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  1. Japan: International Perspectives on Business Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakasako, Shun-Itsu

    1998-01-01

    Discusses research developments in business communication in Japan from the early 1900s to present. Describes early interest in business English; the emergence of business communication; business communication as a broad and interdisciplinary research field in Japan; and its impact on teaching. (SR)

  2. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    the following 3 principles: 1) the US views Japan as an equal trade partner, 2) that the relationship is global in scope, and 3) that Japan has become increasingly assertive in world matters and plays a greater international role. The combined efforts of the US and Japan will be utilized to promote world peace.

  3. International HIV and AIDS prevention: Japan/United States collaboration.

    PubMed

    Umenai, T; Narula, M; Onuki, D; Yamamoto, T; Igari, T

    1997-01-01

    As the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS pandemic shifts from Africa to Asia, Japan is becoming ever more aware of the importance of containing and preventing spread of the virus. International collaboration, particularly with the United States, is a logical approach because it allows utilization of expertise from countries in other stages of the pandemic, can prevent duplication of efforts, and complements efforts of the other countries. Further, both Japan and the United States can use their combined influence and prestige to encourage cooperation among all nations. In 1994, Japan established the Global Issues Initiative to extend cooperation to developing countries in the areas of population and AIDS control. It has disbursed more than $460 million (U.S.$) to promote active cooperation and stimulate international attention to the importance of addressing these health issues. Japan has established four main programs for international collaboration for control of HIV and AIDS, three operated by ministries and one by a Japanese nongovernmental organization. Japanese/United States collaboration is developing through the United States/Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program, the Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective, the Paris Summit, and the United Nations Joint Programme on AIDS. It is critical that Japan and the United States, as the two largest donors to international development, demonstrate, through their collaboration, ways to maximize the use of limited resources, reduce duplication, and promote sustainable development programs in which HIV prevention and AIDS care programs are systemically integrated.

  4. International Education in Japan: Response of the Grass-Eaters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the reasons why a majority of Japanese university students are not interested in study-abroad, international-education type programs. A general consensus in Japan is that disinterest in studying abroad is reflective of the values held by many Japanese young people, often referred to as the "grass-eating"…

  5. Constructing failure in big biology: The socio-technical anatomy of Japan's Protein 3000 Project.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Masato

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the 5-year Protein 3000 Project launched in 2002, the largest biological project in Japan. The project aimed to overcome Japan's alleged failure to contribute fully to the Human Genome Project, by determining 3000 protein structures, 30 percent of the global target. Despite its achievement of this goal, the project was fiercely criticized in various sectors of society and was often branded an awkward failure. This article tries to solve the mystery of why such failure discourse was prevalent. Three explanatory factors are offered: first, because some goals were excluded during project development, there was a dynamic of failed expectations; second, structural genomics, while promoting collaboration with the international community, became an 'anti-boundary object', only the absence of which bound heterogeneous domestic actors; third, there developed an urgent sense of international competition in order to obtain patents on such structural information.

  6. Connecting Higher Education Research in Japan with the International Academic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the historical, current, and future challenges of higher education research in Japan within a global context. Japanese higher education research has been strongly influenced by the international academic community. At the same time, higher education researchers in Japan have participated in international projects, and Japan has…

  7. Internal medicine board certification and career pathways in Japan.

    PubMed

    Koike, Soichi; Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Ide, Hiroo; Kawaguchi, Hideaki; Shimpo, Masahisa; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2017-05-08

    Establishing and managing a board certification system is a common concern for many countries. In Japan, the board certification system is under revision. The purpose of this study was to describe present status of internal medicine specialist board certification, to identify factors associated with maintenance of board certification and to investigate changes in area of practice when physicians move from hospital to clinic practice. We analyzed 2010 and 2012 data from the Survey of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists. We conducted logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with the maintenance of board certification between 2010 and 2012. We also analyzed data on career transition from hospitals to clinics for hospital physicians with board certification. It was common for physicians seeking board certification to do so in their early career. The odds of maintaining board certification were lower in women and those working in locations other than academic hospitals, and higher in physicians with subspecialty practice areas. Among hospital physicians with board certification who moved to clinics between 2010 and 2012, 95.8% remained in internal medicine or its subspecialty areas and 87.7% maintained board certification but changed their practice from a subspecialty area to more general internal medicine. Revisions of the internal medicine board certification system must consider different physician career pathways including mid-career moves while maintaining certification quality. This will help to secure an adequate number and distribution of specialists. To meet the increasing demand for generalist physicians, it is important to design programs to train specialists in general practice.

  8. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  9. Serum C-reactive protein in food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome versus food protein-induced proctocolitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mitsuaki; Shimomura, Masaki; Morishita, Hideaki; Meguro, Takaaki; Seto, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Some infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) have increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and fever in Japan. The aim of this study was therefore to clarify and compare the incidence of this in patients with FPIES versus patients with food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP). One hundred and sixteen infants with non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies were enrolled in this study and classified into three phenotypes: FPIES presenting with vomiting and/or diarrhea (n = 47); FPIP with bloody stool alone (n =19); and the mixed phenotype (MP), bloody stool with vomiting and/or diarrhea (n = 50). Serum CRP was increased in 55.3% of the FPIES group, similar to that in the MP group (54.0%), and significantly higher than in the FPIP group (15.8%; P < 0.01). Fever was observed in 29.8% of the FPIES group, significantly higher than in the MP group (8.0%; P < 0.01) and in the FPIP group (0%; P < 0.05). Patients with fever had significantly higher serum CRP than patients without fever (median, 12.8 vs <0.2 mg/dL, P < 0.00001). Serum CRP was significantly higher in the FPIES group than in the FPIP group. This suggests that serum CRP is a useful marker for differentiating the pathogenesis of FPIES from FPIP. From the perspective of serum CRP, the pathology of the intestinal inflammation in MP subjects is suggested to be similar to that of FPIES. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatrics International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  11. International models of investigator-initiated trials: implications for Japan

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, E. L.; Ledermann, J.; Law, K.; Miyata, T.; Imamura, C. K.; Nam, B.-H.; Kim, Y.H.; Bang, Y.-J.; Michaels, M.; Ardron, D.; Amano, S.; Ando, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Kurokawa, K.; Takebe, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Academic/institutional investigator-initiated clinical trials benefit individuals and society by supplementing gaps in industry-sponsored clinical trials. Materials In May 2010, experts from Japan, the Republic of Korea, the UK, and the United States, met at a symposium in Tokyo, Japan, to discuss how policies related to the conduct of clinical trials, which have been shown to be effective, may be applied to other regions of the world. Results In order to increase the availability of anticancer drugs world-wide, nations including Japan should examine the benefits of increasing the number of investigator-initiated clinical trials. These trials represent one of the most effective ways to translate basic scientific knowledge into clinical practice. These trials should be conducted under GCP guidelines and include Investigational New Drug application submissions with the ultimate goal of future drug approval. Conclusions To maximize the effectiveness of these trials, a policy to educate health care professionals, cancer patients and their families, and the public in general on the benefits of clinical trials should be strengthened. Finally, policies that expedite the clinical development of novel cancer drugs which have already been shown to be effective in other countries are needed in many nations including Japan to accelerate drug approval. PMID:22843420

  12. Enrollment Expansion in Postwar Japan. International Publication Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    After World War II, enrollment in the Japanese educational system underwent an unprecedented expansion, largely on account of postwar economic growth. Although such expansion was common throughout the world, Japan's experience was unique because of the magnitude of changes in the enrollment rates and the degree to which these changes directly…

  13. The Lewisian turning point and international migration: the case of Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S

    1994-01-01

    "This article critically examines the Lewisian turning point [concerning the availability of unlimited manpower resources] in light of Japan's experience since the mid-1800s. Japan reached its Lewisian turning point around 1960. Contrary to the assumptions of the theory however, the findings for Japan indicate that political factors have been more determinative of the rate of migration than purely economic ones. Prior to its turning point in 1960, international relations, war and forced repatriation were the decisive factors. Recently, though the inflow of foreign workers to fill labor shortages has increased, so also has the outflow of Japanese to accompany direct foreign investment." excerpt

  14. The Attraction of International Schools for Japanese Parents Living in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Though many international schools were founded in order to educate the children of expatriates, they have often come to offer an educational alternative for local parents. This article attempts to understand why Japanese parents enrol their children in international schools in Japan. Based on interviews and responses to questionnaires returned by…

  15. Education for International Understanding in Japan: Japanese Self-Identification and the Discourse of Internationalization after the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Chizu

    2004-01-01

    The principal focus of this study is to shed light on how the notion of education for international understanding has developed in Japan, particularly in relation to outside views of Japan in the discourse pertaining to the internationalization of Japan. This examination also needs to trace how "nihonjinron" (discussion of the nature of…

  16. Embodied carbon dioxide flow in international trade: A comparative analysis based on China and Japan.

    PubMed

    Long, Ruyin; Li, Jinqiu; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Linling; Li, Qianwen

    2018-03-01

    Carbon dioxide embodied flow in international trade has become an important factor in defining global carbon emission responsibility and climate policy. We conducted an empirical analysis for China and Japan for the years 2000-2014, using a multi-region input-output model and considering the rest of the world as a comparison group. We compared the two countries' direct and complete carbon dioxide emissions intensity and bilateral economic activities such as imports and exports, production and consumption to analyze the difference between China and Japan. The results showed that the intensities of carbon emissions in all sectors of China were higher than that in Japan and that China's annual production-based emissions were greater than consumption-based emissions, the opposite of these relationships in Japan. China was a typical net carbon export country, and carbon embodied in its imports and exports continued to increase throughout the study period. In contrast, Japan's volume and growth rate of embodied carbon emissions were far less than China's and Japan was a typical net carbon import country. Finally, the conclusions of this study support recommendations for the formulation of international carbon emission responsibility allocation, domestic abatement policy as well as China's trade policy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Commencement of Geoparks, Geology day and International Earth Science Olympiad, IYPE in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukuda, Eikichi; Kodama, Kisaburo; Miyazaki, Teruki

    2010-05-01

    The GSJ is the main supporting organization of IYPE Japan, which is an implementation body of IYPE in Japan, serving as its secretariat. During the IYPE triennial activity, the GSJ has been supporting development of Geparks, establishment of "the Geology Day" and the Earth Science Olympiad activities with some academic societies, and has distributed geological maps with IYPE logo. The GSJ also established an outreach network "Geo-networks Tsukuba" as a local legacy of the IYPE, and has managed it with a local government, research organizations, nonprofit corporations and local media to increase geological and environmental literacy of public, especially among young people. The GSJ-AIST has also contributed internationally to IYPE by joining two international projects, OneGeology and the CCOP Book project. Geoparks in Japan are characterized by following features. The Japanese Islands and the surrounding seas are situated in the area of unique geologic features; the place where several tectonic plates meet and collide. This causes earthquakes and volcanic activities, and makes Japan one of most dynamic areas on the earth. The dynamics of the earth bring about not only geological hazards but also a lot of blessings. In August of 2009, three Geoparks, the Toya Caldera and Usu Volcano Geopark, the Itoigawa Geopark and the Unzen Volcanic Area Geopark, were accepted to join the Global Geopark Network from Japan for the first time. Since its launch in 2006, the GSJ has been playing a major role in promoting Geoparks in Japan together with Geological Society of Japan. The GSJ hosts the Japan Geopark Committee (JGC) for quality evaluation, serving as the information center of Geoparks in Japan. The Geology Day of Japan (10th of May) has been set up by the academic societies for geology in Japan and GSJ in 2007. The Geology Day is expected to provide the chances for the public to enjoy field trips and excursions and to understand the importance of geo-diversity. The Day

  18. Current trends in medical English education and the Japan College of Rheumatology International School.

    PubMed

    Jego, Eric Hajime; Amengual, Olga

    2017-11-01

    In light of the present revolution happening in medical education in Japan as medical schools implement new curricula to conform to global standards, there is a growing demand for more internationalization and higher quality practical medical English education. In response, many institutions including governmental organizations, universities and academic associations are moving ahead with new initiatives to adapt to these changing demands. This paper reviews the current trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan. This paper also describes one initiative by the Japan College of Rheumatology (JCR) known as the JCR International School held yearly in Karuizawa. By examining recent trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan, the most relevant and applicable can be elucidated to illuminate a path forward for improved medical English education within the JCR.

  19. Japan Tobacco International: To 'be the most successful and respected tobacco company in the world'.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Ross; Eckhardt, Jappe; Widyati Prastyani, Ade

    2017-03-01

    Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is the international division of Japan Tobacco Incorporated, and the world's third largest transnational tobacco company. Founded in 1999, JTI's rapid growth has been the result of a global business strategy that potentially serves as a model for other Asian tobacco companies. This paper analyses Japan Tobacco Incorporated's global expansion since the 1980s in response to market opening, foreign competition, and declining share of a contracting domestic market. Key features of its global strategy include the on-going central role and investment by the Japanese government, and an expansion agenda based on mergers and acquisitions. The paper also discusses the challenges this global business strategy poses for global tobacco control and public health. This paper is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  20. Seasonal variation of semidiurnal internal tides in the East/Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Chanhyung; Park, Jae-Hun; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Yoon, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Young Ho; Seo, Seongbong; Park, Young-Gyu; Min, Hong Sik; Lee, Jae Hak; Kim, Cheol-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The seasonal variation of semidiurnal internal tides in the East/Japan Sea was investigated using 25 month long output from a real-time ocean forecasting system. The z coordinate eddy-resolving high-resolution numerical model, called the RIAM ocean model, incorporates data assimilation that nudges temperature and salinity fields together with volume transport through the Korea Strait to produce realistic oceanic currents and stratification. In addition to atmospheric forcing, it includes tidal forcing of 16 major components along open boundaries. The model generates energetic semidiurnal internal tides around the northern entrance of the Korea Strait. Energy conversion from barotropic to baroclinic (internal) tides varies seasonally with maxima in September (ranging 0.48-0.52 GW) and minima in March (ranging 0.11-0.16 GW). This seasonal variation is induced by the seasonality in stratification near the southwestern East/Japan Sea. The propagation distance of the internal tides is associated with generation intensity and wavelength. From late summer to early winter, the semidiurnal internal tides travel relatively far from the generation region due to stratification changes; its energy dissipates less as a result of longer wavelengths. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variation of internal-tide-induced mixing due to the seasonality in the generation, propagation, and dissipation of internal tides should be considered for a more realistic simulation of water masses and circulation in models of the East/Japan Sea.

  1. Doctoral Dissertations on Japan and Korea, 1969-1974: A Classified Bibliographical Listing of International Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Frank Joseph, Ed.

    This volume provides a comprehensive listing of dissertations on Japan and Korea that are available from University Microfilms International. The present bibliography incorporates many titles that normally would be overlooked because they do not relate directly to the Japanese home islands or to the Korean peninsula. Among the ones included, for…

  2. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  3. A Search for Transnational Culture: An Ethnography of Students in an International School in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, David B.

    This anecdotal ethnography describes the student culture at Columbia Academy, an international school in Kobe, Japan. The paper begins by contrasting the affluence of Columbia Academy and its students with the relative austerity of a nearby Japanese middle school. The paper follows a typical day at Columbia, and describes the nationalities of the…

  4. Expanding the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme in Japan: The Role of University Admissions Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Justin; Ishikura, Yukiko

    2018-01-01

    In 2011, the Japanese government, in partnership with the International Baccalaureate (IB) Organization, embarked on an ambitious agenda of increasing the number of schools offering the IB Diploma Programme (DP) in Japan. One of the biggest challenges in this initiative is improving the recognition of the IB Diploma as an acceptable and sought…

  5. The role of international migration in infectious diseases: the HIV epidemic and its trends in Japan.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Ryuichi; Sawada, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Globalization and its associated international migrations facilitate the spread of infectious diseases. This article reports trends in and discusses the relation between international migration and HIV infection in Japan. The authors analyze relevant literature, drawing on government and other sources. Among foreigners in Japan, there were 27.0 reported HIV and 9.3 reported AIDS cases per million in 1990, and 52.9 HIV and 38.8 AIDS cases per million in 2000. These rates were initially 45 to 90 times the population prevalence of HIV and AIDS among Japanese, but are now only 10 to 20 times the prevalence among Japanese, as HIV becomes an increasing problem for the Japanese population. HIV-infected foreigners who are uninsured are at a disadvantage for diagnosis, counseling, and treatment compared with insured persons, and at a significantly higher risk for low CD4 counts. For all sections of Japan's population, counseling and testing are inadequate, and surveillance of behavioral risk, infection, and disease is limited. International migrants are at increased risk for HIV transmission and at a disadvantage for care and treatment. Japan needs both to develop policies that assist migrants and to respond to the growing threat among its nonmigrant population.

  6. NanoJapan: international research experience for undergraduates program: fostering U.S.-Japan research collaborations in terahertz science and technology of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Sarah R.; Matherly, Cheryl A.; Kono, Junichiro

    2014-09-01

    The international nature of science and engineering research demands that students have the skillsets necessary to collaborate internationally. However, limited options exist for science and engineering undergraduates who want to pursue research abroad. The NanoJapan International Research Experience for Undergraduates Program is an innovative response to this need. Developed to foster research and international engagement among young undergraduate students, it is funded by a National Science Foundation Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) grant. Each summer, NanoJapan sends 12 U.S. students to Japan to conduct research internships with world leaders in terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, nanophotonics, and ultrafast optics. The students participate in cutting-edge research projects managed within the framework of the U.S-Japan NSF-PIRE collaboration. One of our focus topics is THz science and technology of nanosystems (or `TeraNano'), which investigates the physics and applications of THz dynamics of carriers and phonons in nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this article, we will introduce the program model, with specific emphasis on designing high-quality international student research experiences. We will specifically address the program curriculum that introduces students to THz research, Japanese language, and intercultural communications, in preparation for work in their labs. Ultimately, the program aims to increase the number of U.S. students who choose to pursue graduate study in this field, while cultivating a generation of globally aware engineers and scientists who are prepared for international research collaboration.

  7. [The impact of 2010 international consensus on CPR and ECC science with treatment recommendations on Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yasufumi

    2011-04-01

    New guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) were published in October 2010 from International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). Changes of these guidelines will have dramatic effects on Japan. Starting with chest compressions first will increase by-stander CPR. Cases of recovery of spontaneous heartbeat could increase as a result. Intensive care and radical treatments for cardiovascular emergency and brain damage after cardiopulmonary arrest would be essential. Education, implementation and teams (EIT) will be the third subject.

  8. Status of Animal Experiments on International Space Station, and Animal Care Activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Ryutaro; Ishioka, Noriaki; Yumoto, Akane; Ito, Isao; Shirakawa, Masaki

    We would like to introduce animal experiments status on International Space Station (ISS) of Japan. Aquatic Habitat (AQH) was launched at 2012 July, by H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV, ‘Kounotori’) from Tanegashima island in Japan, which could house small fish (Medaka, or Zebrafish) at most three months. First experiment using AQH was carried out for two months from Oct. 26, 2012, and second experiment would start from February, 2014. Mice housing hardware is now under development. For animal care activities, current topic in Japan is self-estimation for animal experiment status by each institute, and to open the result for public. JAXA conducted self-estimation of fiscal year 2011 (from 2011 April until 2012 March) for the first time, and would continue every fiscal year. JAXA already have its own animal care regulation, under animal care law and policy in Japan, and also referred COSPAR animal care guideline. And this year, JAXA made handbook for animal experiments in space (only Japanese).

  9. Unlocking Internal Prestress from Protein Nanoshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, W. S.; Roos, W. H.; Wuite, G. J. L.

    2012-10-01

    The capsids of icosahedral viruses are closed shells assembled from a hexagonal lattice of proteins with fivefold angular defects located at the icosahedral vertices. Elasticity theory predicts that these disclinations are subject to an internal compressive prestress, which provides an explanation for the link between size and shape of capsids. Using a combination of experiment and elasticity theory we investigate the question of whether macromolecular assemblies are subject to residual prestress, due to basic geometric incompatibility of the subunits. Here we report the first direct experimental test of the theory: by controlled removal of protein pentamers from the icosahedral vertices, we measure the mechanical response of so-called “whiffle ball” capsids of herpes simplex virus, and demonstrate the signature of internal prestress locked into wild-type capsids during assembly.

  10. Forecasting international tourism demand from the US, Japan and South Korea to Malaysia: A SARIMA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhan, Nurbaizura; Arsad, Zainudin

    2014-07-01

    One of the major contributing sectors for Malaysia's economic growth is tourism. The number of international tourist arrivals to Malaysia has been showing an upward trend as a result of several programs and promotion introduced by the Malaysian government to attract international tourists to the country. This study attempts to model and to forecast tourism demand for Malaysia by three selected countries: the US, Japan and South Korea. This study utilized monthly time series data for the period from January 1999 to December 2012 and employed the well-known Box-Jenkins seasonal ARIMA modeling procedures. Not surprisingly the results show the number of tourist arrivals from the three countries contain strong seasonal component as the arrivals strongly dependent on the season in the country of origin. The findings of the study also show that the number of tourist arrivals from the US and South Korea will continue to increase in the near future. Meanwhile the arrivals from Japan is forecasted to show a drop in the near future and as such tourism authorities in Malaysia need to enhance the promotional effort to attract more tourists from Japan to visit Malaysia.

  11. Strategic Options for International Participation in Space Exploration: Lessons from U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudiburg, John J.; Chinworth, Michael W.

    2005-01-01

    The President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy suggests that after NASA establishes the Space Exploration vision architecture, it should pursue international partnerships. Two possible approaches were suggested: multiple independently operated missions and an integrated mission with carefully selected international components. The U.S.-Japan defense sectors have learned key lessons from experience with both of these approaches. U.S.-Japan defense cooperation has evolved over forty years from simple military assistance programs to more complex joint development efforts. With the evolution of the political-military alliance and the complexity of defense programs, these cooperative efforts have engaged increasingly industrial resources and capabilities as well as more sophisticated forms of planning, technology transfers and program management. Some periods of this evolution have been marked by significant frictions. The U.S.Japan FS-X program, for example, provides a poor example for management of international cooperation. In November 1988, the United States and Japan signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to co-develop an aircraft, named FS-X and later renamed F -2, as a replacement to the aging Japan support fighter F-l. The program was marked by numerous political disputes. After over a decade of joint development and testing, F -2 production deliveries finally began in 1999. The production run was curtailed due to much higher than anticipated costs and less than desired aircraft performance. One universally agreed "lesson" from the FSX/F-2 case was that it did not represent the ideal approach to bilateral cooperation. More recent cooperative programs have involved targeted joint research and development, including component development for ballistic missile defense systems. These programs could lay the basis for more ambitious cooperative efforts. This study examines both less-than-stellar international cooperation

  12. An international comparison of PPP in road projects and prospects for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takafumi; Morichi, Sigeru; Inoue, Satoshi; Hibino, Naohiko

    Japanese PFI Law was enacted in Japan in 1999. In these eleven years almost all PFI projects were for buildings, while the infrastructure projects were only about 5% in total. Regarding to the road projects that have been managed by the government, there are various bottlenecks for the implementation of PFI. The purposes of this paper are firstly to investigate the time series trend of the PPP projects in the wor ld, secondly to make international comparative study of the PPP-related institutions, and thirdly to propose the desirable improvements of the Japanese institution in many countries. The key issues of the proposal are the support systems for the risk management by the government which squares the rationale and transparence and the deregulation. Finally introduction of PFI scheme into the toll roads which managed by the public corporations of local governments are proposed as a first step in Japan.

  13. Introducing the concept of modern depression in Japan; an international case vignette survey.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takahiro A; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Tateno, Masaru; Ishida, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Sartorius, Norman; Teo, Alan R; Choi, Tae Young; Wand, Anne P F; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Chang, Rita Yuan-Feng; Shadloo, Behrang; Ahmed, Helal Uddin; Lerthattasilp, Tiraya; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Horikawa, Hideki; Matsumoto, Ryohei; Kuga, Hironori; Tanaka, Masuo; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2011-12-01

    Japanese psychiatrists have increasingly reported patients with depression that does not seem to fit the criteria of the ICD-10 and the DSM-IV, and which has recently been called modern type depression (MTD). We explored whether MTD is frequently seen in Japan and also in other countries, and if so, how patients with MTD are diagnosed and treated. The questionnaires, with two case vignettes (traditional type depression (TTD) and MTD), were sent to psychiatrists in Australia, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and the USA. Participants rated their opinions about each case's prevalence in their country, etiology, diagnosis, suicide risk, and treatment using Likert scales. Out of 247 responses (123 from Japan and 124 from other countries), two hundred thirty-nine valid responses were received. MTD was recognized in all participating countries, and especially in urban areas. Generally, the factor of personality was regarded as the most probable cause of MTD. Whereas about 90% of Japanese psychiatrists applied the ICD/DSM criteria to TTD, only about 60% applied the criteria to MTD. Our results indicate that Japan's MTD seems to be occurring in many other countries, and that the present ICD/DSM criteria may not be sufficient to diagnose MTD. Therefore, it could be an important candidate for a new international diagnostic criterion as a subtype of depression. A clear diagnostic framework and consensus on the interventions to treat MTD would be valuable. Further clinical, psychopathological and international epidemiological studies are needed to confirm our preliminary findings of MTD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulatory and scientific frameworks for zoonosis control in Japan--contributing to International Health Regulations (2005).

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Omoe, H; Omoe, K

    2009-12-01

    Zoonoses have earned recognition as the source of serious problems for both public and animal health throughout the world. Emerging infectious diseases have been occurring at an unprecedented rate since the 1970s and a large proportion of these diseases are considered zoonotic. To aid in controlling zoonoses, countermeasures have been strengthened against these diseases and are maintained at both national and international levels. Atypical example of this international effort can be found in the revised International Health Regulations (2005), known as the IHR (2005), which were instituted by the World Health Organization and have been implemented since 2007. In Japan, the appropriate Ministries have established frameworks for controlling zoonoses that employ both administrative and scientific approaches to fulfill the demands of the IHR (2005). In this paper, the authors present the Japanese framework for controlling zoonoses, as a useful example for global public and animal health management in coming years.

  15. PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design, Hiroshima, Japan, 3 6 December 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2007-09-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter comprises selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (QSD2006) held in Hiroshima, Japan, 3-6 December 2006. This conference was organized under the auspices of the Development of New Quantum Simulators and Quantum Design Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT), and Hiroshima University Quantum design is a computational approach to the development of new materials with specified properties and functionalities. The basic ingredient is the use of quantum simulations to design a material that meets a given specification of properties and functionalities. For this to be successful, the quantum simulation should be highly reliable and be applicable to systems of realistic size. A central interest is, therefore, the development of new methods of quantum simulation and quantum design. This includes methods beyond the local density approximation of density functional theory (LDA), order-N methods, methods dealing with excitations and reactions, and so on, as well as the application of these methods to the design of new materials and devices. The field of quantum design has developed rapidly in the past few years and this conference provides an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers to exchange ideas. A total of 183 delegates from 8 countries participated in the conference. There were 18 invited talks, 16 oral presentations and 100 posters. There were many new ideas and we foresee dramatic progress in the coming years. The 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design will be held in Tokyo, Japan, 31 May-3 June 2008.

  16. Does the ‘hikikomori’ syndrome of social withdrawal exist outside Japan?: A preliminary international investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takahiro A.; Tateno, Masaru; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Teo, Alan R.; Sartorius, Norman; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Tetsuya; Choi, Tae Young; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Matsumoto, Ryohei; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Fujimura, Yota; Wand, Anne; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Chang, Rita Yuan-Feng; Shadloo, Behrang; Ahmed, Helal Uddin; Lerthattasilp, Tiraya; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore whether the ‘hikikomori’ syndrome (social withdrawal) described in Japan exists in other countries, and if so, how patients with the syndrome are diagnosed and treated. Methods Two hikikomori case vignettes were sent to psychiatrists in Australia, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and the USA. Participants rated the syndrome's prevalence in their country, etiology, diagnosis, suicide risk, and treatment. Results Out of 247 responses to the questionnaire (123 from Japan and 124 from other countries), 239 were enrolled in the analysis. Respondents’ felt the hikikomori syndrome is seen in all countries examined and especially in urban areas. Biopsychosocial, cultural, and environmental factors were all listed as probable causes of hikikomori, and differences among countries were not significant. Japanese psychiatrists suggested treatment in outpatient wards and some did not think that psychiatric treatment is necessary. Psychiatrists in other countries opted for more active treatment such as hospitalization. Conclusions Patients with the hikikomori syndrome are perceived as occurring across a variety of cultures by psychiatrists in multiple countries. Our results provide a rational basis for study of the existence and epidemiology of hikikomori in clinical or community populations in international settings. PMID:21706238

  17. International trends in health science librarianship part 11: Japan and Korea.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yukiko; Sato, Kuniko; Suwabe, Naoko; Gemba, Hiroko; Nozoe, Atsutake; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Kim, Hye Yang

    2014-09-01

    This is the 11th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. The previous article in this series looked at the Far East (Greater China, Hong Kong and Taiwan). The current issue surveys developments in Japan and Korea. The next issue will explore trends in South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka). Next year all four issues will be devoted to trends in four regions in Africa (Southern Africa, East Africa, West Africa and North Africa. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Journal.

  18. Daily radionuclide ingestion and internal radiation doses in Aomori prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2013-10-01

    To assess internal annual dose in the general public in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, 80 duplicate cooked diet samples, equivalent to the food consumed over a 400-d period by one person, were collected from 100 volunteers in Aomori City and the village of Rokkasho during 2006–2010 and were analyzed for 11 radionuclides. To obtain average rates of ingestion of radionuclides, the volunteers were selected from among office, fisheries, agricultural, and livestock farm workers. Committed effective doses from ingestion of the diet over a 1-y period were calculated from the analytical results and from International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficients; for 40K, an internal effective dose rate from the literature was used. Fisheries workers had significantly higher combined internal annual dose than the other workers, possibly because of high rates of ingestion of marine products known to have high 210Po concentrations. The average internal dose rate, weighted by the numbers of households in each worker group in Aomori Prefecture, was estimated at 0.47 mSv y-1. Polonium-210 contributed 49% of this value. The sum of committed effective dose rates for 210Po, 210Pb, 228Ra, and 14C and the effective dose rate of 40K accounted for approximately 99% of the average internal dose rate.

  19. Conflicts between Public Car Insurance and Public Medical Insurance in Japan: International Comparison Survey

    PubMed Central

    SAKAGUCHI, Kazuki; MORI, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    This paper clarifies essential issues regarding conflicts between public car insurance and public medical insurance in Japan, presenting the findings of an international survey to detect similar problems in other countries and discussing possible options for the resolution of these problems. Three essential issues are important to note: (i) Different prices between the two systems of public insurance provide stakeholders with the irrelevant incentive to apply public medical insurance in the case of car accidents; (ii) Public medical insurance sometimes covers medical expenses due to car accidents, although it should not cover them in principle; and (iii) The costs are imposed on tax payers unconsciously when people use public medical insurance for car accidents. Five findings were obtained from the international survey: (1) Most countries have compulsory car insurance; (2) Private insurance companies manage the financial affairs of compulsory car insurance in most developed countries; (3) Fault for casualties is not considered in the compensation of medical expenses in most countries; (4) Japan is unique in that people can choose between the two systems of public insurance; and (5) Prices for the same medical services differ between the two systems of public insurance in only a few countries. In consideration of the above findings, we provide five options for the resolution of this issue from the viewpoint of victim relief. PMID:25624784

  20. Conflicts between Public Car Insurance and Public Medical Insurance in Japan: International Comparison Survey.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Kazuki; Mori, Koichiro

    2014-04-01

    This paper clarifies essential issues regarding conflicts between public car insurance and public medical insurance in Japan, presenting the findings of an international survey to detect similar problems in other countries and discussing possible options for the resolution of these problems. Three essential issues are important to note: (i) Different prices between the two systems of public insurance provide stakeholders with the irrelevant incentive to apply public medical insurance in the case of car accidents; (ii) Public medical insurance sometimes covers medical expenses due to car accidents, although it should not cover them in principle; and (iii) The costs are imposed on tax payers unconsciously when people use public medical insurance for car accidents. Five findings were obtained from the international survey: (1) Most countries have compulsory car insurance; (2) Private insurance companies manage the financial affairs of compulsory car insurance in most developed countries; (3) Fault for casualties is not considered in the compensation of medical expenses in most countries; (4) Japan is unique in that people can choose between the two systems of public insurance; and (5) Prices for the same medical services differ between the two systems of public insurance in only a few countries. In consideration of the above findings, we provide five options for the resolution of this issue from the viewpoint of victim relief.

  1. Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj): maintaining a structural data archive and resource description framework format

    PubMed Central

    Kinjo, Akira R.; Suzuki, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Reiko; Ikegawa, Yasuyo; Kudou, Takahiro; Igarashi, Reiko; Kengaku, Yumiko; Cho, Hasumi; Standley, Daron M.; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj, http://pdbj.org) is a member of the worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) and accepts and processes the deposited data of experimentally determined macromolecular structures. While maintaining the archive in collaboration with other wwPDB partners, PDBj also provides a wide range of services and tools for analyzing structures and functions of proteins, which are summarized in this article. To enhance the interoperability of the PDB data, we have recently developed PDB/RDF, PDB data in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) format, along with its ontology in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) based on the PDB mmCIF Exchange Dictionary. Being in the standard format for the Semantic Web, the PDB/RDF data provide a means to integrate the PDB with other biological information resources. PMID:21976737

  2. Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj): updated user interfaces, resource description framework, analysis tools for large structures

    PubMed Central

    Kinjo, Akira R.; Bekker, Gert-Jan; Suzuki, Hirofumi; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Kawabata, Takeshi; Ikegawa, Yasuyo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2017-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj, http://pdbj.org), a member of the worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB), accepts and processes the deposited data of experimentally determined macromolecular structures. While maintaining the archive in collaboration with other wwPDB partners, PDBj also provides a wide range of services and tools for analyzing structures and functions of proteins. We herein outline the updated web user interfaces together with RESTful web services and the backend relational database that support the former. To enhance the interoperability of the PDB data, we have previously developed PDB/RDF, PDB data in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) format, which is now a wwPDB standard called wwPDB/RDF. We have enhanced the connectivity of the wwPDB/RDF data by incorporating various external data resources. Services for searching, comparing and analyzing the ever-increasing large structures determined by hybrid methods are also described. PMID:27789697

  3. Instant snapshot of the internal structure of Unzen lava dome, Japan with airborne muography

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.

    2016-01-01

    An emerging elementary particle imaging technique called muography has increasingly been used to resolve the internal structures of volcanoes with a spatial resolution of less than 100 m. However, land-based muography requires several days at least to acquire satisfactory image contrast and thus, it has not been a practical tool to diagnose the erupting volcano in a real time manner. To address this issue, airborne muography was implemented for the first time, targeting Heisei-Shinzan lava dome of Unzen volcano, Japan. Obtained in 2.5 hours, the resultant image clearly showed the density contrast inside the dome, which is essential information to predict the magnitude of the dome collapse. Since airborne muography is not restricted by topographic conditions for apparatus placements, we anticipate that the technique is applicable to creating images of this type of lava dome evolution from various angles in real time. PMID:28008978

  4. Japan Tobacco International: To ‘be the most successful and respected tobacco company in the world’

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Ross; Eckhardt, Jappe; Widyati Prastyani, Ade

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is the international division of Japan Tobacco Incorporated, and the world’s third largest transnational tobacco company. Founded in 1999, JTI’s rapid growth has been the result of a global business strategy that potentially serves as a model for other Asian tobacco companies. This paper analyses Japan Tobacco Incorporated’s global expansion since the 1980s in response to market opening, foreign competition, and declining share of a contracting domestic market. Key features of its global strategy include the on-going central role and investment by the Japanese government, and an expansion agenda based on mergers and acquisitions. The paper also discusses the challenges this global business strategy poses for global tobacco control and public health. This paper is part of the special issue ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance’. PMID:28139966

  5. Biochemical and Molecular Biological Analyses of space-flown nematodes in Japan, the First International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment (ICE-First)

    PubMed Central

    Higashibata, Akira; Higashitani, Atsushi; Adachi, Ryota; Kagawa, Hiroaki; Honda, Shuji; Honda, Yoko; Higashitani, Nahoko; Sasagawa, Yohei; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Conley, Catharine A.; Fujimoto, Nobuyoshi; Fukui, Keiji; Shimazu, Toru; Kuriyama, Kana; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2008-01-01

    The first International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment (ICE-First) was carried out using a Russian Soyuz spacecraft from April 19-30, 2004. This experiment was a part of the program of the DELTA (Dutch Expedition for Life science Technology and Atmospheric research) mission, and the space agencies that participate in the International Space Station (ISS) program formed international research teams. A Japanese research team that conducted by Japan aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) investigated the following aspects of the organism: (1) whether meiotic chromosomal dynamics and apoptosis in the germ cells were normal under microgravity conditions, (2) the effect of the space flight on muscle cell development, and (3) the effect of the space flight on protein aggregation. In this article, we summarize the results of these biochemical and molecular biological analyses. PMID:19513185

  6. Women's Education, Learning and Empowerment. Proceedings of the International Forum on Intercultural Exchange (Saitama, Japan, November 20-23, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    This document in Japanese and English was prepared for the International Forum on Intercultural Exchange sponsored by the National Women's Education Centre in Japan to give participants the conference schedule and profiles of the presenters. Profiles are accompanied by comments from the presenters about their paper topics or the general theme of…

  7. Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii International Clone II Lineage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Mari; Suzuki, Masato; Suzuki, Masahiro; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Watahiki, Masanori; Hiraki, Yoichi; Kawano, Fumio; Tsutsui, Atsuko; Shibayama, Keigo; Suzuki, Satowa

    2018-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter spp. have been globally disseminated in association with the successful clonal lineage Acinetobacter baumannii international clone II (IC II). Because the prevalence of MDR Acinetobacter spp. in Japan remains very low, we characterized all Acinetobacter spp. ( n = 866) from 76 hospitals between October 2012 and March 2013 to describe the entire molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter spp. The most prevalent species was A. baumannii ( n = 645; 74.5%), with A. baumannii IC II ( n = 245) accounting for 28.3% of the total. Meropenem-resistant isolates accounted for 2.0% ( n = 17) and carried IS Aba1-bla OXA-23-like ( n = 10), bla IMP ( n = 4), or IS Aba1-bla OXA-51-like ( n = 3). Multilocus sequence typing of 110 representative A. baumannii isolates revealed the considerable prevalence of domestic sequence types (STs). A. baumannii IC II isolates were divided into the domestic sequence type 469 (ST469) ( n = 18) and the globally disseminated STs ST208 ( n = 14) and ST219 ( n = 4). ST469 isolates were susceptible to more antimicrobial agents, while ST208 and ST219 overproduced the intrinsic AmpC β-lactamase. A. baumannii IC II and some A. baumannii non-IC II STs (e.g., ST149 and ST246) were associated with fluoroquinolone resistance. This study revealed that carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii IC II was moderately disseminated in Japan. The low prevalence of acquired carbapenemase genes and presence of domestic STs could contribute to the low prevalence of MDR A. baumannii A similar epidemiology might have appeared before the global dissemination of MDR epidemic lineages. In addition, fluoroquinolone resistance associated with A. baumannii IC II may provide insight into the significance of A. baumannii epidemic clones. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) the capital city of Japan, Tokyo Bay and the neighboring cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Chiba are seen in this view of Japan. This great international seaport facility covers almost all of the bayfront and is home to over thirty million people.

  9. Higher Education and Employment in Japan: Trends and Issues. RIHE International Publication Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    This book describes and examines the crisis within higher education in Japan as it applies to what is taught as compared to the labor market needs of the country. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 describes the higher education system in Japan and its enrollment, the distribution of enrollment by field of study, and the flow of…

  10. [The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC): what is the importance for Japan?].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Paula I

    2008-07-01

    In 2005, the World Health Assembly resolved that all Member States should ensure that all persons with tuberculosis (TB) "have access to the universal standard of care based on proper diagnosis, treatment and reporting consistent with the DOTS strategy..." The purpose of the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) is to define the widely accepted level of care of persons either suspected of, or diagnosed with, TB by all health practitioners, especially those in the private sector, who often lack guidance and systematic evaluation of outcomes provided by government programs. Since their publication in 2006 on World TB Day, the standards have been endorsed by the major international health organizations as well as many country-level professional societies. The intention is to complement local and national control polices consistent with those of the World Health Organization: they are not intended to replace local guidelines, but are written to accommodate local differences in practice. The ISTC comprise seventeen evidence-based standards on tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment, as well as the responsibility of the public health sector. These are based on the basic principles of TB care: prompt and accurate diagnosis, standardized treatment regimens of proven efficacy, appropriate treatment support and supervision, monitoring of response to treatment and the carrying out of essential public health responsibilities. The relevance of the ISTC to the Japanese context is highlighted, in terms of when persons should be suspected of TB; the appropriate diagnostic modalities, including the use of chest radiographs; the advantages of fixed dose combinations; the importance of follow-up laboratory tests to document response to treatment, the importance of recordkeeping and reporting to public health authorities, the value of HIV testing of TB patients and the use of anti-retrovirals for those dually infected; and the assessment of drug resistance and the

  11. A characteristic of polymorphic membrane protein F of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from male urogenital tracts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Junji; Takahashi, Satoshi; Kumagai, Shouta; Shimoda, Tomoko; Abe, Kiyotaka; Minami, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Although sexually transmitted disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis occurs similarly in both men and women, the female urogenital tract differs from that of males anatomically and physiologically, possibly leading to specific polymorphisms of the bacterial surface molecules. In the present study, we therefore characterized polymorphic features in a high-definition phylogenetic marker, polymorphic outer membrane protein (Pmp) F of C. trachomatis strains isolated from male urogenital tracts in Japan (Category: Japan-males, n = 12), when compared with those isolated from female cervical ducts in Japan (Category: Japan-females, n = 11), female cervical ducts in the other country (Category: Ref-females, n = 12) or homosexual male rectums in the other country (Category: Ref-males, n = 7), by general bioinformatics analysis tool with MAFFT software. As a result, phylogenetic reconstruction of the PmpF amino acid sequences showing three distinct clusters revealed that the Japan-males were limited into cluster 1 and 2, although there were only four clusters even though including an outgroup. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic distance values of PmpF passenger domain without hinge region, but not its full-length sequence, showed that the Japan-males were more stable and displayed less diversity when compared with the other categories, supported by the sequence conservation features. Thus, PmpF passenger domain is a useful phylogenetic maker, and the phylogenic features indicate that C. trachomatis strains isolated from male urogenital tracts in Japan may be unique, suggesting an adaptation depending on selective pressure, such as the presence or absence of microbial flora, furthermore possibly connecting to sexual differentiation. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning from Each Other. The Official Proceedings of the International Symposium of Japan-America Societies (1st, Honolulu, Hawaii, June 18-21, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, E. Shan, Ed.

    This book provides a compilation of addresses and panel presentations from the 1995 International Symposium of Japan-America Societies. Twenty-nine eminent speakers and presenters, authorities on topics ranging from economics to education, shared dialogue with delegates who gathered for the first-ever meeting of members of Japan-America Societies…

  13. Genetic changes in muscle protein following hybridization between Haliotis diversicolor reeve Japan and Taiwan populations revealed using a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Di, Guilan; You, Weiwei; Yu, Jinjin; Wang, Dexiang; Ke, Caihuan

    2013-03-01

    Protein expression patterns were compared in a Japan and Taiwan population of Haliotis diversicolor and in a hybrid between them using 2DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF analyses. Using the software PDQuest, 924 ± 7 protein spots were detected in the Japan population (RR), 861 ± 11 in the Taiwan population (TT), and 882 ± 9 in the F1 hybrid (TR). RR and TR were clustered together, but the distance between RR and TT was the maximum using hierarchical cluster analysis. A total of 46 gel spots were identified and a total of 15 spots matched with abalone proteins (a 33.6% identification rate). Hybrid exhibiting additivity or overdominance accounted for 73.9% of these 46 identified proteins. The 46 differentially expressed proteins were shown to be involved in major biological processes, including muscle contraction and regulation, energy metabolism, and stress response. The proteins involved in energy metabolism included adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase β subunit, fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase, triosephosphate isomerase, enolase, arginine kinase, and tauropine dehydrogenase. These proteins exhibited additivity in their offspring. The proteins involved in stress responses included HSP Hsp70 (exhibiting overdominance in the offspring) and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (exhibiting additivity). These results suggested that proteomic approach is suitable for analysis of heterosis and functional prediction of abalone hybridization. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Different contributions of internal reviewers and external experts to labelling decisions on therapeutic indications in new drug reviews in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokota, M; Kusama, M; Matsuki, N; Ono, S

    2013-12-01

    External experts play an important role in shaping regulatory decisions in the new drug review process in the United States, Europe and Japan. No rigorous study has been performed addressing how and to what extent external experts, in contrast to internal reviewers in the agency, influence the regulatory decisions during new drug reviews. We examined their contributions in Japanese regulatory reviews in contrast to the internal reviewers, focusing on the labelling decision on therapeutic indications. With the data set of 219 new molecular entities (NMEs) approved in Japan from 2000 to 2009, we observed how proposed indications in labelling were modified in a stepwise manner during the review process and conducted multinomial logistic analysis to examine the possible mechanism behind. We found that interim assessment of indications by the internal reviewers was modified substantially by the influence of the external experts in about 20% of the 219 NMEs. Our analysis suggested that internal reviewers provided their opinion mainly based on strict review discipline, whereas external experts added flexibility and reality to their reviews. Our analysis revealed different evaluations between internal reviewers and external experts during regulatory discussions in new drug reviews and how the external panel contributes to changing internal decisions. This study provides a new and quantitative approach to better label setting by emphasizing the contributions of each stakeholder in new drug reviews, which would improve the efficiency, quality and transparency of new drug reviews to enhance public health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Were protein internal repeats formed by "bricolage"?

    PubMed

    Lavorgna, G; Patthy, L; Boncinelli, E

    2001-03-01

    Is evolution an engineer, or is it a tinkerer--a "bricoleur"--building up complex molecules in organisms by increasing and adapting the materials at hand? An analysis of completely sequenced genomes suggests the latter, showing that increasing repetition of modules within the proteins encoded by these genomes is correlated with increasing complexity of the organism.

  16. International collaboration between Japan and Chile to improve detection rates in colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takuya; Tanaka, Koji; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Ito, Takashi; Nishikage, Tetsuro; Odagaki, Tomoyuki; Zárate, Alejandro J; Kronberg, Udo; López-Köstner, Francisco; Karelovic, Stanko; Flores, Sergio; Estela, Ricardo; Tsubaki, Masahiro; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Tatsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) has increased rapidly. To help address this issue, the Prevention Project for Neoplasia of the Colon and Rectum (PRENEC) program was initiated in 2012 with intensive support from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) in Tokyo, Japan, as part of an international collaboration. From June 2012 to July 2014, a total of 10,575 asymptomatic participants were enrolled in PRENEC. Participants with positive immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) results or a family history of CRC underwent colonoscopy. The colonoscopy results from a similar, previous project in Chile (PREVICOLON) were compared with those from PRENEC. Furthermore, the initial colonoscopies of 1562 participants in PRENEC were analyzed according to whether the colonoscopists were from TMDU or Chile. The complete colonoscopy, adenoma detection, and cancer detection rates were 88.0%, 26.7%, and 1.1%, respectively, in PREVICOLON, while the corresponding values were 94.4%, 41.8%, and 6.0%, respectively, in PRENEC. In PRENEC, 107 cases of CRC were detected, amounting for 1.0% of all participants. Considering initial colonoscopies in PRENEC, the complete colonoscopy, adenoma detection, and cancer detection rates were 97.4%, 45.3%, and 9.3%, respectively, for physicians at TMDU and 93.3%, 41.5%, and 5.1%, respectively for Chilean physicians. The detection rates of intramucosal cancer were 7.3% and 3.7%, respectively, for TMDU and Chilean physicians. Quality indicators of colonoscopy substantially improved from PREVICOLON to PRENEC. The assessments made by Chilean physicians alone were improved in PRENEC, but remained better in the TMDU group. Moreover, physicians from TMDU detected more CRCs than Chilean physicians, especially at earlier stages. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  17. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. Methods We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects’ contributions to health system strengthening. Results The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Conclusions Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas. PMID:24053583

  18. Validation of the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Niino, Masaaki; Fukazawa, Toshiyuki; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Okuno, Tatsusada; Mori, Masahiro; Sanjo, Nobuo; Ohashi, Takashi; Fukaura, Hikoaki; Fujimori, Juichi; Shimizu, Yuko; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Miyazaki, Yusei; Takahashi, Eri; Kikuchi, Seiji; Langdon, Dawn; Hb Benedict, Ralph; Matsui, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) is a practical battery for measuring cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to validate a Japanese version of the BICAMS in patients with MS and healthy controls. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT2) and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised (BVMTR) were administered to 156 patients with MS and 126 healthy controls (HCs). The BICAMS was re-administered in a subset of 27 MS patients and 30 HCs. The mean (±SD) raw scores in the MS and HC groups were as follows: SDMT: MS 47.9 ± 14.0, HC 61.0 ± 9.5; CVLT2: MS 48.6 ± 12.6, HC 55.7 ± 10.5; BVMTR: MS 23.5 ± 8.4, HC 28.3 ± 5.4, respectively, and significant differences were found between the two groups on all tests ( p  < 0.0001). Cohen's d values were 1.07, 0.60, and 0.67 in SDMT, CVLT2, and BVMTR, respectively. The test-retest reliability coefficients for each test were as follows: SDMT: r  = 0.93; CVLT2: r  = 0.82; and BVMTR: r  = 0.77 ( p  < 0.0001). This study provides results that support the reliability and validity of the BICAMS in Japan.

  19. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Imada, Mihoko

    2013-09-22

    The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects' contributions to health system strengthening. The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas.

  20. Defining the conserved internal architecture of a protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Kornev, Alexandr P; Taylor, Susan S

    2010-03-01

    Protein kinases constitute a large protein family of important regulators in all eukaryotic cells. All of the protein kinases have a similar bilobal fold, and their key structural features have been well studied. However, the recent discovery of non-contiguous hydrophobic ensembles inside the protein kinase core shed new light on the internal organization of these molecules. Two hydrophobic "spines" traverse both lobes of the protein kinase molecule, providing a firm but flexible connection between its key elements. The spine model introduces a useful framework for analysis of intramolecular communications, molecular dynamics, and drug design. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. PDBj Mine: design and implementation of relational database interface for Protein Data Bank Japan.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Akira R; Yamashita, Reiko; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-08-25

    This article is a tutorial for PDBj Mine, a new database and its interface for Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj). In PDBj Mine, data are loaded from files in the PDBMLplus format (an extension of PDBML, PDB's canonical XML format, enriched with annotations), which are then served for the user of PDBj via the worldwide web (WWW). We describe the basic design of the relational database (RDB) and web interfaces of PDBj Mine. The contents of PDBMLplus files are first broken into XPath entities, and these paths and data are indexed in the way that reflects the hierarchical structure of the XML files. The data for each XPath type are saved into the corresponding relational table that is named as the XPath itself. The generation of table definitions from the PDBMLplus XML schema is fully automated. For efficient search, frequently queried terms are compiled into a brief summary table. Casual users can perform simple keyword search, and 'Advanced Search' which can specify various conditions on the entries. More experienced users can query the database using SQL statements which can be constructed in a uniform manner. Thus, PDBj Mine achieves a combination of the flexibility of XML documents and the robustness of the RDB. Database URL: http://www.pdbj.org/

  2. PDBj Mine: design and implementation of relational database interface for Protein Data Bank Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kinjo, Akira R.; Yamashita, Reiko; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    This article is a tutorial for PDBj Mine, a new database and its interface for Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj). In PDBj Mine, data are loaded from files in the PDBMLplus format (an extension of PDBML, PDB's canonical XML format, enriched with annotations), which are then served for the user of PDBj via the worldwide web (WWW). We describe the basic design of the relational database (RDB) and web interfaces of PDBj Mine. The contents of PDBMLplus files are first broken into XPath entities, and these paths and data are indexed in the way that reflects the hierarchical structure of the XML files. The data for each XPath type are saved into the corresponding relational table that is named as the XPath itself. The generation of table definitions from the PDBMLplus XML schema is fully automated. For efficient search, frequently queried terms are compiled into a brief summary table. Casual users can perform simple keyword search, and 'Advanced Search' which can specify various conditions on the entries. More experienced users can query the database using SQL statements which can be constructed in a uniform manner. Thus, PDBj Mine achieves a combination of the flexibility of XML documents and the robustness of the RDB. Database URL: http://www.pdbj.org/ PMID:20798081

  3. Estimation of internal friction angle of subduction zone in northeast of Japan by using seismic focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, A.; Sato, K.; Otsubo, M.

    2017-12-01

    Physical properties, such as friction angle of the material, is important to understand the interplate earthquake of a subduction zone. Coulomb wedge model (Davis et al., 1983, JGR) is successfully revealed the relationship between a geometry of an accretionary wedge in a subduction zone and the physical properties of the material composing the accretionary wedge (e.g. Dahlen, 1984, JGR). An internal friction angle of the wedge and the frictional strength of the plate boundary fault control the wedge angle according to the Coulomb wedge model. However, the internal friction angle of the wedge and the frictional strength of the plate boundary fault are hard to estimate. Many previous works assumed the internal friction angle of the wedge on the basis of the laboratory experiments. Then, the frictional strength of the plate boundary fault, which is usually most interested, were evaluated from the observed wedge angle and the assumed internal friction angle of the wedge. Consequently, we should be careful of the selection of the internal friction angle of the wedge, otherwise, the uncertain an inappropriate internal friction angle may mislead the frictional strength of the plate boundary fault. In this study, we employed the newly developed technique to evaluate the internal friction angle of the wedge from the earthquake focal mechanisms occurred in the wedge along Japan Trench, northeast Japan. We used 650 earthquake mechanisms determined by NIED, Japan for the stress and friction coefficient inversion. The stress and friction coefficient inversion method is modified to handle the earthquake focal mechanisms from a computerized method to estimate the friction coefficient from the orientation distribution of faults (Sato, 2016, JSG). Finally, we obtained 25 degrees of internal friction angle of the wedge from the inversion. This value of friction angle is lower than usually assumed internal friction angle (30 degrees) (Byerlee, 1978, PAGEOPH). This lower internal

  4. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  5. Differences in protein expression among five species of stream stonefly (Plecoptera) along a latitudinal gradient in Japan.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Maribet; Tsuchiya, Maria Claret; Matsumoto, Suguru; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Kozo

    2017-11-01

    Proteome variation among natural populations along an environmental gradient may provide insights into how the biological functions of species are related to their local adaptation. We investigated protein expression in five stream stonefly species from four geographic regions along a latitudinal gradient in Japan with varying climatic conditions. The extracted proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization of time-of-flight (MALDI TOF/TOF), yielding 446 proteins. Low interspecies variation in the proteome profiles was observed among five species within geographical regions, presumably due to the co-occurring species sharing the environments. However, large spatial variations in protein expression were found among four geographic regions, suggesting strong regulation of protein expression in heterogeneous environments, where the spatial variations were positively correlated with water temperature. We identified 21 unique proteins expressed specifically in a geographical region and six common proteins expressed throughout all regions. In warmer regions, metabolic proteins were upregulated, whereas proteins related to cold stress, the photoperiod, and mating were downregulated. Oxygen-related and energy-production proteins were upregulated in colder regions with higher altitudes. Thus, our proteomic approach is useful for identifying and understanding important biological functions related to local adaptations by populations of stoneflies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Physics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sameen Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    I read your Japan special report with a keen interest. My first visit to Japan was in March 1994 to attend the JSPS-KEK International Spring School: High Energy Ion Beams – Novel Beam Techniques and their Applications.

  7. [How to cope with the global tuberculosis burden--experiences and perspectives for Japan's international cooperation].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2005-02-01

    Tuberculosis is a global burden disease, most possibly ranking high among diseases over the coming several decades, with 2 million deaths and over 8 million new cases annually. How can TB be controlled and eradicated quickly in the world? A major answer will be the wider application of the most effective control programme, i.e. DOTS recommended by WHO. But it has been developed in the long try and error efforts, including the ones by Dr. K. Styblo of IUATLD in African countries. The key components of successful TB programme are summarised as follows, which Dr. Kochi of WHO adopted as a global policy package. They are; 1) political commitment, 2) case finding by sputum microscopy, 3) use of short course chemotherapy under supervision, 4) a secured supply of anti-TB drugs, and 5) a standardised recording, reporting and monitoring system. The targets by 2005 are set 85% cure rate and 70% detection rate. By 2002, however, only half the targets have been achieved, and global expansion of DOTS with other strategies need to be strengthened. Emerging threats are HIV epidemic, MDR-TB increase and health sector reform taking place in the world. Stop TB partnership with its office in WHO has been formed to strengthen a global capacity, mobilizing various technical and financial partners. Japan's contribution to the global TB problem started in early 1960s. In the last 40 years, technical cooperation in national TB programme (NTP) has been made through JICA in over 15 countries, including United Arab Emirates. Thailand, Nepal, Afghanistan, Tanzania, Indonesia, Solomon Islands, Yemen, Philippines, Cambodia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Zambia, and China (TB project is on-going in underlined countries). In these projects, capacity strengthening of NTP has been given priority, including construction of national TB center, a model area development, nationwide DOTS expansion in collaboration with WHO or others, supply of anti-TB drugs, TB laboratory network with QA, collaborative operational

  8. Undergraduate medical students' attitudes towards psychiatry: an international cross-sectional survey between India and Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takahiro A; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Chawla, Jatinder Mohan; Tateno, Masaru; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2013-08-01

    Undergraduate psychiatric education has an important role in developing psychiatric knowledge, decreasing stigma towards mental illness, and promoting psychiatry as a career choice. The attitudes and beliefs of medical students towards psychiatry have not been well understood, especially in non-western countries. To clarify this aspect, we have conducted a cross-sectional study between India and Japan. This study, conducted at two centres, one each in India and Japan, used a semi-structured questionnaire to evaluate the attitudes and beliefs of third-year medical students towards mental illness and psychiatry; such as emotions experienced dealing with psychiatric patients, aetiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders, and psychiatry as a career choice. A total of 79 medical students from India and 77 from Japan participated in the present study. Significant differences were observed in the emotions experienced by the medical students while dealing with psychiatric patients. Most medical students (> 90%) from both study sites favoured psychiatrists for treatment of psychiatric illness. Psychiatry as a carrier choice was significantly related to the nationality of the medical students. The findings of the current study provide insight in to the attitudes of third-year medical students from India and Japan towards psychiatric patients.

  9. International Symposium on Internationalization and Foreign Students Problems. Proceedings (Kobe, Japan, October 29-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobe Univ., (Japan).

    The meeting reported here was held to address the issues related to the increasing numbers of foreign students in Japan (31,000 in 1989 and increasing annually by 20%). First, profiles of the speakers and the texts of their speeches are presented, as well as the comments made during the panel discussions and symposium sessions. Speakers from 11…

  10. Summary Points and Consensus Recommendations From the International Protein Summit.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Ryan T; McClave, Stephen A; Martindale, Robert G; Ochoa Gautier, Juan B; Coss-Bu, Jorge A; Dickerson, Roland N; Heyland, Daren K; Hoffer, L John; Moore, Frederick A; Morris, Claudia R; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Patel, Jayshil J; Phillips, Stuart M; Rugeles, Saúl J; Sarav Md, Menaka; Weijs, Peter J M; Wernerman, Jan; Hamilton-Reeves, Jill; McClain, Craig J; Taylor, Beth

    2017-04-01

    The International Protein Summit in 2016 brought experts in clinical nutrition and protein metabolism together from around the globe to determine the impact of high-dose protein administration on clinical outcomes and address barriers to its delivery in the critically ill patient. It has been suggested that high doses of protein in the range of 1.2-2.5 g/kg/d may be required in the setting of the intensive care unit (ICU) to optimize nutrition therapy and reduce mortality. While incapable of blunting the catabolic response, protein doses in this range may be needed to best stimulate new protein synthesis and preserve muscle mass. Quality of protein (determined by source, content and ratio of amino acids, and digestibility) affects nutrient sensing pathways such as the mammalian target of rapamycin. Achieving protein goals the first week following admission to the ICU should take precedence over meeting energy goals. High-protein hypocaloric (providing 80%-90% of caloric requirements) feeding may evolve as the best strategy during the initial phase of critical illness to avoid overfeeding, improve insulin sensitivity, and maintain body protein homeostasis, especially in the patient at high nutrition risk. This article provides a set of recommendations based on assessment of the current literature to guide healthcare professionals in clinical practice at this time, as well as a list of potential topics to guide investigators for purposes of research in the future.

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, 4th International Conference on Langmuir-Blodgett Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-23

    Toshiba-cho, Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki, 210 Japan Surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) from a Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer of 4’-n...4000 cm" . These results show that the spectra are affected by the enhancement due to resonance Raman scattering . The dependence of SERRS intensity...enhanced adsorption is one of the surface enhanced processes such as the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and the enhanced fluorescence. There

  12. Everywhere in Japan: an international approach to working with commercial gay businesses in HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Sherriff, Nigel; Koerner, Jane; Kaneko, Noriyo; Shiono, Satoshi; Takaku, Michiko; Boseley, Ross; Ichikawa, Seiichi

    2017-06-01

    In the UK and Japan, there is concern regarding rising rates of annual new HIV infections among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). Whilst in the UK and Europe, gay businesses are increasingly recognized as being important settings through which to deliver HIV prevention and health promotion interventions to target vulnerable populations; in Japan such settings-based approaches are relatively underdeveloped. This article draws on qualitative data from a recently completed study conducted to explore whether it is feasible, acceptable and desirable to build on the recent European Everywhere project for adaptation and implementation in Japan. A series of expert workshops were conducted in Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka with intersectoral representatives from Japanese and UK non-governmental organizations (NGOs), gay businesses, universities and gay communities (n = 46). Further discussion groups and meetings were held with NGO members and researchers from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's Research Group on HIV Prevention Policy, Programme Implementation and Evaluation among MSM (n = 34). The results showed that it is desirable, feasible and acceptable to adapt and implement a Japanese version of Everywhere. Such a practical, policy-relevant, settings-based HIV prevention framework for gay businesses may help to facilitate the necessary scale up of prevention responses among MSM in Japan. Given the high degree of sexual mobility between countries in Asia, there is considerable potential for the Everywhere Project (or its Japanese variant) to be expanded and adapted to other countries within the Asia-Pacific region. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Learning from Philip Morris: Japan Tobacco's strategies regarding evidence of tobacco health harms as revealed in internal documents from the American tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Iida, Kaori; Proctor, Robert N

    2004-05-29

    Japan is in the midst of a rapid increase in tobacco-related disease mortality, following the rapid growth of smoking after WWII. Stomach cancer was the country's leading cause of cancer death for most of the 20th century, until lung cancer took over this position in 1993. Cigarettes are the major cause of lung cancer in Japan, but the country's leading manufacturer, Japan Tobacco, two thirds of which is owned by the Japanese government, continues to question whether tobacco is a major cause of disease and death. Japanese courts do not have the power to subpoena a company's internal records, which has made it difficult to document Japan Tobacco's strategies concerning tobacco and health. Our interpretation of online archives of internal documents from American tobacco companies, however, is that Japan Tobacco has long known about the potential health risks involved in smoking and has sought to obstruct effective tobacco control. Beginning in the mid-1980s, these efforts were often co-ordinated with American tobacco manufacturers. The documentary evidence shows that cigarette manufacturer Philip Morris in particular assisted with and sometimes also supervised Japan Tobacco's actions and statements on smoking and health. In one instance, data gathered for an article published by the Japan Public Monopoly Corporation (Japan Tobacco's predecessor) were deliberately altered to lower the reported value of a hazard indicator (nicotine concentration in the air). International collaboration has made it easier for companies such as Japan Tobacco to develop effective anti-antismoking strategies. Evidence of such global industry collaborations might grow as lawsuits begin to be filed in other nations.

  14. New partner proteins containing novel internal recognition motif for human Glutaminase Interacting Protein (hGIP)

    PubMed Central

    Zencir, Sevil; Banerjee, Monimoy; Dobson, Melanie J.; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Fodor, Elfrieda Ayaydin; Topcu, Zeki; Mohanty, Smita

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression in cells is mediated by protein-protein, DNA-protein and receptor-ligand interactions. PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domains are protein–protein interaction modules. PDZ-containing proteins function in the organization of multi-protein complexes controlling spatial and temporal fidelity of intracellular signaling pathways. In general, PDZ proteins possess multiple domains facilitating distinct interactions. The human Glutaminase Interacting Protein (hGIP) is an unusual PDZ protein comprising entirely of a single PDZ domain and plays pivotal roles in many cellular processes through its interaction with the C-terminus of partner proteins. Here, we report the identification by yeast two-hybrid screening of two new hGIP-interacting partners, DTX1 and STAU1. Both proteins lack the typical C-terminal PDZ recognition motif but contain a novel internal hGIP recognition motif recently identified in a phage display library screen. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed the in vivo association of hGIP with DTX1 and STAU1 in mammalian cells validating the previous discovery of S/T-X-V/L-D as a consensus internal motif for hGIP recognition. Similar to hGIP, DTX1 and STAU1 have been implicated in neuronal function. Identification of these new interacting partners furthers our understanding of GIP-regulated signaling cascades and these interactions may represent potential new drug targets in humans. PMID:23395680

  15. Isolation and characterization of avian influenza viruses from raw poultry products illegally imported to Japan by international flight passengers.

    PubMed

    Shibata, A; Hiono, T; Fukuhara, H; Sumiyoshi, R; Ohkawara, A; Matsuno, K; Okamatsu, M; Osaka, H; Sakoda, Y

    2018-04-01

    The transportation of poultry and related products for international trade contributes to transboundary pathogen spread and disease outbreaks worldwide. To prevent pathogen incursion through poultry products, many countries have regulations about animal health and poultry product quarantine. However, in Japan, animal products have been illegally introduced into the country in baggage and confiscated at the airport. Lately, the number of illegally imported poultry and the incursion risk of transboundary pathogens through poultry products have been increasing. In this study, we isolated avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from raw poultry products illegally imported to Japan by international passengers. Highly (H5N1 and H5N6) and low (H9N2 and H1N2) pathogenic AIVs were isolated from raw chicken and duck products carried by flight passengers. H5 and H9 isolates were phylogenetically closely related to viruses isolated from poultry in China, and haemagglutinin genes of H5N1 and H5N6 isolates belonged to clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.4.4, respectively. Experimental infections of H5 and H9 isolates in chickens and ducks demonstrated pathogenicity and tissue tropism to skeletal muscles. To prevent virus incursion by poultry products, it is important to encourage the phased cleaning based on the disease control and eradication and promote the reduction in contamination risk in animal products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Mathematics Beliefs and Achievement of Elementary School Students in Japan and the United States: Results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Student self-beliefs are significantly related to several types of academic achievement. In addition, results from international assessments have indicated that students in Japan have typically scored above international averages (D. L. Kelly, I. V. S. Mullis, & M. O. Martin, 2000). In this study, the author examined relationships between…

  17. Expansion and internal friction in unfolded protein chain.

    PubMed

    Yasin, U Mahammad; Sashi, Pulikallu; Bhuyan, Abani K

    2013-10-10

    Similarities in global properties of homopolymers and unfolded proteins provide approaches to mechanistic description of protein folding. Here, hydrodynamic properties and relaxation rates of the unfolded state of carbonmonoxide-liganded cytochrome c (cyt-CO) have been measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and laser photolysis methods. Hydrodynamic radius of the unfolded chain gradually increases as the solvent turns increasingly better, consistent with theory. Curiously, however, the rate of intrachain contact formation also increases with an increasing denaturant concentration, which, by Szabo, Schulten, and Schulten theory for the rate of intramolecular contact formation in a Gaussian polymer, indicates growing intramolecular diffusion. It is argued that diminishing nonbonded atom interactions with increasing denaturant reduces internal friction and, thus, increases the rate of polypeptide relaxation. Qualitative scaling of the extent of unfolding with nonbonded repulsions allows for description of internal friction by a phenomenological model. The degree of nonbonded atom interactions largely determines the extent of internal friction.

  18. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (Tokyo, Japan, 31 May-3 June 2008) Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (Tokyo, Japan, 31 May-3 June 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    2009-02-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter comprises selected papers from the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (QSD2008) held in Tokyo, Japan, between 31 May and 3 June 2008. This conference was organized under the auspices of the Development of New Quantum Simulators and Quantum Design Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT). The conference focused on the development of first principles electronic structure calculations and their applications. The aim was to provide an opportunity for discussion on the progress in computational materials design and, in particular, the development of quantum simulators and quantum design. Computational materials design is a computational approach to the development of new materials. The essential ingredient is the use of quantum simulators to design a material that meets a given specification of properties and functionalities. For this to be successful, the quantum simulator should be very reliable and be applicable to systems of realistic size. During the conference, new methods of quantum simulation and quantum design were discussed including methods beyond the local density approximation of density functional theory, order-N methods, methods dealing with excitations and reactions, and the application of these methods to the design of novel materials, devices and systems. The conference provided an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers to exchange ideas. A total of 220 delegates from eight countries participated in the conference. There were 13 invited talks, ten oral presentations and 120 posters. The 3rd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design will be held in Germany in the autumn of 2011.

  19. First report on invasion of yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, at Narita International Airport, Japan in August 2012.

    PubMed

    Sukehiro, Nayu; Kida, Nori; Umezawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Arai, Naoko; Jinnai, Tsunesada; Inagaki, Shunichi; Tsuchiya, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The invasion of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti at Narita International Airport, Japan was detected for the first time. During the course of routine vector surveillance at Narita International Airport, 27 Ae. aegypti adults emerged from larvae and pupae collected from a single larvitrap placed near No. 88 spot at passenger terminal 2 on August 8, 2012. After the appearance of Ae. aegypti in the larvitrap, we defined a 400-m buffer zone and started an intensive vector survey using an additional 34 larvitraps and 15 CO2 traps. International aircraft and passenger terminal 2 were also inspected, and one Ae. aegypti male was collected from the cargo space of an international aircraft from Darwin via Manila on August 28, 2012. Larvicide treatment with 1.5% fenitrothion was conducted in 64 catch basins and one ditch in the 400-m buffer zone. Twenty-four large water tanks were also treated at least once with 0.5% pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator. No Ae. aegypti eggs or adults were found during the 1-month intensive vector survey after finding larvae and pupae in the larvitrap. We concluded that Ae. aegypti had failed to establish a population at Narita International Airport.

  20. Studying internal and external magnetic fields in Japan using MAGSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukushima, N. (Principal Investigator); Maeda, H.; Yukutake, T.; Tanaka, M.; Oshima, S.; Ogawa, K.; Kawamura, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Uyeda, S.; Kobayashi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Examination of the total intensity data of CHRONIT on a few paths over Japan and its neighboring sea shows MAGSAT is extremely useful for studying the local magnetic anomaly. In high latitudes, the signatures of field aligned currents are clearly recognized. These include (1) the persistent basic pattern of current flow; (2) the more intense currents in the summer hemisphere than in the winter hemisphere; (3) more fluctuations in current intensities in summer dawn hours; and (4) apparent dawn-dusk asymmetry in the field-aligned current intensity between the north and south polar regions.

  1. Molecular Origins of Internal Friction Effects on Protein Folding Rates

    PubMed Central

    Sirur, Anshul

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments on protein folding dynamics have revealed strong evidence for internal friction effects. That is, observed relaxation times are not simply proportional to the solvent viscosity as might be expected if the solvent were the only source of friction. However, a molecular interpretation of this remarkable phenomenon is currently lacking. Here, we use all-atom simulations of peptide and protein folding in explicit solvent, to probe the origin of the unusual viscosity dependence. We find that an important contribution to this effect, explaining the viscosity dependence of helix formation and the folding of a helix-containing protein, is the insensitivity of torsion angle isomerization to solvent friction. The influence of this landscape roughness can, in turn, be quantitatively explained by a rate theory including memory friction. This insensitivity of local barrier crossing to solvent friction is expected to contribute to the viscosity dependence of folding rates in larger proteins. PMID:24986114

  2. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Ralf; Kerksick, Chad M; Campbell, Bill I; Cribb, Paul J; Wells, Shawn D; Skwiat, Tim M; Purpura, Martin; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Ferrando, Arny A; Arent, Shawn M; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Stout, Jeffrey R; Arciero, Paul J; Ormsbee, Michael J; Taylor, Lem W; Wilborn, Colin D; Kalman, Doug S; Kreider, Richard B; Willoughby, Darryn S; Hoffman, Jay R; Krzykowski, Jamie L; Antonio, Jose

    2017-01-01

    The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1.4-2.0 g protein/kg body weight/day (g/kg/d) is sufficient for most exercising individuals, a value that falls in line within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range published by the Institute of Medicine for protein.Higher protein intakes (2.3-3.1 g/kg/d) may be needed to maximize the retention of lean body mass in resistance-trained subjects during hypocaloric periods.There is novel evidence that suggests higher protein intakes (>3.0 g/kg/d) may have positive effects on body composition in resistance-trained individuals (i.e., promote loss of fat mass).Recommendations regarding the optimal protein intake per serving for athletes to maximize MPS are mixed and are dependent upon age and recent resistance exercise stimuli. General recommendations are 0.25 g of a high-quality protein per kg of body weight, or an absolute dose of 20-40 g.Acute protein doses should strive to contain 700-3000 mg of leucine and/or a higher relative leucine content, in addition to a balanced array of the essential amino acids (EAAs).These protein doses should ideally be evenly distributed, every 3-4 h, across the day.The optimal time period during which to ingest protein is likely a matter of individual tolerance, since benefits are derived from pre- or post-workout ingestion; however, the anabolic effect of exercise is long-lasting (at least 24 h), but likely

  3. An evaluation of early countermeasures to reduce the risk of internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Gilmour, Stuart; Hayano, Ryugo S; Watanabe, Yuni N; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-05-01

    After a radiation-release incident, intake of radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the incident may be the major contributor to total internal radiation exposure for individuals in affected areas. However, evaluation of early internal contamination risk is greatly lacking. This study assessed the relationship between initial stage evacuation/indoor sheltering and internal radiation contamination levels 4 months after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan and estimated potential pathways of the contamination. The study population comprised 525 participants in the internal radiation screening program at Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, 23 km north of the Fukushima nuclear plant. The analysed dataset included the results of a screening performed in July 2011, 4 months after the incident, and of a questionnaire on early-incident response behaviours, such as sheltering indoors and evacuations, completed by participants. Association between such early countermeasures and internal contamination levels of cesium-134 were assessed using Tobit multiple regression analyses. Our study shows that individuals who evacuated to areas outside Fukushima Prefecture had similar contamination levels of cesium-134 to individuals who stayed in Fukushima (relative risk: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.99). Time spent outdoors had no significant relationship with contamination levels. The effects of inhalation from radiological plumes released from the nuclear plant on total internal radiation contamination might be so low as to be undetectable by the whole-body counting unit used to examine participants. Given the apparent limited effectiveness of evacuation and indoor sheltering on internal contamination, the decision to implement such early responses to a radiation-release incident should be made by carefully balancing their potential benefits and health risks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  4. Analysis of the VP2 protein gene of canine parvovirus strains from affected dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Soma, Takehisa; Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Ohinata, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Hara, Motonobu

    2013-04-01

    To clarify the evolution of canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) that has recently been epidemic in Japan, VP2 gene sequences at positions 3556-4166 were analyzed in 107 CPV-2 strains obtained from rectal swabs of diarrheic dogs from 2009 to 2011. CPV-2b (95 strains) was more frequently detected than CPV-2a (nine strains), while CPV-2c was not detected. Remaining three strains were identified as the original type CPV-2, which should be derived from vaccines. These findings are similar to the previous results involving Japanese strains, suggesting there has been no great change in the recent CPV-2 epidemic in Japan. This epidemic is the same as that in Taiwan. Furthermore, a 324-lle mutant, which has been reported in Korean and Chinese strains, was detected in 66.7% of CPV-2a strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in national legislation and policy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okawa, Yayoi; Ueda, Satoshi

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey on the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in legislation and policy in the fields of health, welfare and disability in Japan. In pursuance of this aim, we scrutinized the relevant laws, regulations and policy statements issued in Japan in recent years. As a result, it was found that the ICF had been introduced into the following regional and national policy statements and legislations: (i) the 'Biwako Millenium Framework for Action Towards an Inclusive, Barrier-free and Rights-based Society for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific'; (ii) the 'Basic Programme for Persons with Disabilities'; (iii) national medical and personal care insurance systems; (iv) the report of the commission on 'the Care of the Elderly People'; (v) the report of the commission on 'the Rehabilitation of the Elderly People'; (vi) disability prevention in the elderly population; (vii) support for an independent life for people with mental disability living in the community; (viii) disability prevention after natural disasters; and (ix) the survey and care of patients with asthma due to air pollution.

  6. Women in Development: Towards the Development Making Women Visible. Proceedings of the International Forum on Intercultural Exchange (Saitama, Japan, September 30-October 2, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    This document was prepared in Japanese with an English translation for the 1992 International Forum on Intercultural Exchange sponsored by the National Women's Education Centre of Japan. Discussions for 1992 were to center on the theme of development to make women visible. The conference agenda is followed by profiles of the presenters with some…

  7. Following the Fourth World Conference on Women -- Let's Expand Grass-Roots Networking! Proceedings of the International Forum on Intercultural Exchange (Saitama, Japan, November 15-17, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    Based on the success of the Fourth World Conference on Women, the National Women's Education Centre of Japan planned and carried out the 1995 International Forum on Intercultural Exchange to search for an up-to-date understanding of the problems of women and ways to solve them and to develop a network of already existing groups. This Forum focused…

  8. Linguistic Ecosystems for Foreign-Language Learning in Canada and Japan: An International Comparison of Where Language-Learning Beliefs Come from

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouritzin, Sandra; Nakagawa, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report on international research that compares linguistic ecosystems, that is, socially constructed public attitudes and ideologies concerned with foreign-language (FL) learning, in Canada and Japan. Analyzing responses to three interview questions from 125 interviews with five categories of respondent in each country, we suggest that there are…

  9. Issues in Education in Asia and the Pacific: An International Perspective. OECD Documents. Conference Proceedings (Hiroshima, Japan, October 7-9, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Phillip; Renwick, William

    This document reports on the first international conference in Japan in October 1992 to open up a dialogue among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and the Dynamic Asian Economies (DAEs) of Hong Kong, Malaysia, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Singapore. Experts from each of the DAEs attended the…

  10. Public and Private Sectors in Asian Higher Education Systems: Issues and Prospects. Reports from the International Seminar on Higher Education in Asia (3rd, Hiroshima, Japan, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    The roles of public and private sectors of higher education in Asia and relationships to national systems are explored in reports from the Third International Seminar on Higher Education in Asia. The focus was China, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, Japan, and Thailand. Patterns by which national systems of higher education are differentiated…

  11. A Special Section on International Education--Education in Japan: Competing Visions for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Christopher; Tsuneyoshi, Ryoko

    2005-01-01

    During the last two decades of the 20th century, Japanese students' exemplary performance on international achievement tests, coupled with the nation's dramatic economic growth, made the Japanese education system a focus of attention from outside observers. Educators, scholars, and journalists all scrutinized the Japanese schools in an attempt to…

  12. Approaches Japan Can Adopt to Deter China’s Assertive Behavior in the International Arena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    REVIEW AND RESEACH METHODOLOGY ...............11 Theories of International Relations and UNCLOS ....................................................... 11...China, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was established in 1949. PRC succeeded in its nuclear test in 1964 and became a permanent member of the...LITERATURE REVIEW AND RESEACH METHODOLOGY This chapter reviews existing literature to provide information, perspectives, and insights on this

  13. International Conference on Vocational Guidance (6th, Hyogo, Japan, November 2-4, 1988). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashiya Univ., Hyogo (Japan).

    This conference report contains the following papers: "Keynote Address" (Fukuyama); "Predictions Regarding the Nature and Significance of Vocational Guidance during the 21st Century in the United States" (Hoyt); "The Changing Workforce and Vocational Guidance" (Inaba); "The 6th International Conference on…

  14. Student and School Factors Affecting Mathematics Achievement: International Comparisons between Korea, Japan and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Yongnam

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to comparatively investigate student- and school-level factors affecting mathematics achievement of Korean, Japanese and American students. For international comparisons, the PISA 2003 data were analysed by using the Hierarchical Linear Modeling method. The variables of competitive-learning preference, instrumental…

  15. International Comparison of Adult Height in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency and Limitations of Growth Hormone Treatment in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2017-03-01

    The approved therapeutic dose of growth hormone (GH) for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) varies depending on the country. Japan has the lowest therapeutic dose globally, with a single dose of 0.175 mg/kg/week. GH treatment for GHD is considered as a replacement therapy and in fact, a dose of 0.175 mg/kg/week is slightly higher than GH secretion in prepubertal healthy children but nearly the same as that of pubertal children. Although the same growth rate as that of healthy children is expected in response to replacement therapy, the catch-up growth observed for the first 1 to 2 years of GH treatment was misinterpreted as an effect of the GH replacement therapy. The real effect of the GH replacement therapy was the growth rate appeared after more than 3 years of GH therapy, when patients showed nearly the same growth rate as healthy children. Therefore, children with GHD can have a higher growth rate than healthy children only for the first 1 to 2 years of GH therapy, after which their growth rate begins to wane. In the United States and Europe, the various therapeutic doses and high-dose treatment are accepted and the SD score of adult height after treatment is higher than that in Japan. The improvement degree of the height SD score and the adult height SD score with GH therapy are lower in Japan compared with other countries that administer a similar therapeutic dose. This suggests that the response to GH can be affected by race. Actual comparison of the response to GH between Japanese and Caucasian patients using KIGS (Pharmacia International Growth Database) data showed that both the short-term response and the effect on adult height were reduced in Japanese patients. As there is a strong positive correlation between adult height and height at the onset of puberty, treatment methods that can increase pubertal growth will be considered in the future for patients with GDH who enter puberty with short stature. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  16. Resilience, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and hopelessness among people with schizophrenia: Cultural comparison in Austria and Japan.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Alex; Mizuno, Yuya; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Kemmler, Georg; Suzuki, Takefumi; Pardeller, Silvia; Welte, Anna-Sophia; Sondermann, Catherine; Mimura, Masaru; Wartelsteiner, Fabienne; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Resilience is becoming an important topic in people with schizophrenia since there is evidence that it increases the probability for long-term recovery. The current study investigated transcultural differences in resilience across schizophrenia patients from two different geographical regions, Austria and Japan. Another objective was to examine transcultural differences in internalized stigma, self-esteem, and hopelessness, which can be expected to be relevant in this context, as well as the interrelations between these subjective elements of recovery and symptom severity. To this end, patients from outpatient mental health services in Innsbruck, Austria (N=52) and Tokyo, Japan (N=60) as well as 137 healthy comparison subjects from both countries were included into this cross-sectional study. Notably, we detected a significant country effect with markedly lower resilience (F=74.4, p<0.001) and self-esteem scores (F=226.0, p<0.001) as well as higher hopelessness scores (F=37.4, p<0.001) among Japanese subjects in general. In addition, both Austrian and Japanese patients indicated significantly lower degrees of resilience (F=57.5, p<0.001), self-esteem (F=51.8, p<0.001), and hope (F=29.5, p<0.001) compared to healthy control subjects. The inter-correlations between subjective elements of recovery were comparable in size in the two patient samples, but the inter-correlations between these issues and residual symptoms of schizophrenia as objective domains of recovery were markedly higher in Austrian subjects. This suggests that schizophrenia patients from Western European and Japanese cultures may have different needs to achieve recovery. In conclusion, it will be critical to develop culture-specific psychosocial programs and to examine their feasibility and effectiveness among these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Protons, osmolytes, and fitness of internal milieu for protein function.

    PubMed

    Somero, G N

    1986-08-01

    The composition of the intracellular milieu shows striking similarities among widely different species. Only certain values of intracellular pH, values that generally reflect alphastat regulation, and only narrow ranges of inorganic ion concentrations are found in the cytoplasm of the cells of most animals, plants, and microorganisms. In water-stressed organisms only a few types of low-molecular-weight organic molecules (osmolytes) are accumulated. These highly conserved characteristics of the intracellular fluids reflect the need to maintain critical features of macromolecules within narrow ranges optimal for life. For proteins these features include maintaining adequate rates of catalysis, a high level of regulatory responsiveness, and a precise balance between stability and lability of structure (tertiary conformation, subunit assembly, and multiprotein complexes). The optimal values for these functional and structural features of proteins often lie near the midrange of possible values for these properties, and only under specific conditions of intracellular pH, ionic strength, and osmolyte composition are these optimal midrange values conserved. In dormant cells the departure of solution conditions from values that are optimal for protein function and structure may be instrumental in reducing or shutting down metabolic functions. Seen from a broad evolutionary perspective, the evolution of the intracellular milieu is an important complement to macromolecular evolution. In certain instances appropriate modifications of the internal milieu may reduce the need for adaptive amino acid replacements in proteins.

  18. Measuring internal friction of an ultrafast-folding protein.

    PubMed

    Cellmer, Troy; Henry, Eric R; Hofrichter, James; Eaton, William A

    2008-11-25

    Nanosecond laser T-jump was used to measure the viscosity dependence of the folding kinetics of the villin subdomain under conditions where the viscogen has no effect on its equilibrium properties. The dependence of the unfolding/refolding relaxation time on solvent viscosity indicates a major contribution to the dynamics from internal friction. The internal friction increases with increasing temperature, suggesting a shift in the transition state along the reaction coordinate toward the native state with more compact structures, and therefore, a smaller diffusion coefficient due to increased landscape roughness. Fitting the data with an Ising-like model yields a relatively small position dependence for the diffusion coefficient. This finding is consistent with the excellent correlation found between experimental and calculated folding rates based on free energy barrier heights using the same diffusion coefficient for every protein.

  19. Emplacement model of obsidian-rhyolite magma deduced from complete internal section of the Akaishiyama lava, Shirataki, northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, K.; Sano, K.

    2016-12-01

    Simultaneously explosive and effusive eruptions of silicic magmas has shed light on the vesiculation and outgassing history of ascending magmas in the conduit and emplacement model of obsidian-rhyolite lavas (Castro et al., 2014; Shipper et al, 2013). As well as the knowledge of newly erupted products such as 2008-2009 Chaitén and 2011-2012 Cordón Caule eruptions, field and micro-textural evidences of well-exposed internal structure of obsidian-rhyolite lava leads to reveal eruption processes of silicic magmas. The Shirataki monogenetic volcano field, 2.2 million year age, northern Hokkaido, Japan, contains many outcrops of obsidian and vesiculated rhyolite zones (SiO2=76.7-77.4 wt.%). Among their outcrops, Akaishiyama lava shows good exposures of internal sections from the top to the bottom along the Kyukasawa valley with thickness of about 190 meters, showing the symmetrical structure comprising a upper clastic zone (UCZ; 5m thick), an upper dense obsidian zone (UDO; 15m), an upper banded obsidian zone (UBO; 70-80m), a central rhyolite zone (CR; 65m), a lower banded obsidian zone (LBO; 15m), a lower dense obsidian zone (LDO; 20m), and a lower clastic zone (LCZ; 3m). The upper banded obsidian zone is characterized by existence of spherulite concentration layers with tuffisite veins and rhyolite enclaves. Spherulites consisting of albite, cristobalaite and obsidian glass, are clustered in the dense obsidian. Tuffisite veins show brecciated obsidians in tuffaceous matrix, showing an outgassing path during the emplacement of obsidian lava. Perpendicular dip of spherulite parallel rows indicates the banded zone itself was the domain of vent area. From the observation of these occurrences in the internal section and rock texture, we show the qualitative formation model of Shirataki obsidian-rhyolite lava.

  20. The interaction of the international society concerning kidney transplants--a consideration of diseased kidney transplants in Japan and transplant tourism over the world.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Asako

    2009-04-01

    In November 2006 in Japan, it was detected that there were 41 cases that diseased kidneys were harvested from patients and then were transplanted to other renal failure patients. This "Diseased kidney transplant" was prohibited in Japan since 2007 because of a lot of problems. On the other hand, in Japan, although there are about 12,000 patients on a waiting list for a transplant, only 10% of those get a transplant. Recently it appears that some patients have gone overseas for kidney transplants (transplant tourism). Concerning the background of transplant tourism, the issues are three points following. First, globalization caused recipients to go abroad easier and faster. Second, transnational law is difficult to institutionalize. Third, there is economical gap in not only international but also domestic. We should discuss again diseased kidney transplant in not only professionals but also in Japanese civilized society.

  1. Academic Profession's Challenge to the Construction of Educational Management in Japan. RIHE International Seminar Reports. No. 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Active learning is now gradually being adopted in many universities and colleges in Japan. This follows the release of the 2012 Central Council of Education (CCE) report that emphasized the need to introduce active learning and to reinforce educational management in academia. As a result, one of the most important problems in Japan's higher…

  2. Fever screening during the influenza (H1N1-2009) pandemic at Narita International Airport, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Kazuko

    2011-05-03

    Entry screening tends to start with a search for febrile international passengers, and infrared thermoscanners have been employed for fever screening in Japan. We aimed to retrospectively assess the feasibility of detecting influenza cases based on fever screening as a sole measure. Two datasets were collected at Narita International Airport during the 2009 pandemic. The first contained confirmed influenza cases (n = 16) whose diagnosis took place at the airport during the early stages of the pandemic, and the second contained a selected and suspected fraction of passengers (self-reported or detected by an infrared thermoscanner; n = 1,049) screened from September 2009 to January 2010. The sensitivity of fever (38.0 °C) for detecting H1N1-2009 was estimated, and the diagnostic performances of the infrared thermoscanners in detecting hyperthermia at cut-off levels of 37.5 °C, 38.0 °C and 38.5 °C were also estimated. The sensitivity of fever for detecting H1N1-2009 cases upon arrival was estimated to be 22.2% (95% confidence interval: 0, 55.6) among nine confirmed H1N1-2009 cases, and 55.6% of the H1N1-2009 cases were under antipyretic medications upon arrival. The sensitivity and specificity of the infrared thermoscanners in detecting hyperthermia ranged from 50.8-70.4% and 63.6-81.7%, respectively. The positive predictive value appeared to be as low as 37.3-68.0%. The sensitivity of entry screening is a product of the sensitivity of fever for detecting influenza cases and the sensitivity of the infrared thermoscanners in detecting fever. Given the additional presence of confounding factors and unrestricted medications among passengers, reliance on fever alone is unlikely to be feasible as an entry screening measure.

  3. Fever screening during the influenza (H1N1-2009) pandemic at Narita International Airport, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Entry screening tends to start with a search for febrile international passengers, and infrared thermoscanners have been employed for fever screening in Japan. We aimed to retrospectively assess the feasibility of detecting influenza cases based on fever screening as a sole measure. Methods Two datasets were collected at Narita International Airport during the 2009 pandemic. The first contained confirmed influenza cases (n = 16) whose diagnosis took place at the airport during the early stages of the pandemic, and the second contained a selected and suspected fraction of passengers (self-reported or detected by an infrared thermoscanner; n = 1,049) screened from September 2009 to January 2010. The sensitivity of fever (38.0°C) for detecting H1N1-2009 was estimated, and the diagnostic performances of the infrared thermoscanners in detecting hyperthermia at cut-off levels of 37.5°C, 38.0°C and 38.5°C were also estimated. Results The sensitivity of fever for detecting H1N1-2009 cases upon arrival was estimated to be 22.2% (95% confidence interval: 0, 55.6) among nine confirmed H1N1-2009 cases, and 55.6% of the H1N1-2009 cases were under antipyretic medications upon arrival. The sensitivity and specificity of the infrared thermoscanners in detecting hyperthermia ranged from 50.8-70.4% and 63.6-81.7%, respectively. The positive predictive value appeared to be as low as 37.3-68.0%. Conclusions The sensitivity of entry screening is a product of the sensitivity of fever for detecting influenza cases and the sensitivity of the infrared thermoscanners in detecting fever. Given the additional presence of confounding factors and unrestricted medications among passengers, reliance on fever alone is unlikely to be feasible as an entry screening measure. PMID:21539735

  4. Ecological and Biogeochemical Impacts of Internal Waves on Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems: Testing Eddy Covariance and Isotope Approaches, Iriomote, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, A. S. J.; Miyajima, T.; Leichter, J.; Naruse, T.; Kuwae, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Satoh, N.; Nagata, T.

    2016-02-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCE) occur in the `twilight zone' of decreasing light between 30 - 150 m water depth where they may be protected or damped from disturbances impacting shallower reefs. However insufficient information is available on the environmental conditions that support MCE to allow us to understand and conserve these `deep water refugia'. For instance, nutrient inputs and recycling have rarely been quantified over MCE, but deeper reefs may differ fundamentally to that of shallow counterparts due to the reduction in light and increasing use of oceanic nutrients at the base of the food web, leading to increased reliance on heterotrophy over autotrophy at species and ecosystem levels and stronger links to oceanic processes. For instance, due to their depth relative to typical water column density stratification, MCE are particularly likely to experience internal wave forcing, the significance of which should vary spatially depending on aspect and exposure. In this study we are focusing on MCE occurring along a continuum of oceanic-exposure along Funauki Bay on the west coast of Iriomote, Japan. Here our preliminary observations indicate that ocean-exposed MCE are subject to semi-diurnal temperature oscillations of up to 4 C during summer (range 23 - 29 deg C), while inner bay MCE occur at shallower depths in more turbid but stable environments. This continuum of oceanic exposure is ideal for testing a range of approaches for quantifying the relative ecological and biogeochemical influence of internal waves. Stable isotope analyses (SIA) are a particularly useful tool for understanding functional links between oceanic processes, local-scale nutrient cycling, and trophic ecology, with results from shallow reefs showing they likely function along a continuum of reliance on external inputs versus internal recycling depending on the degree of oceanic exposure. Although challenging to implement in deep water habitats, the combination of SIA with compound

  5. Germline PMS2 mutation screened by mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry of colorectal cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kokichi; Nakajima, Takeshi; Sekine, Shigeki; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Saito, Shinya; Takahashi, Masahiro; Ushiama, Mineko; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Yoshida, Teruhiko

    2016-11-01

    Germline PMS2 gene mutations were detected by RT-PCR/direct sequencing of total RNA extracted from puromycin-treated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses of Japanese patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) fulfilling either the revised Bethesda Guidelines or being an age at disease onset of younger than 70 years, and screened by mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded sections. Of the 501 subjects examined, 7 (1.40%) showed the downregulated expression of the PMS2 protein alone and were referred to the genetic counseling clinic. Germline PMS2 mutations were detected in 6 (85.7%), including 3 nonsense and 1 frameshift mutations by RT-PCR/direct sequencing and 2 genomic deletions by MLPA. No mutations were identified in the other MMR genes (i.e. MSH2, MLH1 and MSH6). The prevalence of the downregulated expression of the PMS2 protein alone was 1.40% among the subjects examined and IHC results predicted the presence of PMS2 germline mutations. RT-PCR from puromycin-treated PBL and MLPA may be employed as the first screening step to detect PMS2 mutations without pseudogene interference, followed by the long-range PCR/nested PCR validation using genomic DNA. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Protein crystal growth and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLucas, L. J.; Moore, K. M.; Long, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Protein structural information plays a key role in understanding biological structure-function relationships and in the development of new pharmaceuticals for both chronic and infectious diseases. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC) has devoted considerable effort studying the fundamental processes involved in macromolecular crystal growth both in a 1-g and microgravity environment. Results from experiments performed on more than 35 U.S. space shuttle flights have clearly indicated that microgravity can provide a beneficial environment for macromolecular crystal growth. This research has led to the development of a new generation of pharmaceuticals that are currently in preclinical or clinical trials for diseases such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, AIDS, influenza, stroke and other cardiovascular complications. The International Space Station (ISS) provides an opportunity to have complete crystallographic capability on orbit, which was previously not possible with the space shuttle orbiter. As envisioned, the x-ray Crystallography Facility (XCF) will be a complete facility for growing protein crystals; selecting, harvesting, and mounting sample crystals for x-ray diffraction; cryo-freezing mounted crystals if necessary; performing x-ray diffraction studies; and downlinking the data for use by crystallographers on the ground. Other advantages of such a facility include crystal characterization so that iterations in the crystal growth conditions can be made, thereby optimizing the final crystals produced in a three month interval on the ISS.

  7. Assessment Report of US-Japan-Europe Collaborative Research on Probe Data International Probe Data Work Group Phase 2.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-01-01

    The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), the Road Bureau of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism (MLIT) of Japan, and the European Unions European Commission Directorate General for Communications Networks, Conte...

  8. Globalization and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  9. TP Atlas: integration and dissemination of advances in Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP)-structural biology project phase II in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwayanagi, Takao; Miyamoto, Sei; Konno, Takeshi; Mizutani, Hisashi; Hirai, Tomohiro; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Gojobori, Takashi; Sugawara, Hideaki

    2012-09-01

    The Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP) promoted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan is the phase II of structural biology project (2007-2011) following the Protein 3000 Project (2002-2006) in Japan. While the phase I Protein 3000 Project put partial emphasis on the construction and maintenance of pipelines for structural analyses, the TPRP is dedicated to revealing the structures and functions of the targeted proteins that have great importance in both basic research and industrial applications. To pursue this objective, 35 Targeted Proteins (TP) Projects selected in the three areas of fundamental biology, medicine and pharmacology, and food and environment are tightly collaborated with 10 Advanced Technology (AT) Projects in the four fields of protein production, structural analyses, chemical library and screening, and information platform. Here, the outlines and achievements of the 35 TP Projects are summarized in the system named TP Atlas. Progress in the diversified areas is described in the modules of Graphical Summary, General Summary, Tabular Summary, and Structure Gallery of the TP Atlas in the standard and unified format. Advances in TP Projects owing to novel technologies stemmed from AT Projects and collaborative research among TP Projects are illustrated as a hallmark of the Program. The TP Atlas can be accessed at http://net.genes.nig.ac.jp/tpatlas/index_e.html .

  10. Mathematics beliefs and achievement of elementary school students in Japan and the United States: results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study.

    PubMed

    House, J Daniel

    2006-03-01

    Student self-beliefs are significantly related to several types of academic achievement. In addition, results from international assessments have indicated that students in Japan have typically scored above international averages (D. L. Kelly, I. V. S. Mullis, & M. O. Martin, 2000). In this study, the author examined relationships between mathematics beliefs and achievement of elementary school-aged students in the United States and Japan. The students had participated in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS; A. E. Beaton et al., 1996). The author examined several self-beliefs and used variance estimation techniques for complex sampling designs. The author identified a number of significant relationships between self-beliefs and mathematics achievement. Students who attributed success in mathematics to controllable factors (e.g., hard work, studying at home) showed higher test scores whereas students who attributed success in mathematics at school to external factors (e.g., good luck) tended to earn lower mathematics test scores. These results extend the findings of previous research results because the author examined large national samples of students in cross-cultural settings as part of a comprehensive international assessment.

  11. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: protein and exercise

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Bill; Kreider, Richard B; Ziegenfuss, Tim; La Bounty, Paul; Roberts, Mike; Burke, Darren; Landis, Jamie; Lopez, Hector; Antonio, Jose

    2007-01-01

    Position Statement The following seven points related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals constitute the position stand of the Society. They have been approved by the Research Committee of the Society. 1) Vast research supports the contention that individuals engaged in regular exercise training require more dietary protein than sedentary individuals. 2) Protein intakes of 1.4 – 2.0 g/kg/day for physically active individuals is not only safe, but may improve the training adaptations to exercise training. 3) When part of a balanced, nutrient-dense diet, protein intakes at this level are not detrimental to kidney function or bone metabolism in healthy, active persons. 4) While it is possible for physically active individuals to obtain their daily protein requirements through a varied, regular diet, supplemental protein in various forms are a practical way of ensuring adequate and quality protein intake for athletes. 5) Different types and quality of protein can affect amino acid bioavailability following protein supplementation. The superiority of one protein type over another in terms of optimizing recovery and/or training adaptations remains to be convincingly demonstrated. 6) Appropriately timed protein intake is an important component of an overall exercise training program, essential for proper recovery, immune function, and the growth and maintenance of lean body mass. 7) Under certain circumstances, specific amino acid supplements, such as branched-chain amino acids (BCAA's), may improve exercise performance and recovery from exercise. PMID:17908291

  12. XVth World Conference of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education, Makuhari, Japan, 20-25 August 1995. Conference report.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S

    1995-09-01

    This article briefly highlights information provided by speakers at the World Conference of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education. The conference took place during August 1995, in Makuhari, Japan. One paper focused on health education in Japan, which would not be suitable for health promotion efforts in South Africa. Another paper focused on intersectoral efforts for health, policy, and networking. This paper addressed an issue important for all countries; the need for better communication among people working in health fields and improved outreach. A paper focusing on strengthening community action was presented. South Africa, as well as Japan, must work to involve communities in health service management. The author found that the paper on policy, practice, and research for health promotion and education was relevant to South Africa. Policymakers and practitioners tend to rely on precedence, intuition, personal experience, and political experience. Academic research funding does not support research that is relevant to policymakers and practitioners. The papers on healthy cities research were stimulating and had practical input. The proposed model involved a 3-phase and 14-step process of choosing a topic for an intervention, analyzing the intervention's political environment, and planning the political aspects of intervention. Another model of intersectoral action was spiral shaped and centered problem definition, direction setting, and structuring between networking and interorganizational relations. Four papers from Botswana focused on reproductive health. Other papers focused on teenage pregnancy.

  13. Comparison of University Governance USA, UK, France and Japan: Report of the International Seminar on University Governance, 2012. RIHE International Seminar Reports. No. 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In contrast with that basic understanding of university autonomy, in most continental European countries, such as France, and also in Japan, the government has tightly controlled universities, in terms of both their organization and activities. In these countries, the concept of "governance" is often lacking, as institutions were not…

  14. Family Education in the Era of Decreasing Births. The International Seminar on Family Education/International Forum on Intercultural Exchange (Saitama, Japan, December 12-15, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    This document, prepared in English for a conference in Japan on family education in the era of decreasing births, presents the conference agenda, profiles of contributors, and summaries or outlines of the papers to be delivered. The aim of the conference was to exchange research results from different countries and from interdisciplinary…

  15. The Debate over Japan’s International Role: Contending Views of Opinion Leaders during the Persian Gulf Crisis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-17

    prominent and prestigious fora. Perhaps Japan’s leading exponent of the realist school is Seizaburo Sato , professor at Tokyo University, research director...involves Sato’s frank recognition of "how important military strength is to protect peace at this starting point of the post-cold war period.൩ Sato ...in an increasingly interdependent world.34 To Sato , noncoercive forms of power supplement traditional military might but they emphatically do not

  16. Quantifying internal friction in unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins with single-molecule spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Soranno, Andrea; Buchli, Brigitte; Nettels, Daniel; Cheng, Ryan R.; Müller-Späth, Sonja; Pfeil, Shawn H.; Hoffmann, Armin; Lipman, Everett A.; Makarov, Dmitrii E.; Schuler, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Internal friction, which reflects the “roughness” of the energy landscape, plays an important role for proteins by modulating the dynamics of their folding and other conformational changes. However, the experimental quantification of internal friction and its contribution to folding dynamics has remained challenging. Here we use the combination of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, nanosecond fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and microfluidic mixing to determine the reconfiguration times of unfolded proteins and investigate the mechanisms of internal friction contributing to their dynamics. Using concepts from polymer dynamics, we determine internal friction with three complementary, largely independent, and consistent approaches as an additive contribution to the reconfiguration time of the unfolded state. We find that the magnitude of internal friction correlates with the compactness of the unfolded protein: its contribution dominates the reconfiguration time of approximately 100 ns of the compact unfolded state of a small cold shock protein under native conditions, but decreases for more expanded chains, and approaches zero both at high denaturant concentrations and in intrinsically disordered proteins that are expanded due to intramolecular charge repulsion. Our results suggest that internal friction in the unfolded state will be particularly relevant for the kinetics of proteins that fold in the microsecond range or faster. The low internal friction in expanded intrinsically disordered proteins may have implications for the dynamics of their interactions with cellular binding partners. PMID:22492978

  17. Quantifying internal friction in unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins with single-molecule spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Soranno, Andrea; Buchli, Brigitte; Nettels, Daniel; Cheng, Ryan R; Müller-Späth, Sonja; Pfeil, Shawn H; Hoffmann, Armin; Lipman, Everett A; Makarov, Dmitrii E; Schuler, Benjamin

    2012-10-30

    Internal friction, which reflects the "roughness" of the energy landscape, plays an important role for proteins by modulating the dynamics of their folding and other conformational changes. However, the experimental quantification of internal friction and its contribution to folding dynamics has remained challenging. Here we use the combination of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, nanosecond fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and microfluidic mixing to determine the reconfiguration times of unfolded proteins and investigate the mechanisms of internal friction contributing to their dynamics. Using concepts from polymer dynamics, we determine internal friction with three complementary, largely independent, and consistent approaches as an additive contribution to the reconfiguration time of the unfolded state. We find that the magnitude of internal friction correlates with the compactness of the unfolded protein: its contribution dominates the reconfiguration time of approximately 100 ns of the compact unfolded state of a small cold shock protein under native conditions, but decreases for more expanded chains, and approaches zero both at high denaturant concentrations and in intrinsically disordered proteins that are expanded due to intramolecular charge repulsion. Our results suggest that internal friction in the unfolded state will be particularly relevant for the kinetics of proteins that fold in the microsecond range or faster. The low internal friction in expanded intrinsically disordered proteins may have implications for the dynamics of their interactions with cellular binding partners.

  18. Pregnancy care in Germany, France and Japan: an international comparison of quality and efficiency using structural equation modelling and data envelopment analysis.

    PubMed

    Rump, A; Schöffski, O

    2018-07-01

    Healthcare systems in developed countries may differ in financing and organisation. Maternity services and delivery are particularly influenced by culture and habits. In this study, we compared the pregnancy care quality and efficiency of the German, French and Japanese healthcare systems. Comparative healthcare data analysis. In an international comparison based mainly on Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) indicators, we analysed the health resources significantly affecting pregnancy care and quantified its quality using structural equation modelling. Pregnancy care efficiency was studied using data envelopment analysis. Pregnancy output was quantified overall or separately using indicators based on perinatal, neonatal or maternal mortality. The density of obstetricians, midwives, paediatricians and the average annual doctor's consultations were positively and the caesarean delivery rate negatively associated with pregnancy outcome. In the international comparison at an aggregate level, Japan ranked first for pregnancy care quality, whereas Germany and France were positioned in the second part of the ranking. Similarly, at an aggregate level, the Japanese system showed pure technical efficiency, whereas Germany and France revealed mediocre efficiency results. Perinatal, neonatal and maternal care quality and efficiency taken separately were quite similar and mediocre in Germany and France. In Japan, there was a marked difference between a highly effective and efficient care of the unborn and newborn baby, and a rather mediocre quality and efficiency of maternal care. Germany, France, and Japan have to struggle with quality and efficiency issues that are nevertheless different: in Germany and France, disappointing pregnancy care quality does not correspond to the high health care expenditures and lead to low technical efficiency. The Japanese system shows a high variability in outcomes and technical efficiency. Maternal care quality

  19. Internal Structure and Preferential Protein Binding of Colloidal Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Duan, Da; Torosyan, Hayarpi; Elnatan, Daniel; McLaughlin, Christopher K; Logie, Jennifer; Shoichet, Molly S; Agard, David A; Shoichet, Brian K

    2017-01-20

    Colloidal aggregates of small molecules are the most common artifact in early drug discovery, sequestering and inhibiting target proteins without specificity. Understanding their structure and mechanism has been crucial to developing tools to control for, and occasionally even exploit, these particles. Unfortunately, their polydispersity and transient stability have prevented exploration of certain elementary properties, such as how they pack. Dye-stabilized colloidal aggregates exhibit enhanced homogeneity and stability when compared to conventional colloidal aggregates, enabling investigation of some of these properties. By small-angle X-ray scattering and multiangle light scattering, pair distance distribution functions suggest that the dye-stabilized colloids are filled, not hollow, spheres. Stability of the coformulated colloids enabled investigation of their preference for binding DNA, peptides, or folded proteins, and their ability to purify one from the other. The coformulated colloids showed little ability to bind DNA. Correspondingly, the colloids preferentially sequestered protein from even a 1600-fold excess of peptides that are themselves the result of a digest of the same protein. This may reflect the avidity advantage that a protein has in a surface-to-surface interaction with the colloids. For the first time, colloids could be shown to have preferences of up to 90-fold for particular proteins over others. Loaded onto the colloids, bound enzyme could be spun down, resuspended, and released back into buffer, regaining most of its activity. Implications of these observations for colloid mechanisms and utility will be considered.

  20. A cluster of lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) patients in a northern part of Iwate, Japan due to a founder effect. The Mass Screening Group.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, A; Shoji, Y; Nozaki, J; Noguchi, A; E, X; Dakeishi, M; Ohura, T; Tsuyoshi, K; Yasuhiko, W; Manabe, M; Takasago, Y; Takada, G

    2000-09-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by defective transport of the dibasic aminoacids. Mutational analysis of LPI patients in the northern part of Japan revealed that six were homozygous for the R410X mutation and two others were compound heterozygotes of R410X and other unknown mutations. In the population epidemiology study in a local cluster in the northern part of Iwate, ten heterozygotes were found in 1190 newborn babies leading to an estimated LPI incidence of 1/57,000. Polymorphism analysis revealed two major alleles, A and B, in intron 8. While the population frequency of allele A was 0.9 and that of allele B was 0.1 in the northern part of Japan the R410X mutations were exclusively on allele B in 31 chromosomes suggesting a founder effect. Genetic analysis in patients revealed strong linkage disequilibrium with D14S283 and TCRA indicating that the R410X mutation occurred before at least 130 generations ago (about 2600 years). The R410X mutation was shown to be useful as a molecular marker for screening LPI patients in the northern part of Japan. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. PREFACE: Selected contributions from the 3rd Theory Meets Industry International Workshop, TMI2009 (Nagoya, Japan, 11-13 November 2009) Selected contributions from the 3rd Theory Meets Industry International Workshop, TMI2009 (Nagoya, Japan, 11-13 November 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Isao; Hafner, Jürgen; Wimmer, Erich; Asahi, Ryoji

    2010-09-01

    The structures, physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of materials are becoming increasingly amenable to treatment by first-principles (ab initio) quantum mechanical simulations. Calculations containing a few hundred atoms are now routine, thanks to improvements in computer technology and computational techniques. Schemes to determine electronic structures more accurately and to treat more complex systems continue to be developed. A growing number of scientists and engineers are becoming aware of the power of these approaches. By applying these new computational tools, materials science and technology is expected to enter a new era of accelerated progress and efficiency. In 1998 the first workshop entitled 'Theory Meets Industry' (TMI) was held at the Vienna University of Technology. The aim of the workshop was to direct the potential of the ab initio simulation codes developed in academia towards the necessities arising from industrial research. Over the next decade, significant advances in ab initio methodology and its application to academic and industrial research were achieved. It was thus considered timely to hold a second TMI workshop in 2007, again in Vienna. The contributions from academia concentrated on a wide range of new developments in ab initio simulations, as well as on applications at the forefront of materials research. Speakers from the industrial sector also emphasized the progress made in successfully applying ab initiotechniques to key areas of modern technology. The proceedings were published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter as a special issue (volume 20, number 6, 2008), which was included in the 'Top papers 2008 showcase' of that journal. Following the notable success of the first two workshops, it was decided that the third TMI workshop would be held outside Europe. Holding the workshop in Japan was intended to increase awareness of theoretical materials science and foster further international collaboration in this field

  2. Exploring the role of internal friction in the dynamics of unfolded proteins using simple polymer models.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ryan R; Hawk, Alexander T; Makarov, Dmitrii E

    2013-02-21

    Recent experiments showed that the reconfiguration dynamics of unfolded proteins are often adequately described by simple polymer models. In particular, the Rouse model with internal friction (RIF) captures internal friction effects as observed in single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) studies of a number of proteins. Here we use RIF, and its non-free draining analog, Zimm model with internal friction, to explore the effect of internal friction on the rate with which intramolecular contacts can be formed within the unfolded chain. Unlike the reconfiguration times inferred from FCS experiments, which depend linearly on the solvent viscosity, the first passage times to form intramolecular contacts are shown to display a more complex viscosity dependence. We further describe scaling relationships obeyed by contact formation times in the limits of high and low internal friction. Our findings provide experimentally testable predictions that can serve as a framework for the analysis of future studies of contact formation in proteins.

  3. Assessment of the Risk of Medium-Term Internal Contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster, the first level-7 major nuclear disaster since Chernobyl, raised concerns about the future health consequences of exposure to and intake of radionuclides. Factors determining the risk and level of internal radiation contamination after a nuclear accident, which are a key to understanding and improving current nuclear disaster management, are not well studied. Objective: We investigated both the prevalence and level of internal contamination in residents of Minamisoma, and identified factors determining the risk and levels of contamination. Methods: We implemented a program assessing internal radiation contamination using a whole body counter (WBC) measurement and a questionnaire survey in Minamisoma, between October 2011 and March 2012. Results: Approximately 20% of the city’s population (8,829 individuals) participated in the WBC measurement for internal contamination, of which 94% responded to the questionnaire. The proportion of participants with detectable internal contamination was 40% in adults and 9% in children. The level of internal contamination ranged from 2.3 to 196.5 Bq/kg (median, 11.3 Bq/kg). Tobit regression analysis identified two main risk factors: more time spent outdoors, and intake of potentially contaminated foods and water. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, with sensible and reasonable precautions, people may be able to live continuously in radiation-affected areas with limited contamination risk. To enable this, nuclear disaster response should strictly enforce food and water controls and disseminate evidence-based and up-to-date information about avoidable contamination risks. Citation: Sugimoto A, Gilmour S, Tsubokura M, Nomura S, Kami M, Oikawa T, Kanazawa Y, Shibuya K. 2014. Assessment of the risk of medium-term internal contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:587–593;

  4. Internal force field in proteins seen by divergence entropy

    PubMed Central

    Marchewka, Damian; Banach, Mateusz; Roterman, Irena

    2011-01-01

    The characteristic distribution of non-binding interactions in a protein is described. It establishes that hydrophobic interactions can be characterized by suitable 3D Gauss functions while electrostatic interactions generally follow a random distribution. The implementation of this observation suggests differentiated optimization procedure for these two types of interactions. The electrostatic interaction may follow traditional energy optimization while the criteria for convergence shall measure the accordance with 3-D Gauss function. PMID:21769190

  5. Exploring the predicted effect of social networking site use on perceived social capital and psychological well-being of Chinese international students in Japan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Li, Yiwei; Ito, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how social networking sites (SNSs) use by Chinese international students in Japan influenced their perceived social capital and psychological well-being. In addition, it examined how, as sojourners, Chinese international students' perceived acculturative stress varied. Data were collected from 142 Chinese international students. The results indicated that the intensity of SNS use was unable to predict individuals' perceived social capital and psychological well-being. The effect of SNS use varied according to the functions it serves. Specifically, SNS use for social and informational functions (SIF) increased individuals' levels of perceived bridging social capital and perceived life satisfaction, while SNS use for entertaining recreational functions (ERF) was unable to predict perceived social capital but increased individuals' levels of loneliness. It was also found that, in the intercultural environment, Chinese international students' levels of perceived acculturative stress were decreased by their perceived bonding social capital and increased by their perceived loneliness but had no relationship with their SNS use. Findings of the study suggest that individuals using SNSs to stay informed and connected will benefit with regard to their social network building and psychological well-being.

  6. Assembly of insect hormone enthusiasts at Nasu Highland, Japan: Report of the 3rd International Insect Hormone (21st Ecdysone) Workshop.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Ryusuke; Nishimura, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    The 3rd International Insect Hormone (21st Ecdysone) Workshop (IIHW2017) was held in July 2017 at Nasu Highland, Japan. In the 40 years of the workshop's history, this was the first to be held in an Asian country. A total of 109 insect hormone researchers from 18 countries (62 overseas and 47 domestic participants) attended IIHW2017. During the workshop, all participants stayed on-site at the venue's hotel; this was ideal for fostering communication between participants, in particular, interactions between principal investigators and young scientists. The workshop featured one keynote, 64 oral, and 35 poster presentations spanning molecular biology, cell biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, chemical biology, physiology, and ecology of insect hormones, including ecdysteroids, juvenile hormones, and a variety of neuropeptides. The workshop provided an ideal platform for discussing insect hormone biology using not only the typical genetic model insect, the fruit fly Drosophila, but also a diversity of interesting insects, such as the silkworm, the red flour beetle, the cricket, the dragonfly, the social ant, the bloodsucking tick, and so on. The participants succeeded in sharing the latest knowledge in a wide range of insect hormone research fields and in joining active and constructive scientific discussions. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Italy-Japan international project-based learning for developing human resources using design of welfare equipment as a subject.

    PubMed

    Hanafusa, A; Komeda, T; Ito, K; Zobel, P Beomonte

    2015-08-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is effective for developing human resources of young students. The design of welfare equipment, such as wheelchairs and gait assistive devices, is taken as the subject in this study because these devices must be fit to their environment, users, and method of use; students must consider the circumstances of each country concerned. The program commenced in 2012 at L'Aquila, Italy, and the Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan and has been continuing for three years. Students were divided into four groups and discussions were held on how to adapt the equipment to the user and environment. After discussion, they designed and simulated a model of the equipment using CAD. Finally, they presented their designs to each other. Through the program, students had fruitful discussions, exchanged ideas from different cultures, and learned from each other. Furthermore, friendships among the students were nurtured. It is believed that the objective of the program was satisfactorily accomplished.

  8. Toward an International Comparison of Economic and Educational Mobility: Recent Findings from the Japan Child Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akabayashi, Hideo; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Naoi, Michio; Shikishima, Chizuru

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, income inequality has risen in most developed countries. There is growing interest among economists in international comparisons of economic and educational mobility. This is aided by the availability of internationally comparable, large-scale data. The present paper aims to make three contributions. First, we introduce the…

  9. Parallel-SymD: A Parallel Approach to Detect Internal Symmetry in Protein Domains.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashwani; Flurchick, K M; Bikdash, Marwan; Kc, Dukka B

    2016-01-01

    Internally symmetric proteins are proteins that have a symmetrical structure in their monomeric single-chain form. Around 10-15% of the protein domains can be regarded as having some sort of internal symmetry. In this regard, we previously published SymD (symmetry detection), an algorithm that determines whether a given protein structure has internal symmetry by attempting to align the protein to its own copy after the copy is circularly permuted by all possible numbers of residues. SymD has proven to be a useful algorithm to detect symmetry. In this paper, we present a new parallelized algorithm called Parallel-SymD for detecting symmetry of proteins on clusters of computers. The achieved speedup of the new Parallel-SymD algorithm scales well with the number of computing processors. Scaling is better for proteins with a larger number of residues. For a protein of 509 residues, a speedup of 63 was achieved on a parallel system with 100 processors.

  10. Parallel-SymD: A Parallel Approach to Detect Internal Symmetry in Protein Domains

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashwani; Flurchick, K. M.; Bikdash, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Internally symmetric proteins are proteins that have a symmetrical structure in their monomeric single-chain form. Around 10–15% of the protein domains can be regarded as having some sort of internal symmetry. In this regard, we previously published SymD (symmetry detection), an algorithm that determines whether a given protein structure has internal symmetry by attempting to align the protein to its own copy after the copy is circularly permuted by all possible numbers of residues. SymD has proven to be a useful algorithm to detect symmetry. In this paper, we present a new parallelized algorithm called Parallel-SymD for detecting symmetry of proteins on clusters of computers. The achieved speedup of the new Parallel-SymD algorithm scales well with the number of computing processors. Scaling is better for proteins with a larger number of residues. For a protein of 509 residues, a speedup of 63 was achieved on a parallel system with 100 processors. PMID:27747230

  11. Correlation between patients' reasons for encounters/health problems and population density in Japan: a systematic review of observational studies coded by the International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC) and the International Classification of Primary care (ICPC).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Makoto; Ohta, Ryuichi; Nago, Naoki; Fukushi, Motoharu; Matsushima, Masato

    2017-09-13

    The Japanese health care system has yet to establish structured training for primary care physicians; therefore, physicians who received an internal medicine based training program continue to play a principal role in the primary care setting. To promote the development of a more efficient primary health care system, the assessment of its current status in regard to the spectrum of patients' reasons for encounters (RFEs) and health problems is an important step. Recognizing the proportions of patients' RFEs and health problems, which are not generally covered by an internist, can provide valuable information to promote the development of a primary care physician-centered system. We conducted a systematic review in which we searched six databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Ichushi-Web, JDreamIII and CiNii) for observational studies in Japan coded by International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC) and International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) up to March 2015. We employed population density as index of accessibility. We calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to examine the correlation between the proportion of "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs and health problems in each study area in consideration of the population density. We found 17 studies with diverse designs and settings. Among these studies, "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs, which was not thought to be covered by internists, ranged from about 4% to 40%. In addition, "non-internal medicine-related" health problems ranged from about 10% to 40%. However, no significant correlation was found between population density and the proportion of "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs and health problems. This is the first systematic review on RFEs and health problems coded by ICHPPC and ICPC undertaken to reveal the diversity of health problems in Japanese primary care. These results suggest that primary care physicians in some rural areas of Japan

  12. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Multiple-Valued Logic (13th) Held at Kyoto, Japan on May 23-25, 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    would like to thank the members of the Organizing Committee of ISMVL-Japan, listed on page vii of this Proceedings, for their generous support. Hisashi ...8217 °. °- . ’. . 6% Organizing Commnittee I *Chairman: Hisashi Mine Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics Kcyoto University, Kyoto...Masayuki Kimura (Tohoku University, Japan) Tadahiro Kitahashi (Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan) Yoshiaki Koga (National Defense Academy, Japan

  13. The ecosystem approach to health is a promising strategy in international development: lessons from Japan and Laos.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Takashi; Mallee, Hein; Tomokawa, Sachi; Moji, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Jun

    2015-02-16

    An ecological perspective was prominently present in the health promotion movement in the 1980s, but this seems to have faded. The burden of disease the developing world is facing cannot be addressed solely by reductionist approaches. Holistic approaches are called for that recognize the fundamentally interdependent nature of health and other societal, developmental, and ecosystem related factors in human communities. An ecosystem approach to human health (ecohealth) provides a good starting point to explore these interdependencies. Development assistance is often based on the assumption that developed countries can serve as models for developing ones. Japan has provided lavish assistance to Laos for example, much of it going to the development of transport networks. However, there is little sign that there is an awareness of the potentially negative environmental and health impacts of this assistance. We argue that the health consequences of environmental degradation are not always understood, and that developing countries need to consider these issues. The ecohealth approach is useful when exploring this issue. We highlight three implications of the ecohealth approach: (1) The WHO definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being emphasized that health is more than the absence of disease. However, because this approach may involve an unattainable goal, we suggest that health should be defined in the ecosystem context, and the goal should be to attain acceptable and sustainable levels of health through enabling people to realize decent livelihoods, and to pursue their life purpose; (2) The increasing interconnectedness of ecosystems in a globalizing world requires an ethical approach that considers human responsibility for the global biosphere. Here, ecohealth could be a countervailing force to our excessive concentration on economy and technology; and (3) If ecohealth is to become a positive agent of change in the global health

  14. Industrial lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karube, Norio

    1991-03-01

    I am to report on some aspects of industrial lasers in Japan. Mostly centering on the market. In Japan, the history of laser developnent is rather profound. And long. Ever since the first invention of the laser in this country in 1960. This is partly because of the fact that in Japan the spectroscopic studies of the ruby was very popular in the late 1950's. Ever since niost of the work has been done in the research laboratories of the industry, not in the universities or not in the governmental laboratories. And since that time our first activity was mainly centering on the basic research, but after that time we have the evolution of the technology. One of the features in Japan is that the activity of developement and research of laser technology from the very basic phase up to the present commercialization has been done by the same group of people, including ine. We had a national project which ended about six years ago which was sponsored by MITI. MITI is Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan. And because of this national project, the effect of this project had a very enlightening effect in Japan. And after that our Japanese laser market became very flourishing.

  15. An Internal Signal Sequence Directs Intramembrane Proteolysis of a Cellular Immunoglobulin Domain Protein*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Robakis, Thalia; Bak, Beata; Lin, Shu-huei; Bernard, Daniel J.; Scheiffele, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Precursor proteolysis is a crucial mechanism for regulating protein structure and function. Signal peptidase (SP) is an enzyme with a well defined role in cleaving N-terminal signal sequences but no demonstrated function in the proteolysis of cellular precursor proteins. We provide evidence that SP mediates intraprotein cleavage of IgSF1, a large cellular Ig domain protein that is processed into two separate Ig domain proteins. In addition, our results suggest the involvement of signal peptide peptidase (SPP), an intramembrane protease, which acts on substrates that have been previously cleaved by SP. We show that IgSF1 is processed through sequential proteolysis by SP and SPP. Cleavage is directed by an internal signal sequence and generates two separate Ig domain proteins from a polytopic precursor. Our findings suggest that SP and SPP function are not restricted to N-terminal signal sequence cleavage but also contribute to the processing of cellular transmembrane proteins. PMID:18981173

  16. Information Systems for Government and Business: Trends, Issues, Challenges. Proceedings of the Kawasaki International Seminar on the Information Systems Challenge for Government and Business (2nd, Kawasaki City, Japan, July 21-24, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Centre for Regional Development, Nagoya (Japan).

    The 25 papers in this proceedings were presented by national and international information systems experts, development planners, and scholars at a seminar that was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Centre for Regional Development and the city of Kawasaki, Japan. Designed to reach a wider group of interested planning practitioners and…

  17. International Comparison of Causative Bacteria and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Urinary Tract Infections between Kobe, Japan, and Surabaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Koichi; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yamamichi, Fukashi; Alimsardjono, Lindawati; Rahardjo, Dadik; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Fujisawa, Masato

    2018-01-23

    Variation by country in urinary tract infection (UTI)-causative bacteria is partly due to the differences in the use of antibiotics. We compared their frequencies and antibiotic susceptibilities in the treatment of patients with UTI from 2 cities, Kobe, Japan, and Surabaya, Indonesia. We retrospectively analyzed 1,804 urine samples collected from patients with UTI in 2014 (1,251 collected in 11 months at Kobe University Hospital in Kobe and 544 collected in 2 months at Dr. Soetomo Hospital in Surabaya). Surabaya data were divided into adult and pediatric patients because a substantial number of specimens from pediatric-patients had been collected. The results indicated that Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen (24.1% in Kobe and 39.3% in Surabaya) and was significantly resistant to ampicillin and substantially to first- and third-generation cephalosporins in Surabaya adults but not in Kobe adults (p < 0.01). Enterococcus faecalis was often isolated in Kobe (14.0%), but not in Surabaya (5.3%). Klebsiella spp. were isolated at a higher rate in Surabaya pediatric patients (20.3%) than in Surabaya adults (13.6%) and Kobe adults (6.6%). The antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates form Surabaya isolates tended to be lower than the ones from Kobe. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria were detected at a significantly higher rate in Surabaya than in Kobe (p < 0.001). These results showed that the antimicrobial resistance patterns of UTI-causative bacteria are highly variable among 2 countries, and the continuous surveillance of trends in antibiotic resistance patterns of uropathogens is necessary for the future revision of antibiotic use.

  18. Study of Global Health Strategy Based on International Trends: -Promoting Universal Health Coverage Globally and Ensuring the Sustainability of Japan's Universal Coverage of Health Insurance System: Problems and Proposals.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Takashi; Eguchi, Narumi; Deguchi, Mayumi; Yazawa, Manami; Ishii, Masami

    2015-09-01

    The Japanese government at present is implementing international health and medical growth strategies mainly from the viewpoint of business. However, the United Nations is set to resolve the Post-2015 Development Agenda in the fall of 2015; the agenda will likely include the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) as a specific development goal. Japan's healthcare system, the foundation of which is its public, nationwide universal health insurance program, has been evaluated highly by the Lancet. The World Bank also praised it as a global model. This paper presents suggestions and problems for Japan regarding global health strategies, including in regard to several prerequisite domestic preparations that must be made. They are summarized as follows. (1) The UHC development should be promoted in coordination with the United Nations, World Bank, and Asian Development Bank. (2) The universal health insurance system of Japan can be a global model for UHC and ensuring its sustainability should be considered a national policy. (3) Trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) should not disrupt or interfere with UHC, the form of which is unique to each nation, including Japan. (4) Japan should disseminate information overseas, including to national governments, people, and physicians, regarding the course of events that led to the establishment of the Japan's universal health insurance system and should make efforts to develop international human resources to participate in UHC policymaking. (5) The development of separate healthcare programs and UHC preparation should be promoted by streamlining and centralizing maternity care, school health, infectious disease management such as for tuberculosis, and emergency medicine such as for traffic accidents. (6) Japan should disseminate information overseas about its primary care physicians (kakaritsuke physicians) and develop international human resources. (7) Global health should be developed in

  19. Estimated association between dwelling soil contamination and internal radiation contamination levels after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Kato, Shigeaki; Leppold, Claire; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measurement of soil contamination levels has been considered a feasible method for dose estimation of internal radiation exposure following the Chernobyl disaster by means of aggregate transfer factors; however, it is still unclear whether the estimation of internal contamination based on soil contamination levels is universally valid or incident specific. Methods To address this issue, we evaluated relationships between in vivo and soil cesium-137 (Cs-137) contamination using data on internal contamination levels among Minamisoma (10–40 km north from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant), Fukushima residents 2–3 years following the disaster, and constructed three models for statistical analysis based on continuous and categorical (equal intervals and quantiles) soil contamination levels. Results A total of 7987 people with a mean age of 55.4 years underwent screening of in vivo Cs-137 whole-body counting. A statistically significant association was noted between internal and continuous Cs-137 soil contamination levels (model 1, p value <0.001), although the association was slight (relative risk (RR): 1.03 per 10 kBq/m2 increase in soil contamination). Analysis of categorical soil contamination levels showed statistical (but not clinical) significance only in relatively higher soil contamination levels (model 2: Cs-137 levels above 100 kBq/m2 compared to those <25 kBq/m2, RR=1.75, p value <0.01; model 3: levels above 63 kBq/m2 compared to those <11 kBq/m2, RR=1.45, p value <0.05). Conclusions Low levels of internal and soil contamination were not associated, and only loose/small associations were observed in areas with slightly higher levels of soil contamination in Fukushima, representing a clear difference from the strong associations found in post-disaster Chernobyl. These results indicate that soil contamination levels generally do not contribute to the internal contamination of residents in Fukushima; thus, individual

  20. Estimated association between dwelling soil contamination and internal radiation contamination levels after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Kato, Shigeaki; Leppold, Claire; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2016-06-29

    Measurement of soil contamination levels has been considered a feasible method for dose estimation of internal radiation exposure following the Chernobyl disaster by means of aggregate transfer factors; however, it is still unclear whether the estimation of internal contamination based on soil contamination levels is universally valid or incident specific. To address this issue, we evaluated relationships between in vivo and soil cesium-137 (Cs-137) contamination using data on internal contamination levels among Minamisoma (10-40 km north from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant), Fukushima residents 2-3 years following the disaster, and constructed three models for statistical analysis based on continuous and categorical (equal intervals and quantiles) soil contamination levels. A total of 7987 people with a mean age of 55.4 years underwent screening of in vivo Cs-137 whole-body counting. A statistically significant association was noted between internal and continuous Cs-137 soil contamination levels (model 1, p value <0.001), although the association was slight (relative risk (RR): 1.03 per 10 kBq/m(2) increase in soil contamination). Analysis of categorical soil contamination levels showed statistical (but not clinical) significance only in relatively higher soil contamination levels (model 2: Cs-137 levels above 100 kBq/m(2) compared to those <25 kBq/m(2), RR=1.75, p value <0.01; model 3: levels above 63 kBq/m(2) compared to those <11 kBq/m(2), RR=1.45, p value <0.05). Low levels of internal and soil contamination were not associated, and only loose/small associations were observed in areas with slightly higher levels of soil contamination in Fukushima, representing a clear difference from the strong associations found in post-disaster Chernobyl. These results indicate that soil contamination levels generally do not contribute to the internal contamination of residents in Fukushima; thus, individual measurements are essential for the

  1. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  2. The role of internal duplication in the evolution of multi-domain proteins.

    PubMed

    Nacher, J C; Hayashida, M; Akutsu, T

    2010-08-01

    Many proteins consist of several structural domains. These multi-domain proteins have likely been generated by selective genome growth dynamics during evolution to perform new functions as well as to create structures that fold on a biologically feasible time scale. Domain units frequently evolved through a variety of genetic shuffling mechanisms. Here we examine the protein domain statistics of more than 1000 organisms including eukaryotic, archaeal and bacterial species. The analysis extends earlier findings on asymmetric statistical laws for proteome to a wider variety of species. While proteins are composed of a wide range of domains, displaying a power-law decay, the computation of domain families for each protein reveals an exponential distribution, characterizing a protein universe composed of a thin number of unique families. Structural studies in proteomics have shown that domain repeats, or internal duplicated domains, represent a small but significant fraction of genome. In spite of its importance, this observation has been largely overlooked until recently. We model the evolutionary dynamics of proteome and demonstrate that these distinct distributions are in fact rooted in an internal duplication mechanism. This process generates the contemporary protein structural domain universe, determines its reduced thickness, and tames its growth. These findings have important implications, ranging from protein interaction network modeling to evolutionary studies based on fundamental mechanisms governing genome expansion.

  3. Dispersion Forces and the Molecular Origin of Internal Friction in Protein.

    PubMed

    Sashi, Pulikallu; Ramakrishna, Dasari; Bhuyan, Abani K

    2016-08-23

    Internal friction in macromolecules is one of the curious phenomena that control conformational changes and reaction rates. It is held here that dispersion interactions and London-van der Waals forces between nonbonded atoms are major contributors to internal friction. To demonstrate this, the flipping motion of aromatic rings of F10 and Y97 amino acid residues of cytochrome c has been studied in glycerol/water mixtures by cross relaxation-suppressed exchange nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The ring-flip rate is highly overdamped by glycerol, but this is not due to the effect of protein-solvent interactions on the Brownian dynamics of the protein, because glycerol cannot penetrate into the protein to slow the internal collective motions. Sound velocity in the protein under matching solvent conditions shows that glycerol exerts its effect by rather smothering the protein interior to produce reduced molecular compressibility and root-mean-square volume fluctuation (δVRMS), implying an increased number of dispersion interactions of nonbonded atoms. Hence, δVRMS can be used as a proxy for internal friction. By using the ansatz that internal friction is related to nonbonded interactions by the equation f(n) = f0 + f1n + f2n(2) + ..., where the variable n is the extent of nonbonded interactions with fi coefficients, the barrier to aromatic ring rotation is found to be flat. Also interesting is the appearance of a turnover region in the δVRMS dependence of the ring-flip rate, suggesting anomalous internal diffusion. We conclude that cohesive forces among nonbonded atoms are major contributors to the molecular origin of internal friction.

  4. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-386 (Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five... revocation of the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely...

  5. Endocytosis and membrane receptor internalization: implication of F-BAR protein Carom

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanjie; Liu, Suxuan; Xia, Jixiang; Stein, Sam; Ramon, Cueto; Xi, Hang; Wang, Luqiao; Xiong, Xinyu; Zhang, Lixiao; He, Dingwen; Yang, William; Zhao, Xianxian; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Endocytosis is a cellular process mostly responsible for membrane receptor internalization. Cell membrane receptors bind to their ligands and form a complex which can be internalized. We previously proposed that F-BAR protein initiates membrane curvature and mediates endocytosis via their binding partners. However, F-BAR protein partners involved in membrane receptor endocytosis and the regulatory mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we established a group of database mining strategies to explore mechanisms underlying receptor-related endocytosis. We identified 34 endocytic membrane receptors and 10 regulating proteins for vesicle formation in clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE), a major process of membrane receptor internalization. We found that F-BAR protein FCHSD2 (Carom) may facilitate endocytosis via 9 endocytic partners. Carom is highly expressed, along with highly expressed endocytic membrane receptors and partners, in endothelial cells and macrophages. We established 3 models of Carom-receptor complex and their intracellular trafficking based on protein-protein interaction and subcellular localization. We conclude that Carom may mediate receptor endocytosis and transport endocytic receptors to the cytoplasm for receptor signaling and lysosome/proteasome degradation, or to the nucleus for RNA processing, gene transcription and DNA repair. PMID:28199211

  6. Electronic book format EPUB and Japanese typography : Mainstream people in Japan are unlikely to win international standardization battles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Makoto

    EPUB3 is an electronic book format based on Web technologies such as HTML and CSS. EPUB3 is internationalized; in particular, it supports Japanese typography. Features such as vertical writing were introduced by first creating CSS Writing Modes and CSS Text at W3C and then creating EPUB3 at IDPF on top of them. On the basis of this standardization experience, common pitfalls for Japanese in international standardization are pointed out and a promising approach is suggested.

  7. Japan Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-18

    increased profitability, productivity and more effective management ." Members of the British side also called for an increase in Japan’s defense...copyright transfer, or rental permission is called technology trade. According to the Statistic Bureau of the Management and Coordina- tion Agency...1- 8.8 -Swizerland 6.3 5.6 Others 13.1 Source: Statistics Bureau of the Management and Coordination Agency China. 66.2% of Japan’s imported

  8. Antibody-Induced Internalization of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein.

    PubMed

    Leemans, A; De Schryver, M; Van der Gucht, W; Heykers, A; Pintelon, I; Hotard, A L; Moore, M L; Melero, J A; McLellan, J S; Graham, B S; Broadbent, L; Power, U F; Caljon, G; Cos, P; Maes, L; Delputte, P

    2017-07-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections remain a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalizations among infants. Infection recurs frequently and establishes a weak and short-lived immunity. To date, RSV immunoprophylaxis and vaccine research is mainly focused on the RSV fusion (F) protein, but a vaccine remains elusive. The RSV F protein is a highly conserved surface glycoprotein and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies induced by natural infection. Here, we analyzed an internalization process of antigen-antibody complexes after binding of RSV-specific antibodies to RSV antigens expressed on the surface of infected cells. The RSV F protein and attachment (G) protein were found to be internalized in both infected and transfected cells after the addition of either RSV-specific polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) or RSV glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), as determined by indirect immunofluorescence staining and flow-cytometric analysis. Internalization experiments with different cell lines, well-differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells (WD-PBECs), and RSV isolates suggest that antibody internalization can be considered a general feature of RSV. More specifically for RSV F, the mechanism of internalization was shown to be clathrin dependent. All RSV F-targeted MAbs tested, regardless of their epitopes, induced internalization of RSV F. No differences could be observed between the different MAbs, indicating that RSV F internalization was epitope independent. Since this process can be either antiviral, by affecting virus assembly and production, or beneficial for the virus, by limiting the efficacy of antibodies and effector mechanism, further research is required to determine the extent to which this occurs in vivo and how this might impact RSV replication. IMPORTANCE Current research into the development of new immunoprophylaxis and vaccines is mainly focused on the RSV F protein since, among others, RSV F-specific antibodies are

  9. Antibody-Induced Internalization of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Leemans, A.; De Schryver, M.; Van der Gucht, W.; Heykers, A.; Pintelon, I.; Hotard, A. L.; Moore, M. L.; Melero, J. A.; McLellan, J. S.; Graham, B. S.; Broadbent, L.; Power, U. F.; Caljon, G.; Cos, P.; Maes, L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections remain a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalizations among infants. Infection recurs frequently and establishes a weak and short-lived immunity. To date, RSV immunoprophylaxis and vaccine research is mainly focused on the RSV fusion (F) protein, but a vaccine remains elusive. The RSV F protein is a highly conserved surface glycoprotein and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies induced by natural infection. Here, we analyzed an internalization process of antigen-antibody complexes after binding of RSV-specific antibodies to RSV antigens expressed on the surface of infected cells. The RSV F protein and attachment (G) protein were found to be internalized in both infected and transfected cells after the addition of either RSV-specific polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) or RSV glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), as determined by indirect immunofluorescence staining and flow-cytometric analysis. Internalization experiments with different cell lines, well-differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells (WD-PBECs), and RSV isolates suggest that antibody internalization can be considered a general feature of RSV. More specifically for RSV F, the mechanism of internalization was shown to be clathrin dependent. All RSV F-targeted MAbs tested, regardless of their epitopes, induced internalization of RSV F. No differences could be observed between the different MAbs, indicating that RSV F internalization was epitope independent. Since this process can be either antiviral, by affecting virus assembly and production, or beneficial for the virus, by limiting the efficacy of antibodies and effector mechanism, further research is required to determine the extent to which this occurs in vivo and how this might impact RSV replication. IMPORTANCE Current research into the development of new immunoprophylaxis and vaccines is mainly focused on the RSV F protein since, among others, RSV F

  10. Endocytosis and membrane receptor internalization: implication of F-BAR protein Carom.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanjie; Xia, Jixiang; Liu, Suxuan; Stein, Sam; Ramon, Cueto; Xi, Hang; Wang, Luqiao; Xiong, Xinyu; Zhang, Lixiao; He, Dingwen; Yang, William; Zhao, Xianxian; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Endocytosis is a cellular process mostly responsible for membrane receptor internalization. Cell membrane receptors bind to their ligands and form a complex which can be internalized. We previously proposed that F-BAR protein initiates membrane curvature and mediates endocytosis via its binding partners. However, F-BAR protein partners involved in membrane receptor endocytosis and the regulatory mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we established database mining strategies to explore mechanisms underlying receptor-related endocytosis. We identified 34 endocytic membrane receptors and 10 regulating proteins in clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE), a major process of membrane receptor internalization. We found that F-BAR protein FCHSD2 (Carom) may facilitate endocytosis via 9 endocytic partners. Carom is highly expressed, along with highly expressed endocytic membrane receptors and partners, in endothelial cells and macrophages. We established 3 models of Carom-receptor complexes and their intracellular trafficking based on protein interaction and subcellular localization. We conclude that Carom may mediate receptor endocytosis and transport endocytic receptors to the cytoplasm for receptor signaling and lysosome/proteasome degradation, or to the nucleus for RNA processing, gene transcription and DNA repair.

  11. Internal friction in an intrinsically disordered protein-Comparing Rouse-like models with experiments.

    PubMed

    Soranno, Andrea; Zosel, Franziska; Hofmann, Hagen

    2018-03-28

    Internal friction is frequently found in protein dynamics. Its molecular origin however is difficult to conceptualize. Even unfolded and intrinsically disordered polypeptide chains exhibit signs of internal friction despite their enormous solvent accessibility. Here, we compare four polymer theories of internal friction with experimental results on the intrinsically disordered protein ACTR (activator of thyroid hormone receptor). Using nanosecond fluorescence correlation spectroscopy combined with single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET), we determine the time scales of the diffusive chain dynamics of ACTR at different solvent viscosities and varying degrees of compaction. Despite pronounced differences between the theories, we find that all models can capture the experimental viscosity-dependence of the chain relaxation time. In contrast, the observed slowdown upon chain collapse of ACTR is not captured by any of the theories and a mechanistic link between chain dimension and internal friction is still missing, implying that the current theories are incomplete. In addition, a discrepancy between early results on homopolymer solutions and recent single-molecule experiments on unfolded and disordered proteins suggests that internal friction is likely to be a composite phenomenon caused by a variety of processes.

  12. Nuclear Protein Sam68 Interacts with the Enterovirus 71 Internal Ribosome Entry Site and Positively Regulates Viral Protein Translation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Song, Lei; Cong, Haolong; Tien, Po

    2015-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) recruits various cellular factors to assist in the replication and translation of its genome. Identification of the host factors involved in the EV71 life cycle not only will enable a better understanding of the infection mechanism but also has the potential to be of use in the development of antiviral therapeutics. In this study, we demonstrated that the cellular factor 68-kDa Src-associated protein in mitosis (Sam68) acts as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor (ITAF) that binds specifically to the EV71 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). Interaction sites in both the viral IRES (stem-loops IV and V) and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K homology (KH) domain of Sam68 protein were further mapped using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and biotin RNA pulldown assay. More importantly, dual-luciferase (firefly) reporter analysis suggested that overexpression of Sam68 positively regulated IRES-dependent translation of virus proteins. In contrast, both IRES activity and viral protein translation significantly decreased in Sam68 knockdown cells compared with the negative-control cells treated with short hairpin RNA (shRNA). However, downregulation of Sam68 did not have a significant inhibitory effect on the accumulation of the EV71 genome. Moreover, Sam68 was redistributed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and interacts with cellular factors, such as poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), during EV71 infection. The cytoplasmic relocalization of Sam68 in EV71-infected cells may be involved in the enhancement of EV71 IRES-mediated translation. Since Sam68 is known to be a RNA-binding protein, these results provide direct evidence that Sam68 is a novel ITAF that interacts with EV71 IRES and positively regulates viral protein translation. The nuclear protein Sam68 is found as an additional new host factor that interacts with the EV71 IRES during infection and could potentially

  13. PREFACE: 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity and 9th International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins

    2015-03-01

    The joint International Symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successfully has united two international events - 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM&NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM&NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga - 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including perspective materials and

  14. Avoidant personality disorder and taijin kyoufu: sociocultural implications of the WHO/ADAMHA International Study of Personality Disorders in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ono, Y; Yoshimura, K; Sueoka, R; Yamauchi, K; Mizushima, H; Momose, T; Nakamura, K; Okonogi, K; Asai, M

    1996-03-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of avoidant personality disorder in a cultural context based on the Japanese concept of taijin kyoufu as well as that of DSM-III-R and DSM-IV social phobia. Sixty-six patients were given the International Personality Disorder Examination and questionnaires including the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Among the 23 DSM-III-R personality disorder patients, 8 patients were diagnosed as having avoidant personality disorder. Six of them were suffering from taijin kyoufu symptoms. Among 27 ICD personality disorder patients, 22 patients were diagnosed as having ICD anxious personality disorder. All DSM avoidant patients were included in the ICD anxious group. These findings suggest that patients with avoidant personality disorder have had a long history of difficulties and share common personality problems with a milder form of taijin kyoufu, which is conceptually different from social phobia.

  15. Concerted dihedral rotations give rise to internal friction in unfolded proteins.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Ignacia; Makarov, Dmitrii E; Papoian, Garegin A

    2014-06-18

    Protein chains undergo conformational diffusion during folding and dynamics, experiencing both thermal kicks and viscous drag. Recent experiments have shown that the corresponding friction can be separated into wet friction, which is determined by the solvent viscosity, and dry friction, where frictional effects arise due to the interactions within the protein chain. Despite important advances, the molecular origins underlying dry friction in proteins have remained unclear. To address this problem, we studied the dynamics of the unfolded cold-shock protein at different solvent viscosities and denaturant concentrations. Using extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations we estimated the internal friction time scales and found them to agree well with the corresponding experimental measurements (Soranno et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2012, 109, 17800-17806). Analysis of the reconfiguration dynamics of the unfolded chain further revealed that hops in the dihedral space provide the dominant mechanism of internal friction. Furthermore, the increased number of concerted dihedral moves at physiological conditions suggest that, in such conditions, the concerted motions result in higher frictional forces. These findings have important implications for understanding the folding kinetics of proteins as well as the dynamics of intrinsically disordered proteins.

  16. Classification of proteins with shared motifs and internal repeats in the ECOD database

    PubMed Central

    Kinch, Lisa N.; Liao, Yuxing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Proteins and their domains evolve by a set of events commonly including the duplication and divergence of small motifs. The presence of short repetitive regions in domains has generally constituted a difficult case for structural domain classifications and their hierarchies. We developed the Evolutionary Classification Of protein Domains (ECOD) in part to implement a new schema for the classification of these types of proteins. Here we document the ways in which ECOD classifies proteins with small internal repeats, widespread functional motifs, and assemblies of small domain‐like fragments in its evolutionary schema. We illustrate the ways in which the structural genomics project impacted the classification and characterization of new structural domains and sequence families over the decade. PMID:26833690

  17. Molecular origins of internal friction effects on protein-folding rates.

    PubMed

    de Sancho, David; Sirur, Anshul; Best, Robert B

    2014-07-02

    Recent experiments on protein-folding dynamics have revealed strong evidence for internal friction effects. That is, observed relaxation times are not simply proportional to the solvent viscosity as might be expected if the solvent were the only source of friction. However, a molecular interpretation of this remarkable phenomenon is currently lacking. Here, we use all-atom simulations of peptide and protein folding in explicit solvent, to probe the origin of the unusual viscosity dependence. We find that an important contribution to this effect, explaining the viscosity dependence of helix formation and the folding of a helix-containing protein, is the insensitivity of torsion angle isomerization to solvent friction. The influence of this landscape roughness can, in turn, be quantitatively explained by a rate theory including memory friction. This insensitivity of local barrier crossing to solvent friction is expected to contribute to the viscosity dependence of folding rates in larger proteins.

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways promote low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated internalization of beta-amyloid protein in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Na; Ma, Kai-Ge; Qian, Yi-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Feng, Gai-Feng; Shi, Li-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Zhao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by the intraneuronal accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (Aβ). Reuptake of extracellular Aβ is believed to contribute significantly to the intraneuronal Aβ pool in the early stages of AD. Published reports have claimed that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) mediates Aβ1-42 uptake and lysosomal trafficking in GT1-7 neuronal cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast non-neuronal cells. However, there is no direct evidence supporting the role of LRP1 in Aβ internalization in primary neurons. Our recent study indicated that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are involved in regulating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)-mediated Aβ1-42 uptake in SH-SY5Y cells. This study was designed to explore the regulation of MAPK signaling pathways on LRP1-mediated Aβ internalization in neurons. We found that extracellular Aβ1-42 oligomers could be internalized into endosomes/lysosomes and mitochondria in cortical neurons. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were also found co-localized in neurons during Aβ1-42 internalization, and they could form Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex. Knockdown of LRP1 expression significantly decreased neuronal Aβ1-42 internalization. Finally, we identified that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways regulated the internalization of Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Therefore, these results demonstrated that LRP1, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 mediated the internalization of Aβ1-42 in neurons and provided evidence that blockade of LRP1 or inhibitions of MAPK signaling pathways might be a potential approach to lowering brain Aβ levels and served a potential therapeutic target for AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Internalization of exogenous ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) proteins into cells.

    PubMed

    Afroze, Syeda H; Uddin, M Nasir; Cao, Xiaobo; Asea, Alexzander; Gizachew, Dawit

    2011-08-01

    Endogenous Arf6 is a myristoylated protein mainly involved in endosomal membrane traffic and structural organization at the plasma membrane. It has been shown that Arf6 mediates cancer cell invasion and shedding of plasma membrane microvesicles derived from tumor cells. In this article, we determined that Arf6 proteins both in the GDP and GTPγS bound forms can enter cells when simply added in the cell culture medium without requiring the myristoyl group. The GTPγS bound can enter cells at a faster rate than the GDP-bound Arf6. Despite the role of the endogenous Arf6 in endocytosis and membrane trafficking, the internalization of exogenous Arf6 may involve non-endocytic processes. As protein therapeutics is becoming important in medicine, we examined the effect of the uptake of Arf6 proteins on cellular functions and determined that exogenous Arf6 inhibits proliferation, invasion, and migration of cells. Future studies of the internalization of Arf6 mutants will reveal key residues that play a role in the internalization of Arf6 and its interaction and possible structural conformations bound to the plasma membrane.

  20. [Urinary L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) as a new urinary biomarker promulgated by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Matsui, Katsuomi; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Sugaya, Takeshi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2013-07-01

    Liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is a 14kDa protein found in the cytoplasm of human renal proximal tubules. Fatty acids are bound with L-FABP and transported to the mitochondria or peroxisomes, where fatty acids are beta-oxidized, and this may play a role in fatty acid homeostasis. Moreover, L-FABP has high affinity and capacity to bind long-chain fatty acid oxidation products, and may be an effective endogenous antioxidant. Renal L-FABP is rarely expressed in the kidneys of rodents. In order to evaluate the pathological dynamics of renal L-FABP in kidney disease, human L-FABP chromosomal transgenic mice were generated. Various stress, such as massive proteinuria, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and toxins overloaded in the proximal tubules were revealed to up-regulate the gene expression of renal L-FABP and increase the excretion of L-FABP derived from the proximal tubules into urine. In clinical studies of chronic kidney disease (CKD), urinary L-FABP accurately reflected the degree of tubulointerstitial damage and correlated with the rate of CKD progression. Furthermore, a multicenter trial has shown that urinary L-FABP is more sensitive than urinary protein in predicting the progression of CKD. With respect to diabetic nephropathy and acute kidney disease (AKI), urinary L-FABP is an early diagnostic of kidney disease or a predictive marker for renal prognosis. After many clinical studies, urinary L-FABP was approved as a new tubular biomarker promulgated by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan.

  1. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-03

    of Keidanren’s U.S. Investment Mission, who is also vice chairman of the Industrial Bank of Japan; Mamoru Sakai, leader of the B Group of...Keidanren’s U.S. Investment Mission, who is also a director of the Japan Long-Term Credit Bank ; Masayoshi Tozaki, leader of the C Group of Keidanren’s U.S...Constitution. At the same time, Federal Reserve Bank Chairman Volcker has repeatedly stressed that maintaining the value of the dollar is essential. In

  2. Fn3 proteins engineered to recognize tumor biomarker mesothelin internalize upon binding

    PubMed Central

    Sirois, Allison R.; Deny, Daniela A.; Baierl, Samantha R.; George, Katia S.

    2018-01-01

    Mesothelin is a cell surface protein that is overexpressed in numerous cancers, including breast, ovarian, lung, liver, and pancreatic tumors. Aberrant expression of mesothelin has been shown to promote tumor progression and metastasis through interaction with established tumor biomarker CA125. Therefore, molecules that specifically bind to mesothelin have potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications. However, no mesothelin-targeting molecules are currently approved for routine clinical use. While antibodies that target mesothelin are in development, some clinical applications may require a targeting molecule with an alternative protein fold. For example, non-antibody proteins are more suitable for molecular imaging and may facilitate diverse chemical conjugation strategies to create drug delivery complexes. In this work, we engineered variants of the fibronectin type III domain (Fn3) non-antibody protein scaffold to bind to mesothelin with high affinity, using directed evolution and yeast surface display. Lead engineered Fn3 variants were solubly produced and purified from bacterial culture at high yield. Upon specific binding to mesothelin on human cancer cell lines, the engineered Fn3 proteins internalized and co-localized to early endosomes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of non-antibody proteins engineered to bind mesothelin. The results validate that non-antibody proteins can be engineered to bind to tumor biomarker mesothelin, and encourage the continued development of engineered variants for applications such as targeted diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:29738555

  3. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five-year... of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

  4. High Internal Phase Pickering Emulsions Stabilized Solely by Peanut Protein Microgel Particles with Multiple Potential Applications.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Bo; Shi, Aimin; Qiang, Wang; Binks, Bernard

    2018-05-30

    High internal phase Pickering emulsions have various applications in materials science. However, the biocompatibility and biodegradability of inorganic or synthetic stabilizers limit their applications. Herein, we describe the high internal phase Pickering emulsions with 87% edible oil or 88% n-hexane in water stabilized by peanut protein isolate microgel particles. These dispersed phase volume fractions reach the highest in all known food-grade Pickering emulsions. The protein based microgel particles are in different aggregate states depends on pH. The emulsions can be utilized for multiple potential applications simply by changing the internal phase composition. A substitute for partially hydrogenated vegetable oils is obtained when the internal phase is an edible oil. If the internal phase is n-hexane, the emulsion can be used as a template to produce porous materials, which can be used in tissue engineering advantageously since the raw materials are natural and non-toxic. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Modification of an apparatus for tumor-suppressor protein crystal growth in the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    Some human diseases as tumors are being studied continuously for the development of vaccines against them. And a way of doing that is by means of proteins research. There are some kinds of proteins, like the p53 and p73 proteins, which are tumor suppressors. There are other diseases such as A.I.D.S., hansenosis, the Parkinson's and Chagas' diseases which are protein-related. The determination of how proteins geometrically order themselves, during its biological functions is very necessary to understand how a protein's structure affects its function, to design vaccines that intercede in tumor-protein activities and in other proteins related to those other diseases. The protein crystal growth in microgravity environment produces purer crystallization than on the ground, and it is a powerful tool to produce better vaccines. Several data have already been acquired using ground-based research and in spaceflight experiments aboard the Spacelab and Space Shuttle missions, and in the MIR and in the International Space Station (ISS). Here in this paper, I propose to be performed in the ISS Biological Research Facility (which is being developed), multiple crystal growth of proteins related to cancer (as tumors suppressors and oncoproteins), A.I.D.S., hansenosis, the Parkinson's and Chagas' diseases, for the future obtaining of possible vaccines against them. I also propose a simple and practical equipment, a modification of the crystallization plates (which use a vapor diffusion technique) inside each cylinder of the Protein Crystallization Apparatus in Microgravity (PCAM), with multiple chambers with different sizes. Instead of using some chambers with the same size it is better to use several chambers with different sizes. Why is that? The answer is: the energy associated with the surface tension of the liquid in the chamber is directly related to the circle area of it. So, to minimize the total energy of the surface tension of a proteins liquid -making it more stable

  6. United States - Japan - European Union probe data.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-01-01

    The U.S., Japan, and Europe have a long history of sharing information on ITS activities. These efforts include both bilateral and trilateral relationships. International coordination is underway in several areas, including: 1. International Standard...

  7. Japan: Tsunami

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off Japan's northeastern coast about 130 kilometers (82 ... inland from the eastern shoreline is visible in the post-earthquake image. The white sand beaches visible in the pre-earthquake view are ...

  8. Conformational relaxation and water penetration coupled to ionization of internal groups in proteins.

    PubMed

    Damjanović, Ana; Brooks, Bernard R; García-Moreno, Bertrand

    2011-04-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to examine the effects of ionization of internal groups on the structures of eighteen variants of staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) with internal Lys, Asp, or Glu. In most cases the RMSD values of internal ionizable side chains were larger when the ionizable moieties were charged than when they were neutral. Calculations of solvent-accessible surface area showed that the internal ionizable side chains were buried in the protein interior when they were neutral and moved toward crevices and toward the protein-water interface when they were charged. The only exceptions are Lys-36, Lys-62, and Lys-103, which remained buried even after charging. With the exception of Lys-38, the number of internal water molecules surrounding the ionizable group increased upon charging: the average number of water oxygen atoms within the first hydration shell increased by 1.7 for Lys residues, by 5.2 for Asp residues, and by 3.2 for Glu residues. The polarity of the microenvironment of the ionizable group also increased when the groups were charged: the average number of polar atoms of any kind within the first hydration shell increased by 2.7 for Lys residues, by 4.8 for Asp residues, and by 4.0 for Glu residues. An unexpected correlation was observed between the absolute value of the shifts in pK(a) values measured experimentally, and several parameters of structural relaxation: the net difference in the polarity of the microenvironment of the charged and neutral forms of the ionizable groups, the net difference in hydration of the charged and neutral forms of the ionizable groups, and the difference in RMSD values of the charged and neutral forms of the ionizable groups. The effects of ionization of internal groups on the conformation of the backbone were noticeable but mostly small and localized to the area immediately next to the internal ionizable moiety. Some variants did exhibit local unfolding.

  9. Psychology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. First results from the PROTEIN experiment on board the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decanniere, Klaas; Potthast, Lothar; Pletser, Vladimir; Maes, Dominique; Otalora, Fermin; Gavira, Jose A.; Pati, Luis David; Lautenschlager, Peter; Bosch, Robert

    On March 15 2009 Space Shuttle Discovery was launched, carrying the Process Unit of the Protein Crystallization Diagnostics Facility (PCDF) to the International Space Station. It contained the PROTEIN experiment, aiming at the in-situ observation of nucleation and crystal growth behaviour of proteins. After installation in the European Drawer Rack (EDR) and connection to the PCDF Electronics Unit, experiment runs were performed continuously for 4 months. It was the first time that protein crystallization experiments could be modified on-orbit in near real-time, based on data received on ground. The data included pseudo-dark field microscope images, interferograms, and Dynamic Light Scattering data. The Process Unit with space grown crystals was returned to ground on July 31 2009. Results for the model protein glucose isomerase (Glucy) from Streptomyces rubiginosus crystallized with ammonium sulfate will be reported concerning nucleation and the growth from Protein and Impurities Depletion Zones (PDZs). In addition, results of x-ray analyses for space-grown crystals will be given.

  11. Oleanane triterpenes with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity from aerial parts of Lantana camara collected in Indonesia and Japan.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Maarisit, Wilmar; Rotinsulu, Henki; Wewengkang, Defny S; Sumilat, Deiske A; Kapojos, Magie M; Losung, Fitje; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2017-12-01

    During the search for new protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B inhibitors, EtOH extracts from the aerial parts of Lantana camara L. (lantana) collected at Manado (Indonesia) and two subtropical islands in Japan (Ishigaki and Iriomote Islands, Okinawa) exhibited potent inhibitory activities against PTP1B in an enzyme assay. Four previously undescribed oleanane triterpenes were isolated together with known triterpenes and flavones from the Indonesian lantana. The EtOH extracts of lantana collected in Ishigaki and Iriomote Islands exhibited different phytochemical profiles from each other and the Indonesian lantana. Triterpenes with a 24-OH group were isolated from the Indonesian lantana only. Five known triterpene compounds were detected in the Ishigaki lantana, and two oleanane triterpenes with an ether linkage between 3β and 25 were the main components together with five known triterpenes as minor components in the Iriomote lantana. The structures of previously undescribed compounds were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Among the compounds obtained in this study, oleanolic acid exhibited the most potent activity against PTP1B, and is used as a positive control in studies on PTP1B. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional annotation by sequence-weighted structure alignments: statistical analysis and case studies from the Protein 3000 structural genomics project in Japan.

    PubMed

    Standley, Daron M; Toh, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Haruki

    2008-09-01

    A method to functionally annotate structural genomics targets, based on a novel structural alignment scoring function, is proposed. In the proposed score, position-specific scoring matrices are used to weight structurally aligned residue pairs to highlight evolutionarily conserved motifs. The functional form of the score is first optimized for discriminating domains belonging to the same Pfam family from domains belonging to different families but the same CATH or SCOP superfamily. In the optimization stage, we consider four standard weighting functions as well as our own, the "maximum substitution probability," and combinations of these functions. The optimized score achieves an area of 0.87 under the receiver-operating characteristic curve with respect to identifying Pfam families within a sequence-unique benchmark set of domain pairs. Confidence measures are then derived from the benchmark distribution of true-positive scores. The alignment method is next applied to the task of functionally annotating 230 query proteins released to the public as part of the Protein 3000 structural genomics project in Japan. Of these queries, 78 were found to align to templates with the same Pfam family as the query or had sequence identities > or = 30%. Another 49 queries were found to match more distantly related templates. Within this group, the template predicted by our method to be the closest functional relative was often not the most structurally similar. Several nontrivial cases are discussed in detail. Finally, 103 queries matched templates at the fold level, but not the family or superfamily level, and remain functionally uncharacterized. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Internal amino acid state modulates yeast taste neurons to support protein homeostasis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Itskov, Pavel M; Baltazar, Célia; Moreira, José-Maria

    2018-01-01

    To optimize fitness, animals must dynamically match food choices to their current needs. For drosophilids, yeast fulfills most dietary protein and micronutrient requirements. While several yeast metabolites activate known gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in Drosophila melanogaster, the chemosensory channels mediating yeast feeding remain unknown. Here we identify a class of proboscis GRNs required for yeast intake. Within this class, taste peg GRNs are specifically required to sustain yeast feeding. Sensillar GRNs, however, mediate feeding initiation. Furthermore, the response of yeast GRNs, but not sweet GRNs, is enhanced following deprivation from amino acids, providing a potential basis for protein-specific appetite. Although nutritional and reproductive states synergistically increase yeast appetite, reproductive state acts independently of nutritional state, modulating processing downstream of GRNs. Together, these results suggest that different internal states act at distinct levels of a dedicated gustatory circuit to elicit nutrient-specific appetites towards a complex, ecologically relevant protein source. PMID:29393045

  14. Comparisons of guardianship laws and surrogate decision-making practices in China, Japan, Thailand and Australia: a review by the Asia Consortium, International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) capacity taskforce.

    PubMed

    Tsoh, Joshua; Peisah, Carmelle; Narumoto, Jin; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; O'Neill, Nick; Jiang, Tao; Ogano, Shoichi; Mimura, Masaru; Kato, Yuka; Chiu, Helen

    2015-06-01

    The International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) capacity taskforce was established to promote the autonomy, proper access to care, and dignity of persons with decision-making disabilities (DMDs) across nations. The Asia Consortium of the taskforce was established to pursue these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. This paper is part of the Asia Consortium's initiative to promote understanding and advocacy in regard to surrogate decision-making across the region. The current guardianship laws are compared, and jurisdictional variations in the processes for proxy decision-making to support persons with DMDs and other health and social needs in China, Japan, Thailand, and Australia are explored. The different Asia-Pacific countries have various proxy decision-making mechanisms in place for persons with DMDs, which are both formalized according to common law, civil law, and other legislation, and shaped by cultural practices. Various processes for guardianship and mechanisms for medical decision-making and asset management exist across the region. Processes that are still evolving across the region include those that facilitate advanced planning as a result of the paucity of legal structures for enduring powers of attorney (EPA) and guardianship in some regions, and the struggle to achieve consensual positions in regard to end-of-life decision-making. Formal processes for supporting decision-making are yet to be developed. The diverse legal approaches to guardianship and administration must be understood to meet the challenges of the rapidly ageing population in the Asia-Pacific region. Commonalities in the solutions and difficulties faced in encountering these challenges have global significance.

  15. A coarse grained protein model with internal degrees of freedom. Application to α-synuclein aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Ioana M.; den Otter, Wouter K.; Briels, Wim J.

    2016-02-01

    Particles in simulations are traditionally endowed with fixed interactions. While this is appropriate for particles representing atoms or molecules, objects with significant internal dynamics—like sequences of amino acids or even an entire protein—are poorly modelled by invariable particles. We develop a highly coarse grained polymorph patchy particle with the ultimate aim of simulating proteins as chains of particles at the secondary structure level. Conformational changes, e.g., a transition between disordered and β-sheet states, are accommodated by internal coordinates that determine the shape and interaction characteristics of the particles. The internal coordinates, as well as the particle positions and orientations, are propagated by Brownian Dynamics in response to their local environment. As an example of the potential offered by polymorph particles, we model the amyloidogenic intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein, involved in Parkinson's disease, as a single particle with two internal states. The simulations yield oligomers of particles in the disordered state and fibrils of particles in the "misfolded" cross-β-sheet state. The aggregation dynamics is complex, as aggregates can form by a direct nucleation-and-growth mechanism and by two-step-nucleation through conversions between the two cluster types. The aggregation dynamics is complex, with fibrils formed by direct nucleation-and-growth, by two-step-nucleation through the conversion of an oligomer and by auto-catalysis of this conversion.

  16. Retrospective epidemiological study of canine epilepsy in Japan using the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force classification 2015 (2003-2013): etiological distribution, risk factors, survival time, and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Yuji; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Mizoguchi, Shunta; Yu, Yoshihiko; Wada, Masae; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Fujiwara-Igarashi, Aki; Fujita, Michio

    2016-11-09

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease in veterinary practice. However, contrary to human medicine, epilepsy classification in veterinary medicine had not been clearly defined until recently. A number of reports on canine epilepsy have been published, reflecting in part updated proposals from the human epilepsy organization, the International League Against Epilepsy. In 2015, the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) published a consensus report on the classification and definition of canine epilepsy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the etiological distribution, survival time of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IdE) and structural epilepsy (StE), and risk factors for survival time, according to the recently published IVETF classification. We investigated canine cases with epilepsy that were referred to our teaching hospital in Japan during the past 10 years, and which encompassed a different breed population from Western countries. A total of 358 dogs with epilepsy satisfied our etiological study criteria. Of these, 172 dogs (48 %) were classified as IdE and 76 dogs (21 %) as StE. Of these dogs, 100 dogs (consisting of 65 with IdE and 35 with StE) were included in our survival study. Median survival time from the initial epileptic seizure in dogs with IdE and StE was 10.4 and 4.5 years, respectively. Median lifespan of dogs with IdE and StE was 13.5 and 10.9 years, respectively. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that risk factors for survival time in IdE were high seizure frequency (≥0.3 seizures/month) and focal epileptic seizures. Focal epileptic seizures were identified as a risk factor for survival time in IdE. Clinicians should carefully differentiate seizure type as it is difficult to identify focal epileptic seizures. With good seizure control, dogs with IdE can survive for nearly the same lifespan as the general dog population. Our results using the IVETF classification are similar to previous

  17. 78 FR 58997 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Japan: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From Japan: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation AGENCY: Import Administration, International... (``AD'') petition concerning imports of chlorinated isocyanurates (``chlorinated isos'') from Japan... Japan, dated August 29, 2013 (``Petition''). \\2\\ See First Supplement to the AD Petition, dated...

  18. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  19. Internal protein motions in molecular-dynamics simulations of Bragg and diffuse X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Wall, Michael E

    2018-03-01

    Molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of Bragg and diffuse X-ray scattering provide a means of obtaining experimentally validated models of protein conformational ensembles. This paper shows that compared with a single periodic unit-cell model, the accuracy of simulating diffuse scattering is increased when the crystal is modeled as a periodic supercell consisting of a 2 × 2 × 2 layout of eight unit cells. The MD simulations capture the general dependence of correlations on the separation of atoms. There is substantial agreement between the simulated Bragg reflections and the crystal structure; there are local deviations, however, indicating both the limitation of using a single structure to model disordered regions of the protein and local deviations of the average structure away from the crystal structure. Although it was anticipated that a simulation of longer duration might be required to achieve maximal agreement of the diffuse scattering calculation with the data using the supercell model, only a microsecond is required, the same as for the unit cell. Rigid protein motions only account for a minority fraction of the variation in atom positions from the simulation. The results indicate that protein crystal dynamics may be dominated by internal motions rather than packing interactions, and that MD simulations can be combined with Bragg and diffuse X-ray scattering to model the protein conformational ensemble.

  20. A Platform for Combined DNA and Protein Microarrays Based on Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Asanov, Alexander; Zepeda, Angélica; Vaca, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel microarray technology based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) in combination with DNA and protein bioassays immobilized at the TIRF surface. Unlike conventional microarrays that exhibit reduced signal-to-background ratio, require several stages of incubation, rinsing and stringency control, and measure only end-point results, our TIRF microarray technology provides several orders of magnitude better signal-to-background ratio, performs analysis rapidly in one step, and measures the entire course of association and dissociation kinetics between target DNA and protein molecules and the bioassays. In many practical cases detection of only DNA or protein markers alone does not provide the necessary accuracy for diagnosing a disease or detecting a pathogen. Here we describe TIRF microarrays that detect DNA and protein markers simultaneously, which reduces the probabilities of false responses. Supersensitive and multiplexed TIRF DNA and protein microarray technology may provide a platform for accurate diagnosis or enhanced research studies. Our TIRF microarray system can be mounted on upright or inverted microscopes or interfaced directly with CCD cameras equipped with a single objective, facilitating the development of portable devices. As proof-of-concept we applied TIRF microarrays for detecting molecular markers from Bacillus anthracis, the pathogen responsible for anthrax. PMID:22438738

  1. Internal protein motions in molecular-dynamics simulations of Bragg and diffuse X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Michael E.

    Molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of Bragg and diffuse X-ray scattering provide a means of obtaining experimentally validated models of protein conformational ensembles. This paper shows that compared with a single periodic unit-cell model, the accuracy of simulating diffuse scattering is increased when the crystal is modeled as a periodic supercell consisting of a 2 × 2 × 2 layout of eight unit cells. The MD simulations capture the general dependence of correlations on the separation of atoms. There is substantial agreement between the simulated Bragg reflections and the crystal structure; there are local deviations, however, indicating both the limitation of using a single structuremore » to model disordered regions of the protein and local deviations of the average structure away from the crystal structure. Although it was anticipated that a simulation of longer duration might be required to achieve maximal agreement of the diffuse scattering calculation with the data using the supercell model, only a microsecond is required, the same as for the unit cell. Rigid protein motions only account for a minority fraction of the variation in atom positions from the simulation. The results indicate that protein crystal dynamics may be dominated by internal motions rather than packing interactions, and that MD simulations can be combined with Bragg and diffuse X-ray scattering to model the protein conformational ensemble.« less

  2. Internal protein motions in molecular-dynamics simulations of Bragg and diffuse X-ray scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Wall, Michael E.

    2018-01-25

    Molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of Bragg and diffuse X-ray scattering provide a means of obtaining experimentally validated models of protein conformational ensembles. This paper shows that compared with a single periodic unit-cell model, the accuracy of simulating diffuse scattering is increased when the crystal is modeled as a periodic supercell consisting of a 2 × 2 × 2 layout of eight unit cells. The MD simulations capture the general dependence of correlations on the separation of atoms. There is substantial agreement between the simulated Bragg reflections and the crystal structure; there are local deviations, however, indicating both the limitation of using a single structuremore » to model disordered regions of the protein and local deviations of the average structure away from the crystal structure. Although it was anticipated that a simulation of longer duration might be required to achieve maximal agreement of the diffuse scattering calculation with the data using the supercell model, only a microsecond is required, the same as for the unit cell. Rigid protein motions only account for a minority fraction of the variation in atom positions from the simulation. The results indicate that protein crystal dynamics may be dominated by internal motions rather than packing interactions, and that MD simulations can be combined with Bragg and diffuse X-ray scattering to model the protein conformational ensemble.« less

  3. Systematic detection of internal symmetry in proteins using CE-Symm.

    PubMed

    Myers-Turnbull, Douglas; Bliven, Spencer E; Rose, Peter W; Aziz, Zaid K; Youkharibache, Philippe; Bourne, Philip E; Prlić, Andreas

    2014-05-29

    Symmetry is an important feature of protein tertiary and quaternary structures that has been associated with protein folding, function, evolution, and stability. Its emergence and ensuing prevalence has been attributed to gene duplications, fusion events, and subsequent evolutionary drift in sequence. This process maintains structural similarity and is further supported by this study. To further investigate the question of how internal symmetry evolved, how symmetry and function are related, and the overall frequency of internal symmetry, we developed an algorithm, CE-Symm, to detect pseudo-symmetry within the tertiary structure of protein chains. Using a large manually curated benchmark of 1007 protein domains, we show that CE-Symm performs significantly better than previous approaches. We use CE-Symm to build a census of symmetry among domain superfamilies in SCOP and note that 18% of all superfamilies are pseudo-symmetric. Our results indicate that more domains are pseudo-symmetric than previously estimated. We establish a number of recurring types of symmetry-function relationships and describe several characteristic cases in detail. With the use of the Enzyme Commission classification, symmetry was found to be enriched in some enzyme classes but depleted in others. CE-Symm thus provides a methodology for a more complete and detailed study of the role of symmetry in tertiary protein structure [availability: CE-Symm can be run from the Web at http://source.rcsb.org/jfatcatserver/symmetry.jsp. Source code and software binaries are also available under the GNU Lesser General Public License (version 2.1) at https://github.com/rcsb/symmetry. An interactive census of domains identified as symmetric by CE-Symm is available from http://source.rcsb.org/jfatcatserver/scopResults.jsp]. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Internalization of G-protein-coupled receptors: Implication in receptor function, physiology and diseases.

    PubMed

    Calebiro, Davide; Godbole, Amod

    2018-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of membrane receptors and mediate the effects of numerous hormones and neurotransmitters. The nearly 1000 GPCRs encoded by the human genome regulate virtually all physiological functions and are implicated in the pathogenesis of prevalent human diseases such as thyroid disorders, hypertension or Parkinson's disease. As a result, 30-50% of all currently prescribed drugs are targeting these receptors. Once activated, GPCRs induce signals at the cell surface. This is often followed by internalization, a process that results in the transfer of receptors from the plasma membrane to membranes of the endosomal compartment. Internalization was initially thought to be mainly implicated in signal desensitization, a mechanism of adaptation to prolonged receptor stimulation. However, several unexpected functions have subsequently emerged. Most notably, accumulating evidence indicates that internalization can induce prolonged receptor signaling on intracellular membranes, which is apparently required for at least some biological effects of hormones like TSH, LH and adrenaline. These findings reveal an even stronger connection between receptor internalization and signaling than previously thought. Whereas new studies are just beginning to reveal an important physiological role for GPCR signaling after internalization and ways to exploit it for therapeutic purposes, future investigations will be required to explore its involvement in human disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of aggregation and protein corona on the cellular internalization of iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Safi, M; Courtois, J; Seigneuret, M; Conjeaud, H; Berret, J-F

    2011-12-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles are essential components in the development of nanotechnologies. For applications in nanomedicine, particles need to be functionalized to ensure a good dispersibility in biological fluids. In many cases however, functionalization is not sufficient: the particles become either coated by a corona of serum proteins or precipitate out of the solvent. In the present paper, we show that by changing the coating of iron oxide nanoparticles from a low-molecular weight ligand (citrate ions) to small carboxylated polymers (poly(acrylic acid)), the colloidal stability of the dispersion is improved and the adsorption/internalization of iron toward living mammalian cells is profoundly affected. Citrate-coated particles are shown to destabilize in all fetal-calf-serum based physiological conditions tested, whereas the polymer coated particles exhibit an outstanding dispersibility as well as a structure devoid of protein corona. The interactions between nanoparticles and human lymphoblastoid cells are investigated by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. Two types of nanoparticle/cell interactions are underlined. Iron oxides are found either adsorbed on the cellular membranes, or internalized into membrane-bound endocytosis compartments. For the precipitating citrate-coated particles, the kinetics of interactions reveal a massive and rapid adsorption of iron oxide on the cell surfaces. The quantification of the partition between adsorbed and internalized iron was performed from the cytometry data. The results highlight the importance of resilient adsorbed nanomaterials at the cytoplasmic membrane. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PREFACE: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on the Theoretical Calculation of ELNES and XANES (TEX2008) (Nagoya, Japan, 2-4 July 2008) Proceedings of the First International Workshop on the Theoretical Calculation of ELNES and XANES (TEX2008) (Nagoya, Japan, 2-4 July 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Isao; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki

    2009-03-01

    -or-less independently by the two communities. The three-day workshop on the Theoretical Calculation of ELNES and XANES (TEX2008) was planned to help remedy this situation. It aimed to demonstrate capability of state-of-the-art theoretical techniques to explain and predict ELNES and XANES spectra, and to allow deep discussion between scientists in the two communities. It also provided an excellent opportunity to introduce experimentalists to the computational techniques available. Invited talks and poster presentations by leading scientists were given on the first day, which was followed by tutorial sessions for five computer programs on the second and third days. Excellent lectures were given by Peter Blaha (Vienna, Austria) on the WIEN2k code, Chris J Pickard (St Andrews, UK) on the CASTEP code, John J Rehr (Seattle, USA) on the FEFF8 code, Frank de Groot (Utrecht, The Netherlands) on the CTM4XAS code, and Hidekazu Ikeno (Kyoto, Japan) on the first-principles CI-multiplet code. Thanks to the enthusiastic participation of more than 100 scientists from around the world, the workshop was a complete success. The aim of this special issue in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is to share with the readers the most up-to-date knowledge presented at the workshop. We believe this will prove useful as a reference for researchers in many different fields, as well as an overview of the current status and future directions of theoretical calculations for ELNES and XANES. TEX2008 was a satellite meeting of the First International Symposium on Advanced Microscopy and Theoretical Calculations (AMTC1) (Nagoya, Japan, 29-30 June 2008), which was held in commemoration of the establishment of the Nanostuctures Research Laboratory (NSRL) at the Japan Fine Ceramics Center (JFCC) and as a daughter event of EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan. A Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas 'Nano Materials Science for Atomic-Scale Modification' from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports and Technology

  7. The Intracellular Destiny of the Protein Corona: A Study on its Cellular Internalization and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Filippo; Garry, David; Monopoli, Marco P; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2016-11-22

    It has been well established that the early stages of nanoparticle-cell interactions are governed, at least in part, by the layer of proteins and other biomolecules adsorbed and slowly exchanged with the surrounding biological media (biomolecular corona). Subsequent to membrane interactions, nanoparticles are typically internalized into the cell and trafficked along defined pathways such as, in many cases, the endolysosomal pathway. Indeed, if the original corona is partially retained on the nanoparticle surface, the biomolecules in this layer may play an important role in determining subsequent cellular processing. In this work, using a combination of organelle separation and fluorescence labeling of the initial extracellular corona, we clarify its intracellular evolution as nanoparticles travel within the cell. We show that specific proteins present in the original protein corona are retained on the nanoparticles until they accumulate in lysosomes, and, once there, they are degraded. We also report on how different bare surfaces (amino and carboxyl modified) affect the details of this evolution. One overarching discovery is that the same serum proteins can exhibit different intracellular processing when carried inside cells by nanoparticles, as components of their corona, compared to what is observed when they are transported freely from the extracellular medium.

  8. The CIRP International Workshop on Concurrent Engineering for Product Realization (1st) Held in Tokyo, Japan on June 27 - 28, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    7075 Dr. Samuel K.M.HO Dept. of Engineering Warwick University Coventry CV 47 AL UK 15 Tel.(44)203 524173 Fax.(44)203 524307 Mr. Mikio Inagaki...Nishi-8, Kita-ku Sapporo 060, JAPAN Tel. +81-11-716-211 ex.6447 Fax. +81-11-758-1619 Mr. Mikio Kitano 16 Motomachi Plant Toyota Moter Corporation 1...Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-01 JAPAN Tel 81-484-65-6641 Fax 81-484-67-5942 Professor Hisayoshi Sato Director, Mechanical Engineering Laboratory

  9. Collagenase-3 binds to a specific receptor and requires the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein for internalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmina, O. Y.; Walling, H. W.; Fiacco, G. J.; Freije, J. M.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously identified a specific receptor for collagenase-3 that mediates the binding, internalization, and degradation of this ligand in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. In the present study, we show that collagenase-3 binding is calcium-dependent and occurs in a variety of cell types, including osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. We also present evidence supporting a two-step mechanism of collagenase-3 binding and internalization involving both a specific collagenase-3 receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Ligand blot analysis shows that (125)I-collagenase-3 binds specifically to two proteins ( approximately 170 kDa and approximately 600 kDa) present in UMR 106-01 cells. Western blotting identified the 600-kDa protein as the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Our data suggest that the 170-kDa protein is a specific collagenase-3 receptor. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-null mouse embryo fibroblasts bind but fail to internalize collagenase-3, whereas UMR 106-01 and wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts bind and internalize collagenase-3. Internalization, but not binding, is inhibited by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein. We conclude that the internalization of collagenase-3 requires the participation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and propose a model in which the cell surface interaction of this ligand requires a sequential contribution from two receptors, with the collagenase-3 receptor acting as a high affinity primary binding site and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediating internalization.

  10. G protein-coupled receptor internalization assays in the high-content screening format.

    PubMed

    Haasen, Dorothea; Schnapp, Andreas; Valler, Martin J; Heilker, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    High-content screening (HCS), a combination of fluorescence microscopic imaging and automated image analysis, has become a frequently applied tool to study test compound effects in cellular disease-modeling systems. This chapter describes the measurement of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization in the HCS format using a high-throughput, confocal cellular imaging device. GPCRs are the most successful group of therapeutic targets on the pharmaceutical market. Accordingly, the search for compounds that interfere with GPCR function in a specific and selective way is a major focus of the pharmaceutical industry today. This chapter describes methods for the ligand-induced internalization of GPCRs labeled previously with either a fluorophore-conjugated ligand or an antibody directed against an N-terminal tag of the GPCR. Both labeling techniques produce robust assay formats. Complementary to other functional GPCR drug discovery assays, internalization assays enable a pharmacological analysis of test compounds. We conclude that GPCR internalization assays represent a valuable medium/high-throughput screening format to determine the cellular activity of GPCR ligands.

  11. An International Comparison of Early Childhood Educators' Understandings and Practices in Education for Sustainability in Japan, Australia, and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Michiko; O'Gorman, Lyndal; Davis, Julie; Ji, Okjong

    2017-01-01

    This research provides a comparative analysis of survey data from practitioners in Japan, Australia, and Korea on their practices for early childhood education for sustainability (ECEfS). These data were previously reported for each specific country. In these analyses, educators' conceptual understandings and pedagogical practices relating to…

  12. A Comparative Study of Academic Staff Teaching Activities between Japan and China: Based on National Surveys in 2011-2012. RIHE International Seminar Reports. No. 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2015-01-01

    A review of recent literature suggests that, although academics in several countries (such as Japan, Korea and Germany) now allocate more of their time to research, service activities and administration than they had in the early 1990s (Teichler, Arimoto, and Cummings, 2013), the majority of university professors still spend the largest proportion…

  13. Internal friction controls the speed of protein folding from a compact configuration.

    PubMed

    Pabit, Suzette A; Roder, Heinrich; Hagen, Stephen J

    2004-10-05

    Several studies have found millisecond protein folding reactions to be controlled by the viscosity of the solvent: Reducing the viscosity allows folding to accelerate. In the limit of very low solvent viscosity, however, one expects a different behavior. Internal interactions, occurring within the solvent-excluded interior of a compact molecule, should impose a solvent-independent upper limit to folding speed once the bulk diffusional motions become sufficiently rapid. Why has this not been observed? We have studied the effect of solvent viscosity on the folding of cytochrome c from a highly compact, late-stage intermediate configuration. Although the folding rate accelerates as the viscosity declines, it tends toward a finite limiting value approximately 10(5) s(-1) as the viscosity tends toward zero. This limiting rate is independent of the cosolutes used to adjust solvent friction. Therefore, interactions within the interior of a compact denatured polypeptide can limit the folding rate, but the limiting time scale is very fast. It is only observable when the solvent-controlled stages of folding are exceedingly rapid or else absent. Interestingly, we find a very strong temperature dependence in these "internal friction"-controlled dynamics, indicating a large energy scale for the interactions that govern reconfiguration within compact, near-native states of a protein.

  14. International Symposium on Disarmament Education: A Report. Proceedings from a World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession and Japan Teachers Union Symposium (Hiroshima, Japan, October 25-29, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Teachers Union, Tokyo.

    Proceedings from an international symposium devoted to the cause of disarmament education are presented. Representatives from international and national teacher organizations together with scholars and researchers from 35 countries and all continents attended. The symposium focused on the idea that teachers have a special responsibility to work…

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Protein Translocations by Microfluidic Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Fei, Bei; Geahlen, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Protein translocation, or the change in a protein’s location between different subcellular compartments, is a critical process by which intracellular proteins carry out their cellular functions. Aberrant translocation events contribute to various diseases ranging from metabolic disorders to cancer. In this study, we demonstrate the use of a newly developed single-cell tool, microfluidic total internal reflection fluorescence flow cytometry (TIRF-FC), for detecting both cytosol to plasma membrane and cytosol to nucleus translocations using the tyrosine kinase Syk and the transcription factor NF-κB as models. This technique detects fluorescent molecules at the plasma membrane and in the membrane-proximal cytosol in single cells. We were able to record quantitatively changes in the fluorescence density in the evanescent field associated with these translocation processes for large cell populations with single cell resolution. We envision that TIRF-FC will provide a new approach to explore the molecular biology and clinical relevance of protein translocations. PMID:20820633

  16. An internal thioester in a pathogen surface protein mediates covalent host binding

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Miriam; Edwards, John M; Dziewulska, Aleksandra M; Bergmann, Rene; Saalbach, Gerhard; Kan, Su-Yin; Miller, Ona K; Weckener, Miriam; Jackson, Rosemary J; Shirran, Sally L; Botting, Catherine H; Florence, Gordon J; Rohde, Manfred; Banfield, Mark J; Schwarz-Linek, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    To cause disease and persist in a host, pathogenic and commensal microbes must adhere to tissues. Colonization and infection depend on specific molecular interactions at the host-microbe interface that involve microbial surface proteins, or adhesins. To date, adhesins are only known to bind to host receptors non-covalently. Here we show that the streptococcal surface protein SfbI mediates covalent interaction with the host protein fibrinogen using an unusual internal thioester bond as a ‘chemical harpoon’. This cross-linking reaction allows bacterial attachment to fibrin and SfbI binding to human cells in a model of inflammation. Thioester-containing domains are unexpectedly prevalent in Gram-positive bacteria, including many clinically relevant pathogens. Our findings support bacterial-encoded covalent binding as a new molecular principle in host-microbe interactions. This represents an as yet unexploited target to treat bacterial infection and may also offer novel opportunities for engineering beneficial interactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06638.001 PMID:26032562

  17. [Classification of Histopathological Findings in the Liver Cited in the Pesticides Risk Assessment Reports Published by the Food Safety Commission of Japan and Thesaurus Construction Based on the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic (INHAND) Criteria].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Umemura, Takashi; Yoshida, Midori

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological findings are important to the understanding of toxicity profiles of pesticides. The liver is often a target organ of chemicals. In the present study, histopathological findings in the liver cited in the pesticides risk assessment reports published by the Food Safety Commission of Japan were classified. The histopathological findings were obtained in repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity studies of mice, rats and dogs and carcinogenicity studies of rodents. After the classification, a thesaurus was constructed based on the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic (INHAND) Criteria. We recommend the use of INHAND criteria in risk assessment reports to improve mutual understanding between applicants and risk assessors.

  18. Mechanistic modeling of the loss of protein sieving due to internal and external fouling of microfilters.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Glen R; Apostolidis, Alex J

    2017-09-01

    Fed-batch and perfusion cell culture processes used to produce therapeutic proteins can use microfilters for product harvest. In this study, new explicit mathematical models of sieving loss due to internal membrane fouling, external membrane fouling, or a combination of the two were generated. The models accounted for membrane and cake structures and hindered solute transport. Internal membrane fouling was assumed to occur due to the accumulation of foulant on either membrane pore walls (pore-retention model) or membrane fibers (fiber-retention model). External cake fouling was assumed to occur either by the growth of a single incompressible cake layer (cake-growth) or by the accumulation of a number of independent cake layers (cake-series). The pore-retention model was combined with either the cake-series or cake-growth models to obtain models that describe internal and external fouling occurring either simultaneously or sequentially. The models were tested using well-documented sieving decline data available in the literature. The sequential pore-retention followed by cake-growth model provided a good fit of sieving decline data during beer microfiltration. The cake-series and cake-growth models provided good fits of sieving decline data during the microfiltration of a perfusion cell culture. The new models provide insights into the mechanisms of fouling that result in the loss of product sieving. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1323-1333, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Probing the contribution of internal cavities to the volume change of protein unfolding under pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Frye, K. J.; Royer, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The structural origin of the decrease in system volume upon protein denaturation by pressure has remained a puzzle for decades. This negative volume change upon unfolding is assumed to arise globally from more intimate interactions between the polypeptide chain and water, including electrostriction of buried charges that become exposed upon unfolding, hydration of the polypeptide backbone and amino acid side chains and elimination of packing defects and internal void volumes upon unfolding of the chain. However, the relative signs and magnitudes of each of these contributing factors have not been experimentally determined. Our laboratory has probed the fundamental basis for the volume change upon unfolding of staphylococcal nuclease (Snase) using variable solution conditions and point mutants of Snase (Royer CA et al., 1993, Biochemistry 32:5222-5232; Frye KJ et al., 1996, Biochemistry 35:10234-10239). Our prior results indicate that for Snase, neither electrostriction nor polar or nonpolar hydration contributes significantly to the value of the volume change of unfolding. In the present work, we investigate the pressure induced unfolding of three point mutants of Snase in which internal cavity size is altered. The experimentally determined volume changes of unfolding for the mutants suggest that loss of internal void volume upon unfolding represents the major contributing factor to the value of the volume change of Snase unfolding. PMID:9792110

  20. Localizing internal friction along the reaction coordinate of protein folding by combining ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Borgia, Alessandro; Wensley, Beth G.; Soranno, Andrea; Nettels, Daniel; Borgia, Madeleine B.; Hoffmann, Armin; Pfeil, Shawn H.; Lipman, Everett A.; Clarke, Jane; Schuler, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Theory, simulations and experimental results have suggested an important role of internal friction in the kinetics of protein folding. Recent experiments on spectrin domains provided the first evidence for a pronounced contribution of internal friction in proteins that fold on the millisecond timescale. However, it has remained unclear how this contribution is distributed along the reaction and what influence it has on the folding dynamics. Here we use a combination of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, nanosecond fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, microfluidic mixing and denaturant- and viscosity-dependent protein-folding kinetics to probe internal friction in the unfolded state and at the early and late transition states of slow- and fast-folding spectrin domains. We find that the internal friction affecting the folding rates of spectrin domains is highly localized to the early transition state, suggesting an important role of rather specific interactions in the rate-limiting conformational changes. PMID:23149740

  1. Localizing internal friction along the reaction coordinate of protein folding by combining ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Borgia, Alessandro; Wensley, Beth G; Soranno, Andrea; Nettels, Daniel; Borgia, Madeleine B; Hoffmann, Armin; Pfeil, Shawn H; Lipman, Everett A; Clarke, Jane; Schuler, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Theory, simulations and experimental results have suggested an important role of internal friction in the kinetics of protein folding. Recent experiments on spectrin domains provided the first evidence for a pronounced contribution of internal friction in proteins that fold on the millisecond timescale. However, it has remained unclear how this contribution is distributed along the reaction and what influence it has on the folding dynamics. Here we use a combination of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, nanosecond fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, microfluidic mixing and denaturant- and viscosity-dependent protein-folding kinetics to probe internal friction in the unfolded state and at the early and late transition states of slow- and fast-folding spectrin domains. We find that the internal friction affecting the folding rates of spectrin domains is highly localized to the early transition state, suggesting an important role of rather specific interactions in the rate-limiting conformational changes.

  2. An intein with genetically selectable markers provides a new approach to internally label proteins with GFP.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Richard; Arms, Luther; Davis, Trisha N; Muller, Eric G D

    2011-06-27

    Inteins are proteins that catalyze their own removal from within larger precursor proteins. In the process they splice the flanking protein sequences, termed the N-and C-terminal exteins. Large inteins frequently have a homing endonuclease that is involved in maintaining the intein in the host. Splicing and nuclease activity are independent and distinct domains in the folded structure. We show here that other biochemical activities can be incorporated into an intein in place of the endonuclease without affecting splicing and that these activities can provide genetic selection for the intein. We have coupled such a genetically marked intein with GFP as the N-terminal extein to create a cassette to introduce GFP within the interior of a targeted protein. The Pch PRP8 mini-intein of Penicillium chrysogenum was modified to include: 1) aminoglycoside phosphotransferase; 2) imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase, His5 from S. pombe ; 3) hygromycin B phosphotransferase; and 4) the transcriptional activator LexA-VP16. The proteins were inserted at the site of the lost endonuclease. When expressed in E. coli, all of the modified inteins spliced at high efficiency. Splicing efficiency was also greater than 96% when expressed from a plasmid in S. cerevisiae. In addition the inteins conferred either G418 or hygromycin resistance, or histidine or leucine prototropy, depending on the inserted marker and the yeast genetic background. DNA encoding the marked inteins coupled to GFP as the N-terminal extein was PCR amplified with ends homologous to an internal site in the yeast calmodulin gene CMD1. The DNA was transformed into yeast and integrants obtained by direct selection for the intein's marker. The His5-marked intein yielded a fully functional calmodulin that was tagged with GFP within its central linker. Inteins continue to show their flexibility as tools in molecular biology. The Pch PRP8 intein can successfully tolerate a variety of genetic markers and still retain high

  3. Testing the Nuclear Will of Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    particularly the United States. This was significant because a soured economic relationship would undoubtedly affect the U.S.-Japan security...around the world, has sometimes soured its image as a serious international player.136 This is because many of the world’s great powers have extended...for International Exchange, 2005. Beer , Lawrence W. “Japan Turning the Corner.” Asian Survey 11, no. 1 (January 1971): 74 – 85. Bueno de Mesquita

  4. Internal jugular vein thrombosis associated with venous hypoplasia and protein S deficiency revealed by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung Gun; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Heezoo; Lim, Sang Ho; Lee, Mi Kyoung

    2011-12-01

    A 41-year-old woman, who had no thrombotic risk factors and past history except congenital scoliosis, underwent central venous catheterization (CVC) before correction of the scoliosis. When internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization using the anatomical landmark technique failed, CVC under ultrasound guidance was tried. As a consequence, thrombosis and hypoplasia of the right IJV were incidentally detected by ultrasonography. Central venous catheters were then successfully placed in other veins under ultrasound guidance. Also, after examinations to rule out the possibility of pulmonary embolism and to clarify the causes of the IJV thrombosis, the patient was found to have protein S deficiency. CVC under ultrasound guidance should be recommended to prevent the failure of cannulation and complications such as thromboembolism in patients who could possibly have anomalies of vessels as a result of anatomical deformities caused by severe scoliosis, even if patients do not have thrombotic risk factors such as a history of central catheter insertion or intravenous drug abuse, cancer, advanced age, cerebral infarction, and left ventricular dysfunction. Also, if venous thrombosis is found in patients without predisposing risk factors, one should ascertain the cause of the hypercoagulable state, for example protein S deficiency, and perform appropriate treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism.

  5. Imaging of persistent cAMP signaling by internalized G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Calebiro, Davide; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Lohse, Martin J

    2010-07-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of plasma membrane receptors. They mediate the effects of several endogenous cues and serve as important pharmacological targets. Although many biochemical events involved in GPCR signaling have been characterized in great detail, little is known about their spatiotemporal dynamics in living cells. The recent advent of optical methods based on fluorescent resonance energy transfer allows, for the first time, to directly monitor GPCR signaling in living cells. Utilizing these methods, it has been recently possible to show that the receptors for two protein/peptide hormones, the TSH and the parathyroid hormone, continue signaling to cAMP after their internalization into endosomes. This type of intracellular signaling is persistent and apparently triggers specific cellular outcomes. Here, we review these recent data and explain the optical methods used for such studies. Based on these findings, we propose a revision of the current model of the GPCR-cAMP signaling pathway to accommodate receptor signaling at endosomes.

  6. Manipulation of a DNA aptamer-protein binding site through arylation of internal guanine residues.

    PubMed

    Van Riesen, Abigail J; Fadock, Kaila L; Deore, Prashant S; Desoky, Ahmed; Manderville, Richard A; Sowlati-Hashjin, Shahin; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2018-05-23

    Chemically modified aptamers have the opportunity to increase aptamer target binding affinity and provide structure-activity relationships to enhance our understanding of molecular target recognition by the aptamer fold. In the current study, 8-aryl-2'-deoxyguanosine nucleobases have been inserted into the G-tetrad and central TGT loop of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) to determine their impact on antiparallel G-quadruplex (GQ) folding and thrombin binding affinity. The aryl groups attached to the dG nucleobase vary greatly in aryl ring size and impact on GQ stability (∼20 °C change in GQ thermal melting (Tm) values) and thrombin binding affinity (17-fold variation in dissociation constant (Kd)). At G8 of the central TGT loop that is distal from the aptamer recognition site, the probes producing the most stable GQ structure exhibited the strongest thrombin binding affinity. However, within the G-tetrad, changes to the electron density of the dG component within the modified nucleobase can diminish thrombin binding affinity. Detailed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the modified TBA (mTBA) and mTBA-protein complexes demonstrate how the internal 8-aryl-dG modification can manipulate the interactions between the DNA nucleobases and the amino acid residues of thrombin. These results highlight the potential of internal fluorescent nuclobase analogs (FBAs) to broaden design options for aptasensor development.

  7. Internal Proteins of the Procapsid and Mature Capsids of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Mapped by Bubblegram Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weimin; Newcomb, William W.; Cheng, Naiqian; Aksyuk, Anastasia; Winkler, Dennis C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) capsid is a huge assembly, ∼1,250 Å in diameter, and is composed of thousands of protein subunits with a combined mass of ∼200 MDa, housing a 100-MDa genome. First, a procapsid is formed through coassembly of the surface shell with an inner scaffolding shell; then the procapsid matures via a major structural transformation, triggered by limited proteolysis of the scaffolding proteins. Three mature capsids are found in the nuclei of infected cells. A capsids are empty, B capsids retain a shrunken scaffolding shell, and C capsids—which develop into infectious virions—are filled with DNA and ostensibly have expelled the scaffolding shell. The possible presence of other internal proteins in C capsids has been moot as, in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), they would be camouflaged by the surrounding DNA. We have used bubblegram imaging to map internal proteins in all four capsids, aided by the discovery that the scaffolding protein is exceptionally prone to radiation-induced bubbling. We confirmed that this protein forms thick-walled inner shells in the procapsid and the B capsid. C capsids generate two classes of bubbles: one occupies positions beneath the vertices of the icosahedral surface shell, and the other is distributed throughout its interior. A likely candidate is the viral protease. A subpopulation of C capsids bubbles particularly profusely and may represent particles in which expulsion of scaffold and DNA packaging are incomplete. Based on the procapsid structure, we propose that the axial channels of hexameric capsomers afford the pathway via which the scaffolding protein is expelled. IMPORTANCE In addition to DNA, capsids of tailed bacteriophages and their distant relatives, herpesviruses, contain internal proteins. These proteins are often essential for infectivity but are difficult to locate within the virion. A novel adaptation of cryo-EM based on detecting gas bubbles generated by radiation

  8. First Protein Crystallization Experiments on The International Space Station: Sweet Success in Space With Thaumatin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Barnes, Cindy L.; Snell, Eddie H.; Achari, Aniruddha; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We determined the room temperature 1.2 A structure of thaumatin using a crystal grown in the first protein crystallization experiment conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The crystals were grown in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN) developed by Alexander McPherson and co-workers. EGN transports frozen solutions contained in tygon tubing in a liquid nitrogen Dewar to ISS where the tubes then thaw. Batch, free interface diffusion (FID), or vapor diffusion crystallization occurs after thawing. EGN was flown to the ISS on STS-106 on September 8, 2000. This was a "risk mitigation" flight that tested EGN performance and the process of conducting experiments on ISS. We focused on how to map a hanging drop crystallization recipe to the EGN FID method. Thaumatin was chosen as the test system. Three series of crystallization recipes were set-up. Each series tested different volume ratios of protein-rich solution to precipitant-rich solution. The series differed from each other by fixing either the protein concentration or the amount of protein in the solutions. Upon return of the samples to Earth on October 24 by STS-92, bubbles that spanned the diameter of the tubing were observed in all tubes. Such bubbles interrupt liquid-liquid diffusion and force vapor diffusion equilibration to occur instead. Nonetheless, crystals grew in 9 of 30 tubes. Many large crystals were grown, the largest being 2.0 x 1.1 x 1.0 cubic mm. The largest crystal was used to collect data at room temperature on beamline 7-1 of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Source to a maximum resolution of 1.2 A. The structure was refined anisotropically using SHELX with a data to parameter ratio of 4.5 to give an R(sub factor) of 15.8% (R(sub free) = 18.2%) for ail reflections without generated hydrogens. This refinement is proceeding. Comparisons of this 1.2 A microgravity structure to previous reports of the thaumatin structure at 1.75 A and to ground control crystals will be

  9. Internalization of flax rust avirulence proteins into flax and tobacco cells can occur in the absence of the pathogen.

    PubMed

    Rafiqi, Maryam; Gan, Pamela H P; Ravensdale, Michael; Lawrence, Gregory J; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Jones, David A; Hardham, Adrienne R; Dodds, Peter N

    2010-06-01

    Translocation of pathogen effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm is a key determinant for the pathogenicity of many bacterial and oomycete plant pathogens. A number of secreted fungal avirulence (Avr) proteins are also inferred to be delivered into host cells, based on their intracellular recognition by host resistance proteins, including those of flax rust (Melampsora lini). Here, we show by immunolocalization that the flax rust AvrM protein is secreted from haustoria during infection and accumulates in the haustorial wall. Five days after inoculation, the AvrM protein was also detected within the cytoplasm of a proportion of plant cells containing haustoria, confirming its delivery into host cells during infection. Transient expression of secreted AvrL567 and AvrM proteins fused to cerulean fluorescent protein in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and flax cells resulted in intracellular accumulation of the fusion proteins. The rust Avr protein signal peptides were functional in plants and efficiently directed fused cerulean into the secretory pathway. Thus, these secreted effectors are internalized into the plant cell cytosol in the absence of the pathogen, suggesting that they do not require a pathogen-encoded transport mechanism. Uptake of these proteins is dependent on signals in their N-terminal regions, but the primary sequence features of these uptake regions are not conserved between different rust effectors.

  10. Inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and forced internalization of TRAIL receptor 1 by adenovirus proteins.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, A E; Toth, K; Doronin, K; Kuppuswamy, M; Doronina, O A; Lichtenstein, D L; Hermiston, T W; Smith, C A; Wold, W S

    2001-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through two receptors, TRAIL-R1 (also known as death receptor 4) and TRAIL-R2 (also known as death receptor 5), that are members of the TNF receptor superfamily of death domain-containing receptors. We show that human adenovirus type 5 encodes three proteins, named RID (previously named E3-10.4K/14.5K), E3-14.7K, and E1B-19K, that independently inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis of infected human cells. This conclusion was derived from studies using wild-type adenovirus, adenovirus replication-competent mutants that lack one or more of the RID, E3-14.7K, and E1B-19K genes, and adenovirus E1-minus replication-defective vectors that express all E3 genes, RID plus E3-14.7K only, RID only, or E3-14.7K only. RID inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis when cells are sensitized to TRAIL either by adenovirus infection or treatment with cycloheximide. RID induces the internalization of TRAIL-R1 from the cell surface, as shown by flow cytometry and indirect immunofluorescence for TRAIL-R1. TRAIL-R1 was internalized in distinct vesicles which are very likely to be endosomes and lysosomes. TRAIL-R1 is degraded, as indicated by the disappearance of the TRAIL-R1 immunofluorescence signal. Degradation was inhibited by bafilomycin A1, a drug that prevents acidification of vesicles and the sorting of receptors from late endosomes to lysosomes, implying that degradation occurs in lysosomes. RID was also shown previously to internalize and degrade another death domain receptor, Fas, and to prevent apoptosis through Fas and the TNF receptor. RID was shown previously to force the internalization and degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. E1B-19K was shown previously to block apoptosis through Fas, and both E1B-19K and E3-14.7K were found to prevent apoptosis through the TNF receptor. These findings suggest that the receptors for TRAIL, Fas ligand, and TNF play a role in limiting virus

  11. Inhibition of TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis and Forced Internalization of TRAIL Receptor 1 by Adenovirus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tollefson, Ann E.; Toth, Karoly; Doronin, Konstantin; Kuppuswamy, Mohan; Doronina, Oksana A.; Lichtenstein, Drew L.; Hermiston, Terry W.; Smith, Craig A.; Wold, William S. M.

    2001-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through two receptors, TRAIL-R1 (also known as death receptor 4) and TRAIL-R2 (also known as death receptor 5), that are members of the TNF receptor superfamily of death domain-containing receptors. We show that human adenovirus type 5 encodes three proteins, named RID (previously named E3-10.4K/14.5K), E3-14.7K, and E1B-19K, that independently inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis of infected human cells. This conclusion was derived from studies using wild-type adenovirus, adenovirus replication-competent mutants that lack one or more of the RID, E3-14.7K, and E1B-19K genes, and adenovirus E1-minus replication-defective vectors that express all E3 genes, RID plus E3-14.7K only, RID only, or E3-14.7K only. RID inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis when cells are sensitized to TRAIL either by adenovirus infection or treatment with cycloheximide. RID induces the internalization of TRAIL-R1 from the cell surface, as shown by flow cytometry and indirect immunofluorescence for TRAIL-R1. TRAIL-R1 was internalized in distinct vesicles which are very likely to be endosomes and lysosomes. TRAIL-R1 is degraded, as indicated by the disappearance of the TRAIL-R1 immunofluorescence signal. Degradation was inhibited by bafilomycin A1, a drug that prevents acidification of vesicles and the sorting of receptors from late endosomes to lysosomes, implying that degradation occurs in lysosomes. RID was also shown previously to internalize and degrade another death domain receptor, Fas, and to prevent apoptosis through Fas and the TNF receptor. RID was shown previously to force the internalization and degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. E1B-19K was shown previously to block apoptosis through Fas, and both E1B-19K and E3-14.7K were found to prevent apoptosis through the TNF receptor. These findings suggest that the receptors for TRAIL, Fas ligand, and TNF play a role in limiting virus

  12. International study on antidepressant prescription pattern at 20 teaching hospitals and major psychiatric institutions in East Asia: Analysis of 1898 cases from China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoki; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Tan, Chay Hoon; Nagai, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Mariko; Lee, Min-Soo; Fujii, Senta; Yang, Shu-Yu; Si, Tainmei; Sim, Kang; Wei, Hao; Ling, He Yan; Nishimura, Ryoji; Kawaguchi, Yoshichika; Edwards, Glen; Sartorius, Norman; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to review the prescription patterns of antidepressants in different countries in East Asia. The survey was conducted in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan from October 2003 to March 2004 using the unified research protocol and questionnaire. Twenty teaching hospitals and major psychiatric hospitals participated and a total of 1898 patients receiving antidepressants were analyzed. The survey provided a number of interesting characteristics on the prescription patterns of antidepressant in East Asia. Out of 56 antidepressants listed in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) index by the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Drug Statistics Methodology (Oslo), only 26 antidepressants were prescribed in participating countries in East Asia. On average 38.4% of prescriptions of antidepressants were for patients with diagnoses other than depressive disorders. The availability and commonly prescribed antidepressants varied greatly by country. The selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) and other newer antidepressants were prescribed in approximately 77.0% of all cases. At the time of the survey, only two SSRI medications were available in Japan. However, five types of SSRI were available and were often prescribed in Korea.

  13. Amyloid fibril proteins and amyloidosis: chemical identification and clinical classification International Society of Amyloidosis 2016 Nomenclature Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Sipe, Jean D; Benson, Merrill D; Buxbaum, Joel N; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Merlini, Giampaolo; Saraiva, Maria J M; Westermark, Per

    2016-12-01

    The Nomenclature Committee of the International Society of Amyloidosis (ISA) met during the XVth Symposium of the Society, 3 July-7 July 2016, Uppsala, Sweden, to assess and formulate recommendations for nomenclature for amyloid fibril proteins and the clinical classification of the amyloidoses. An amyloid fibril must exhibit affinity for Congo red and with green, yellow or orange birefringence when the Congo red-stained deposits are viewed with polarized light. While congophilia and birefringence remain the gold standard for demonstration of amyloid deposits, new staining and imaging techniques are proving useful. To be included in the nomenclature list, in addition to congophilia and birefringence, the chemical identity of the protein must be unambiguously characterized by protein sequence analysis when possible. In general, it is insufficient to identify a mutation in the gene of a candidate amyloid protein without confirming the variant changes in the amyloid fibril protein. Each distinct form of amyloidosis is uniquely characterized by the chemical identity of the amyloid fibril protein that deposits in the extracellular spaces of tissues and organs and gives rise to the disease syndrome. The fibril proteins are designated as protein A followed by a suffix that is an abbreviation of the parent or precursor protein name. To date, there are 36 known extracellular fibril proteins in humans, 2 of which are iatrogenic in nature and 9 of which have also been identified in animals. Two newly recognized fibril proteins, AApoCII derived from apolipoprotein CII and AApoCIII derived from apolipoprotein CIII, have been added. AApoCII amyloidosis and AApoCIII amyloidosis are hereditary systemic amyloidoses. Intracellular protein inclusions displaying some of the properties of amyloid, "intracellular amyloid" have been reported. Two proteins which were previously characterized as intracellular inclusions, tau and α-synuclein, are now recognized to form extracellular

  14. Integrated view of internal friction in unfolded proteins from single-molecule FRET, contact quenching, theory, and simulations

    PubMed Central

    Soranno, Andrea; Holla, Andrea; Dingfelder, Fabian; Nettels, Daniel; Makarov, Dmitrii E.; Schuler, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Internal friction is an important contribution to protein dynamics at all stages along the folding reaction. Even in unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins, internal friction has a large influence, as demonstrated with several experimental techniques and in simulations. However, these methods probe different facets of internal friction and have been applied to disparate molecular systems, raising questions regarding the compatibility of the results. To obtain an integrated view, we apply here the combination of two complementary experimental techniques, simulations, and theory to the same system: unfolded protein L. We use single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure the global reconfiguration dynamics of the chain, and photoinduced electron transfer (PET), a contact-based method, to quantify the rate of loop formation between two residues. This combination enables us to probe unfolded-state dynamics on different length scales, corresponding to different parts of the intramolecular distance distribution. Both FRET and PET measurements show that internal friction dominates unfolded-state dynamics at low denaturant concentration, and the results are in remarkable agreement with recent large-scale molecular dynamics simulations using a new water model. The simulations indicate that intrachain interactions and dihedral angle rotation correlate with the presence of internal friction, and theoretical models of polymer dynamics provide a framework for interrelating the contribution of internal friction observed in the two types of experiments and in the simulations. The combined results thus provide a coherent and quantitative picture of internal friction in unfolded proteins that could not be attained from the individual techniques. PMID:28223518

  15. Integrated view of internal friction in unfolded proteins from single-molecule FRET, contact quenching, theory, and simulations.

    PubMed

    Soranno, Andrea; Holla, Andrea; Dingfelder, Fabian; Nettels, Daniel; Makarov, Dmitrii E; Schuler, Benjamin

    2017-03-07

    Internal friction is an important contribution to protein dynamics at all stages along the folding reaction. Even in unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins, internal friction has a large influence, as demonstrated with several experimental techniques and in simulations. However, these methods probe different facets of internal friction and have been applied to disparate molecular systems, raising questions regarding the compatibility of the results. To obtain an integrated view, we apply here the combination of two complementary experimental techniques, simulations, and theory to the same system: unfolded protein L. We use single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure the global reconfiguration dynamics of the chain, and photoinduced electron transfer (PET), a contact-based method, to quantify the rate of loop formation between two residues. This combination enables us to probe unfolded-state dynamics on different length scales, corresponding to different parts of the intramolecular distance distribution. Both FRET and PET measurements show that internal friction dominates unfolded-state dynamics at low denaturant concentration, and the results are in remarkable agreement with recent large-scale molecular dynamics simulations using a new water model. The simulations indicate that intrachain interactions and dihedral angle rotation correlate with the presence of internal friction, and theoretical models of polymer dynamics provide a framework for interrelating the contribution of internal friction observed in the two types of experiments and in the simulations. The combined results thus provide a coherent and quantitative picture of internal friction in unfolded proteins that could not be attained from the individual techniques.

  16. Current and future methods for evaluating the allergenic potential of proteins: international workshop report 23-25 October 2007.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karluss; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Ladics, Gregory; McClain, Scott; MacIntosh, Susan; Privalle, Laura; Woolhiser, Mike

    2008-09-01

    The International Life Science Institute's Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee hosted an international workshop October 23-25, 2007, in Nice, France, to review and discuss existing and emerging methods and techniques for improving the current weight-of-evidence approach for evaluating the potential allergenicity of novel proteins. The workshop included over 40 international experts from government, industry, and academia. Their expertise represented a range of disciplines including immunology, chemistry, molecular biology, bioinformatics, and toxicology. Among participants, there was consensus that (1) current bioinformatic approaches are highly conservative; (2) advances in bioinformatics using structural comparisons of proteins may be helpful as the availability of structural data increases; (3) proteomics may prove useful for monitoring the natural variability in a plant's proteome and assessing the impact of biotechnology transformations on endogenous levels of allergens, but only when analytical techniques have been standardized and additional data are available on the natural variation of protein expression in non-transgenic bred plants; (4) basophil response assays are promising techniques, but need additional evaluation around specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility; (5) additional research is required to develop and validate an animal model for the purpose of predicting protein allergenicity.

  17. The internal head protein Gp16 controls DNA ejection from the bacteriophage T7 virion.

    PubMed

    Struthers-Schlinke, J S; Robins, W P; Kemp, P; Molineux, I J

    2000-08-04

    A wild-type T7 virion ejects about 850 bp of the 40 kb genome into the bacterial cell by a transcription-independent process. Internalization of the remainder of the genome normally requires transcription. Inhibition of transcription-independent DNA translocation beyond the leading 850 bp is not absolute but the time taken by a population of phage genomes in overcoming the block averages about 20 minutes at 30 degrees C. There are additional blocks to transcription-independent translocation and less than 20 % of infecting DNA molecules completely penetrate the cell cytoplasm after four hours of infection. Mutant virions containing an altered gene 16 protein either prevent the blocks to transcription-independent DNA translocation or effect rapid release from blocking sites and allow the entire phage DNA molecule to enter the cell at a constant rate of about 75 bp per second. This rate is likely the same at which the leading 850 bp is ejected into the cell from a wild-type virion. All mutations fall into two clusters contained within 380 bp of the 4 kb gene 16, suggesting that a 127 residue segment of gp16 controls DNA ejection from the phage particle. We suggest that this segment of gp16 acts as a clamp to prevent transcription-independent DNA translocation. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. Women in Development: Towards Global Networking. Extract from the Proceedings of the International Forum on Intercultual Exchange (Saitama, Japan), October 29-30, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    The Japanese National Women's Education Centre (NWEC) held its International Forum on Intercultural Exchange to undertake a broad exchange of information on socioeconomic development, focusing on the present condition of women and their roles, and to conduct detailed discussions of international cooperation with regard to women's solidarity on a…

  19. An unusual internal ribosomal entry site of inverted symmetry directs expression of a potato leafroll polerovirus replication-associated protein

    PubMed Central

    Jaag, Hannah Miriam; Kawchuk, Lawrence; Rohde, Wolfgang; Fischer, Rainer; Emans, Neil; Prüfer, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    Potato leafroll polerovirus (PLRV) genomic RNA acts as a polycistronic mRNA for the production of proteins P0, P1, and P2 translated from the 5′-proximal half of the genome. Within the P1 coding region we identified a 5-kDa replication-associated protein 1 (Rap1) essential for viral multiplication. An internal ribosome entry site (IRES) with unusual structure and location was identified that regulates Rap1 translation. Core structural elements for internal ribosome entry include a conserved AUG codon and a downstream GGAGAGAGAGG motif with inverted symmetry. Reporter gene expression in potato protoplasts confirmed the internal ribosome entry function. Unlike known IRES motifs, the PLRV IRES is located completely within the coding region of Rap1 at the center of the PLRV genome. PMID:12835413

  20. Oil, Japan, and globalization

    SciTech Connect

    Bina, C.

    Today, the globalization of the international economy is nowhere as evident and complete as in the oil industry. Indeed, the production, distribution, and pricing of oil have already been infused into a transnational network of interconnected, transparent, and competitive markets. This sort of market arrangement, unlike its previous cartelized counterpart, rests upon a highly globalized economic framework whose very existence discourages a need for Western military intervention for the sake of oil. Returning to the bygone era, and judging the oil business accordingly, would create an impression that nothing has changed. This article describes the conflict of hegemony between themore » U.S. and Japan in the context of the global oil market.« less

  1. 76 FR 8773 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1090 (Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five-year... revocation of the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead...

  2. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized meteorological conditions, measured the atmospheric ... flew overhead. These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 ...

  3. Japan's funding supremo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2018-02-01

    Yasuhiro Iye, a condensed-matter physicist who is executive director of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, talks to Matin Durrani about the pressures and challenges facing Japan's biggest funding agency

  4. Tohoku Tsunami Debris, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-14

    The Mar. 11, 2011, Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami devastated a large extent of the northeastern Japan coast, and virtually erased many villages and cities from the map. NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image of Sendai on Mar. 14, 2011.

  5. Clathrin-dependent internalization of the angiotensin II AT₁A receptor links receptor internalization to COX-2 protein expression in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Morinelli, Thomas A; Walker, Linda P; Velez, Juan Carlos Q; Ullian, Michael E

    2015-02-05

    The major effects of Angiotensin II (AngII) in vascular tissue are mediated by AngII AT1A receptor activation. Certain effects initiated by AT1A receptor activation require receptor internalization. In rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (RASMC), AngII stimulates cyclooxygenase 2 protein expression. We have previously shown this is mediated by β-arrestin-dependent receptor internalization and NF-κB activation. In this study, a specific inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), pitstop-2, was used to test the hypothesis that clathrin-dependent internalization of activated AT1A receptor mediates NF-κB activation and subsequent cyclooxygenase 2 expression. Radioligand binding assays, real time qt-PCR and immunoblotting were used to document the effects of pitstop-2 on AngII binding and signaling in RASMC. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) was used to image pitstop-2׳s effects on AT1 receptor/GFP internalization in HEK-293 cells and p65 NF-κB nuclear localization in RASMC. Pitstop-2 significantly inhibited internalization of AT1A receptor (44.7% ± 3.1% Control vs. 13.2% ± 8.3% Pitstop-2; n=3) as determined by radioligand binding studies in RASMC. Studies utilizing AT1A receptor/GFP expressed in HEK 293 cells and LSCM confirmed these findings. Pitstop-2 significantly inhibited AngII-induced p65 NF-κB phosphorylation and nuclear localization, COX-2 message and protein expression in RASMC without altering activation of p42/44 ERK or TNFα signaling. Pitstop-2, a specific inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, confirms that internalization of activated AT1A receptor mediates AngII activation of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in RASMC. These data provide support for additional intracellular signaling pathways activated through β-arrestin mediated internalization of G protein-coupled receptors, such as AT1A receptors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is involved in regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated β-amyloid protein internalization in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai-Ge; Lv, Jia; Hu, Xiao-Dan; Shi, Li-Li; Chang, Ke-Wei; Chen, Xin-Lin; Qian, Yi-Hua; Yang, Wei-Na; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that intracellular β-amyloid protein (Aβ) alone plays a pivotal role in the progression of AD. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway and proteins that control Aβ internalization may provide new insight for regulating Aβ levels. In the present study, the regulation of Aβ internalization by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) was analyzed in vivo. The data derived from this investigation revealed that Aβ1-42 were internalized by neurons and astrocytes in mouse brain, and were largely deposited in mitochondria and lysosomes, with some also being found in the endoplasmic reticulum. Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex was formed during Aβ1-42 internalization, and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated by Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were co- localized in the cells of parietal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the level of LRP1-mRNA and LRP1 protein involved in Aβ1-42 internalization in mouse brain. The results of this investigation demonstrated that Aβ1-42 induced an LRP1-dependent pathway that related to the activation of p38 MAPK resulting in internalization of Aβ1-42. These results provide evidence supporting a key role for the p38 MAPK signaling pathway which is involved in the regulation of Aβ1-42 internalization in the parietal cortex and hippocampus of mouse through LRP1 in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The first volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education includes plenary addresses, plenary panel discussions, research forum, project groups, discussion groups, short oral communications, and poster presentations. (ASK)

  8. In silico methods for evaluating human allergenicity to novel proteins: International Bioinformatics Workshop Meeting Report, 23-24 February 2005.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karluss; Bannon, Gary; Hefle, Susan; Herouet, Corinne; Holsapple, Michael; Ladics, Gregory; MacIntosh, Sue; Privalle, Laura

    2005-12-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) hosted an expert workshop 22-24 February 2005 in Mallorca, Spain, to review the state-of-the-science for conducting a sequence homology/bioinformatics evaluation in the context of a comprehensive allergenicity assessment for novel proteins, to obtain consensus on the value and role of bioinformatics in evaluating novel proteins, and to discuss the utility and methods of allergen-specific IgE testing in the diagnosis of food allergy. The workshop participants included over forty international experts from academia, industry, and government. The workshop was hosted by the HESI Protein Allergenicity Technical committee, which has established a long-term program whose mission is to advance the scientific understanding of the relevant parameters for characterizing the allergenic potential of novel proteins.

  9. Assessment of the risk of medium-term internal contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Amina; Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-06-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster, the first level-7 major nuclear disaster since Chernobyl, raised concerns about the future health consequences of exposure to and intake of radionuclides. Factors determining the risk and level of internal radiation contamination after a nuclear accident, which are a key to understanding and improving current nuclear disaster management, are not well studied. We investigated both the prevalence and level of internal contamination in residents of Minamisoma, and identified factors determining the risk and levels of contamination. We implemented a program assessing internal radiation contamination using a whole body counter (WBC) measurement and a questionnaire survey in Minamisoma, between October 2011 and March 2012. Approximately 20% of the city's population (8,829 individuals) participated in the WBC measurement for internal contamination, of which 94% responded to the questionnaire. The proportion of participants with detectable internal contamination was 40% in adults and 9% in children. The level of internal contamination ranged from 2.3 to 196.5 Bq/kg (median, 11.3 Bq/kg). Tobit regression analysis identified two main risk factors: more time spent outdoors, and intake of potentially contaminated foods and water. Our findings suggest that, with sensible and reasonable precautions, people may be able to live continuously in radiation-affected areas with limited contamination risk. To enable this, nuclear disaster response should strictly enforce food and water controls and disseminate evidence-based and up-to-date information about avoidable contamination risks.

  10. The p38 mitogen activated protein kinase regulates β-amyloid protein internalization through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai-Ge; Lv, Jia; Yang, Wei-Na; Chang, Ke-Wei; Hu, Xiao-Dan; Shi, Li-Li; Zhai, Wan-Ying; Zong, Hang-Fan; Qian, Yi-Hua

    2018-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative disorders. Intracellular β-amyloid protein (Aβ) is an early event in AD. It induces the formation of amyloid plaques and neuron damage. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) has been suggested to play an important role in Aβ caused cognition. It has high affinity with Aβ and could mediate Aβ internalization in vitro. However, whether in mouse brain the p38 MAPK signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of the α7nAChR mediated Aβ internalization and their role in mitochondria remains little known. Therefore, in this study, we revealed that Aβ is internalized by cholinergic and GABAergic neurons. The internalized Aβ were found deposits in lysosomes/endosomes and mitochondria. Aβ could form Aβ-α7nAChR complex with α7nAChR, activates the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). And the increasing of α7nAChR could in return mediate Aβ internalization in the cortex and hippocampus. In addition, by using the α7nAChR agonist PNU282987, the p38 phosphorylation level decreases, rescues the biochemical changes which are tightly associated with Aβ-induced apoptosis, such as Bcl2/Bax level, cytochrome c (Cyt c) release. Collectively, the p38 MAPK signaling pathway could regulate the α7nAChR-mediated internalization of Aβ. The activation of α7nAChR or the inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling pathway may be a beneficial therapy to AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Water-mediated influence of a crowded environment on internal vibrations of a protein molecule.

    PubMed

    Kuffel, Anna; Zielkiewicz, Jan

    2016-02-14

    The influence of crowding on the protein inner dynamics is examined by putting a single protein molecule close to one or two neighboring protein molecules. The presence of additional molecules influences the amplitudes of protein fluctuations. Also, a weak dynamical coupling of collective velocities of surface atoms of proteins separated by a layer of water is detected. The possible mechanisms of these phenomena are described. The cross-correlation function of the collective velocities of surface atoms of two proteins was decomposed into the Fourier series. The amplitude spectrum displays a peak at low frequencies. Also, the results of principal component analysis suggest that the close presence of an additional protein molecule influences the high-amplitude, low-frequency modes in the most prominent way. This part of the spectrum covers biologically important protein motions. The neighbor-induced changes in the inner dynamics of the protein may be connected with the changes in the velocity power spectrum of interfacial water. The additional protein molecule changes the properties of solvation water and in this way it can influence the dynamics of the second protein. It is suggested that this phenomenon may be described, at first approximation, by a damped oscillator driven by an external random force. This model was successfully applied to conformationally rigid Choristoneura fumiferana antifreeze protein molecules.

  12. Viral DNA sequences of genes encoding the ATPase and the major capsid protein of tropical iridovirus isolates which are pathogenic to fishes in Japan, South China Sea and Southeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Sudthongkong, C; Miyata, M; Miyazaki, T

    2002-11-01

    Tropical iridovirus infection causes severe epizootic resulting in mass mortalities and large economic losses in freshwater ornamental fishes cultured in Southeast Asian countries, in wild fish seedlings captured in South China Sea, and in marine fishes farmed in Japan, Singapore, and Thailand. All of tropical iridovirus-infected fishes histopathologically showed the systemic formation of inclusion body-bearing cells and necrosis of virus-infected splenocytes and hematopoietic cells. We designed primer sets for the ATPase gene and the major capsid protein (MCP) gene and sequenced the PCR products derived from 5 iridovirus isolates from sea bass in South China Sea, red sea bream in Japan, brown-spotted grouper with a grouper sleepy disease in Thailand, dwarf gourami from Malaysia and African lampeye from Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The ATPase gene and the MCP gene of these 5 viral isolates were highly homologous (> 95.8%, > 94.9% identity, respectively) and the deduced amino acid sequences of the ATPase and the MCP were also highly identical (> 98.1%, > 97.2% identity, respectively). Based on the high homology, these 5 isolates of tropical iridovirus from various fishes in geographically different regions were determined to have a single origin and to be native to Southeast Asian regions. However, these sequences were far different from those of members of the genera Ranavirus, Lymphocystivirus and Iridovirus in the Family Iridoviridae. We propose a new genus "Tropivirus" for tropical iridovirus in the Family Iridoviridae.

  13. Retrograde trafficking of tracer protein by the internal ovarian epithelium in gravid goodeid teleosts.

    PubMed

    Schindler, J F

    1990-02-01

    Gravid goodeid females harbor embryos in a preformed ovarian cavity for prolonged periods of gestation. Various nutrients for embryonic growth are provided by the internal ovarian epithelium (IOE). Its cells flatten during late stages of gestation and form an attenuated layer of cytoplasm covering a dense network of protruding capillaries, with the nuclear domains mostly recessing between the vascular meshes. The IOE in both Xenotoca eiseni and Girardinichthys viviparus exhibit morphological features associated with vesicular transport of macromolecules. The amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the IOE cells seem insufficient to effectively synthesise proteinaceous secretions. Apparently, it rather serves as a transit route for serum-derived products. Cationized ferritin (CF) was injected into the ovarian cavity of gravid females. The electrostatic ligand spotwise attached to the luminal surface of the IOE and gained access by adsorptive micropinocytosis. Many tracer molecules were sequestered into lysosome-like vacuoles that became increasingly swollen after prolonged incubation intervals. In addition, CF traversed the IOE within small vesicles. At the basal pole of the cells the contents of transcytotic vesicles were evacuated, and localization of small CF-clusters was regularly in the basement lamina, in the underlying connective tissue, in vacuoles within migrant cells, in vesicular compartments of the capillary endothelia, in capillary lumina, and in intravascular leucocytes. Tracer molecules were never observed to enter stacked Golgi cisternae. Since the cationic marker probably follows retrograde pathways of the protein secretion, the experimental data support the morphologically derived conclusions that postulate a major role for the IOE in transepithelial transport.

  14. External push and internal pull forces recruit curvature sensing N-BAR domain proteins to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Galic, Milos; Jeong, Sangmoo; Tsai, Feng-Chiao; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Wu, Yi I.; Hahn, Klaus M.; Cui, Yi; Meyer, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Many of the more than 20 mammalian proteins with N-BAR domains1-2 control cell architecture3 and endocytosis4-5 by associating with curved sections of the plasma membrane (PM)6. It is not well understood whether N-BAR proteins are recruited directly by processes that mechanically curve the PM or indirectly by PM-associated adaptor proteins that recruit proteins with N-BAR domains that then induce membrane curvature. Here, we show that externally-induced inward deformation of the PM by cone-shaped nanostructures (Nanocones) and internally-induced inward deformation by contracting actin cables both trigger recruitment of isolated N-BAR domains to the curved PM. Markedly, live-cell imaging in adherent cells showed selective recruitment of full length N-BAR proteins and isolated N-BAR domains to PM sub-regions above Nanocone stripes. Electron microscopy confirmed that N-BAR domains are recruited to local membrane sites curved by Nanocones. We further showed that N-BAR domains are periodically recruited to curved PM sites during local lamellipodia retraction in the front of migrating cells. Recruitment required Myosin II-generated force applied to PM connected actin cables. Together, our study shows that N-BAR domains can be directly recruited to the PM by external push or internal pull forces that locally curve the PM. PMID:22750946

  15. Medical Services at an International Summer Camp Event Under Hot and Humid Conditions: Experiences From the 23rd World Scout Jamboree, Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takemasa; Mizutani, Keiji; Iwai, Toshiyasu; Nakashima, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    The 23rd World Scout Jamboree (WSJ) was a 10-day summer camp held in Japan in 2015 under hot and humid conditions. The attendees comprised 33,628 people from 155 countries and territories. The aim of this study was to examine the provision of medical services under such conditions and to identify preventive factors for major diseases among long-term campers. Data were obtained from WSJ medical center records and examined to clarify the effects of age, sex, and period on visit frequencies and rates. Medical records from 3215 patients were examined. Daytime temperatures were 31.5±3.2°C and relative humidity was 61±13% (mean±SD). The initial visit rates among scouts and adults were 72.2 and 77.2 per 1000 persons, respectively. No significant age difference was observed in the initial visit rate; however, it was significantly higher among female patients than male patients. Significant differences were also seen in the adjusted odds ratios by age, sex, and period for disease distributions of initial visit frequencies. In addition, a higher initial visit frequency for heat strain-related diseases was seen among the scouts. Initial visit frequencies for heatstroke and/or dehydration increased just after opening day and persisted until closing day. Our findings suggest the importance of taking effective countermeasures against heat strain, fatigue, and unsanitary conditions at the WSJ. Medical services staff should take attendees' age, sex, and period into consideration to prevent heat strain-related diseases during such camps under hot and humid conditions. Copyright © 2018 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The second volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education contains full research report papers. Papers include: (1) "What you see is what you get: The influence of visualization on the perception of data structures" (Dan Aharoni); (2) "Exploring the transparency of graphs and graphing"…

  17. Higher Education Expansion in Asia. Reports from the 1985 International Seminar on Asian Higher Education (Hiroshima, Japan, January 28-31, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    Expansion of the past 10 years in Asian higher education and associated problems, as well as the role of colleges and universities in national development, are discussed in 11 papers from a 1985 International Seminar. Paper titles and authors include: "Prospects and Problems in Asian Higher Education: Introductory Presentation by the…

  18. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The fourth volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education contains full research report papers. Papers include: (1) "What are essential to apply the 'discovery' function of proof in lower secondary school mathematics?" (Mikio Miyazaki); (2) "The anatomy of an 'open' mathematics lesson"…

  19. Women in Development: We as Agents of Social Change. Proceedings of the International Forum on Intercultural Exchange (3rd, Saitama [Japan], December 17-19, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    The third International Forum on Intercultural Exchange focused on four important issues for developing nations: literacy education, environmental protection, economic activities, and violence against women. In all of these areas, women are striving for social change as agents and beneficiaries of development. Following the conference agenda, the…

  20. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The third volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education contains full research report papers. Papers include: (1) "Mathematics classrooms functioning as communities of inquiry: Possibilities and constraints for changing practice" (Susie Groves, Brian Doig, and Laurance Splitter); (2)…

  1. On JALT96: Crossing Borders. Proceedings of the Annual JALT International Conference on Language Teaching and Learning (23rd, Hiroshima, Japan, November 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Steve, Ed.; Rule, Peggy, Ed.; Sugino, Toshiko, Ed.

    Papers from an international conference on language teaching/learning are presented by topic and grouped under seven sections. An introductory section contains two papers on cultural diversity and world English. The second section, on teacher development, contains papers on these topics: teacher development and socialization; teachers' responses…

  2. The Teaching of English as an International Language in Japan: An Answer to the Dilemma of Indigenous Values and Global Needs in the Expanding Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hino, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ambivalent nature of Japanese attitudes toward English vis-a-vis the Japanese language, followed by a discussion of Japanese efforts in incorporating the concept of English as an International Language (EIL) into their educational system and teaching practice as a solution to this dilemma. While the Japanese have an…

  3. The Effects of Classroom Instructional Strategies on Science Achievement of Elementary-School Students in Japan: Findings from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). TIMSS has provided a comprehensive assessment of educational contexts and mathematics and science achievement (National Research Council, 1999). The initial TIMSS assessment was conducted in 1995 (TIMSS 1995) and several studies have examined factors related to…

  4. Winds over Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Before World War II, weather forecasters had little knowledge of upper-air wind patterns above 20000 feet. Data were seldom avai able at these heights, and the need was not great because commercial aircraft seldom flew at these altitudes. The war in the Pacific changed all that. Wind forecasts for 30000 feet plus became urgent to support the XXI Bomber Command in its bombing mission over Japan.The U.S. Army Air Force Pacific Ocean Area (AAFPOA) placed a Weather Central in the Marianas Islands in 1944 (Saipan in 1944 and Guam in 1945) to provide forecasting support for this mission. A forecasting procedure was put into operation that combined the elements known as "single-station forecasting" and an advanced procedure that used "altirmeter corrections" to analyze upper-airdata and make prognoses. Upper-air charts were drawn for constant pressure surfaces rather than constant height surfaces. The constant pressure surfaces were tied together by means of the atmospheric temperature field represented by specific temperature anomalies between pressure surfaces. Wind forecasts over the Marianas-Japan route made use of space cross sections that provided the data to forecast winds at each 5000-ft level to 35000 ft along the mission flight path. The new procedures allowed the forecaster to construct internally consistent meteorological charts in three dimensions in regions of sparse data.Army air force pilots and their crews from the Marianas were among the first to experience the extreme wind conditions now known as the "jet stream". Air force forecasters demonstrated that, with experience, such winds could reasonably be forecast under difficult operational conditions.

  5. A receptor-G protein coupling-independent step in the internalization of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Petrou, C; Chen, L; Tashjian, A H

    1997-01-24

    To determine whether functional receptor-G protein coupling or signaling are required for internalization of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR), we compared the endocytosis of Gq-coupled and uncoupled receptors. A hemagglutinin epitope-tagged TRHR (HA-TRHR) was in the Gq-coupled state when bound to the agonist, MeTRH, and in a nonsignaling state when bound to the HA antibody (12CA5). 12CA5 did not induce an increase in [Ca2+]i or inositol phosphates and did not inhibit [3H]MeTRH binding or MeTRH-induced production of second messengers. Both agonist- and antibody-bound HA-TRHRs were rapidly internalized via the same pathway; internalization was sensitive to hypertonic shock, and both types of internalized receptors were sorted into lysosomes. In addition, the amino acid sequence CNC (positions 335-337) in the C-terminal tail of the TRHR, which is important in ligand-induced receptor internalization as determined by deletion mutagenesis (Nussenzveig, D. R., Heinflink, M., and Gershengorn, M. C. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2389-2392), was also important for 12CA5-induced internalization. We expressed two truncated receptors, HA-K338STOP and HA-C335STOP, in GH12C1 pituitary cells. Both HA-TRHR and HA-K338STOP were localized at the plasma membrane of untreated cells and were translocated to intracellular vesicles after MeTRH or 12CA5 binding; however, HA-C335STOP was internalized and recycled constitutively. The intracellular localization of HA-C335STOP was not altered by MeTRH; however, 12CA5 binding induced the disappearance of internalized HA-C335STOP and caused its localization at the plasma membrane, indicating that constitutively cycling HA-C335STOP cannot be reinternalized after antibody binding. Thus, amino acids 335-337, which are important for the internalization of Gq-coupled TRHRs, are also required for the sequestration of functionally uncoupled TRHRs, and in addition, they act as an inhibitory signal that prevents constitutive receptor

  6. Estimation of protein requirements according to nitrogen balance for older hospitalized adults with pressure ulcers according to wound severity in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iizaka, Shinji; Matsuo, Junko; Konya, Chizuko; Sekine, Rie; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2012-11-01

    To estimate protein requirements in older hospitalized adults with pressure ulcers (PrU) according to systemic conditions and wound severity. Secondary nitrogen balance study over 3 days. Long-term care facility. Twenty-eight older adults with PrU using a urinary catheter. Nitrogen balance over 3 days was evaluated from habitual nitrogen intake measured using a food weighing record and nitrogen excretion from urine, feces and wound exudate. Nitrogen intake required to maintain nitrogen equilibrium was estimated as an average protein requirement using a linear mixed model. Nitrogen intake at nitrogen equilibrium was 0.151 gN/kg per day (95% confidence interval = 0.127-0.175 gN/kg per day) for all participants. The amount of protein loss from wound exudate contributed little to total nitrogen excretion. A Charlson comorbidity index of 4 or greater (the median value) was related to lower nitrogen intake at nitrogen equilibrium (P = .005). Severe PrU with heavy exudate amounts and measured wound areas of 7.9 cm(2) or greater (the median value) were related to higher nitrogen intake at nitrogen equilibrium in individuals with a Charlson comorbidity index of 3 or less (both P = .04). Larger wound area (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.55, P = .003) and heavier exudate volume (r = 0.53, P = .004) were associated with muscle protein hypercatabolism measured according to 3-methylhistidine/creatinine ratio. The average protein requirement is 0.95 g/kg per day for older hospitalized Japanese adults with PrU, but protein requirements depend on an individual's condition and wound severity and range from 0.75 to 1.30 g/kg per day. Severe PrU can require higher protein intakes because of muscle protein hypercatabolism rather than direct loss of protein from wound exudate. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Microgravity Induces Changes in Microsome-Associated Proteins of Arabidopsis Seedlings Grown on Board the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Grat, Sabine; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Eche, Brigitte; Boucheron-Dubuisson, Elodie; Le Disquet, Isabel; Medina, Francisco Javier; Graziana, Annick; Carnero-Diaz, Eugénie

    2014-01-01

    The “GENARA A” experiment was designed to monitor global changes in the proteome of membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings subjected to microgravity on board the International Space Station (ISS). For this purpose, 12-day-old seedlings were grown either in space, in the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) under microgravity or on a 1 g centrifuge, or on the ground. Proteins associated to membranes were selectively extracted from microsomes and identified and quantified through LC-MS-MS using a label-free method. Among the 1484 proteins identified and quantified in the 3 conditions mentioned above, 80 membrane-associated proteins were significantly more abundant in seedlings grown under microgravity in space than under 1 g (space and ground) and 69 were less abundant. Clustering of these proteins according to their predicted function indicates that proteins associated to auxin metabolism and trafficking were depleted in the microsomal fraction in µg space conditions, whereas proteins associated to stress responses, defence and metabolism were more abundant in µg than in 1 g indicating that microgravity is perceived by plants as a stressful environment. These results clearly indicate that a global membrane proteomics approach gives a snapshot of the cell status and its signaling activity in response to microgravity and highlight the major processes affected. PMID:24618597

  8. Protein-surfactant interactions at hydrophobic interfaces studied with total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCS).

    PubMed

    Sonesson, Andreas W; Blom, Hans; Hassler, Kai; Elofsson, Ulla M; Callisen, Thomas H; Widengren, Jerker; Brismar, Hjalmar

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this work was to study the dynamics of proteins near solid surfaces in the presence or absence of competing surfactants by means of total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCS). Two different proteins were studied, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL). A nonionic/anionic (C12E6/LAS) surfactant composition was used to mimic a detergent formulation and the surfaces used were C18 terminated glass. It was found that with increasing surfactant concentrations the term in the autocorrelation function (ACF) representing surface binding decreased. This suggested that the proteins were competed off the hydrophobic surface by the surfactant. When fitting the measured ACF to a model for surface kinetics, it was seen that with raised C12E6/LAS concentration, the surface interaction rate increased for both proteins. Under these experimental conditions this meant that the time the protein was bound to the surface decreased. At 10 microM C12E6/LAS the surface interaction was not visible for BSA, whereas it was still distinguishable in the ACF for TLL. This indicated that TLL had a higher affinity than BSA for the C18 surface. The study showed that TIR-FCS provides a useful tool to quantify the surfactant effect on proteins adsorption.

  9. Microgravity induces changes in microsome-associated proteins of Arabidopsis seedlings grown on board the international space station.

    PubMed

    Mazars, Christian; Brière, Christian; Grat, Sabine; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Eche, Brigitte; Boucheron-Dubuisson, Elodie; Le Disquet, Isabel; Medina, Francisco Javier; Graziana, Annick; Carnero-Diaz, Eugénie

    2014-01-01

    The "GENARA A" experiment was designed to monitor global changes in the proteome of membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings subjected to microgravity on board the International Space Station (ISS). For this purpose, 12-day-old seedlings were grown either in space, in the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) under microgravity or on a 1 g centrifuge, or on the ground. Proteins associated to membranes were selectively extracted from microsomes and identified and quantified through LC-MS-MS using a label-free method. Among the 1484 proteins identified and quantified in the 3 conditions mentioned above, 80 membrane-associated proteins were significantly more abundant in seedlings grown under microgravity in space than under 1 g (space and ground) and 69 were less abundant. Clustering of these proteins according to their predicted function indicates that proteins associated to auxin metabolism and trafficking were depleted in the microsomal fraction in µg space conditions, whereas proteins associated to stress responses, defence and metabolism were more abundant in µg than in 1 g indicating that microgravity is perceived by plants as a stressful environment. These results clearly indicate that a global membrane proteomics approach gives a snapshot of the cell status and its signaling activity in response to microgravity and highlight the major processes affected.

  10. Report on the meetings of the International Organization for Crystal Growth Executive Council and General Assembly held during ICCGE-18 in Nagoya (Japan) August 7-12, 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabkowska, Hanna A.

    2017-06-01

    The International Organization for Crystal Growth (IOCG) Executive Committee, Council and General Assembly met in the week 7-12 August 2016. Participation quorum was achieved at all the meetings. The following changes in the Constitution, already approved at ICCGE-17 for the second time, were moved to be presented to the IOCG General Assembly for the third and final approval. 7.a The International Conference on Crystal Growth, ICCG is renamed to the International Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy (ICCGE) and all references to ICCG in the constitution and By-laws are changed to ICCGE. 7.b The IOCG Constitution is amended such that Article III Section 1 will read as "The Executive Committee shall consist of the five Officers, the Past President, the Chairman or Chairmen of the past ICCGE the Chairman or Chairmen of the next ICCGE and up to ten additional members elected by the Council." 7.c The IOCG Constitution is amended such that Article IV Section 1 includes the sentence: "The Council may also include ex-officio members as described in the Bylaws" There was no change to the Bylaws. All provisional amendments are included in the IOCG Constitution and Bylaws with different text colors. The amendments that were approved for the third time and are definitive are inserted with no special color as part of standard text.

  11. Deletion of internal structured repeats increases the stability of a leucine-rich repeat protein, YopM

    PubMed Central

    Barrick, Doug

    2011-01-01

    Mapping the stability distributions of proteins in their native folded states provides a critical link between structure, thermodynamics, and function. Linear repeat proteins have proven more amenable to this kind of mapping than globular proteins. C-terminal deletion studies of YopM, a large, linear leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein, show that stability is distributed quite heterogeneously, yet a high level of cooperativity is maintained [1]. Key components of this distribution are three interfaces that strongly stabilize adjacent sequences, thereby maintaining structural integrity and promoting cooperativity. To better understand the distribution of interaction energy around these critical interfaces, we studied internal (rather than terminal) deletions of three LRRs in this region, including one of these stabilizing interfaces. Contrary to our expectation that deletion of structured repeats should be destabilizing, we find that internal deletion of folded repeats can actually stabilize the native state, suggesting that these repeats are destabilizing, although paradoxically, they are folded in the native state. We identified two residues within this destabilizing segment that deviate from the consensus sequence at a position that normally forms a stacked leucine ladder in the hydrophobic core. Replacement of these nonconsensus residues with leucine is stabilizing. This stability enhancement can be reproduced in the context of nonnative interfaces, but it requires an extended hydrophobic core. Our results demonstrate that different LRRs vary widely in their contribution to stability, and that this variation is context-dependent. These two factors are likely to determine the types of rearrangements that lead to folded, functional proteins, and in turn, are likely to restrict the pathways available for the evolution of linear repeat proteins. PMID:21764506

  12. The Internet and Global Telecommunications: Exploring the Boundaries of International Coordination. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on International Telecommunications (4th, Shonan Village Center, Japan, September 21-24, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleeman, Michael J.

    The goals of the Fourth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on International Telecommunications were: to address procedural and substantive solutions for international coordination of Internet policy issues; to suggest different models for dispute resolution and policy coordination that might be employed in the various contexts of Internet usage;…

  13. An international comparative family medicine study of the Transition Project data from the Netherlands, Malta, Japan and Serbia. An analysis of diagnostic odds ratios aggregated across age bands, years of observation and individual practices.

    PubMed

    Soler, Jean K; Okkes, Inge; Oskam, Sibo; van Boven, Kees; Zivotic, Predrag; Jevtic, Milan; Dobbs, Frank; Lamberts, Henk

    2012-06-01

    This is a study of the process of diagnosis in family medicine (FM) in four practice populations from the Netherlands, Malta, Serbia and Japan. Diagnostic odds ratios (ORs) for common reasons for encounter (RfEs) and episode titles are used to study the process of diagnosis in international FM and to test the assumption that data can be aggregated across different age bands, practices and years of observation. Participating family doctors (FDs) recorded details of all their patient contacts in an episode of care (EoC) structure using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC). RfEs presented by the patient and the diagnostic labels (EoC titles) recorded for each encounter were classified with ICPC. The relationships between RfEs and episode titles were expressed as ORs using Bayesian probability analysis to calculate the posterior (post-test) odds of an episode title given an RfE, at the start of a new EoC. The distributions of diagnostic ORs from the four population databases are tabled across age groups, years of observation and practices. There is a lot of congruence in diagnostic process and concepts between populations, across age groups, years of observation and FD practices, despite differences in the strength of such diagnostic associations. There is particularly little variability of diagnostic ORs across years of observation and between individual FD practices. Given our findings, it makes sense to aggregate diagnostic data from different FD practices and years of observation. Our findings support the existence of common core diagnostic concepts in international FM.

  14. Exploiting Radiation Damage to Map Proteins in Nucleoprotein Complexes: The Internal Structure of Bacteriophage T7

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Naiqian; Wu, Weimin; Watts, Norman R.; Steven, Alasdair C.

    2014-01-01

    In the final stage of radiation damage in cryo-electron microscopy of proteins, bubbles of hydrogen gas are generated. Proteins embedded in DNA bubble sooner than free-standing proteins and DNA does not bubble under the same conditions. These properties make it possible to distinguish protein from DNA. Here we explored the scope of this technique (“bubblegram imaging”) by applying it to bacteriophage T7, viewed as a partially defined model system. T7 has a thin-walled icosahedral capsid, 60 nm in diameter, with a barrel-shaped protein core under one of its twelve vertices (the portal vertex). The core is densely wrapped with DNA but details of their interaction and how their injection into a host bacterium is coordinated are lacking. With short (10 sec) intervals between exposures of 17 electrons/Å2 each, bubbling starts in the third exposure, with 1 – 4 bubbles nucleating in the core: in subsequent exposures, these bubbles grow and merge. A 3D reconstruction from fifth-exposure images depicts a bipartite cylindrical gas cloud in the core. In its portal-proximal half, the axial region is gaseous whereas in the portal-distal half, it is occupied by a 3 nm-wide dense rod. We propose that they respectively represent core protein and an end of the packaged genome, poised for injection into a host cell. Single bubbles at other sites may represent residual scaffolding protein. Thus, bubbling depends on dose rate, protein amount, and tightness of the DNA seal. PMID:24345345

  15. Protein Internal Dynamics Associated With Pre-System Glass Transition Temperature Endothermic Events: Investigation of Insulin and Human Growth Hormone by Solid State Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange.

    PubMed

    Fang, Rui; Grobelny, Pawel J; Bogner, Robin H; Pikal, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Lyophilized proteins are generally stored below their glass transition temperature (T g ) to maintain long-term stability. Some proteins in the (pure) solid state showed a distinct endotherm at a temperature well below the glass transition, designated as a pre-T g endotherm. The pre-T g endothermic event has been linked with a transition in protein internal mobility. The aim of this study was to investigate the internal dynamics of 2 proteins, insulin and human growth hormone (hGH), both of which exhibit the pre-T g endothermic event with onsets at 50°C-60°C. Solid state hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of both proteins was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy over a temperature range from 30°C to 80°C. A distinct sigmoidal transition in the extent of H/D exchange had a midpoint of 56.1 ± 1.2°C for insulin and 61.7 ± 0.9°C for hGH, suggesting a transition to greater mobility in the protein molecules at these temperatures. The data support the hypothesis that the pre-T g event is related to a transition in internal protein mobility associated with the protein dynamical temperature. Exceeding the protein dynamical temperature is expected to activate protein internal motion and therefore may have stability consequences. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. On-Going International Research Program on Irradiated Concrete Conducted by DOE, EPRI and Japan Research Institutions. Roadmap, Achievements and Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Le Pape, Yann; Rosseel, Thomas M.

    The Joint Department of Energy (DOE)-Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Program (Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program–Material Pathway–Concrete and Long-Term Operation (LTO) Program) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) research studies aim at understanding the most prominent degradation modes and their effects on the long-term operation of concrete structures to nuclear power generation. Based on the results of the Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), (NUREG/CR-7153, ORNL/TM-2011/545), irradiated concrete and alkali-silica reaction (ASR)-affected concrete structures are the two prioritized topics of on-going research. This report focuses specifically on the topic of irradiated concrete and summarizes the main accomplishments obtained by thismore » joint program, but also provides an overview of current relevant activities domestically and internationally. Possible paths forward are also suggested to help near-future orientation of this program.« less

  17. Crucial role of neuron-enriched endosomal protein of 21 kDa in sorting between degradation and recycling of internalized G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Debaigt, Colin; Hirling, Harald; Steiner, Pascal; Vincent, Jean-Pierre; Mazella, Jean

    2004-08-20

    Recycling of endocytosed G-protein-coupled receptors involves a series of molecular events through early and recycling endosomes. The purpose of this work was to study the role of neuron-enriched endosomal protein of 21 kDa (NEEP21) in the recycling process of neurotensin receptors-1 and -2. Here we showed that suppression of NEEP21 expression does not modify the internalization rate of both receptors but strongly inhibited the recycling of the neurotensin receptor-2. In contrast, overexpression of NEEP21 changes the behavior of the neurotensin receptor-1 from a non-recycling to a recycling state. Recycling of the neurotensin receptor-2 involves both the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the recycling endosome pathways, whereas recycling of the neurotensin receptor-1 induced by overexpression of NEEP21 only occurs by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway. Taken together, these results confirm the essential role of NEEP21 in the recycling mechanism and show that this protein acts at the level of early endosomes to promote sorting of receptors toward a recycling pathway.

  18. Whistleblowing in Japan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Anne J; Konishi, Emiko

    2007-03-01

    This article, written from research data, focuses on the possible meaning of the data rather than on detailed statistical reporting. It defines whistleblowing as an act of the international nursing ethical ideal of advocacy, and places it in the larger context of professional responsibility. The experiences, actions, and ethical positions of 24 Japanese nurses regarding whistleblowing or reporting a colleague for wrongdoing provide the data. Of these respondents, similar in age, educational level and clinical experience, 10 had previously reported another nurse and 12 had reported a physician for a wrongful act. These data raise questions about overt actions to expose a colleague in a culture that values group loyalty and saving face. Additional research is needed for an in-depth understanding of whistleblowing, patient advocacy and professional responsibility across cultures, especially those that value group loyalty, saving face and similar concepts to the Japanese Ishin Denshin, where the value is on implicit understanding requiring indirect communication. Usually, being direct and openly discussing sensitive topics is not valued in Japan because such behavior disrupts the most fundamental value, harmony (wa).

  19. The Issue of Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to problematize that which has been taken for granted about the notion of multiculturalism in Japan. Multiculturalism is a "hot" issue in Japan. As the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" since 1980s, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural…

  20. TWELVE DOORS TO JAPAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEARDSLEY, RICHARD K.; HALL, JOHN WHITNEY

    THE TWELVE DOORS OF THIS COLLEGE-LEVEL TEXT ARE TWELVE CHAPTERS ON ASPECTS OF JAPAN AND JAPANESE CULTURE AS TREATED BY VARIOUS ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES. THE AUTHORS' PURPOSE IN CHOOSING THIS FORMAT WAS TO PRESENT INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION ABOUT JAPAN AND TO ACQUAINT STUDENTS WITH THE AIMS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS OF DISCIPLINES OTHER THAN THE ONE THEY…

  1. A Cultural Experience: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robert W.; And Others

    This activities unit for teaching about Japan is designed for use with elementary students. The activities reflect the growing importance of Japan in today's world, and the belief that the social studies curriculum should reflect principles of global education. The unit is intended to explore seven major goals included in the social studies…

  2. Japan: Teaching Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Marilyn, Ed.; And Others

    This teaching guide was developed by undergraduate elementary education students as part of the requirements for a social studies methods course. The guide presents nine teaching units about various aspects of Japan. The unit topics range from the broad to the specific, and reflect a variety of approaches for teaching about Japan in the public…

  3. Japan's High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P.

    The author, an anthropologist, spent 14 months (1974-75) in the industrial port city of Kobe (Japan) observing a cross section of urban high schools, including Japan's most elite private school and a night vocational school plagued by absenteeism and delinquency. He reports on the character of the institutions and of the experience via…

  4. [Rabies contingency plan in Japan].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Satoshi

    2005-12-01

    In Japan, rabies has been culled out since 1957 thanks to the strong implementation of measures against rabies, such as vaccination of dogs, quarantine and control of wild dogs under the 'Rabies Prevention Law' enacted in 1950. Nevertheless one cannot deny the possibility of introduction of rabies into Japan in view of the recent increase in the international movements of people and animals. Should an outbreak of rabies be suspected now in Japan, the society would probably overreact due to a decreased awareness of risks and a lack of correct knowledge about this disease. Officials of the government and the municipalities, veterinarians and doctors should exchange correct information on rabies and on prevention control and raise their awareness, while providing also information to the public on a timely basis. Besides it is needless to say that it is important to set up a crisis management system allowing a quick and adequate response in case of an outbreak of rabies and to continue to implement appropriate prevention measures in normal times.

  5. Validation of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome in Japan: results from a prospective multicenter registry.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Hiroshi; Tohyama, Kaoru; Matsuda, Akira; Araseki, Kayano; Hata, Tomoko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kayano, Hidekazu; Shimbo, Kei; Zaike, Yuji; Usuki, Kensuke; Chiba, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Arima, Nobuyoshi; Nogawa, Masaharu; Ohta, Akiko; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Mitani, Kinuko; Ozawa, Keiya; Arai, Shunya; Kurokawa, Mineo; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2017-09-01

    The Japanese National Research Group on Idiopathic Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes has been conducting prospective registration, central review, and follow-up study for patients with aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) since 2006. Using this database, we retrospectively analyzed the prognosis of patients with MDS. As of May 2016, 351 cases were registered in this database, 186 of which were eligible for the present study. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that overall survival (OS) curves of the five risk categories stipulated by the revised international prognostic scoring system (IPSS-R) were reasonably separated. 2-year OS rates for the very low-, low-, intermediate-, high-, and very high-risk categories were 95, 89, 79, 35, and 12%, respectively. In the same categories, incidence of leukemic transformation at 2 years was 0, 10, 8, 56, and 40%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex, low platelet counts, increased blast percentage (>2%), and high-risk karyotype abnormalities were independent risk factors for poor OS. Based on these data, we classified Japanese MDS patients who were classified as intermediate-risk in IPSS-R, into the lower risk MDS category, highlighting the need for careful assessment of treatments within low- and high-risk treatment protocols.

  6. Hemagglutinating virus of Japan-artificial viral envelope liposome-mediated cotransfer of bag-1 and bcl-2 genes protects hepatic cells against ischemic injury through BAG-1-assisted preferential enhancement of bcl-2 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Yanada, Shinobu; Sasaki, Masao; Takayama, Shinichi; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2005-05-01

    Hepatic injury subsequent to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) was demonstrated in our previous study to be prevented by hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-artificial viral envelope (AVE) liposome-mediated gene transfer of the antiapoptotic gene, human bcl-2 (h-bcl-2). In the present study, we introduced simultaneously both mouse Bcl-2-associated athanogene 1 (m-bag-1) and the h-bcl-2 gene by the same HVJ-AVE liposome transfection method, and found that I/R-induced hepatic injuries such as release of hepatic marker enzymes into blood, cell morphological degeneration, and cellular DNA strand cleavage were suppressed more effectively than by transfection with either gene singly. In addition, the h-Bcl-2 expression level in the ischemic state, but not in the nonischemic state, was markedly higher in h-bcl-2/m-bag-1-cotransfected liver than in h-bcl-2-transfected liver. In contrast, the m-BAG-1 expression level in the ischemic state, but not in the nonischemic state, was only slightly higher in h-bcl-2/m-bag-1-cotransfected liver than in m-bag-1-transfected liver. Thus, with dual gene cotransfer, coexistent Bcl-2 protein exerts no activity to assist a marked enhancement of BAG-1 protein, whereas the function of overexpressed BAG-1 as a Bcl-2-binding protein may lead to the enhancement of efficient expression of h-Bcl-2 in I/R-treated liver as compared with nonischemic liver, which results in repression of diverse I/R-induced cell death symptoms, presumably through the formation of functional complexes of BAG-1 and Bcl-2.

  7. Schistosome-derived omega-1 drives Th2 polarization by suppressing protein synthesis following internalization by the mannose receptor

    PubMed Central

    Everts, Bart; Hussaarts, Leonie; Driessen, Nicole N.; Meevissen, Moniek H.J.; Schramm, Gabriele; van der Ham, Alwin J.; van der Hoeven, Barbara; Scholzen, Thomas; Burgdorf, Sven; Mohrs, Markus; Pearce, Edward J.; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Haas, Helmut; Smits, Hermelijn H.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-1, a glycosylated T2 ribonuclease (RNase) secreted by Schistosoma mansoni eggs and abundantly present in soluble egg antigen, has recently been shown to condition dendritic cells (DCs) to prime Th2 responses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain unknown. We show in this study by site-directed mutagenesis of omega-1 that both the glycosylation and the RNase activity are essential to condition DCs for Th2 polarization. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that omega-1 is bound and internalized via its glycans by the mannose receptor (MR) and subsequently impairs protein synthesis by degrading both ribosomal and messenger RNA. These experiments reveal an unrecognized pathway involving MR and interference with protein synthesis that conditions DCs for Th2 priming. PMID:22966004

  8. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: A Population-Level Analysis of Monitoring Prevalence and Factors Associated with Monitoring Participation Behavior in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murakami, Michio; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-09

    Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed voluntary-based monitoring behavior in Minamisoma City-located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant-to inform future monitoring strategies. The monitoring in Minamisoma included occasional free of charge internal-radiation-exposure measurements. Out of around 70,000 individuals residing in the city before the incident, a total of 45,788 residents (female: 52.1%) aged ≥21 were evaluated. The monitoring prevalence in 2011-2012 was only 30.2%, and this decreased to 17.9% in 2013-2014. Regression analyses were performed to estimate factors associated with the monitoring prevalence and participation behavior. The results show that, in comparison with the age cohort of 21-30 years, the cohort of 71-80 and ≥81 years demonstrated significantly lower monitoring prevalence; female residents had higher monitoring prevalence than male residents; those who were living in evacuation zones at the time of the incident had higher monitoring prevalence than those who lived outside any of the evacuation zones; for those living outside Fukushima and neighboring Prefectures post-incident monitoring prevalence decreased significantly in 2013-2014. Our findings inform the discussion on the concepts of radiation risk perception and accessibility to monitoring and societal decision-making regarding the maintenance of the monitoring program with low monitoring prevalence. We also stress the possibility that the monitoring can work both to check that internal contamination levels are within acceptable limits, and as a risk communication tool, alleviating individuals' concern and anxiety over radiation contamination.

  9. Equilibrium Kinetics Studies and Crystallization Aboard the International Space Station (ISS) Using the Protein Crystallization Apparatus for Microgravity (PCAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achari, Aniruddha; Roeber, Dana F.; Barnes, Cindy L.; Kundrot, Craig E.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Protein Crystallization Apparatus in Microgravity (PCAM) trays have been used in Shuttle missions to crystallize proteins in a microgravity environment. The crystallization experiments are 'sitting drops' similar to that in Cryschem trays, but the reservoir solution is soaked in a wick. From early 2001, crystallization experiments are conducted on the International Space Station using mission durations of months rather than two weeks on previous shuttle missions. Experiments were set up in April 2001 on Flight 6A to characterize the time crystallization experiments will take to reach equilibrium in a microgravity environment using salts, polyethylene glycols and an organic solvent as precipitants. The experiments were set up to gather data for a series of days of activation with different droplet volumes and precipitants. The experimental set up on ISS and results of this study will be presented. These results will help future users of PCAM to choose precipitants to optimize crystallization conditions for their target macromolecules for a particular mission with known mission duration. Changes in crystal morphology and size between the ground and space grown crystals of a protein and a protein -DNA complex flown on the same mission will also be presented.

  10. Child Maltreatment, Inflammation, and Internalizing Symptoms: Investigating the Roles of C-Reactive Protein, Gene Variation and Neuroendocrine Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cicchetti, Dante; Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has found inconsistent evidence regarding the association among childhood adversity, inflammation, and internalizing symptoms, perhaps because previous studies have yet to adequately integrate important factors such as the timing of the adversity, genetic variation, and other relevant processes such as neuroendocrine regulation. The aims of the present study were threefold: 1) Determine whether the effect of the timing of child maltreatment on C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, varies by CRP gene variation; 2) Explore whether links between salivary CRP and childhood internalizing symptoms depend on the presence and timing of maltreatment experiences; 3) Investigate the role of CRP in the relations between child neuroendocrine regulation and internalizing symptoms and examine whether these associations are moderated by the presence and timing of child maltreatment. Participants included a sample of 267 maltreated and 222 nonmaltreated children (M age= 9.72, SD=0.99; 52.4% male; 66% African-American) who attended a summer day camp research program designed for school-aged low-income children. Department of Human Services records were examined to determine the onset and recency of maltreatment for children in the maltreated group. Results indicated that among children with recent onset maltreatment, those with at least one A allele from CRP SNP rs1417938 evidenced significantly higher CRP levels compared to recently maltreated children carrying the TT genotype. Moreover, higher levels of CRP were associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms only for recently maltreated children. Finally, we did not find support for salivary CRP as a mechanism in the relation between neuroendocrine regulation and childhood internalizing symptoms. Our findings highlight the importance of the timing of child maltreatment and have important implications for characterizing variability in inflammation and internalizing symptoms among youth. PMID

  11. Optimal Hydrophobicity in Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization-Based Protein Mimics Required for siRNA Internalization.

    PubMed

    deRonde, Brittany M; Posey, Nicholas D; Otter, Ronja; Caffrey, Leah M; Minter, Lisa M; Tew, Gregory N

    2016-06-13

    Exploring the role of polymer structure for the internalization of biologically relevant cargo, specifically siRNA, is of critical importance to the development of improved delivery reagents. Herein, we report guanidinium-rich protein transduction domain mimics (PTDMs) based on a ring-opening metathesis polymerization scaffold containing tunable hydrophobic moieties that promote siRNA internalization. Structure-activity relationships using Jurkat T cells and HeLa cells were explored to determine how the length of the hydrophobic block and the hydrophobic side chain compositions of these PTDMs impacted siRNA internalization. To explore the hydrophobic block length, two different series of diblock copolymers were synthesized: one series with symmetric block lengths and one with asymmetric block lengths. At similar cationic block lengths, asymmetric and symmetric PTDMs promoted siRNA internalization in the same percentages of the cell population regardless of the hydrophobic block length; however, with 20 repeat units of cationic charge, the asymmetric block length had greater siRNA internalization, highlighting the nontrivial relationships between hydrophobicity and overall cationic charge. To further probe how the hydrophobic side chains impacted siRNA internalization, an additional series of asymmetric PTDMs was synthesized that featured a fixed hydrophobic block length of five repeat units that contained either dimethyl (dMe), methyl phenyl (MePh), or diphenyl (dPh) side chains and varied cationic block lengths. This series was further expanded to incorporate hydrophobic blocks consisting of diethyl (dEt), diisobutyl (diBu), and dicyclohexyl (dCy) based repeat units to better define the hydrophobic window for which our PTDMs had optimal activity. High-performance liquid chromatography retention times quantified the relative hydrophobicities of the noncationic building blocks. PTDMs containing the MePh, diBu, and dPh hydrophobic blocks were shown to have superior

  12. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  13. A Sequence-Independent, Unstructured Internal Ribosome Entry Site Is Responsible for Internal Expression of the Coat Protein of Turnip Crinkle Virus

    PubMed Central

    May, Jared; Johnson, Philip; Saleem, Huma

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT To maximize the coding potential of viral genomes, internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) can be used to bypass the traditional requirement of a 5′ cap and some/all of the associated translation initiation factors. Although viral IRES typically contain higher-order RNA structure, an unstructured sequence of about 84 nucleotides (nt) immediately upstream of the Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) coat protein (CP) open reading frame (ORF) has been found to promote internal expression of the CP from the genomic RNA (gRNA) both in vitro and in vivo. An absence of extensive RNA structure was predicted using RNA folding algorithms and confirmed by selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) RNA structure probing. Analysis of the IRES region in vitro by use of both the TCV gRNA and reporter constructs did not reveal any sequence-specific elements but rather suggested that an overall lack of structure was an important feature for IRES activity. The CP IRES is A-rich, independent of orientation, and strongly conserved among viruses in the same genus. The IRES was dependent on eIF4G, but not eIF4E, for activity. Low levels of CP accumulated in vivo in the absence of detectable TCV subgenomic RNAs, strongly suggesting that the IRES was active in the gRNA in vivo. Since the TCV CP also serves as the viral silencing suppressor, early translation of the CP from the viral gRNA is likely important for countering host defenses. Cellular mRNA IRES also lack extensive RNA structures or sequence conservation, suggesting that this viral IRES and cellular IRES may have similar strategies for internal translation initiation. IMPORTANCE Cap-independent translation is a common strategy among positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses for bypassing the host cell requirement of a 5′ cap structure. Viral IRES, in general, contain extensive secondary structure that is critical for activity. In contrast, we demonstrate that a region of viral RNA devoid of

  14. Detergent-resistant membrane subfractions containing proteins of plasma membrane, mitochondrial, and internal membrane origins.

    PubMed

    Mellgren, Ronald L

    2008-04-24

    HEK293 cell detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) isolated by the standard homogenization protocol employing a Teflon pestle homogenizer yielded a prominent opaque band at approximately 16% sucrose upon density gradient ultracentrifugation. In contrast, cell disruption using a ground glass tissue homogenizer generated three distinct DRM populations migrating at approximately 10%, 14%, and 20% sucrose, named DRM subfractions A, B, and C, respectively. Separation of the DRM subfractions by mechanical disruption suggested that they are physically associated within the cellular environment, but can be dissociated by shear forces generated during vigorous homogenization. All three DRM subfractions possessed cholesterol and ganglioside GM1, but differed in protein composition. Subfraction A was enriched in flotillin-1 and contained little caveolin-1. In contrast, subfractions B and C were enriched in caveolin-1. Subfraction C contained several mitochondrial membrane proteins, including mitofilin and porins. Only subfraction B appeared to contain significant amounts of plasma membrane-associated proteins, as revealed by cell surface labeling studies. A similar distribution of DRM subfractions, as assessed by separation of flotillin-1 and caveolin-1 immunoreactivities, was observed in CHO cells, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and in HEK293 cells lysed in detergent-free carbonate. Teflon pestle homogenization of HEK293 cells in the presence of the actin-disrupting agent latrunculin B generated DRM subfractions A-C. The microtubule-disrupting agent vinblastine did not facilitate DRM subfraction separation, and DRMs prepared from fibroblasts of vimentin-null mice were present as a single major band on sucrose gradients, unless pre-treated with latrunculin B. These results suggest that the DRM subfractions are interconnected by the actin cytoskeleton, and not by microtubes or vimentin intermediate filaments. The subfractions described may prove useful in studying discrete protein

  15. 76 FR 798 - Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Remand)] Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom AGENCY: United States International Trade... determination in the five-year review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings from Japan. For further... Certain Bearings and Parts Thereof from Japan and the United Kingdom, Inv. Nos. 731-TA-394-A & 399-A...

  16. 76 FR 78240 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Clinker From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration, International... clinker from Japan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). See... of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan would likely lead to...

  17. 75 FR 30856 - Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Remand)] Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom AGENCY: United States International Trade... determinations in the five-year reviews of the antidumping orders on ball bearings from Japan and the United... Certain Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom, Inv. Nos. 731-TA- 394-A & 399-A...

  18. Japan's aging economics.

    PubMed

    Ezrati, M

    1997-01-01

    "Japan's population is aging faster than that of any other country in the world. The unprecedented increase in retirees relative to the size of Japan's work force will force radical change if the nation is to avoid a fiscal crisis, or worse. These seemingly innocent demographic changes will force Japan to shrink its famously high savings rate, reverse its proud trade surplus, send more industry overseas, liberalize its tightly controlled markets, and take on a more active, high-profile foreign policy. Ultimately, these changes will shift the balance of power in East Asia." excerpt

  19. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  20. Microelectronics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  1. Microelectronics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  2. Genetic analysis of fat-to-protein ratio, milk yield and somatic cell score of Holstein cows in Japan in the first three lactations by using a random regression model.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Akiko; Sasaki, Osamu; Aihara, Mitsuo; Takeda, Hisato; Satoh, Masahiro

    2015-12-01

    We estimated the genetic parameters of fat-to-protein ratio (FPR) and the genetic correlations between FPR and milk yield or somatic cell score in the first three lactations in dairy cows. Data included 3,079,517 test-day records of 201,138 Holstein cows in Japan from 2006 to 2011. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multiple-trait random regression model in which the records within and between parities were treated as separate traits. The phenotypic values of FPR increased soon after parturition and peaked at 10 to 20 days in milk, then decreased slowly in mid- and late lactation. Heritability estimates for FPR yielded moderate values. Genetic correlations of FPR among parities were low in early lactation. Genetic correlations between FPR and milk yield were positive and low in early lactation, but only in the first lactation. Genetic correlations between FPR and somatic cell score were positive in early lactation and decreased to become negative in mid- to late lactation. By using these results for genetic evaluation it should be possible to improve energy balance in dairy cows. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, pose for a group photo during a visit to the Orbiter Processing Facility. They were awarded the trip to Kennedy Space Center when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The girls are accompanied by American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station/Payload Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students’ visit.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, pose for a group photo during a visit to the Orbiter Processing Facility. They were awarded the trip to Kennedy Space Center when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The girls are accompanied by American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station/Payload Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students’ visit.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, place a floral tribute to the crew of Columbia at the STS-107 memorial stone at the Spacehab facility, Cape Canaveral, Fla. The group was awarded the trip to Florida when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The group was also meeting with American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students’ visit.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, place a floral tribute to the crew of Columbia at the STS-107 memorial stone at the Spacehab facility, Cape Canaveral, Fla. The group was awarded the trip to Florida when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The group was also meeting with American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students’ visit.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, carry a floral tribute to the crew of Columbia to place at the STS-107 memorial stone at the Spacehab facility, Cape Canaveral, Fla. The group was awarded the trip to Florida when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The group was also meeting with American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students’ visit.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, carry a floral tribute to the crew of Columbia to place at the STS-107 memorial stone at the Spacehab facility, Cape Canaveral, Fla. The group was awarded the trip to Florida when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The group was also meeting with American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students’ visit.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, pose for a group photo on their visit to the Spacehab facility in Cape Canaveral, Fla. They were awarded the trip when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The group was also meeting with American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The girls planned a floral tribute at the STS-107 memorial stone at the facility. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students’ visit.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, pose for a group photo on their visit to the Spacehab facility in Cape Canaveral, Fla. They were awarded the trip when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The group was also meeting with American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The girls planned a floral tribute at the STS-107 memorial stone at the facility. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students’ visit.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese and American students gather at the STS-107 memorial stone at the Spacehab facility, Cape Canaveral, Fla. The Japanese girls are from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan. The group was awarded the trip to Florida when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The American students are from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students’ visit.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese and American students gather at the STS-107 memorial stone at the Spacehab facility, Cape Canaveral, Fla. The Japanese girls are from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan. The group was awarded the trip to Florida when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The American students are from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students’ visit.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA Manager Steve Cain explains aspects of Space Shuttle processing to Consul General of Japan Ko Kodaira and his family in the Orbiter Processing Facility during their visit to Kennedy Space Center (KSC). From left are Kodaira's wife Marie, his daughter Reiko, Kodaira, and Cain, Senior Future International Space Station Element Manager. Kodaira is touring the facilities at KSC at the invitation of the local office of the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) to acquaint him with KSC's unique processing capabilities.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA Manager Steve Cain explains aspects of Space Shuttle processing to Consul General of Japan Ko Kodaira and his family in the Orbiter Processing Facility during their visit to Kennedy Space Center (KSC). From left are Kodaira's wife Marie, his daughter Reiko, Kodaira, and Cain, Senior Future International Space Station Element Manager. Kodaira is touring the facilities at KSC at the invitation of the local office of the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) to acquaint him with KSC's unique processing capabilities.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, pose for a group photo during a visit to the Space Station Processing Facility. They were awarded the trip to Kennedy Space Center when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The girls are accompanied by American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station/Payload Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students’ visit.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, pose for a group photo during a visit to the Space Station Processing Facility. They were awarded the trip to Kennedy Space Center when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The girls are accompanied by American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station/Payload Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students’ visit.

  10. Surface chemistry of photoluminescent F8BT conjugated polymer nanoparticles determines protein corona formation and internalization by phagocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Khanbeigi, Raha; Abelha, Thais Fedatto; Woods, Arcadia; Rastoin, Olivia; Harvey, Richard D; Jones, Marie-Christine; Forbes, Ben; Green, Mark A; Collins, Helen; Dailey, Lea Ann

    2015-03-09

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles are being developed for a variety of diagnostic and theranostic applications. The conjugated polymer, F8BT, a polyfluorene derivative, was used as a model system to examine the biological behavior of conjugated polymer nanoparticle formulations stabilized with ionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate; F8BT-SDS; ∼207 nm; -31 mV) and nonionic (pegylated 12-hydroxystearate; F8BT-PEG; ∼175 nm; -5 mV) surfactants, and compared with polystyrene nanoparticles of a similar size (PS200; ∼217 nm; -40 mV). F8BT nanoparticles were as hydrophobic as PS200 (hydrophobic interaction chromatography index value: 0.96) and showed evidence of protein corona formation after incubation with serum-containing medium; however, unlike polystyrene, F8BT nanoparticles did not enrich specific proteins onto the nanoparticle surface. J774A.1 macrophage cells internalized approximately ∼20% and ∼60% of the F8BT-SDS and PS200 delivered dose (calculated by the ISDD model) in serum-supplemented and serum-free conditions, respectively, while cell association of F8BT-PEG was minimal (<5% of the delivered dose). F8BT-PEG, however, was more cytotoxic (IC50 4.5 μg cm(-2)) than F8BT-SDS or PS200. The study results highlight that F8BT surface chemistry influences the composition of the protein corona, while the properties of the conjugated polymer nanoparticle surfactant stabilizer used determine particle internalization and biocompatibility profile.

  11. C-terminal of human histamine H1 receptors regulates their agonist-induced clathrin-mediated internalization and G-protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Shigeru; Nozawa, Hiroki; Akatsu, Chizuru; Shoji, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    It has been suggested that the agonist-induced internalization of G-protein-coupled receptors from the cell surface into intracellular compartments regulates cellular responsiveness. We previously reported that G q/11 -protein-coupled human histamine H 1 receptors internalized via clathrin-dependent mechanisms upon stimulation with histamine. However, the molecular determinants of H 1 receptors responsible for agonist-induced internalization remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the roles of the intracellular C-terminal of human histamine H 1 receptors tagged with hemagglutinin (HA) at the N-terminal in histamine-induced internalization in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The histamine-induced internalization was evaluated by the receptor binding assay with [ 3 H]mepyramine and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy with an anti-HA antibody. We found that histamine-induced internalization was inhibited under hypertonic conditions or by pitstop, a clathrin terminal domain inhibitor, but not by filipin or nystatin, disruptors of the caveolar structure and function. The histamine-induced internalization was also inhibited by truncation of a single amino acid, Ser487, located at the end of the intracellular C-terminal of H 1 receptors, but not by its mutation to alanine. In contrast, the receptor-G-protein coupling, which was evaluated by histamine-induced accumulation of [ 3 H]inositol phosphates, was potentiated by truncation of Ser487, but was lost by its mutation to alanine. These results suggest that the intracellular C-terminal of human H 1 receptors, which only comprises 17 amino acids (Cys471-Ser487), plays crucial roles in both clathrin-dependent internalization of H 1 receptors and G-protein signaling, in which truncation of Ser487 and its mutation to alanine are revealed to result in biased signaling toward activation of G-proteins and clathrin-mediated internalization, respectively. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Space communications in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.

    This paper outlines some of the planned satellite comunication projects in Japan over the next 5-7 years. In addition, Japanese space development policies are set out along with a historic review of the development of artificial satellites.

  13. Japan Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Japan is the world's largest liquefied natural gas importer and ranks in the top four countries for the highest coal imports, net imports of petroleum and other liquids, and consumption of crude oil and petroleum products.

  14. Literacy in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaya, Toshio

    1979-01-01

    Examines three causes for Japan's high literacy rate: (1) emphasis on literacy in Japanese society; (2) pervasive effect of the modern Japanese school system; (3) special structural features of the Japanese language which aid in functional use. (DR)

  15. Enemies into Allies: American Stability Operations and the Transformation of Japan 1945-1952

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    on Japanese forces in Manchuria finally shattered the last hopes of Emperor Hirohito and Japan’s governmental leadership.7 Jun Eto suggested that...of Modern Japan (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2000), 511. 8 Jun Eto , A Nation Reborn – A Short History of Postwar Japan (Tokyo: International...Modern Japan, trans. Mikiso Hane and John K . Urda (New York: Free Press, 1995), 39. First- 17 Brian J. McVeigh, Nationalisms of Japan – Managing and

  16. Microsystems Research in Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    microsystems applications, like microfluidic systems, will require more than planar lithography -based fabrication processes. The committee was impressed by the...United States focused on exploiting silicon planar lithography as the core technology for microstructure fabrication, whereas Japan explored a wide...including LIGA and its extensions, micro-stereolithography, and e-beam lithography . The range of materials seen in Japan was broader than in the

  17. Issues and Challenges in the Development of Pneumococcal Protein Vaccines: A Two Day International Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Amy S.; Nahm, Moon H.; Khambaty, Farukh M.; Alderson, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    In view of the increasing licensure and use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), their relatively high cost, and growing issues with serotype emergence, there is a need to re-evaluate the role of pneumococcal protein vaccines (PPVs) and pathways to their licensure. This paper summarizes the discussion and viewpoints from an expert meeting regarding the development of PPVs. A wide spectrum of pneumococcal vaccine researchers, developers, and regulators met to review the state of PPVs, identify research and development needs, and provide consensus opinions to support the introduction of new PPVs where possible. They also discussed clinical and regulatory aspects pertinent to these vaccines and generated a series of recommendations for moving the field forward. PMID:22380821

  18. Development of a dialyzer with enhanced internal filtration to increase the clearance of low molecular weight proteins.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Takayasu; Uchi, Yukihiko; Fukuda, Makoto; Miyazaki, Miwa; Uezumi, Satoshi; Hiyoshi, Tatsuo

    2004-01-01

    Accumulated low molecular weight proteins in hemodialysis patients require a high-flux dialyzer. There have been several methods proposed for enhancing internal filtration, including narrowing the inside diameter of the hollow fibers, lengthening the fibers, and increasing the fiber density ratio. We tried to enhance the internal filtration by increasing the pressure drop in the dialysate compartment through increasing the fiber density ratio. If the fiber density ratio is too high, however, an irregular dialysate path may result, thus decreasing dialysis performance. Therefore, we took note of the shape of the inner housing and added a short taper structure, which improved the dialysate path dramatically. Consequently, we developed an internal filtration-enhanced dialyzer (APS-Prototype) to improve dialysis performance. The internal filtration rate in water (measured by Doppler ultrasound) was 13.2 l/session for the APS-Prototype and 5.3 l/session for the APS-15E. The amount of alpha1-microglobulin (alpha1-MG) in bovine plasma was 0.34 g for the APS-Prototype and 0.11 g for the APS-15E. In addition, the amount of alpha1-MG in vivo was 29.0% +/- 5.8% for the APS-Prototype, significantly higher than that for the APS-15E (13.6% +/- 1.9%). The desirable loss of albumin is 2-4 g in hemodiafiltration, and it was 3.92 +/- 1.03 g for the APS-Prototype. The prototype showed excellent solute removal performance with no clinical or engineering problems.

  19. Current trends in rehabilitation engineering in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohnabe, Hisaichi

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the elderly generation comprised 20% of the Japanese population. This percentage will grow to approximately 30% in 2030, meaning that nearly one in three people in Japan will be 65 years of age or older. Japan is the first nation in the world to face this situation. This article uses the context of Japanese society to give an overview of the elderly and people with disabilities; the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model; rehabilitation engineering-related policy; and education. In addition, we examine how governmental programs and Japanese law regarding technical aids may evolve by 2030. Partner robots, intelligent powered wheelchairs, nursing robots, and other technologies are introduced as examples of rehabilitation engineering and assistive technology. We also discuss the volunteer activities of the Rehabilitation Engineering Society of Japan (RESJA) in response to the Asian tsunami disaster and the achievements of a group of students from a Japanese senior high school of industry.

  20. Protein Information Resource: a community resource for expert annotation of protein data

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Winona C.; Garavelli, John S.; Hou, Zhenglin; Huang, Hongzhan; Ledley, Robert S.; McGarvey, Peter B.; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Orcutt, Bruce C.; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Tsugita, Akira; Vinayaka, C. R.; Xiao, Chunlin; Yeh, Lai-Su L.; Wu, Cathy

    2001-01-01

    The Protein Information Resource, in collaboration with the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS) and the Japan International Protein Information Database (JIPID), produces the most comprehensive and expertly annotated protein sequence database in the public domain, the PIR-International Protein Sequence Database. To provide timely and high quality annotation and promote database interoperability, the PIR-International employs rule-based and classification-driven procedures based on controlled vocabulary and standard nomenclature and includes status tags to distinguish experimentally determined from predicted protein features. The database contains about 200 000 non-redundant protein sequences, which are classified into families and superfamilies and their domains and motifs identified. Entries are extensively cross-referenced to other sequence, classification, genome, structure and activity databases. The PIR web site features search engines that use sequence similarity and database annotation to facilitate the analysis and functional identification of proteins. The PIR-Inter­national databases and search tools are accessible on the PIR web site at http://pir.georgetown.edu/ and at the MIPS web site at http://www.mips.biochem.mpg.de. The PIR-International Protein Sequence Database and other files are also available by FTP. PMID:11125041

  1. Protein kinase A-induced internalization of Slack channels from the neuronal membrane occurs by adaptor protein-2/clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gururaj, Sushmitha; Evely, Katherine M; Pryce, Kerri D; Li, Jun; Qu, Jun; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2017-11-24

    The sodium-activated potassium (K Na ) channel Kcnt1 (Slack) is abundantly expressed in nociceptor (pain-sensing) neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), where they transmit the large outward conductance I KNa and arbitrate membrane excitability. Slack channel expression at the DRG membrane is necessary for their characteristic firing accommodation during maintained stimulation, and reduced membrane channel density causes hyperexcitability. We have previously shown that in a pro-inflammatory state, a decrease in membrane channel expression leading to reduced Slack-mediated I KNa expression underlies DRG neuronal sensitization. An important component of the inflammatory milieu, PKA internalizes Slack channels from the DRG membrane, reduces I KNa , and produces DRG neuronal hyperexcitability when activated in cultured primary DRG neurons. Here, we show that this PKA-induced retrograde trafficking of Slack channels also occurs in intact spinal cord slices and that it is carried out by adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We provide mass spectrometric and biochemical evidence of an association of native neuronal AP-2 adaptor proteins with Slack channels, facilitated by a dileucine motif housed in the cytoplasmic Slack C terminus that binds AP-2. By creating a competitive peptide blocker of AP-2-Slack binding, we demonstrated that this interaction is essential for clathrin recruitment to the DRG membrane, Slack channel endocytosis, and DRG neuronal hyperexcitability after PKA activation. Together, these findings uncover AP-2 and clathrin as players in Slack channel regulation. Given the significant role of Slack in nociceptive neuronal excitability, the AP-2 clathrin-mediated endocytosis trafficking mechanism may enable targeting of peripheral and possibly, central neuronal sensitization. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Identification of two internal signal peptide sequences: critical for classical swine fever virus non-structural protein 2 to trans-localize to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kang-kang; Tang, Qing-hai; Zhang, Yan-ming; Kang, Kai; He, Lei

    2011-05-18

    The membrane topology and molecular mechanisms for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) non-structural 2 (NS2) protien is unclear. We attempted to elucidate the subcellular localization, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the localization of this protein in our study. The NS2 gene was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, with the transmembrane region and hydrophilicity of the NS2 protein was predicted by bioinformatics analysis. Twelve cDNAs of the NS2 gene were amplified by the PCR deletion method and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector, which was transfected into a swine umbilical vein endothelial cell line (SUVEC). Subcellular localization of the NS2 protein was characterized by confocal microscopy, and western blots were carried out to analyze protein expression. Our results showed that the -NH2 terminal of the CSFV NS2 protein was highly hydrophobic and the protein localized in the ER. At least four transmembrane regions and two internal signal peptide sequences (amino acids103-138 and 220-262) were identified and thought to be critical for its trans-localization to the ER. This is the first study to identify the internal signal peptide sequences of the CSFV NS2 protein and its subcellular localization, providing the foundation for further exploration of this protein's function of this protein and its role in CSFV pathogenesis.

  3. The Chemokine Receptor CCR1 Is Constitutively Active, Which Leads to G Protein-independent, β-Arrestin-mediated Internalization*

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, C. Taylor; Salanga, Catherina L.; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Trejo, JoAnn; Handel, Tracy M.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of G protein-coupled receptors by their associated ligands has been extensively studied, and increasing structural information about the molecular mechanisms underlying ligand-dependent receptor activation is beginning to emerge with the recent expansion in GPCR crystal structures. However, some GPCRs are also able to adopt active conformations in the absence of agonist binding that result in the initiation of signal transduction and receptor down-modulation. In this report, we show that the CC-type chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) exhibits significant constitutive activity leading to a variety of cellular responses. CCR1 expression is sufficient to induce inhibition of cAMP formation, increased F-actin content, and basal migration of human and murine leukocytes. The constitutive activity leads to basal phosphorylation of the receptor, recruitment of β-arrestin-2, and subsequent receptor internalization. CCR1 concurrently engages Gαi and β-arrestin-2 in a multiprotein complex, which may be accommodated by homo-oligomerization or receptor clustering. The data suggest the presence of two functional states for CCR1; whereas receptor coupled to Gαi functions as a canonical GPCR, albeit with high constitutive activity, the CCR1·β-arrestin-2 complex is required for G protein-independent constitutive receptor internalization. The pertussis toxin-insensitive uptake of chemokine by the receptor suggests that the CCR1·β-arrestin-2 complex may be related to a potential scavenging function of the receptor, which may be important for maintenance of chemokine gradients and receptor responsiveness in complex fields of chemokines during inflammation. PMID:24056371

  4. Presence of the storage seed protein vicilin in internal organs of larval Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Uchôa, Adriana F; DaMatta, Renato A; Retamal, Claudio A; Albuquerque-Cunha, José M; Souza, Sheila M; Samuels, Richard I; Silva, Carlos P; Xavier-Filho, José

    2006-02-01

    Variant vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) are considered as the main resistance factor present in some African genotypes against the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been suggested that the toxic properties of vicilins may be related to their recognition and interaction with glycoproteins and other membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the insect. However, the possibility of a systemic effect has not yet been investigated. The objective of this work was to study the fate of 7S storage globulins of V. unguiculata in several organs of larvae of the cowpea weevil C. maculatus. Results demonstrated binding of vicilins to brush border membrane vesicles, suggesting the existence of specific receptors. Vicilins were detected in the haemolymph, in the midgut, and in internal organs, such as fat body and malpighian tubules. There is evidence of accumulation of vicilins in the fat body of both larvae and adults. The absorption of vicilins and their presence in insect tissues parallels classical sequestration of secondary compounds.

  5. Internalization and intracellular retention of CD4 are two separate functions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein.

    PubMed

    Giolo, Giorgia; Neri, Francesca; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Potestà, Marina; Belleudi, Francesca; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Doria, Margherita

    2007-11-01

    The pathogenic Nef protein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) downregulates CD4 by inducing its endocytosis and by inhibiting the transport of the receptor to the cell membrane. By means of in vivo-selected mutations, we show that L37, P78 and E177 residues of Nef are required for its effect on CD4 internalization and recycling but dispensable for Nef-induced retention and degradation of intracellular CD4. Of note, the function of Nef on the anterograde transport of newly synthesized CD4 molecules is irrelevant in cells with a slow constitutive CD4 turnover such as T cell lines. Moreover, we show that a mutated CD4 that is unresponsive to Nef-mediated endocytosis, CD4LL(144)AA, is retained intracellularly and degraded by Nef like wild-type CD4. Thus, Nef's abilities to enhance endocytosis and induce intracellular retention of CD4 are mediated by separate protein surfaces and occur through distinct mechanisms.

  6. Fragments of Target Cells are Internalized into Retroviral Envelope Protein-Expressing Cells during Cell-Cell Fusion by Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Izumida, Mai; Kamiyama, Haruka; Suematsu, Takashi; Honda, Eri; Koizumi, Yosuke; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Hideki; Ariyoshi, Koya; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses enter into host cells by fusion between viral and host cell membranes. Retroviral envelope glycoprotein (Env) induces the membrane fusion, and also mediates cell-cell fusion. There are two types of cell-cell fusions induced by the Env protein. Fusion-from-within is induced by fusion between viral fusogenic Env protein-expressing cells and susceptible cells, and virions induce fusion-from-without by fusion between adjacent cells. Although entry of ecotropic murine leukemia virus (E-MLV) requires host cell endocytosis, the involvement of endocytosis in cell fusion is unclear. By fluorescent microscopic analysis of the fusion-from-within, we found that fragments of target cells are internalized into Env-expressing cells. Treatment of the Env-expressing cells with an endocytosis inhibitor more significantly inhibited the cell fusion than that of the target cells, indicating that endocytosis in Env-expressing cells is required for the cell fusion. The endocytosis inhibitor also attenuated the fusion-from-without. Electron microscopic analysis suggested that the membrane fusion resulting in fusion-from-within initiates in endocytic membrane dents. This study shows that two types of the viral cell fusion both require endocytosis, and provides the cascade of fusion-from-within. PMID:26834711

  7. Japan's advanced medicine.

    PubMed

    Sho, Ri; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Murakami, Masayasu

    2013-10-01

    Like health care systems in other developed countries, Japan's health care system faces significant challenges due to aging of the population and economic stagnation. Advanced medicine (Senshin Iryou) is a unique system of medical care in Japan offering highly technology-driven medical care that is not covered by public health insurance. Advanced medicine has recently developed and expanded as part of health care reform. Will it work? To answer this question, we briefly trace the historical development of advanced medicine and describe the characteristics and current state of advanced medical care in Japan. We then offer our opinions on the future of advanced medicine with careful consideration of its pros and cons. We believe that developing advanced medicine is an attempt to bring health care reform in line rather than the goal of health care reform.

  8. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  9. Dust over Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    March 24, 2010 - Dust over Japan This image of gray/brown dust being blown over Japan was captured on March 21, 2010 by the MODIS on the Terra satellite. On the left is the Korean peninsula. Japan stretches diagonally across the image, up to the top right corner. The dust is likely from the sandstorm that swept across the China the previous day. The sand and dust originated from the south and east of Inner Mongolia. In this image from March 20, the dust is nearly obscuring the Bohai Sea, which is just west of the Korean peninsula. Here is a handy map. For more information related to this image go to: modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/individual.php?db_date=2010-0... For more information about Goddard Space Flight Center go here: www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/home/index.html

  10. [Human resource capacity building on TB laboratory work for TB control program--through the experience of international TB laboratory training course for TB control at the Research Institute of Tuberculosis, JATA, Japan].

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Akiko; Kato, Seiya

    2008-06-01

    The international training course on TB laboratory work for national tuberculosis program (NTP) has been conducted at the Research Institute of Tuberculosis since 1975 funded by Japan International Cooperation Agency in collaboration with WHO Western Pacific Regional Office. The aim of the course is to train key personnel in TB laboratory field for NTP in resource-limited countries. The course has trained 265 national key personnel in TB laboratory service from 57 resource-limited countries in the last 33 years. The number of participants trained may sound too small in the fight against the large TB problem in resource-limited countries. However, every participant is playing an important role as a core and catalyst for the TB control program in his/her own country when they were back home. The curriculum is composed of technical aspects on TB examination, mainly sputum microscopy in addition since microscopy service is provided at many centers that are deployed in a widely spread area, the managerial aspect of maintaining quality TB laboratory work at the field laboratory is another component of the curriculum. Effective teaching methods using materials such as artificial sputum, which is useful for panel slide preparation, and technical manuals with illustrations and pictures of training procedure have been developed through the experience of the course. These manuals are highly appreciated and widely used by the front line TB workers. The course has also contributed to the expansion of EQA (External Quality Assessment) system on AFB microscopy for the improvement of the quality of TB laboratory service of NTP. The course is well-known for not only having a long history, but also for its unique learning method emphasizing "Participatory Training", particularly for practicum sessions to master the skills on AFB microscopy. The method in learning AFB microscopy, which was developed by the course, was published as a training manual by IUATLD, RIT and USAID. As it is

  11. Yoga Therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, By Keishin

    2017-08-01

    This perspective piece gives an overview of the current situation of yoga therapy in Japan today. Traditional yoga in Japan suffered a serious setback in 1995 with a nerve gas terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway, which was carried out by a cult that recruited members through yoga classes. But with the increase in popularity with modern forms of yoga such as Iyengar yoga, Ashtanga yoga and hot yoga in the West, the general public in Japan today is forgetting its aversion to yoga and considers it to be something that can contribute to good health. In 2012, the Japan Yoga Therapy Society (JYTS) conducted a study on adverse events in yoga classes throughout Japan with the University of Kyushu School of Medicine, with support from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This study indicated that more than half of people attending yoga classes have some form of chronic illness, with 42.3% receiving outpatient care. This survey was the beginning of growing interest from both the government and universities in yoga therapy. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. This perspective piece introduces some of the developments in yoga therapy research and practice in

  12. Yoga Therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Keishin

    2017-11-01

    This perspective piece gives an overview of the current situation of yoga therapy in Japan today. Traditional yoga in Japan suffered a serious setback in 1995 with a nerve gas terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway, which was carried out by a cult that recruited members through yoga classes. But with the increase in popularity with modern forms of yoga such as Iyengar yoga, Ashtanga yoga and hot yoga in the West, the general public in Japan today is forgetting its aversion to yoga and considers it to be something that can contribute to good health. In 2012, the Japan Yoga Therapy Society (JYTS) conducted a study on adverse events in yoga classes throughout Japan with the University of Kyushu School of Medicine, with support from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This study indicated that more than half of people attending yoga classes have some form of chronic illness, with 42.3% receiving outpatient care. This survey was the beginning of growing interest from both the government and universities in yoga therapy. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. This perspective piece introduces some of the developments in yoga therapy research and practice in

  13. Interaction of Prevotella intermedia Strain 17 Leucine-Rich Repeat Domain Protein AdpF with Eukaryotic Cells Promotes Bacterial Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Dipanwita; Kang, Dae-Joong; Anaya-Bergman, Cecilia; Wyant, Tiana; Ghosh, Arnab K.; Miyazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Prevotella intermedia is an oral bacterium implicated in a variety of oral diseases. Although internalization of this bacterium by nonphagocytic host cells is well established, the molecular players mediating the process are not well known. Here, the properties of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain protein, designated AdpF, are described. This protein contains a leucine-rich region composed of 663 amino acid residues, and molecular modeling shows that it folds into a classical curved solenoid structure. The cell surface localization of recombinant AdpF (rAdpF) was confirmed by electron and confocal microscopy analyses. The recombinant form of this protein bound fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the protein was internalized by host cells, with the majority of the process accomplished within 30 min. The internalization of rAdpF was inhibited by nystatin, cytochalasin, latrunculin, nocodazole, and wortmannin, indicating that microtubules, microfilaments, and signal transduction are required for the invasion. It is noteworthy that preincubation of eukaryotic cells with AdpF increased P. intermedia 17 internalization by 5- and 10-fold for HeLa and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines, respectively. The addition of the rAdpF protein was also very effective in inducing bacterial internalization into the oral epithelial cell line HN4, as well as into primary cells, including human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Finally, cells exposed to P. intermedia 17 internalized the bacteria more readily upon reinfection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that rAdpF plays a role in the internalization of P. intermedia 17 by a variety of host cells. PMID:24711565

  14. Interaction of Prevotella intermedia strain 17 leucine-rich repeat domain protein AdpF with eukaryotic cells promotes bacterial internalization.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Dipanwita; Kang, Dae-Joong; Anaya-Bergman, Cecilia; Wyant, Tiana; Ghosh, Arnab K; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Lewis, Janina P

    2014-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia is an oral bacterium implicated in a variety of oral diseases. Although internalization of this bacterium by nonphagocytic host cells is well established, the molecular players mediating the process are not well known. Here, the properties of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain protein, designated AdpF, are described. This protein contains a leucine-rich region composed of 663 amino acid residues, and molecular modeling shows that it folds into a classical curved solenoid structure. The cell surface localization of recombinant AdpF (rAdpF) was confirmed by electron and confocal microscopy analyses. The recombinant form of this protein bound fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the protein was internalized by host cells, with the majority of the process accomplished within 30 min. The internalization of rAdpF was inhibited by nystatin, cytochalasin, latrunculin, nocodazole, and wortmannin, indicating that microtubules, microfilaments, and signal transduction are required for the invasion. It is noteworthy that preincubation of eukaryotic cells with AdpF increased P. intermedia 17 internalization by 5- and 10-fold for HeLa and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines, respectively. The addition of the rAdpF protein was also very effective in inducing bacterial internalization into the oral epithelial cell line HN4, as well as into primary cells, including human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Finally, cells exposed to P. intermedia 17 internalized the bacteria more readily upon reinfection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that rAdpF plays a role in the internalization of P. intermedia 17 by a variety of host cells.

  15. Differential requirements of arrestin-3 and clathrin for ligand-dependent and -independent internalization of human G protein-coupled receptor 40.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jing; Wu, Chun; Chen, Xiaopan; Li, Xiangmei; Ying, Guoyuan; Jin, Lili; Ma, Qiang; Li, Guo; Shi, Ying; Zhang, Guozheng; Zhou, Naiming

    2014-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) is believed to be an attractive target to enhance insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. GPR40 has been found to couple to Gq protein, leading to the activation of phospholipase C and subsequent increases in the intracellular Ca(2+) level. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate the internalization and desensitization of GPR40 remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a construct of GPR40 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) at its C-terminus was constructed for direct imaging of the localization and internalization of GPR40 by confocal microscopy. In stably transfected HEK-293 cells, GPR40 receptors underwent rapid agonist-induced internalization and constitutive ligand-independent internalization. Our data demonstrated that the agonist-mediated internalization of GPR40 was significantly blocked by hypertonic sucrose treatment and by siRNA mediated depletion of the heavy chain of clathrin. In contrast, constitutive GPR40 internalization was not affected by hypertonic sucrose or by knock-down of clathrin expression, but it was affected by treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and nystatin. Furthermore, our results using an arrestin-3-EGFP redistribution assay and siRNA-mediated knock-down of arrestin-3 and GRK2 expression revealed that arrestin-3 and GRK2 play an essential role in the regulation of agonist-mediated GPR40 internalization, but are not involved in the regulation of constitutive GPR40 internalization. Additionally, our observation showed that upon activation by agonist, the internalized GPR40 receptors were rapidly recycled back to the plasma membrane via Rab4/Rab5 positive endosomes, whereas the constitutively internalized GPR40 receptors were recycled back to the cell surface through Rab5 positive endosomes. Because FFA receptors exhibit a high level of homology, our observations could be applicable to other members of this family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  16. A prospective earthquake forecast experiment for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Sayoko; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi

    2013-04-01

    One major focus of the current Japanese earthquake prediction research program (2009-2013) is to move toward creating testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose we started an experiment of forecasting earthquake activity in Japan under the framework of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) through an international collaboration. We established the CSEP Testing Centre, an infrastructure to encourage researchers to develop testable models for Japan, and to conduct verifiable prospective tests of their model performance. On 1 November in 2009, we started the 1st earthquake forecast testing experiment for the Japan area. We use the unified JMA catalogue compiled by the Japan Meteorological Agency as authorized catalogue. The experiment consists of 12 categories, with 4 testing classes with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years) and 3 testing regions called All Japan, Mainland, and Kanto. A total of 91 models were submitted to CSEP-Japan, and are evaluated with the CSEP official suite of tests about forecast performance. In this presentation, we show the results of the experiment of the 3-month testing class for 5 rounds. HIST-ETAS7pa, MARFS and RI10K models corresponding to the All Japan, Mainland and Kanto regions showed the best score based on the total log-likelihood. It is also clarified that time dependency of model parameters is no effective factor to pass the CSEP consistency tests for the 3-month testing class in all regions. Especially, spatial distribution in the All Japan region was too difficult to pass consistency test due to multiple events at a bin. Number of target events for a round in the Mainland region tended to be smaller than model's expectation during all rounds, which resulted in rejections of consistency test because of overestimation. In the Kanto region, pass ratios of consistency tests in each model showed more than 80%, which was associated with good balanced forecasting of event

  17. Divorce in contemporary Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukurai, H; Alston, J

    1990-10-01

    Data from the 1985-86 Japanese census are analysed to explore the determinants of the divorce rates in Japan's forty-seven prefectures, using two theoretical models: (a) the social integration model, which is shown to have a greater utility in predicting Japanese divorce levels than (b), the human capital model. Female emigration patterns play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Population increase and net household income are also important predictors of the Japanese divorce rate and urbanization has a great influence in modern Japan. Demographic and aggregate variables such as migration, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors are useful when organized under a social integration model.

  18. DNA Data Bank of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mashima, Jun; Kodama, Yuichi; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Katayama, Toshiaki; Okuda, Yoshihiro; Kaminuma, Eli; Ogasawara, Osamu; Okubo, Kousaku; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2017-01-01

    The DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) has been providing public data services for thirty years (since 1987). We are collecting nucleotide sequence data from researchers as a member of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, http://www.insdc.org), in collaboration with the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). The DDBJ Center also services Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive (JGA), with the National Bioscience Database Center to collect human-subjected data from Japanese researchers. Here, we report our database activities for INSDC and JGA over the past year, and introduce retrieval and analytical services running on our supercomputer system and their recent modifications. Furthermore, with the Database Center for Life Science, the DDBJ Center improves semantic web technologies to integrate and to share biological data, for providing the RDF version of the sequence data. PMID:27924010

  19. 77 FR 41969 - Stainless Steel Bar From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-833] Stainless Steel Bar From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International... order on stainless steel bar from Japan (the Order) covering the period February 1, 2010, through...

  20. 75 FR 76025 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-376 and 563-564 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International... steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  1. Information exchange of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan with nuclear societies worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Masao; Tomita, Yasushi

    2000-07-01

    The Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) exchanges information with nuclear societies worldwide by intersocietal communication through international councils of nuclear societies and through bilateral agreements between foreign societies and by such media as international meetings, publications, and Internet applications.

  2. [Films: China and Japan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumport, Roberta H.

    The history of filmmaking in China and Japan and film usage in teaching are considered in this document. Pointing out how films describe historical context and culture, the document also describes various techniques of film making. Films in China were heavily influenced by western models and have tended to be tools of the power structure, as…

  3. Country Profiles. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Minoru

    This occasional paper on Japan is one of a series setting forth the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in specified countries. Here, an overview is given of population characteristics and growth patterns, the relationship of population growth to socioeconomic development, and the history of population concerns and…

  4. Employment in Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Ken; And Others

    This paper presents guidelines and suggestions for non-Japanese English-as-a-Second-Language teachers seeking employment in Japan. The first section outlines the educational qualifications needed to teach in language schools, secondary schools, and higher education institutions, and notes common employment patterns and the timing required to make…

  5. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-18

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image.

  6. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  7. Education Policy Outlook: Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miki, Tadakazu; Pont, Beatriz; Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Peterka, Judith; Fraccola, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Japan is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectorial policy knowledge base, the…

  8. Teaching Unit: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina

    The cultural diversity of Japan can provide a rewarding learning experience for children of all grade levels. This teaching unit includes resources and ideas for the study of Japanese society, art, folklore, and poetry. Included among the instructional objectives are: (1) children will compare U.S. lifestyles with Japanese lifestyles by reading…

  9. Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-25

    NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge or Pearl Bridge, the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world, at 1991 meters, connecting the city of Kobe, Japan with Iwaja on Awaji Island by crossing the busy Akashi Strait.

  10. Advanced composites in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diefendorf, R. Judd; Hillig, William G.; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Pipes, R. Byron; Perepezko, John H.; Sheehan, James E.

    1994-01-01

    The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high-performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic, and carbon matrices. Because of a strong carbon and fiber industry, Japan is the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation-resistant carbon/carbon composite program. With its outstanding technical base in carbon technology, Japan should be able to match present technology in the U.S. and introduce lower-cost manufacturing methods. However, the panel did not see any innovative approaches to oxidation protection. Ceramic and especially intermetallic matrix composites were not yet receiving much attention at the time of the panel's visit. There was a high level of monolithic ceramic research and development activity. High temperature monolithic intermetallic research was just starting, but notable products in titanium aluminides had already appeared. Matrixless ceramic composites was one novel approach noted. Technologies for high temperature composites fabrication existed, but large numbers of panels or parts had not been produced. The Japanese have selected aerospace as an important future industry. Because materials are an enabling technology for a strong aerospace industry, Japan initiated an ambitious long-term program to develop high temperature composites. Although just starting, its progress should be closely monitored in the U.S.

  11. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  12. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  13. From sword to chrysanthemum: Japan's culture of anti-miltarism

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, T.U.

    The end of the Cold War and the phenomenal increase in Japan's economic and technological power put Japan today in the position to become, if it chooses, a military as well as economic superpower. The diminution of the Soviet threat and the increasing US preoccupation with domestic problems give Japan a latitude for independent action it has not had since the end of World War II. At the same time the US-Japanese security alliance, which has enabled Japan to adopt a minimalist approach to defense and national security, is being weakened by ideologically charged trade and other economic frictions andmore » a growing American perception of Japan as a threat to its interests. Moreover, in the long run Japan faces the prospect of having to deal with other rising regional powers, most notably the People's Republic of China. This changing international security environment thus raises question whether Japan, having become an economic rival of the United States, may not in the future become a military competitor as well; whether, after having adopted a pacifist stance for half a century, Japan may choose to unsheathe its sword once again.« less

  14. Adaptor Protein Complex-2 (AP-2) and Epsin-1 Mediate Protease-activated Receptor-1 Internalization via Phosphorylation- and Ubiquitination-dependent Sorting Signals*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Buxin; Dores, Michael R.; Grimsey, Neil; Canto, Isabel; Barker, Breann L.; Trejo, JoAnn

    2011-01-01

    Signaling by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, is regulated by desensitization and internalization. PAR1 desensitization is mediated by β-arrestins, like most classic GPCRs. In contrast, internalization of PAR1 occurs through a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent pathway independent of β-arrestins. PAR1 displays two modes of internalization. Constitutive internalization of unactivated PAR1 is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), where the μ2-adaptin subunit binds directly to a tyrosine-based motif localized within the receptor C-tail domain. However, AP-2 depletion only partially inhibits agonist-induced internalization of PAR1, suggesting a function for other clathrin adaptors in this process. Here, we now report that AP-2 and epsin-1 are both critical mediators of agonist-stimulated PAR1 internalization. We show that ubiquitination of PAR1 and the ubiquitin-interacting motifs of epsin-1 are required for epsin-1-dependent internalization of activated PAR1. In addition, activation of PAR1 promotes epsin-1 de-ubiquitination, which may increase its endocytic adaptor activity to facilitate receptor internalization. AP-2 also regulates activated PAR1 internalization via recognition of distal C-tail phosphorylation sites rather than the canonical tyrosine-based motif. Thus, AP-2 and epsin-1 are both required to promote efficient internalization of activated PAR1 and recognize discrete receptor sorting signals. This study defines a new pathway for internalization of mammalian GPCRs. PMID:21965661

  15. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene...

  18. On JALT 2000--Towards the New Millennium. Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching & Learning and Educational Materials Expo (26th, Shizuoka City, Japan, November 2-5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Robert, Ed.; van Troyer, Gene, Ed.; Lane, Keith, Ed.; Swanson, Malcom, Ed.

    These conference proceedings address the following six topics: (1) "Change and the Future" (e.g., English language education in Japan, sociolinguistics in Hong Kong, and Esperanto); (2) "Children and Language Education" (e.g. a short-term language immersion case study, virtual classrooms for bilingual students, and the role of…

  19. JALT98 Proceedings. The Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning & Educational Materials Expo. Focus on the Classroom: Interpretations (24th, Omiya, Saitama, Japan, November 20-23, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barfield, Andrew, Ed.; Betts, Robert, Ed.; Cunningham, Joyce, Ed.; Dunn, Neil, Ed.; Katsura, Haruko, Ed.; Kobayashi, Kunihiko, Ed.; Padden, Nina, Ed.; Parry, Neil, Ed.; Watanabe, Mayumi, Ed.

    This volume includes papers presented at the 1998 Japan Association for Language Teaching Conference. Section 1, "Voices of Experience," includes: "Towards More Use of English in Class by JTEs" (Midori Iwano); "Paperless Portfolios" (Tim Stewart); "Textbook Creation in Reverse Order for Chinese" (Chou Jine…

  20. Emergence in Japan of an HIV-1 Variant Associated with Transmission among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in China: First Indication of the International Dissemination of the Chinese MSM Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Makiko; Lemey, Philippe; Sano, Takako; Itoda, Ichiro; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Sagara, Hiroko; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Yamanaka, Ko; Iwamuro, Shinya; Matano, Tetsuro; Imai, Mitsunobu; Kato, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    A survey of HIV-1 strains circulating in the Tokyo-Kanagawa metropolitan area of Japan during 2004 to 2011 (n = 477) identified six Japanese males (patients 1 to 6), who harbored viruses with genome segments derived from a distinct CRF01_AE variant uniquely found among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China (designated CN.MSM.01-1). These six HIV infections were diagnosed in 2010 and 2011 among MSM (3 of 75) and men with unknown risk factors (3 of 63) and differed from the vast majority of HIV infections among MSM in Japan, which are overwhelmingly characterized by subtype B (239 of 246 [97.2%]). Approximately one-third (91 of 239 [38.1%]) of subtype B strains from MSM in Japan belong to a large monophyletic cluster (designated JP.MSM.B-1). In addition, we identified a smaller subtype B cluster (n = 8) (designated JP.MSM.B-2) that also contains strains from two Chinese MSM living in Japan. Interestingly, patients 5 and 6 were found to be coinfected with CRF01_AE (CN.MSM.01-1) and subtype B (JP.MSM.B-2 or JP.MSM.B-1) variants that are unique to the HIV-1 epidemics among MSM in China and Japan, respectively. Our study demonstrates for the first time the effect of the expanding HIV epidemic among MSM in China on transmission in neighboring countries and shows the ongoing mixing of CRF01_AE and subtype B lineages unique to HIV-1 that cocirculate in MSM populations in East Asia. This finding highlights the importance of strengthening epidemiological surveillance in the region and the need for effective measures to limit transmission among MSM in East Asia. PMID:23365432

  1. Roles of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Dopaminergic Stimulation-induced Synapse-associated Protein Synthesis and Subsequent α-Amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) Receptor Internalization*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hansen; Kim, Susan S.; Zhuo, Min

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the absence of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP regulates local protein synthesis in dendritic spines. Dopamine (DA) is involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity. Activation of DA receptors can regulate higher brain functions in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. Our recent study has shown that FMRP acts as a key messenger for DA modulation in forebrain neurons. Here, we demonstrate that FMRP is critical for DA D1 receptor-mediated synthesis of synapse-associated protein 90/PSD-95-associated protein 3 (SAPAP3) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). DA D1 receptor stimulation induced dynamic changes of FMRP phosphorylation. The changes in FMRP phosphorylation temporally correspond with the expression of SAPAP3 after D1 receptor stimulation. Protein phosphatase 2A, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, and mammalian target of rapamycin are the key signaling molecules for FMRP linking DA D1 receptors to SAPAP3. Knockdown of SAPAP3 did not affect surface expression of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) GluR1 receptors induced by D1 receptor activation but impaired their subsequent internalization in cultured PFC neurons; the subsequent internalization of GluR1 was also impaired in Fmr1 knock-out PFC neurons, suggesting that FMRP may be involved in subsequent internalization of GluR1 through regulating the abundance of SAPAP3 after DA D1 receptor stimulation. Our study thus provides further insights into FMRP involvement in DA modulation and may help to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying impaired learning and memory in fragile X syndrome. PMID:20457613

  2. Roles of fragile X mental retardation protein in dopaminergic stimulation-induced synapse-associated protein synthesis and subsequent alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hansen; Kim, Susan S; Zhuo, Min

    2010-07-09

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the absence of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP regulates local protein synthesis in dendritic spines. Dopamine (DA) is involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity. Activation of DA receptors can regulate higher brain functions in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. Our recent study has shown that FMRP acts as a key messenger for DA modulation in forebrain neurons. Here, we demonstrate that FMRP is critical for DA D1 receptor-mediated synthesis of synapse-associated protein 90/PSD-95-associated protein 3 (SAPAP3) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). DA D1 receptor stimulation induced dynamic changes of FMRP phosphorylation. The changes in FMRP phosphorylation temporally correspond with the expression of SAPAP3 after D1 receptor stimulation. Protein phosphatase 2A, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, and mammalian target of rapamycin are the key signaling molecules for FMRP linking DA D1 receptors to SAPAP3. Knockdown of SAPAP3 did not affect surface expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) GluR1 receptors induced by D1 receptor activation but impaired their subsequent internalization in cultured PFC neurons; the subsequent internalization of GluR1 was also impaired in Fmr1 knock-out PFC neurons, suggesting that FMRP may be involved in subsequent internalization of GluR1 through regulating the abundance of SAPAP3 after DA D1 receptor stimulation. Our study thus provides further insights into FMRP involvement in DA modulation and may help to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying impaired learning and memory in fragile X syndrome.

  3. 76 FR 50252 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United States International... clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  4. 78 FR 12784 - Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Diameter Line Pipe From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... revocation of the antidumping duty order on welded large diameter line pipe from Japan would be likely to...

  5. 77 FR 38825 - Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Clad Steel Plate From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... order on clad steel plate from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  6. 76 FR 35910 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission Determinations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission Determinations To..., Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to...

  7. Internalization and Recycling of the HER2 Receptor on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells Treated with Targeted Phototoxic Protein DARPinminiSOG

    PubMed Central

    Shilova, O. N.; Proshkina, G. M.; Lebedenko, E. N.; Deyev, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Design and evaluation of new high-affinity protein compounds that can selectively and efficiently destroy human cancer cells are a priority research area in biomedicine. In this study we report on the ability of the recombinant phototoxic protein DARPin-miniSOG to interact with breast adenacarcinoma human cells overexpressing the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). It was found that the targeted phototoxin DARPin-miniSOG specifically binds to the HER2 with following internalization and slow recycling back to the cell membrane. An insight into the role of DARPin-miniSOG in HER2 internalization could contribute to the treatment of HER2-positive cancer using this phototoxic protein. PMID:26483969

  8. Urologic cancer in Japan: role of Japan at the frontier of issues in Asia.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of urological cancer in Japan can be summarized in the following points. (i) As the onset of this type of cancer is typically seen in elderly patients, it is becoming a major social issue in Japan that has already become an aging society. (ii) Many diverse treatment methods are available and a response is required that prioritizes quality of life. (iii) Although vigorous research and development efforts into new drugs are being carried out on a global level, resulting in beneficial medical agents becoming more readily available, unless concepts relating to cost vs. effectiveness are further developed and there is a real risk that medical systems and structures in their current form will become unsustainable. (iv) Although at the current point there are no original large-scale clinical trials being conducted in Asia, Japan has a wealth of experience of participating in many international joint clinical trials and it is therefore an urgent and pressing challenge to organize joint clinical trials in Asia and amass a body of knowledge that is unique to Asia. In view of this current situation and given Japan's position at the frontier of issues, it is important for Japan to take the initiative in Asia in cooperating with other Asian nations in efforts to resolve and overcome various challenges. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Japan Link Center (JaLC): link management and DOI assignment for Japanese electronic scholarly contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Eri; Kubota, Soichi; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    JST, cooperated with several national institutes, is currently developing “Japan Link Center”, which manages Japanese electronic scholarly contents (journal articles, books, dissertations etc.) in an integrated fashion using Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Japan Link Center will manage metadata and whereabouts information of the contents in the digital environment and provide domestic and international linking information, cite/cited information to activate dissemination of S&T information, furthermore, to strengthen transmission of S&T information from Japan. Japan Link Center is expected to be appointed as the 9th DOI registration agency (RA) in the world by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) this spring.

  10. A label-free internal standard method for the differential analysis of bioactive lupin proteins using nano HPLC-Chip coupled with Ion Trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Francesca; Resta, Donatella; Isak, Ilena; Zanotti, Marco; Arnoldi, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics based on MS is useful for pointing out the differences in some food proteomes relevant to human nutrition. Stable isotope label-free (SIF) techniques are suitable for comparing an unlimited number of samples by the use of relatively simple experimental workflows. We have developed an internal standard label-free method based on the intensities of peptide precursor ions from MS/MS spectra, collected in data dependent runs, for the simultaneous qualitative characterization and relative quantification of storage proteins of Lupinus albus seeds in protein extracts of four lupin cultivars (cv Adam, Arés, Lucky, Multitalia). The use of an innovative microfluidic system, the HPLC-Chip, coupled with a classical IT mass spectrometer, has allowed a complete qualitative characterization of all proteins. In particular, the homology search mode has permitted to identify single amino acid substitutions in the sequences of vicilins (beta-conglutin precursor and vicilin-like protein). The MS/MS sequencing of substituted peptides confirms the high heterogeneity of vicilins according to the peculiar characteristics of the vicilin-encoding gene family. Two suitable bioinformatics parameters were optimized for the differential analyses of the main bioactive proteins: the "normalized protein average of common reproducible peptides" (N-ACRP) for gamma-conglutin, which is a homogeneous protein, and the "normalized protein mean peptide spectral intensity" (N-MEAN) for the highly heterogenous class of the vicilins.

  11. A brief history of the Japan Society for Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Y; Okigaki, T

    2001-02-01

    The Japan Society for Cell Biology (JSCB) was first founded in 1950 as the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry under the vigorous leadership of Seizo Katsunuma, in collaboration with Shigeyasu Amano and Satimaru Seno. The Society was provisionally named as above simply because cell biology had not yet been coined at that time in Japan, although in prospect and reality the Society was in fact for the purpose of pursuing cell biology. Later in 1964, the Society was properly renamed as the Japan Society for Cell Biology. After this renaming, the JSCB made great efforts to adapt itself to the rapid progress being made in cell biology. For this purpose the Society's constitution was created in 1966 and revised in 1969. According to the revised constitution, the President, Executive Committee and Councils were to be determined by ballot vote. The style of the annual meetings was gradually modified to incorporate general oral and poster presentations in addition to Symposia (1969-1974). The publication of annual periodicals in Japanese called Symposia of the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry (1951-1967) and later Symposia of the Japan Society for Cell Biology (1968-1974) was replaced by a new international journal called Cell Structure and Function initiated in 1975. This reformation made it possible for the Society to participate in the Science Council of Japan in 1975 and finally in 1993 to acquire its own study section of Cell Biology with grants-in-aid from the Ministry of Education and Science, Japan. The JSCB hosted the 3rd International Congress on Cell Biology (ICCB) in 1984 and the 3rd Asian-Pacific Organization for Cell Biology (APOCB) Congress in 1998, thus contributing to the international advancement of cell biology. Now the membership of JSCB stands at approximately 1,800 and the number of presentations per meeting is 300 to 400 annually. Although a good number of interesting and important findings in cell biology have been reported from Japan, the

  12. Unzen Volcano, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano, on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in 1991. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 93rd orbit on April 15, 1994. The image shows an area 41.5 kilometers by 32.8 kilometers (25.7 miles by 20.3 miles) that is centered at 32.75 degrees north latitude and 130.15 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received); green represents the average of L-band and C-band (vertically transmitted and received); blue represents the C-band (vertically transmitted and received). Unzen is one of 15 'Decade' volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since 1991. Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The

  13. Protein crystal growth; Proceedings of the First International Conference, Stanford University, CA, August 14-16, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, R. S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Papers are presented on mechanisms of nucleation and growth of protein crystals, the role of purification in the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids, and the effect of chemical impurities in polyethylene glycol on macromolecular crystallization. Also considered are growth kinetics of tetragonal lysozyme crystals, thermodynamic and kinetic considerations for crystal growth of complex molecules from solution, protein single-crystal growth under microgravity, and growth of organic crystals in a microgravity environment. Papers are also presented on preliminary investigations of protein crystal growth using the Space Shuttle, convective diffusion in protein crystal growth, and the growth and characterization of membrane protein crystals.

  14. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-20

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  15. Mt. Fuji, Honshu, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-10-14

    STS002-09-390 (12-14 Nov. 1981) --- Honshu Island, Japan, and its snow-covered Fuji-San or Fuji-Yama volcano are the features of this 70mm frame. The volcano peak is 12,400 feet tall. The western suburbs of Tokyo are at right edge of the photograph. Isu Peninsula is at the bottom, separating the Suruga and Sagami Bay. Other large cities include Yokohama, Kozu, Shizuoka, Namazu and Odawara. Photo credit: NASA

  16. In Defense of Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-01-03

    national elections. The party majority gives Abe the potential to formally amend Article 9 of the Japanese constitution to authorize the Japanese Self ...Pacific. Japanese Constitution; Article 9; The United States and Japan Bi-lateral defense treaty; Collective Self Defense; Pacifism; Japanese Self ...involvement in collective self -defense (CSD). Factors leading up to this decision are a rapidly evolving strategic and political environment in

  17. Northeast Coast, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-02

    The northeast coast of Hokkaido and Kunashir Island, Japan (44.0N, 143.0E) are seen bordered by drifting sea ice. The sea ice has formed a complex pattern of eddies in response to surface water currents and winds. Photos of this kind aid researchers in describing local ocean current patterns and the effects of wind speed and direction on the drift of surface material, such as ice floes or oil. Kunashir is the southernmost of the Kuril Islands.

  18. [Abortion in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Hayase, T

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, the artificial abortion is a penal offence; only in the presence of certain conditions it is authorized under the provision of the Eugenic Protection Law which was promulgated in 1948. According to the law, the artificial abortion is restricted to the period, in which the fetus is not viable outside of the uterus. This period is prescribed by notification from the Ministry of Public Welfare; up to now it has been shortened twice (1976, 1991). Due to the introduction of economic reasons in the list of conditions and the simplification of the procedure the artificial abortion in Japan was virtually liberalized. Prosecution for illegal abortion is very rare in recent years. The number of reported artificial abortions decreases; in the about last 30 years it reduced by half. However, the increase in the number of abortions in women younger than 20 years of age is a problem. The abortion in teenagers is late compared with that in other age groups. Although the number of neonaticides does not seem to increase, the increase in the number of abortions in teenagers remains a serious problem in Japan.

  19. Activities of the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, A.; Miyazaki, H.

    2012-07-01

    This reports a history and future prospects of the activities by the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan. For growths of academic fields, active communications among students and young scientists are indispensable. Several academic communities in geoinformation fields are established by youths and play important roles of building networks over schools and institutes. The networks are expected to be innovative cooperation after the youths achieve their professions. Although academic communities are getting fixed growth particularly in Japan, youths had gotten little opportunities to make contacts with youths themselves. To promote gotten youth activities among geoinformation fields, in 1998, we started a series of programs that named the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan involving students and young scientists within the annual conferences, Geoinformation Forum Japan. The programs have provided opportunities to do presentation their studies by posters, some events, and motivations to create networks among students and young scientists. From 2009, some members of our activities set additional conference in west area of Japan. Thus our activities are spread within Japan. As a result of these achievements, the number of youth dedicating to the programs keeps growing. From 2009, it's getting international gradually, however, almost all the participants are still Japanese. To keep and expand the network, we are planning to make some nodes with some Asian youth organizations in the field of geoinformation. This paper is concluded with proposals and future prospects on the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan.

  20. International Seismological Centre

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.; Hughes, A.

    1979-01-01

    The International Seismological Centre had its origins when the British seismologist Professor John Milne returned to England from Japan in 1895 to retire at Shide on the Isle of Eight. In cooperation with the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Milne had set up a number of seismographic stations around the world and, while Tokyo, had published a Catalogue of 8,33 Earthquakes Recorded in Japan, 1885-1892. 

  1. Murine Sarcoma Virus Gene Expression: Transformants Which Express Viral Envelope Glycoprotein In The Absence Of The Major Internal Protein And Infectious Particles

    PubMed Central

    Bilello, John A.; Strand, Mette; August, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Expression of the major internal protein and the envelope glycoprotein of murine C-type viruses in focus-derived lines of normal rat kidney cells infected with Kirsten murine sarcoma virus was measured by radioimmunoassay. Of the clones selected, which do not produce virus particles or the major viral structural protein, approximately half express the viral envelope glycoprotein at concentrations found in productively infected cells. Expression of the envelope glycoprotein did not appear to alter significantly the properties of the transformed cells in culture. PMID:4370209

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-17

    International Cooperation Phase III: A Space Shuttle docked to the International Space Station (ISS) in this computer generated representation of the ISS in its completed and fully operational state with elements from the U.S., Europe, Canada, Japan, and Russia.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-07-11

    Artist's concept for Phase III of the International Space Station (ISS) as shown here in its completed and fully operational state with elements from the United States, Europe, Canada, Japan, and Russia. Sixteen countries are cooperating to provide a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  4. Arms production in Japan: The military applications of civilian technology

    SciTech Connect

    Drifte, R.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines both the domestic and international environments encouraging Japan's leaders not only to strengthen the country's defense, but to do so more independently. Until recently, the arms industry has been nurtured by U.S. weapons technology, but growing dependence on electronics dramatically increases Japan's contribution to modern weapons systems. The electronics revolution is creating more and more dual-purpose products, undermining the Japanese cabinet policy of prohibiting arms export. The discovery of wider applications for Japanese manufacturers' most advanced civilian technology is a strong motivation for entering the arms arena. The book illustrates that Japan's entry into the field ismore » a dynamic example of the success of Japanese industry as it enters new technological areas. The author discusses: Development and the Present Situation of Japan's Arms Production Capability; Research and Development; The Shipbuilding Industry; The Aircraft Industry; The Space and Missile Industry; and Arms Exports with conclusions.« less

  5. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

  6. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2012-01-17

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.

  7. A Broad G Protein-Coupled Receptor Internalization Assay that Combines SNAP-Tag Labeling, Diffusion-Enhanced Resonance Energy Transfer, and a Highly Emissive Terbium Cryptate.

    PubMed

    Levoye, Angélique; Zwier, Jurriaan M; Jaracz-Ros, Agnieszka; Klipfel, Laurence; Cottet, Martin; Maurel, Damien; Bdioui, Sara; Balabanian, Karl; Prézeau, Laurent; Trinquet, Eric; Durroux, Thierry; Bachelerie, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization has long been considered as a major aspect of the desensitization process that tunes ligand responsiveness, internalization is also involved in receptor resensitization and signaling, as well as the ligand scavenging function of some atypical receptors. Internalization thus contributes to the diversity of GPCR-dependent signaling, and its dynamics and quantification in living cells has generated considerable interest. We developed a robust and sensitive assay to follow and quantify ligand-induced and constitutive-induced GPCR internalization but also receptor recycling in living cells. This assay is based on diffusion-enhanced resonance energy transfer (DERET) between cell surface GPCRs labeled with a luminescent terbium cryptate donor and a fluorescein acceptor present in the culture medium. GPCR internalization results in a quantifiable reduction of energy transfer. This method yields a high signal-to-noise ratio due to time-resolved measurements. For various GPCRs belonging to different classes, we demonstrated that constitutive and ligand-induced internalization could be monitored as a function of time and ligand concentration, thus allowing accurate quantitative determination of kinetics of receptor internalization but also half-maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of compounds. In addition to its selectivity and sensitivity, we provided evidence that DERET-based internalization assay is particularly suitable for characterizing biased ligands. Furthermore, the determination of a Z'-factor value of 0.45 indicates the quality and suitability of DERET-based internalization assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compounds that may modulate GPCRs internalization.

  8. A Broad G Protein-Coupled Receptor Internalization Assay that Combines SNAP-Tag Labeling, Diffusion-Enhanced Resonance Energy Transfer, and a Highly Emissive Terbium Cryptate

    PubMed Central

    Levoye, Angélique; Zwier, Jurriaan M.; Jaracz-Ros, Agnieszka; Klipfel, Laurence; Cottet, Martin; Maurel, Damien; Bdioui, Sara; Balabanian, Karl; Prézeau, Laurent; Trinquet, Eric; Durroux, Thierry; Bachelerie, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization has long been considered as a major aspect of the desensitization process that tunes ligand responsiveness, internalization is also involved in receptor resensitization and signaling, as well as the ligand scavenging function of some atypical receptors. Internalization thus contributes to the diversity of GPCR-dependent signaling, and its dynamics and quantification in living cells has generated considerable interest. We developed a robust and sensitive assay to follow and quantify ligand-induced and constitutive-induced GPCR internalization but also receptor recycling in living cells. This assay is based on diffusion-enhanced resonance energy transfer (DERET) between cell surface GPCRs labeled with a luminescent terbium cryptate donor and a fluorescein acceptor present in the culture medium. GPCR internalization results in a quantifiable reduction of energy transfer. This method yields a high signal-to-noise ratio due to time-resolved measurements. For various GPCRs belonging to different classes, we demonstrated that constitutive and ligand-induced internalization could be monitored as a function of time and ligand concentration, thus allowing accurate quantitative determination of kinetics of receptor internalization but also half-maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of compounds. In addition to its selectivity and sensitivity, we provided evidence that DERET-based internalization assay is particularly suitable for characterizing biased ligands. Furthermore, the determination of a Z′-factor value of 0.45 indicates the quality and suitability of DERET-based internalization assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compounds that may modulate GPCRs internalization. PMID:26617570

  9. Japan, Indonesia to investigate condom plant feasibility.

    PubMed

    1981-04-01

    The Japanese government has begun investigations on the possibility of constructing a condom manufacturing plant in Indonesia in response to a request by the Indonesian government. Indonesia, which hopes to reduce its birthrate as of 1971 by 1/2 by 1990, asked for Japanese assistance in building a condom plant based on the expectation that demand for this contraceptive method, although quite low at present, will increase rapidly in the near future with stepped-up motivation campaigns. As a 1st step in the investigation, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) sent a study team of family planning experts headed by Family Planning Federation of Japan Chairman Dr. Hidebumi Kubo and including JOICFP International Division Director MR. Tameyoshi Katagiri to Indonesia from March 15-24. During its visit, the JICA team held discussions with representatives of BKKBN (the National Family Planning Coordinating Board) including its Chairman and Minister of Health Dr. Suwardjono and reached agreement on the scope and schedule of work toward determining the feasibility of building and operating a condom plant in Indonesia. In defining the scope of work and the schedule, the JICA team and the BKKBN representatives decided on specific issues to be investigated in the feasibility study to be carried out by JICA and scheduled to be completed by the end of October of this year. To be included in the feasibility study are: estimation of future domestic demand for condoms, examination of the domestic supply of latex capacity, chemicals and packaging materials, and collection of information on infrastructure relating to water, energy, transportation, etc. Actual data collection for the study is expected to begin in late May or early June. Dr. Kubo and Mr. Katagiri, upon returning to Japan, reported great enthusiasm for the project in Indonesia and expressed the hope that the plant construction will be feasible so that the country's family planning program can be given a boost

  10. The Protein Information Resource: an integrated public resource of functional annotation of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cathy H.; Huang, Hongzhan; Arminski, Leslie; Castro-Alvear, Jorge; Chen, Yongxing; Hu, Zhang-Zhi; Ledley, Robert S.; Lewis, Kali C.; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Orcutt, Bruce C.; Suzek, Baris E.; Tsugita, Akira; Vinayaka, C. R.; Yeh, Lai-Su L.; Zhang, Jian; Barker, Winona C.

    2002-01-01

    The Protein Information Resource (PIR) serves as an integrated public resource of functional annotation of protein data to support genomic/proteomic research and scientific discovery. The PIR, in collaboration with the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS) and the Japan International Protein Information Database (JIPID), produces the PIR-International Protein Sequence Database (PSD), the major annotated protein sequence database in the public domain, containing about 250 000 proteins. To improve protein annotation and the coverage of experimentally validated data, a bibliography submission system is developed for scientists to submit, categorize and retrieve literature information. Comprehensive protein information is available from iProClass, which includes family classification at the superfamily, domain and motif levels, structural and functional features of proteins, as well as cross-references to over 40 biological databases. To provide timely and comprehensive protein data with source attribution, we have introduced a non-redundant reference protein database, PIR-NREF. The database consists of about 800 000 proteins collected from PIR-PSD, SWISS-PROT, TrEMBL, GenPept, RefSeq and PDB, with composite protein names and literature data. To promote database interoperability, we provide XML data distribution and open database schema, and adopt common ontologies. The PIR web site (http://pir.georgetown.edu/) features data mining and sequence analysis tools for information retrieval and functional identification of proteins based on both sequence and annotation information. The PIR databases and other files are also available by FTP (ftp://nbrfa.georgetown.edu/pir_databases). PMID:11752247

  11. Sleep characteristics of young children in Japan: internet study and comparison with other Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun; Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi

    2011-10-01

    A recent international Internet-based study of young children (birth to 36 months) found that total sleep duration in Japan was the shortest among 17 countries/regions. The present study compared features of children's sleep in Japan relative to those in other Asian countries/regions. Parents of 872 infants and toddlers in Japan (48.6% boys), and parents of 20 455 infants and toddlers in 11 other Asian countries/regions (48.1% boys; China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam) completed an Internet-based expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Young children in Japan exhibited significantly fewer nocturnal wakings and shorter daytime sleep in comparison with other Asian countries/regions. Although the former finding was apparent in all age groups, the reduced duration of daytime sleep in Japan was not present until after 3 months of age. Interestingly, sleep problems were reported by significantly fewer parents in Japan compared with those in other Asian countries/regions, although parents in Japan reported significantly more difficulty at bedtime. The short sleep duration of young children in Japan is largely due to a relatively short duration of daytime sleep. Significant differences in sleep characteristics in Japan relative to other Asian regions were found primarily after 3 months of age. Future studies should further explore the underlying causes and the potential impacts of these sleep differences. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Liver transplantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Soyama, Akihiko; Eguchi, Susumu; Egawa, Hiroto

    2016-10-01

    As of December 31, 2014, 7937 liver transplants (7673 living donor transplants and 264 deceased donor liver transplantations [DDLTs; 261 from heart-beating donors and 3 from non-heart-beating donors]) have been performed in 67 institutions in Japan. The revised Organ Transplant Law in Japan came into effect in July 2010, which allows organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, with family consent if the patient had not previously refused organ donation. However, the number of deceased donor organ donations has not increased as anticipated. The rate of deceased organ donations per million population (pmp) has remained at less than 1. To maximize the viability of the limited numbers of donated organs, a system has been adopted that includes the partnership of well-trained transplant consultant doctors and local doctors. For compensating for the decreased opportunity of on-site training, an educational system regarding quality organ procurement for transplant surgeons has also been established. Furthermore, experts in the field of liver transplantation are currently discussing adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score for allocation, promoting split-liver transplantation, arranging in-house coordinators, and improving the frequency of proposing the option to donate organs to the families. To overcome the shortage of donors during efforts to promote organ donation, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been developed in Japan. Continuous efforts to increase DDLT in addition to the successful experience of LDLT will increase the benefits of liver transplantation for more patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1401-1407 2016 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Tsugaru Iwaki Skyline, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-03

    The Tsugaru Iwaki Skyline is a toll road in northern Japan, which partially ascends Mount Iwaki stratovolcano, and is notable for its steep gradient and 69 hairpin turns. The road ascends 806 meters over an average gradient of 8.66%, with some sections going up to 10%. The Tsugaru Iwaki Skyline has been considered one of the most dangerous mountain roads in the world. (Wikipedia) The image was acquired May 26, 2015, and is located at 40.6 degrees north, 140.3 degrees east. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22385

  14. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein stimulates CD14-dependent Toll-like receptor 4 internalization and LPS-induced TBK1-IKKϵ-IRF3 axis activation.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Shino; Kubota, Kanae; Kobayashi, Yohei; Kozakai, Sao; Ukai, Ippo; Shichiku, Ayumi; Okubo, Misaki; Numasaki, Muneo; Kanemitsu, Yoshitomi; Matsumoto, Yotaro; Nochi, Tomonori; Watanabe, Kouichi; Aso, Hisashi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa

    2018-05-14

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an indispensable immune receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall. Following LPS stimulation, TLR4 transmits the signal from the cell surface and becomes internalized in an endosome. However, the spatial regulation of TLR4 signaling is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of LPS-induced TLR4 internalization and clarified the roles of the extracellular LPS-binding molecules, LPS-binding protein (LBP), and glycerophosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (CD14). LPS stimulation of CD14-expressing cells induced TLR4 internalization in the presence of serum, and an inhibitory anti-LBP mAb blocked its internalization. Addition of LBP to serum-free cultures restored LPS-induced TLR4 internalization to comparable levels of serum. The secretory form of the CD14 (sCD14) induced internalization but required a much higher concentration than LBP. An inhibitory anti-sCD14 mAb was ineffective for serum-mediated internalization. LBP lacking the domain for LPS transfer to CD14 and a CD14 mutant with reduced LPS binding both attenuated TLR4 internalization. Accordingly, LBP is an essential serum molecule for TLR4 internalization, and its LPS transfer to membrane-anchored CD14 (mCD14) is a prerequisite. LBP induced the LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of TBK1, IKKϵ, and IRF3, leading to IFN-β expression. However, LPS-stimulated late activation of NFκB or necroptosis were not affected. Collectively, our results indicate that LBP controls LPS-induced TLR4 internalization, which induces TLR adaptor molecule 1 (TRIF)-dependent activation of the TBK1-IKKϵ-IRF3-IFN-β pathway. In summary, we showed that LBP-mediated LPS transfer to mCD14 is required for serum-dependent TLR4 internalization and activation of the TRIF pathway. Copyright © 2018, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Lactococcus lactis expressing either Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin-binding protein A or Listeria monocytogenes internalin A can efficiently internalize and deliver DNA in human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Innocentin, Silvia; Guimarães, Valeria; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Langella, Philippe; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Lefèvre, François

    2009-07-01

    Lactococci are noninvasive bacteria frequently used as protein delivery vectors and, more recently, as in vitro and in vivo DNA delivery vehicles. We previously showed that a functional eukaryotic enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expression plasmid vector was delivered in epithelial cells by Lactococcus lactis producing Listeria monocytogenes internalin A (L. lactis InlA(+)), but this strategy is limited in vivo to transgenic mice and guinea pigs. In this study, we compare the internalization ability of L. lactis InlA(+) and L. lactis producing either the fibronectin-binding protein A of Staphylococcus aureus (L. lactis FnBPA(+)) or its fibronectin binding domains C and D (L. lactis CD(+)). L. lactis FnBPA(+) and L. lactis InlA(+) showed comparable internalization rates in Caco-2 cells, while the internalization rate observed with L. lactis CD(+) was lower. As visualized by conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy, large clusters of L. lactis FnBPA(+), L. lactis CD(+), and L. lactis InlA(+) were present in the cytoplasm of Caco-2 cells after internalization. Moreover, the internalization rates of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and of an NCFM mutant strain with the gene coding for the fibronectin-binding protein (fbpA) inactivated were also evaluated in Caco-2 cells. Similar low internalization rates were observed for both wild-type L. acidophilus NCFM and the fbpA mutant, suggesting that commensal fibronectin binding proteins have a role in adhesion but not in invasion. L. lactis FnBPA(+), L. lactis CD(+), and L. lactis InlA(+) were then used to deliver a eukaryotic eGFP expression plasmid in Caco-2 cells: flow cytometry analysis showed that the highest percentage of green fluorescent Caco-2 cells was observed after coculture with either L. lactis FnBPA(+) or L. lactis InlA(+). Analysis of the in vivo efficiency of these invasive recombinant strains is currently in progress to validate their potential as DNA vaccine delivery vehicles.

  16. [Requirement of standardizing anti-HBs assay methods in Japan for HBV infection-preventing strategy--discrepancy of anti-HBs measurements among three different kits widely used in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norio

    2006-09-01

    The strategy to eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by administrating an HB vaccine is changing worldwide; however, this is not the case in Japan. An important concern about the HBV infection-preventing strategy in Japan may be that the assay methods for the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are not standardized. The minimum protective anti-HBs titer against HBV infection has been established as 10 mIU/ml by World Health Organization (WHO) -standardized assay methods worldwide, but that is still determined as a "positive" test result by the passive hemagglutination (PHA) method in Japan. We compared anti-HBs measurements in given samples among PHA(Mycell II, Institute of Immunology), chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) (Lumipulse, Fujirebio), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Architect, Abbott), all of which are currently in wide use in Japan. First, anti-HBs measurements in serum from individuals who received a yeast-derived recombinant HB vaccine composed of the major surface protein of either subtype adr or subtype ayw were compared. The results clearly showed that in subtype adr-vaccinees CLIA underestimated the anti-HBs amount compared with CLEIA and PHA, but in ayw-vaccinees, the discordance in the measurements among the three kits was not prominent. Second, anti-HBs measurements in standard or calibration solutions of each assay kit were compared. Surprisingly, CLEIA showed higher measurements in all three kit-associated standard or calibration solutions than CLIA. Thus, the anti-HBs titer of 10 mIU/ml is difficult to introduce in Japan as the minimum protective level against HBV infection. Efforts to standardize anti-HBs assay methods are expected to share international evidence about the HBV infection-preventing strategy.

  17. The Future of the Protein Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Helen M.; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Nakamura, Haruki; Markley, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) is the international collaboration that manages the deposition, processing and distribution of the PDB archive. The wwPDB’s mission is to maintain a single archive of macromolecular structural data that are freely and publicly available to the global community. Its members [RCSB PDB (USA), PDBe (Europe), PDBj (Japan), and BMRB (USA)] host data-deposition sites and mirror the PDB ftp archive. To support future developments in structural biology, the wwPDB partners are addressing organizational, scientific, and technical challenges. PMID:23023942

  18. Quantitative measurement of cell membrane receptor internalization by the nanoluciferase reporter: Using the G protein-coupled receptor RXFP3 as a model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Song, Ge; Shao, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Ya-Li; Guo, Zhan-Yun

    2015-02-01

    Nanoluciferase (NanoLuc) is a newly developed small luciferase reporter with the brightest bioluminescence to date. In the present work, we developed NanoLuc as a sensitive bioluminescent reporter to measure quantitatively the internalization of cell membrane receptors, based on the pH dependence of the reporter activity. The G protein-coupled receptor RXFP3, the cognate receptor of relaxin-3/INSL7, was used as a model receptor. We first generated stable HEK293T cells that inducibly coexpressed a C-terminally NanoLuc-tagged human RXFP3 and a C-terminally enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged human RXFP3. The C-terminal EGFP-tag and NanoLuc-tag had no detrimental effects on the ligand-binding potency and intracellular trafficking of RXFP3. Based on the fluorescence of the tagged EGFP reporter, the ligand-induced RXFP3 internalization was visualized directly under a fluorescence microscope. Based on the bioluminescence of the tagged NanoLuc reporter, the ligand-induced RXFP3 internalization was measured quantitatively by a convenient bioluminescent assay. Coexpression of an EGFP-tagged inactive [E141R]RXFP3 had no detrimental effect on the ligand-binding potency and ligand-induced internalization of the NanoLuc-tagged wild-type RXFP3, suggesting that the mutant RXFP3 and wild-type RXFP3 worked independently. The present bioluminescent internalization assay could be extended to other G protein-coupled receptors and other cell membrane receptors to study ligand-receptor and receptor-receptor interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  20. Women of courage. Japan.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    JOICFP President Shidzue Kato was influenced by and friends with Margaret Sanger from their initial meeting in 1920 to Sanger's death in 1966. Bruce Alfred is currently directing and producing a 90-minute documentary film about Sanger and her pioneering work in promoting the development and use of family planning. Once completed in the Spring of 1997, the film will be broadcast nationally in the US on Public Television. It is being produced with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities and several private foundations. Alfred interviewed Kato for three hours to gain insight into the life and legacy of Margaret Sanger. Sanger inspired Kato to make birth control her life's work. Kato spoke about how the prewar, pronatalist Japanese government allowed Sanger to visit Japan in 1922 only on the condition that she not speak about birth control. This official opposition and the subsequent reaction, however, actually fueled interest in Sanger and her message, and caused her ideas to become widely known among the Japanese public. While in Japan, Sanger did manage to discuss family planning, but in English in a closed meeting. Oddly enough, the government honored Sanger after the second World War with the highest award presented to non-Japanese. Kato noted how unfortunate it was that Sanger died in 1966 without witnessing the realization of the UNFPA.

  1. Down-regulation of lipid raft-associated onco-proteins via cholesterol-dependent lipid raft internalization in docosahexaenoic acid-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jeong; Yun, Un-Jung; Koo, Kyung Hee; Sung, Jee Young; Shim, Jaegal; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Kim, Yong-Nyun

    2014-01-01

    Lipid rafts, plasma membrane microdomains, are important for cell survival signaling and cholesterol is a critical lipid component for lipid raft integrity and function. DHA is known to have poor affinity for cholesterol and it influences lipid rafts. Here, we investigated a mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of DHA using a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. We found that DHA decreased cell surface levels of lipid rafts via their internalization, which was partially reversed by cholesterol addition. With DHA treatment, caveolin-1, a marker for rafts, and EGFR were colocalized with LAMP-1, a lysosomal marker, in a cholesterol-dependent manner, indicating that DHA induces raft fusion with lysosomes. DHA not only displaced several raft-associated onco-proteins, including EGFR, Hsp90, Akt, and Src, from the rafts but also decreased total levels of those proteins via multiple pathways, including the proteasomal and lysosomal pathways, thereby decreasing their activities. Hsp90 overexpression maintained its client proteins, EGFR and Akt, and attenuated DHA-induced cell death. In addition, overexpression of Akt or constitutively active Akt attenuated DHA-induced apoptosis. All these data indicate that the anti-proliferative effect of DHA is mediated by targeting of lipid rafts via decreasing cell surface lipid rafts by their internalization, thereby decreasing raft-associated onco-proteins via proteasomal and lysosomal pathways and decreasing Hsp90 chaperone function. © 2013.

  2. The group B streptococcal alpha C protein binds alpha1beta1-integrin through a novel KTD motif that promotes internalization of GBS within human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Gilles R; Madoff, Lawrence C

    2007-12-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis among neonates and a cause of morbidity among pregnant women and immunocompromised adults. GBS epithelial cell invasion is associated with expression of alpha C protein (ACP). Loss of ACP expression results in a decrease in GBS internalization and translocation across human cervical epithelial cells (ME180). Soluble ACP and its 170 amino acid N-terminal region (NtACP), but not the repeat protein RR', bind to ME180 cells and reduce internalization of wild-type GBS to levels obtained with an ACP-deficient isogenic mutant. In the current study, ACP colocalized with alpha(1)beta(1)-integrin, resulting in integrin clustering as determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. NtACP contains two structural domains, D1 and D2. D1 is structurally similar to fibronectin's integrin-binding region (FnIII10). D1's (KT)D146 motif is structurally similar to the FnIII10 (RG)D1495 integrin-binding motif, suggesting that ACP binds alpha(1)beta(1)-integrin via the D1 domain. The (KT)D146A mutation within soluble NtACP reduced its ability to bind alpha(1)beta(1)-integrin and inhibit GBS internalization within ME180 cells. Thus ACP binding to human epithelial cell integrins appears to contribute to GBS internalization within epithelial cells.

  3. At the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 48-49 prime crewmember Kate Rubins of NASA (left) and her backup, NASA���s Peggy Whitson (right) share a game of chess June 30 during pre-launch activities. Rubins, Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos and Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, will launch July 7, Baikonur time, on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station...NASA/Alexander Vysotsky.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-30

    At the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 48-49 prime crewmember Kate Rubins of NASA (left) and her backup, NASA’s Peggy Whitson (right) share a game of chess June 30 during pre-launch activities. Rubins, Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos and Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, will launch July 7, Baikonur time, on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Alexander Vysotsky

  4. At the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 48-49 crewmembers Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (left) and Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos share a game of ping-pong June 30 during pre-launch activities. They and Kate Rubins of NASA will launch July 7, Baikonur time, on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station...NASA/Alexander Vysotsky.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-30

    At the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 48-49 crewmembers Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (left) and Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos share a game of ping-pong June 30 during pre-launch activities. They and Kate Rubins of NASA will launch July 7, Baikonur time, on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Alexander Vysotsky

  5. At the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 48-49 crewmember Kate Rubins of NASA takes a spin in a rotating chair to test her vestibular system June 30 as part of pre-launch activities. Rubins, Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos and Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency will launch July 7, Baikonur time, on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station...NASA/Alexander Vysotsky.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-30

    At the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 48-49 crewmember Kate Rubins of NASA takes a spin in a rotating chair to test her vestibular system June 30 as part of pre-launch activities. Rubins, Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos and Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency will launch July 7, Baikonur time, on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Alexander Vysotsky

  6. At the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 48-49 crewmembers Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos (foreground) and Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency conduct tests of their vestibular system on tilt tables June 30 as part of pre-launch activities. They and Kate Rubins of NASA will launch July 7, Baikonur time, on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station...NASA/Alexander Vysotsky.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-30

    At the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 48-49 crewmembers Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos (foreground) and Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency conduct tests of their vestibular system on tilt tables June 30 as part of pre-launch activities. They and Kate Rubins of NASA will launch July 7, Baikonur time, on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Alexander Vysotsky

  7. At the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 48-49 crewmember Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency takes a spin in a rotating chair to test his vestibular system June 30 as part of pre-launch activities. Onishi, Kate Rubins of NASA and Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos will launch July 7, Baikonur time, on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station...NASA/Alexander Vysotsky.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-30

    At the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 48-49 crewmember Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency takes a spin in a rotating chair to test his vestibular system June 30 as part of pre-launch activities. Onishi, Kate Rubins of NASA and Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos will launch July 7, Baikonur time, on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Alexander Vysotsky

  8. Analyses and Comparisons of Science Curricula in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Willard J.; And Others

    An analysis and comparison of science education in Japan and the United States is presented. Studies in comparative science education, including the first and second International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) and the Japan and United States Cooperative Science Project, provide an empirical base for some of the…

  9. 77 FR 32998 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or... USITC Publication 4325 (May 2012), entitled Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan...

  10. The Misunderstood Problem of Consumer Protection in Japan: The Roles of Lawyers and the Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Michael Peter

    1995-01-01

    Introduces the role of law and government in consumer protection in Japan. Suggests that recognition of cultural differences between U.S. and Japanese societies can provide insights that will stimulate the U.S. consumer movement to confront the anticonsumer structures in Japan while respecting their internal values. (Author/JOW)

  11. 78 FR 42041 - Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan, and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to... Foreign Commercial Service is amending notice for the Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan... executive lead the Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan and Korea, March 10-14, 2014, published...

  12. An Interview with Professor Ohtomo: The Founding Father of Language Testing in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Miyoko; Negishi, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Professor Kenji Ohtomo who retired in March 2006 from the post of Dean, College of Applied International Studies, Tokiwa University, Mito, in Japan. Professor Ohtomo is currently a Professor Emeritus at the University of Tsukuba and Honorary President of the Japan Language Testing Association, of which he…

  13. A Shift Away from an Egalitarian System: Where Do the Current Reforms in Japan Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yano, Hirotoshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with an overall changing trend witnessed in public schooling in Japan, known as educational reforms. Through looking at recent reforms in Japan, with an international trend in view, the author first summarizes educational reforms as waves of liberalization that have changed the post-war fundamental principle of Japanese education.…

  14. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  15. Barbarian medicine in feudal Japan.

    PubMed

    Fodstad, Harald; Hariz, Marwan I; Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Ohye, Chihiro

    2002-10-01

    THE FIRST EUROPEANS to discover Japan were Portuguese traders who arrived in 1542. Fifteen years later, the Portuguese Jesuit priest and surgeon Luis De Almeida (1525-1583) founded the first Western hospital in Japan, for the care of lepers, syphilitics, and orphans. Because the hospital had a negative influence on the spread of Christianity, the Jesuits closed it in 1586. During the Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868), when Japan was secluded from the rest of the world, the only foreign physicians allowed to enter Japan were those employed by the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki. Only four of those physicians left behind seeds for the foundation of Western medicine in Japan, namely Caspar Schambergen, who founded a Japanese school of surgery in 1650; Engelbert Kämpfer, who visited Japan in 1691 to 1692; Carl Peter Thunberg, who botanically explored Japan in 1775 to 1776; and Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold, who practiced medicine in Nagasaki in 1823 to 1829 and 1859 to 1861. On the whole, Western medicine and surgery never established a real foothold in Japan until the fall of the shogunate and the restoration of the emperor in 1868.

  16. English education for healthcare professionals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Moross, Janelle; Seki, Naoko; Morio, Ikuko

    2017-11-01

    In a global environment, education for healthcare professionals should include cultivating human resources who have the necessary skills to work in an international arena. This article will review the current status of English education for dental healthcare professionals in Japan. After conducting a literature search using the keywords: English education, Japan, and dental, only a few studies were found that investigated and proposed suggestions for dental professional English education. Even so, these were still in the early stages with outcomes yet to be fully evaluated. Even though English is thought indispensable for global professionals, and that increasing chances for communication skills is necessary, little attention has been addressed to English education for dental professionals or the implementation of such education in the Japanese undergraduate dental curricula. With the current reality of field expansion in dentistry, the need for not only improved English communication skills for Japanese dentists, but also the acquisition of essential expertise, psychomotor, teambuilding, critical thinking, and creative thinking skills in English as well as Japanese, is a definite probability. In order to reach this level of knowledge, further efforts and research would be necessary for the advancement and development of dental professional English education in Japan.

  17. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  18. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  19. Analysis of the neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 in internal limiting membranes after indocyanine-green assisted peeling.

    PubMed

    Peters, Swaantje; Tatar, Olcay; Spitzer, Martin S; Szurman, Peter; Aisenbrey, Sabine; Lüke, Matthias; Adam, Annemarie; Yoeruek, Efdal; Grisanti, Salvatore

    2009-02-01

    Indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling was suspected to disrupt the innermost layer of the neural retina. We examined whether surgically excised specimens contain remnants of neuronal tissue. Ten patients with macular hole underwent pars plana vitrectomy and indocyanine green-assisted ILM peeling. A total of 0.1 mL of a 0.5% indocyanine green solution was applied for 15 seconds. The ILM specimens were prepared for immunohistochemistry, using a polyclonal antibody against protein gene product 9.5. Protein gene product 9.5 is a pan-neuronal marker labeling human neuronal cells. Appropriate controls to show selectivity of the antibody were performed on neuronal tissue of donor eyes. One ILM was prepared for electron microscopy. A selective expression of protein gene product 9.5 was found in neuronal fibers of the retina and optic nerve of donor eyes. Only 1 of the 10 surgical ILM specimens showed a minimal focal positivity for protein gene product 9.5. No neuronal tissue was detected on the ILM by electron microscopy. Focal expression of protein gene product 9.5 in only 1 of 10 surgical ILM specimens argues against a general indocyanine green-related disruption of the innermost retinal layers. However, higher concentrations of the dye, longer incubation times or different solvents than used in this study may lead to different results.

  20. Disability Evaluation in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    To examine the current state and social ramifications of disability evaluation in Japan, public data from Annual Reports on Health and Welfare 1998-1999 were investigated. All data were analyzed based on the classification of disabilities and the effects of age-appropriate welfare services, which have been developed through a half-century of legislative efforts to support disability evaluation. These data suggest that disability evaluation, while essentially affected by age and impairment factors at a minimum, was impacted more by the assistive environment for disabilities. The assistive environment was found to be closely linked with the welfare support system related to a global assessment in the field of community-based rehabilitation. PMID:19503677

  1. Will Japan Rearm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-10

    Faculty Accepte d th is _________ day of~~~U)~4 l977~c~y.11 -~~~~~~~~~~~~D i rector , Master of Militar y Art Science . The opinions and...j~ s’ri : ‘~~~~ ~ IC . _ __~~~~~~ i 1~~~~~n Unhi ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 150 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ L~ MASTER OF MILITARY ART ... SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate Joseph Bertrand Berger, Jr. Major, Air Defense Artillery T it le of Thes i s W i l l Japan Rearm

  2. Japan: seeds of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Domoto, A

    1993-01-01

    Historically, women's bodies in Japan have been viewed as tools to support larger national populations. Men remain emotionally and physically in control sexual relations. Women are deprived of adequate information to exert control over their bodies and fertility. Health and welfare policies view women's sexuality strictly in terms of marriage and motherhood; the reproductive health needs of unmarried women are ignored. There are no clinics where women can receive information about sexuality or contraception, despite the existence since 1952 of a national family planning program. Abortion remains the predominant form of birth control since oral contraceptives are not available and diaphragms and IUDs are difficult to obtain. Japanese women are beginning to organize for gender, reproductive, and sexual rights, but traditional attitudes remain a barrier. If Japanese women are to control their own bodies, they must first understand them through access to sex education. Clinics should be established where women can obtain information, counseling and services on sex, abortion, and contraception.

  3. Typhoon Chataan off Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Slowly winding its way down, Typhoon Chataan had dropped to tropical storm status by Thursday, July 11, 2002, when this image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was captured. In the image, the storm is located off the east coast of central Japan in the Pacific Ocean. The storm is much less organized than it was in the previous day's image. Through a gap in the clouds to the southwest of the storm's eye, Tokyo can be seen as a grayish cluster of pixels surrounding a small bay or inlet that protrudes into the island of Honshu. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; data provided by the MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  4. Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

  5. What Constitutes Traditional and Modern Eating? The Case of Japan.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Imada, Sumio; Furumitsu, Isato; Rozin, Paul; Ruby, Matthew B; Arbit, Naomi; Fischler, Claude; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2018-01-25

    Traditional Japanese dietary culture might be a factor contributing to the high life expectancy in Japan. As little is known about what constitutes traditional and modern eating in Japan, the aims of the current study were to (1) comprehensively compile and systematize the various facets of traditional and modern eating; and (2) investigate whether these facets also apply to traditional and modern eating in Japan. In Study 1, an extensive international literature review was performed. Forty-five facets of traditional and modern eating were compiled and systematized into the dimensions of what and how people eat, and into eleven separate subdimensions. In Study 2, 340 adults from Japan answered a questionnaire. Results showed that traditional and modern eating in Japan is reflected in both what and how people eat. Within these two dimensions, ten subdimensions were found: the ingredients, processing, temporal origin, spatial origin, and variety of consumed foods, as well as temporal, spatial, and social aspects, appreciation, and concerns when eating. This study provides a broad compilation of facets of traditional and modern eating in Japan. Future research should investigate how these facets are related to life expectancy and health.

  6. What Constitutes Traditional and Modern Eating? The Case of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Imada, Sumio; Furumitsu, Isato; Rozin, Paul; Ruby, Matthew B.; Arbit, Naomi; Fischler, Claude; Schupp, Harald T.; Renner, Britta

    2018-01-01

    Traditional Japanese dietary culture might be a factor contributing to the high life expectancy in Japan. As little is known about what constitutes traditional and modern eating in Japan, the aims of the current study were to (1) comprehensively compile and systematize the various facets of traditional and modern eating; and (2) investigate whether these facets also apply to traditional and modern eating in Japan. In Study 1, an extensive international literature review was performed. Forty-five facets of traditional and modern eating were compiled and systematized into the dimensions of what and how people eat, and into eleven separate subdimensions. In Study 2, 340 adults from Japan answered a questionnaire. Results showed that traditional and modern eating in Japan is reflected in both what and how people eat. Within these two dimensions, ten subdimensions were found: the ingredients, processing, temporal origin, spatial origin, and variety of consumed foods, as well as temporal, spatial, and social aspects, appreciation, and concerns when eating. This study provides a broad compilation of facets of traditional and modern eating in Japan. Future research should investigate how these facets are related to life expectancy and health. PMID:29370081

  7. Extracellular Vesicles from Parasitic Helminths Contain Specific Excretory/Secretory Proteins and Are Internalized in Intestinal Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Antonio; Trelis, María; Cortés, Alba; Sotillo, Javier; Cantalapiedra, Fernando; Minguez, María Teresa; Valero, María Luz; Sánchez del Pino, Manuel Mateo; Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Toledo, Rafael; Bernal, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    The study of host-parasite interactions has increased considerably in the last decades, with many studies focusing on the identification of parasite molecules (i.e. surface or excretory/secretory proteins (ESP)) as potential targets for new specific treatments and/or diagnostic tools. In parallel, in the last few years there have been significant advances in the field of extracellular vesicles research. Among these vesicles, exosomes of endocytic origin, with a characteristic size ranging from 30–100 nm, carry several atypical secreted proteins in different organisms, including parasitic protozoa. Here, we present experimental evidence for the existence of exosome-like vesicles in parasitic helminths, specifically the trematodes Echinostoma caproni and Fasciola hepatica. These microvesicles are actively released by the parasites and are taken up by host cells. Trematode extracellular vesicles contain most of the proteins previously identified as components of ESP, as confirmed by proteomic, immunogold labeling and electron microscopy studies. In addition to parasitic proteins, we also identify host proteins in these structures. The existence of extracellular vesicles explains the secretion of atypical proteins in trematodes, and the demonstration of their uptake by host cells suggests an important role for these structures in host-parasite communication, as described for other infectious agents. PMID:23029346

  8. The Educational System in Japan: Case Study Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Harold; Lee, Shin-Ying; Nerison-Low, Roberta

    This document summarizes the findings of a year-long study that used case studies of specific schools in Japan to collect qualitative data on the Japanese educational experience. From 1994-95 the Case Study Project (a component of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study) collected information from interviews with students, parents,…

  9. Development Education and Japan. Development Education Paper No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muro, Osamu

    Unique economic, social, and cultural conditions explain why Japan, as one of the leading industrialized nations, has no organization which specializes in or is concerned with development education. Contributing factors are: (1) economic success is so recent (late 1960's) that people are involved internally enjoying hard won affluence; (2)…

  10. Why Lesson Study Works in Japan: A Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max

    2014-01-01

    Japanese lesson study has attracted many international educators who have been impressed by its capacity to foster student learning and sustained professional growth of teachers. This paper reports a study on its cultural orientations that may explain why lesson study works seamlessly in Japan. Hofstede's dimensions of national culture are…

  11. Issues Surrounding Mobility with Particular Reference to Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameoka, Yu

    1996-01-01

    Several issues in college student mobility between Japan and other member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) are examined, including the role of organized regional mobility in various areas of the world, curriculum development to meet the needs of international students, and the need for more analysis of…

  12. Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan: What Is Called into Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the different ways in which the notion of multiculturalism in Japan has been influenced by various social and historical trajectories. Since the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" in the 1980's, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural exchange," and…

  13. ELKS, a Protein Structurally Related to the Active Zone-associated Protein CAST, Is Expressed in Pancreatic β Cells and Functions in Insulin Exocytosis: Interaction of ELKS with Exocytotic Machinery Analyzed by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence MicroscopyV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Matsushima, Satsuki; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Nishiwaki, Chiyono; Nakamichi, Yoko; Kikuta, Toshiteru; Nagai, Shintaro; Kawakami, Hayato; Watanabe, Takashi; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2005-01-01

    The cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) has been implicated in defining the site of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Here, we demonstrate the expression and function of ELKS, a protein structurally related to the CAZ protein CAST, in insulin exocytosis. The results of confocal and immunoelectron microscopic analysis showed that ELKS is present in pancreatic β cells and is localized close to insulin granules docked on the plasma membrane-facing blood vessels. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging in insulin-producing clonal cells revealed that the ELKS clusters are less dense and unevenly distributed than syntaxin 1 clusters, which are enriched in the plasma membrane. Most of the ELKS clusters were on the docking sites of insulin granules that were colocalized with syntaxin 1 clusters. Total internal reflection fluorescence images of single-granule motion showed that the fusion events of insulin granules mostly occurred on the ELKS cluster, where repeated fusion was sometimes observed. When the Bassoon-binding region of ELKS was introduced into the cells, the docking and fusion of insulin granules were markedly reduced. Moreover, attenuation of ELKS expression by small interfering RNA reduced the glucose-evoked insulin release. These data suggest that the CAZ-related protein ELKS functions in insulin exocytosis from pancreatic β cells. PMID:15888548

  14. A pH-sensitive fluor, CypHer 5, used to monitor agonist-induced G protein-coupled receptor internalization in live cells.

    PubMed

    Adie, E J; Kalinka, S; Smith, L; Francis, M J; Marenghi, A; Cooper, M E; Briggs, M; Michael, N P; Milligan, G; Game, S

    2002-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of proteins involved in transmembrane signal transduction and are actively studied because of their suitability as therapeutic small-molecule drug targets. Agonist activation of GPCRs almost invariably results in the receptor being desensitized. One of the key events in receptor desensitization is the sequestration of the receptor from the cell surface into acidic intracellular endosomes. Therefore, a convenient, generic, and noninvasive monitor of this process is desirable. A novel, pH-sensitive, red-excited fluorescent dye, CypHer 5, was synthesized. This dye is non-fluorescent at neutral pH and is fluorescent at acidic pH. Anti-epitope antibodies labeled with this dye were internalized in an agonist concentration- and time-dependent manner, following binding on live cells to a range of GPCRs that had been modified to incorporate the epitope tags in their extracellular N-terminal domain. This resulted in a large signal increase over background. When protonated, the red fluorescence of CypHer 5 provides a generic reagent suitable for monitoring the internalization of GPCRs into acidic vesicles. This approach should be amenable to the study of many other classes of cell surface receptors that also internalize following stimulation.

  15. Corynebacterium diphtheriae invasion-associated protein (DIP1281) is involved in cell surface organization, adhesion and internalization in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria, is well-investigated in respect to toxin production, while little is known about C. diphtheriae factors crucial for colonization of the host. In this study, we investigated the function of surface-associated protein DIP1281, previously annotated as hypothetical invasion-associated protein. Results Microscopic inspection of DIP1281 mutant strains revealed an increased size of the single cells in combination with an altered less club-like shape and formation of chains of cells rather than the typical V-like division forms or palisades of growing C. diphtheriae cells. Cell viability was not impaired. Immuno-fluorescence microscopy, SDS-PAGE and 2-D PAGE of surface proteins revealed clear differences of wild-type and mutant protein patterns, which were verified by atomic force microscopy. DIP1281 mutant cells were not only altered in shape and surface structure but completely lack the ability to adhere to host cells and consequently invade these. Conclusions Our data indicate that DIP1281 is predominantly involved in the organization of the outer surface protein layer rather than in the separation of the peptidoglycan cell wall of dividing bacteria. The adhesion- and invasion-negative phenotype of corresponding mutant strains is an effect of rearrangements of the outer surface. PMID:20051108

  16. Acrylonitrile Quenching of Trp Phosphorescence in Proteins: A Probe of the Internal Flexibility of the Globular Fold

    PubMed Central

    Strambini, Giovanni B.; Gonnelli, Margherita

    2010-01-01

    Quenching of Trp phosphorescence in proteins by diffusion of solutes of various molecular sizes unveils the frequency-amplitude of structural fluctuations. To cover the sizes gap between O2 and acrylamide, we examined the potential of acrylonitrile to probe conformational flexibility of proteins. The distance dependence of the through-space acrylonitrile quenching rate was determined in a glass at 77 K, with the indole analog 2-(3-indoyl) ethyl phenyl ketone. Intensity and decay kinetics data were fitted to a rate, k(r) = k0 exp[−(r − r0)/re], with an attenuation length re = 0.03 nm and a contact rate k0 = 3.6 × 1010 s−1. At ambient temperature, the bimolecular quenching rate constant (kq) was determined for a series of proteins, appositely selected to test the importance of factors such as the degree of Trp burial and structural rigidity. Relative to kq = 1.9 × 109 M−1s−1 for free Trp in water, in proteins kq ranged from 6.5 × 106 M−1s−1 for superficial sites to 1.3 × 102 M−1s−1 for deep cores. The short-range nature of the interaction and the direct correlation between kq and structural flexibility attest that in the microsecond-second timescale of phosphorescence acrylonitrile readily penetrates even compact protein cores and exhibits significant sensitivity to variations in dynamical structure of the globular fold. PMID:20682273

  17. Recent activities of the physical society of Japan and the Japan society of applied physics gender equality promotion committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaki, K.; Okiharu, F.; Tajima, S.; Takayama, H.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2013-03-01

    The results of a 2007 large-scale survey of gender equality in scientific and technological professions in Japan are reported. The activities of two Japanese physics societies in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics was held in 2008 are reported.

  18. Differences in molecular characteristics between Cronartium quercuum from Japan and fusiform rust from USA

    Treesearch

    Hitoshi Nakamura; Shigeru Kaneko; Pauline Spaine

    1998-01-01

    The molecular characteristics were compared among Cronartium quercuum f. sp. densiflorae and C. quercuum f. sp. thunbergii from Japan and C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme, fusiform rust from the USA. The authors examined the PCR-amplified internal transcribed...

  19. Detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Associated with Exotic Reptiles and Amphibians Imported into Japan

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Masako; Sakata, Akiko; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiromi; Une, Yumi; Goka, Koichi; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ando, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan. Ninety-three ticks representing nine tick species (genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma) were isolated from at least 28 animals spanning 10 species and originating from 12 countries (Ghana, Jordan, Madagascar, Panama, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uzbekistan, and Zambia). None of the nine tick species are indigenous in Japan. The genes encoding the common rickettsial 17-kDa antigen, citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein A (ompA) were positively detected in 45.2% (42/93), 40.9% (38/93), and 23.7% (22/93) of the ticks, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genes encoding ehrlichial heat shock protein (groEL) and major outer membrane protein (omp-1) were PCR-positive in 7.5% (7/93) and 2.2% (2/93) of the ticks, respectively. The p44 gene, which encodes the Anaplasma outer membrane protein, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that several of the rickettsial and ehrlichial sequences isolated in this study were highly similar to human pathogen genes, including agents not previously detected in Japan. These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks. These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life. These results highlight the need to control the international transportation of known and

  20. Detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Associated with Exotic Reptiles and Amphibians Imported into Japan.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Masako; Sakata, Akiko; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiromi; Une, Yumi; Goka, Koichi; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ando, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan. Ninety-three ticks representing nine tick species (genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma) were isolated from at least 28 animals spanning 10 species and originating from 12 countries (Ghana, Jordan, Madagascar, Panama, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uzbekistan, and Zambia). None of the nine tick species are indigenous in Japan. The genes encoding the common rickettsial 17-kDa antigen, citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein A (ompA) were positively detected in 45.2% (42/93), 40.9% (38/93), and 23.7% (22/93) of the ticks, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genes encoding ehrlichial heat shock protein (groEL) and major outer membrane protein (omp-1) were PCR-positive in 7.5% (7/93) and 2.2% (2/93) of the ticks, respectively. The p44 gene, which encodes the Anaplasma outer membrane protein, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that several of the rickettsial and ehrlichial sequences isolated in this study were highly similar to human pathogen genes, including agents not previously detected in Japan. These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks. These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life. These results highlight the need to control the international transportation of known and

  1. Citrulline for urea cycle disorders in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Kido, Jun; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Ohura, Toshihiro; Endo, Fumio

    2017-04-01

    The amino acid l-citrulline is used as a therapeutic agent for urea cycle disorders (UCD) including ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency (CPSD), and N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency. There are few reports, however, on the use of l-citrulline in Japan and little consensus regarding the effects of l-citrulline. We conducted a questionnaire survey of patients undergoing l-citrulline treatment for a UCD to evaluate the current status of this therapy. The survey included patient background, details of l-citrulline treatment, clinical examination data, treatment, frequency of vomiting, and liver transplantation. We retrospectively investigated 43 questionnaire respondents (OTCD, n = 33; CPSD, n = 10). The weight of male OTCD patients improved by +0.79 SD, and the ammonia level decreased by a mean of 44.3 μmol/L in all patients. The protein intake of all patients and of male OTCD patients increased by 0.14 g/kg/day and 0.17 g/kg/day, respectively. l-Citrulline effectively reduced ammonia level, increased protein intake, and improved weight gain in UCD patients. l-Citrulline should be considered a standard therapy in OTCD and CPSD patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. A combined EPR and MD simulation study of a nitroxyl spin label with restricted internal mobility sensitive to protein dynamics.

    PubMed

    Oganesyan, Vasily S; Chami, Fatima; White, Gaye F; Thomson, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    EPR studies combined with fully atomistic Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and an MD-EPR simulation method provide evidence for intrinsic low rotameric mobility of a nitroxyl spin label, Rn, compared to the more widely employed label MTSL (R1). Both experimental and modelling results using two structurally different sites of attachment to Myoglobin show that the EPR spectra of Rn are more sensitive to the local protein environment than that of MTSL. This study reveals the potential of using the Rn spin label as a reporter of protein motions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The C-Terminal Fragment of the Internal 110-Kilodalton Passenger Domain of the Hap Protein of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Is a Potential Vaccine Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dai-Fang; Mason, Kathryn W.; Mastri, Maria; Pazirandeh, Mehran; Cutter, David; Fink, Doran L.; St. Geme, Joseph W.; Zhu, Duzhang; Green, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a major causative agent of bacterial otitis media in children. H. influenzae Hap autotransporter protein is an adhesin composed of an outer membrane Hapβ region and a moiety of an extracellular internal 110-kDa passenger domain called HapS. The HapS moiety promotes adherence to human epithelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins, and it also mediates bacterial aggregation and microcolony formation. A recent work (D. L. Fink, A. Z. Buscher, B. A. Green, P. Fernsten, and J. W. St. Geme, Cell. Microbiol. 5:175-186, 2003) demonstrated that HapS adhesive activity resides within the C-terminal 311 amino acids (the cell binding domain) of the protein. In this study, we immunized mice subcutaneously with recombinant proteins corresponding to the C-terminal region of HapS from H. influenzae strains N187, P860295, and TN106 and examined the resulting immune response. Antisera against the recombinant proteins from all three strains not only recognized native HapS purified from strain P860295 but also inhibited H. influenzae Hap-mediated adherence to Chang epithelial cells. Furthermore, when mice immunized intranasally with recombinant protein plus mutant cholera toxin CT-E29H were challenged with strain TN106, they were protected against nasopharyngeal colonization. These observations demonstrate that the C-terminal region of HapS is capable of eliciting cross-reacting antibodies that reduce nasopharyngeal colonization, suggesting utility as a vaccine antigen for the prevention of nontypeable H. influenzae diseases. PMID:15557618

  4. JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Papenbrock, Thomas

    2014-05-16

    The grant “JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei ” (DOE DE-FG02-06ER41407) ran from 02/01/2006 thru 12/31/2013. JUSTIPEN is a venue for international collaboration between U.S.-based and Japanese scientists who share an interest in theory of rare isotopes. Since its inception JUSTIPEN has supported many visitors, fostered collaborations between physicists in the U.S. and Japan, and enabled them to deepen our understanding of exotic nuclei and their role in cosmos.

  5. Nagano, Japan 1998

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite captured this stunning view of Japan’ four largest islands on February 20, 2004. The snow-covered southern arm of Hokkaido extends into the upper left corner. Honshu, Japan’s largest island, curves across the center of the image. Shikoku, right, and Kyushu, left, form the southern tip of the group. Japan is mostly mountainous, and, as the dusting of snow in this image shows, is cold in the north and more tropical in the south. A single red dot marks the location of an active fire. Credit: Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. Typhoon Neoguri Approaching Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-09

    NASA's Terra satellite captured this visible image on July 9 at 02:30 UTC (July 8 at 10:30 p.m. EDT) as Typhoon Neoguri was approaching Kyushu, Japan. The visible image revealed that Neoguri's eye had disappeared and the center has become somewhat elongated as the storm weakened into a tropical storm. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC noted that an upper level analysis revealed that Neoguri is now in a more harsh environment as northerly vertical wind shear increased to as much as 30 knots. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  7. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  8. Contraception in Japan: Current trends.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Honami; Sakamoto, Haruka; Leslie, Asuka; Takahashi, Osamu; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Kitamura, Kunio

    2016-06-01

    High proportion of Japanese uses condoms; lower proportion uses oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). We examined the longitudinal patterns for contraceptive usage in Japan and evaluated differences before and after OCP government approval. We accessed nationally representative survey data for women aged 16-49years from 1950 to 2014. Usage of condoms and OCP was 83.4% and 3.0%, respectively in 2014. OCP use before (1.21%) and after (1.97%) government approval did not differ significantly (p=.58). The prevalence of OCP usage remains low in Japan. A wide gap in use between Japan and other developed countries exists. Through a wide gap in OCP use between Japan and other countries, we revealed how choices of contraceptive methods and their benefits could be openly available for women of reproductive age, and how health care professionals disseminate appropriate knowledge about contraception for women in need. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  10. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station, Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), ownership of Node 2 was officially transferred between the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA. Shaking hands after the signing are Alan Thirkettle (center), International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; and NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik (right), deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs. At left, also part of the signing, is Andrea Lorenzoni (left), International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency. NASA's Node 2, built by ESA in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station, Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), ownership of Node 2 was officially transferred between the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA. Shaking hands after the signing are Alan Thirkettle (center), International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; and NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik (right), deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs. At left, also part of the signing, is Andrea Lorenzoni (left), International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency. NASA's Node 2, built by ESA in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (far left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager ; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (far left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager ; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA's Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility for a ceremony to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (far left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr. (second from left); William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA's Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility for a ceremony to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (far left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr. (second from left); William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, emcees a ceremony in the Space Station Processing Facility to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Speakers at the ceremony included KSC Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA's Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, emcees a ceremony in the Space Station Processing Facility to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Speakers at the ceremony included KSC Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA's Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module (above right) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (far left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr. (second from left); NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager ; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; and Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module (above right) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (far left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr. (second from left); NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager ; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; and Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, media and guests listen intently to remarks during a ceremony to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony included these speakers: KSC Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA's Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, media and guests listen intently to remarks during a ceremony to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony included these speakers: KSC Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA's Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station, Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), ownership of Node 2 was officially transferred between the European Space Agency and NASA. Shaking hands after the signing are Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; and Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, European Space Agency (ESA). At right is NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs. NASA's Node 2, built by ESA in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station, Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), ownership of Node 2 was officially transferred between the European Space Agency and NASA. Shaking hands after the signing are Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; and Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, European Space Agency (ESA). At right is NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs. NASA's Node 2, built by ESA in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Roy Bridges Jr. speaks to the media and guests gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility for a ceremony to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (left) , deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: NASA's Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Roy Bridges Jr. speaks to the media and guests gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility for a ceremony to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (left) , deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: NASA's Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Roy Bridges Jr. speaks to the media and guests gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility for a ceremony to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: NASA's Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Roy Bridges Jr. speaks to the media and guests gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility for a ceremony to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: NASA's Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, European Space Agency (ESA); and NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, sign documents officially transferring ownership of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA. The signing was part of a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module (above right) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. Emceed by Lisa Malone (far left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, European Space Agency (ESA); and NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, sign documents officially transferring ownership of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA. The signing was part of a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module (above right) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. Emceed by Lisa Malone (far left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager ; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; and Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager ; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; and Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, European Space Agency (ESA), speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, European Space Agency (ESA), speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station, William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager, points to one of the components as he speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station, William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager, points to one of the components as he speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Roy Bridges Jr. speaks to the media and guests gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility for a ceremony to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (far left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: NASA's Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Roy Bridges Jr. speaks to the media and guests gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility for a ceremony to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (far left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: NASA's Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, European Space Agency (ESA), speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by ESA in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, European Space Agency (ESA), speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by ESA in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility for a ceremony to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility for a ceremony to highlight the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope) arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone, deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr.; NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; and Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (far left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr. (second from left); NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; and Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Kuniaki Shiraki, JEM Project manager, National Aerospace and Development Agency of Japan, speaks to guests and the media gathered in the Space Station Processing Facility at a ceremony highlighting the arrival of two major components of the International Space Station. NASA's Node 2, built by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Italy, arrived at KSC on June 1. It will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. The pressurized module of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named "Kibo" (Hope), arrived at KSC on June 4. It is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. The ceremony held today included the official transfer of ownership signing of Node 2 between the ESA and NASA.. Emceed by Lisa Malone (far left), deputy director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, the ceremony also included these speakers: Center Director Roy Bridges Jr. (second from left); NASA’s Michael C. Kostelnik, deputy associate administrator for International Space Station and Shuttle Programs and William Gerstenmaier, International Space Station Program manager; Alan Thirkettle, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, ESA; and Andrea Lorenzoni, International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency.

  9. High definition systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

    1991-01-01

    The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

  10. The Elav-like protein HuR exerts translational control of viral internal ribosome entry sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas-Aravena, Andrea; Ramdohr, Pablo; Vallejos, Maricarmen

    2009-09-30

    The human embryonic-lethal abnormal vision (ELAV)-like protein, HuR, has been recently found to be involved in the regulation of protein synthesis. In this study we show that HuR participates in the translational control of the HIV-1 and HCV IRES elements. HuR functions as a repressor of HIV-1 IRES activity and acts as an activator of the HCV IRES. The effect of HuR was evaluated in three independent experimental systems, rabbit reticulocyte lysate, HeLa cells, and Xenopus laevis oocytes, using both overexpression and knockdown approaches. Furthermore, results suggest that HuR mediated regulation of HIV-1 and HCV IRESes does not require directmore » binding of the protein to the RNA nor does it need the nuclear translocation of the IRES-containing RNAs. Finally, we show that HuR has a negative impact on post-integration steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle. Thus, our observations yield novel insights into the role of HuR in the post-transcriptional regulation of HCV and HIV-1 gene expression.« less

  11. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this. Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11166

  12. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Unzen Volcano, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-13

    This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano, on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in 1991. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 93rd orbit on April 15, 1994. The image shows an area 41.5 kilometers by 32.8 kilometers (25.7 miles by 20.3 miles) that is centered at 32.75 degrees north latitude and 130.15 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received); green represents the average of L-band and C-band (vertically transmitted and received); blue represents the C-band (vertically transmitted and received). Unzen is one of 15 "Decade" volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since 1991. Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00504

  14. Update: Dura Mater Graft-Associated Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease - Japan, 1975-2017.

    PubMed

    Ae, Ryusuke; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yamada, Masahito; Tsukamoto, Tadashi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Belay, Ermias D; Schonberger, Lawrence B

    2018-03-09

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that, according to the most well accepted hypothesis (1), is caused by replicating, transmissible, abnormal forms of a host-encoded prion protein (prions). Most CJD cases occur spontaneously (sporadic CJD) or are inherited (genetic CJD). Iatrogenic CJD can occur after exposure to prion-contaminated instruments or products in medical/surgical settings. Cadaveric dura mater graft-associated CJD (dCJD) accounts for a common form of iatrogenic CJD. This report summarizes the epidemiologic features of 154 cases of dCJD identified in Japan during 1975-2017; these cases account for >60% of dCJD cases reported worldwide (1,2). The unusually high prevalence of dCJD in Japan was first reported in 1997 (3). In 2008, a single brand of graft (Lyodura [B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany]), frequently used as a patch in neurosurgical procedures, was identified as the probable vehicle of transmission (4). No international recall of the implicated Lyodura occurred, the product had a relatively long shelf life, and the grafts were used frequently in Japanese patients with non-life-threatening conditions (4,5). Since 2008, additional cases have been ascertained, reflecting the identification of previously missed cases and the occurrence of new cases with longer latency periods (interval from exposure to symptom onset) for dCJD (up to 30 years), underscoring the importance of maintaining surveillance for dCJD.

  15. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  16. School Curriculum in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayasu, Chie

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Japanese education system especially relevant to the school curriculum, which might support Japanese high performance in the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), mainly through Japanese policy documents. The Japanese education systems have been constructed by the local context of society and politics,…

  17. Cost-effectiveness of coronary artery disease screening in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes and other atherogenic risk factors in Japan: factors influencing on international application of evidence-based guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hayashino, Yasuaki; Shimbo, Takuro; Tsujii, Satoru; Ishii, Hitoshi; Kondo, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Tsukasa; Nagata-Kobayashi, Shizuko; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2007-05-16

    Screening for coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic diabetic patients with atherogenic risk factors is recommended by the American College of Cardiology/American Diabetes Association. It is not clear whether these guidelines apply to the Japanese population with a different epidemiology of CAD. This study evaluates the applicability of the U.S. guidelines to Japan, taking account of cost-effectiveness. A cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model was performed to measure the clinical benefit and cost of CAD screening in asymptomatic patients with diabetes and additional atherogenic risk factors. We evaluated cohorts of patients stratified by age, gender, and atherogenic risks. The incremental cost-effectiveness of not screening, exercise electrocardiography, exercise echocardiography, and exercise single-photon emission-tomography (SPECT) was calculated. The data used were obtained from the literature. Outcomes are expressed as US dollars per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Compared with not screening, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of exercise electrocardiography was $31,400/QALY for 60-year-old asymptomatic diabetic men, and 46,600 for 65-year-old women with hypertension and smoking. The ICER of exercise echocardiography was $31,500/QALY and of SPECT was $326,000/QALY, compared with the next dominant strategy. Sensitivity analyses found that these results varied according to age, gender, the combination of additional atherogenic risk factors, and the frequency of screening. From a societal perspective the U.S. guidelines on screening for CAD in high risk diabetic patients are applicable to the Japanese population. However, the population subjected to screening should be carefully selected to obtain greatest benefit from screening.

  18. The imminent healthcare and emergency care crisis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tetsuji; Nishida, Masamichi; Suzuki, Yuriko; Kobayashi, Kunio

    2008-05-01

    Japan has a universal healthcare system, and this paper describes the reality of the healthcare services provided, as well as current issues with the system. Academic, government, and press reports on Japanese healthcare systems and healthcare guidelines were reviewed. The universal healthcare system of Japan is considered internationally to be both low-cost and effective because the Japanese population enjoys good health status with a long life expectancy, while healthcare spending in Japan is below the average given by the Organization for Economic Corporation and Development (OECD). However, in many regions of Japan the existing healthcare resources are seriously inadequate, especially with regard to the number of physicians and other health professionals. Because healthcare is traditionally viewed as "sacred" work in Japan, healthcare professionals are expected to make large personal sacrifices. Also, public attitudes toward medical malpractice have changed in recent decades, and medical professionals are facing legal issues without experienced support of the government or legal professionals. Administrative response to the lack of resources and collaboration among communities are beginning, and more efficient control and management of the healthcare system is under consideration. The Japanese healthcare system needs to adopt an efficient medical control organization to ease the strain on existing healthcare professionals and to increase the number of physicians and other healthcare resources. Rather than continuing to depend on healthcare professionals being able and willing to make personal sacrifices, the government, the public and medical societies must cooperate and support changes in the healthcare system.

  19. The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Mediated Translation

    PubMed Central

    Koloteva-Levine, Nadejda; Pinchasi, Dalia; Pereman, Idan; Zur, Amit; Brandeis, Michael; Elroy-Stein, Orna

    2004-01-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that mediates the proteolysis of cell cycle proteins in mitosis and G1. We used a yeast three-hybrid screen to identify proteins that interact with the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of platelet-derived growth factor 2 mRNA. Surprisingly, this screen identified Apc5, although it does not harbor a classical RNA binding domain. We found that Apc5 binds the poly(A) binding protein (PABP), which directly binds the IRES element. PABP was found to enhance IRES-mediated translation, whereas Apc5 overexpression counteracted this effect. In addition to its association with the APC/C complex, Apc5 binds much heavier complexes and cosediments with the ribosomal fraction. In contrast to Apc3, which is associated only with the APC/C and remains intact during differentiation, Apc5 is degraded upon megakaryocytic differentiation in correlation with IRES activation. Expression of Apc5 in differentiated cells abolished IRES activation. This is the first report implying an additional role for an APC/C subunit, apart from its being part of the APC/C complex. PMID:15082755

  20. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase β-Subunit Requires Internal Motion for Optimal Carbohydrate Binding

    PubMed Central

    Bieri, Michael; Mobbs, Jesse I.; Koay, Ann; Louey, Gavin; Mok, Yee-Foong; Hatters, Danny M.; Park, Jong-Tae; Park, Kwan-Hwa; Neumann, Dietbert; Stapleton, David; Gooley, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase interacts with oligosaccharides and glycogen through the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) containing the β-subunit, for which there are two isoforms (β1 and β2). Muscle-specific β2-CBM, either as an isolated domain or in the intact enzyme, binds carbohydrates more tightly than the ubiquitous β1-CBM. Although residues that contact carbohydrate are strictly conserved, an additional threonine in a loop of β2-CBM is concurrent with an increase in flexibility in β2-CBM, which may account for the affinity differences between the two isoforms. In contrast to β1-CBM, unbound β2-CBM showed microsecond-to-millisecond motion at the base of a β-hairpin that contains residues that make critical contacts with carbohydrate. Upon binding to carbohydrate, similar microsecond-to-millisecond motion was observed in this β-hairpin and the loop that contains the threonine insertion. Deletion of the threonine from β2-CBM resulted in reduced carbohydrate affinity. Although motion was retained in the unbound state, a significant loss of motion was observed in the bound state of the β2-CBM mutant. Insertion of a threonine into the background of β1-CBM resulted in increased ligand affinity and flexibility in these loops when bound to carbohydrate. However, these mutations indicate that the additional threonine is not solely responsible for the differences in carbohydrate affinity and protein dynamics. Nevertheless, these results suggest that altered protein dynamics may contribute to differences in the ligand affinity of the two naturally occurring CBM isoforms. PMID:22339867

  1. Protective immunity against influenza in HLA-A2 transgenic mice by modified vaccinia virus Ankara vectored vaccines containing internal influenza proteins.

    PubMed

    Di Mario, Giuseppina; Sciaraffia, Ester; Facchini, Marzia; Gubinelli, Francesco; Soprana, Elisa; Panigada, Maddalena; Bernasconi, Valentina; Garulli, Bruno; Siccardi, Antonio; Donatelli, Isabella; Castrucci, Maria R

    2017-03-01

    The emergence of novel strains of influenza A viruses with hemagglutinins (HAs) that are antigenically distinct from those circulating in humans, and thus have pandemic potential, pose concerns and call for the development of more broadly protective influenza vaccines. In the present study, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding internal influenza antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicity and ability to protect HLA-A2.1 transgenic (AAD) mice from infection with influenza viruses. MVAs expressing NP (MVA-NP), M1 (MVA-M1) or polymerase PB1 (MVA-PB1) of A/California/4/09 (CA/09) virus were generated and used to immunize AAD mice. Antibodies and CD8+T cell responses were assessed by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively, and challenge experiments were performed by infecting vaccinated mice with CA/09 virus. CD8+T cells specific to immunodominant and subdominant epitopes on the internal influenza proteins were elicited by MVA-based vectors in AAD mice, whereas influenza-specific antibodies were detected only in MVA-NP-immunized mice. Both M1- and NP-based MVA vaccines, regardless of whether they were applied individually or in combination, conferred protection against lethal influenza virus challenge. Our data further emphasize the promising potential of MVA vector expressing internal antigens toward the development of a universal influenza vaccine.

  2. Japan signs Ocean Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Ocean Research Institute of the University of Tokyo and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The agreement calls for Japanese participation in ODP and an annual contribution of $2.5 million in U.S. currency for the project's 9 remaining years, according to NSF.ODP is an international project whose mission is to learn more about the formation and development of the earth through the collection and examination of core samples from beneath the ocean. The program uses the drillship JOIDES Resolution, which is equipped with laboratories and computer facilities. The Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES), an international group of scientists, provides overall science planning and program advice regarding ODP's science goals and objectives.

  3. Remediation of the protein data bank archive.

    PubMed

    Henrick, Kim; Feng, Zukang; Bluhm, Wolfgang F; Dimitropoulos, Dimitris; Doreleijers, Jurgen F; Dutta, Shuchismita; Flippen-Anderson, Judith L; Ionides, John; Kamada, Chisa; Krissinel, Eugene; Lawson, Catherine L; Markley, John L; Nakamura, Haruki; Newman, Richard; Shimizu, Yukiko; Swaminathan, Jawahar; Velankar, Sameer; Ory, Jeramia; Ulrich, Eldon L; Vranken, Wim; Westbrook, John; Yamashita, Reiko; Yang, Huanwang; Young, Jasmine; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Berman, Helen M

    2008-01-01

    The Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB; wwpdb.org) is the international collaboration that manages the deposition, processing and distribution of the PDB archive. The online PDB archive at ftp://ftp.wwpdb.org is the repository for the coordinates and related information for more than 47 000 structures, including proteins, nucleic acids and large macromolecular complexes that have been determined using X-ray crystallography, NMR and electron microscopy techniques. The members of the wwPDB-RCSB PDB (USA), MSD-EBI (Europe), PDBj (Japan) and BMRB (USA)-have remediated this archive to address inconsistencies that have been introduced over the years. The scope and methods used in this project are presented.

  4. Remediation of the protein data bank archive

    PubMed Central

    Henrick, Kim; Feng, Zukang; Bluhm, Wolfgang F.; Dimitropoulos, Dimitris; Doreleijers, Jurgen F.; Dutta, Shuchismita; Flippen-Anderson, Judith L.; Ionides, John; Kamada, Chisa; Krissinel, Eugene; Lawson, Catherine L.; Markley, John L.; Nakamura, Haruki; Newman, Richard; Shimizu, Yukiko; Swaminathan, Jawahar; Velankar, Sameer; Ory, Jeramia; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Vranken, Wim; Westbrook, John; Yamashita, Reiko; Yang, Huanwang; Young, Jasmine; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Berman, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    The Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB; wwpdb.org) is the international collaboration that manages the deposition, processing and distribution of the PDB archive. The online PDB archive at ftp://ftp.wwpdb.org is the repository for the coordinates and related information for more than 47 000 structures, including proteins, nucleic acids and large macromolecular complexes that have been determined using X-ray crystallography, NMR and electron microscopy techniques. The members of the wwPDB–RCSB PDB (USA), MSD-EBI (Europe), PDBj (Japan) and BMRB (USA)–have remediated this archive to address inconsistencies that have been introduced over the years. The scope and methods used in this project are presented. PMID:18073189

  5. [Professionalization of public health officers in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yoko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I describe how public health officers in Japan in the period of the late Taisho and early Showa eras claimed their position as professionals in the sanitary administrations of central and local governments. In the background of this push for recognition, there were related international and national movements. Internationally, public health ministries were established in developed countries and the League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO) was created. LNHO wanted to improve the level of public health officials world-wide, so the organization sponsored international exchanges of officials. These activities made a strong impression on Japanese public health officials, who realized that they belonged to an internationally recognized profession and that they needed to work hard to improve the substandard Japanese public health situation. Meanwhile, at the level of domestic politics, there were several movements of technical experts in different fields of government administration that worked to fight the unfair treatment of administrative officials, a situation that had existed since Meiji Period. The public health officers collaborated with the other technical experts to improve their positions and to play key roles in society. But while the other technical experts actively pursued social leadership, public health officials wanted to remain scientists. This is because the sanitary departments in the local governments were organized within police departments. In this environment, the law was dominant and science was secondary. But public health officials insisted that the basis of public health should be science, so they emphasized their scientific expertise.

  6. Biobased, Internally pH-Sensitive Materials: Immobilized Yellow Fluorescent Protein as an Optical Sensor for Spatiotemporal Mapping of pH Inside Porous Matrices.

    PubMed

    Consolati, Tanja; Bolivar, Juan M; Petrasek, Zdenek; Berenguer, Jose; Hidalgo, Aurelio; Guisán, Jose M; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2018-02-28

    The pH is fundamental to biological function and its measurement therefore crucial across all biosciences. Unlike homogenous bulk solution, solids often feature internal pH gradients due to partition effects and confined biochemical reactions. Thus, a full spatiotemporal mapping for pH characterization in solid materials with biological systems embedded in them is essential. In here, therefore, a fully biocompatible methodology for real-time optical sensing of pH within porous materials is presented. A genetically encoded ratiometric pH sensor, the enhanced superfolder yellow fluorescent protein (sYFP), is used to functionalize the internal surface of different materials, including natural and synthetic organic polymers as well as silica frameworks. By using controlled, tailor-made immobilization, sYFP is homogenously distributed within these materials and so enables, via self-referenced imaging analysis, pH measurements in high accuracy and with useful spatiotemporal resolution. Evolution of internal pH is monitored in consequence of a proton-releasing enzymatic reaction, the hydrolysis of penicillin by a penicillin acylase, taking place in solution or confined to the solid surface of the porous matrix. Unlike optochemical pH sensors, which often interfere with biological function, labeling with sYFP enables pH sensing without altering the immobilized enzyme's properties in any of the materials used. Fast response of sYFP to pH change permits evaluation of biochemical kinetics within the solid materials. Thus, pH sensing based on immobilized sYFP represents a broadly applicable technique to the study of biology confined to the internally heterogeneous environment of solid matrices.

  7. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCVII. G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor and Its Pharmacologic Modulators.

    PubMed

    Prossnitz, Eric R; Arterburn, Jeffrey B

    2015-07-01

    Estrogens are critical mediators of multiple and diverse physiologic effects throughout the body in both sexes, including the reproductive, cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, and immune systems. As such, alterations in estrogen function play important roles in many diseases and pathophysiological conditions (including cancer), exemplified by the lower prevalence of many diseases in premenopausal women. Estrogens mediate their effects through multiple cellular receptors, including the nuclear receptor family (ERα and ERβ) and the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family (GPR30/G protein-coupled estrogen receptor [GPER]). Although both receptor families can initiate rapid cell signaling and transcriptional regulation, the nuclear receptors are traditionally associated with regulating gene expression, whereas GPCRs are recognized as mediating rapid cellular signaling. Estrogen-activated pathways are not only the target of multiple therapeutic agents (e.g., tamoxifen, fulvestrant, raloxifene, and aromatase inhibitors) but are also affected by a plethora of phyto- and xeno-estrogens (e.g., genistein, coumestrol, bisphenol A, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). Because of the existence of multiple estrogen receptors with overlapping ligand specificities, expression patterns, and signaling pathways, the roles of the individual receptors with respect to the diverse array of endogenous and exogenous ligands have been challenging to ascertain. The identification of GPER-selective ligands however has led to a much greater understanding of the roles of this receptor in normal physiology and disease as well as its interactions with the classic estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ and their signaling pathways. In this review, we describe the history and characterization of GPER over the past 15 years focusing on the pharmacology of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds that have been employed to unravel the biology of this most recently recognized estrogen receptor. Copyright

  8. Development of a new physics-based internal coordinate mechanics force field and its application to protein loop modeling.

    PubMed

    Arnautova, Yelena A; Abagyan, Ruben A; Totrov, Maxim

    2011-02-01

    We report the development of internal coordinate mechanics force field (ICMFF), new force field parameterized using a combination of experimental data for crystals of small molecules and quantum mechanics calculations. The main features of ICMFF include: (a) parameterization for the dielectric constant relevant to the condensed state (ε = 2) instead of vacuum, (b) an improved description of hydrogen-bond interactions using duplicate sets of van der Waals parameters for heavy atom-hydrogen interactions, and (c) improved backbone covalent geometry and energetics achieved using novel backbone torsional potentials and inclusion of the bond angles at the C(α) atoms into the internal variable set. The performance of ICMFF was evaluated through loop modeling simulations for 4-13 residue loops. ICMFF was combined with a solvent-accessible surface area solvation model optimized using a large set of loop decoys. Conformational sampling was carried out using the biased probability Monte Carlo method. Average/median backbone root-mean-square deviations of the lowest energy conformations from the native structures were 0.25/0.21 Å for four residues loops, 0.84/0.46 Å for eight residue loops, and 1.16/0.73 Å for 12 residue loops. To our knowledge, these results are significantly better than or comparable with those reported to date for any loop modeling method that does not take crystal packing into account. Moreover, the accuracy of our method is on par with the best previously reported results obtained considering the crystal environment. We attribute this success to the high accuracy of the new ICM force field achieved by meticulous parameterization, to the optimized solvent model, and the efficiency of the search method. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Protein adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    Nature uses a wide variety of chemicals for providing adhesion internally (e.g., cell to cell) and externally (e.g., mussels to ships and piers). This adhesive bonding is chemically and mechanically complex, involving a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and other compounds.Consequently,the effect of protein structures on adhesive properties is only partially...

  10. The educational system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  11. Networking of Quality Assurance Agencies in the Asia-Pacific Region and the Role of Japan University Accreditation Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinaga, Tatsuhiko

    2004-01-01

    There is a trend toward international collaboration among quality assurance agencies (QAAs) and the internationalisation of higher education in Japan. This paper is examines how Japan University Accreditation Association (JUAA) can establish a network in the region as it promised to do in the Tokyo Declaration. However, it is very hard for JUAA, a…

  12. 76 FR 60001 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan; Final Results of the Second Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff [[Page... on certain tin mill products from Japan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five...

  13. Innovative Methods in Science Education in Japan--Strategic Methods on Smooth Transition from Upper Secondary School to the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinohara, Fumihiko

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a brief introduction of the science education in Japan with an overview of the educational contents and standards laid by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). It highlights the results of the International Education Association (IEA) on science education in Japan at upper secondary…

  14. "Arubaito," or Short-Term Working Abroad in Japan: A Case Study of Brazilian University Students of Japanese Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    International migration between Japan and Brazil dates back to 1908, when the first group of Japanese migrated to Brazil. However, in the 1980s, a reverse flow occurred, as thousands of Brazilians of Japanese descent traveled to Japan to work in manufacturing and construction factories ("dekasegi" workers). Japanese Brazilians up until…

  15. 77 FR 18861 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-678, 679, 681, and 682 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year Reviews AGENCY... stainless steel bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  16. 78 FR 59059 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-505 and 731-TA-1231-1237 (Preliminary)] Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia... Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia that are alleged to be sold in the United States at...

  17. Etiology of the protein-energy wasting syndrome in chronic kidney disease: a consensus statement from the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM).

    PubMed

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Stenvinkel, Peter; Cuppari, Lilian; Ikizler, T Alp; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kaysen, George; Mitch, William E; Price, S Russ; Wanner, Christoph; Wang, Angela Y M; ter Wee, Pieter; Franch, Harold A

    2013-03-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW), a term proposed by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM), refers to the multiple nutritional and catabolic alterations that occur in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associate with morbidity and mortality. To increase awareness, identify research needs, and provide the basis for future work to understand therapies and consequences of PEW, ISRNM provides this consensus statement of current knowledge on the etiology of PEW syndrome in CKD. Although insufficient food intake (true undernutrition) due to poor appetite and dietary restrictions contribute, other highly prevalent factors are required for the full syndrome to develop. These include uremia-induced alterations such as increased energy expenditure, persistent inflammation, acidosis, and multiple endocrine disorders that render a state of hypermetabolism leading to excess catabolism of muscle and fat. In addition, comorbid conditions associated with CKD, poor physical activity, frailty, and the dialysis procedure per se further contribute to PEW. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. International consensus statements on early chronic Pancreatitis. Recommendations from the working group for the international consensus guidelines for chronic pancreatitis in collaboration with The International Association of Pancreatology, American Pancreatic Association, Japan Pancreas Society, PancreasFest Working Group and European Pancreatic Club.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, David C; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Chari, Suresh T; Forsmark, Christopher E; Frulloni, Luca; Garg, Pramod; Hegyi, Peter; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Takuya; Isaji, Shuiji; Lerch, Markus M; Levy, Philippe; Masamune, Atsushi; Wilcox, Charles M; Windsor, John; Yadav, Dhiraj; Sheel, Andrea; Neoptolemos, John P

    2018-05-21

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive inflammatory disorder currently diagnosed by morphologic features. In contrast, an accurate diagnosis of Early CP is not possible using imaging criteria alone. If this were possible and early treatment instituted, the later, irreversible features and complications of CP could possibly be prevented. An international working group supported by four major pancreas societies (IAP, APA, JPS, and EPC) and a PancreasFest working group sought to develop a consensus definition and diagnostic criteria for Early CP. Ten statements (S1-10) concerning Early CP were used to gauge consensus on the Early CP concept using anonymous voting with a 9 point Likert scale. Consensus required an alpha ≥0.80. No consensus statement could be developed for a definition of Early-CP or diagnostic criteria. There was consensus on 5 statements: (S2) The word "Early" in early chronic pancreatitis is used to describe disease state, not disease duration. (S4) Early CP defines a stage of CP with preserved pancreatic function and potentially reversible features. (S8) Genetic variants are important risk factors for Early CP and can add specificity to the likely etiology, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to make a diagnosis. (S9) Environmental risk factors can provide evidence to support the diagnosis of Early CP, but are neither necessary nor sufficient to make a diagnosis. (S10) The differential diagnosis for Early CP includes other disorders with morphological and functional features that overlap with CP. Morphology based diagnosis of Early CP is not possible without additional information. New approaches to the accurate diagnosis of Early CP will require a mechanistic definition that considers risk factors, biomarkers, clinical context and new models of disease. Such a definition will require prospective validation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXV. Nomenclature, Classification, and Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Melatonin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Delagrange, Philippe; Krause, Diana N.; Sugden, David; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Olcese, James

    2010-01-01

    The hormone melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) is synthesized primarily in the pineal gland and retina, and in several peripheral tissues and organs. In the circulation, the concentration of melatonin follows a circadian rhythm, with high levels at night providing timing cues to target tissues endowed with melatonin receptors. Melatonin receptors receive and translate melatonin's message to influence daily and seasonal rhythms of physiology and behavior. The melatonin message is translated through activation of two G protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2, that are potential therapeutic targets in disorders ranging from insomnia and circadian sleep disorders to depression, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. This review summarizes the steps taken since melatonin's discovery by Aaron Lerner in 1958 to functionally characterize, clone, and localize receptors in mammalian tissues. The pharmacological and molecular properties of the receptors are described as well as current efforts to discover and develop ligands for treatment of a number of illnesses, including sleep disorders, depression, and cancer. PMID:20605968

  20. Experience of Japan in Achieving a Total Ban on Asbestos.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Sugio; Takahashi, Ken

    2017-10-20

    This paper aims to examine the process through which a total ban on asbestos was achieved in Japan. We reconstructed the process, analyzed the roles of involved parties/events, and drew lessons from the Japanese experience of achieving the ban. In Japan, a bill to phase out asbestos was proposed in 1992 but rejected without deliberation. Wide support for such a ban subsequently grew, however, largely due to the actions of trade unions and civil societies in establishing a coalition, raising awareness, organizing asbestos victims and their families, and propagating information on international developments. A governmental decision towards a ban was made in 2002 based on several national and international factors. A huge asbestos scandal in 2005 preponed the achievement of a total ban and led to the establishment of comprehensive measures to tackle asbestos issues. However, challenges remain for the elimination of asbestos-related diseases.

  1. Experience of Japan in Achieving a Total Ban on Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Sugio; Takahashi, Ken

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the process through which a total ban on asbestos was achieved in Japan. We reconstructed the process, analyzed the roles of involved parties/events, and drew lessons from the Japanese experience of achieving the ban. In Japan, a bill to phase out asbestos was proposed in 1992 but rejected without deliberation. Wide support for such a ban subsequently grew, however, largely due to the actions of trade unions and civil societies in establishing a coalition, raising awareness, organizing asbestos victims and their families, and propagating information on international developments. A governmental decision towards a ban was made in 2002 based on several national and international factors. A huge asbestos scandal in 2005 preponed the achievement of a total ban and led to the establishment of comprehensive measures to tackle asbestos issues. However, challenges remain for the elimination of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:29053631

  2. Interconnectivity of macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers fabricated by hydroxyapatite-stabilized Pickering high internal phase emulsions-hydrogels for the selective recognition of protein.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanhua; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Jiangfeng; Huang, Ling; Qiu, Tianyun; Zhong, Shian

    2017-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite hybridized molecularly imprinted polydopamine polymers with selective recognition of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) were successfully prepared via Pickering oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions-hydrogels and molecularly imprinting technique. The emulsions were stabilized by hydroxyapatite of which the wettability was modified by 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The materials were characterized by SEM, IR and TGA. The results showed that the BHb imprinted polymers based on Pickering hydrogels (Hydro-MIPs) possess macropores ranging from 20μm to 50μm, and their large numbers of amino groups and hydroxyl groups result in a favorable adsorption capacity for BHb. The maximum adsorption capacity of Hydro-MIPs for BHb was 438mg/g, 3.27 times more than that of the non-imprinted polymers (Hydro-NIPs). The results indicated that Hydro-MIPs possessing well-defined hierarchical porous structures exhibited outstanding recognition behavior towards the target protein molecules. This work provided a promising alternative method for the fabrication of polymer materials with tunable and interconnected pores structures for the separation and purification of protein in vitro. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Precise quantitation of 136 urinary proteins by LC/MRM-MS using stable isotope labeled peptides as internal standards for biomarker discovery and/or verification studies.

    PubMed

    Percy, Andrew J; Yang, Juncong; Hardie, Darryl B; Chambers, Andrew G; Tamura-Wells, Jessica; Borchers, Christoph H

    2015-06-15

    Spurred on by the growing demand for panels of validated disease biomarkers, increasing efforts have focused on advancing qualitative and quantitative tools for more highly multiplexed and sensitive analyses of a multitude of analytes in various human biofluids. In quantitative proteomics, evolving strategies involve the use of the targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of mass spectrometry (MS) with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS) used for internal normalization. Using that preferred approach with non-invasive urine samples, we have systematically advanced and rigorously assessed the methodology toward the precise quantitation of the largest, multiplexed panel of candidate protein biomarkers in human urine to date. The concentrations of the 136 proteins span >5 orders of magnitude (from 8.6 μg/mL to 25 pg/mL), with average CVs of 8.6% over process triplicate. Detailed here is our quantitative method, the analysis strategy, a feasibility application to prostate cancer samples, and a discussion of the utility of this method in translational studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju

    2013-08-21

    Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion andmore » maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH{sub 2} (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and –N=CH (400.80 eV) and –NH{sub 3}{sup +} (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic.« less

  5. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: A Population-Level Analysis of Monitoring Prevalence and Factors Associated with Monitoring Participation Behavior in Fukushima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murakami, Michio; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Following Japan’s 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed voluntary-based monitoring behavior in Minamisoma City—located 10–40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant—to inform future monitoring strategies. The monitoring in Minamisoma included occasional free of charge internal-radiation-exposure measurements. Out of around 70,000 individuals residing in the city before the incident, a total of 45,788 residents (female: 52.1%) aged ≥21 were evaluated. The monitoring prevalence in 2011–2012 was only 30.2%, and this decreased to 17.9% in 2013–2014. Regression analyses were performed to estimate factors associated with the monitoring prevalence and participation behavior. The results show that, in comparison with the age cohort of 21–30 years, the cohort of 71–80 and ≥81 years demonstrated significantly lower monitoring prevalence; female residents had higher monitoring prevalence than male residents; those who were living in evacuation zones at the time of the incident had higher monitoring prevalence than those who lived outside any of the evacuation zones; for those living outside Fukushima and neighboring Prefectures post-incident monitoring prevalence decreased significantly in 2013–2014. Our findings inform the discussion on the concepts of radiation risk perception and accessibility to monitoring and societal decision-making regarding the maintenance of the monitoring program with low monitoring prevalence. We also stress the possibility that the monitoring can work both to check that internal contamination levels are within acceptable limits, and as a risk communication tool, alleviating individuals’ concern and anxiety over radiation contamination. PMID:28397769

  6. Another typhoid patient from Japan.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Rachana; Banskota, Nalin; Pokharel, Jhapindra; Subedi, Bishnu H; Basnyat, Buddha

    2010-01-01

    Typhoid treatment was empirically started in a Japanese patient with undifferentiated fever in Nepal since Japanese tourists, unlike most Americans and Europeans to South Asia, are unable to obtain typhoid vaccination in Japan even for travel to this area of high endemicity. Subsequently, his blood culture grew out Salmonella typhi.

  7. Japan Studies Association Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichel, Philip L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles grouped under the topic of…

  8. Resources for Teaching about Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This book lists resources for materials and ideas for teaching about Japan. The resource listings are not intended to be encyclopedic and are not intended to be a comprehensive listing of every useful curriculum item. The attempt has been made to highlight especially those organizations that work with kindergarten through grade 12 teachers,…

  9. Modernization of Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The document traces the development of education in Japan from the 17th century to the present. It is presented in four chapters. Chapter one discusses the Tokugawa Period (1603-1867). Principal forms of schooling were hanko for the Samurai class and terakoya for the commoners. The hanko were established for the benefit of the fiefs; objectives of…

  10. The Japan of Today, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo (Japan).

    Following an introduction which discusses the history and geography of Japan, this book focuses on topics related to this country's government, economy, social conditions, and cultural life. Topics related to government include: constitution and emperor; legislature; executive power; judiciary system; foreign relations; and defense. Topics related…

  11. How Japan Supports Novice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    When U.S. educators first hear that Japanese teacher preparation programs require only four weeks of formal student teaching at the end of the credential program, they're appalled: How can this be? More surprising still, few new teachers in Japan (1.35 percent) leave the profession during their first year. So where are these beginning teachers…

  12. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    PubMed

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  13. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficultmore » terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.« less

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-06

    Sought ( Nobuaki Teraoka; PUROMETEUSU, Nov 87) 62 IPCR Molecular Laser Uranium Enrichment Method Discussed (GENSHIRYOKU IINKAI GEPPO, Nov 87... Kobayashi ) Investigation of Tokyo University character of winter (Professor Tatsuo thunder on Japan Kawamura, Sea side by new Assistant...PUROMETEUSU in Japanese Nov 87 pp 78-81 [Article by Nobuaki Teraoka, Technology Development Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency

  15. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  16. Teaching and Learning in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P., Ed.; LeTendre, Gerald K., Ed.

    The essays gathered in this volume are united by the common goal of understanding teaching and learning in Japan as it actually occurs. The essays seek to answer questions about the actual conduct of learning in different settings and at different points in the life cycle. This volume explores the expectations and associations found in specific…

  17. JAXA protein crystallization in space: ongoing improvements for growing high-quality crystals

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Sachiko; Ohta, Kazunori; Furubayashi, Naoki; Yan, Bin; Koga, Misako; Wada, Yoshio; Yamada, Mitsugu; Inaka, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) started a high-quality protein crystal growth project, now called JAXA PCG, on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2002. Using the counter-diffusion technique, 14 sessions of experiments have been performed as of 2012 with 580 proteins crystallized in total. Over the course of these experiments, a user-friendly interface framework for high accessibility has been constructed and crystallization techniques improved; devices to maximize the use of the microgravity environment have been designed, resulting in some high-resolution crystal growth. If crystallization conditions were carefully fixed in ground-based experiments, high-quality protein crystals grew in microgravity in many experiments on the ISS, especially when a highly homogeneous protein sample and a viscous crystallization solution were employed. In this article, the current status of JAXA PCG is discussed, and a rational approach to high-quality protein crystal growth in microgravity based on numerical analyses is explained. PMID:24121350

  18. Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection of Sika Deer, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Makoto; Tajima, Tomoko; Torii, Harumi; Yabutani, Mitsutaka; Ishii, Joji; Harasawa, Makiko; Isogai, Emiko

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether Ehrlichia chaffeensis exists in Japan, we used PCR to examine blood from sika deer in Nara, Japan. Of 117 deer, 36 (31%) were infected with E. chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA base and GroEL amino acid sequences from Japan were most closely related to those of E. chaffeensis Arkansas. PMID:19961683

  19. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  20. The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumano, Ruriko

    2007-01-01

    During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…