BMI was statistically significant for both women and men after adjusting for all covariates [β = 0.036; CI95% = 0.009-0.063) and β = 0.071 (CI95% = 0.012-0.129), respectively]. The effect of night work was greater among men than women. For example, for those women who have worked at night for 20 years the estimated average BMI was 25.6 kg/m2 [range, 25.0-26.2]. In relation to men, after 20 years of exposure to night work the estimated average BMI was 26.9 kg/m2 [range, 25.6-28.1]. These findings suggest that night shift exposure is related to BMI increases. Obesity prevention strategies should incorporate improvements in work environments, such as the provision of proper meals to night workers, in addition to educational programs on the health effects of night work.

  12. Evolution of Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality in the Counties of the State of Rio de Janeiro from 1979 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in Brazil. Objective To estimate total CVD, cerebrovascular disease (CBVD), and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality rates in adults in the counties of the state of Rio de Janeiro (SRJ), from 1979 to 2010. Methods The counties of the SRJ were analysed according to their denominations stablished by the geopolitical structure of 1950, Each new county that have since been created, splitting from their original county, was grouped according to their former origin. Population Data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), and data on deaths were obtained from DataSus/MS. Mean CVD, CBVD, and IHD mortality rates were estimated, compensated for deaths from ill-defined causes, and adjusted for age and sex using the direct method for three periods: 1979–1989, 1990–1999, and 2000–2010, Such results were spatially represented in maps. Tables were also constructed showing the mortality rates for each disease and year period. Results There was a significant reduction in mortality rates across the three disease groups over the the three defined periods in all the county clusters analysed, Despite an initial mortality rate variation among the counties, it was observed a homogenization of such rates at the final period (2000–2010). The drop in CBVD mortality was greater than that in IHD mortality. Conclusion Mortality due to CVD has steadily decreased in the SRJ in the last three decades. This reduction cannot be explained by greater access to high technology procedures or better control of cardiovascular risk factors as these facts have not occurred or happened in low proportion of cases with the exception of smoking which has decreased significantly. Therefore, it is necessary to seek explanations for this decrease, which may be related to improvements in the socioeconomic conditions of the population. PMID:25789882

  13. Microbial Mg-carbonate Precipitation and Early Diagenetic Dolomite Crust Formation at Hypersaline Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahniuk Rumbelsperger, A. M.; McKenzie, J. A.; Perri, E.; Vögeli, N.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary dolomite rocks are commonly considered to be primarily a replacement product of the calcium carbonate components comprising the original limestone, a process known as secondary replacement dolomitization. Although numerous dolomite formations in the geologic record are composed of fine-grained crystals of micritic dolomite, an alternative process, i.e., direct precipitation, is often excluded because of the absence of visible or geochemical indicators supporting primary precipitation. We present a study of a modern coastal hypersaline lagoon, Brejo do Espinho, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, which is located in a special climatic regime where a well-defined seasonal cycle of wet and dry conditions occur. The direct precipitation of modern high-Mg calcite and Ca-dolomite mud from the lagoonal waters under low-temperature hypersaline conditions is associated with the activity of microbial organisms living in this restricted environment. The mud undergoes an early diagenetic transformation into a 100% dolomite crust on the margins of the lagoon. The biomineralization process, characterized by the variations of the physico-chemical conditions in this environment during the annual hydrologic cycle, is integrated with isotopic analysis to define the early diagenetic processes responsible for the formation of both dolomitic mud and crust. The carbon isotope values indicate a contribution of respired organic carbon, which is greater for the crust (δ13C = -9.5‰ VPDB) than mud (δ13C = -1.2‰ VPDB). The oxygen isotope values reflect a moderate degree of evaporation during mud formation (δ18O = 1.1‰ VPDB), whereas it is greatly enhanced during early diagenetic crust formation (δ18O = 4.2‰ VPDB). The clumped isotope formation temperatures derived for the Brejo do Espinho mud is 34°C and 32°C for the crust. These temperatures are consistent with the upper range of measured values during the dry season when the lagoon experiences the most hypersaline

  14. [A survey of demand for medical care in three public health clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M S; D'Orsi, E; Prates, E C; Toschi, W D; Shiraiwa, T; Campos, T P; Ell, E; Garcia, N L; Junqueira, A P; Serrão, S A; Tavares, E L

    1994-01-01

    A sample survey was conducted in three public ambulatory medical care units in Rio de Janeiro in order to show the demographic and nosological aspects of the clientele as well as to evaluate the quality of clinic records. The sample included 2,029 patients registered in the health clinics and 3,980 consultants from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. The diagnoses were coded according to the 9th revision of the International Classification of Dieases. Females accounted for about 60% of the sample, and more than a half were between 15 and 49 years of age. Children under 10 years old made up 28% of the total. About 38% of the patients came from the poor areas of the city: the "favelas". The case files were poorly filled out, frequently lacking useful information. The most frequent cause was classified in the XVIo chapter of the ICD - ill-defined causes, followed by respiratory, infectious, genitourinary and circulatory diseases. External causes predominated in one of the health clinics, which is an emergency service. There was a great demand for preventive measures, such as prenatal care and child care, even at the clinic that was traditionally devoted only to curative medicine. The most frequent specific diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection, hypertension, gynecological problems, prenatal care, and skin diseases. There were no records for referrals to other health services. The poor quality of the medical records causes problems in terms of quality of health care. Use of such record-keeping systems, even while criticizing them, is essential to improve them.

  15. Environmental Surveillance of Polioviruses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in Support to the Activities of Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Pereira, Joseane Simone; da Silva, Lidiane Rodrigues; de Meireles Nunes, Amanda; de Souza Oliveira, Silas; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias

    2016-03-01

    Wild polioviruses still remain endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) and re-emergency of wild polio has been reported in previously polio-free countries. Environmental surveillance has been used as a supplementary tool in monitoring the circulation of wild poliovirus (PVs) and/or vaccine-derived PVs even in the absence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio enterovirus serotypes were observed among the isolates. The Sabin-related serotypes 2 and 3 presented nucleotide substitutions in positions associated with the neurovirulent phenotype at the 5'-UTR. Changes in important Amino acid residues at VP1 were also observed in the serotypes 2 and 3. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring the circulation of PVs and non-polio enteroviruses and it is of crucial importance in the final stages of the WHO global polio eradication initiative. Our results show the continuous circulation of Sabin-like PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in the analyzed area during the study period.

  16. Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms with hepatitis C virus infection in a population from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fabrício-Silva, Gustavo Milson; Poschetzky, Bruno Silva; de Mello Perez, Renata; dos Santos, Ronaldo Carneiro; Cavalini, Luciana Tricai; Porto, Luís Cristóvão

    2015-01-01

    Background The host immune response is an important indicator of the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and disease progression. The aim of this study was to explore cytokine gene polymorphisms as a candidate for susceptibility to persistent HCV infection or HCV spontaneous clearance in a population from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods Genetic polymorphisms in the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (−308), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (codons 10 and 25), interleukin-10 (IL-10; −1082 and −592), IL-6 (−174), and interferon-gamma (+874) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers in 245 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), 41 spontaneous recovery (SR) patients, and 189 healthy volunteers. Further, polymorphisms in IL-28B (rs12979860, rs12980275, and rs8099917) were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in all groups. Results The IL-28B rs12979860 CC and rs12980275 AA genotypes were significantly associated with SR of HCV infection and response to therapy, whereas the C allele of IL-6 (−174) was associated with protection to CHC. A multivariate analysis showed that the male sex and IL-28B rs12979860 CT and TT and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (codon 10) TC genotypes were factors associated with CHC. Additionally, IL-6 (−174) C allele was increased in SR patients compared with patients with CHC. Conclusion IL-28B polymorphisms are associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV and response to therapy in a Brazilian population. Also, IL-6 (−174) C allele is involved in SR and decreased inflammation scores. PMID:26586969

  17. EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PRENATAL NUTRITIONAL CARE ON PERINATAL OUTCOME OF PREGNANT WOMEN; RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Padilha, Patricia; Mello de Oliveira, Larissa; Queiróz Caldeiras Neves, Elisabete; Ghedini, Anna Carolina; Costa, Thaísa; Saunders, Cláudia

    2015-08-01

    Objetivo: evaluar el impacto de una propuesta de asistencia nutricional prenatal (ANP) para las mujeres embarazadas adultas. Métodos: estudio del impacto de una intervención nutricional prenatal en los resultados perinatales, adecuación de la ganancia total de peso durante la gestación, frecuencia de anemia gestacional y complicaciones en el embarazo en una maternidad pública de Río de Janeiro. Los datos representan tres grupos de mujeres embarazadas adultas, durante 10 años: GI (1999-2001, n = 225), GII (2005-2006, n = 208) y GIII (2007-2008, n = 394). Resultados: en el GII (grupo de referencia) se incluyó una evaluación nutricional detallada, un plan de alimentación individualizado y una asistencia de por lo menos cuatro citas programadas con un nutricionista. La cobertura PNA se produjo en solo el 20,4% en el GI, el 100% en el GII y el 42,1% en el GIII (p < 0,001). Las mujeres del GI tenían una mayor proporción de ganancia total de peso insuficiente (OR 1,82; IC 95%: 1,20 -2,75), anemia (OR 2,18; IC 95%: 1,35-3,55) y complicaciones del embarazo (OR 1.57, IC 95%: 1,04 - 2,36), así como aquellas que se unieron al GIII, - OR 1,68 (IC 95%: 1.16 - 2.44), OR 2,45 (IC 95%: 1,56-3,84), OR 2,07 (IC 95%:1,42- 3,00), en comparación con las mujeres del GII. Conclusiones: el modelo probado en el GII PNA demostró ser eficaz según los resultados estudiados.

  18. Autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: a clinical and eco-epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Saraiva, Roberto Magalhães; Georg, Ingebourg; de Castro, Liane; dos Santos Lima, Valdirene; Roque, André Luiz R; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Santos, Laura Cristina; Fernandes, Fabiano A; Sarquis, Otília; Lima, Marli Maria; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Aníbal; Bóia, Márcio Neves

    2015-01-08

    After the control of the main modes of Chagas disease (CD) transmission in most endemic countries, it is important to identify the participation of native sylvatic vectors in CD transmission. Although CD is not considered endemic in Rio de Janeiro State (RJ), Brazil, we identified patients with CD born in RJ and investigated the possible autochthonous transmission in the state. Patients born in RJ and followed in our institution between 1986 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The cases identified as autochthonous transmission were submitted to epidemiological, clinical, serological, parasitological and molecular studies. Sectional field study with serological survey, research of sylvatic reservoirs and vectors was conducted in rural areas where patients were born. Among 1963 patients, 69 (3.5%) were born in RJ. From these, 15 (21.7%) were considered to have acquired the infection by autochthonous transmission. Cardiac form was the commonest form of presentation (60%). In rural areas in RJ northern region, sylvatic cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi and domestic invasion by Triatoma vitticeps were identified, and CD prevalence among inhabitants was 0.74%.TcI genotype was identified in sylvatic reservoirs and vectors. The genotype (mixed infection TcI/TcVI) could be identified in one of the autochthonous cases. The autochthonous vectorial transmission of CD occurs in RJ, probably due to wild cycles of T. cruzi and sylvatic vectors, such as T. vitticeps. Therefore, the health authorities should evaluate if RJ should be included in the original endemic area of CD and CD should be included in the diagnostic work out of cardiomyopathy of patients born in RJ. Moreover, control and educational measures should be put into place in the risk areas.

  19. Substance use among HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Agreement between medical records and the ASSIST questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Machado, Iona K; Luz, Paula M; Lake, Jordan E; Castro, Rodolfo; Velasque, Luciane; Clark, Jesse L; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; De Boni, Raquel B

    2017-09-01

    Substance use assessment is a challenge in busy clinical settings that may adversely affect HIV-infected persons. This study aimed to evaluate agreement between the medical chart and a standardized substance use screening questionnaire. Of adults (n=1050) in HIV care in Rio de Janeiro who completed the World Health Organization's Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), we randomly selected 200 participants for medical chart review. Lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine agreement between the medical record and ASSIST was evaluated using Kappa statistics. Sensitivity and specificity of chart information were also calculated. The median age was 42.4 years, 60.3% were male and 49.5% were white. Prevalence of lifetime use reported in ASSIST was 55.3% (tobacco), 79.4% (alcohol), 23.1% (marijuana), and 20.7% (cocaine). Any information on lifetime use was found in the medical chart for tobacco (n=180, 90.5%), alcohol (n=183, 92.0%), marijuana (n=143, 71.8%), and cocaine (n=151, 75.9%). The Kappa statistic, sensitivity and specificity of the medical chart accurately identifying lifetime substance users per ASSIST were respectively 0.60, 0.71, and 0.91 for tobacco; 0.22, 0.75, and 0.51 for alcohol; 0.58, 0.51, and 0.98 for marijuana; and 0.73, 0.75, and 0.96 for cocaine. Considering inaccuracies in the medical chart, the implementation of brief, standardized substance use screening is recommended in HIV care settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses at a travel medicine centre in Rio de Janeiro, a non-endemic area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria is a potentially severe disease widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Clinically, the progression of the disease can be life-threatening if it is not promptly diagnosed and properly treated. Through treatment, the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infection can be achieved, thus preventing potential relapses and the emergence of new cases outside the Amazon region in Brazil. Surveillance for therapeutic failure in non-endemic areas is advantageous, as it is unlikely that recurrence of the disease can be attributed to a new malaria infection in these regions. Methods An observational study of 53 cases of P. vivax and mixed (P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) malaria was conducted at a travel medicine centre between 2005 and 2011 in Rio de Janeiro and a descriptive analysis of the potential factors related to recurrence of P. vivax malaria was performed. Groups with different therapeutic responses were compared using survival analysis based on the length of time to recurrence and a set of independent variables thought to be associated with recurrence. Results Twenty-one relapses (39.6%) of P. vivax malaria were observed. The overall median time to relapse, obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method, was 108 days, and the survival analysis demonstrated an association between non-weight-adjusted primaquine dosing and the occurrence of relapse (p < 0.03). Primaquine total dose at 3.6 mg/kg gave improved results in preventing relapses. Conclusions A known challenge to individual cure and environmental control of malaria is the possibility of an inappropriate, non-weight-based primaquine dosing, which should be considered a potential cause of P. vivax malaria relapse. Indeed, the total dose of primaquine associated with non-occurrence of relapses was higher than recommended by Brazilian guidelines. PMID:22839416

  1. [Sports Injuries and Illnesses of the German National Team during the 2016 Olympic Summer Games in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Grim, Casper; Hotfiel, Thilo; Engelhardt, Martin; Plewinski, Sydney; Spahl, Olav; Wolfarth, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Background This article aims to survey and describe the injuries and illnesses of the German Team during the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. Methods Through an electronic documentation system, injuries and illnesses requiring treatment were recorded and evaluated. An injury or illness was defined as any physical symptom that required medical attention and impaired participation in training and/or competition. The classification distinguished between type of injury (acute or overload), region and type of illness (infections, skin, allergy, etc.). Results A total of 808 treatments were performed on the German team during Rio 2016. Out of 283 musculoskeletal-related treatments, 160 were performed on the lower limb. 70 treatments addressed back problems. 164 treatments were performed due to upper respiratory tract infections. When extrapolated to 1000 athletes, 617 treatments were required due to illness while 672 treatments addressed musculoskeletal problems. The number of treatments for injuries and illness is almost identical. In addition to less severe problems, the following serious injuries occurred: lethal traumatic brain injury, acute thigh compartment syndrome, ACL tear with a medial meniscal lesion and antero-lateral instability, isolated ACL tear, stress fracture of the base of the third metatarsal bone, acute lateral ankle instability, AC joint dislocation, and infected bursa prepatellaris. The documentation system is reliable for "injury and illness surveillance" at multi-sport events. Treatment numbers are consistent with the 2012 Summer Games in London, so a reliable strategy can be assumed. In addition to illnesses predominantly affecting the upper respiratory tract, the system also recorded serious musculoskeletal injuries, which implicates the need for an interdisciplinary setup of the medical team. The methods used for data collection currently do not allow for the identification of risk factors for injuries and illness and should

  2. Diphtheria toxin IgG levels in military and civilian blood donors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Speranza, F A B; Ishii, S K; Hirata, R; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L; Milagres, L G

    2010-01-01

    Serologic data on diseases that are preventable by vaccines are necessary to evaluate the success of immunization programs and to identify susceptible subgroups. In the present study, we determined serum IgG levels against diphtheria toxin of military and civilian blood donors (N = 75; 69.3% males and 30.7% females) aged 18-64 years, from the Brazilian Army Biology Institute, Rio de Janeiro, using a commercial diphtheria kit (Diphtheria IgG ELISA; IBL, Germany). Most (63%) unprotected military donors were from the older age group of 41 to 64 years. In contrast, the majority (71%) of young military donors (18 to 30 years) were fully protected. About half of the military donors aged 31 to 40 years were protected against diphtheria. Among the civilians, about 50% of persons aged 18 to 30 years and 31 to 40 years had protective antibody levels against diphtheria as also did 64% of individuals aged 41 to 64 years. All civilians had a similar antibody response (geometric mean = 0.55 IU/mL) independent of age group. Military donors aged 18-30 years had higher IgG levels (geometric mean = 0.82 IU/mL) than military donors of 41-64 years (geometric mean = 0.51 IU/mL; P > 0.05). In conclusion, the existence of a considerable proportion of susceptible adults supports the position that reliable data on the immune status of the population should be maintained routinely and emphasizes the importance of adequate immunization during adulthood.

  3. Antibody dynamics and spontaneous viral clearance in patients with acute hepatitis C infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The anti-HCV antibody response has not been well characterized during the early phase of HCV infection and little is known about its relationship to the clinical course during this period. Methods We analyzed serial anti-HCV antibodies longitudinally obtained from a prospective cohort of 65 patients with acute HCV infection by using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay AxSYM HCV 3.0 (Abbott Diagnostics) during the first 12 months from HCV acquisition in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Spontaneous viral clearance (SVC) was defined as undetectable HCV RNA in serum, in the absence of treatment, for three consecutive HCV PCR tests within 12-months of follow-up. Results Baseline antibody values were similar among patient groups with self-limiting HCV evolution (n = 34) and persistent viremia (n = 31) [median (interquartile range) signal/cut-off ratio (s/co) 78.7 (60.7-93.8) vs. 93.9 (67.8-111.9), p = 0.26]. During 12-months follow-up, patients with acute spontaneous resolving HCV infection showed significantly lower serial antibody response in comparison to individuals progressing to chronic infection [median (interquartile range) s/co 62.7 (35.2-85.0) vs. 98.4 (70.4-127.4), p < 0.0001]. In addition, patients with self-limiting HCV evolution exhibited an expeditious, sharp decline of serial antibody values after SVC in comparison to those measured before SVC [median (interquartile range) s/co 56.0 (25.4-79.3) vs. 79.4 (66.3-103.0), p < 0.0001]. Conclusion Our findings indicate a rapid short-term decline of antibody values in patients with acute spontaneous resolving HCV infection. PMID:21226945

  4. Potential enterovirulence and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from aquatic environments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Raquel Costa de Luca; Regua-Mangia, Adriana Hamond

    2014-08-15

    Escherichia coli contamination in aquatic ecosystems has emerged as a relevant concern of public health impact, especially in developing areas. In this study, E. coli isolates were recovered from residential, industrial, agricultural, hospital wastewaters and recreational waters and, further characterized according to diarrheagenic potential, phylotyping and antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Among the total 178 E. coli isolates, antimicrobial resistance was detected in 37% to at least one of the 11 antimicrobials tested. The highest percentage of resistant E. coli was recovered from agricultural wastewaters (57.7%) followed by recreational waters (56.4%), hospital (34.5%), residential (22.7%) and industrial wastewaters (22.2%). Twenty-three resistance profiles (I-XXIII) were detected and 17 isolates exhibited the MDR phenotype. 11.2% of the total E. coli isolates carried diarrheagenic markers: astA (7.3%, 13/178), stx1 (2.8%, 05/178), escV (2.2%, 04/178) and estIa (0.6%, 01/178). All isolates harbored the uidA gene. E. coli isolates were mostly found in phylogenetic groups A (91.6%, 163/178) followed by groups D (5%, 09/178) and B2 (3.4%, 06/178). Specific gene combinations characterized E. coli pathotypes as ETEC (01/20), ATEC (04/20) and STEC (05/20) which belonged to A (75%, 15/20), D (15%, 03/20) and B2 (10%, 02/20) phylogroups. Our results revealed the widespread distribution of E. coli in aquatic systems in Rio de Janeiro. The circulation of pathogenic E. coli and antimicrobial resistance within bacterial population represents high risk to ecosystem and human health and highlights epidemiological surveillance and sanitary improvement.

  5. Morphological and Molecular Diagnosis of Anisakid Nematode Larvae from Cutlassfish (Trichiurus lepturus) off the Coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Juliana Novo; Cunha, Luiz Felipe Gullo; Santos, Helena Lúcia Carneiro; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Santos, Cláudia Portes

    2012-01-01

    Anisakid nematode larvae from Trichiurus lepturus off coast of Rio de Janeiro were studied using light, laser confocal and scanning electron microscopy, in addition to a molecular approach. Mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 2 (mtDNA cox-2), partial 28S (LSU) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships between the nematode taxa. The morphological and genetic profiles confirmed that, of the 1,030 larvae collected from the 64 fish examined, 398 were analysed, of which 361 were Hysterothylacium sp. and 37 were Anisakis typica. Larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. were not identified to the species level due to the absence of similar sequences for adult parasites; however, the ITS sequence clustered in the phylogenetic tree with sequences of H. deardorffoverstreetorum, whereas an mtDNA cox-2 and LSU concatenated phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the presence of two clades, both of them under the same name as the larval H. deardorffoverstreetorum. Data on the occurrence of parasites during the winter and summer months were compared using the t-test. The greatest prevalence and intensity of infection were recorded for larval Hysterothylacium, with a prevalence of 51.56% and an intensity of up to 55 parasites per fish. The larval Anisakis exhibit a higher abundance and intensity of infection in the winter months, and those of Hysterothylacium during the summer. However, the t-test indicated no significant differences between the abundance and intensity of infection recorded during the months of collection for either of these larval nematodes. All sequences generated in this study were deposited in GenBank. PMID:22792329

  6. β-lactam Resistance, Serotype Distribution, and Genotypes of Meningitis-causing Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, David E.; Godoy, Daniel; Castiñeiras, Terezinha M. P. P.; Tulenko, Mary M.; Rebelo, Maria C.; Harrison, Lee H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Here, we report a laboratory-based study of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from patients with meningitis in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Methods The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of β-lactam resistance, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, serotypes, and genetic diversity of S. pneumoniae, isolated from meningitis patients between 2000 and 2008. Results A total of 264 S. pneumoniae recovered from patients between 2000 and 2008 were included. Susceptibility testing (E-test) of S. pneumoniae showed resistance to penicillin, ceftriaxone, oxacillin, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, ofloxacin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and rifampicin. Penicillin resistance (PEN-R, minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥0.12 μg/mL) increased from 8% of isolates in 2000–2002, to 12% in 2003–2005, and to 20% in 2006–2008. Ceftriaxone resistance (MIC ≥1.0 μg/mL) was detected among some PEN-R isolates (13%) from 2004 onward. Within the PEN-R isolates, serotypes that are included in 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine predominated (90%), and resistance was detected mostly in isolates of serotypes 14 (61%), 23F (16%), 6B (10%), and 19F (3%). Multilocus sequence typing showed that 52% of the PEN-R isolates, and 89% of those with MICs ≥0.5 μg/mL, were sequence type (ST)-156 or single-locus variants of this ST (ST-557 or ST-4388); all of these isolates were serotype 14 and were assigned to the Spain9V-3 clone. Conclusions β-lactam resistance increased recently among cerebrospinal fluid isolates and was mainly due to the surge of the ST-4388, a previously undescribed gki single-locus variants of ST-156. Regional surveillance is shown to be essential to provide optimal antimicrobial therapy, monitor highly successful clones, and formulate adequate vaccination strategy. PMID:21860337

  7. Epidemiologic survey of traumatic dental injuries in children seen at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Marina Alvine de; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo A; Risso, Patrícia de Andrade; Freire, Marcos Vinícius; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2010-01-01

    This epidemiologic survey aimed at assessing the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in children seen at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The records of a total of 111 children (aged 0 to 6 years) seen from 2004 to 2006 in the dental trauma clinic were surveyed, comprising a total of 201 traumatized primary teeth. Data pertaining to the child and to the trauma such as age, gender, etiology, teeth involved, type of traumatic injury, time elapsed between the trauma and seeking care, and the presence and kind of clinical and radiographic sequelae in the first visit were collected from the dental records. All variables studied were assessed by means of frequency analysis and the Chi-square test (p < 0.05). A higher prevalence of trauma was observed in boys (56.7%) and in the age group from 0-3 years (73.8%). The most affected teeth were the central incisors (84.7%) and the most common trauma etiology was a fall from the child's own height (63.0%). The supporting tissues were the most affected. Lateral luxation was the most frequent alteration observed (33.4%), followed by concussion (21.0%). Coronal discoloration (17.7%) and external resorption (18.3%) were, respectively, the most prevalent clinical and radiographic sequelae. Gender had no influence on the clinical (p = 0.54) and radiographic (p = 0.55) sequelae. Even though age had no influence on radiographic sequelae (p = 0.41), clinical sequelae were more prevalent in children aged 0 to 3 years (p = 0.03). In conclusion, traumatisms in primary teeth were more prevalent in boys, and in 0-3-year-old children. Luxation was the most frequent traumatic lesion, and coronal discoloration and external resorption were the most prevalent sequelae.

  8. Administrative measures for preventing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers in a teaching hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, P Albuquerque; Trajman, A; Mello, F Carvalho de Queiroz; Goudinho, S; Silva, M A Monteiro Vieira; Garret, D; Ruffino-Netto, A; Kritski, A Lineu

    2009-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an occupational disease of healthcare workers (HCWs). Administrative and engineering interventions simultaneously implemented in hospitals of developed countries have reduced the risk of nosocomial transmission of M. tuberculosis. We studied the impact of administrative infection control measures on the risk for latent TB infection (LTBI) among HCWs in a resource-limited, high-burden country. An intervention study was undertaken in a university-affiliated, inner-city hospital in Rio de Janeiro, where routine serial tuberculin skin testing (TST) is offered to all HCWs. From October 1998 to February 2001, the following infection control measures were progressively implemented: isolation of TB suspects and confirmed TB inpatients, quick turnaround for acid-fast bacilli sputum tests and HCW education in use of protective respirators. Among 1336 initially tested HCWs, 599 were retested. The number of TST conversions per 1000 person-months during and after the implementation of these measures was reduced from 5.8/1000 to 3.7/1000 person-months (P=0.006). The most significant reductions were observed in the intensive care unit (from 20.2 to 4.5, P<0.001) and clinical wards (from 10.3 to 6.0, P<0.001). Physicians and nurses had the highest reductions (from 7.6 to 0, P<0.001; from 9.9 to 5.8, P=0.001, respectively). We conclude that administrative measures for infection control can significantly reduce LTBI among HCWs in high-burden countries and should be implemented even when resources are not available for engineering infection control measures.

  9. Administrative measures for preventing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers in a teaching hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, P. Albuquerque; Trajman, A.; de Queiroz Mello, F. Carvalho; Goudinho, S.; Silva, M.A. Monteiro Vieira; Garret, D.; Ruffino-Netto, A.; Kritski, A. Lineu

    2009-01-01

    Summary Tuberculosis (TB) is an occupational disease of healthcare workers (HCWs). Administrative and engineering interventions simultaneously implemented in hospitals of developed countries have reduced the risk of nosocomial transmission of M. tuberculosis. We have studied the impact of administrative infection control measures on the risk for latent TB infection (LTBI) among HCWs in a resource-limited, high-burden country. An intervention study was undertaken in a university-affiliated, inner-city hospital in Rio de Janeiro, where routine serial tuberculin skin test (TST) is offered to all HCWs. From October 1998 to February 2001, the following administrative infection control measures were progressively implemented: isolation of TB suspects and confirmed TB inpatients, quick turnaround for acid-fast bacilli sputum tests and HCW education in use of protective respirators. Among 1336 initially tested HCWs, 599 were retested. The number of TST conversions per 1000 person-months during and after the implementation of these measures was reduced from 5.8/1000 to 3.7/1000 person-months (P = 0.006). The most significant reductions were observed in the intensive care unit (from 20.2 to 4.5, P < 0.001) and clinical wards (from 10.3 to 6.0, P < 0.001). Physicians and nurses had the highest reductions (from 7.6 to 0, P < 0.001; from 9.9 to 5.8, P = 0.001, respectively). We conclude that isolated administrative measures for infection control can significantly reduce LTBI among HCWs in high-burden countries and should be implemented even when resources are not available for engineering infection control measures. PMID:19278753

  10. Tuberculosis is associated with non-tuberculosis-related deaths among HIV/AIDS patients in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, A G; Veloso, V G; Nunes, E P; Ribeiro, S; Guimarães, M R C; Lourenço, M C; Mello, F C Q; Grinsztejn, B

    2014-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients followed in a large cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To evaluate the association of tuberculosis (TB) and other covariables with non-TB-related (NTR) causes of death (CODs). Patients aged >18 years were followed from 1997 to 2009, until death or 31 December 2009, whichever was earlier. CODs were ascertained using a standardised algorithm. TB diagnosis and prophylaxis followed Brazilian guidelines. Poisson models were used to calculate adjusted rate ratios (aRRs). Of 2887 patients included in the study, 761 had TB (26.4%). NTR death rates were twice as high among patients with TB (4/100 vs. 2.09/100 patient-years). TB was associated with NTR deaths (aRR 1.4, 95%CI 1.05-1.86, P = 0.01). Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) was protective against NTR (aRR 0.46, 95%CI 0.34-0.61, P < 0.001). Among patients who had never had active TB, prophylaxis was also protective against NTR (aRR 0.45, P = 0.04). The CD4 cell count increase was very modest for both TB and NTR CODs compared to those who did not die (0 vs. 249 cells, P < 0.001). TB was significantly associated with increased NTR CODs, indicating rapid progression of disease and increased long-term risk of mortality, probably related to persistent immunodeficiency or incomplete immune recovery. Our results confirm the benefits of HAART and TB prophylaxis.

  11. Long term exposure to organochlorine pesticides and thyroid function in children from Cidade dos Meninos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Sarcinelli, Paula; Rosa, Ana Cristina; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Sergio

    2012-08-01

    A pesticide factory in Cidade dos Meninos village, Duque de Caxias County, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ended its activity in 1961, leading to widespread contamination of the environment by several organochlorine pesticides. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides on thyroid hormone levels in children residing in Cidade dos Meninos. In a population-based survey carried out between 2003 and 2004, serum concentration of 19 pesticides and levels of free thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in 193 children younger than 15 years old. Multivariate linear regression was conducted to examine thyroid hormone levels according to quintiles of organochlorine exposure, controlling for age, gender and serum lipid content. Free T4 and TSH levels were within reference values (0.7-1.8 ng/dl and 0.35-5.5 mU/l), whereas total T3 was above the reference range (80-180 ng/dl) in 28% of children. More than 60% of the children had detectable levels of most organochlorine pesticides. With the exception of heptachlor and methoxychlor, total T3 levels showed a significant increasing linear trend regardless of pesticide type to which children were exposed. Free T4 levels were positively and significantly associated only with exposure to p,p'-DDD, endosulfan 1, and dieldrin. No significant trend was found for TSH. Data showed that exposure of children to organochlorine pesticides produced a significant increase in serum total T3 concentrations. The clinical implications of such a total T3 elevation and subsequent development are uncertain and warrant the need for health monitoring of these children.

  12. Is Pregnancy Associated with Severe Dengue? A Review of Data from the Rio de Janeiro Surveillance Information System

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Carolina Romero; Machado, Elizabeth Stankiewicz; Rohloff, Roger Denis; Azevedo, Marina; Campos, Dayse Pereira; de Oliveira, Robson Bruniera; Brasil, Patrícia

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue is a reportable disease in Brazil; however, pregnancy has been included in the application form of the Brazilian notification information system only after 2006. To estimate the severity of maternal dengue infection, the available data that were compiled from January 2007 to December 2008 by the official surveillance information system of the city of Rio de Janeiro were reviewed. Methods and Principal Findings During the study period, 151,604 cases of suspected dengue infection were reported. Five hundred sixty-one women in their reproductive age (15–49 years) presented with dengue infection; 99 (18.1%) pregnant and 447 (81.9%) non-pregnant women were analyzed. Dengue cases were categorized using the 1997 WHO classification system, and DHF/DSS were considered severe disease. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare maternal age, according to gestational period, and severity of disease. A chi-square test was utilized to evaluate the differences in the proportion of dengue severity between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Univariate analysis was performed to compare outcome variables (severe dengue and non-severe dengue) and explanatory variables (pregnancy, gestational age and trimester) using the Wald test. A multivariate analysis was performed to assess the independence of statistically significant variables in the univariate analysis. A p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. A higher percentage of severe dengue infection among pregnant women was found, p = 0.0001. Final analysis demonstrated that pregnant women are 3.4 times more prone to developing severe dengue (OR: 3.38; CI: 2.10–5.42). Mortality among pregnant women was superior to non-pregnant women. Conclusion Pregnant women have an increased risk of developing severe dengue infection and dying of dengue. PMID:23675548

  13. Screening for tuberculosis on admission to highly endemic prisons? The case of Rio de Janeiro State prisons.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, A; Larouzé, B; Espinola, A B; Pires, J; Capone, D; Gerhardt, G; Cesconi, V; Procopio, M J; Hijjar, M; Massari, V

    2009-10-01

    Rio de Janeiro (RJ) State prisons, where tuberculosis (TB) is highly endemic. To measure TB prevalence, identify risk factors and ascertain the most appropriate screening method among inmates of the RJ prisons. Systematic chest X-rays (CXRs) were performed in 1696 male inmates of three RJ prisons. Inmates were selected for sputum examination and culture if their CXRs showed evidence of any pulmonary, pleural or mediastinal abnormality. TB diagnosis was based on bacteriological results or, if bacteriological results were negative, on response to TB treatment. TB prevalence was 2.7% (46/1696), and 32/46 cases (69%) were bacteriologically confirmed, including 19 smear-positive cases. CXR lesions were extensive in 43% of cases. In the logistic regression model, TB-associated variables were being illiterate (adjusted OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.02-4.34), cough >or=3 weeks (aOR 2.85, 95%CI 1.54-5.27), history of TB treatment (aOR 3.61, 95%CI 1.76-7.39), and living in Rio City suburbs (aOR 4.54, 95%CI 1.02-20.07) and in Rio City (aOR 5.48, 95%CI 1.29-23.33). A screening based on cough >or=3 weeks followed by sputum smear examination would have identified only 9 of the 46 cases. These results call for screening on admission to prison based, if feasible, on CXR, and demonstrate the urgent need to improve detention conditions and medical assistance in police remand cells.

  14. Mesembrinellinae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to edge effects in the Tinguá Biological Reserve, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, B Q; Silva, A B; Ferraz, A C P; Aguiar, V M

    2015-11-01

    In this study we describe the diversity of Mesembrinelinae in a biological reserve in the city of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro. Traps containing sardines were distributed seasonally, at four sites: Site A (22° 58.788' S, 43° 43.459' W), in a forest edge, and sites B (22° 58.523' S, 43° 44.540' W), C (22° 58.350' S, 43° 44.678' W), and D (22° 34.865' S, 43° 27.063' W), located 1,000 m, 500 m, and 2,000 m respectively, inwards from the edge. A total of 2,150 individuals of Mesembrinellinae were collected, representing ten species. Laneela nigripes Guimarães, 1977 was the most abundant species, followed by Mesembrinella bellardiana Aldrich, 1922, Eumesembrinella cyaneicincta (Surcouf, 1919) and Mesembrinella semihyalina Mello, 1967. These species were common and constant during the study period. Mesembrinella batesi Aldrich, 1922, Eumesembrinella quadrilineata (Fabricius, 1805) and Huascaromusca aeneiventris (Wiedmann, 1830) were the less abundant flies, being considered rare and accidental. Eumesembrinella besnoiti (Seguy, 1925) was rare and accessory. Eumesembrinella cyaneicincta, M. bellardiana, M. semihyalina and M. bicolor were mostly collected in site B, while L. nigripes was mostly collected in site C. The edge effect was not evident since the four sites showed similar populations. Site B showed a strong positive relationship between abundance and richness, in site C the correlation was positive and weak, and there was no correlation in A and D. The highest abundance of specimens was recorded during autumn and winter. These flies occurred from the edge up to 2,000 m inside the forest.

  15. Acute Gastroenteritis in a Pediatric Hospital in Rio de Janeiro in Pre- and Post-Rotavirus Vaccination Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gouvea, Vera S; Dias, Giselly S; Aguiar, Ericka A; Pedro, Adriana R; Fichman, Elisa R; Chinem, Evelyn S; Gomes, Sandra P; Domingues, André L.S

    2009-01-01

    A 4½-year hospital-based survey was conducted in Rio de Janeiro to determine baseline rates of gastroenteritis-related cases, hospitalizations, and deaths; to examine the prevalence of rotavirus strains causing admissions; and to assess the immediate impact of the nationwide rotavirus immunization program launched in March 2006. From August 2002 to May 2007, 14,473 (10.4%) of the 139,747 consultations had AGE as primary diagnosis, 491 (3.4%) children required hospitalization and two (0.4%) dehydrated children died. Gastroenteritis contribution to hospitalizations varied from ~2.3% in 2004 and 2006 to 6.4% in 2005, being roughly half of them rotavirus-related cases. A gradual decrease in rotavirus strain diversity was observed from 2002 to 2005 when a single G9P[8] prevailed until April 2006. Then only short profile G9P[4] and G2P[4] strains were detected. Gastroenteritis cases were distributed year-round in a trimodal pattern with major winter peaks. Local climate apparently affected the incidence of gastroenteritis: reduction in dry years (2004 and 2007) and explosive outbreaks caused by multiple agents during the heavy rainfalls and recurrent floods of the 2005-early 2006 period. Besides rotavirus, adenovirus and calicivirus were major gastroenteritis agents of these seemingly waterborne outbreaks. In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination impacted marginally, if at all, on the incidence of childhood gastroenteritis, as favorable results obtained by comparing data from the post-vaccine period to the preceding unusual 2005 year all but disappeared when comparing to previous pre-vaccination periods, and the shift towards G2P[4] rotavirus strains may be a global trend unrelated to vaccination. PMID:19572054

  16. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  17. [Design and implementation of the ELSA-Brasil biobank: a prospective study in a Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M; Fedeli, Ligia M; Castilhos, Cristina; Vidigal, Pedro G; Maniero, Viviane; Leite, Claudia M; Pimentel, Robercia A; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter prospective cohort of civil servants designed to assess the determinants of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The present article describes the main design and implementation points of the ELSA-Brasil biobank project. Economic, political, logistical and technological aspects of this study are characterized. Additionally, it discusses the final biorepository protocol and the facilities implemented to achieve this objective. The design and implementation process of the ELSA-Brasil biobank took three years to be performed. Both the central and local biobanks were built according to the best biorepository techniques, using different technological solutions for the distinct needs expected in this study.

  18. Moderate prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, José H; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea G; Velasque, Luciane S; Friedman, Ruth K; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Rodrigues-Pedro, Adriana; Oliveira, Sandra M; Currier, Judith S; Morgado, Mariza G

    2013-04-01

    Transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 strains has been gaining attention and is becoming a growing problem throughout the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) among antiretroviral (ARV)-naive HIV-infected pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ARV-naive pregnant women were recruited at Hospital Geral de Nova Iguacu (HGNI), Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2008. HIV genotyping was carried out using ViroSeq (Abbott v. 2.0). TDRM were detected using the Calibrated Population Resistance Tool-CPR v. 6.0.The prevalence of mutations associated with resistance in the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the HIV genome were assessed in samples collected prior to initiation of ARV prophylaxis or treatment. Among 238 eligible specimens that were collected, 197 samples were successfully amplified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Eighty-one percent of women were infected with HIV subtype B, 10% with subtype F1 viruses, 1.0% with subtype C virus, and 8.0% with recombinant forms of the virus. The prevalence of HIV TDRM was 5.6% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 2.0% for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 3.0% for protease inhibitors. The overall prevalence of any drug resistance was 10.7%. There were no multiclass resistant strains identified in the analyzed samples. The prevalence of HIV TDRM among the pregnant women in our cohort was moderate. Resistance testing should be encouraged in Rio de Janeiro, among other locations, for all HIV-infected pregnant women prior to prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

  19. HIV-1 diversity and drug resistance mutations among people seeking HIV diagnosis in voluntary counseling and testing sites in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Velasco-de-Castro, Carlos A; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Bastos, Francisco I; Pilotto, José H; Fernandes, Nilo; Morgado, Mariza G

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable viral diversity remains a big challenge to the development of HIV vaccines and optimal therapy worldwide. In the latest years, as a consequence of the large expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) availability worldwide, an increase in transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) has been observed, varying according the region. This study assessed HIV-1 diversity and TDRM profile over time among newly HIV-1 diagnosed individuals from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from individuals seeking HIV diagnosis in four voluntary counseling and testing (VCTs) sites located in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area, in 2005-2007. Recent (RS) and long-term (LTS) HIV-1 seroconverters were distinguished using BED-CEIA. Pol viral sequences were obtained for 102 LTS identified in 2005 and 144 RS from 2005-2007. HIV-1 subtype and pol recombinant genomes were determined using Rega HIV-1 Subtyping Tool and by phylogenetic inferences and bootscanning analyses. Surveillance of HIV-1 TDRM to protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors were performed according to the Calibrated Population Resistance (CPR) Tool 6.0. Overall, subtype B remains the most prevalent in Rio de Janeiro in both LTS and RS HIV-1 infected individuals. An increased proportion of recombinant samples was detected over time, especially in RS heterosexual men, due to the emergence of CRF02_AG and URF samples bearing a subtype K fragment. The prevalence of HIV-1 samples carrying TDRM was high and similar between LTS and RS (15.7% vs 14.6%) or age (<25yo 17.9% vs >25yo 16.6%) along the study period. The high resistance levels detected in both populations are of concern, especially considering the dynamics of HIV-1 diversity over time. Our results suggest that the incorporation of resistance testing prior to HAART initiation should be highly considered, as well as permanent surveillance, aiming to carefully monitoring HIV-1 diversity, with focus on CRF/URF emergence

  20. [Infant mortality by cause of death in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, 1976-1986: association with socioeconomic, climatic and air pollution variables].

    PubMed

    Duchiade, M P; Beltrao, K I

    1992-01-01

    The Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (RMR) consists of the capital (the city of Rio de Janeiro) and 13 surrounding cities. The city of Rio de Janeiro itself was divided into 24 rather heterogeneous administrative regions (RAS) based on the income level of their inhabitants, the supply of public services such as water and sewerage, and population density or air pollution. Three different socioeconomic covariables were selected in three residential zones (ZONA) or subareas: the central rich nucleus, the intermediary zone of transition, and the distant periphery. As dependent variables the specific rate of infant, neonatal, or postneonatal mortality were considered for causes. The RMRJ Civil Register mortality data were utilized. A factor of correction was estimated according to the technique of Brass using the fertility rate and the rate of delivery for specific 5-year age groups of mothers. A multivariate analysis, the adjusted generalized linear model (MLG), was used for studying associations between socioeconomic, climatic, and air pollution variables and the levels of mortality. The MLG was formulated by means of the statistical package, GLIM or Generalized Linear Interactive Modelling. Analysis of infant mortality trends during 1976-1986 for the large subareas of RMRJ and the outlying region showed that the peak months of total neonatal and perinatal mortality were March and February, while the lowest months were November and October. May and June represented maximum rates of postneonatal mortality for pneumonia, diarrhea, other respiratory infections, malnutrition, and other diseases. MLG indicated that there was a statistically significant association between the annual mortality rate for selected causes and socioeconomic indicators (INS, FS and Zona); the rates of mortality also varied depending on time (ANO and ANOQ); and the mortality rates also appeared to be associated with the variations of the log of average pollution (LPM).

  1. Circulation of the rabies virus in non-hematophagous bats in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Claudius Couto; Morais, Ana Carolina Nunes de; Dias, Alba Valéria de Almeida Barcelos; Araújo, Marcela Garcia; Moreira, Wildeberg Cal; Mattos, Gláucio Luis Mata

    2012-01-01

    Rabies is one of the most known lethal zoonosis, responsible for 55,000 human deaths per year. It is transmitted to humans mainly by the bite of domestic or wild animals infected with the virus. This paper shows the circulation of this virus in non-hematophagous bats in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A survey was performed on the number of bats that had been sent for diagnosis by the Seção de Virologia of the Instituto Municipal de Medicina Veterinária Jorge Vaitsman and were positive for rabies. The positive animals were identified, and the isolated viruses were sent for antigenic typification with indirect immunofluorescence. The results were compared with the antigenic panel of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. During 2001-2010, the laboratory received 555 non-hematophagous bats for rabies diagnosis, with 198 (35.7%) from Rio de Janeiro City. A total of 11 (5.5%) animals were positive for this disease. Antigenic typification revealed the predominance of variant 3 in 9 (81.8%) of the isolated viruses; 1 virus was classified as variant 4 and 1 variant was identified that segregated with the viruses in insectivorous bats. The data obtained in this study showed the presence of the rabies virus in synanthropic populations of non-hematophagous bats in the City of Rio de Janeiro. The circulation of this agent in these animals represents a serious risk to human and animal health and requires attention and control measures by the authorities.

  2. The risk of dengue for non-immune foreign visitors to the 2016 summer olympic games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Raphael; Amaku, Marcos; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Greenhalgh, David; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Struchiner, Claudio José; Massad, Eduardo

    2016-04-29

    Rio de Janeiro in Brazil will host the Summer Olympic Games in 2016. About 400,000 non-immune foreign tourists are expected to attend the games. As Brazil is the country with the highest number of dengue cases worldwide, concern about the risk of dengue for travelers is justified. A mathematical model to calculate the risk of developing dengue for foreign tourists attending the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro in 2016 is proposed. A system of differential equation models the spread of dengue amongst the resident population and a stochastic approximation is used to assess the risk to tourists. Historical reported dengue time series in Rio de Janeiro for the years 2000-2015 is used to find out the time dependent force of infection, which is then used to estimate the potential risks to a large tourist cohort. The worst outbreak of dengue occurred in 2012 and this and the other years in the history of Dengue in Rio are used to discuss potential risks to tourists amongst visitors to the forthcoming Rio Olympics. The individual risk to be infected by dengue is very much dependent on the ratio asymptomatic/symptomatic considered but independently of this the worst month of August in the period studied in terms of dengue transmission, occurred in 2007. If dengue returns in 2016 with the pattern observed in the worst month of August in history (2007), the expected number of symptomatic and asymptomatic dengue cases among tourists will be 23 and 206 cases, respectively. This worst case scenario would have an incidence of 5.75 (symptomatic) and 51.5 (asymptomatic) per 100,000 individuals.

  3. Contamination of Carcasses and Utensils in Small Swine Slaughterhouses by Salmonella in the Northwestern Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Claudius Couto; Panzenhagen, Pedro Henrique Nunes; Delgado, Karina Frensel; Silva, Gabriela Rodrigues Alves; Rodrigues, Dália Dos Prazeres; Franco, Robson Maia; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that constantly threatens food safety in developed countries and underdeveloped countries such as Brazil, where it is responsible for 38% of notified cases of foodborne illness. Swine are one of the main meat-producing species that may asymptomatically carry Salmonella, periodically shedding the bacteria through feces. The state of Rio de Janeiro is not a major producer of swine meat, but small slaughterhouses are operational and produce meat for consumption within the state, although few studies have been conducted in the region. In this context, this study was designed to evaluate Salmonella contamination in carcasses, lymph nodes, feces, utensils, and the environment of three small slaughterhouses in the state of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 344 samples from carcasses, utensils, equipment, water, and the environment were collected from these slaughterhouses in the northwestern region of Rio de Janeiro. Salmonella was isolated from 36 (10.5%) samples: 10 of 48 carcasses, 19 of 96 lymph nodes, 4 of 48 fecal samples, 2 of 6 water samples, and 1 of 6 bleeding knives; 55 isolates were recovered. Serotyping revealed the predominance of Salmonella Typhimurium (20 isolates) followed by Salmonella Abony (10 isolates), Salmonella Give (7 isolates), Salmonella Heidelberg (4 isolates), and Salmonella Infantis (1 isolate). Ten isolates were only partially typeable, with only their O antigen identified, and three isolates had rough, nontypeable colonies. Despite the overall low prevalence of Salmonella in this study, all three slaughterhouses had poor hygienic and sanitary conditions, providing easy routes for carcass and, consequently, meat contamination. Thus, it is imperative to enforce sanitary inspections in these establishments and to apply good manufacture practices to assure the safety of the produced pork.

  4. Spectral Analysis of Different Vegetation Cover Using the Hyperion Sensor - a Case Study in the State of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, E. M. F. R.; Vicens, R. S.; Rosa, A. E. P.; Cruz, C. B. M.

    2012-07-01

    The knowledge about of land use and current status of vegetation represent important steps in understanding the spatial dynamics in areas with increased removal of vegetation and human disturbance. This feature is very common in its Brazil considering the biophysical diversity observed. In this sense, interest in patterns and processes that lead to environmental changes has been receiving great support from geoprocessing and remote sensing for monitoring, environmental and planning of natural resources. Following this trend, the study uses products from hyperspectral geotechnology to identify new methods of analysis of the landscape, in areas with vegetation remnants of Atlantic Forest in the State of the Rio de Janeiro.

  5. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barth, Ortrud M; Barreto, Cíntia F; Coelho, Luciane G; Luz, Cynthia F P

    2004-09-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

  6. Identification of Possible Intense Historical Solar Storms During the Years 1781-1788 Inferred from Aurorae and Geomagnetic Observations in Rio De Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2006-05-01

    The reconstruction of solar activity during the late 18th century is a puzzle for researchers due to the scarcity of sunspot observations in that epoch. In this work, we analyse some details of the solar activity during the years 1781-1788, inferred from geomagnetic measurements and visual observations of aurorae performed by the Portuguese scientist Bento Sanches Dorta from Rio de Janeiro. We describe in greater detail four large solar storms that induced large changes in daily values of geomagnetic declination and, simultaneously, correspond to visual observations of aurorae described by Sanches Dorta.

  7. Preliminary data on the performance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus immatures developing in water-filled tires in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Honório, Nildimar Alves; Cabello, Pedro H; Codeço, Cláudia T; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2006-03-01

    A monthly survey of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus immatures in discarded tires at a site in metropolitan Rio de Janeiro showed that Ae. albopictus was much more abundant in the rainy season, but Ae. aegypti abundance showed a less clear seasonal pattern. Pupal masses for Ae. albopictus showed a seasonal trend. In contrast, Ae. aegypti pupae did not show any clear trend in weight. Large Ae. albopictus pupae were found in the warmer months, when water volume was higher, pH lower and larval abundance lower. Further studies should be carried out to assess how seasonal variations in body size may impact vector competence of these species in Brazil.

  8. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Oceanographic characteristics of an impacted coastal bay: Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjerfve, Björn; Ribeiro, Cesar H. A.; Dias, Gilberto T. M.; Filippo, Alessandro M.; Da Silva Quaresma, Valéria

    1997-11-01

    Baía de Guanabara is a 384 km 2 eutrophic coastal bay in Brazil, impacted by the polluted discharge from the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. The structurally controlled bay has a central channel with a depth of 30 m and a sandy bottom near the entrance, reflecting wave and tidal forcing. In contrast, the bay-averaged water depth is 5.7 m and the bottom sediments are mostly muds as a result of the Holocene transgression and rapid fluvial sedimentation, accelerated by channelization of rivers and deforestation. An extensive sand bank is located seaward of the bay entrance and a flood-oriented sand wave system indicates sand transport into the bay. The mean freshwater discharge measures 100±59 m 3 s -1 and is greatest in the rainy austral summer in December and January. Tides are mixed mainly semidiurnal with a range of 0.7 m, and peak spring tidal currents reach 0.5 m s -1 inside the bay and 1.6 m s -1 near the bay entrance. The passage of northward propagating polar fronts results in regular strong southwesterly winds and heavy wave forcing. The bay has mean salinities from 21.0 to 34.5‰ with an average of 29.5±4.8‰. The vertical salinity stratification, Δs/s, varies from 0.06 to 0.21 and is relatively weak and inversely proportional to rms tidal currents. The residual circulation is characterized by both gravitational circulation and transverse residual tidal circulation, measuring 800 and 400 m 3 s -1 respectively. The renewal time of 50% of the bay water volume is 11.4 days. Untreated sewage runoff enters the bay from the west, resulting in locally poor water quality, where the near-bottom mean dissolved oxygen measures only 3.1 mg 1 -1 and results in anoxic bottom muds. The worst water quality is indicated by average fecal coliform of 1140 counts ml -1 and excessive ammonia and phosphate loading. The average chlorophyll concentration in this region responds to the nutrient loading and exceeds 130 μg 1 -1 although 57 μg 1 -1 is the overall mean for

  10. Dengue type 4 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: case characterization following its introduction in an endemic region.

    PubMed

    Heringer, Manoela; Souza, Thiara Manuele A; Lima, Monique da Rocha Q; Nunes, Priscila Conrado G; Faria, Nieli Rodrigues da C; de Bruycker-Nogueira, Fernanda; Chouin-Carneiro, Thaís; Nogueira, Rita Maria R; Dos Santos, Flavia Barreto

    2017-06-09

    Due to the populations' susceptibility, DENV-4 introduction in 2010 led to the occurrence of explosive epidemics in the following years in Brazil. In 2011, DENV-4 was identified in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and it was prevalent in 2012 and 2013. Here, we aimed to characterize clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial aspects of DENV-4 cases after this serotype introduction in an endemic scenario. Dengue suspected cases (n = 3727) were received and analyzed from January 2011 to December 2013, during outbreaks occurred in RJ, Brazil. Samples were submitted to virological, serological and molecular methods for case confirmation. DENV-4 cases (n = 705) were characterized according to the type of infection, disease severity and, viremia levels and NS1 antigenemia were accessed. Representative strains were partial sequenced for genotyping. DENV-4 was identified in 44.2% (705/1593) of dengue positive cases, virus isolated in 48.7% of the cases. Anti-DENV IgM was detected in 39.4% of the cases, however an increased detection was observed in cases with ≥4 days of symptoms (57.0%). NS1 antigen was identified in 41.5% of DENV-4 cases however, after immune complexes dissociation, the detection significantly increased (87.6%). Females were more affected than males, so did children aged 11-15 years old. Primary cases were more frequently observed than secondary ones and most of them were classified as dengue. No differences on NS1 antigenemia and viraemia within the groups were observed. Despite the higher frequency of severe disease on individuals >65 years old, no differences were observed among the groups and type of infection. However, DENV-4 fatal cases were more frequent on secondary infections (57.1%). DENV-4 Genotype II was identified with a probable origin from Venezuela and Colombia. It has been shown that laboratorial diagnosis is still a reliable tool for the disease surveillance, detecting and confirming emerging epidemics. Despite the occurrence of secondary

  11. A large CO2 sink enhanced by eutrophication in a tropical coastal embayment (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotovicz, L. C., Jr.; Knoppers, B. A.; Brandini, N.; Costa Santos, S. J.; Abril, G.

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to its small surface area, the coastal zone plays a disproportionate role in the global carbon cycle. Carbon production, transformation, emission and burial rates at the land-ocean interface are still poorly known, especially in tropical regions. Surface water pCO2 and ancillary parameters were monitored during nine field campaigns between April 2013 and April 2014 in Guanabara Bay, a tropical eutrophic to hypertrophic semi-enclosed estuarine embayment surrounded by the city of Rio de Janeiro, SE-Brazil. Water pCO2 varied between 22 and 3715 ppmv in the Bay showing spatial, diurnal and seasonal trends that mirrored those of dissolved oxygen (DO) and Chlorophyll a (Chl a). Marked pCO2 undersaturation was prevalent in the shallow, confined and thermally stratified waters of the upper bay, whereas pCO2 oversaturation was restricted to sites close to the small river mouths and small sewage channels, which covered only 10% of the bay's area. Substantial daily variations in pCO2 (up to 395 ppmv between dawn and dusk) were also registered and could be integrated temporally and spatially for the establishment of net diurnal, seasonal and annual CO2 fluxes. In contrast to other estuaries worldwide, Guanabara Bay behaved as a net sink of atmospheric CO2, a property enhanced by the concomitant effects of strong radiation intensity, thermal stratification, and high availability of nutrients, which promotes phytoplankton development and net autotrophy. In the inner part of the bay, the calculated annual CO2 sink (-19.6 mol C m2 yr-1) matched the organic carbon burial in the sediments reported in the literature. The carbon sink and autotrophy of Guanabara Bay was driven by planktonic primary production promoted by eutrophication, and by its typology of marine embayment lacking the classical extended estuarine mixing zone, in contrast to river-dominated estuarine systems, which are generally net heterotrophic and CO2 emitters. Our results show that global CO2

  12. A strong CO2 sink enhanced by eutrophication in a tropical coastal embayment (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotovicz, L. C., Jr.; Knoppers, B. A.; Brandini, N.; Costa Santos, S. J.; Abril, G.

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to its small surface area, the coastal zone plays a disproportionate role in the global carbon cycle. Carbon production, transformation, emission and burial rates at the land-ocean interface are significant at the global scale but still poorly known, especially in tropical regions. Surface water pCO2 and ancillary parameters were monitored during nine field campaigns between April 2013 and April 2014 in Guanabara Bay, a tropical eutrophic to hypertrophic semi-enclosed estuarine embayment surrounded by the city of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. Water pCO2 varied between 22 and 3715 ppmv in the bay, showing spatial, diurnal and seasonal trends that mirrored those of dissolved oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll a (Chl a). Marked pCO2 undersaturation was prevalent in the shallow, confined and thermally stratified waters of the upper bay, whereas pCO2 oversaturation was restricted to sites close to the small river mouths and small sewage channels, which covered only 10 % of the bay's area. Substantial daily variations in pCO2 (up to 395 ppmv between dawn and dusk) were also registered and could be integrated temporally and spatially for the establishment of net diurnal, seasonal and annual CO2 fluxes. In contrast to other estuaries worldwide, Guanabara Bay behaved as a net sink of atmospheric CO2, a property enhanced by the concomitant effects of strong radiation intensity, thermal stratification, and high availability of nutrients, which promotes phytoplankton development and net autotrophy. The calculated CO2 fluxes for Guanabara Bay ranged between -9.6 and -18.3 mol C m-2 yr-1, of the same order of magnitude as the organic carbon burial and organic carbon inputs from the watershed. The positive and high net community production (52.1 mol C m-2 yr-1) confirms the high carbon production in the bay. This autotrophic metabolism is apparently enhanced by eutrophication. Our results show that global CO2 budgetary assertions still lack information on tropical

  13. A segment of rbcL gene as a potential tool for forensic discrimination of Cannabis sativa seized at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mello, I C T; Ribeiro, A S D; Dias, V H G; Silva, R; Sabino, B D; Garrido, R G; Seldin, L; de Moura Neto, Rodrigo Soares

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis sativa, known by the common name marijuana, is the psychoactive drug most widely distributed in the world. Identification of Cannabis cultivars may be useful for association to illegal crops, which may reveal trafficking routes and related criminal groups. This study provides evidence for the performance of a segment of the rbcL gene, through genetic signature, as a tool for identification for C. sativa samples apprehended by the Rio de Janeiro Police, Brazil. The PCR amplified and further sequenced the fragment of approximately 561 bp of 24 samples of C. sativa rbcL gene and showed the same nucleotide sequences, suggesting a possible genetic similarity or identical varieties. Comparing with other Cannabaceae family sequences, we have found 99% of similarity between the Rio de Janeiro sequence and three other C. sativa rbcL genes. These findings suggest that the fragment utilized at this study is efficient in identifying C. sativa samples, therefore, useful in genetic discrimination of samples seized in forensic cases.

  14. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepaguá Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Parente, Thiago E M; De-Oliveira, Ana C A X; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2008-03-01

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ("Nile tilapia", Oreochromis niloticus and "acará", Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepaguá Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes.

  15. Assessment of urinary infection management during prenatal care in pregnant women attending public health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vettore, Marcelo Vianna; Dias, Marcos; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the sociodemographic risk factors for urinary tract infection and the inadequacy of antenatal care, according to the Kotelchuck index, in pregnant women in the city of Rio de Janeiro. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,091 pregnant women, 501 with urinary tract infection, in the public health antenatal care units in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2007-2008. Demographic and socioeconomic data, obstetric history and adequacy of antenatal care were collected by interviews and antenatal care card. Inadequacy management of urinary tract infection was evaluated by professional performance, health services and women dimensions. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare groups and to identify associated factors with management of urinary tract infection. Pregnant teenagers, anemic and diabetic pregnant women and quality of prenatal partially adequate or inadequate were those with higher odds of urinary tract infection. In the overall assessment, 72% had inadequate management of urinary tract infection. Inadequate management of urinary tract infection was associated with brown skin color compared to white skin color. In the assessment of health professional performance, inadequacy management of urinary tract infection was more common in pregnant women with low weight and overweight and obesity. According to pregnant women evaluation, primiparous women have lower odds of inadequacy management of urinary tract infection compared to those with one or more children.

  16. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a spatio-temporal analysis of cases reported in the period 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Alves, André T J; Nobre, Flávio F

    2014-05-01

    Despite increased funding for research on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), neither vaccine nor cure is yet in sight. Surveillance and prevention are essential for disease intervention, and it is recognised that spatio-temporal analysis of AIDS cases can assist the decision-making process for control of the disease. This study investigated the dynamic, spatial distribution of notified AIDS cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2001 and 2010, based on the annual incidence in each municipality. Sequential choropleth maps were developed and used to analyse the incidence distribution and Moran's I spatial autocorrelation statistics was applied for characterisation of the spatio-temporal distribution pattern. A significant, positive spatial autocorrelation of AIDS incidence was observed indicating that municipalities with high incidence are likely to be close to other municipalities with similarly high incidence and, conversely, municipalities with low incidence are likely to be surrounded by municipalities with low incidence. Two clusters were identified; one hotspot related to the State Capital and the other with low to intermediate AIDS incidence comprising municipalities in the north-eastern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  17. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of pink cusk-eel, Genypterus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Ophidiidae), from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Dimitri R; Luque, José L; Paraguassu, Aline R

    2002-07-01

    Fifty-five specimens of pink cusk-eel, Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, 1903 (Osteichthyes: Ophidiidae) collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (approx. 21-23 degrees S, 41-45 degrees W), from September 2000 to January 2001, were necropsied to study their parasites. All fish were parasitized by one or more metazoan. Fourteen species of parasites were collected. G. brasiliensis is a new host record for nine parasite species. The larval stages of cestodes and the nematodes were the majority of the parasite specimens collected, with 38.4% and 36.5%, respectively. Cucullanus genypteri was the dominant species with highest prevalence and/or abundance. The parasites of G. brasiliensis showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. Six parasite species showed correlation between the host's total body length and prevalence and abundance. Host sex did not influence prevalence and parasite abundance of any parasite species. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of G. brasiliensis was H= 0.364 +/- 0.103, with correlation with the host's total length and without differences in relation to sex of the host. One pair of adult endoparasites (C. genypteri and A. brasiliensis) showed positive covariations between their abundances. Negative association or covariation was not found. Differences between the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the parasite community of G. brasiliensis from Rio de Janeiro and Argentina suggest the existence of two population stocks of pink cusk-eel in the South America Atlantic Ocean.

  18. Consumer payment patterns for primary health care services in low-income communities of Rio de Janeiro: implications for designing service financing schemes.

    PubMed

    Lassner, K J; Parker, B R; Ribeiro, C A; Smarzaro, M S

    1987-01-01

    Primary health care (PHC) services are now recognized as a mainstay of development in low-income regions of the world. Yet, in many of these areas, economic conditions that include a burgeoning international debt, precipitous drops in the prices of raw materials, expanding population bases, and faltering currency rates, make the effective financing of PHC services an issue requiring the most immediate attention. A potentially valuable source of assistance in such endeavors is data on consumers' payment patterns for PHC services, and on socioeconomic conditions within their communities. The Centro de Pesquisas de Assistência Integrada à Mulher e à Criança (CPAIMC), the principal private source of PHC in Rio de Janeiro, has collected these type of data for nine low-income communities (LICs) within the Greater Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region. The current paper interfaces these data with previously developed solutions to address the problem of financing PHC services within the nine LICs. The solutions were recommended by a methodology developed and implemented by two of the authors. Results indicate that the consumer payment pattern and socioeconomic data support the methodology's recommendations and, more importantly, may be used to improve the effectiveness of those recommendations. Examples are provided and implications discussed.

  19. Where does treatment optimism fit in? Examining factors associated with consistent condom use among people receiving antiretroviral treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Homaira; Bastos, Francisco I; Malta, Monica; Bertoni, Neilane; Winch, Peter J; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-10-01

    In the era of highly active antiretrovirals, people living with HIV (PLWH) have resumed sexual activity in the context of longer and healthier lives, and thus the chances of transmitting the HIV virus, as well as the potential to be re-infected also increase. HIV treatment optimism has been found to be associated with sexual risk behaviors among PLWH in different settings. A cross sectional survey was conducted to examine the relationship between treatment optimism, safer sex burnout and consistent condom use as well as variables associated with treatment optimism in a sample of PLWH on antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n = 604). Seventy-two percent of participants always used a condom in the last 6 months. Homosexual, bisexual, transexual persons were less likely to use condoms consistently than heterosexuals (AOR .58 CI .42-.78). Those who were treatment optimistic (AOR .46 CI .25-.88) were more likely not use a condom consistently in the past 6 months, as were participants who reported safer sex burnout (AOR .58 CI .36-.90). Sexual orientation, safer sex burnout, and lower education levels were significantly associated with higher treatment optimism in multivariate analysis. Study findings highlight the need to address psychosocial factors such as treatment optimism and safer sex burnout associated with lower consistent condom use among PLWH in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  20. Dengue severity associated with age and a new lineage of dengue virus-type 2 during an outbreak in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Priscila Conrado Guerra; Sampaio, Simone Alves Faria; da Costa, Nieli Rodrigues; de Mendonça, Marcos Cesar Lima; Lima, Monique da Rocha Queiroz; Araujo, Saraiva Eliane M; dos Santos, Flávia Barreto; Simões, Jaqueline Basto Santos; Gonçalves, Bianca de Santis; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus-type 2 (DENV-2) caused three outbreaks, in the years 1990, 1998, and 2008, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The 2008 outbreak was the most severe in reported cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. To investigate virological and epidemiological factors that may have contributed to the pathogenic profile of 2008 epidemic, 102 patients sera obtained during the epidemic and inter-epidemic periods of three outbreaks were analysed by qRT-PCR to estimate viremia levels and their correlation with the clinical, immunological, and demographic patient characteristics. DENV-2 isolates from the outbreaks were sequenced. Two DENV-2 lineages (I and II) of the American/Asian genotype were confirmed, each exclusive for 1990-2002 and 2007-2011, respectively. The mean viremia level in the 2008 samples was two orders of magnitude higher than that of the 1990-2002 samples. Severe dengue cases increased from 31% in 1990-2002 to 69% in 2007-2011; in patients aged ≤15 years, from 3% in 1990-2002 to 37% in 2007-2011. The DENV-2 lineage II and younger age significantly contributed to the pathogenic profile of 2008 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro.

  1. A Fatal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Misdiagnosed as Dengue: An Investigation into the First Reported Case in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Guterres, Alexandro; Teixeira, Bernardo Rodrigues; Fernandes, Jorlan; Júnior, João Marcos Penna; de Jesus Oliveira Júnior, Reynaldo; Pereira, Liana Strecht; Júnior, João Bosco; Meneguete, Patrícia Soares; Dias, Cristina Maria Giordano; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2017-07-01

    We report the results of an investigation into a fatal case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, where the disease had not been reported previous to 2015. Following the notification of an HPS case, serum samples were collected from the household members and work contacts of the HPS patient and tested for antibody to hantaviruses. Seroprevalence of 22% (10/45) was indicated for hantavirus out of 45 human samples tested. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 72 rodents during fieldwork to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay IgG, and to characterize the rodent hantavirus reservoir(s), by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Antibody prevalence was 6.9%. The circulation of a single genotype, the Juquitiba hantavirus, carried by two rodent species, black-footed pigmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys nigripes) and cursor grass mouse (Akodon cursor), was shown by analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the S segment. Juquitiba hantavirus circulates in rodents of various species, but mainly in the black-footed pigmy rice rat. HPS is a newly recognized clinical entity in Rio de Janeiro State and should be considered in patients with febrile illness and acute respiratory distress.

  2. [Breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support in primary health care in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a case of evidence-based public health policy].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Souza, Ivis Emília de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    This article evaluates a policy for breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support in primary health care units in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, analyzing the assumptions, interventions, and results based on a log-frame model. A systematic review sought to identify effective procedures and strategies for extending breastfeeding duration, constituting the basis for creating "Ten Steps" in the "Breastfeeding-Friendly Primary Care Initiative" launched in Rio de Janeiro State in 1999. A corresponding evaluation method was developed and applied to verify the performance of 24 primary health care units from different parts of the State. A direct association was found between the practical implementation of these steps and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, as well as with mothers' satisfaction. An analysis of meanings ascribed by pregnant women and mothers to the support provided for breastfeeding identified five categories: "no support", "doubtful support", "encouragement", "guidance", and "partnership". The evaluation model allowed staff at the health care units to recognize opportunities for improving the program, in order to reverse the current low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding.

  3. [Use of rehabilitation services by technology-dependent children and adolescents in a maternal and child hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gavazza, Cláudia Zornoff; Fonseca, Vânia Matos; da Silva, Kátia Silveira; Cunha, Sueli Rezende

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the dependence on technology and use of rehabilitation services by children and adolescents in a maternal and child hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a cross-sectional design, the following variables were analyzed: gender and age of the children and adolescents, socioeconomic characteristics of the family, technology dependence, and use of rehabilitation services. The majority of the study population consisted of preschoolers (56.3%), boys (58.3%), residing in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro (89.3%), from low-income families (70.9%), and cared for mainly by their mothers (93.8%), who in turn have low schooling (54.2%) and are unemployed (89.6%). Of the entire study population, 22.9% were dependent on more than three different technologies, with medication as the most prevalent. Government and nonprofit institutions fund the rehabilitation, and physical therapists are the most widely used health professionals during treatment (60.4%). The target hospital provides all of the specialized medical treatment and most of the rehabilitation.

  4. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect

    Loureiro, S.M.; Rovere, E.L.L.; Mahler, C.F.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ► Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ► We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ► The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ► The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  5. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) container productivity in a slum and a suburban district of Rio de Janeiro during dry and wet seasons.

    PubMed

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Marques, William A; Peres, Roberto C; Cunha, Sérgio P; de Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço

    2007-06-01

    Seasonal variation in container productivity and infestation levels by Aedes aegypti were evaluated in two areas with distinct levels of urbanization degrees in Rio de Janeiro, a slum and a suburban neighborhood. The four most productive containers can generate up to 90% of total pupae. Large and open-mouthed containers, such as water tanks and metal drums, located outdoors were the most productive in both areas, with up to 47.49% of total Ae. aegypti pupae collected in the shaded sites in the suburban area. Water-tanks were identified as key containers in both areas during both the dry and rainy seasons. Container productivity varied according to seasons and urbanization degree. However, the mean number of pupae per house was higher in the suburban area, but not varied between seasons within each area (P > 0.05). High infestation indexes were observed for both localities, with a house index of 20.5-21.14 in the suburban and of 9.56-11.22 in the urban area. This report gives potential support to a more focused and cost-effective Ae. aegypti control in Rio de Janeiro.

  6. [Infestation with Linognathus africanus (Kellogg e Paine, 1911) (Linognathidae) and Bovicola caprae (Ewing, 1936) (Trichodectidae) in goat flock of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Sandra B; Cançado, Paulo Henrique D; Piranda, Eliane M; Faccini, João Luiz H

    2006-01-01

    Mixed infestations with Linognathus africanus and Bovicola caprae were diagnosed in a lot of 20 goats from a flock of 40, belonging to a farm from the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (22 degrees 44'38''S and 43 degrees 42'27''W). Animals were of both sexes, varied ages and different breeds (half blood Saanen/Boer, Saanen, cross breeds), were examined in April of 2004. With an exception of one goat, parasitized only by L. africanus, the remainders 19 (95%) were infested by the two species lice. Of 69 (71%) specimens of L. africanus and 28 (28.9%) of B. caprae collected the ratio female:male for L. africanus were 4.6 (23:5), while for B. caprae were 4.8 (57:12). The absence of L. africanus in recent surveys carried out in the semi-arid regions of the Northeast Brazil where more the 60% of examined goats were parasitized by B. caprae suggests that the adaptation to the climatic variation might be different for the two species.

  7. STAR CLUSTER COMPLEXES AND THE HOST GALAXY IN THREE H II GALAXIES: Mrk 36, UM 408, AND UM 461

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, P.; Telles, E.; Nigoche-Netro, A.

    2011-11-15

    We present a stellar population study of three H II galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high-resolution near-infrared J, H, and K{sub p} broadband and Br{gamma} narrowband images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine the relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low-luminosity H II galaxies is {approx}10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses {approx}>10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently and likely simultaneously over short timescales in their host galaxies, triggered by some internal mechanism. Finally, the fraction of the total cluster mass with respect to the low surface brightness (or host galaxy) mass, considering our complete range in ages, is less than 1%.

  8. An Evaluation of Program M in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: An Analysis of Change in Self-Efficacy in Interpersonal Relationships, Gender Equity, and Self-Reported Risky Behaviors among Women in Two Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study examined whether Program M, an intervention targeting young women in a low-income community in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, promoted changes in gender equitable attitudes and self-efficacy in interpersonal relationships among program participants. Further, it investigated whether the program influenced these young…

  9. An Evaluation of Program M in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: An Analysis of Change in Self-Efficacy in Interpersonal Relationships, Gender Equity, and Self-Reported Risky Behaviors among Women in Two Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study examined whether Program M, an intervention targeting young women in a low-income community in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, promoted changes in gender equitable attitudes and self-efficacy in interpersonal relationships among program participants. Further, it investigated whether the program influenced these young…

  10. Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, Theodore E.

    2013-05-06

    The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technology further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.

  11. HIV-1 Diversity and Drug Resistance Mutations among People Seeking HIV Diagnosis in Voluntary Counseling and Testing Sites in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-de-Castro, Carlos A.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Bastos, Francisco I.; Pilotto, José H.; Fernandes, Nilo; Morgado, Mariza G.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable viral diversity remains a big challenge to the development of HIV vaccines and optimal therapy worldwide. In the latest years, as a consequence of the large expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) availability worldwide, an increase in transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) has been observed, varying according the region. This study assessed HIV-1 diversity and TDRM profile over time among newly HIV-1 diagnosed individuals from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from individuals seeking HIV diagnosis in four voluntary counseling and testing (VCTs) sites located in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area, in 2005–2007. Recent (RS) and long-term (LTS) HIV-1 seroconverters were distinguished using BED-CEIA. Pol viral sequences were obtained for 102 LTS identified in 2005 and 144 RS from 2005–2007. HIV-1 subtype and pol recombinant genomes were determined using Rega HIV-1 Subtyping Tool and by phylogenetic inferences and bootscanning analyses. Surveillance of HIV-1 TDRM to protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors were performed according to the Calibrated Population Resistance (CPR) Tool 6.0. Overall, subtype B remains the most prevalent in Rio de Janeiro in both LTS and RS HIV-1 infected individuals. An increased proportion of recombinant samples was detected over time, especially in RS heterosexual men, due to the emergence of CRF02_AG and URF samples bearing a subtype K fragment. The prevalence of HIV-1 samples carrying TDRM was high and similar between LTS and RS (15.7% vs 14.6%) or age (<25yo 17.9% vs >25yo 16.6%) along the study period. The high resistance levels detected in both populations are of concern, especially considering the dynamics of HIV-1 diversity over time. Our results suggest that the incorporation of resistance testing prior to HAART initiation should be highly considered, as well as permanent surveillance, aiming to carefully monitoring HIV-1 diversity, with focus on CRF

  12. Thermal history and evolution of the Rio de Janeiro - Barbacena section of the southeastern Brazilian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri Gezatt, Julia; Stephenson, Randell; Macdonald, David

    2015-04-01

    The transect between the Brazilian cities of Rio de Janeiro and Barbacena (22°54'S, 43°12'W and 21°13'S, 43°46'W, respectively) runs through a segment of a complex range of N-NE/S-SW trending basement units of the Ribeira Belt and southern Sao Francisco Craton, intensely reworked during the Brasiliano-Pan-African orogenic cycle. The ortho- and paragneisses in the area have metamorphic ages between 650 and 540 Ma and are intruded by pre-, syn- and post-tectonic granitic bodies. The transect, perpendicular to the strike direction of the continental margin, crosses the Serra do Mar escarpment, where the sample density is higher in order to better constrain occasional significant age changes. For logistical reasons, the 40 samples collected were processed in two separate batches for apatite fission track (AFT) analysis. The first batch comprised 19 samples, from which 15 produced fission track ages. Analyses were carried out at University College London (UCL), following standard procedures. Preliminary results for the study show AFT ages between 85.9±6.3 and 54.1±4.2 Ma, generally with younger ages close to the coast and progressively older ages towards the continental interior. The highest area sampled, around the city of Teresopolis, ranges from 740 to 1216 m above sea level and shows ages between 85.9±6.3 and 71.3±5.3 Ma. There is no evident lithological or structural distribution control. Medium track length values range from 12.57 to 13.89 µm and distributions are unimodal. Thermal history modelling was done using software QTQt. Individual sample model cooling curves can be divided into two groups: a dominant one, showing a single, slower cooling trend, and a second one with a rapid initial cooling curve, which becomes less steep around 65 Ma. In both groups the maximum paleotemperatures are around 110 Ma. The thermal history model for the first batch of samples is compatible with a single cooling event for the area following continental rifting and

  13. Characterization of environmental conditions for microbial dolomite precipitation and early diagenesis: Brejo do E