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Sample records for japan bacus spie the

  1. The first SPIE software Hack Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrew, S.; Deen, C.; Radziwill, N.; Crawford, S.; Gilbert, J.; Gully-Santiago, M.; Kubánek, P.

    2014-07-01

    We report here on the software Hack Day organised at the 2014 SPIE conference on Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation in Montréal. The first ever Hack Day to take place at an SPIE event, the aim of the day was to bring together developers to collaborate on innovative solutions to problems of their choice. Such events have proliferated in the technology community, providing opportunities to showcase, share and learn skills. In academic environments, these events are often also instrumental in building community beyond the limits of national borders, institutions and projects. We show examples of projects the participants worked on, and provide some lessons learned for future events.

  2. Bibliographic database of PACS-related articles from the SPIE literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shile, Peter E.; Freiermuth, Jennifer

    1996-05-01

    Publications of the International Society of Optical Engineering (SPIE) contain much of the relevant literature on Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) and related topics. In fact, many PACS-related articles indexed by the National Library of Medicine contain references to articles published by SPIE. Unfortunately, SPIE publications themselves are not indexed by the National Library of Medicine and thus can not be identified through Medline. The lack of a convenient mechanism for searching the SPIE literature is problematic for researchers in medical imaging. With the recent introduction on SPIE's Internet server of their Abstracts Online service and their In-CiteTM title and author searching software, the SPIE literature has become more accessible. However, the searching process is still a cumbersome and time consuming process, and it is not possible to perform key word searches of manuscript abstracts. In this paper we present results of our work on developing a mechanism to more thoroughly search SPIE publications for PACS-related articles.

  3. The 2006 SPIE Symposium on Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation ? Observing the Universe from Ground and Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorwood, A.

    2006-06-01

    The most recent of these biennial SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering) Symposia was held from 24-31 May in the Orlando World Center Marriott Resort & Convention Center in Florida, USA. Over the last decade, these meetings have grown to become the main forum for presenting and discussing all aspects of ground-based, airborne and space telescopes and their instrumentation, including associated advances in technology, software, operations and even astronomical results. As a consequence the meetings are large and well attended by people at all levels in the process of initiating, approving, implementing and operating astronomical projects and facilities. This year there were ~ 1700 registered participants who presented ~ 1600 papers and posters in the following 12 parallel conferences which formed the heart of the meeting.

  4. SPIE Smart Structures Product Implementation Award: a review of the first ten years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eric H.; Sater, Janet M.

    2007-04-01

    The research field of smart materials and structures has been a distinct entity for two decades. Over the past ten years, the SPIE Industrial and Commercial Applications Conference has presented a Smart Structures Product Implementation Award at its annual symposium. This paper revisits the nine winning entries to date (1998-2007) and updates their status. The paper begins with a brief description of the original and current intent of the award and follows with a short overview of the evolution of smart structures, from research to products. The winning teams and their respective products are then described. The current status of the products is discussed based on publicly available information and input from the respective companies. Note however that it is not the purpose of the paper to rank the product winners in terms of success or sales. The paper concludes with an assessment of the larger trends in productization of smart structures technologies. The application "form" for the award as well as the evaluation criteria and suggestions for improving award application packages can be found in the appendix.

  5. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well.

  6. Cryo-vacuum testing of the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module (SPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Vila, M. Begona; Van Campen, Julie; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Comber, Brian J.; Fatig, Curtis C.; Glasse, Alistair C. H.; Glazer, Stuart D.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Mann, Steven D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In late 2015/early 2016, a major cryo-vacuum test was carried out for the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This test comprised the final cryo-certification and calibration test of the ISIM, after its ambient environmental test program (vibration, acoustics, EMI/EMC), and before its delivery for integration with the rest of the JWST observatory. Over the 108-day period of the round-the-clock test program, the full complement of ISIM flight instruments, structure, harness radiator, and electronics were put through a comprehensive program of thermal, optical, electrical, and operational tests. The test verified the health and excellent performance of the instruments and ISIM systems, proving the ISIM element's readiness for integration with the telescope. We report here on the context, goals, setup, execution, and key results for this critical JWST milestone.

  7. Cryo-vacuum testing of the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module (SPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Vila, M. Begona; Van Campen, Julie; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Comber, Brian J.; Fatig, Curtis C.; Glasse, Alistair C. H.; Glazer, Stuart D.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Mann, Steven D.; Martel, Andre R.; Novo-Gradac, Kevin J.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Penanen, Konstantin; Rohrbach, Scott O.; Sullivan, Joseph F.; Zak, Dean; Zhou, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In late 2015/early 2016, a major cryo-vacuum test was carried out for the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This test comprised the final cryo-certification and calibration test of the ISIM, after its ambient environmental test program (vibration, acoustics, EMI/EMC), and before its delivery for integration with the rest of the JWST observatory. Over the 108-day period of the round-the-clock test program, the full complement of ISIM flight instruments, structure, harness radiator, and electronics were put through a comprehensive program of thermal, optical, electrical, and operational tests. The test verified the health and excellent performance of the instruments and ISIM systems, proving the ISIM element's readiness for integration with the telescope. We report here on the context, goals, setup, execution, and key results for this critical JWST milestone.

  8. SPIE's School Outreach Activity Program (SOAP) by IIT Madras SPIE Student Chapter: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikivayi, Lavanya; Kalikivayi, V.; Udayakumar, K.; Ganesan, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    One of the important aspects of SPIE is "Community Support and Outreach Education", which should raise awareness and interest in optics and photonics among the targeted communities and school children. Hence as part of SPIE IIT Madras student chapter, we carried out SPIE SOAP, a `School Outreach Activity Program'. Two types of schools were identified, one a high socio-economic status school and the other a low socio-economic status school having a majority of poor children. Optics related scientific experiments were demonstrated in these schools followed by oral quiz session to the students to assess the level of their knowledge before and after the experiments. We also clubbed this activity with "Vision Screening" and distribution of free spectacles for those children who live below poverty line. Out of the 415 children screened, 60.84% eyes were having normal vision, while 39.16% were found to have refractive errors (Myopia 35.78% and Hyperopia 3.38%) where some of them could not even read the board. Treatable eye diseases were also found in 0.72% of the children. The entire activity is been discussed and documented in this paper.

  9. The Map Solution In The General Motors Oshawa, Ontario Car Body Assembly Plant Spie, September 8,1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storoshchuk, Orest; Chan, Bosco; Daly, Dave

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing General Motors of Canada pilot project intended to resolve factory floor communication problems in the Oshawa, Ontario Car Body Assembly Plant. This was initially a university research and development project, but some results are being moved into the full production environment. We start by introducing the problems faced in computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) in general, and then concentrate on the specific problems encountered in the Oshawa plant. After this overview, we discuss the reasons behind using the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) Local Area Network and fiber optic media to solve these problems. The design philosophy and some technical aspects of these implementations are also included in this paper. There are several areas which need further work; we will discuss present efforts and future directions.

  10. Sol-Gel Optics: Proceedings SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering Held in San Diego, California on 11-13 July 1990. Volume 1328

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    Glasses, eds. F L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, and M. J. Weber , vol. 61, pp. 387-411, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1986. SPIE Vol 1.328 Sol Gel...Proceedings Second International Conference on Ceramic Poder Processing Science, Berchtesgarden, October 1988 (in print). 5. Y. Sanchez, "Orgarically...synthesizing planar waveguide synthesis was by Ulrich and Weber in 1972.18 These authors dip coated commercially availabe PbO-SiO 2 solutions onto glass

  11. Biophotonics and immune responses-Highlights from a new SPIE photonics west conference (BIOS 2006).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei R; Huang, Zheng

    2006-09-01

    This report summarizes some highlights from the "Biophotonics and Immune Responses", a new 2006 SPIE Photonics West Biomedical Optics (BIOS 2006) Conference. Some exciting recent progresses in host immune responses elicited by photodynamic therapy and other novel phototherapies are discussed.

  12. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  13. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  14. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  15. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  16. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, Proceedings of SPIE,

    SciTech Connect

    Exarhos, Gregory J.; Guenther, Arthur H.; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Lewis, Keith L.; Soileau, M. J.

    2001-04-12

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the Thirty-Second Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers, held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado, 16-18 October 2000. The symposium was sponsored by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA). Cooperating organizations were Cierra Photonics, Inc. (USA), the School of Optics at the University of Central Florida (USA, the Center for High Technology Materials at the University of New Mexico (USA), the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK), National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA), and SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering. The symposium was attended by more than 110 participants from Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Russia, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Uzbekistan. Almost one-half of the attendees and more than half of the presentations were from abroad. The purpose of this series of symposia is to exchange information about optical materials for high-power/high-energy lasers. The editors welcome comments and criticism relevant to this purpose from all interested readers.

  17. Recent developments for SPIE-IA, a new sandwich immunoassay format for very small molecules.

    PubMed

    Volland, Hervé; Pradelles, Philippe; Taran, Frédéric; Buscarlet, Laure; Creminon, Christophe

    2004-03-01

    Recent publications describing new elegant approaches to assay small analytes using noncompetitive format were briefly reviewed. Among these methods, we have developed a new protocol, named SPIE-IA, which involves a cross-linking step achieved using chemical hombifunctional reagents, UV irradiation or free radicals. This new method proved to be useful to detect naturally occurring analyte/antibody complexes or to protect the analytes against degradation by peptidases. On the other hand, SPIE-IA could allow to study the adverse biological effects of UV and some aspects of free radical chemistry or to evaluate the antioxidant activity of molecules.

  18. The Graying of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Linda G.

    1989-01-01

    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought…

  19. The Japan Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jackson H.; And Others

    This publication contains three papers on college student exchange between Japan and the United States. The first paper, entitled "The University of Massachusetts and Hokkaido University: A Case Study in Educational Cooperation," by Barbara B. Burn, describes the long-standing relationship between these two institutions in order to…

  20. Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  1. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  2. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  3. The LBTI Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems (HOSTS) Survey: a Key NASA Science Program on the Road to Exoplanet Imaging Missions (SPIE Proceedings 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.; Bailey, V.; Defrere, D.; Haniff, C.; Hinz, P.; Kennedy, G.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Rieke, G.; Roberge, Aki; Serabyn, E.; Skemer, A.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Weinberger, A.; Wyatt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) will survey nearby stars for faint exozodiacal dust (exozodi). This warm circumstellar dust, analogous to the interplanetary dust found in the vicinity of the Earth in our own system, is produced in comet breakups and asteroid collisions. Emission and or scattered light from the exozodi will be the major source of astrophysical noise for a future space telescope aimed at direct imaging and spectroscopy of terrestrial planets (exo- Earths) around nearby stars. About 20 of nearby field stars have cold dust coming from planetesimals at large distances from the stars (Eiroa et al. 2013, AA, 555, A11; Siercho et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 33). Much less is known about exozodi; current detection limits for individual stars are at best 500 times our solar system's level (aka. 500 zodi). LBTI-HOSTS will be the first survey capable of measuring exozodi at the 10 zodi level (3). Detections of warm dust will also reveal new information about planetary system architectures and evolution. We will describe the motivation for the survey and progress on target selection, not only the actual stars likely to be observed by such a mission but also those whose observation will enable sensible extrapolations for stars that will not be observed with LBTI. We briefly describe the detection of the debris disk around Crv, which is the first scientific result from the LBTI coming from the commissioning of the instrument in December 2013, shortly after the first time the fringes were stabilized.

  4. The graying of Japan.

    PubMed

    Martin, L G

    1989-07-01

    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought to have been strong traditionally, the recent decline in co-residence with children is 1 indication that the way support is given may be changing. This issue is of particular concern to the government, which wants to avoid any greater responsibility for the elderly than is necessary given the dramatic population aging yet to come. The government is also encouraging employers to provide more employment opportunities for the elderly at the same time that it is trying to raise the eligibility age for the receipt of public pensions. There is resistance on the part of employers, however, because wages and retirement allowances in Japan are positively related to length of employment. Furthermore, it is not clear whether elderly Japanese of the future will be as willing to work, if they learn to enjoy increased leisure early in their careers. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that population aging will lead to Japan's economic decline. Although the savings rate may decline somewhat, restructuring of the economy and continued overseas investment should keep the economy growing in the long run. Important in both the care of the frail elderly and the continued growth of the economy will be the roles played by middle-aged Japanese women.

  5. Instrumentation in astronomy VII; Proceedings of the SPIE Meeting, Vol. 1235, Pts. 1 2, Tucson, AZ, Feb. 13-17, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The topics discussed include IR detectors and instrumentation, detectors, other instrumentation, optical instrumentation, and space instrumentation. Papers are presented on the IR spectrometer/imager for the ESO VLT, the fiber-coupled high-resolution IR array spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, the Balloon-Borne Infrared Telescope for FIR spectroscopy, and a simple transputer-based CCD camera controller. Attention is given to CCD guidance system for William Herschel Telescope, the New Technology Telescope control/acquisition system as a prototype for the VLT, a control system for spincasting 8-m borosilicate honeycomb mirrors, echelle spectrographs for 8-m class telescopes, and fiber spectroscopy at Palomar Observatory. Other papers are on the Kitt Peak National Observatory fiber actuator device, a two-star photoelectric photometer, an ultrahigh-resolution XUV spectroheliograph, an optical monitor for X-ray satellites, and large-format electrographic and array detectors for a space Schmidt imaging telescope.

  6. Proceedings of the ADPA/AIAA/ASME/SPIE Conference on Active and Adaptive Structures Held in Alexandria, Virginia on November 4 - 8, 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-08

    constraining layers 50)1 S S Sattinger and Z N Sanjana SESSION (28) Future Directions for Smart Structures and Materials Business opportunities in smart...combination of damped struts, constrained- layer treatments, and tuned-mass dampers to meet the damping objectives. Complex eigensolutions and cross...damping design of the SPICE Testbed for control system stability. Three types of passive damping treatments, damped struts, constrained- layer damping

  7. Proceedings of SPIE - the International Society for Optical Engineering. Ocean Optics 12 Held in Bergen, Norway on 13-15 June 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-15

    non-photochemical quenching is limited (both genetically and due to environmental regulation), at supraoptimal levels of irradiancc the photo damage...NOAA 1315 East-West Highway Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 Paul E. LaRocque Optech, Inc. 100 Wildcat Road North York, Ontario, Canada M3J 2Z9 W. Jeff

  8. [The MEN consortium of Japan].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Akihiro

    2012-07-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) is not as well recognized in Asia, including Japan, as in the West. The clinical features of MEN and management conditions have yet to be clarified in Japan. Thus, we established a MEN study group designated the MEN Consortium of Japan in 2008. Its missions are to: 1) clarify the current status of clinical management of MEN; 2) promote basic research; 3) improve the diagnosis and treatment of MEN; 4) undertake public relations to increase awareness of MEN; and 5) support and collaborate with patient advocacy groups, etc. Clinical and genetic information on more than 1,000 patients was collected and analyzed. The database established by the MEN Consortium of Japan is the first such database for Asian patients and is one of the most extensive MEN databases worldwide. This is anticipated to promote clarification of the current status of MEN in Japan and improve future clinical management.

  9. William L. Wolfe, 1989 President of SPIE, encourages scientists from Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, Joanna

    2012-10-01

    In 1990 Professor Wolfe after his SPIE presidency trekked the world, even making it as far as post-communist Poland, to see (in the visible and maybe in infrared - who knows) the work of optical scientists hidden behind the iron curtain. I am not sure if he was ready for how different that world was at this time, but for sure he was very inquisitive and eager to learn about the nuances of Poland right after the fall of communism. He met, visited with and encouraged young and old scientists from Poland, Russia, Hungary and Lithuania to add their expertise to the scientific conversations happening in the West. His mission in Poland was to invite us all, and he was ready to help us achieve our dreams. I was one of those he encouraged. This talk is my personal reflection of Professor Wolfe as an encouraging and sometimes brave SPIE pioneer - a stranger in a strange land - and as an energetic, caring SPIE president, Optical Sciences professor and human being. Disclaimer: Professor Bill Wolfe's contributions to the field of radiometry are well known and very well recognized. This conference is a tribute to him. However, my paper is not on radiometry; rather, I wish to illustrate the adventurous, caring and positive Bill Wolfe that helped me find my way to the American desert Southwest.

  10. Imaging sensors and displays. SPIE volume 765

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following contents: HUMAN FACTORS FOR IMAGING SYSTEMS. Analysis of electroluminescent display devices for stereographic display of video images. Field of view, resolution, and brightness parameters for eye-limited displays. Helmet-mounted display for tank applications. Temporal aspects of electro-optical imaging systems. Helmet-mounted display for infantry applications. Image quality: two current issues. ADVANCED IMAGING SENSOR TECHNOLOGY. New color coding method with quasi-field integration mode for solid-state color imaging equipment. One-half inch CCD imager with 510 X 492 pixels. Solid-state imager implementing sensitivity control function on chip. Color laser microscope. A channel stop defined, barrier and drain antiblooming structure for virtual phase CCD image sensors. ADVANCED IMAGING DISPLAYS. Ultrahigh resolution 7 in. round monochrome CRT. High resolution MIM-diode LCD addressed by storage capacitor matrix. IMAGE DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY FOR INFRARED PROJECTORS. IR transducer technology: an overview. IT emitting CRT. IR simulation using the liquid crystal light valve (LCLV). Infrared display array. IR image generation by thermoelectric elements. IR simulation with diffusion image transfer film. Dynamic RAM imaging display technology utilizing silicon blackbody emitters. Thermal target projector for MRTD testing and vehicle identification training.

  11. The educational system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  12. The educational system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  13. Japan's Intellectual Challenge: The Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Lawrence P.

    1984-01-01

    Questions Japan's ability to maintain its economic success without substantially changing its approach to education. Discusses international responses to the nation's level of exports, the maturing and stabilization of its economy, and the rapid aging of its population and work force as trends that may require significant change. (BC)

  14. The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumano, Ruriko

    2007-01-01

    During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

  15. Japan's hidden youths: mainstreaming the emotionally distressed in Japan.

    PubMed

    Borovoy, Amy

    2008-12-01

    One of the most talked-about social issues in Japan in recent years has been the problem of the nation's purportedly one million "hidden" youths, known as hikikomori (literally, "the withdrawn"). Most observers agree that the category of hikikomori encompasses a wide range of problems and provocations. The fact that these various dilemmas lead to the shared outcome of shutting oneself away at home is the point of departure here. The article explores the spheres of mental health care, education and family, focusing on the reluctance to highlight underlying psychological dimensions of hikikomori and the desire on the part of schools and families to "mainstream" Japanese children, accommodating as many as possible within standardized public education. Hikikomori can perhaps be seen as a manifestation of Japanese democracy, in which the good society is imagined as cohesive, protective and secure, rather than one in which the individual can freely exercise the right to be different. Schools, families and the sphere of mental health care have focused on producing social inclusion but have discouraged citizens from being labeled as "different" -- even when such a distinction might help them. The dearth of facilities and discourse for caring for the mentally ill or learning disabled is, in many respects, the darker side of Japan's successes. Those who cannot adjust are cared for through the institutions of families, companies and various other spheres that offer spaces to rest and to temporarily "drop out"; however, the expectation is that rest will eventually lead to a re-entry into mainstream society. Often the psychological problem or disability that led to the problem goes unnamed and untreated (hikikomori, psychiatry, special education, youth, family, Japan).

  16. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  17. Summer school in Kabardino-Balkaria by BMSTU SPIE Student Chapter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Gavdush, Arsenii A.; Fokina, Irina N.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2014-09-01

    This summer BMSTU SPIE Student Chapter have decided to visit Kabardino-Balkaria Republic of Caucasus (Russia) and spent there a week with children in a camp. It was called Summer school. We decided to organize it in order to engage talented and curious children in Optics and to show them how science could be funny. Education and entertainment program included such activities as lectures, optical demonstrations, laser games, hiking in the forest, and others. As a result children had a good time outdoors, learned interesting facts about optics and lasers, and of course found new friends who are keen to know more too. Four Chapter members and about 70 children of age 10-16 took part in this event.

  18. The trend of imported mycoses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Katsuhiko; Sano, Ayako; Kikuchi, Ken; Makimura, Koichi; Niimi, Masakazu; Suzuki, Kazuo; Uehara, Yoshimasa; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Nishimura, Kazuko; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-03-01

    Pathogenic fungi that are non-native in Japan are highly virulent and present a significant health hazard to persons in the environment into which they are introduced. Little is known, however, about the precise trend of infection by imported mycoses in Japan. To clarify this issue, all available cases were collected through a search of MEDLINE and Japana Centra Revuo Medicine and analyzed. Also included in this analysis were cases not reported in the literature for which the authors provided identification of the fungi, diagnosis, or treatment. The analysis revealed that, for three diseases, the number of imported mycoses cases in Japan is much higher than previously reported: 31 cases of coccidioidomycosis, 34 cases of histoplasmosis, and 17 cases of paracoccidioidomycosis. Additionally, one case of penicilliosis marneffei was found. The most rapid increase in the incidence of these mycoses occurred from 1991 to 1995. Analysis of the patients' profiles provided the following information: (1) coccidioidomycosis infection in Japan is increasing very rapidly, (2) Japan might be an endemic area of histoplasmosis infection, (3) histoplasmosis is a potentially fatal disease; and (4) reliable serodiagnostic methods have been used only infrequently. Because of the increase of international travel and immigration, the incidence of imported mycoses in Japan is expected to continue rising, and mycoses that have never been reported in Japan, such as blastomycosis, might also be encountered in the near future. To cope with this newly emerging health problem to residents of Japan, the Japanese medical system must train its members to identify and treat mycoses.

  19. The Beveridge Report and Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yoneyuki

    2014-01-01

    After World War II, Japanese health insurance systems rejected the idea of a flat-rate premium contribution, a central concept in the Beveridge Report. Allegedly, outside of Great Britain, no other country was more influenced by this Report than Japan. However, the postwar Japanese health insurance systems adopted flat-rate benefits and earnings-related contributions, a clear rejection of the flat-rate premium contributions for flat-rate benefits advocated in the Report. This is not just a simple difference from the premium contributions method, it throws up fundamental questions concerning the essence of social insurance, and ultimately, the power of the State and the relationship between the State and the individual. This article aims to analyze the reasons for this rejection.

  20. Learning by the Aged in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekiguchi, Reiko W.

    This paper discusses demographic changes in Japan, the sources of pleasure of the retired Japanese senior citizen, and lifelong learning. It also describes a study that examined learning preferences of Japanese senior citizens. Data for 1983 show that life expectancy has increased in Japan to 74.20 years for males and 79.78 for females. The level…

  1. Teachers' Unions and the Politics of Education in Japan. SUNY Series on Japan in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspinall, Robert W.

    In 1989, the Japan Teachers' Union, Nikkyoso, split into two unions after 2 years of factional infighting. Japan has two political camps, the governing conservative Liberal Democratic Party and the left-wing Japan Socialist Party. The teachers' union is a powerful member in the camp of the latter. This book incorporates studies of the links…

  2. The Growing Role of Japan in International Politics and Economics. Japan Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, James

    With its increasing economic importance throughout the world, Japan has the potential to expand its political influence as well. Generally, however, Japan has been reluctant to use its growing power to influence political affairs both in Asia and in the rest of the world. This digest surveys the factors affecting Japan's role in world affairs, and…

  3. The emperor of Japan and the aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S. I.

    On October 3, 1985, I gave a special lecture on the aurora for the Emperor of Japan in his palace in Tokyo. It seems the Emperor, a marine biologist, has an unusual interest in the aurora. After my slide presentation, he asked how we confirm ancient sighting reports of the aurora in Japan. He was not satisfied with my response that anomalous events in the sky were well documented in an ancient publication entitled Japanese Meteorological Data and asked further how one could confirm such sightings as auroral events. He was visibly pleased to learn that the dates of these sightings coincided with those recorded elsewhere in the world.

  4. Cenozoic rift tectonics of the Japan Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.

    1988-08-01

    The Japan Sea is one of the back-arc basins in trench-arc systems bordering the western Pacific. Recent paleomagnetic works suggest the Japan Sea opened during early to middle Miocene. Radiometric and microfossil ages of the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands elucidate the rift tectonics of the Japan Sea. The rifting history is summarized as follows: nonmarine volcanic formations of prerift stage before 50 Ma, rift-onset unconformity at 40 Ma, nonmarine volcanic formations of synrift stage 20-33 Ma, breakup unconformity 19 Ma showing the opening of the Japan Sea, marine volcanic and sedimentary formations of synrift stage 14.5-18 Ma, beginning of regional subsidence 14.5 Ma corresponding to the end of the Japan Sea opening, marine sedimentary formations of postdrift stage after 14.5 Ma. Rifting is not limited to the synrift stage but is continued to the syndrift stage. Rifting led to a horst-and-graben structure. Thus, the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands are suited for a study of rift tectonics because the sequences were subaerially exposed by the late Miocene-Holocene island-arc tectonics. Rift tectonics cannot be studied as easily in most Atlantic-type passive margins.

  5. [Medical safety and the Japan Surgical Society].

    PubMed

    Kokudo, Norihiro

    2013-03-01

    Medical safety has been one of the most important issues addressed by the Japan Surgical Society (JSS), and the topic has been discussed at every annual meeting of the JSS since 2004. In 2008, the Medical Safety Committee was established under the JSS. The JSS is one of the principal founding members of the Japan Council for Quality Health Care (JCQHR) and has placed many members on evaluation committees for a majority of malpractice cases. In cooperation with the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine and JCQHR, the JSS is trying to lead the Japanese medical community to create an official third-party organization for medical safety.

  6. Stepping-Stones: Teaching about Japan in Elementary Grades. Selected Lesson Plans from the "Japan Alumni."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Elgin, Comp.

    This document is a compilation of 30 lesson plans for teaching about Japan in elementary grades. Produced by "Japan Alumni," North American classroom teachers who became acquainted with Japanese society through a program of travel/study fellowships, the lessons are divided into the following categories: motivational activities, land and…

  7. The School Textbook System in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawakami, Yasuo

    In this paper on the school textbook system in Japan, information is provided on the school textbook system during the post-war period. Topics discussed in this area include: (1) the establishment of the school textbook authorization system; (2) improvements to the school textbook system; (3) putting the free school (public school) textbook system…

  8. The Teaching Materials System in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimizu, Atsumi

    An overview is given of the state of teaching materials and aids used in schools in Japan. In section I, an outline is presented of the Japanese system of providing teaching materials. Several laws and regulations regarding the provision and use of textbooks are described, including: (1) school education law; (2) law concerning the organization…

  9. The State of Continuing Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong…

  10. The State of Continuing Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong…

  11. Iron distributions in the water column of the Japan Basin and Yamato Basin (Japan Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Satoshi; Kuma, Kenshi; Ishikawa, Satoko; Nishimura, Shotaroh; Nakayama, Yuta; Ushizaka, Satomi; Isoda, Yutaka; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Aramaki, Takafumi

    2010-12-01

    In the Japan and Yamato basins (Japan Sea), dissolved Fe ([D-Fe], <0.22 μm fraction) was characterized by surface depletion, mid-depth maxima, then a slight decrease with depth in deep water and uniform concentration in bottom waters because of biological uptake in the surface water and release by microbial decomposition of sinking organic matter in mid-depth waters. Total Fe concentrations ([T-Fe]) in the surface water of the Japan Sea were 1-4 nM, a little higher than those in the surface waters of the nutrient-deficient subtropical western North Pacific and extremely higher than the nutrient-rich subarctic western North Pacific and the nutrient-deficient subtropical central North Pacific, resulting from high atmospheric Fe input to nutrient-depleted surface water of the Japan Sea. In the Japan Basin, the [T-Fe] in bottom water were lower than those in deep water, resulting from (1) the injection of new bottom water with the lower [T-Fe] into the Japan Basin bottom water, (2) the particulate Fe removal by particle scavenging during the bottom water circulation of the Japan Basin, or (3) the injection of deep water with the higher [T-Fe] into the Japan Basin deep water. On the other hand, the [T-Fe] in deep water of the Yamato Basin and the slope regions were variable with different [T-Fe] levels among stations and depths. We found a significant relationship between [T-Fe] and water transmittance in deep water, probably resulting from the iron supply into the deep water because of the lateral transport of resuspended sediment from the slope.

  12. The chemical disaster response system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center.

  13. The cost of schizophrenia in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sado, Mitsuhiro; Inagaki, Ataru; Koreki, Akihiro; Knapp, Martin; Kissane, Lee Andrew; Mimura, Masaru; Yoshimura, Kimio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Schizophrenia is a disorder that produces considerable burdens due to its often relapsing/remitting or chronic longitudinal course. This burden is felt not only by patients themselves, but also by their families and health care systems. Although the societal burden caused by this disorder has been evaluated in several countries, the magnitude of the societal cost of schizophrenia in Japan has never been estimated. The aim of this study is to clarify the societal burden of schizophrenia by estimating the cost of schizophrenia in Japan in 2008. Methods: A human capital approach was adopted to estimate the cost of schizophrenia. The total cost of schizophrenia was calculated as the sum of the direct, morbidity, and mortality costs. Schizophrenia was defined as disorders coded as F20.0–F20.9 according to the International Classification of Diseases-10. The data required to estimate the total cost was collected from publicly available statistics or previously reported studies. Results: The total cost of schizophrenia in Japan in 2008 was JPY 2.77 trillion (USD 23.8 billion). While the direct cost was JPY 0.770 trillion (USD 6.59 billion), the morbidity and mortality costs were JPY 1.85 trillion (USD 15.8 billion) and JPY 0.155 trillion (USD 1.33 billion), respectively. Conclusion: The societal burden caused by schizophrenia is tremendous in Japan, similar to that in other developed countries where published data exist. Compared with other disorders, such as depression or anxiety disorders, the direct cost accounted for a relatively high proportion of the total cost. Furthermore, absolute costs arising from unemployment were larger, while the prevalence rate was smaller, than the corresponding results for depression or anxiety in Japan. PMID:23785238

  14. Display holography an SPIE critical review of technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Various techniques used in holographic imagery are presented. The prominent features, potentials, and limitations of the laser transmission ('Leith and Upatnieks') holography, the white light transmission ('rainbow' or 'Benton') holography, and the reflection ('Denisyuk') holography methods are discused. Special consideration is given to the practical technique of holographic stereograms, which permits accurate production of three-dimensional, magnified and minified, images of moving objects or moving images, and which is part of all three classes of holographic methods.

  15. Chemical Vapor Deposited Zinc Sulfide. SPIE Press Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Tustison, Randal W.

    2013-04-22

    Zinc sulfide has shown unequaled utility for infrared windows that require a combination of long-wavelength infrared transparency, mechanical durability, and elevated-temperature performance. This book reviews the physical properties of chemical vapor deposited ZnS and their relationship to the CVD process that produced them. An in-depth look at the material microstructure is included, along with a discussion of the material's optical properties. Finally, because the CVD process itself is central to the development of this material, a brief history is presented.

  16. Focal Plane Products Database SPIE Technical Symposium East 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchness, R. K.; Mathine, L. A.; Juravel, Y.

    1985-10-01

    Rockwell International Corporation has established an automated database system for the storage, retrieval and analysis of focal plane manufacturing information. In 1983, Rockwell implemented the first fully certified Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) production facility in the United States. As part of the development of this facility, key processing variables were identified for inclusion in a comprehensive data base. Our database system contains information from boule, slice, wafer and die sources. The current database consists of data from over one million on-line measurments drawn from the entire range of our production and test facilities. Database analysis routines provide various tabular, plot and statistical output that are used toward the goals of lowering cost and improving yield in the process of HgCdTe manufacturing.

  17. Applications of digital image processing IX: SPIE volume 697

    SciTech Connect

    Teacher, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains papers arranged into six sessions. The session titles are: Image compression; Instrumentation; Theoretical concepts; Algorithms; Registration and modeling; and Restoration and enhancement.

  18. Optical techniques in pulmonary medicine. SPIE photonics West.

    PubMed

    Suter, Melissa J; Lam, Stephen; Brenner, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    There is ongoing interest in the emerging field of pulmonary photonic-based diagnostics. Potential clinical need areas that are being actively investigated at this time include airway and peripheral lung cancer diagnostics, pulmonary parenchymal and interstitial disorders, alveolar structure function, inhalation injury, ciliary function analysis, asthma and obstructive lung diseases.

  19. Culture and the environment in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murota, Yasuhiro

    1985-03-01

    This article discusses the environmental problems of Japan from a cultural point of view. The traditional Japanese view of nature differs from that of Western culture. During the 19th century, Japan introduced Western technology to modernize its industries as quickly as possible. Its transition into the modern industrial world was successful but resulted in serious problems. One of these was the rapid destruction of the natural environment; another, the feeling of homelessness that the Japanese people experienced in their newly Westernized surroundings. The Japanese people have now reached the point where they must reevaluate their traditional ideas about nature and their responses to technology. Their solutions to some of the problems that result from industrialization may be useful to Western countries as well.

  20. SpiE interacts with Corynebacterium glutamicum WhcE and is involved in heat and oxidative stress responses.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Chul; Park, Joon-Song; Kim, Younhee; Kim, Pil; Kim, Eung Soo; Lee, Heung-Shick

    2016-05-01

    The gene whcE in Corynebacterium glutamicum positively responds to oxidative and heat stress. To search for proteins that interact with WhcE, we employed a two-hybrid system with WhcE as the bait. Sequencing analysis of the isolated clones revealed peptide sequences, one of which showed high sequence identity to a hydrophobe/amphiphile efflux-1 family transporter encoded by NCgl1497. The interaction of the NCgl1497-encoded protein with WhcE in vivo was verified using reporter gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The WhcE protein strongly interacted with the NCgl1497-encoded protein in the presence of oxidative and heat stress. Furthermore, purified WhcE and NCgl1497-encoded proteins interacted in vitro, especially in the presence of the oxidant diamide, and the protein-protein interaction was disrupted in the presence of the reductant dithiothreitol. In addition, the transcription of NCgl1497 was activated approximately twofold in diamide- or heat-treated cells. To elucidate the function of the NCgl497 gene, an NCgl1497-deleted mutant strain was constructed. The mutant showed decreased viability in the presence of diamide and heat stress. The mutant strain also exhibited reduced transcription of the thioredoxin reductase gene, which is known to be regulated by whcE. Based on the results, NCgl1497 was named spiE (stress protein interacting with WhcE). Collectively, our data suggest that spiE is involved in the whcE-mediated oxidative stress response pathway of C. glutamicum.

  1. Marine Geography of the Sea of Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-01-01

    coast line. In general, the volcanoes that still con be identified in Japan ore not older than the Pleistocene or Glacic; epoch (1 million years...Oe ee nuneros volcanoes and frequent ethquokes. Reoevences: RESTRICTED Many submarine canyons are present on the continental shelf, but due to the... volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. References: Balzak, S. S., V. F. Vasyutin, and Y. G. Feigin, "Economic Geography of the USSR," The Macmillion Company

  2. Testing the Nuclear Will of Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    recommenced after North Korea conducted missile tests over the Sea of Japan in 1998. In 2006, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe enters office with a...Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited China before coming to the United States. The second reason is that the international institutions, treaties, and...Japanese public. It demonstrated that the anti-nuclear sentiment was still alive and well. In September 2006, Shinzo Abe was appointed Prime Minister and

  3. The origins of scientific psychology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takasuna, Miki

    2006-01-01

    The origins of scientific psychology in Japan arrived primarily through six routes. First, psychology was imported through translations by Amane Nishi, which resulted in the coining of words such as "psychology," "subject," and "object." Second, psychology arrived in the form of education that was directed by American Christian missionaries. The third route brought psychology through lectures presented at universities (e.g., Masakazu Toyama began lecturing at the University of Tokyo in 1877). The fourth route relates to teacher education: Shuji Izawa and Hideo Takamine introduced psychology as part of the first curriculum at Tokyo Higher Normal School in 1879. The fifth route was created by Japanese philosophers who studied abroad, such as Tetsujiro Inouye. Finally, the sixth and most important avenue involved the introduction of experimental psychology, as well as a formal educational curriculum for psychologists (e.g., Yujiro Motora was the first Japanese to introduce experimental psychology to Japan, where he trained many students). Consequently, the establishment of scientific psychology in Japan was primarily owed to the Japanese scholars who studied abroad in the U.S. and Germany.

  4. The fetal alcohol syndrome in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Arima, M; Suzuki, N

    1981-01-01

    In this retrospective study, the clinical findings of 26 cases borne by alcoholic mothers in Japan are summarized. The information on maternal alcohol drinking and abnormal offspring was gathered by a questionnaire survey. Twenty cases, mostly in institutions for mental retardation, were checked from all areas of Japan. Six children from another group were followed during health examinations of children in a selected area with many heavy drinkers. Growth deficiency was found in half of these cases with an increased rate of low birth weight babies (42% of cases) including small-for-date babies (23% of cases). More than 90% of these cases were in the retarded range of intelligence, 50% of which had IQ scores of 51-75. Gross motor development was also delayed. In all of the 6 follow-up cases, craniofacial anomalies such as hypoplastic nose and philtrum, narrow lip vermilion and short palpebral fissures were observed, although these facial features were mild. An aberrant palmar crease was seen with high frequency. CT of 3 cases did not show constant findings. The mothers were said to have drunk about 0.41 or more of 'sake' or whisky daily (average 110 ml of absolute alcohol) throughout pregnancy. Although typical cases of the fetal alcohol syndrome are less than one-third, this report provides evidence for the presence of mentally retarded children borne by alcoholic mothers in Japan and should alert many medical professionals to this problem.

  5. The 1998 World Solar Rallye: Akita, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacklock, Andy; Duke, Mike; Burgess, Nigel

    In early August 1998, 81 solar/electric vehicles participated in a three day endurance race in Japan. The objective was to complete as many laps of the 31 km circuit as possible. Some of the cars used state-of-the-art motors, batteries, chassis, solar cells and tyres to produce vehicles which could travel at speeds of 70-80 km/h on about 1 kW of input power. With only 20 kg of battery, some solar cars were travelling around 450 km a day. This paper tells the story of the race and the technological developments behind the successful vehicles.

  6. Seismic heterogeneity and anisotropy of the Honshu arc from the Japan Trench to the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhouchuan; Zhao, Dapeng; Wang, Liangshu

    2011-03-01

    We determined P- and S-wave tomography and P-wave anisotropic structure under the Honshu arc from the Japan Trench to the backarc area under the Japan Sea using 310 749 P- and 150 563 S-wave arrivals from 4655 local earthquakes recorded by 982 seismograph stations. Arrival times from 1451 suboceanic earthquakes relocated with sP depth phases enable us to determine the structures under the Pacific Ocean and Japan Sea, which expand the study region from the land area to the whole arc from the Japan Trench to the Japan Sea with a width of more than 500 km. The results show strong heterogeneities above the subducting Pacific slab under the Pacific Ocean and most large thrust-type earthquakes occurred in the high-velocity areas where the Pacific slab and the overriding continental plate may be strongly coupled. Low-velocity (low-V) zones are imaged in the mantle wedge with significant along-arc variations under the volcanic front. The mantle-wedge low-V zone extends westwards under the Japan Sea and it is connected with the subducting Pacific slab at depths of 150-200 km under the backarc. The results indicate that the H2O and fluids brought downwards by the subducting Pacific slab are released into the mantle wedge by dehydration and are subsequently transported to the surface by the upwelling flow in the mantle wedge. Significant P-wave anisotropic anomalies are revealed under the Honshu arc. The predominant fast velocity direction (FVD) is E-W in the mantle wedge while it is N-S in the subducting Pacific slab. The anisotropy in the mantle wedge is the result of deformation caused by the subduction of the Pacific plate and the induced mantle-wedge convection, while the FVD pattern in the middle of the mantle wedge argues for the 3-D mantle flow or the specific alignment of the olivine in the partial-melting mantle. The N-S (trench-parallel) FVD in the subducting Pacific slab represents either the original fossil anisotropy when the Pacific plate formed or the trench

  7. Japan and the East Asian Balance of Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    suggest, as the US defense establishment must, that a trade war with Japan would endanger higher political and military interests is a difficult...standi is weak, but the case of security con- siderations must be pressed. The third lever that might move Japan is related to the first- defense ... Japan and the East Asian Balance of Power JEROME K. HOLLOWAY T hirteen years after the collapse of the American enterprise in Vietnam, there

  8. The implementation of Narrative Pedagogy into nursing education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Asako

    2005-01-01

    The conventional approach to nursing education has been dominant in the teaching and learning environment in Japan. Some teachers are now seeking alternative approaches that can offer new ways of practice for reforming nursing education. Narrative Pedagogy can be used to guide the reconstruction of nursing education in Japan. The author reviews contemporary approaches to nursing education in Japan and discusses the strategies for implementing Narrative Pedagogy into the nursing education environment.

  9. Disaster relief activities of the Japan self-defense force following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa

    2014-06-01

    Cooperation between civilian and military forces, including the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF), enabled wide-ranging disaster relief after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nevertheless, many preventable fatalities occurred, particularly related to an inability to treat chronic disease, indicating the need to plan for the provision of long-term medical aid after natural disasters in stricken areas and evacuation shelters. To assist in this effort, this report (1) provides an overview of the consequences of the medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake, the largest natural disaster ever to hit Japan, focusing on the role and actions of the JSDF; (2) discusses the lessons learned regarding the provision of medical aid and management by the JSDF after this disaster, looking at the special challenges of meeting the needs of a rapidly aging population in a disaster situation; and (3) provides recommendations for the development of strategies for the long-term medical aid and support after natural disasters, especially with regard to the demographics of the Japanese population.

  10. Japan at the Crossroads Armaments and Independence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    industries. 65 Despite the Triple Intervention by Russia, 6ermany and France to limit Japan’s gains from its victorv over the Chinese it was...show. Because of the strain imposed by heavy expenditures for war and arma- ment expenditures of the national government tripled from 1893 to 1903. They...Facciam i About 50 4@aber* W .M I bk 01 e6aa I~vaaava Mlchi recent boreia Miter Salto guaftaichi leasel Za~ki tsbl Secretary Gaeteal.* LDP Spete Aea m~ sk I

  11. Urologic cancer in Japan: role of Japan at the frontier of issues in Asia.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of urological cancer in Japan can be summarized in the following points. (i) As the onset of this type of cancer is typically seen in elderly patients, it is becoming a major social issue in Japan that has already become an aging society. (ii) Many diverse treatment methods are available and a response is required that prioritizes quality of life. (iii) Although vigorous research and development efforts into new drugs are being carried out on a global level, resulting in beneficial medical agents becoming more readily available, unless concepts relating to cost vs. effectiveness are further developed and there is a real risk that medical systems and structures in their current form will become unsustainable. (iv) Although at the current point there are no original large-scale clinical trials being conducted in Asia, Japan has a wealth of experience of participating in many international joint clinical trials and it is therefore an urgent and pressing challenge to organize joint clinical trials in Asia and amass a body of knowledge that is unique to Asia. In view of this current situation and given Japan's position at the frontier of issues, it is important for Japan to take the initiative in Asia in cooperating with other Asian nations in efforts to resolve and overcome various challenges.

  12. High-resolution seismic imaging in the Japan Trench axis area off Miyagi, northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Kodaira, Shuichi; Miura, Seiichi; Regalla, Christine; Takahashi, Narumi

    2013-05-01

    obtained high-resolution seismic data reveal the detailed structure of the Japan Trench axis off Miyagi, Japan, in the region of large shallow slip during the 11 March 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake. Correlation of seismic images with previous drilling results identifies a possible basal chert-rich layer and hemipelagic/pelagic mudstones overlying igneous Pacific crust. Mapping of acoustic basement depicts the subduction of horst-and-graben topography. The basement and basal chert are subducted beneath a seismically chaotic frontal prism, but the majority of overlying hemipelagic mudstones is offscraped and imbricated at the trench axis as a result of plate boundary compression. A possible décollement is imaged as a seaward dipping reflection at landward part of the trench graben and was likely generated by loading and failure of underthrust sediments. Collectively, these analyses provide a structural framework for understanding sedimentary inputs and the localization of shallow plate boundary slip at the Japan Trench.

  13. A Realistic Approach to the US-Japan Alliance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    remilitarized Japan . These avenues include an approach I which deemrphasizes pressures on Japan to increase defense spending but encourag s force...political constraints, the one percent of GNP defense spending barrier, and a slow but steady trend toward increased Japanese security aware- ness...iniproverrent, expanded roles and missions for the Japan Self Defense Force (JSDF), increased joint and conbined training, and expanded technological exchange

  14. The English Language in Japan: History, Attitudes, and Functions. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.; Smith, Larry E.

    1995-01-01

    Introduces this special issue on the English language in Japan, which focuses on the historical phases of the introduction of English, the role of English in the educational system and the media, the contact and convergence of Japanese and English, the functions of English in Japan, and Japanese attitudes toward English. (three references) (MDM)

  15. Intercultural Communication: Between Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji; Kitao, S. Kathleen

    This collection of papers on the intercultural communication between the United States and Japan is divided into three sections. The first section, "Introduction to Intercultural Communication," describes the background of the relationship between Japan and the United States, the history of the study of intercultural communication, and…

  16. Ideas for Integrating Japan into the Curriculum. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest discusses how, by studying Japan, the larger context of the Asia-Pacific region can be explored and students can be introduced to current realities. The top 5 competitive countries for 1994 were the United States, Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, and Germany. Because of the increasing interdependence between the United States and…

  17. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; And Others

    This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,…

  18. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; And Others

    This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,…

  19. Few Women Reach the Top in Japan's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    Japan's higher-education system is the second largest in the world, after the United States, but it fares much worse than the United States when it comes to gender equity. Just 7 percent of Japan's 750-odd colleges and universities are run by women, compared with 23 percent of those in the United States. While four out of the eight members of the…

  20. Thermal structure of the Kanto region, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Ikuko; He, Jiangheng

    2017-07-01

    Using a 3-D numerical thermal model, we investigate the thermal structure of the Kanto region of Japan where two oceanic plates subduct. In a typical subduction setting with one subducting slab, the motion of the slab drives solid-state mantle flow in the overlying mantle wedge, bringing in hot mantle from the back-arc toward the forearc. Beneath Kanto, however, the presence of the subducting Philippine Sea plate between the overlying North American plate and the subducting Pacific plate prevents a typical mantle wedge flow pattern, resulting in a cooler condition. Further, frictional heating and the along-margin variation in the maximum depth of slab-mantle decoupling along the Pacific slab surface affect the thermal structure significantly. The model provides quantitative estimates of spatial variations in the temperature condition that are consistent with the observed surface heat flow pattern and distributions of interplate seismicity and arc volcanoes in Kanto.

  1. NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space

  2. The "white kidney bean incident" in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruko; Date, Kimie

    2014-01-01

    Lectin poisoning occurred in Japan in 2006 after a TV broadcast that introduced a new diet of eating staple foods with powdered toasted white kidney beans, seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Although the method is based on the action of a heat-stable α-amylase inhibitor in the beans, phaseolamin, more than 1,000 viewers who tried the method suffered from acute intestinal symptoms and 100 people were hospitalized. Lectins in the white kidney beans were suspected to be the cause of the trouble. We were asked to investigate the lectin activity remaining in the beans after the heat treatment recommended on the TV program. The test suggested that the heat treatment was insufficient to inactivate the lectin activity, which, combined with our ignorance of carbohydrate signaling in the intestine, was the cause of the problem.

  3. Outfought and Outthought: Reassessing the Mongol Invasions of Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    taken on an almost mythical quality, not so much because of the brave samurai defense of Japan, but rather, due to the fact that both invasions......almost mythical quality, not so much because of the brave samurai defense of Japan, but rather, due to the fact that both invasions ended disastrously

  4. Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

  5. Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

  6. Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

  7. The Issue of Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to problematize that which has been taken for granted about the notion of multiculturalism in Japan. Multiculturalism is a "hot" issue in Japan. As the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" since 1980s, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural…

  8. Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

  9. The Politics of Religion: Modernity, Nationhood and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2008-01-01

    While religion in Japan is traditionally linked to nationhood and nation-building, the post-war period has seen Shinto consciously invoked to restore a sense of national identity through a focus on Japan's victimhood. In this context, there is a focus on the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to the war dead and an icon of contemporary Japanese cultural…

  10. Caught in the Middle East: Japan's diplomacy in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitsu, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Japan's increasing dependence on Persian Gulf oil has caused its U.S.-centered foreign policy to shift. Drawing on personal interviews with senior Japanese officials, the author discusses Japan's changing diplomacy in regard to such problems as the Iran-Iraq war, Soviet aggression, and the Palestinian struggle for autonomy.

  11. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: Results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported “private events”, for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and “private events” on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship. PMID:24572682

  12. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported "private events", for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and "private events" on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship.

  13. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  14. The Independent Living Movement in Asia: Solidarity from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Reiko; Okuhira, Masako

    2008-01-01

    Independent living movements of disabled people are emerging in Asian countries, supported by independent living centres (ILCs) in Japan. A study was conducted in Japan to explore the impact of the training program offered by Japanese ILCs to disabled people from other Asian countries. A sample of 35 people was selected by a snowballing method.…

  15. The Independent Living Movement in Asia: Solidarity from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Reiko; Okuhira, Masako

    2008-01-01

    Independent living movements of disabled people are emerging in Asian countries, supported by independent living centres (ILCs) in Japan. A study was conducted in Japan to explore the impact of the training program offered by Japanese ILCs to disabled people from other Asian countries. A sample of 35 people was selected by a snowballing method.…

  16. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  17. The Problem of Japan: Qualitative Studies and International Educational Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTendre, Gerald K.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews qualitative (historical and ethnographic) studies of education in Japan that advance a general understanding of educational theory and practice. Japan, which is neither an educational paradise nor an examination hell, is the source of much data of value to educational research in the United States. (SLD)

  18. Somatoform disorders in the workplace in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shima, Satoru; Satoh, Emi

    2006-02-01

    The literature related to somatoform disorders in the workplace is very limited, and these disorders need more attention from mental health professionals in the workplace as well as from employers. Over the last decade, major changes have taken place in the work environment in Japan. More stress and less support from supervisors or colleagues in the workplace have made employees stressed out. The number of employees with mental disorders, including somatoform disorders, taking sick leave has significantly increased. In our multi-centre collaborative study, somatoform disorders were the third most prevalent psychiatric disorder in employees, after mood and schizophrenic disorders. Employees with neurotic disorders manifested physical symptoms more frequently than those without. Young employees frequently reported somatic symptoms such as general malaise, nausea, constipation, diarrhoea, headache, stiff shoulder, and dizziness. A rational new approach is needed to tackle this important psychopathology increasingly seen among employees.

  19. Japan: The Dilemmas of Success. Headline Series No. 277.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pempel, T. J.

    This booklet examines Japan's unparalleled economic achievements and its growing political prominence. Reflecting upon Japan's economic, political, and societal dynamism, the document offers helpful insights into how this nation, nearly devoid of natural resources but blessed with a self-sacrificing, highly skilled, and dedicated work force, has…

  20. Japan Trail '83: American Art Education Odyssey to the Orient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1983-01-01

    Five American middle school students went to Japan for two weeks in 1983 as ambassadors for American art education. Art education in Japan is much more centralized than in America. In addition to school study, children are exposed to traditional arts like the tea ceremony, calligraphy, and ikebana. (CS)

  1. Education, Science and the Economic Development of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    Examines changes in the educational system of Japan from 1868-1912 as a result of changes in attitudes toward science, technology, and professional and vocational training. Widespread fervor for utilitarian education during this period played a large part in Japan's commercial and industrial modernization. (Author/DB)

  2. Japan Trail '83: American Art Education Odyssey to the Orient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1983-01-01

    Five American middle school students went to Japan for two weeks in 1983 as ambassadors for American art education. Art education in Japan is much more centralized than in America. In addition to school study, children are exposed to traditional arts like the tea ceremony, calligraphy, and ikebana. (CS)

  3. Barriers to mental health care in Japan: Results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey.

    PubMed

    Kanehara, Akiko; Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito

    2015-09-01

    The reasons for accessing and maintaining access to mental health services in Japan may be different to those in other countries. Using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Japan survey data, this study investigated the prevalence of sociodemographic correlates of barriers for the use of, reasons for delayed access to, and reasons for dropping out from mental health care in a Japanese community-based sample. An interview survey was conducted with a random sample of residents living in 11 communities across Japan during the years 2002-2006. Data from 4130 participants were analyzed. The most frequently reported reason for not seeking mental health care was a low perceived need (63.9%). The most common reason for delaying access to help was the wish to handle the problem on one's own (68.8%), while the most common reason for dropping out of care was also a low perceived need (54.2%). Being a woman and of younger age were key sociodemographic barriers to the use of mental health services. Low perceived need was a major reason for not seeking, delay in using, and dropout from mental health services in Japan. In addition, low perceived need and structural barriers were more frequently reported than attitudinal barriers, with the exception of a desire to handle the problem on one's own. These findings suggest that improving therapist-patient communication and quality of mental health care, as well as mental health literacy education in the community, might improve access to care in Japan. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  4. Barriers to mental health care in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kanehara, Akiko; Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-01-01

    Aim The reasons for accessing and maintaining access to mental health services in Japan may be unique in those of other countries. Using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Japan survey data, this study investigated the prevalence of sociodemographic correlates of barriers for the use of, reasons for delayed access to, and reasons for dropping out from mental health care in a Japanese community-based sample. Methods An interview survey was conducted with a random sample of residents living in 11 communities across Japan during the years 2002–2006. Data from 4,130 participants were analyzed. Results The most frequently reported reason for not seeking mental health care was a low perceived need (63.9%). The most common reason for delaying access to help was the wish to handle the problem on one's own (68.8%), while the most common reason for dropping out of care was also a low perceived need (54.2%). Being a woman and of younger age were key sociodemographic barriers to the use of mental health services. Conclusion Low perceived need was a major reason for not seeking, delay in using, and dropout from mental health services in Japan. In addition, low perceived need and structural barriers were more frequently reported than attitudinal barriers, with the exception of a desire to handle the problem on one's own. These findings suggest that to improve therapist-patient communication and quality of mental health care, as well as mental health literacy education in the community, might improve access to care in Japan. PMID:25523280

  5. [The new Tuberculosis Control Program of Japan].

    PubMed

    Mori, Toru

    2006-07-01

    The 1951 Tuberculosis Control Law of Japan was amended extensively and has been in effect since April, 2005. The revision of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) is to respond to the tremendous changes that have occurred during the last 50 years in tuberculosis epidemiology and in the environment in tuberculosis control implementation. In this review, the main points and framework of the revisions were summarized and the perspective of the development of new technical innovations relevant to each area of the revised TB control legislation is discussed. Also, challenges of Japan's NTP in the recent future are discussed, including the controversies over the proposed abolishment of the Tuberculosis Control Law. 1. IMMUNIZATION: In the revision of NTP, the BCG vaccination of elementary school and junior-high school entrants was discontinued. In order to strengthen the early primary vaccination for infants, the new Law has adopted the direct vaccination scheme omitting tuberculin testing prior to immunization. This program is implemented to young babies, i.e., less than six months old, as defined by the decree. It is a heavy responsibility for the municipalities to ensure the high coverage of immunization when the period of legal vaccination is rather strictly limited practically to the fourth to sixth months after birth. The safe direct vaccination is another new challenge where appropriate management of the Koch's phenomenon or similar reactions should be warranted. 2. CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS: Though unfortunately suspended for some legal reason currently, the expansion and improvement of chemoprophylaxis, or treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, to cover anyone with higher risk of clinical development of TB would have a tremendous effect in Japan, especially since 90% of patients who developed TB were infected tens of years ago. The technical innovations in diagnosis of TB infection such as QuantiFERON will be very helpful. Development of new drugs or drug regimens

  6. The US-Japan Alliance: Sharing the Burden of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    expenditures to GNP. Japan Is also far down the list in defense spending per capita, behind nations such as Sweden, Australia, and Canada. Table 1.2 compares...TABLES Figures 1.1 Trends in Japanese Defense Spending ................. 14 Tables 1.1 Defense Expenditures of Major Countries ............... 12 1.2...Percentage Breakdown of Japanese Defense Expenditures by Category, FY 1977-1981 ............ 40 3.3 Disposition of US Forces in Japan

  7. A solid-phase immobilized epitope immunoassay (SPIE-IA) permitting very sensitive and specific measurement of angiotensin II in plasma.

    PubMed

    Volland, H; Pradelles, P; Ronco, P; Azizi, M; Simon, D; Créminon, C; Grassi, J

    1999-08-31

    We have developed a new enzyme immunometric assay for angiotensin II (AII) based on SPIE-IA technology (solid-phase immobilized epitope-immunoassay). A monoclonal antibody with optimal properties (mAb3 131) was selected from a series of 19 anti-AII mAbs. The mAb had to be purified from ascitic fluid in a specific manner in order to remove endogenous AII from the antibody-binding sites. We established a sensitive (minimum detectable concentration 0.5 pg/ml) and precise (CV below 15% in the 2-100 pg/ml range) SPIE-IA. Using different AII-related peptides, we observed that this new assay has a specificity profile that compares favourably with the corresponding competitive immunoassay. We have used the assay to measure AII in 42 plasma samples, and demonstrated a good correlation with values obtained using a commercial radioimmunoassay. Assay specificity was supported by HPLC fractionation experiments, confirming the absence of interference induced by endogenous AII-related products.

  8. The bumpy road to socialise nature: sex education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huiyan

    2011-09-01

    This study was prompted by an empirical puzzle: why is sex education in schools so underdeveloped in Japan compared to many other industrialised societies? On the one hand, formal pedagogy under state policy is conservative, emphasising reproductive and prophylactic purposes rather than a comprehensive understanding of sexuality. On the other hand, however, Japan has a highly visible sexual environment where a variety of commercial sex activities are tolerated and even encouraged. The aim of the paper is to provide an integrated picture of these apparently contradictory trends by examining the nexus of political, economic and sociocultural factors that affect sex education in contemporary Japan.

  9. Surveys of postpartum depression in Miyagi, Japan, after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sugawara, Junichi; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Sato, Kineko; Sugiyama, Takashi; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the correlation between the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the incidence of postpartum depression in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. The design used was a cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires, 6-9 months after the disaster. The results showed the prevalence of postnatal women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ≥9 to be 21.3 %. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to tsunami (odds ratio, 1.80; 95 % confidence interval, 1.16-2.78) was significantly and independently associated with an EPDS score of ≥9. Postnatal women and their children should be treated as a vulnerable population, and a protective framework must be established to prepare for future devastating disasters.

  10. [Counterfeit medicines--Japan and the world].

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisaku

    2014-01-01

    Circulating counterfeit medicines in the market is a public health threat. Counterfeit medicines become common problem, not only in developing countries, but also in industrialised countries, as internet has made them more accessible. In Japan, the recent survey on the medicines purchased through on-line pharmacy (targeting Japanese consumers) showed that the majority of erectile dysfunction (ED) medicines imported by individuals in Japan were counterfeit version. The survey of Japanese consumers, who privately imported medicines through on-line pharmacy, indicated that 16% of these consumers experienced adverse events associated with these products. Not only that it is just fake brand, but fake medicines may even cause health hazard. The counterfeit version of Avastin recently detected in the United States became a serious threat for those who desperately need these medicines for life-threatening disease. The Japanese regulatory authorities have provided risk information of counterfeit medicines to general public, as well as monitored on-line pharmacies and conducted enforcement action where necessary. However, more resources of compliance activity should be allocated to respond to the situation of growing threats of counterfeit medicines. Purchasing medicines from abroad through unauthorised channel is the major source of counterfeit medicines. It is essential to prevent circulation of counterfeit medicines through international collaboration of various regulatory authorities. To address these problems, the World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new Member States Mechanism (MSM) to build network of the authorities. Also, INTERPOL (ICPO) initiated globally concerted enforcement actions (Operation Pangea) against pharmaceutical crime as well as built partnership with pharmaceutical industry to create Pharmaceutical Crime Programme. It is also necessary to prevent consumers encountering counterfeit medicines and to prevent health hazard. The Ministry of

  11. Interdecadal variability of the sea surface height around Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Tamaki; Sakurai, Keizo

    2006-01-01

    The variability of the sea surface height (SSH) around Japan during 1960-2002 was investigated using an ocean general circulation model. The first EOF mode of the simulated SSH change has bidecadal variability and exhibits simultaneous variations around Japan that are in good agreement with the observed sea level changes along the Japanese coast. The variability is caused primarily by the meridional shift of the boundary between the subtropical and subpolar gyres due to shifting of the westerlies over the central North Pacific. The second mode of SSH change indicates a north-south dipole structure around Japan, that results from a change in the strength of the subtropical gyre due to a change in the magnitude of the westerlies. The rising (descending) trend of the sea level observed in the western (eastern) part of Japan in the past 40 years is determined by the increasing trend of the westerlies.

  12. Theater Missile Defense in Japan: Implications for the U.S.-China-Japan Strategic Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    Missile Defense (TMD). The question of U.S. assistance to Japan to develop and deploy a TMD is particularly complex and controversial. Subject Terms...considers a topic of key importance to U.S. national security Japan’s agreement to cooperate with the United States on the development of a theater...missile defense (TMD). China vigorously opposes this plan and insists that U.S. development of TMD and national missile defense systems will

  13. Japan: The Land and Its People. For Students in Grades Six and Seven. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Edwards, Barbara; Hutchenson, Gwen; Moffitt, Louisa; Ratliff, Penny

    This manual provides suggestions and materials for teaching about Japan. Designed as a supplement to typical textbook treatments, the lessons provide a range of readings, visuals, and activities to enrich and deepen student learning about Japan. Organized around topics dealing with history, geography, government, economics, and culture, the…

  14. Mortality in the 2011 tsunami in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake caused a huge tsunami that struck Northeast Japan, resulting in nearly 20 000 deaths. We investigated mortality patterns by age, sex, and region in the 3 most severely affected prefectures. Using police data on earthquake victims in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures, mortality rates by sex, age group, and region were calculated, and regional variability in mortality rates across age groups was compared using rate ratios (RRs), with the rates in Iwate as the reference. In all regions, age-specific mortality showed a tendency to increase with age; there were no sex differences. Among residents of Iwate, mortality was markedly lower among school-aged children as compared with other age groups. In northern Miyagi and the southern part of the study area, RRs were higher among school-aged children than among other age groups. The present study could not address the reasons for the observed mortality patterns and regional differences. To improve preparedness policies, future research should investigate the reasons for regional differences.

  15. Mortality in the 2011 Tsunami in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction On 11 March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake caused a huge tsunami that struck Northeast Japan, resulting in nearly 20 000 deaths. We investigated mortality patterns by age, sex, and region in the 3 most severely affected prefectures. Methods Using police data on earthquake victims in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures, mortality rates by sex, age group, and region were calculated, and regional variability in mortality rates across age groups was compared using rate ratios (RRs), with the rates in Iwate as the reference. Results In all regions, age-specific mortality showed a tendency to increase with age; there were no sex differences. Among residents of Iwate, mortality was markedly lower among school-aged children as compared with other age groups. In northern Miyagi and the southern part of the study area, RRs were higher among school-aged children than among other age groups. Conclusions The present study could not address the reasons for the observed mortality patterns and regional differences. To improve preparedness policies, future research should investigate the reasons for regional differences. PMID:23089585

  16. The Regulation of Medical Malpractice in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    How Japanese legal and social institutions handle medical errors is little known outside Japan. For almost all of the 20th century, a paternalistic paradigm prevailed. Characteristics of the legal environment affecting Japanese medicine included few attorneys handling medical cases, low litigation rates, long delays, predictable damage awards, and low-cost malpractice insurance. However, transparency principles have gained traction and public concern over medical errors has intensified. Recent legal developments include courts’ adoption of a less deferential standard of informed consent; increases in the numbers of malpractice claims and of practicing attorneys; more efficient claims handling by specialist judges and speedier trials; and highly publicized criminal prosecutions of medical personnel. The health ministry is undertaking a noteworthy “model project” to enlist impartial specialists in investigation and analysis of possible iatrogenic hospital deaths to regain public trust in medicine’s capacity to assess its mistakes honestly and to improve patient safety and has proposed a nationwide peer review system based on the project’s methods. PMID:19002542

  17. The first nurse practitioner graduate programme in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H; Miyauchi, S; Tonai, M; Ono, M; Magilvy, J K; Murashima, S

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the establishment of the first Japanese nurse practitioner graduate programme and legislative activities to institutionalize nurse practitioners in Japan. To address the super-ageing population, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences initiated the first academic graduate level nurse practitioner programme in Japan, based upon the global standard defined by the International Council of Nurses. In 2010, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences graduated the first nurse practitioner. We believe that nurse practitioners will be highly valued in Japan for thoughtful nursing care to the fragile elders living in rural and urban Japan. © 2014 The Authors. International Nursing Review published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Council of Nurses.

  18. Japan’s Search for Strategic Vision: The Contemporary Debate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-25

    Japan relations. 69 Sharing this anxiety over American opinion were Yukio Okamoto, then with the Foreign Ministry, who feared that American mistrust...76 The unusually harsh words bore the stamp of the study’s principal author, noted Tokyo University political scientist Seizaburo Sato . On another...occasion, Sato told an interviewer that there have always been ups and downs in the image of the United States in Japan. But there is a growing concern

  19. Japan and the Soviet Threat: Perceptions and Reactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    commenced. A US-Japan joint study group began working on the sea lane defense issue in March 1983 and is scheduled to complete its study by the end of the...outlook of the USSR. This study demonstrates that marked differences currently exist, but suggests that Japanese perceptions of (and responses to) the...that Japan shares a similar security outlook of the USSR. This study demonstrates -, that marked differences currently exist, but suggests that I

  20. Emerging China and the Japan-U.S. Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-15

    whether or not Japanese cabinet ministers visit the Yasukuni shrine , where Class A war criminals are interred. Yasukuni shrine visits frequently...strong diplomatic power. In addition to its economic power, Japan has progressively built up its defense capability which enhances the credibility of...However, as its economic power weakened, Japan’s diplomatic and military power receded as well. Furthermore, the credibility of the Japan-U.S

  1. Japan: super-aging society preparing for the future.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2011-08-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a "super-aging" society, especially the need for community-based support systems.

  2. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  3. Use of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    TAKASAKI, Hiroshi; ELKINS, Mark R.; MOSELEY, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) may help users to overcome some obstacles to evidence-based physiotherapy. Understanding the extent to which Japanese physiotherapists access research evidence via the PEDro website may suggest strategies to enhance evidence-based physiotherapy in Japan. Objectives: To quantify usage of PEDro in Japan, to compare this to usage in other countries, and to examine variations in PEDro usage within Japan. Design: An observational study of PEDro usage with geographic analysis. Methods: Data about visits to the home-page and searches of the database were recorded for 4 years. These data were analysed by each region of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, each country in the Asia Western Pacific region, and each prefecture in Japan. Results: From 2010 to 2013, users of PEDro made 2.27 million visits to the home-page and ran 6.28 million searches. Usage (ie, number of searches normalised by population) was highest in Europe, followed by North America Carribean, South America, Asia Western Pacific, and Africa. Within the Asia Western Pacific region, population-normalised usage was highest in Australia, then New Zealand and Singapore. Japan ranked 10 among the 26 countries in the region. Within Japan, the highest population-normalised usage was in the Nagano, Kumamoto and Aomori prefectures, which was ten-fold higher usage than in some other prefectures. Conclusions: Although Japan has higher PEDro usage than many other countries in the Asia Western Pacific region, some prefectures had very low usage, suggesting that evidence-based practice may not be being adopted uniformly across Japan. PMID:28289582

  4. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-01-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  5. Background Tsunamis off the coast of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watada, S.

    2016-12-01

    JMA has been monitoring tsunamis at the outer rise of the Japan trench in real time since 2012 by using three DART stations separated about 100 km apart. Continuous tsunami data from Bottom Pressure Recorders (BPR) have been recovered and investigated for the background tsunamis, or long period surface gravity waves. Cross-correlation of two-hour-long records from two stations were computed and stacked for every month in 1.5 years. Each month, the cross-correlated ocean bottom pressure records starts with 1mm amplitude at zero time lag, indicating background tsunami wavelength can be as long as 200 km. The cross-correlation amplitude gradually increases up to 2mm at a time lag corresponding to the arrival time of the surface gravity waves with sharp pressure decrease due to the ocean depth. The wave period at the amplitude maximum is about 400 sec independent from station distance. Dispersed surface gravity waves follow after the amplitude peak. Seasonal variation of the amplitude the background tsunami is not clear, i.e., at one pair shows a larger amplitude in summer season by about 20% but other pairs do not. To look at the background tsunami propagation of longer distance, cross-correlations between DART 21413 (ESE Tokyo) and 21418 (NE Tokyo) have been computed operated by NOAA. Two stations are separated about 900 km. A one-year stack of the one-day-long cross-correlated records enhances weaker background tsunami waveforms with similar features but with a much smaller amplitude at zero time lag, indicating that background tsunami wavelength is smaller than 900km The merit of cross-correlation analysis of continuously recorded tsunamis is that the tsunami propagation can be obtained by the cross-correlation of observed data without a tsunami simulation.

  6. [The current trend of the Pharmacopoeia of Japan].

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, M

    1994-01-01

    The Pharmacopoeia of Japan (JP) has played an important leading role in establishing standards of quality and official test methods for drugs and drug preparations in Japan. The JP XII's second supplement and the JP XIII are scheduled to come out by the end of 1994 and on April of 1996, respectively. To provide a more open revision process for JP and to announce the revision and future conception of the JP committees, the outlines of the current progress of each JP sub-committee were introduced.

  7. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-09

    expenditure . He said that he hoped for greater effort on Japan’s part in regard to the defense of Japan itself and its periphery. This means he clearly set...Forces into real combat forces and their unification with U.S. Forces. They dealt with the mounting defense expenditure , which is also connected with...governments of Japan and the United States on "guidelines for Japan -U.S. cooperation on defense " in 1978. Throughout 1984, even Prime Minister Nakasone

  8. Nature of the Moho in Japan and Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Levin, Vadim; Nikulin, Alex; Iidaka, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    The Kamchatka peninsula and the islands of Japan are located along the eastern margin of the Asian continent. The natures of the Moho in these areas have been studied for decades, with a variety of geophysical methods, including active and passive seismic methods, gravity and other techniques. The Moho and the upper mantle structures in the NE Japan and SE Japan Arcs have been investigated well both from active and passive seismic source studies. The Moho depth in the NE Japan is ranging from 30 to 40 km. Almost parallel to the present volcanic front, there exists a belt of deep Moho (34-36 km) with a lower Pn velocity (7.5-7.7 km/s). Amplitude analysis of the PmP phase indicates that the Moho beneath the NE Japan Arc is not a simple velocity contrast, but rather a gradual transition. Toward the backarc side, remarkable crustal thinning is recognized. Actually, the Moho depth decreases from 35 km beneath the central part of NE Japan to 18 km beneath the Sea of Japan. This thinning is evident in the upper crust, while the lower crust remains constant in thickness. This may be explained by the continuous magmatic underplating beneath the rifted crust or deformation under a simple shear mode, allowing the lower crustal thickness to remain unchanged. The Moho in the SW Japan Arc is also at a depth of 30-40 km. The Pn velocity is 7.7-7.8 km/s, slightly higher than that in the NE Japan, although this value was mostly sampled in the eastern half of the SW Japan Arc where the recent volcanic activity has been less effective. Fluids expelled from the subducted oceanic lithosphere (the PHS plate) play an important role in controlling the structure of the mantle wedge. As these fluids leak into the mantle wedge they induce serpentinization there, transforming original mantle materials to those of lower velocity and higher Vp/Vs. The crustal thinning of the SW Japan Arc is characterized by notable decrease in upper crustal thickness, which is similar to the case of the NE

  9. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-30

    172068 JPRS-JAR-85-0 1 0 3 0 April 198 5 Japan Report 19980722 116 »TIC QUALITY SfSPECTED 3 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE...85-010 30 April 19 85 JAPAN REPORT CONTENTS POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL Break Up of Tanaka-Nakasone Alliance Anticipated (Taro Maki; SEKAI, Jan 85...minister. It became "When I was prime minister, Japan was isolated in international society," and although at the U.S.- Japan summit talks President Reagan

  10. Japan Studies through the Lenses of Different Disciplines: First Yearbook of the Japan Studies Association. [Papers from the Japan Studies Association Annual Conference (San Diego, California, 1995)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This yearbook presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The yearbook represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among five thematic…

  11. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2005, Proceedings of SPIE,

    SciTech Connect

    Exarhos, Gregory J.; Guenther, Arthur H.; Ristau, Detlev; Lewis, Keith L.; Soileau, M. J.; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2005-12-27

    This volume contains papers presented at the 37th Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers that was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado, 19-21 September 2005. The symposium was cosponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (USA). Cooperating organizations were the Center for High Technology Materials at the University of New Mexico (USA), Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (Germany), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA), QinetiQ (United Kingdom), and the College of Optics and Photonics, CREOL and FPCE, University of Central Florida (USA). The symposium, was attended by 145 scientist and engineers from China, France, Lithuania, Russia, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. One-third of the attendees and nearly half of the presentations were from abroad. A mini-symposium on Tuesday afternoon, that addressed damage issues associated with petawatt lasers, highlighted our growing interest in the emerging area. Including the mini-symposium, 87 papers were presented in oral and poster sessions.

  12. The Annual Cycle of the Japan Sea Throughflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, S.; Qiu, B.; Yang, J.; Lin, X.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism responsible for the annual cycle of the flows through the straits of Japan Sea is investigated using a two-layer model. Japan Sea is one of the marginal sea located in the western North Pacific that is separated from the Pacific by the islands of Japan. Three narrow and shallow straits, the Tsushima, Tsugaru, and Soya Straits, connect this sea towards the Pacific Ocean and Okhotsk Sea and observations show that the flow through these three straits vary annually with a maximum transport in summer-fall and a minimum transport in winter. The variability is large for Soya (north) and Tsushima (south) Straits but weak for the Tsugaru Strait (middle). We find the subpolar winds located to the north of Soya Strait to be the primary forcing agent of this annual cycle rather than the subtropical winds located to the east of Japan. The subpolar winds generate baroclinic Kelvin waves that perturb the sea surface height at the Soya Strait, cause barotropic adjustment to occur within the Japan Sea, and change the flow at the other straits. The shallow topography at the straits plays an important role. This mechanism explains why the annual cycle at the three straits occur almost synchronously. We also find the around-island integral constraint a useful tool for explaining how the magnitude of the annual cycle at the three straits are controlled. The theorem show the magnitude and direction of the flow controlled largely by the ratio of the meridional length of the two islands that is bounded by the three straits..

  13. Breast cancer screening and the changing population pyramid of Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Ken; Ohashi, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Satoki; Nogi, Hiroko; Kato, Kumiko; Toriumi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Akinori; Kamio, Makiko; Mimoto, Rei; Takeyama, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer has been the most prevalent cancer in Japan since the 1990s. The mortality from breast cancer is increasing in Japan, whereas in other industrialized countries it has been decreasing since 1990. On the other hand, Japan faces unparalleled growth in its aging population. The aim of this study was to report the mammography screening among Japanese women and the related upcoming changes in the population pyramid of Japan. The reference data for our study were obtained from the Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, Japan Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Japanese Cancer Society, and the National Institute of Population and Social Security. The survey data were obtained from breast cancer and mammography screenings in the Tokyo Prefecture in 2008. The following parameters were analyzed: annual breast cancer incidence, current screening rates, average life-span, and predicted demographic statistics. Our results showed that breast cancer incidence and mortality have been increasing annually in Japan. The average age of breast cancer patients increased to 58.40 years in 2010. The incidence of breast cancer in women aged 65 years and older increased from 25.3 to 32.9 % in the last 10 years and is expected to continue to increase in the future. The check-up rate was 16.0-20.0 % for women aged 65-74 years and 43.0-46.0 % for women aged 40-54 years. According to our questionnaire survey, concerns about breast cancer and mammography screening were high in the young and low in the elderly women. The Japanese population aged 65 years and older was 30,740 (24.1 %) in 2012 and is estimated to increase by 40 % over the next 20 years despite Japan's declining population size. Breast cancer incidence has increased in Japan, even among patients aged 65 years and older. Breast cancer has become increasingly prevalent in older Japanese women. As the population pyramid of Japan changes, women aged 65

  14. Correlation Between the Great East Japan Earthquake and Postpartum Depression: A Study in Miyako, Iwate, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sasaki, Michiho; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Ishikuro, Mami; Metoki, Hirohito; Sugawara, Junichi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Hosoyachi, Akira; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshizumi, Noboru

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and postpartum depression among perinatal subjects in the Miyako region of Iwate, an area damaged by earthquakes and tsunamis. We retrospectively compared the percentages of women with scores ≥9 on the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) among 3 groups of women who gave birth prior to the disaster (before-disaster group: n=141), within 3 months after the disaster (within-3-months group: n=70), and 4-6 months after the disaster (4-6-months group: n=89) at the Iwate Prefectural Miyako Hospital. The risk factors for EPDS scores ≥9 were estimated with multivariate logistic regression analyses. Compared with the before-disaster group, a significantly greater number of women in the within-3-months group had EPDS scores ≥9 at hospital discharge (31.4% versus 9.9%, P<.0001), whereas women in the 4-6-months group did not (10.1% versus 9.9%, P=.96). In both the after-disaster groups, the destruction of their home (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-9.26) and dissatisfaction with their living conditions (AOR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.20-7.59) were significantly associated with EPDS scores ≥9. An increase in postpartum depression was observed after the Great East Japan Earthquake among perinatal women.

  15. Japan: Tsunami

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tsunami Inundation Along Japan's Eastern Coast   ... The extent of inundation from the destructive and deadly tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off ... March 16, 2001 and March 12, 2011 - Before and after tsunami inundation along Japan's eastern coast. project:  ...

  16. Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) the capital city of Japan, Tokyo Bay and the neighboring cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Chiba are seen in this view of Japan. This great international seaport facility covers almost all of the bayfront and is home to over thirty million people.

  17. Update Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  18. The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.

  19. The outlook for housing in Japan to the year 2000.

    Treesearch

    Michichiko Ueda; David R. Darr

    1980-01-01

    Housing demand in Japan is analyzed in terms of new household formations, vacancies, and replacements of housing stock. Total number of starts is projected to stay near current levels or decline, depending on assumptions about replacement demands. This contrasts with rapid growth in number of starts during the 1960's and early 1970's.

  20. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  1. The birth of cosmic ray work in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Systematic studies of cosmic rays in Japan were started when the Nishina Laboratory was established in Riken in 1931, after Nishina came back from the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen. He was already known as an author of Klein-Nishina formula. He spent a great deal of effort to spread modern physics in Japan, inviting Dirac and Heisenberg to give series of lectures at the university of Tokyo, which later established the strong group of theoretical physicists including Yukawa, Tomonaga, Sakata and others. He also spent a great deal of effort in comprehensive studies of cosmic-rays including the precise measurements of the mass of mesons, of the intensity at the deepest underground of 3000 m.w.e., and of other research to be discussed. It is to be noted that the encouragement by the theoretical group of Yukawa, Tomonaga and others stimulated the recovery of the research after World War II in Japan.

  2. [Epidemiology of stroke in Japan and comparison with the world].

    PubMed

    Furuta, Yoshihiko; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Stroke was the leading cause of death in Japan until 1980s. The results from the Hisayama study, which is a population-based study in Japan, showed that incidence and mortality of stroke decreased with time owing to the improved management of hypertension. Although the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke decreased markedly, the proportion of hemorrhagic stroke among the incident cases of stroke in Japan is higher than in European countries. Among the incident cases of ischemic stroke, the proportion of lacunar infarction decreased significantly, whereas the proportion of atherothrombotic and cardioembolic stroke increased. These changes may be caused by elevating prevalence of metabolic disorders-namely, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Effective prevention and management of the metabolic disorder are necessary for further prevention of stroke.

  3. Toward the responsible innovation with nanotechnology in Japan: our scope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizu, Saori; Sekiya, Mizuki; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Negami, Yumi; Ata, Masafumi

    2008-02-01

    The societal impacts of nanotechnology have attracted growing attention in the United States and Europe in recent years. In Japan, the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Technology Information Department) has played a central role in promoting discussions on this topic by collecting information from Japan and overseas, creating a network of the interested parties, and providing a forum for discussion. This paper presents a summary of recent activities in Japan relating to the societal impacts of nanotechnology, fro the launch of the "Nanotechnology and Society" open forum (August 2004) until the "Nanotechnology Debate" discussion forum (February 2007), and outlines the policy recommendations that came out of a project entitled "Research on Facilitation of Public Acceptance of Nanotechnology" (March 2006).

  4. Kato carries the torch for women worldwide. Japan.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    101 years old on March 2, 1998, Shidzue Kato is one of the founding members of JOICFP and president of both the IPPF-affiliated Family Planning Federation of Japan (FPFJ) and JOICFP. Kato was inspired to start the then called birth control movement after meeting Margaret Sanger in 1920. She was subsequently imprisoned for her beliefs by the pronatalist military government, but remained committed to the notions of family planning (FP) and women's empowerment, and has since become the single-most prominent person in the FP movement in Japan. Kato remains a vocal and powerful advocate of reproductive health (RH) and rights in Japan. Kato expressed her determination to keep working for women's empowerment and RH at JOICFP's 30th anniversary in January. With approximately 585,000 women dying annually from pregnancy-related causes, Kato understands that much remains to be accomplished in the way of FP, RH, and reproductive rights.

  5. 2016 Guidelines for the management of thyroid storm from The Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society (First edition).

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tetsurou; Isozaki, Osamu; Suzuki, Atsushi; Wakino, Shu; Iburi, Tadao; Tsuboi, Kumiko; Kanamoto, Naotetsu; Otani, Hajime; Furukawa, Yasushi; Teramukai, Satoshi; Akamizu, Takashi

    2016-12-30

    Thyroid storm is an endocrine emergency which is characterized by multiple organ failure due to severe thyrotoxicosis, often associated with triggering illnesses. Early suspicion, prompt diagnosis and intensive treatment will improve survival in thyroid storm patients. Because of its rarity and high mortality, prospective intervention studies for the treatment of thyroid storm are difficult to carry out. We, the Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society taskforce committee, previously developed new diagnostic criteria and conducted nationwide surveys for thyroid storm in Japan. Detailed analyses of clinical data from 356 patients revealed that the mortality in Japan was still high (∼11%) and that multiple organ failure and acute heart failure were common causes of death. In addition, multimodal treatment with antithyroid drugs, inorganic iodide, corticosteroids and beta-adrenergic antagonists has been suggested to improve mortality of these patients. Based on the evidence obtained by nationwide surveys and additional literature searches, we herein established clinical guidelines for the management of thyroid storm. The present guideline includes 15 recommendations for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and organ failure in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and hepato-gastrointestinal tract, admission criteria for the intensive care unit, and prognostic evaluation. We also proposed preventive approaches to thyroid storm, roles of definitive therapy, and future prospective trial plans for the treatment of thyroid storm. We hope that this guideline will be useful for many physicians all over the world as well as in Japan in the management of thyroid storm and the improvement of its outcome.

  6. Trade, Foreign Investment, and Competitiveness. The Japan Business Study Program. Based on a Seminar Series entitled "Japan Business Study Program 1989" (Austin, Texas, October 12-27, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuo, Hirofumi, Ed.

    Seven articles are presented addressing topics related to United States-Japan trade, foreign investment, and U.S. competitiveness in the global market. The first article, "Super 301 and the Changing Japan-American Relationship" by Glenn Davis describes recent U.S.-Japan trade frictions, epitomized by Super 301, and explains the influence…

  7. Trade, Foreign Investment, and Competitiveness. The Japan Business Study Program. Based on a Seminar Series entitled "Japan Business Study Program 1989" (Austin, Texas, October 12-27, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuo, Hirofumi, Ed.

    Seven articles are presented addressing topics related to United States-Japan trade, foreign investment, and U.S. competitiveness in the global market. The first article, "Super 301 and the Changing Japan-American Relationship" by Glenn Davis describes recent U.S.-Japan trade frictions, epitomized by Super 301, and explains the influence…

  8. Reinterpreting the history of women's judo in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Marques, Juliana Bastos; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-01-01

    This paper reassesses the role of women in judo in Japan, from its secluded and restricted beginnings in the late nineteenth century to the gradual changes in gender and social paradigms triggered by the influence of Western feminist struggle from the 1960s onwards. Judo has been considered in theory an inclusive martial art because its creator, Jigoro Kano, stressed safety, etiquette and moral teachings irrespective of age, size or gender of its adherents. However, the social and cultural environment in Japan has traditionally discriminated against women both outside and inside the dojo (training place). We treat this issue historically, considering the broader context of the Japanese social, political and cultural developments.

  9. Comparison of the dental education systems in Korea and Japan.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seok-Mo; Kim, K J; Kawamura, Makoto; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2004-04-01

    In recent years, international relationships in dentistry have grown stronger through journals, books, academies, seminars, researcher exchanges and so forth. Korea and Japan are neighbours in East Asia. However, no comparison of the dental education systems of the two countries has been published. Therefore, the authors have provided the present comparison to promote mutual understanding and to familiarise dentists around the world with dental education in these two countries. The number of dentists, life expectancy at birth, and number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) at age 12 years in Korea and Japan are summarised.

  10. Passing on the History of "Comfort Women": The Experiences of a Women's Museum in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Mina

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the activities and experiences of a women's peace museum in Japan which especially tries to pass on the history of Japan's military sexual slavery, or the "comfort women" issue. The system of Japan's military sexual slavery had not been written as a part of history until courageous survivors testified and…

  11. Passing on the History of "Comfort Women": The Experiences of a Women's Museum in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Mina

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the activities and experiences of a women's peace museum in Japan which especially tries to pass on the history of Japan's military sexual slavery, or the "comfort women" issue. The system of Japan's military sexual slavery had not been written as a part of history until courageous survivors testified and…

  12. Introduction to the INIST's activities and its Japan Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Written By André,; Ono, Translated By Shuichi

    In order to provide any user with the best information from all over the world in the field of science and technology, CNRS(Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), the main french research organization, settled up a highly specialized body named "Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique"(lNIST) which activities are breafly and roughly introduced hereafter. In this purpose, and according to the increasing demand and needs in France for japanese scientific and technical information, a very specialized service called "Japan Unit" was created inside INIST to make anybody easier to reach this particul ar type of information without any knowledge on Japan and japanese language.

  13. The Rearmament of Japan: Increased Regional Stability in the Western Pacific or Unnecessary Increase in Tensions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    forum.apan- info.net/05_special_ed/japan_1.htm. 17 Murakami, Haruki . Underground. New York: Vintage Books, 2000, p. 3. 11 instead participated based on...William. "The Constitution of Japan." September 10, 2010. http://www.solon.org/Constitutions/Japan/English/english-Constitution.html. Murakami, Haruki

  14. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  15. Subduction of the Daiichi Kashima Seamount in the Japan Trench

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lallemand, S.; Culotta, R.; Von Huene, R.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984-1985, the Kaiko consortium collected Seabeam, single-channel seismic and submersible sampling data in the vicinity of the Daiichi-Kashima seamount and the southern Japan trench. We performed a prestack migration of a Shell multichannel seismic profile, that crosses this area, and examined it in the light of this unusually diverse Kaiko dataset. Unlike the frontal structure of the northern Japan trench, where mass-wasting appears to be the dominant tectonic process, the margin in front of the Daiichi-Kashima shows indentation, imbrication, uplift and erosion. Emplacement of the front one-third of the seamount beneath the margin front occurs without accretion. We conclude that the Daiichi-Kashima seamount exemplifies an intermediate stage between the initial collision and subduction of a seamount at a continental margin. ?? 1989.

  16. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jacquelyn; Parisi, Lynn S.

    The activities in this book focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Several of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts. The book's 18 classroom activities are organized into three sections. Section 1, "Society and Culture," contains four activities in which…

  17. The Personal Narrative as Cultural Artifact: Teaching Autobiography in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Brenda; Friederich, Lee

    2002-01-01

    The article explores the purpose and methods of teaching the personal narrative in foreign language classrooms. Following a cross-cultural comparison of the history, purpose, and form of autobiography in first-language contexts in the United States and Japan; a review of the place of personal narrative in second- and foreign-language composition…

  18. Approaching Multilingualism in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clankie, Shawn M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers how multilingualism is approached in both Japan and the United States by considering the position and roles of the government, schools, and public. There exists the perception in countries where monolingualism is considered the norm that bilingualism, and certainly multilingualism, are problematic. Multilingualism in a…

  19. The new illegal immigration in Japan, 1980-1992.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Sassen, S

    1994-01-01

    "This article presents some of the latest available figures on illegal immigration in Japan, a process that did not assume significant proportions until the mid-1980s. It also discusses briefly the latest developments around 'immigration' policy--more precisely, the law on the entry and exit of aliens."

  20. Detailed seismic imaging in the Japan trench axis region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Kodaira, Shuichi; Miura, Seiichi; Fujie, Gou; Yamashita, Mikiya; Obana, Koichiro

    2017-04-01

    The rupture of the Tohoku earthquake occurred in 2011 was propagated through the very shallow portion of the plate boundary megathrust fault, and the seismic reflection profiles illustrated the shallowest part of the plate boundary faults in the trench axis area near the epicenter of the Tohoku earthquake off Miyagi area. We have conducted reflection seismic surveys using small volume of cluster air guns and a 1200-m-long streamer cable in these 5 years after the Tohoku earthquake to obtain detailed images of the deformation structure around the Japan trench axis region. Seismic profiles along more than 100 survey lines were acquired to cover off Fukushima to off Aomori area in the Japan trench. Time migrated profiles clearly show the detailed structure in the vicinity of the trench axis area, including the bend-related normal faults on the incoming Pacific plate, deformation of the sediment within the frontal prism. The profiles revealed the structural variation in the trench axis area along the Japan trench. The geological structure of the frontal prism sediment beneath the lower-most landward slope and trench axis is different between off Miyagi, the central part of the Japan trench and off Iwate, northern part of the Japan trench. Thickness of the sediments and the distribution of the bend-related normal faults on the incoming Pacific plate also show the difference between these two areas. Thickness of the incoming sediments is very thin ( 50 m) and the slope failure of the trench inner slope is observed in the vicinity of the trench axis around the 39.5 N, where corresponds to the northern edge of the large slip zone of the Tohoku earthquake.

  1. The Significance of Group Supervision to Yogo Teachers in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Kazuko; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Tamura, Takeshi

    This study aimed to evaluate the significance of group supervision to Yogo teachers in Japan, who often deal with work-related problems in isolation. Like school nurses in the United States, the role of the Yogo teacher is to oversee students' health education and management. In this study, eight Yogo teachers, each with a minimum of six years'…

  2. Teaching about Japan in the 1990s: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John J.; Grossman, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the influence of Japan on educational reform in the United States. Identifies economic self-interest and global competitiveness as the motivations for increased U.S. instruction about Asia and the Pacific region. Expresses concern that such a competitive outlook is unlikely to produce a global perspective. (DK)

  3. Internationalizing the U.S. Classroom: Japan as a Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S., Ed.; Spence, Donald, Ed.

    This collection of essays presents a rationale for incorporating teaching about Japan in the K-12 curriculum. The volume provides practical examples and guidelines about how to achieve this goal. The essays are organized into three main categories--professional development, curriculum design and enhancement, and exchange. The essays include:…

  4. Equal Employment Opportunity in Japan: A View from the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Linda N.

    1988-01-01

    The author describes the Japanese Equal Employment Opportunity Law of 1985 and assesses its impact on economic opportunities for Japanese women. She argues that two aspects of Japan's socioeconomic environment--the lifetime employment system and the labor supply pattern of Japanese women--diminish its likely impact. (Author/CH)

  5. English Loanwords in the 1990's in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Akira

    A sociolinguistic analysis of English loan words in use in the 1990s in the discourse of young Japanese people is presented. The study drew data from a 1993 survey of undergraduate students at two Osaka (Japan) higher education institutions, one for men and one for women, which asked what loanwords students used and heard often. The report first…

  6. Constraints on the Moho in Japan and Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Levin, Vadim; Nikulin, Alex; Iidaka, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    This review collects and systematizes in one place a variety of results which offer constraints on the depth and the nature of the Moho beneath the Kamchatka peninsula and the islands of Japan. We also include studies of the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc. All results have already been published separately in a variety of venues, and the primary goal of the present review is to describe them in the same language and in comparable terms. For both regions we include studies using artificial and natural seismic sources, such as refraction and reflection profiling, detection and interpretation of converted-mode body waves (receiver functions), surface wave dispersion studies (in Kamchatka) and tomographic imaging (in Japan). The amount of work done in Japan is significantly larger than in Kamchatka, and resulting constraints on the properties of the crust and the uppermost mantle are more detailed. Japan and Kamchatka display a number of similarities in their crustal structure, most notably the average crustal thickness in excess of 30 km (typical of continental regions), and the generally gradational nature of the crust-mantle transition where volcanic arcs are presently active.

  7. The Present State of Economic Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaoka, Michio; Asano, Tadayoshi; Abe, Shintaro

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the present state of economic education in Japan. There is a larger number of undergraduate students who major in economics, but their purpose of studying economics and their economic literacy differ. Precollege economic education is regulated by the course of study and limited by the poor ability of teachers to teach the…

  8. Equal Employment Opportunity in Japan: A View from the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Linda N.

    1988-01-01

    The author describes the Japanese Equal Employment Opportunity Law of 1985 and assesses its impact on economic opportunities for Japanese women. She argues that two aspects of Japan's socioeconomic environment--the lifetime employment system and the labor supply pattern of Japanese women--diminish its likely impact. (Author/CH)

  9. Some Misconceptions about the Economic History of Tokugawa Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, William B.

    1983-01-01

    New data on the economic history of Tokugawa, Japan necessitate revisions in traditional and Marxist interpretations, many of which are no longer consistent with the available evidence. One major outcome of recent studies is the awareness of the continuities between Tokugawa and Meiji economic growth. (RM)

  10. The Corporeality of Learning: Confucian Education in Early Modern Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsujimoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The intellectual foundation of early modern Japan was provided by Confucianism--a system of knowledge set forth in Chinese classical writings. In order to gain access to this knowledge, the Japanese applied reading markers to modify the original Chinese to fit the peculiarities of Japanese grammar and pronunciation. Confucian education started by…

  11. The Present State of Economic Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaoka, Michio; Asano, Tadayoshi; Abe, Shintaro

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the present state of economic education in Japan. There is a larger number of undergraduate students who major in economics, but their purpose of studying economics and their economic literacy differ. Precollege economic education is regulated by the course of study and limited by the poor ability of teachers to teach the…

  12. Young upper crustal chemical composition of the orogenic Japan Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, Shigeko; Imai, Noboru; Okuyama-Kusunose, Yasuko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Okai, Takashi; Koma, Takeshi; Murata, Yasuaki

    2000-11-01

    A new geochemical estimate of the young (mainly Paleozoic age to present) upper crust of the Japan Arc shows a dacitic composition in contrast to the idea that andesite is predominant in active orogenic arcs. Temporal changes in composition are not significant from the Paleozoic age to the present for the Japan Arc. The major element composition is similar to previous models of old cratonic upper crusts. The coincidence in the major elements between young and old crusts indicates that essential mechanisms during crust formation have not changed from the Archean era to the present. In trace element compositions the average young upper crust of the Japan Arc has higher Sb and As concentrations and lower concentrations of alkaline, light rare earth, and high field strength elements with respect to previous models of continental upper crusts. The large degree of constancy of trace element composition in marine sedimentary rocks is in contrast to the large variety in igneous rocks. However, the averages for both accretionary and nonaccretionary sedimentary rocks are almost identical to the average for the igneous rocks of the Japan Arc, with the exceptions of high Sb and As concentrations in unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks. The compositional homogeneity among different types of rocks on an arc scale implies that recycling processes mechanically mix the arc-derived igneous materials to homogenize the chemical composition during erosion, transportation, sedimentation, accretion, and uplifting. Since the contribution of oceanic crust to the composition of arc crust is small, the recycling processes have not changed the bulk upper crustal composition of the active continental margin except increase the Sb and As from sediments. Instead, the influx of differentiated acidic rocks from depth is essential to characterize the orogenic crust formation of the young Japan Arc. The characteristically low incompatible element content of the Japanese upper arc crust appears

  13. The image of the atomic bomb in Japan before Hiroshima.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Maika

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces the roots of the image of the atomic bomb in Japan by investigating the various discourses on atomic energy and atomic weapons in Japanese literature prior to the bombing of Hiroshima in August 1945. Japan is a country that suffered an atomic attack and, at the same time, one of the countries that was engaged in atomic weapons research during the Second World War. During the war, the discourses on atomic weapons were not limited to the military or scientific communities, but included the general public, thus facilitating the creation of a shared image of the atomic bomb as an ultimate weapon. This paper examines how this image was created. This special issue deals with the comparison among different countries, but the purpose of my paper is to deepen this subject by illustrating the differences within a single country in different periods. This research aims to extend the historical perspective concerning the atomic bomb in Japan, and offers another way of looking at this both historical and contemporary issue.

  14. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  15. The Way of Japan: A Series of Workshop Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. East Asia Center.

    The seven essays in this booklet are summaries of presentations made at the Way of Japan Workshop Series. Topics range from traditional Japanese history and culture to modern Japanese society and U.S.-Japanese relations. A welcome from Yoshi Okawara, Japanese ambassador to the United States, delineates how American and Japanese may think in…

  16. Multicultural Education in the United States and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Hideo

    This paper compares multicultural education in U.S. and Japanese schools, analyzing multicultural education from the ethnic perspective. The paper notes that while the United States is a country with a long history of immigration and is composed of people with many different racial backgrounds, Japan is a country of a single race with only a few…

  17. The Way of Japan: A Series of Workshop Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. East Asia Center.

    The seven essays in this booklet are summaries of presentations made at the Way of Japan Workshop Series. Topics range from traditional Japanese history and culture to modern Japanese society and U.S.-Japanese relations. A welcome from Yoshi Okawara, Japanese ambassador to the United States, delineates how American and Japanese may think in…

  18. The Rise of Modern Japan. Teacher's Manual [and] Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Linda K.; Lush, Noren W.; Tamura, Eileen H.; Gusukuma, Chance I.

    This textbook highlights key aspects of Japan's history and culture from the Tokugawa era (1600-1868) to the present. The textbook includes role plays, primary documents, first-person accounts, diary entries, excerpts from literary works, songs, poems, maps and timelines, charts and graphs, and political cartoons. It also includes a glossary that…

  19. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  20. International Education in Japan: Response of the Grass-Eaters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the reasons why a majority of Japanese university students are not interested in study-abroad, international-education type programs. A general consensus in Japan is that disinterest in studying abroad is reflective of the values held by many Japanese young people, often referred to as the "grass-eating"…

  1. The Rise of Modern Japan. Teacher's Manual [and] Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Linda K.; Lush, Noren W.; Tamura, Eileen H.; Gusukuma, Chance I.

    This textbook highlights key aspects of Japan's history and culture from the Tokugawa era (1600-1868) to the present. The textbook includes role plays, primary documents, first-person accounts, diary entries, excerpts from literary works, songs, poems, maps and timelines, charts and graphs, and political cartoons. It also includes a glossary that…

  2. Japan: Tradition and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    This textbook is designed to increase students' awareness of Japan. The study of Japan is worthwhile because Japan currently is and likely will continue to be one of the world's most important countries. U.S. knowledge of Japan is still quite limited compared to the level of understanding most Japanese exhibit about the United States. It is hoped…

  3. The influence of human papillomavirus on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kano, Makoto; Kondo, Satoru; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Moriyama-Kita, Makiko; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Endo, Kazuhira; Murono, Shigeyuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2017-06-01

    Although Japan is a non-endemic area with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the proportion of WHO type I NPC in Japan are different from that in non-endemic areas such as North America and Europe. Recently, it is said that not only Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) but also human papillomavirus (HPV) has an influence on NPC in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of HPV on NPC in Japan. Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens were available for 59 patients with NPC diagnosed between 1996 and 2015. We detected the virus status by p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV PCR, and in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the overall survival by viral status. Among the 59 patients, 49 (83%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 2 (3%) were EBV-positive/HPV-positive, and 8 (16%) were EBV-negative/HPV-negative. All HPV-positive NPCs were co-infected with EBV. There were no significant differences between the overall survival in the three groups (p=0.111). In Japan, HPV was detected in a few patients with NPC, and we suggest that HPV has no influence on NPC carcinogenesis in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Agriculture: Japan and the U.S. Compared.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennies, Mary Lea; Hadey, Marilyn

    Developed by two United States educators after visiting Japan, and designed primarily for secondary students, this instructional materials unit includes lesson plans for approximately seven class-days; although the actual time necessary for implementation is flexible and may be adjusted. All of the activities focus on Japanese and American…

  5. Nationalism, Internationalization, and the Dilemma of Educational Reform in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincicome, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ideological contradictions in the philosophy of internationalization supported by Japan's National Council on Educational Reform and the political contradictions inherent in Ministry of Education implementation efforts. Provides examples of attempts by Japanese high schools to internationalize their curricula and reintegrate students…

  6. Women's Experiences in the Engineering Laboratory in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosaka, Masako

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to examine Japanese women undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interacting with departmental peers of the same year in the laboratory setting by using interview data of 32 final-year students at two modestly selective national universities in Japan. Expectation state theory that explains unequal…

  7. Women's Experiences in the Engineering Laboratory in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosaka, Masako

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to examine Japanese women undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interacting with departmental peers of the same year in the laboratory setting by using interview data of 32 final-year students at two modestly selective national universities in Japan. Expectation state theory that explains unequal…

  8. The Japan disaster and U.S. hay exports

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quarantine control of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), by agricultural systems used to produce export quality hay for the Japan market was studied in the laboratory and field. Survival of Hessian fly puparia was evaluated under simulated seasonal weather conditions in incubators, regional o...

  9. Taxonomic studies of nectrioid fungi in Japan: The genus Cosmospora

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven species of the genus Cosmospora collected in Japan are reported in this article. Among them, Cosmospora japonica is described as a new species. Cosmospora henanensis, C. rubrisetosa and C. triqua, all of which are known only from their type localities, are added to the Japanese mycoflora. Othe...

  10. Attachment and Culture: Security in the United States and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Fred; Weisz, John; Pott, Martha; Morelli, Gilda; Miyake, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Highlights evidence of cultural variations in child attachment, noting how western values and meanings permeate attachment theory. Comparisons of the United States and Japan emphasize the cultural relativity of three core hypotheses of attachment theory related to: caregiver sensitivity, child social competence, and a secure base for exploring the…

  11. Attachment and Culture: Security in the United States and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Fred; Weisz, John; Pott, Martha; Morelli, Gilda; Miyake, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Highlights evidence of cultural variations in child attachment, noting how western values and meanings permeate attachment theory. Comparisons of the United States and Japan emphasize the cultural relativity of three core hypotheses of attachment theory related to: caregiver sensitivity, child social competence, and a secure base for exploring the…

  12. Rearming Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    roughly ~’ Ibid., pp. 14-16, 27-30. 12 3.5 percent of their GDP towards defense while Japan spends slightly over 1 percent. Yet, when compared with...runs up huge trade surpluses in its commerce with the United States and Western Europe. Conversely, Japan spends just slightly over one percent of...its GNP on defense indicating to many in the U.S. and Western Europe that Japan is enjoying a free ride and waxing rich under American military

  13. A Study of Japan for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Susan

    Arranged in outline form, this unit on Japan contains over 40 activities for intermediate grade students. Subjects covered are human and physical geography, social history, life style, communication and travel, occupations, recreation, art, education, government, and relations with the United States. Four to 10 activities are described under each…

  14. Idealized English Teachers: The Implicit Influence of Race in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Damian J.; Ross, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    English as a Foreign Language (EFL) education within the context of Japan is firmly underpinned by sociohistorical constructions of racial difference and racial hierarchies that have considerable influence on contemporary student and institutional attitudes. Embracing these sociohistorical foundations, this article adopts experimental procedures…

  15. A Study of Japan for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Susan

    Arranged in outline form, this unit on Japan contains over 40 activities for intermediate grade students. Subjects covered are human and physical geography, social history, life style, communication and travel, occupations, recreation, art, education, government, and relations with the United States. Four to 10 activities are described under each…

  16. Idealized English Teachers: The Implicit Influence of Race in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Damian J.; Ross, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    English as a Foreign Language (EFL) education within the context of Japan is firmly underpinned by sociohistorical constructions of racial difference and racial hierarchies that have considerable influence on contemporary student and institutional attitudes. Embracing these sociohistorical foundations, this article adopts experimental procedures…

  17. Establishment of a Japan Sea Project Office at the University of Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    Establishment of a Japan Sea Project Office at the University of Washington Stephen C. Riser School of Oceanography, Box 357940 University of...participating in the ONR Japan Sea initiative and scientists in Asia, including Japan , Korea, and Russia. This communication will take the form of sponsored...visits, joint cruises, data exchange, and meetings. OBJECTIVES As part of the ONR Japan Sea DRI, it is necessary to work closely with

  18. Cross-Cultural Learning Approaches in Students from the USA, Japan and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael B.; Aoshima, Megumi; Bolen, Larry M.; Chia, Rosina; Kohyama, Takaya

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between approaches to learning and locus of control of students from the USA, Japan, and Taiwan. The results show that students from the USA utilized more rote memory learning compared to students from Japan and Taiwan, while students from Japan were more likely to be "Achieving"…

  19. Evaluation of the diagnostic criteria for Cushing's disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Kazunori; Oki, Yutaka; Sakihara, Satoru; Nigawara, Takeshi; Terui, Ken; Suda, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome is caused by an ACTH-producing tumor, as is the case with Cushing's disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS). Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's disease from EAS in ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome are thus challenging problems in clinical endocrinology. The diagnostic criteria for Cushing's disease in Japan, established by the working group of the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, were originally reported in 2003 and revised in 2007 and 2010. In addition, criteria for subclinical Cushing's disease were established in Japan in 2010. In this review, we evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of the most recent diagnostic criteria. Previous data suggest that as an initial test of Cushing's syndrome, 0.5 mg dexamethasone is more sensitive than 1 mg in the overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Here, we recommend 0.5 mg plus a plasma cortisol cut-off level of 3 µg/dL as a suitable low-dose overnight DST for screening of all cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome in Japan. Recently, standardization of cortisol measurements by the ID-LC/MS/MS method using seven assay kits with standard plasma material containing synthetic hydrocortisone-d4 was carried out in Japan. The resulting relative standard deviation was within 10%. The cut-off value remains valid even after standardization of plasma cortisol measurements. Although the recent diagnostic criteria achieve higher diagnostic specificity, care should be taken since data for Cushing's disease partially overlaps with some cases of EAS. Overall, therefore, this review suggests that the accuracy of each diagnostic test should be considered.

  20. Recent activities of the physical society of Japan and the Japan society of applied physics gender equality promotion committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaki, K.; Okiharu, F.; Tajima, S.; Takayama, H.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2013-03-01

    The results of a 2007 large-scale survey of gender equality in scientific and technological professions in Japan are reported. The activities of two Japanese physics societies in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics was held in 2008 are reported.

  1. The Top-Awarded Reports: The First Contest of Internet Application to Educational Activities in Japan. AVE in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audiovisual Information Center for International Service, Tokyo.

    This booklet presents two activities that received awards in the First Contest of Internet Application to Educational Activities in Japan. The first paper describes CHaTNet (Children Homes and Teachers Network) at the Tamagawa Gakuen school, winner of the Prime Minister's Award. CHaTNet is a network of 4,500 participants, including parents,…

  2. Closing the drug lag for new drug submission and review in Japan: An industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Poirier, A F

    2015-11-01

    Previous publications have focused on drug lag in Japan and the government's initiatives to address the situation.(1) Japan is the third largest pharmaceutical market, and yet has experienced significant drug lag for many years. This article reviews the progress resulting from industry adaptation of new regulatory paradigms that include Japan in global drug development programs.

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of... and Vegetables § 319.56-27 Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States from Japan and the Republic of Korea only in accordance...

  4. Japan's Global Role: Proceedings from the Symposium (2nd, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 25-26, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. East-West Center.

    This document consists of eight presentations with responses given at the second in a series of symposia sponsored by the Japan-America Society of in a series of symposia sponsored by the Japan-America Society of Hawaii. Having emerged as an economic superpower, Japan's role on the global stage is still finding its full range and is a topic of…

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States...

  9. 75 FR 30856 - Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-394-A & 399-A (Second Review) (Third Remand)] Ball Bearings From Japan... antidumping orders on ball bearings from Japan and the United Kingdom. For further information concerning the... affirmative determination in Certain Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom, Inv. Nos...

  10. Connecting Higher Education Research in Japan with the International Academic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the historical, current, and future challenges of higher education research in Japan within a global context. Japanese higher education research has been strongly influenced by the international academic community. At the same time, higher education researchers in Japan have participated in international projects, and Japan has…

  11. Connecting Higher Education Research in Japan with the International Academic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the historical, current, and future challenges of higher education research in Japan within a global context. Japanese higher education research has been strongly influenced by the international academic community. At the same time, higher education researchers in Japan have participated in international projects, and Japan has…

  12. 76 FR 798 - Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-394-A & 399-A (Second Review) (Fourth Remand)] Ball Bearings From Japan... antidumping duty order on ball bearings from Japan. For further information concerning the conduct of this... and remanded-in-part the Commission's determinations in Certain Bearings and Parts Thereof from Japan...

  13. A Rearmed Japan: Implications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Japan started its initial rearmament effort. Japan’s defense expenditures have fluctuated from near 3% of GNP to as low...Klein, Donald W. " Japan 1979: The Second Oil Crisis’ Asian Survey, January 1980. Lee, William T. "Soviet Defense Expenditures in an Era of SALT." United...relationship to the options Japan can take. In very general terms, Japan has two options: to solely rely on the D.S.-Japanese Mutual Defense Treaty for

  14. Current Status of Doping in Japan Based on Japan Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panels of the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA): A Suggestion on Anti-Doping Activities by Pharmacists in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Takashi; Kawabata, Takayoshi; Takayama, Akira

    2017-01-01

     In 2009, the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA) established the "Sports Pharmacist Accreditation Program" to prevent doping in sports. Since then, anti-doping activities in Japan have been attracting attention. In this study, we investigated research about the current status of doping from 2007 to 2014 in Japan to make anti-doping activities more concrete, and we also discussed future anti-doping activities by pharmacists. In Japan, bodybuilding was the sporting event with the highest number and rate of doping from 2007 to 2014. Many of the positive doping cases were detected for class S1 (anabolic agents), S5 (diuretics and masking agents), and S6 (stimulants). Within class S1, supplements were the main cause of positive doping. Within class S5, medicines prescribed by medical doctors were the main cause of positive doping. Within class S6, non-prescription medicines (e.g., OTC) were the main cause of positive doping. When we looked at the global statistics on doping, many of the positive doping cases were detected for class S1. On comparing the Japanese statistics with the global statistics, the rate of positive doping caused by class S1 was significantly lower, but that caused by classes S5 and S6 was significantly higher in Japan than in the world. In conclusion, pharmacists in Japan should pay attention to class S1, S5, and S6 prohibited substances and to the sport events of bodybuilding. Based on this study, sports pharmacists as well as common pharmacists should suggest new anti-doping activities to prevent doping in the future.

  15. Hadal disturbance and radionuclide profiles at the deepest Japan Trench, northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Kazumasa; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Sakaguchi, Arito; Toyofuku, Takashi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Murayama, Masafumi; Glud, Ronnie; Fujikura, Katsunori; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Four months after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we carried out a video survey and collected sediment core collection from the hadal region (~7,600 m water depth) of the Japan Trench using an autonomous instrument. Fine material remained suspended at ~50 m above the seabed presumably induced by turbidities released during the central earthquake and the following aftershocks. Elevated levels of Cs-137 (T1/2=30 y) and excess Pb-210 (T1/2=22.3 y) concentrations suggested that 30 cm thick sediment layer had accumulated at the trench base (7,553 m) after the mainshock. However, no Cs-134 (T1/2=2 y) fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster was detected. In contract, inspection of a nearby sediment site (7,261 m) 4.9 km away from the central trench site revealed fewer disturbances as reflected by a recent deposition of only 4 cm sediment, but here we encountered recent Cs-134 fallouts from the top 0-1 cm depth. We propose that the apparent lack of Cs-134 in the central trench is coursed by settlement of turbidites containing Cs-137 from past atmospheric fallout and higher excess Pb-210. The fast transport of the Cs-134 to the hadal slope sediment is presumably induced by enhanced scavenging and the vertical transport associated to an intensified diatom blooming occurring just at the time of the Fukushima disaster.

  16. Recent trends for drug lag in clinical development of oncology drugs in Japan: does the oncology drug lag still exist in Japan?

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hideki; Kurokawa, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    This study exhaustively and historically investigated the status of drug lag for oncology drugs approved in Japan. We comprehensively investigated oncology drugs approved in Japan between April 2001 and July 2014, using publicly available information. We also examined changes in the status of drug lag between Japan and the United States, as well as factors influencing drug lag. This study included 120 applications for approval of oncology drugs in Japan. The median difference over a 13-year period in the approval date between the United States and Japan was 875 days (29.2 months). This figure peaked in 2002, and showed a tendency to decline gradually each year thereafter. In 2014, the median approval lag was 281 days (9.4 months). Multiple regression analysis identified the following potential factors that reduce drug lag: "Japan's participation in global clinical trials"; "bridging strategies"; "designation of priority review in Japan"; and "molecularly targeted drugs". From 2001 to 2014, molecularly targeted drugs emerged as the predominant oncology drug, and the method of development has changed from full development in Japan or bridging strategy to global simultaneous development by Japan's taking part in global clinical trials. In line with these changes, the drug lag between the United States and Japan has significantly reduced to less than 1 year.

  17. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    Industry , says the exhibition of about 70,000 foreign products mainly agricultural goods, household appliances, liquor, confectionaries , industrial ...Fishery Talks Restart (KYODO, 13 Apr 85) 38 Forest Products Industry To Get Government Aid (KYODO, 25 Mar 85) 39 China Asked To Curb Cotton...Customs-Cleared Trade 66 USSR-Japan Fishery Talks 66 Auto Exports 66 Japan, Malaysia Air Service 66 Trade Friction 67 Strategic Aid 67 Trade

  18. Southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, north of Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-01-20

    SL4-141-4340 (20 Jan. 1974) --- An oblique view of the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, north of Japan, as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit by one of the Skylab 4 crewmen. The camera used was a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad, and SO-368 medium-speed Ektachrome. NORTH IS AT THE TOP WHEN THE PICTURE IS HELD WITH THE LARGEST LAND MASS AT THE BOTTOM. Most of the land area is Hokkaido Island, Japan. The southern tip of Sakhalin Island (Soviet Union) is in the northwest corner. This photograph was taken to aid in the study of the formation of sea ice. Comparison of these photographs will be made with observations made during a joint USSR-U.S. experiment in the Bering Sea a year earlier. Observations in the Sea of Okhotsk are of interest because the ice has a morphology similar to that of the Bering Sea. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Modeling of marine litter drift and beaching in the Japan Sea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong-Hwan; Kawano, Shiro; Igawa, Shuzo

    2010-03-01

    Characteristics of drift and beaching of floating marine litter in the Japan Sea are examined numerically using the reanalysis data of the Japan Sea Forecasting System of Kyushu University. The residence time of model marine litter deployed uniformly over the surface of the Japan Sea strongly depends on the buoyancy ratio. However, almost all litter beaches or flows out through straits within 3years. Experiments with inputs of litter imposed at large cities and the Tsushima Straits as well as river basins of the Japan Sea exhibit a good agreement with beach surveys with regard to country ratios of beached litter along the Japanese coast in cases of lighters. In a case of lighter, almost all lighters originating from Japan beach along the Japanese coast, while almost all lighters originating from a country surrounding the Japan Sea except Japan beach along the coast of that country and the Japanese coast. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Programs of Japan in the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-07-29

    a district head-, for the purpose of making The services of the Bureau of Commerce and Industry more accessible to people in the provinces, and al...circular pointed out-? that the approach of the’ dry s-o.ason makes it doubl y necessay to take; more than :ordinar.y pr’ec-uticns aginst the outbreak...Trade . ........ . . [302 Transiportat ion . -Lnd .. .. ...... 302 Railways . .. ... . 302 Hi ghway s aad.TrucS . .. 30 ’b Water * * 3 0 Merchant

  1. Serving the emperor without asking: critical care ethics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Y; Goto, T; Morita, S

    1998-12-01

    This article is an attempt by Japanese physicians to introduce the practice patterns and moral justification of Japanese critical care to the world. Japanese health care is characterized by the fact that the fee schedule does not reward high technology medicine, such as surgery and critical care. In spite of the low reimbursement, our critical care practice pattern is characterized by continuing futile treatment for terminal patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This apparently wasteful practice can be explained by fundamental Japanese cultural values, social factors in Japan, the availability of extensive insurance coverage, physicians' psychological factors, lack of cost-benefit considerations and the pragmatic approach the Japanese take to situations. We attempt to make some brief suggestions regarding the improvement of our critical care practices. Although we can not fully present quantitative data to support our argument, this article represents our real-world approaches to the ethical issues in the ICU in Japan.

  2. Status of the IS&C Project in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamine, Shigenori; Saito, Tetsuo; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    1994-05-01

    A prototype IS&C (Image Save and Carry) system is under development at the National Cancer Center Hospital in Japan as a project of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The purpose of the project is to develop a medical information filing system for personal health care using the IS&C system. This paper describes the outline and present status of the project.

  3. Thin anisotropic layer in the mantle wedge beneath Northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, I.

    2008-12-01

    A wide variety of seismic anisotropy has been observed in subduction zones, including trench-parallel and trench-perpendicular shear-wave splittings (e.g., Nakajima and Hasegawa, 2004; Long and van der Hilst, 2005). Geodynamic modeling has been proposed to explain such complex anisotropy in the upper mantle of subduction zones (e.g., Wiens and Smith, 2003; Kneller et al. 2005): however, their origin remains still controversial because of the poor vertical resolution afforded by these seismic data. One of the key questions that might resolve this problem is the origin of the anisotropic signature within the upper mantle. We tested the distribution of seismic anisotropy in the mantle wedge beneath Northeast Japan based on the deformation mechanisms: a lattice-preferred orientation and seismic anisotropy are generated by deformation via dislocation creep in the upper mantle, but not by diffusion creep or frictional sliding. Based on the thermal structure and stress field of the upper mantle beneath Northeast Japan, deformation throughout most of the mantle wedge is inferred to be controlled by diffusion creep, and the region of dislocation creep is limited to a thin layer of 10-20 km thickness within a region of relatively high stress and low temperature located above the subducting slab and beneath the island arc crust. The relatively short delay time recorded in Northeast Japan is consistent with the occurrence of a thin anisotropic layer within the mantle wedge. We therefore conclude that the seismic anisotropy observed in the subduction zone upper mantle is largely caused by a very thin (~10-20 km thick) but strong anisotropic layer. Since the mantle flow in this region is mainly coupled with the downgoing plate, being approximately parallel to the down-dip direction of the subducting slab, a change in the dominant olivine LPO arising from spatial variations in temperature and water content is a plausible mechanism to create the complex anisotropy observed in the

  4. [Survey of the number of Acanthamoeba keratitis cases in Japan].

    PubMed

    Toriyama, Koji; Suzuki, Takashi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the trend in the number of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) cases in Japan. A survey was conducted in 48 university hospitals. Patients who were diagnosed with AK from January 2007 to December 2011 were enrolled. The trend in the number of cases and the type of contact lenses (CLs) that patients used were studied. A total of 524 patients was studied. The numbers of AK cases in each year, from 2007 to 2011, were 105, 152, 155, 65, and 47. The number dropped markedly after 2009. The percentage of conventional soft CLs and frequent replacement soft CL users that needed daily care such as rubbing-washing also dropped after 2008. The number of AK cases in Japan has been decreasing in recent years. The cause is uncertain, but one possibility is that information about proper CL care promulgated by ophthalmic societies in recent years is producing results.

  5. Attachment and culture. Security in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Rothbaum, F; Weisz, J; Pott, M; Miyake, K; Morelli, G

    2000-10-01

    Attachment theorists maintain that cultural differences are relatively minor, and they focus on universals. Here the authors highlight evidence of cultural variations and note ways in which attachment theory is laden with Western values and meaning. Comparisons of the United States and Japan highlight the cultural relativity of 3 core hypotheses of attachment theory: that caregiver sensitivity leads to secure attachment, that secure attachment leads to later social competence, and that children who are securely attached use the primary caregiver as a secure base for exploring the external world. Attachment theorists use measures of sensitivity, competence, and secure base that are biased toward Western ways of thinking: The measures emphasize the child's autonomy, individuation, and exploration. In Japan, sensitivity, competence, and secure base are viewed very differently, calling into question the universality of fundamental tenets of attachment theory. The authors call for an indigenous approach to the psychology of attachment.

  6. Progress in Aging Epidemiology in Japan: The JAGES Project.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-07-05

    Aging is a prominent topic in global health. The purpose of this report is to document progress in two of our research projects in Japan, which currently is the most aged society in the world. The Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) is one of the largest nation-wide research projects on aging, with more than 100 000 participants in 2010 and 2013. One of the notable findings is that community participation is a significant determinant of older people's health. We have also made progress in the development of the JAGES Health Equity Assessment and Response Tools (HEART), which is a management tool for developing age-friendly cities. This progress suggests that community perspective and management of health promotion in the communities are valuable and require further research.

  7. Progress in Aging Epidemiology in Japan: The JAGES Project

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a prominent topic in global health. The purpose of this report is to document progress in two of our research projects in Japan, which currently is the most aged society in the world. The Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) is one of the largest nation-wide research projects on aging, with more than 100 000 participants in 2010 and 2013. One of the notable findings is that community participation is a significant determinant of older people’s health. We have also made progress in the development of the JAGES Health Equity Assessment and Response Tools (HEART), which is a management tool for developing age-friendly cities. This progress suggests that community perspective and management of health promotion in the communities are valuable and require further research. PMID:27349200

  8. Quasi-biennial variability in the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Naoki; Ostrovskii, Alexander G.

    2000-06-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry reveals quasi-biennial (QB) variability in the southern Japan Sea. Sea surface height anomalies of a biennial nature are most energetic in the Yamato Basin, the southeastern most part of the Japan Sea, where they can be as large as 20 cm and extend for 100-200 km. On the basis of the in situ measurements of Maizuru Marine Observatory, the 2-3 year variations are associated with thermohaline anomalies in the upper 300 m layer. The local QB oscillation is studied with a reduced gravity model of the Japan Sea. The model is forced by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting daily wind and seasonal inflows/outflows through the three major straits of the sea. The model sensitivity experiments suggest that the QB variability can be associated with the sea's response to wind forcing of particular years, more specifically, 1992 and 1996, and to some extent, 1994. An approximate Kaiman filter is employed for assimilation of the T/P altimeter data into the reduced gravity model. It filters out observational noise and intraseasonal sea level variability and allows the model to dynamically interpolate T/P observations. The results of the assimilation indicate that the QB anomalies are strongest at 37.5°N, 134.5°E and propagate west-northwest with a speed of ˜0.01 m s-1, contributing to variations of the Tsushima Warm Current.

  9. The early evolutionary history of belemnites: new data from Japan.

    PubMed

    Iba, Yasuhiro; Sano, Shin-ichi; Mutterlose, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Belemnites (Order Belemnitida), a very successful group of Mesozoic coleoid cephalopods, dominated the world's oceans throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous. According to the current view, the phylogenetically earliest belemnites are known from the lowermost Jurassic (Hettangian, 201-199 Ma) of northern Europe. They are of low diversity and have small sized rostra without clear grooves. Their distribution is restricted to this area until the Pliensbachian (191-183 Ma). Here we describe two new belemnite taxa of the Suborder Belemnitina from the Sinemurian (199-191 Ma) of Japan: Nipponoteuthis katana gen et sp. nov., which represents the new family Nipponoteuthidae, and Eocylindroteuthis (?) yokoyamai sp. nov. This is the first reliable report of Sinemurian belemnites outside of Europe and the earliest record of typical forms of Belemnitina in the world. The Sinemurian belemnites from Japan have small to large rostra with one deep and long apical groove. Morphologically these forms are completely different from coeval European genera of Hettangian-Sinemurian age. These new findings suggest that three groups of Belemnitina existed in the Hettangian-Sinemurian: 1) European small forms, 2) Japanese very large forms, and 3) the typical forms with a distinctive apical groove, reported here. The Suborder Belemnitina therefore did not necessarily originate in the Hettangian of northern Europe. The new material from Japan documents that the suborder Belemnitina had a much higher diversity in the early Jurassic than previously thought, and it also shows strong endemisms from the Sinemurian onwards.

  10. Current status of pregnancy-related maternal mortality in Japan: a report from the Maternal Death Exploratory Committee in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Katsuragi, Shinji; Osato, Kazuhiro; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Nakata, Masahiko; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Sadahiro, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naohiro; Ishiwata, Isamu; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2016-03-21

    To clarify the problems related to maternal deaths in Japan, including the diseases themselves, causes, treatments and the hospital or regional systems. Descriptive study. Maternal death registration system established by the Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (JAOG). Women who died during pregnancy or within a year after delivery, from 2010 to 2014, throughout Japan (N=213). The preventability and problems in each maternal death. Maternal deaths were frequently caused by obstetric haemorrhage (23%), brain disease (16%), amniotic fluid embolism (12%), cardiovascular disease (8%) and pulmonary disease (8%). The Committee considered that it was impossible to prevent death in 51% of the cases, whereas they considered prevention in 26%, 15% and 7% of the cases to be slightly, moderately and highly possible, respectively. It was difficult to prevent maternal deaths due to amniotic fluid embolism and brain disease. In contrast, half of the deaths due to obstetric haemorrhage were considered preventable, because the peak duration between the initial symptoms and initial cardiopulmonary arrest was 1-3 h. A range of measures, including individual education and the construction of good relationships among regional hospitals, should be established in the near future, to improve primary care for patients with maternal haemorrhage and to save the lives of mothers in Japan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. [Progress towards the 2012 measles elimination goal in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanaka-Taya, Keiko

    2010-06-01

    The WHO Western Pacific Regional Office including Japan sets 2012 as the target year of the measles elimination. Japan notified "National Measles Elimination Plan in December 2007" aiming at being eliminate measles from the country by 2012. In 2009, total 741 cases (5.80 per 1,000,000 population) were reported (as of January 7, 2010). It was a remarkable decrease compared with 11,015 cases in 2008. However, the vaccination rate as of the end of 2008 fiscal year (the end of March) doesn't reach 95%. The first vaccination rate was 94%, and the second vaccinations for age groups of 5-6 years, 12-13 years and 17-18 years were 92%, 85%, and 77%, respectively. To prevent the spread of measles and eliminate in Japan, the whole nation recognizes that measles is a serious illness related to the life, and the department of the public health, the education, the medical units, and the research laboratories make an effort aiming at the goal for measles elimination is necessary.

  12. [The basic plan to promote cancer control in Japan].

    PubMed

    Monden, Morito

    2013-05-01

    Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Japan since 1981. The Japanese government implemented the Comprehensive 10-year Strategy for Cancer Control in 1984, following which the Second- and Third-term Comprehensive 10-year Strategy for Cancer Control have been implemented every 10years to promote cancer research and disseminate high-quality cancer medical services. The Cancer Control Act was approved in June 2006, and the law has been implemented since April 2007. Based on this law, the Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control program was discussed by the Cancer Control Promotion Council and approved by the Cabinet of Japan in June 2007. This plan was launched in June 2007, and covered 5 fiscal years from 2007 to 2011. It also provides a model for developing the Prefectural Plan to Promote Cancer Control. The Basic Plan needs to be updated at least every 5 years under the Cancer Control Act; therefore, the Phase Two Basic Plan was approved by the Japanese Cabinet in June 2012. Although the first plan was limited to medicine or medical care, the second plan was broadened to include social undertakings such as patient support in terms of job acquisition or student education for an indepth understanding of cancer. This paper includes the history of cancer control promotion in Japan and viewpoints on the basic plan for cancer control.

  13. [Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the Proteeae in Japan, 1989].

    PubMed

    Igari, J; Hayashi, Y; Shitara, S; Shitara, M; Yoshimoto, K; Ohmizu, Y; Umetsu, M; Sasaki, J; Kawana, R; Yoshida, T

    1993-04-01

    We discussed the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Proteeae isolated in Japan, 1989. Eight hundred six clinical isolates were collected from 47 hospitals. These were comprised of 431 strains of Proteus mirabilis, 155 Proteus vulgaris, 154 Morganella morganii, 44 Providencia rettgeri and 22 Providencia stuartii. Antibiotics tested in this study were 2 penicillins, 5 cephems, 1 carbapenem and 2 aminoglycosides. The MIC's were determined using the standard method of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy. Susceptibilities of the above strains to these antibiotics are described below; 1. Latamoxef, ceftizoxime and imipenem had excellent activities with no evident differences among the species of Proteeae. 2. Ampicillin and cefazolin were less active against Indol-positive Proteeae. 3. Piperacillin and cefmetazole were also strongly active drugs against P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris and P. stuartii, and cefotiam against P. mirabilis and P. stuartii. 4. Gentamicin and netilmicin showed excellent activities against M. morganii.

  14. The United States and Japan pursue a common agenda.

    PubMed

    Westley, S B

    1996-10-01

    In July 1993, the US and Japan formed the "Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective," an economic alliance to promote health and human development, respond to challenges to global stability, protect the global environment, advance science and technology, and foster exchanges for mutual understanding. A Global Issues Initiative (GII) has been created within this framework to support family planning, HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevention and control efforts, maternal and child health, primary health care, and women's empowerment. Participation in the GII has led Japan to more than double the technical assistance it provides and to broaden its geographic focus from Asia to the entire developing world. The US continues to fund population and health programs in more than 50 countries. The Common Agenda grew out of a US-Japan development assistance policy consultation dialogue known as the "Honolulu process," which sought ways to promote mutual understanding among US and Japanese development assistance personnel (through international internships) and nongovernmental organizations and to identify specific areas for joint or parallel development projects. Cooperative activities are underway in the Philippines, Indonesia, Bangladesh, India, Ghana, Peru, Guatemala, Mexico, and Jamaica. Joint project evaluations have also taken place in Zambia and Ghana. The Common Agenda's Children's Health Initiative has supported such initiatives as achieving child immunization in the Newly Independent States and joint efforts to eradicate polio and micronutrient disorders. The Women in Development initiative enhances girls' education and assists women engaged in small-scale enterprises. After initial difficulties in agreeing on joint strategies, the Common Agenda has been an "overwhelmingly positive" experience with the potential to meet critical challenges, because Japan and the US account for 40% of all development assistance worldwide.

  15. A history of the cancer registration system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Naoyuki

    2008-04-01

    In Japan, the first actual survey of morbidity from cancer was conducted by Dr. Mitsuo Segi in Miyagi Prefecture from 1951 to 1953. Population-based cancer registries were started in 1957 in Hiroshima and 1958 in Nagasaki for the follow-up of survivors of the atomic bombings. Public population-based cancer registries, under the cancer control programs of the prefectural governments, were started in Aichi and Osaka prefectures in 1962. After the Law on Health and Medical Services for the Aged was enacted in 1983, population-based cancer registries were initiated promptly in many prefectures. As of 2007, there were population-based cancer registries in 35 of Japan's 47 prefectures and in one city. The Research Group for Population-Based Cancer Registration in Japan was organized by Dr. Isaburo Fujimoto, the chairperson in 1975, with a grant-in-aid from the National Cancer Research Promotion Program. This research group has continued until now and has been making continuous efforts. To promote standardization of the registry process and to improve the quality of registry data, the Japanese Association of Cancer Registries (JACR) was organized in 1992. The Japanese government Third-Term 10-Year Comprehensive Strategy for Cancer Control was launched in 2004, with the slogan "Targeting a drastic reduction in cancer morbidity and mortality." This strategy includes not only promoting cancer research but also promoting cancer prevention, improving the quality of cancer care, promoting social support systems, and promoting effective systems for monitoring cancer incidence and survival.

  16. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007, Japan and Vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, Susan; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley

    2010-01-01

    This map shows details of Japan and vicinity not visible in an earlier publication, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3064. Japan and its island possessions lie across four major tectonic plates: Pacific plate, North America plate; Eurasia plate; and Philippine Sea plate. The Pacific plate is subducted into the mantle, beneath Hokkaido and northern Honshu, along the eastern margin of the Okhotsk microplate, a proposed subdivision of the North America plate (Bird, 2003). Farther south, the pacific plate is subducted beneath volcanic islands along the eastern margin of the Philippine Sea plate. This 2,200 km-long zone of subduction of the Pacific plate is responsible for the creation of the deep offshore Ogasawara and Japan trenches as well as parallel chains of islands and volcanoes, typical of the Circumpacific island arcs. Similarly, the Philippine Sea plate is itself subducting under the Eurasia plate along a zone, extending from Taiwan to southern Honshu, that comprises the Ryuku Islands and the Nansei-Shonto trench.

  17. Landslides induced by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, H.; Higaki, D.; Ugai, K.

    2012-04-01

    After the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake offshore SendaiThe, Japan Landslide Society (JLS) has launched research project on earthquake-induced landslides since 2009 and this team has started collecting information of landslides, immediately after the quake. This preliminary report aims to introduce various types of landslides using reports by air survey company, governmental institute, indivisual society's members and newspaper media. (1) Distribution of landslides induced by the main shock and aftershocks and identified by the member of the Japan Landslide Society. The Japan Landslide Society created portal site for collecting information of induced landslides. (2) A rapid and long runout fluidized landslide took place at a natural slope Hanoki-daira, Shirakawa City, Fukushima Prefecture. This landslide destroyed local community and claimed 13 residents lives. (3) A large-scale artificial fill landslide at Asahi-dai Danchi of Fukushima City, which was developed for constructing a residential in a valley. Slumping near the head scarp and displaced affected houses. In Sendai city of Miyagi Prefecture, hundres of artificial valley fill in dozens of newly contructed residential towns moved and affected thousands of houses. These landslides are partly recovered by municipal governments, however, still most of the residents should suffer from further payment for reonstruction of their houses. (4) The Fujinuma reservoir dam breached and large scale flood took place. This flood ran at least 3 km. It gave damage to the downstream community. What we found that this earth dam had no clay core and it could be one of the reason why it failed. Similar small-scale earth dam for agriculture purpose may be distributed anywhere in Japan where another large-scale earthquake may hit in the near future. (5) Deep seated debris slides took place in Sakae village, Nagano Prefecture, triggered by the 12 March 2011 (next day of Tohoku EQ) large-scale earthquake. One slides mixed with snow

  18. Trends in the management of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murono, Shigeyuki; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Tsuji, Akira; Endo, Kazuhira; Kondo, Satoru; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) has historically been and still continues to be a difficult disease to treat. The present study aimed to characterize current practices in the treatment of RRP in Japan. A questionnaire was posted to the Department of Otolaryngology of all 80 central university hospitals in Japan. A total of 56 universities responded to the survey. Regarding the use of surgical instruments, a trend toward a preference for lasers (50 hospitals) rather than a microdebrider (16 hospitals) or cold instruments (20 hospitals) was observed. Among the 50 hospitals frequently performing laser surgery, a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser was most commonly used, followed by a potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser. The most favored adjuvant therapy was traditional Chinese medicine. Eight of the 56 university hospitals had an experience of using cidofovir, involving a total of 28 patients. The present study demonstrated the current trends in the management of RRP based on a questionnaire survey in a geographical area other than the US and UK for the first time. Treatment trends were generally similar in all three areas except for the least popular use of cidofovir in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The challenges of occupational health service centers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hino, Yoshiyuki; Kan, Hirohiko; Minami, Makiko; Takada, Mikio; Shimokubo, Nana; Nagata, Tomoaki; Kurita, Masako; Uchida, Kazuhiko; Mori, Koji

    2006-01-01

    The improvement of occupational health conditions in Small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) is the most crucial issue in occupational health in Japan today. Improvement will depend on how occupational health services are provided to SMEs. Recently, Occupational Health Service Centers (OHSCs) providing occupational health services for SMEs have become more firmly established and expectations for further improvement in quality and quantity are high. In this way it is hoped that the challenges of providing "occupational health for all" can be met.

  20. Progress and Status of the Japan's ISS Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Hideshi

    2002-01-01

    The first element of the International Space Station (ISS) was launched in November 1998. Since then, ISS construction has progressed steadily, and ISS has been operated safely. Since the first permanent crew boarded the ISS in November 2000, various experiments have been conducted. NASDA astronaut Mr. Soichi Noguchi will fly on the STS-114 (ULF1) utilization and supply mission scheduled in early 2003 as a Mission Specialist. Japan is continuing its development and preparation for ISS operation and utilization. The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) "Kibo" overall system test started in November 2001 at Tsukuba Space Center (TKSC) and it was successfully completed in May 2002. Subsequently, the integration test with the Operation Control System (OCS) has been prepared to verify compatibility with JEM on-board software. The development of the Centrifuge, H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and JEM experiment equipment is also proceeding smoothly. Furthermore, Japan conducted precursor missions as an early utilization program for promoting the JEM research program. An overview of the progress and current status of Japan's Space Station program will be presented.

  1. A brief note on the history of psychosurgery in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nudeshima, Jiro; Taira, Takaomi

    2017-09-01

    In Japan, there has been no neurosurgical treatment for psychiatric disorders since the 1970s. Even deep brain stimulation (DBS) has not been studied or used for psychiatric disorders. Neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders has been thwarted by social taboos for many years, and psychiatrists today seem to simply ignore modern developments and therapies offered by neurosurgery such as DBS. As a result, most patients and their families do not know such "last-resort" options exist. Historically, as in other countries, frontal lobotomies were widely performed in Japan in the 1940s and 1950s, and some Japanese neurosurgeons used stereotactic methods for the treatment of psychiatric disorders until the 1960s. However, in the 1960s and 1970s such surgical treatments began to receive condemnation based on political judgment, rather than on medical and scientific evaluation. Protest campaigns at the time hinged on the prevailing political beliefs, forming a part of the new "left" movement against leading authorities across a wide range of societal institutions including medical schools. Finally, the Japanese Society for Psychiatry and Neurology banned the surgical treatment for psychiatric disorders in 1975. Even today, Japan's dark history continues to exert an enormous negative influence on neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders.

  2. Modelling the health benefits of smoking cessation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Avila-Tang, E; Apelberg, B J; Yamaguchi, N; Katanoda, K; Sobue, T; Samet, J M

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, tobacco smoking is one of the main avoidable causes of disease and death. Although the benefits of smoking cessation for reducing disease risk and increasing longevity have been extensively documented, a relatively low proportion of Japanese smokers currently express a willingness to quit. This study attempted to quantify future reduction in the burden of smoking-attributable disease that could result from increases in smoking cessation. A simulation model was developed to project changes in mortality in Japan associated with increased quit attempts and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) among smokers, incorporating data on smoking prevalence, cause-specific mortality rates, quitting behaviour and NRT use and effectiveness. Approximately 46 000 lung cancer deaths and 56 000 cardiovascular disease deaths could be avoided over 20 years if the proportion of smokers making a quit attempt per year gradually increased to current US levels over 20 years. If each of these quit attempts were aided by NRT, the estimates of avoidable deaths would increase to 64 000 for lung cancer and 78 000 for cardiovascular disease. In this model, negligible deaths were avoided due to decreased smoking initiation over the 20-year simulation. Smoking cessation can have measurable short-term impacts on the smoking-related mortality burden in Japan. However, to achieve these gains, tobacco control policies should focus both on increasing smokers' willingness to quit and providing the support and therapies to increase the likelihood that smoking cessation attempts will succeed.

  3. Overview of the Scientific Balloon Activity in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tetsuya

    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has conducted scientific ballooning in Japan for almost fifty years. Recent stratospheric balloon operations at Taiki Aerospace Research Field (TARF), Hokkaido, produce significant space science achievements. We have also developed new TT&&C system onboard which realize user-friendly interface between payloads and the balloon system. For the developments of next generation balloons, a tawara-shaped superpressure balloon (SPB) fabricating with polyethylene film was inflated in the TARF hangar in order to verify its pressure resistance. Since polyethylene balloons can float on the recovery, we will be able to carry out flight tests of tawara-shaped SPB repeatedly with no impact on the ocean pollution. The development of high altitude balloons with ultra-thin film was successful, and the flight performance will be presented in another presentation. In order to realize long duration balloon flights, which are quite difficult to be conducted in Japan, Japanese community eager to have complementary balloon campaigns in foreign countries. After two year discussion with Australian government and the University of New South Wales, ISAS will carry out two balloon launches at Alice Springs, Northern Territory, in 2014 Austral summer. Plans and schedule of this Australian campaign will also be discussed in this presentation.

  4. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Early High Tc Activity in Japan: The Franco Rasetti Lecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2007-03-01

    From 1960 to 1980, R&D of superconductivity in Japan was carried out mainly to improve A15 superconducting wires and magnets. Improvement of wires were made mainly in the National Institute for Metals, and improvements of superconducting magnets were made in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for future nuclear fusion reactors, the National Railway Laboratory for future maglev trains and also in the Electo-Technical Laboratory for MHD generators. I began the research of BPBO in 1975 and at that time the research of oxide superconductors was limited only to my laboratory in the University of Tokyo. During the study of this new superconductor, we learned quite a lot on how to make ceramic samples, how to measure electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures. In 1982, Prof. S. Nakajima organized a rather small group for investigating ``New Superconducting Phenomena,'' and I became a member of the group. In 1985, Nakajima expanded the research group to include more than 5 experimentalists and 5 theoreticians. The title of the research was ``New Superconducting Materials'' and the funds came from the Ministry of Education of Japan. In late October, 1986, we followed the first paper of Bednorz and Muller, and immediately found the material includes high temperature superconductor and reported it to the group meeting held in early November. In early December, we confirmed La2-xBaxCuO4 is the real high temperature superconductor, the critical temperature is 28K. I sent a copy of our paper to Prof. Beasley of California and asked to inform this fact to his colleagues. Asahi Shimbun, the biggest newspaper in Japan announced this in its science section, and then many people knew the high temperature superconductor had been discovered. Then many physicists and chemists rushed to this field very quickly and many kinds of materials were synthesized. In the Government, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry

  6. Diamonds in the rough: key performance indicators for reticles and design sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackmann, Paul

    2008-10-01

    The discussion on reticle cost continues to raise questions by many in the semiconductor industry. The diamond industry developed a method to judge and grade diamonds. [1, 11] The diamond-marketing tool of "The 4Cs of Diamonds" and other slogans help explain the multiple, complex variables that determine the value of a particular stone. Understanding the critical factors of Carat, Clarity, Color, and Cut allows all customers to choose a gem that matches their unique desires. I apply the same principles of "The 4Cs of Diamonds" to develop an analogous method for rating and tracking reticle performance. I introduced the first 3Cs of reticle manufacturing during my BACUS presentation panel at SPIE in February 2008. [2] To these first 3Cs (Capital, Complexity, and Content), I now add a fourth, Cycle time. I will look at how our use of reticles changes by node and use "The 4Cs of Reticles" to develop the key performance indicators (KPI) that will help our industry set standards for evaluating reticle technology. Capital includes both cost and utilization. This includes tools, people, facilities, and support systems required for building the most critical reticles. Tools have highest value in the first two years of use, and each new technology node will likely increase the Capital cost of reticles. New technologies, specifications, and materials drive Complexity for reticles, including smaller feature size, increased optical proximity correction (OPC), and more levels at sub-wavelength. The large data files needed to create finer features require the use of the newest tools for writing, inspection, and repair. Content encompasses the customer's specifications and requirements, which the mask shop must meet. The specifications are critical because they drive wafer yield. A clear increase of the number of masking levels has occurred since the 90 nm node. Cycle time starts when the design is finished and lasts until the mask house ships the reticle to the fab. Depending on

  7. Psychological distress during pregnancy in Miyagi after the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Zen; Iwama, Noriyuki; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Mizuno, Satoshi; Sakurai, Kasumi; Ishikuro, Mami; Obara, Taku; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Nakai, Kunihiko; Arima, Takahiro; Takeda, Takashi; Sugawara, Junichi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Metoki, Hirohito; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-01-15

    To examine psychological distress among pregnant women in Miyagi prefecture which was directly affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami and compare other areas of Japan that were less damaged. This study was conducted in conjunction with the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). We examined 10,129 Japanese women using the primary fixed data of the JECS. The Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6) was administered to 7473 eligible women including 998 in Miyagi unit center ('Miyagi UC') and 6475 in the other unit centers ('13UCs'). We compared the prevalence and the risk of distress (K6 ≥ 13) during pregnancy in 'Miyagi UC' and '13UCs'. More women in 'Miyagi UC' (4.9%) suffered psychological distress, compared with '13UCs' (3.1%) (p<0.001). A significantly higher prevalence of women in 'Miyagi UC' (55.5%) had experienced negative life events, whereas '13UCs' showed 42.7% (p<0.0001). In multivariable logistic analyses adjusted for baseline characteristics, there was a significant regional difference of psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio; aOR in Miyagi UC=1.488; 95%CI, 1.059-2.090). After further adjusting for negative life events, the association was diminished (aOR=1.338; 95%CI, 0.949-1.884). The JECS had no data before the earthquake and the extent of damage was not investigated. Possible regional representativeness is also a limitation. After the Great East Japan Earthquake, the prevalence of pregnant women with psychological distress (K6 ≥ 13) were high in Miyagi prefecture. Especially in the coastal area directly affected by tsunami, it is high with or without negative life events experienced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. "I'm Not Going to Be in Japan Forever": How Filipina Immigrant Youth in Japan Construct the Meaning of Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokunaga, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    This article, based on an ethnographic study of five Filipino-born daughters of Filipina migrant workers in Japan, discusses how these young women construct understandings of home as they navigate the borderlands between the Philippines, Japan and the US. The study reveals the ways in which these young women negotiate the possibilities and…

  9. "I'm Not Going to Be in Japan Forever": How Filipina Immigrant Youth in Japan Construct the Meaning of Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokunaga, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    This article, based on an ethnographic study of five Filipino-born daughters of Filipina migrant workers in Japan, discusses how these young women construct understandings of home as they navigate the borderlands between the Philippines, Japan and the US. The study reveals the ways in which these young women negotiate the possibilities and…

  10. Distribution of stress state in the Nankai subduction zone, southwest Japan and a comparison with Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weiren; Byrne, Timothy B.; Kinoshita, Masataka; McNeill, Lisa C.; Chang, Chandong; Lewis, Jonathan C.; Yamamoto, Yuzuru; Saffer, Demian M.; Casey Moore, J.; Wu, Hung-Yu; Tsuji, Takeshi; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Conin, Marianne; Saito, Saneatsu; Ito, Takatoshi; Tobin, Harold J.; Kimura, Gaku; Kanagawa, Kyuichi; Ashi, Juichiro; Underwood, Michael B.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya

    2016-12-01

    To better understand the distribution of three dimensional stress states in the Nankai subduction zone, southwest Japan, we review various stress-related investigations carried out in the first and second stage expeditions of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) and compile the stress data. Overall, the maximum principal stress σ1 in the shallower levels (< 1 km) is vertical from near the center of forearc basin to near the trench and; the maximum horizontal stress SHmax (interpreted to be the intermediate principal stress σ2) is generally parallel to the plate convergence vector. The exception to this generalization occurs along the shelf edge of the Nankai margin where SHmax is along strike rather than parallel to the plate convergence vector. Reorientation of the principal stresses at deeper levels (e.g., > 1 km below seafloor or in underlying accretionary prism) with σ1 becoming horizontal is also suggested at all deeper drilling sites. We also make a comparison of the stress state in the hanging wall of the frontal plate-interface between Site C0006 in the Nankai and Site C0019 in the Japan Trench subduction zone drilled after the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. In the Japan Trench, a comparison between stress state before and after the 2011 mega-earthquake shows that the stress changed from compression before the earthquake to extension after the earthquake. As a result of the comparison between the Nankai Trough and Japan Trench, a similar current stress state with trench parallel extension was recognized at both C0006 and C0019 sites. Hypothetically, this may indicate that in Nankai Trough it is still in an early stage of the interseismic cycle of a great earthquake which occurs on the décollement and propagates to the toe (around site C0006).

  11. Education and the Japan-America Tie in the Mid-'70s. Occasional Papers, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on International Educational Exchange, New York, NY.

    Presented at a seminar on Resources for Educational Exchange with Japan, this paper emphasizes the closeness of the ties between Japan and the United States and the importance of the educational and cultural dimensions of the relationship. An historical treatment of the relationship between the two countries since 1872 points out the rapid change…

  12. The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Japan's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the global financial crisis on Japan's economy, especially on its higher education. The first section provides an overview of Japan's national economy with a focus on the impact of the global financial crisis on the national economy, then the author touches on the impact on the Japanese government's finances,…

  13. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    apprehensions of Europe and America that China would become closely related with Japan alone and that Japan might monopolize the Chinese market . As a...out of the 300 billion yen, 100 billion yen is supplier’s credit from concerted action by the Ex-Im Bank and the Open Market Bank, 130 billion yen is...to launch production in the U.S. in the belief that Japanese automakers will have to continue some form of export restraints for the American market

  14. Tohoku Tsunami Debris, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-14

    The Mar. 11, 2011, Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami devastated a large extent of the northeastern Japan coast, and virtually erased many villages and cities from the map. NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image of Sendai on Mar. 14, 2011.

  15. Entering the lesbian world in Japan: debut stories.

    PubMed

    Kamano, Saori

    2005-01-01

    Conceiving of a "lesbian community" as the process and/or the end product of a lesbian's going outside herself or her intimate relationship to connect with other lesbians, this paper explores the experiences of lesbians in entering the community in Tokyo, Japan, which lesbians refer to as "community debut." Based on the personal accounts gathered through interviewing 24 women in 2002 in the Tokyo area, this paper examines the personal contexts in which the women entered a lesbian community, which included searching for and defining themselves, accepting themselves, and acting out the new identity to make changes in their lives. Some of the women interviewed were prompted by a need to understand themselves as lesbians. Others with a lesbian identity searched for further affirmation through connecting with "the world of lesbians" beyond their immediate contexts. For some other women interviewed, entering the community was a way to help them start their lives anew by getting out of their previous (married) lives. The paper also specifically touches on the significance of the Internet as a source of information for individual women and as a way of creating a lesbian community, identifying both positive and negative aspects. Although the research reported in this paper leaves for further exploration how boundaries of the communities are negotiated and drawn, the norms of the communities, and conflicts and negotiations among individuals and groups, it has provided one piece of the mosaic of lesbian communities in Japan. The communities, while still largely invisible in the mainstream society, are nonetheless an important part of life, albeit in different ways, of many lesbians. The research process leads the author to anticipate greater visibility of lesbians and lesbian communities in Japan in the not too distant future.

  16. Lessons learned from the Japan earthquake and tsunami, 2011.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Akira; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake occurred off the coast of Honshu, Japan. The quake was followed by a powerful tsunami that caused extensive damage to the east coast of the Tohoku and Kanto regions. This disaster destroyed the medical system in place and thus drastically reduced the ability of the healthcare system to handle the large number of casualties. During the initial response to this disaster, we participated in several types of outreach medical relief teams dispatched to the affected area from the day of the earthquake onwards. The ratio of persons injured to persons missing or dead for the 2011 Japan disaster (0.31: 5,994 to 19,371) was much lower than for the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 in Thailand (1.01; 8,457 to 8,393) and for the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake of 1995 in Japan (6.80; 43,792 to 6,437). The different ratios for the different types of disasters indicate that medical relief efforts in response to natural disasters should be tailored to the type of disaster to optimize the effectiveness of the response and prevent further deaths. From a medical viewpoint, unnecessary deaths must be prevented following natural disasters. Doing so requires appropriate information transmission and an understanding of the mission's overall and specific objectives: 1) rapid search and rescue; 2) early care in the field, evacuation centers, and primary clinics; 3) definitive evaluation at disaster base hospitals; and 4) proper evacuation to unaffected areas. We propose a descriptive device that can guide headquarters in dealing with the commonalities of a disaster.

  17. Sea-ice production in the northern Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihashi, Sohey; Ohshima, Kay I.; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi

    2017-09-01

    Sinking of the dense water plays a significant role in the global climate system by driving thermohaline (overturning) circulation and biogeochemical cycles. Deep water convection occurs also in the Japan Sea, and the convection has been considered to be mainly caused by intense cooling of the sea surface. Another possible cause of the convection is brine rejection associated with high sea-ice production in a coastal polynya (thin sea-ice) area in the northern Japan Sea. We have developed an algorithm which detects the thin ice area and estimates the thickness using passive microwave satellite data. Based on a heat flux calculation with the satellite-derived ice thickness, the total sea-ice production in winter (December-March) averaged over 2002/03-2010/11 is estimated to be 4.27 × 1010 m3. This indicates that the ice production was underestimated by about half in a previous study in which the polynya was unrealistically treated as a low ice concentration area. The main determinant factor for the total ice production is the surface air temperature in early winter (December-January), which shows a rapid warming trend of 0.7 °C/decade for this 40-years. Based on a linear regression approach, the total ice production is estimated to have decreased by 5%/decade due to air temperature warming. If brine rejection due to the ice production contributes to the deep water formation in the Japan Sea, this is consistent with the fact that the deep water formation has been decreasing for the last 50-100 years.

  18. Psychological trauma after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazunori; Sakuma, Atsushi; Ueda, Ikki; Nagao, Ayami; Takahashi, Yoko

    2016-08-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) struck the northeastern part of Japan on 11 March 2011 and triggered a devastating tsunami, causing widespread destruction along the coast of northeastern Japan. The tsunami also led to an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Incidents occurring in such major disasters are known to lead to psychological trauma. This paper has summarized English-language documentation regarding GEJE-related psychological trauma or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research thus far has reported the possibility of higher probable PTSD prevalence among residents of the GEJE areas than in the average Japanese population during normal times. At the very least, many people have experienced trauma symptoms at self-recognition levels 1 year or longer after the disaster. It appears that the percentage of persons with high PTSD risk was higher in regions with radiation-related impacts than in regions where the main damage was caused by the earthquake and tsunami. Results have not been limited to showing relations between severe exposure to a traumatic event and PTSD symptoms but also show that a variety of factors, including social factors, has been shown to interact with PTSD symptoms. The fact that Japanese society as a whole united against the trauma of the GEJE may have worked to minimize the effects of trauma. To grasp a full picture of the effects of psychological trauma due to the GEJE, further surveys and research are necessary. It will be necessary to continue engagements related to these problems and issues into the future. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. Discussion on the progress and future of satellite communication (Japan)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogata, M.; Mizusawa, H.; Irie, K.

    1985-01-01

    The current status of communications satellite development in Japan is presented. It is shown that beginning with research on satellite communucations in the late 1950's, progress was made in the areas of communications, remote sensing, and technology experimentation. The current status of communication satellites is presented, stressing development in the areas of CFRP construction elements, the use of LSI and MIC circuits, advanced multibeam antenna systems, Ku and Ka band transmission systems, and the shift to small-scale earth stations. Methods for reducing costs and increasing transmission efficiency are shown. The technical specifications of all satellite projects currently under development are given. Users of Japanese communications satellite are presented.

  20. The Standard of Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    This booklet summarizes a government white paper outlining the development of Japanese education since the adoption of the new system following World War II. The report is organized into six main sections. The framework of the national educational system is introduced and charted in section 1, followed by a discussion of the expansion and…

  1. Japan's robotics research for the next generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetani, Y.; Yonemoto, K.

    1983-10-01

    The results of a survey of Japanese research institutes concerning the direction of Japanese robotics development over the next twenty years are presented. Attention is given to an assessment of the goals of robotics R & D in the public and private sectors based on the total research budgets of R & D institutes, the number of research laboratories studying robotics, and the various classifications of the topics of study. The study topics include work, control, measurement and recognition functions. A time table is presented which lists the specific applications of robotic research, the year of their expected actualization, and the degree of importance assigned by the respondents. Some of the more important applications are: robots able to work in hostile environments; robots for unmanned mining operations; and the rationalization of such tasks as afforestation, felling and transport activities in steep forested land through the use of advanced locomotive technology.

  2. Renewable Energy Opportunities at the Kanto Installations, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-09-24

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource development potential at the U.S. Army installations in the Kanto region in Japan, which includes Camp Zama, Yokohama North Dock, Sagamihara Family Housing Area (SFHA), Sagami General Depot, and Akasaka Press Center. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the Huntsville Army Corps of Engineers, and includes the development of a methodology for renewable resource assessment at Army installations located on foreign soil. The methodology is documented in Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations. The site visit to the Kanto installations took place on April 5 and 6, 2010. At the current time, there are some renewable technologies that show economic potential. Because of siting restrictions and the small size of these installations, development of most renewable energy technologies will likely be limited to Camp Zama. Project feasibility is based on installation-specific resource availability and energy costs and projections based on accepted life-cycle cost methods. Development of any renewable energy project will be challenging, as it will require investigation into existing contractual obligations, new contracts that could be developed, the legality of certain partnerships, and available financing avenues, which involves the U.S. Forces Japan (USFJ), the Government of Japan (GOJ), and a number of other parties on both sides. The Army will not be able to implement a project without involvement and approval from the other services and multiple levels of Japanese government. However, implementation of renewable energy projects could be an attractive method for GOJ to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower annual utility payments to USFJ. This report recommends projects to pursue and offers approaches to use. The most

  3. An ongoing large submarine landslide at the Japan trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, S.; Kasaya, T.; Miura, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with an active submarine landslide on a landward trench slope in the Japan trench. Studied area is located on the upper terrace ranging from 400 to 1200 m in water depth, off Sendai, northeast Japan. We have surveyed in detail the seabed topography using a multi narrow beam (hereafter MBES) and a subbottom profiler (hereafter SBP) during the cruise MR12-E02 of R/V Mirai. The survey lines were 12 lines in N-S, and 3 lines in E-W, and situated in the region from 141°45'E, 37°40'N to 142°33'E, 38°32'N. Moreover, we used multi-channel seismic profile by the cruise KR04-10 of R/V Kairei in the interpretation of the SBP results. In general, horseshoe-shaped depressions of about 100 km wide along the trench slope are arrayed along the Japan trench. It has thought that they were formed by large submarine landslides, but we could not understand critically the relationship between the depressions and the submarine landslides. Based on the survey results, we found signals of an active submarine landslide in the depression as follows. 1) We observed arcuate-shaped lineaments, which are sub-parallel to a horseshoe-shaped depression. The lineaments concentrate in the south region from 38°N at about 20 km wide. These lineaments are formed by deformation structures as anticlines, synclines and normal fault sense displacements. 2) Most of the synclines and anticlines are not buried to form the lineaments. 3) Normal faults cutting about 1 km deep are observed in a multi-channel seismic profile. The normal faults are located just below the arcuate-shaped lineaments, and are tilted eastward being the downslope direction. It indicates a large submarine landslide. We concluded that the arcuate-shaped lineaments were generated by surface sediment movement with the submarine landsliding. We think that the submarine landslide of about 20 km wide and about 1 km thick move continuously down the landward trench slope. This would be the formation process of the horseshoe

  4. Labour crunch, foreign workers and policy responses: the experience of Japan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, R A

    1996-01-01

    "Japan has experienced labour shortages since the late 1960s....The present study is an attempt to analyse the Japanese government's response to circumvent labour shortages. It focuses on two aspects: perception of Japanese society towards the increasing presence of foreign workers in Japan and associated problems; and measures taken by the government to overcome labour crunch. These aspects are examined within the [framework of an] increasing flow of foreigners to Japan during the past decades." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  5. The Impact of Declining Defense Budgets on Japan Maritime Self Defense Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    structural reform, the GOJ is trying to reduce all expenditures , including defense expenditures . Conversely, Japan and countries in its vicinity face the...reform, the GOJ is trying to reduce all expenditures , including defense expenditures . Conversely, Japan and countries in its vicinity face the threat...reduce expenditures . The alternative was serious financial trouble for Japan in the near future. The impact of these reforms is that defense is no

  6. Full Waveform Seismic Inversion for the Japan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žukauskaitė, Saulė; Steptoe, Hamish; Fichtner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We present a seismic tomography model for the Japan archipelago obtained using full waveform inversion and adjoint methods. A high-resolution seismic velocity model is essential for Japan as means to comprehend and characterize the complexity of the tectonic setting, and to further our understanding of earthquake sources and rupture propagation. The study area covers the Japanese islands - an area between 20°-50°N and 130°-160°E - and extends to a maximum depth of 500 km. In virtue of complicated tectonics and resulting high seismicity, dense seismic networks are present in Japan and surrounding countries. We make use of broadband data from three networks - F-net in Japan, BATS in Taiwan, and notably, the National Earthquake Network in South Korea. Due to access difficulties, data from this network had not been used in the preceding tomographic study of the same area. We use >50 carefully selected earthquakes, located within the model area and occurring between 1999 and the present. Magnitudes of the events are restricted to 5≤Mw≤6.9 for a point source approximation to be valid. A spectral-element method is used for forward waveform calculation, which comes with the geometric flexibility of finite-elements method and the accuracy of spectral methods. To quantify differences between the observed and synthetic waveforms, we use time-frequency misfits, which exploit the evolution of the frequency content of the data in time. The sensitivities (Fréchet kernels) are then calculated using adjoint methods. The employed methodology allows us to explain the data of dominant period as low as 10 s. To prevent possible over-fitting of the data, we ensure that final misfits are not lower than those obtained if additional (not yet used) data are incorporated. The final results of this study will contribute to the 'Comprehensive Earth Model' being developed by the Computational Seismology group at ETH, with the aim to represent the snapshot of the current knowledge of

  7. The first case of feline Prototheca wickerhamii infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Endo, Sumiyo; Sekiguchi, Maiko; Kishimoto, Yuji; Kano, Rui; Aoki, Sinobu; Sichinohe, Tamiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2010-10-01

    A 3-year-old castrated male domestic short-haired cat was presented with nodules on the left nasal wing and the left earflap. Prototheca cells were found after excision biopsy of one of the nodules located on the left earflap. The patient cat was generally in good condition without skin problems. Prototheca wickerhamii was isolated from all 6 masses after they were surgically nucleated. The cat was recovered two months after intervention with no recurrence of skin nodules. This report deals with the first case of feline protothecosis in Japan.

  8. Graduate Student Blues: The Situation in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallos, Henrik; Yamada, Naoto; Okawa, Masako

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of emotional disturbance among Japanese graduate students and the underlying factors of their emotional disturbance. We conducted a cross sectional survey using the Japanese version of the 30-item General Health Questionnaire at 31 graduate schools from 12 university campuses in and around…

  9. Graduate Student Blues: The Situation in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallos, Henrik; Yamada, Naoto; Okawa, Masako

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of emotional disturbance among Japanese graduate students and the underlying factors of their emotional disturbance. We conducted a cross sectional survey using the Japanese version of the 30-item General Health Questionnaire at 31 graduate schools from 12 university campuses in and around…

  10. The Evolving Relations of Japan and India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    the same source increased its military spending by a factor of ten and rose from the eleventh to the second highest military spender in the world...Does it Affect Us?,” Malaysia Chronicle, December 22, 2013, http://www.malaysia- chronicle.com/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=201131:chinese...likelihood of success and the potential for friction come from the various hurdles to cross in achieving UNSC reform. First, various plans have been

  11. [Role of the POC Coordinator in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) is able to shorten the therapeutic turn around time (TTAT) because of its portability, proximity to the patient, and the use of rapid testing methodologies. These advantages are dependent on the quality of POCT procedures. It is recommended that all POCT instrumentation and operators conform to the hospital's POCT policy. There are two basic requirements necessary for high-quality POCT in a hospital setting. First is the proper management of all POCT instrumentation including reagents, and the second is training/competency assessment for all operators. This training should include the correct use of equipment, reagent requirements, and trouble-shooting any errors that might occur during testing. In many cases, POCT operators are not familiar with the importance of analytical quality management because of their lack of experience with laboratory techniques. However, users can improve their POCT ability and knowledge via the training/education program managed by the POCT department. The POC coordinator's role is to oversee that the proper procedure, based on the hospital's policy, is being followed. It is advised that the hospital form a POCT committee. The members should consist of at least: the Director of Laboratory Medicine, POC coordinator, a financial advisor, and several representative users from physicians and nursing staff. The POC coordinator will act as a representative of the POCT committee and work to maintain a quality program within the hospita/institution. In this article, we have summarized the role of the POC coordinator and the function of a POCT committee in a Japanese hospital.

  12. Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    OAK-A258 Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan. This report for calendar years 1993 through September 1998 describes efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract. The development of a pyrochemical process, called TRUMP-S, for partitioning actinides from PUREX waste, is described in this report. This effort is funded by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), KHI, the United States Department of Energy, and Boeing.

  13. A Chrysanthemum in the Garden: A Christian Kindergarten in the Empire of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishida, Yukiyo

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the contribution of Christian missionaries to kindergarten education in the Empire of Japan. The study concerns an American Missionary woman, Annie L. Howe (1852-1943) and her kindergarten in Kobe, Japan. Annie L. Howe had a great impact on the history of early childhood education and is still remembered as the "Mother of…

  14. A Chrysanthemum in the Garden: A Christian Kindergarten in the Empire of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishida, Yukiyo

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the contribution of Christian missionaries to kindergarten education in the Empire of Japan. The study concerns an American Missionary woman, Annie L. Howe (1852-1943) and her kindergarten in Kobe, Japan. Annie L. Howe had a great impact on the history of early childhood education and is still remembered as the "Mother of…

  15. The Dropping of Atomic Bombs on Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In an age when international terrorism poses a threat to peace and stability, the use of not only nuclear, but also biological and chemical weapons are important topics for classroom discussion. In this article, the author explores four approaches to teaching this topic. Examining a controversial topic involves the evaluation of values, the use of…

  16. The Dropping of Atomic Bombs on Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In an age when international terrorism poses a threat to peace and stability, the use of not only nuclear, but also biological and chemical weapons are important topics for classroom discussion. In this article, the author explores four approaches to teaching this topic. Examining a controversial topic involves the evaluation of values, the use of…

  17. Going to the Bathroom in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caesar, Terry

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the dilemma of discipline in the classroom of a Japanese women's university, from the point of view of an American professor whose assumptions about one particular behavior, leaving class in order to go to the bathroom, differ from those of his students.

  18. Moral Education in the Schools of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    1985-01-01

    Moral education, a primary component of Japanese education, has no precise equivalent in Canadian education. The focus of moral education is development of personal attitudes and social values. The content of this discipline is a kind of secular humanism which has engendered in the postwar Japanese the values, attitudes, behaviors, and virtues…

  19. The Quality of Life in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoguchi, Takashi; Fujii, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    This study is part of a collaborative project examining the quality of life in Confucian societies in Asia. Our major findings suggest that, when our sixteen specific life domains are grouped into three life spheres, namely, material, post-material, and public, the Japanese people tend to be most satisfied with the post-material sphere of life and…

  20. The Quality of Life in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoguchi, Takashi; Fujii, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    This study is part of a collaborative project examining the quality of life in Confucian societies in Asia. Our major findings suggest that, when our sixteen specific life domains are grouped into three life spheres, namely, material, post-material, and public, the Japanese people tend to be most satisfied with the post-material sphere of life and…

  1. The Role and Prospects of the Professional Engineers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakuma, Maki; Sakaki, Isao; Sagawa, Wataru

    The Professional Engineer in Japan is qualified by passing two step examinations. A person who has passed first-step PE Examination is called as Engineer in Training. IPEJ helps and provides the opportunity for Engineers in Training to acquire the necessary skill to become a PE. Every PE shall have sufficient knowledge of the professional ethics and shall continue professional development as one of obligations so as to improve the competence of the PE, and IPEJ provide the various opportunities. Two kinds of international mutual recognition schemes for engineers‧ qualification have been agreed and effective for enabling competent engineers to work freely across national borders. Young engineers are expected to train and improve the technical capability and challenge to become PE.

  2. U.S. hardwood exports, hardwood exports to Japan, hardwood resource situation, and the future of U.S. exports to Japan

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper looks at some basic information about total U.S. hardwood exports and products as well as hardwood exports to Japan. It also discusses the U.S. hardwood resource situation and how we can best use the resource base to suppy Japanâs needs.

  3. The Development of the Counseling Profession in Japan: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabosky, Tomoko Kudo; Ishii, Harue; Mase, Shizuno

    2012-01-01

    The authors provide a sociohistorical overview of the development of the counseling profession in Japan. They describe Japan's major social, cultural, and political changes; growing psychological problems in Japanese society; and an increased need for counseling services. Historical overviews and the current state of counseling are presented with…

  4. The Development of the Counseling Profession in Japan: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabosky, Tomoko Kudo; Ishii, Harue; Mase, Shizuno

    2012-01-01

    The authors provide a sociohistorical overview of the development of the counseling profession in Japan. They describe Japan's major social, cultural, and political changes; growing psychological problems in Japanese society; and an increased need for counseling services. Historical overviews and the current state of counseling are presented with…

  5. Urban climate in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Fujibe, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Long-term climate changes related with urbanization in Tokyo, Japan, and recent temperature and heavy rainfall distribution in the Tokyo metropolitan area are reviewed. A relatively high temperature increase in annual mean temperature at the rate of 3.0°C/century was detected in Tokyo for the period 1901-2015. Some observational evidence showed the existence of both thermal and mechanical effects of urbanization on recent heavy rainfall occurrences, and modeling studies also support precipitation enhancement. Urban influences were recognized in other climatological elements, such as number of fog days, relative humidity, and wind circulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Posture Plus - A Standing CJTF Headquarters for the U.S.-Japan Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Ground Self Defense Force (GSDF), and Air Self Defense Force ( ASDF ).30 According to Bates Gill, an Asia security expert at the Center for Strategic and...in structure and capabilities of the MSDF, GSDF, and ASDF indicate that Japan is willing to take on a more ardent role, not only in their own defense...Affairs of Japan, The Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation, (Tokyo, 1997), 2. 37 Japanese Defense Agency, 163. 38 Ibid. 11 The ASDF has

  7. The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship After the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    FBIS), Daiy Report, BastAsia [hereinafter, PBIS -.EAS], December 17,1992, p. 5. 12 The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship After the Cold War Japan’s...have applied for mem- bership: Argentina, Ecuador, Chile, India, Mexico, Mongolia, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru , and Russia. LI II The Japanese

  8. Apples vs. Persimmons: The Legal Profession in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    It is argued that profound differences in the legal professions and factors affecting them in the United States and Japan make comparisons misleading and unfair. Reasons for the apparent disparity in numbers of lawyers, Japan's widespread use of unlicensed legal experts, and differences in quantity of litigation are examined. (MSE)

  9. Apples vs. Persimmons: The Legal Profession in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    It is argued that profound differences in the legal professions and factors affecting them in the United States and Japan make comparisons misleading and unfair. Reasons for the apparent disparity in numbers of lawyers, Japan's widespread use of unlicensed legal experts, and differences in quantity of litigation are examined. (MSE)

  10. Barriers to Health Care among the Elderly in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Chiyoe; Yamada, Tetsuji; Chen, Chia-Ching; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Hirai, Hiroshi; Kondo, Katsunori

    2010-01-01

    Japan is undergoing a set of health care reforms aimed at cutting rising health care costs and increasing the efficiency of health care delivery. This empirical study used a large-scale community survey on 15,302 elderly people 65 years and older (56.0% women) conducted in seven municipalities in 2006, to reveal clear-cut evidence of barriers to necessary care. The reasons for not getting health care is attributed to health care cost for the elderly with lower income, while higher income counterparts reported being busy or having a condition not serious enough to seek care. PMID:20617033

  11. The equine antitoxins supply system for biological poisons in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Kiyohito; Takahashi, Motohide; Tomita, Motowo

    2003-10-01

    Recently, the equine antitoxin supply in Japan has sharply decreased; then it is apparent that a stable supply produced solely by private industry cannot be relied upon. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), therefore, purchases vaccines and equine antitoxins from manufacturers who could not otherwise independently provide an adequate antitoxin supply to hospitals. This supply system is called the 'Kokuyu vaccine system.' Under this system, MHLW purchases, stores and distributes vaccines and antitoxins to hospitals. This system has worked efficiently and effectively so far and may be a good model for establishing a stable antitoxin supply system in other countries.

  12. Women's experiences in the engineering laboratory in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Masako

    2014-07-01

    This qualitative study aims to examine Japanese women undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interacting with departmental peers of the same year in the laboratory setting by using interview data of 32 final-year students at two modestly selective national universities in Japan. Expectation state theory that explains unequal relationship between men and women is used as a framework. Findings suggest that women generally had a discouraging experience while working with their male peers. Specifically, women participated less and lost confidence by comparing with the men who appeared to be confident and competent.

  13. An Evaluation of the Harbor of Yokosuka, Japan as a Typhoon Haven

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    TITLE rsnd StjbUOe) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVFBEC An Evaluation of the Harbor of Yokosuka, Japan as a Typhoon Haven 6. PERFORMING ORG...identity by block number) Tropical cyclone Typhoon Typhoon haven Tropical meteorology Yokosuka, Japan 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on ravarae aidm If...nmcmammry mnd idmntHy by btock numbmr) This study is an evaluation of the port of YokoJapan as a typhoon "haven." Characteristics of the

  14. An Evaluation of the Harbors of Iwakuni and Kure, Japan as Typhoon Havens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    Technical Paper 23-75 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO 4. TITLE fand Sub(/(/o; An Evaluation of the Harbors of Iwakuni and Kure, Japan as Typhoon...and Idantlty by block nimbaO Tropical cycl ones Typhoons Typhoon havens Japan 20. ABSTRACT (Conllnua on ravaraa alda H nacaaaary and Idantlty...by block numbar) This study is an evaluation of the harbors of Iwakuni and Kure, Japan as possible typhoon havens. Characteristics of the harbors

  15. The Fairness Debate in U.S.-Japan Economic Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    United States. 1. Benjamin. Roger W. II. Kokusai Daigaku (Yamato-machi. Niigata-ken. Japan). Nichi-Bei Kankei Kenkyfijo. HF1456.5.J3F34 1991 337.73052...reflect the opinions or policies of the sponsors of RAND research. Published 1991 by RAND 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138 R...Negotiations (1989), Prestowitz (1988), Bergsten and Cline (1985), Cohen (1990), Komiya (1988), and Shinohara ( 1991 ). 8There is a potential

  16. Past Its Prime? The Future of the U.S.-Japan Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    the 16DDH ships. The ASDF is buying Joint Direct Attack Munitions for its F-2 fighter-bombers to create a precision deep strike capability as well as...author in Tokyo in early 2003. 31 Menon, p. 1. 22 23 GLOSSARY 16DDH New class of small aircraft carrier (Japan) ASDF Air Self Defense Forces (Japan

  17. The trail of the development of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Toshihiko

    2003-07-01

    The differences in radiotherapeutic treatment systems for cervical cancer between the United States and Japan can be attributed either to the tolerance of high-risk organs, or dosimetry itself. High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is the standard treatment for uterine cervix carcinoma in Japan. In addition, HDR Co-60 afterloading machines have been gradually replaced with Ir-192 micro-source afterloading machines during the past ten years. This implies that it has now become impossible to conduct a prospective comparative study of HDR versus low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy for cervical cancer in Japan. An examination of the history of HDR intracavitary radiotherapy for uterine cervix carcinoma in Japan led us to the conclusion that HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer is as effective as LDR intracavitary brachytherapy in terms of both survival and complications. In Japan, studies on the former can be drawn from a long experience of more than 35 years.

  18. Detection of red tide events in the Ariake Sound, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaka, Joji

    2003-05-01

    High resolution SeaWiFS data was used to detect a red tide event occurred in the Ariake Sound, Japan, in winter of 2000 to 2001. The area is small embayment surrounding by tidal flat, and it is known as one of the most productive areas in coast of Japan. The red tide event damaged to seaweed (Nori) culture, and the relation to the reclamation at the Isahaya Bay in the Sound has been discussed. SeaWiFS chlorophyll data showed the red tide started early December 2000, from the Isahaya Bay, although direct relationship to the reclamation was not clear. The red tide persisted to the end of February. Monthly average of SeaWiFS data from May 1998 to December 2001 indicated that the chlorophyll increased twice a year, early summer and fall after the rain. The red tide event was part of the fall bloom which started later and continued longer than other years. Ocean color is useful to detect the red tide; however, it is required to improve the algorithms to accurately estimate chlorophyll in high turbid water and to discriminate toxic flagellates.

  19. Current research on the major nematode problems in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ichinohe, M

    1988-04-01

    AMONG IMPORTANT NEMATODE SPECIES OCCURRING IN JAPAN, CURRENT RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS WITH THE FOLLOWING FOUR NEMATODES ARE REVIEWED: 1) Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines - breeding for resistance, race determination, association with Cephalosporium gregatum in azuki bean disease, and isolation of hatching stimulant. 2) Potato-cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis - pathotype determination (Ro 1), breeding for resistance, and control recommendations. 3) Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus - primary pathogen in pine wilt disease, life cycle exhibiting a typical symbiosis with Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus, and project for control. 4) Rice root nematodes (RRN), Hirschmanniella imamuri and H. oryzae - distribution of species, population levels in roots, and role of these nematodes in rice culture.

  20. Environmental Review for the CV-22 Beddown at Yokota Air Base, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-24

    2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Environmental Review for the CV-22 Beddown at Yokota Air Base, Japan 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM... Japan 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 119 19a. NAME OF...1-2 (U) Figure 1-2. Yokota Air Base, Japan

  1. An Evaluation of the Numazu Operating Area and Kagoshima Harbor, Japan, as Typhoon Havens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED An Evaluation of the Numazu Operating Area and Kagoshima Harbor, Japan as Typhoon Havens «. PERFORMINO ORG. REPORT...HARBOR, JAPAN AS TYPHOON HAVENS by DECEMBER 1975 NAVAL ENVIRONMENTAL PREDICTION RESEARCH FACIUTY MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA 93940 Qualified requestors...TROPICAL CYCLONES 10 2.4 INTENSITY 13 3. JAPAN 14 3.1 JAPANESE ISLANDS 14 3.2 HONSHU 14 4. NUMAZU OPERATING AREA -- GENERAL DESCRIPTION .... 17

  2. Octants and Sextants before the 1860s Preserved in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2012-09-01

    The octant was invented in 1731 independently in the UK and US, and the sextant by John Campbell around 1757. Octants were brought to Japan in the 1770s by ships of the Dutch East India Company. A Dutch booklet manual on octants ``Beschryvinge van het Octant en deszelfs Gebruik" (Description of the octant and its usage) written in 1749 by Cornelis Douwes was translated into Japanese at Nagasaki in the 1780s--90s. This translation triggered serious attention of Japanese astronomers to octants. Because those instruments had no chance to be used in ocean navigation due to the strict seclusion policy forced by the then Shogunal government, the Japanese instead devised methods to use octants and sextants for land surveying. Sextants specially designed for the ground measurements were made, and even precursor instruments of the modern range finder were also produced. In this paper we report results of our recent survey investigation of octants and sextants preserved in Japan, which were imported or home-made before the 1860s. About ten objects were identified. We describe their characteristics in terms of originality and influence from overseas products. We also plan to report on accurate measurements of some of domestic products of the 19th century using a modern standard scale, in an attempt to infer how the Japanese artisans at that time could inscribe the graduation without such as a Ramsden's dividing machine.

  3. The public health nursing role in rural Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Mineko; Miyaji, Fumiko; Akimoto, Reiko

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the activities of the public health nurses in the local community. The setting was a small rural town in central Japan. The design was a descriptive study based on informant interviews supplemented by participant observation. The sample consisted of five public health nurses, four health care workers in other fields, and seven clients, all living in the same town. Each participant was interviewed individually. Interviews focused on the participants' understanding of what public health nurses actually do. Semistructured interview guides for each group of participants served as a framework to elicit participants' views on the activities of the public health nurses. Analysis of interview transcripts indicated that commitment was a core concept in the role of the public health nurses. Linked to this central theme were three constructs describing their work: identifying the real needs of clients, responding appropriately and promptly, and establishing trust relationships. The interviews indicated considerable public support for collaborative activities involving public health nurses, other health care workers, and community members. Implications for public health nurses' expanded role in Japan in relation to other health care professionals are addressed.

  4. The Sasagawa project: a model for deinstitutionalisation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masafumi; Sakuma, Kei; Ryu, Yonosuke; Munakata, Shunichi; Takebayashi, Toru; Murakami, Masaaki; Falloon, Ian R H; Kashima, Haruo

    2005-06-01

    Japanese psychiatric services are still typically hospital-based. The Sasagawa Project is the first systematized deinstitutionalization project in Japan that aims to make the transition from hospital to residential living while ensuring both the quality and continuity of care for the patients. Seventy-eight (51 males) patients (mean age 54.6) with chronic schizophrenia, who were considered appropriate for discharge received continuous cognitive behavioural therapies based on the Optimal Treatment Project manualised protocol, both before and after the hospital closure. During the first 12 months after the deinstitutionalisation was initiated on April 1st, 2002, ten people had incidents that interrupted their stay in the residential Sasagawa Village. A common criticism of many treatment outcome trials is that evaluation is focused on changes in clinical severity. In the Sasagawa project the transition appeared to have been smooth and relatively few incidents occurred could be related to the transition to a less intensive residential care. This project might be a useful model for effecting and monitoring transition from hospital to community care in Japan and other countries where such changes have been proposed.

  5. A role for Japan's past in the future.

    PubMed

    Grant, J

    1991-10-01

    Japan has experienced a decline in infant mortality from 145 in the 1920s to 4.5 currently that is attributable to several factors. Many of these factors are transferable to developing countries because they are not high-tech or uniquely Japanese. Strong government commitment and laws supporting women were very influential. Education of mothers about health care and nutrition also helped. The development of Maternal and Child Health notebooks that the mother kept with her were very important because they allowed women to keep records of the children's vaccination, health, and growth. Many women would get the notebooks from a health center and then deliver their child at home, but the notebook was there to keep records. Community based health care brought medical care to the people but is also served as a focal point for mothers to demand better sanitation, clean water, and other improvements to their quality of life. Birth spacing and later marriage also played a role, but these were part of the Japanese traditional culture. Modern curative medicine did not play a large role since antibiotics did not become available in Japan until 1950 and by then a great deal of progress had already been made. There was no magic bullet, it was a combination of a variety of factors that lead to reduced infant mortality. The Japanese experience needs to be exported to the rest of the world. The technology and scientific knowledge is there, commitment from people in developing countries is all that is required.

  6. Report on the 2013 national cholelithiasis survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tazuma, Susumu; Kanno, Keishi; Kubota, Keiichi; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Kamisawa, Terumi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakagohri, Toshio; Inui, Kazuo

    2015-05-01

    The Academic Committee of the Japan Biliary Association conducted a national survey of cholelithiasis and analyzed its current management centering on epidemiology. To allow comparison with previous results, a prospective survey was performed on the treatment of cholelithiasis during the month of August 2013, using the same questionnaire as that used for the 1997 Cholelithiasis Survey Project by the Japan Biliary Association. A personal questionnaire was sent to 71 institutions, and 612 individual survey sheets were collected from 56 institutions as treated during August 2013. Compared with the results obtained in 1997, the gender ratio was reversed in 2013 with male predominance. There were increases in the mean age, asymptomatic ratio, use of magnetic resonance cholangiopantreatography for diagnosis, and cholesterol stone type was also increased. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed for 79.8% of gallbladder stones, and treatment of common bile duct stones generally involved endoscopic procedures, among which endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) was performed more often compared with endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD), suggesting that EST is the mainstream treatment for common bile duct stones. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  7. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  8. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  9. 2012/13 abnormal cold winter in Japan associated with Large-scale Atmospheric Circulation and Local Sea Surface Temperature over the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Y.; Ogi, M.; Tachibana, Y.

    2013-12-01

    On Japan, wintertime cold wave has social, economic, psychological and political impacts because of the lack of atomic power stations in the era of post Fukushima world. The colder winter is the more electricity is needed. Wintertime weather of Japan and its prediction has come under the world spotlight. The winter of 2012/13 in Japan was abnormally cold, and such a cold winter has persisted for 3 years. Wintertime climate of Japan is governed by some dominant modes of the large-scale atmospheric circulations. Yasunaka and Hanawa (2008) demonstrated that the two dominant modes - Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) pattern - account for about 65% of the interannual variation of the wintertime mean surface air temperature of Japan. A negative AO brings about cold winter in Japan. In addition, a negative WP also brings about cold winter in Japan. Looking back to the winter of 2012/13, both the negative AO and negative WP continued from October through December. If the previous studies were correct, it would have been extremely very cold from October through December. In fact, in December, in accordance with previous studies, it was colder than normal. Contrary to the expectation, in October and November, it was, however, warmer than normal. This discrepancy signifies that an additional hidden circumstance that heats Japan overwhelms these large-scale atmospheric circulations that cool Japan. In this study, we therefore seek an additional cause of wintertime climate of Japan particularly focusing 2012 as well as the AO and WP. We found that anomalously warm oceanic temperature surrounding Japan overwhelmed influences of the AO or WP. Unlike the inland climate, the island climate can be strongly influenced by surrounding ocean temperature, suggesting that large-scale atmospheric patterns alone do not determine the climate of islands. (a) Time series of a 5-day running mean AO index (blue) as defined by Ogi et al., (2004), who called it the SVNAM index. For

  10. The Relationship between H. pylori Infection and Osteoporosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Hojo, Mariko; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Shimada, Yuji; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Osada, Taro; Watanabe, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. H. pylori infection causes a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa. However, this local inflammation may result in extra-digestive conditions. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between H. pylori infection and osteoporosis in Japan. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among outpatients at the Juntendo University Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Participants for patient profile, H. pylori infection status, comorbidity, internal medical therapies, lumbar dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone turnover marker were collected and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for reflux esophagitis, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy (EGA) was performed. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was performed in accordance with the Japanese criteria. We investigated risk factors of osteoporosis. Results. Of the eligible 200 study subjects, 41 cases were of osteoporosis. Bivariate analysis showed that age, being female, BMI, alcohol, smoking, H. pylori, bone-specific ALP, PUD, and EGA were related to osteoporosis. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.13; 95%CI 1.07-1.20), being female (OR 4.77; 95%CI 1.78-12.77), BMI (OR 0.79; 95%CI 0.68-0.92), H. pylori (OR 5.33; 95%CI 1.73-16.42), and PUD (OR 4.98; 95%CI 1.51-16.45) were related to osteoporosis. Conclusions. H. pylori infection may be a risk factor of osteoporosis in Japan.

  11. The structural characteristics of radiation oncology in Japan in 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, Hitoshi . E-mail: shibuya.mrad@tmd.ac.jp; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the basic structural characteristics of radiation oncology facilities in Japan, we conducted a national survey on their status in 2003. The aims of the survey included the following: present status of radiation treatment facilities, equipment, personnel, patient loads, and other factors. Methods and Materials: A mail survey verified each potential facility delivering megavoltage radiation therapy and collected data on treatment devices, other equipment, personnel, new patients, and so on. Responses were obtained from 100% of potential facilities. Results: A total of 726 facilities delivered radiation therapy, with 859 megavoltage devices, 203 RALS (remote after-loading system) and other radioactive sources, with 941 FTE (full-time employee) radiation oncologists including 369 FTE Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology-certified radiation oncologists, 1555 FTE radiation therapists, and 70 FTE physicists in 2003. Megavoltage devices included two heavy ion units and four proton units. In total, there were 149,793 new patients and 146,351 (98%) by external irradiation; 4379 (3%) were treated by brachytherapy with or without external irradiation. Eighty-six percent of the facilities had treatment-planning computers, but 4% had no treatment-planning capability. Six percent (44 facilities) of all facilities used hyperthermia, 12% (85 facilities) intraoperative radiation therapy, and 2% (12 facilities) intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Conclusion: Facilities surveys continue to provide a source of census data on radiation oncology in Japan, allowing comparisons among facility groups and over time.

  12. Proceedings of the China-Japan-U.S. Seminar on Mathematical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dianzhou, Ed.; And Others

    This document contains the proceedings of the China-Japan-U.S. Seminar on Mathematical Education that was held in 1993 in China. The focus of the Seminar was problem solving in mathematics education. The main purposes of the seminar were: to examine the present states of problem solving in school mathematics in China, Japan, and the U.S.; to…

  13. [Countermeasure against viral hemorrhagic fever at the border in Japan].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Emiko

    2005-12-01

    Human have struggled against many infectious diseases such as cholera, plague, dysentery and yellow fever for a long time. And we have spent a lot of energy to control these infectious diseases and developed various tool for them. One of these efforts was Quarantine system that was established in 14th century in Europe. But during recent days, we are suffering from newly emerged diseases. These new infectious diseases are zoonosis and most of them are serious and highly infectious. Viral hemorrhagic fever such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Marburg hemorrhagic fever and Lassa fever are typical these emerging serious diseases, and these outbreak always have occurred in Africa and neighboring countries. Fortunately we have never experienced any case, but as these diseases are so serious, we are so nervous diseases entering in Japan. Against these serious diseases, in Japan, Quarantine Station are doing screening examination at airport and port by questionnaire and measuring body temperature, because these viral hemorrhagic fever patients show high fever. If people were suspected viral hemorrhagic fever at Quarantine Station at the border, they will be leaded to hospital for further examination and treatment as soon as possible.

  14. Japan: The Modernization of an Ancient Culture. Series on Public Issues No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolken, Lawrence C.

    This booklet, one of a series of booklets intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, traces the modernization of the ancient culture of Japan. Four major areas are covered: (1) "An Ancient Culture" covers the period from the first settling of Japan through the Heian period, the medieval ages,…

  15. Selecting Japan's New Prime Minister. Prepared as Background for the Liberal Democratic Party Presidential Elections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Ellis S.

    Divided into four major parts, this document explains the significance of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) in Japan. Part 1 indicates that the LDP has governed Japan since 1955 and controls 445 seats in the 764 seat parliament. The selection of the prime minister, chosen from within the ruling party, is seen as vital to U.S. interests. For…

  16. 76 FR 60001 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan; Final Results of the Second Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan; Final Results of the Second Expedited...) initiated the second sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan... duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See...

  17. Strategic and Operational Considerations for the Implementation of Performance Based Logistics (PBL) Within the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Implementation of Performance Based Logistics (PBL) Within the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force By: Gaku Harada June 2010 Advisors: Keenan...and Operational Considerations for the Implementation of Performance Based Logistics (PBL) Within the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force 6...public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The Japan Maritime Self Defense Force (JMSDF) will

  18. The Reasoning of Teaching and Schooling in Japan: Using Foucault To Explicate Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    This paper investigates how various technologies have constructed the reasoning of teaching and schooling in contemporary Japan. The paper contends that (1) the construction of the teacher and the student in Japan involves a complexity of power relations; (2) schooling is not simply controlled by the government through its sovereign power, but is…

  19. The Debate on Patriotic Education in Post-World War II Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Kanako

    2009-01-01

    The debate over patriotic education in Japan is marked by power shifts between the two different political groups that have different views of the role of patriotic education. By analyzing the power shift from a historical perspective, this essay makes a point that one of the problems of the debate over patriotic education in Japan is that the…

  20. The Revision of Ministry Guidelines on Hoiku: Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishigaki, Emiko Hannah

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of the revised guidelines for kindergarten education and the syllabus for day-nurseries adopted in Japan in 1989 and 1990 to build a foundation for lifelong learning. Discusses the significance of the revisions in light of social and economic changes in Japan. Underscores the union of care and education in the day-nursery…

  1. The Debate on Patriotic Education in Post-World War II Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Kanako

    2009-01-01

    The debate over patriotic education in Japan is marked by power shifts between the two different political groups that have different views of the role of patriotic education. By analyzing the power shift from a historical perspective, this essay makes a point that one of the problems of the debate over patriotic education in Japan is that the…

  2. National Profiles in Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    One of a series of studies on the development of technical and vocational education in the member states of UNESCO, this report profiles the educational system in Japan. The three parts of the document provide information about the geography and history of Japan, historical and current perspectives of general education, and technical and…

  3. Cosmology with the Square Kilometre Array by SKA-Japan

    DOE PAGES

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kohri, Kazunori; ...

    2016-10-17

    In the past several decades, the standard cosmological model has been established and its parameters have been measured to a high precision, while there are still many fundamental questions in cosmology; such as the physics in the very early universe, the origin of the cosmic acceleration, and the nature of dark matter. The forthcoming radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which will be the world's largest, will be able to open a new frontier in cosmology and will be one of the most powerful tools for cosmology in the coming decade. The cosmological surveys conducted by the SKA wouldmore » have the potential not only to answer these fundamental questions but also deliver precision cosmology. In this article we briefly review the role of the SKA from the viewpoint of modern cosmology. Furthermore, the cosmological science led by the SKA-Japan Consortium (SKA-JP) Cosmology Science Working Group is also discussed.« less

  4. Cosmology with the Square Kilometre Array by SKA-Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kohri, Kazunori; Namikawa, Toshiya; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Shimabukuro, Hayato; Takahashi, Keitaro; Takahashi, Tomo; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Yoshikawa, Kohji

    2016-10-17

    In the past several decades, the standard cosmological model has been established and its parameters have been measured to a high precision, while there are still many fundamental questions in cosmology; such as the physics in the very early universe, the origin of the cosmic acceleration, and the nature of dark matter. The forthcoming radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which will be the world's largest, will be able to open a new frontier in cosmology and will be one of the most powerful tools for cosmology in the coming decade. The cosmological surveys conducted by the SKA would have the potential not only to answer these fundamental questions but also deliver precision cosmology. In this article we briefly review the role of the SKA from the viewpoint of modern cosmology. Furthermore, the cosmological science led by the SKA-Japan Consortium (SKA-JP) Cosmology Science Working Group is also discussed.

  5. Cosmology with the Square Kilometre Array by SKA-Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kohri, Kazunori; Namikawa, Toshiya; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Shimabukuro, Hayato; Takahashi, Keitaro; Takahashi, Tomo; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Yoshikawa, Kohji

    2016-12-01

    In the past several decades, the standard cosmological model has been established and its parameters have been measured to a high precision, while there are still many fundamental questions in cosmology; such as the physics in the very early universe, the origin of the cosmic acceleration, and the nature of dark matter. The forthcoming radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which will be the world's largest, will be able to open a new frontier in cosmology and will be one of the most powerful tools for cosmology in the coming decade. The cosmological surveys conducted by the SKA would have the potential not only to answer these fundamental questions but also deliver precision cosmology. In this article we briefly review the role of the SKA from the viewpoint of modern cosmology. The cosmological science led by the SKA-Japan Consortium (SKA-JP) Cosmology Science Working Group is also discussed.

  6. Parenting Self-Efficacy and Social Support in Japan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Sawako; Holloway, Susan D.; Yamamoto, Yoko; Mindnich, Jessica D.

    2009-01-01

    To understand the conditions that give rise to parenting self-efficacy in Japan and the United States, the authors have investigated its relation to the perceptions of support available to mothers of children in the final year of preschool (N = 235; n = 121 in United States, n = 114 in Japan). Hierarchical regression analysis indicates that in…

  7. Women in Higher Education in Post WWII Occupied Japan: The Effect of Democratic Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moroishi, Yasumi

    This study explores postwar educational reform in Japan from 1945 to 1952 and focuses on issues related to women's higher education. It describes the transformation of the educational system and the effect of the educational reforms of U.S. occupation forces on post-World War II Japan. The basic research design emphasizes narrative historical…

  8. Parenting Self-Efficacy and Social Support in Japan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Sawako; Holloway, Susan D.; Yamamoto, Yoko; Mindnich, Jessica D.

    2009-01-01

    To understand the conditions that give rise to parenting self-efficacy in Japan and the United States, the authors have investigated its relation to the perceptions of support available to mothers of children in the final year of preschool (N = 235; n = 121 in United States, n = 114 in Japan). Hierarchical regression analysis indicates that in…

  9. Status, Virtue and Duty: A Historical Perspective on the Occupational Culture of Teachers in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    This historical paper is an introduction to curriculum thinking in Japan. It discusses contested value frameworks that have exercised professional educators in the light of two "Western" interventions: (1) the modernization initiatives of the Meiji government of the nineteenth century; and (2) the policies that followed Japan's defeat in…

  10. Status, Virtue and Duty: A Historical Perspective on the Occupational Culture of Teachers in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    This historical paper is an introduction to curriculum thinking in Japan. It discusses contested value frameworks that have exercised professional educators in the light of two "Western" interventions: (1) the modernization initiatives of the Meiji government of the nineteenth century; and (2) the policies that followed Japan's defeat in…

  11. The New Positioning Technology for Sea Recovery Operations in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Fuke, Hideyuki; Iijima, Issei; Izutsu, Naoki; Kato, Yoichi; Matsuzaka, Yukihiko; Namiki, Michiyoshi; Sato, Takatoshi; Tamura, Keisuke; Toriumi, Michihiko; Kakehashi, Yuya; Mizuta, Eiichi

    2012-07-01

    In Japan which has few flat plain and high population density, it is very difficult to drop a balloon safely on to the land. Hence balloons launched from Japan have always been dropped on the sea. In order to recover the balloons and the gondolas floating on the sea surely and rapidly, and to keep the gondolas and ships safe, much efforts and innovations have been made. Ones of the important innovations are positioning buoys. A buoy attached on a balloon gondola floats independently after the splash down, and informs its position to the recovery team. We had developed some types of such buoys; `radio beacon buoy' transmits a pattern of radio signal to navigate the recovery boats to the gondola. Another type of the buoys, `GPS ARGOS buoy,' finds its position with the GPS and sends the information to the balloon base via ARGOS satellite communication network. These technologies had contributed so much to the sea recovery operations however they also had some limitations. Recently, a new positioning buoy with better performance has developed; `Iridium buoy' detects the position with the GPS, and informs it to the balloon base via the Iridium satellite communication network and the internet. The Iridium buoy provides the accurate position surely and immediately with good time resolution. Furthermore the information can be received by very common devices which can receive e-mails. Thanks to the new buoy, the balloon operation team can always know where the gondola is on the sea more precisely, more simultaneously and more easily. That enables the operation team to inform the gondola's location to the authorities concerned as well as the recovery team, which contributes to the safety of both of the gondola and the sea traffics. In this presentation, the Iridium Buoy will be introduced mainly. Also the overview of the present sea recovery operation with the buoy and the past operations will be mentioned

  12. Japan's New Lifelong Learning Policy: Exploring Lessons from the European Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    The concept of "lifelong learning" or "shogai gakushu" has rapidly become one of the topmost priorities in Japan's education policy agenda. This was considerably evident in December 2006 when the term 'lifelong learning' was added to Japan's educational charter, the Fundamental Law of Education. This paper explores, as a means…

  13. Ubiquitous Technology for Language Learning: The U-Japan Movement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the u-Japan movement and recent reforms in the higher educational system in Japan, examines the needs as well as readiness for ubiquitous learning in Japanese universities, and reports on a selection of mobile-assisted language learning projects (MALL). It analyzes the current status of ubiquitous technology applications in…

  14. Ubiquitous Technology for Language Learning: The U-Japan Movement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the u-Japan movement and recent reforms in the higher educational system in Japan, examines the needs as well as readiness for ubiquitous learning in Japanese universities, and reports on a selection of mobile-assisted language learning projects (MALL). It analyzes the current status of ubiquitous technology applications in…

  15. Changing State-University Relations: The Experiences of Japan and Lessons for Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirat, Morshidi; Kaur, Sarjit

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the changing state-university relations in Japan and Malaysia. Its main objective is to identify and examine possible lessons for Malaysia, based on the Japanese experience. Notably, since the late 1970s, Malaysia has been looking towards Japan as a model for socio-economic development (the "look-east" Policy)…

  16. Structured Strategy for Implementation of the Teaching Portfolio Concept in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurita, Kayoko

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a strategy for successfully implementing the teaching portfolio in higher education institutions in Japan. The teaching portfolio has gained recognition in Japan in the last few years as an effective instrument for improving and showcasing teaching performance. It is well known that the implementation process is very important…

  17. Japan: Land of the Rising Sun. A Twelve Day Unit of Study for Fourth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craycraft, Kenneth; Winters, Norm

    This unit of study on Japan contains the following content areas: Unit Focus/Motivation; Islands of Japan; Living on an Island; Buildings; Economics; Transportation; and Culminating Activities. The objectives of the unit include knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Suggested activities for each of the content areas are offered and explained to assist…

  18. Changing State-University Relations: The Experiences of Japan and Lessons for Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirat, Morshidi; Kaur, Sarjit

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the changing state-university relations in Japan and Malaysia. Its main objective is to identify and examine possible lessons for Malaysia, based on the Japanese experience. Notably, since the late 1970s, Malaysia has been looking towards Japan as a model for socio-economic development (the "look-east" Policy)…

  19. Structured Strategy for Implementation of the Teaching Portfolio Concept in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurita, Kayoko

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a strategy for successfully implementing the teaching portfolio in higher education institutions in Japan. The teaching portfolio has gained recognition in Japan in the last few years as an effective instrument for improving and showcasing teaching performance. It is well known that the implementation process is very important…

  20. Regulation of Generic Drugs in Japan: the Current Situation and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Ryosuke; Matsuhama, Maki; Mikami, Kenichi

    2015-09-01

    Generic drugs are interchangeable with original proprietary drugs, as they have the same active pharmaceutical ingredients, dosage forms, strength, quality, indications, effects, directions, and dosage. The cost of generic drugs is lower than original drugs, because the developmental cost is lower. The expansion of medical expenses is an important issue in many countries, including Japan, the USA, and Europe, and promotion of generic drugs has been demanded to solve this issue in Japan. Generic drug approval review in Japan is conducted by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), which reviews the equivalence of the original drugs from the viewpoint of quality, efficacy, and safety, based on documentation submitted by the generic drug applicants. However, the details of the generic drug review in Japan have not been reported. In this report, we introduce the application types, the number of applications and approvals, and the review timeline of generic drugs in Japan. In addition, we discuss recent consultations and future prospects.

  1. Japan's role as an Asian observer state within and outside the Arctic Council's framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeshima, Taisaku

    2016-09-01

    After the recent publication of Japan's Arctic policy, the world is carefully considering the kind of role Japan will play in the future. As an economic power, Japan will certainly seek to pursue its national interest, particularly in the development of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) and in the offshore drilling of natural resources in the Arctic region. However, as an Asian observer state, Japan will hopefully play a role of a catalyst and watcher in the Arctic Council (AC) and monitor and report the process and conversation of the forum not only for its own benefit but also in the interest of the international community. This aspect should be reflected in the implementation of the new Arctic policy of Japan in near future.

  2. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of vitiligo in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oiso, Naoki; Suzuki, Tamio; Wataya-Kaneda, Mari; Tanemura, Atsushi; Tanioka, Miki; Fujimoto, Tomoko; Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Tamihiro; Tsukamoto, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Sano, Shigetoshi; Mitsuhashi, Yoshihiko; Nishigori, Chikako; Morita, Akimichi; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Mizoguchi, Masako; Katayama, Ichiro

    2013-05-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigment disorder in which depigmented macules result from the loss of melanocytes from the involved regions of skin and hair. The color dissimilarity on the cosmetically sensitive regions frequently induces quality of life impairment and high willingness to pay for treatment in patients with vitiligo. The Vitiligo Japanese Task Force was organized to overcome this situation and to cooperate with the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference. This guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of vitiligo in Japan is proposed to improve the circumstances of Japanese individuals with vitiligo. Its contents include information regarding the diagnosis, pathogenesis, evaluation of disease severity and effectiveness of treatment, and evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of vitiligo. The therapeutic algorithm based on the proposed recommendation is designed to cure and improve the affected lesions and quality of life of individuals with vitiligo. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  3. An Interview with Professor Ohtomo: The Founding Father of Language Testing in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Miyoko; Negishi, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Professor Kenji Ohtomo who retired in March 2006 from the post of Dean, College of Applied International Studies, Tokiwa University, Mito, in Japan. Professor Ohtomo is currently a Professor Emeritus at the University of Tsukuba and Honorary President of the Japan Language Testing Association, of which he…

  4. The Constituent Elements of Comparative Education in Japan: A Comparison with North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Shoko

    2015-01-01

    This article, with the aim of identifying elements that constitute the characteristics of an academic space within comparative education, analyzes how comparative education has been discussed and practiced in Japan, based on a questionnaire completed by 264 members of the Japan Comparative Education Society and classification of articles published…

  5. The Evolution of Japan’s Constitution and Implications for U.S. Forces on Okinawa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Koizumi envisions. Consequently, the development of BMD will compel the JSDF to modernize and integrate their roles in critical areas.52 Japan has......supporting countries for its role in the 1987 Japan Red Army hijacking and bombing of a Korean airliner. See, www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/ 2003 /31644.htm

  6. Beginning of Movement for Re-Education of Parents in Japan in the 1920's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Keiko

    In the late 1920s, in conjunction with a new passion for freedom and concern for human rights, two associations were formed in Japan to promote parents' education and children's welfare. In 1928, following a 2-year study of education in America, Tetsuya Kamimura started the Japan Parents' Re-education Association. The association's members…

  7. Molecular investigation of the Aum Shinrikyo anthrax release in Kameido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Keim, P; Smith, K L; Keys, C; Takahashi, H; Kurata, T; Kaufmann, A

    2001-12-01

    In 1993, the Aum Shinrikyo cult aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores over Kameido, Japan. Spore samples were obtained from the release site, cultured, and characterized by molecular genetic typing. The isolates were consistent with strain Sterne 34F2, which is used in Japan for animal prophylaxis against anthrax.

  8. An Interview with Professor Ohtomo: The Founding Father of Language Testing in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Miyoko; Negishi, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Professor Kenji Ohtomo who retired in March 2006 from the post of Dean, College of Applied International Studies, Tokiwa University, Mito, in Japan. Professor Ohtomo is currently a Professor Emeritus at the University of Tsukuba and Honorary President of the Japan Language Testing Association, of which he…

  9. Japanese Fundraising: A Comparative Study of the United States and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onishi, Tamaki

    2007-01-01

    The enactment of the Law to Promote Specified Nonprofit Activities in 1998 has resulted not only in a rapid increase in the number of specified nonprofit corporations (NPO corporations) but also in an urgent need for effective fundraising in Japan. Despite Japan's long and rich tradition of philanthropy and a serious need for fundraising, very…

  10. The Constituent Elements of Comparative Education in Japan: A Comparison with North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Shoko

    2015-01-01

    This article, with the aim of identifying elements that constitute the characteristics of an academic space within comparative education, analyzes how comparative education has been discussed and practiced in Japan, based on a questionnaire completed by 264 members of the Japan Comparative Education Society and classification of articles published…

  11. Communication problems after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Hitoshi; Kaneda, Kazuhisa; Mizobata, Yasumitsu

    2014-08-01

    After the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, the resource utilization of and the problems encountered with communication devices were examined. A questionnaire survey was submitted to disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) that were at the primary sites of destruction after the earthquake. We collected data from 196 teams. During the first 4 days after the earthquake, the use of mobile phones, laptop computers, and landline phones was rated as poor to moderate, and satisfaction was very low, while satisfaction with satellite phones was rated as good to moderate (50%). The degree of satisfaction continued to increase gradually over time. Satellite phones, however, had several problems: poor reception, line instability, voice call use only, and inability to send large amounts of data. To ensure effective communication during the acute phase in the aftermath of large disasters, a new satellite communication device is needed that not only is portable, battery powered, and able to send large volumes of data, but also offers stable communication.

  12. Eating disorders in Japan: finding the right context.

    PubMed

    Nishizono-Maher, A

    1998-12-01

    Eating disorders have traditionally been described as a typically 'Western' illness. Cases that occur outside Western countries are often regarded as atypical. Peculiarities are thus emphasized. However, eating disorders are now prevalent in Japan, among non-Western immigrants in Europe, and in other societies. The author focuses on the universality of the background of eating disorders and looks at them as 'culture change syndromes'. Change in the family and in women's roles are the central themes. The majority of the subjects experienced very little emotional relationship with their parents when they were children. It is misleading to say that eating disorder patients lack femininity and that they should be encouraged to be more feminine, more passive. Gender issues concerning treatment settings such as the doctor-patient relationship, the doctor-nurse relationship influence the treatment process. Typical anorexics described in a 1788 Japanese document are briefly presented in order to challenge further the idea of eating disorders as a Western illness.

  13. Medical relief for the 2011 Japan earthquake: a nursing account.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Satoko; Kako, Mayumi; Mayner, Lidia

    2014-03-01

    In 2011 the east coast of Japan experienced a massive earthquake which triggered a devastating tsunami destroying many towns and killing over 15 000 people. The work presented in this paper is a personal account that outlines the relief efforts of the Humanitarian Medical Assistance team and describes the efforts to provide medical assistance to evacuees. The towns most affected had a large proportion of older people who were more likely to have chronic conditions and required medication to sustain their health. Since personal property was destroyed in the tsunami many older people were left without medication and also did not remember which type of medication they were taking. Some evacuees had brought a list of their medication with them, this assisted relief teams in obtaining the required medication for these people. The more successful evacuation centers had small numbers of evacuees who were given tasks to administer the center that kept them occupied and active.

  14. The 1989 National Convention Record IEE Japan, part 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-04-01

    Articles are presented from the national convention, IEE Japan opened in April, 1989. The articles are records from the power cable and energy generation/conversion sections. The symposium emphasis was on: Current status of fuel cells for practical use. The power cable section includes 72 articles: Construction of the first 8,000A class 275kV compressed gas insulated (CGI) transmission line in the world; Antiseismic characteristics of CGI transmission terminating sets installed on transmission powers; Temperature rise characteristics of vertically laid CGI transmission lines and others. The energy generation/conversion section includes 77 articles: Estimation of solar radiation by meteorological satellite pictures; Errors of sunshine duration used for the application planning of solar thermal energy; Solar irradiance obtained through glass and vinyl and others. The symposium included 5 articles: Developmental conditions of phosphoric acid type fuel cells' and others.

  15. Identification of the first case of atypical scrapie in Japan

    PubMed Central

    IMAMURA, Morikazu; MIYAZAWA, Kohtaro; IWAMARU, Yoshifumi; MATSUURA, Yuichi; YOKOYAMA, Takashi; OKADA, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A Corriedale ewe was confirmed as the first atypical scrapie case during an active surveillance program for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in small ruminants in Japan. The animal was homozygous for the AF141RQ haplotype of PRNP. The animal showed clinical neurological signs possibly due to listeriosis before culling. Western blot analysis showed an unusual multiple banded pattern with a low-molecular fragment at ~7 kDa. Histopathology revealed suppurative meningoencephalitis caused by listeriosis in the brainstem. Fine granular to globular immunostaining of disease-associated prion proteins was mainly detected in the neuropil of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve and in the white matter of the spinocerebellar tract. Based on these results, this case was conclusively diagnosed as atypical scrapie with encephalitic listeriosis. PMID:27616556

  16. Emerging Trends in Japan in Education of the Gifted: A Focus on Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumida, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    Japan has no formal educational system for gifted children. However, in 2005, Japan's Cabinet approved and established the third Science and Technology Basic Plan (2006-10), which includes "nurturing the individuality and ability of gifted ("sainou" in Japanese) children." Enforcement of this plan is exemplified in programs…

  17. School Safety in Japan: Mombusho and the Public/Private Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrone, Michelle Henault; Matsuyama, Yumi

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, violent acts against children in Japan were considered private, isolated incidents largely outside the reach of government policy and legal action. Increasingly, however, public perception in Japan, mainly driven by the mass media, has shifted away from such complacency. A few well-publicized attacks on children have forced Mombusho…

  18. Governmental Reform and Education for the Gifted in Japan: A Current Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugaj, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Though targeted for governmental reform since 2002, services envisioned for gifted and talented students have not materialized in Japan. From the perspective of his personal experience as a Japan Fulbright Memorial Fund participant in 2005 and an extensive review of available literature and contacts with the Japanese Ministry of Education,…

  19. Redefining The U.S.-Japan Alliance: Tokyo’s National Defense Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    own Governors, must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives. JAMES MADISON to W, T. BARRY August 4, 1822 REDEFINING THE U.S.-JAPAN...SDF facilities for such purposes as Waining centers and advance depots for materials and equipment for peacekeeping operations, and supply by Japan of

  20. Governmental Reform and Education for the Gifted in Japan: A Current Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugaj, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Though targeted for governmental reform since 2002, services envisioned for gifted and talented students have not materialized in Japan. From the perspective of his personal experience as a Japan Fulbright Memorial Fund participant in 2005 and an extensive review of available literature and contacts with the Japanese Ministry of Education,…

  1. The 7th Japan-Korea chemical biology symposium: chemical biology of natural bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ahn, Jong Seog; Osada, Hiroyuki; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-05-16

    Natural bioactive molecules possess supreme chemical diversity and drug-like properties and are an important source for drug lead compounds. At the seventh Japan-Korea Chemical Biology Symposium at Jeju Island, Korea, chemical biologists from Korea and Japan highlighted the remarkable features of natural products and their significance.

  2. A Shift Away from an Egalitarian System: Where Do the Current Reforms in Japan Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yano, Hirotoshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with an overall changing trend witnessed in public schooling in Japan, known as educational reforms. Through looking at recent reforms in Japan, with an international trend in view, the author first summarizes educational reforms as waves of liberalization that have changed the post-war fundamental principle of Japanese education.…

  3. Emerging Trends in Japan in Education of the Gifted: A Focus on Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumida, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    Japan has no formal educational system for gifted children. However, in 2005, Japan's Cabinet approved and established the third Science and Technology Basic Plan (2006-10), which includes "nurturing the individuality and ability of gifted ("sainou" in Japanese) children." Enforcement of this plan is exemplified in programs…

  4. Verification of the isotopic composition of precipitation simulated by a regional isotope circulation model over Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Masahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Yoshimura, Kei

    2016-01-01

    The isotopic composition (δ(18)O and δ(2)H) of precipitation simulated by a regional isotope circulation model with a horizontal resolution of 10, 30 and 50 km was compared with observations at 56 sites over Japan in 2013. All simulations produced reasonable spatio-temporal variations in δ(18)O in precipitation over Japan, except in January. In January, simulated δ(18)O values in precipitation were higher than observed values on the Pacific side of Japan, especially during an explosively developing extratropical cyclone event. This caused a parameterisation of precipitation formulation about the large fraction of precipitated water to liquid detrained water in the lower troposphere. As a result, most water vapour that transported from the Sea of Japan precipitated on the Sea of Japan side. The isotopic composition of precipitation was a useful verification tool for the parameterisation of precipitation formulation as well as large-scale moisture transport processes in the regional isotope circulation model.

  5. Licensing and training requirements for direct care workers in Japan: what can the United States and Japan learn from each other?

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshiko; Sekiya, Minobu

    2003-01-01

    Shortages of direct care workers have been of concern both in the United States and in Japan. This article compares issues surrounding long-term care provisions in the two countries and introduces Japan's unique licensure and certificate system for direct care workers. Japan has established three levels of direct care worker certificates and a direct care licensure, which can be potentially used as a career ladder. Studies show that this system has resulted in different work conditions and benefits between different certificate and licensure levels but had a limited impact on hourly wage and task differentiation. Implications for the United States are also discussed.

  6. Threat of an earthquake right under the capital in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rikitake, T.

    1990-01-01

    Tokyo, Japan's capital, has been enjoying a seismically quiet period following the 1923 Kanto earthquake of magnitude 7.9 that killed more than 140,000 people. Such a quiet period seems likely to be a repetition of the 80-year quiescence after the great 1703 Genroku earthquake of magntidue 8.2 that occurred in an epicentral area adjacent to that of the 1923 Kanto earthquake. In 1784, seismic activity immediately under the capital area revived with occasional occurrence of magnitude 6 to 7 shocks. Earthquakes of this class tended to occur more frequently as time went on and they eventually culminated in the 1923 Kanto earthquake. As more than 60 years have passed since the Kanto earthquake, we may well expect another revival of activity immediately under the capital area. 

  7. History of research in Japan on electrocardiography in the racehorse

    PubMed Central

    HIRAGA, Atsushi; SUGANO, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since the first recording of electrocardiograms (ECGs) of a horse in Japan was carried out in 1944, studies on ECGs have been performed intensively. During the early stages of research from the 1950s to 1960s, leads to use for ECG recording were evaluated using several different approaches including unipolar leads, bipolar limb leads, and bipolar chest leads. Based on these studies, the AB lead, which is oriented along the long axis of the heart, became the standard reference method in Japan. Electrodes of the AB lead are placed on the upper 1/4th point along a straight line between the withers and the left shoulder blade (base: B), and 10 cm posterior to the left olecranon (apex: A). The incidence of equine arrhythmias among racehorses has been surveyed, and details of the electrocardiographic characteristics of several arrhythmias have been investigated. In particular, atrial fibrillation (AF) has been extensively studied, and papers have reported findings such as that paroxysmal AF occurs during racing and described electrocardiographic changes that occur at the onset of AF during exercise. Development of a radiotelemetry system for ECG recording enabled the first recording of equine ECGs during galloping in 1964, the detection of arrhythmias, and calculation of heart rate during exercise. Studies on comparative and developmental changes of ECGs have described characteristics of the equine ECGs. Future research on changes in cardiac function, including autonomic function, that occur with aging may lead to new developments in equine electrocardiography and contribute to improving the health and welfare of the horse. PMID:25829865

  8. Isoprene emission from the major native Quercus spp. in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Akira; Kawawata, Yuijun

    Broad-leaved Quercus trees are the major species in the temperate zone of Japan and other countries in Asia. In the present study, attempts were made to identify isoprene emitters among various Quercus tree species native to Japan, and the emission characteristics of each species were investigated. By using a branch-enclosure method, four deciduous trees taxonomically positioned in the section Prinus, Quercus serrata, Q. mongolica var. crispula, Q. aliena, and Q. dentate, were identified as isoprene emitters. Two other deciduous trees in the section Cerris, Q. acutissima, and Q. variabilis, emitted neither isoprene nor monoterpene. The evergreen tree species Q. acuta, Q. glauca, Q. salicina, Q. myrsinaefolia, and Q. sessilifolia included in the section Cyclobalanopsis were also identified as non-emitters. Cuvette measurements revealed that the temperature and light dependence of isoprene emissions from the four plant species were similar to that previously reported for many other plant species. However, the initial slope of the isoprene emission against photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) was higher than the slope proposed by the G93 algorithm. Online monitoring of isoprene emission was occasionally conducted, and the results revealed a difference in the response time against PPF between PPF increase and decrease measurements even at the same PPF and temperature. The ratio of carbon emitted as isoprene to carbon fixed by photosynthesis was calculated as 3-15% at 35 °C. The emission rates standardized to 30 °C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PPF of the four emitter Quercus spp. were 18-30 nmol m -2 s -1.

  9. Survey of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Japan by the Japan 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Yasushi Hiraoka, Masahiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Narita, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Onishi, Hiroshi; Shirato, Hiroki

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To recognize the current status of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in Japan, using a nationwide survey conducted by the Japan 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group. Methods and Materials: The questionnaire was sent by mail to 117 institutions. Ninety-four institutions (80%) responded by the end of November 2005. Fifty-three institutions indicated that they have already started SBRT, and 38 institutions had been reimbursed by insurance. Results: A total of 1111 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer were treated. Among these patients, 637 had T1N0M0 and 272 had T2N0M0 lung cancer. Metastatic lung cancer was found in 702 and histologically unconfirmed lung tumor in 291 patients. Primary liver cancer was found in 207 and metastatic liver cancer in 76 patients. The most frequent schedule used for primary lung cancer was 48Gy in 4 fractions at 22 institutions (52%), followed by 50Gy in 5 fractions at 11 institutions (26%) and 60Gy in 8 fractions at 4 institutions (10%). The tendency was the same for metastatic lung cancer. The average number of personnel involved in SBRT was 1.8 radiation oncologists, including 1.1 certified radiation oncologists, 2.8 technologists, 0.7 nurses, and 0.6 certified quality assurance personnel and 0.3 physicists. The most frequent amount of time for treatment planning was 61-120min, for quality assurance was 50-60min, and for treatment was 30min. There were 14 (0.6% of all cases) reported Grade 5 complications: 11 cases of radiation pneumonitis, 2 cases of hemoptysis, and 1 case of radiation esophagitis. Conclusion: The current status of SBRT in Japan was surveyed.

  10. Testing the eBEAR System in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H. C.; Chen, T. Y.; Tseng, T. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan has operated an earthquake early warning (EEW) system and issued warnings to schools and government agencies since 2014. The real-time seismic data streams are integrated by the Earthworm software. In order to rapidly process those data, some EEW modules were created under the Earthworm platform. The system is named Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting (eBEAR) system, which is currently operating. The eBEAR system consists of new Earthworm modules for managing P-wave phase picking, trigger associations, hypocenter locations, magnitude estimations, and alert filtering prior to broadcasting. Online performance of the eBEAR system indicated that the average reporting times afforded by the system are approximately 15 and 26 seconds for inland and offshore earthquakes, respectively. During 2016 ML6.6 Meinong (Taiwan) earthquake, the eBEAR system was successfully issued after 12.8 seconds when the earthquake occurred. While performances of the eBEAR system are stable, accurate in most events in Taiwan, there are a limited number of recent, well-record, large earthquakes (M>7) available for testing it. In order to examine outcome of eBEAR for large earthquakes, we implemented offline test to the eBEAR system using 26 events in Japan with magnitude larger than 7.0 from 2008 to 2016. EEW systems of Taiwan and Japan have the same challengs, including inaccurate locations and poorly constrained for offshore and deep earthquakes in the initial stages due to limited station coverage. Therefore the testing of eBEAR system provides a good opportunity to examine the abilities of the eBEAR system.

  11. Current status of the mechanical valve and bioprosthesis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Tominaga, Ryuji

    2008-01-01

    The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease were revised in 2006. These guidelines are introduced in this review, and the current status of the mechanical valve, bioprosthesis, and treatment of valvular heart disease are described based on the new guidelines as compared with the guidelines of 1998. The trend in valve selection in aortic valve replacement in the United States has been toward bioprosthesis, away from the mechanical valve. The reasons are: 1) current bioprostheses appear to have lower rates of structural valve deterioration, 2) the risks of reoperation have continued to decrease, 3) patients undergoing AVR today represent an older population than those in studies in randomized trials, 4) young patients undergoing AVR are often reluctant to accept warfarin therapy, 5) some large comparative trials have shown apparent survival benefit for patients receiving bioprostheses. In Japan, the use of tissue valves has been increasing and may continue to increase owing to the nation's aging population and to the reasons mentioned above. However, more patients received mechanical valves than bioprostheses for mitral valve replacement both in the United States and in Japan. The number of mitral valve repair cases has increased more than that of valve replacement. In selection of valve prosthesis for valve surgery, it is important that patients should decide by themselves based on mutual respect and trust between patient and doctor, with thorough discussion of the possibility of redo surgery and its risks, life-long warfarin intake, quality of life, and the patient's lifestyle and outlook on life.

  12. On the Fourth Diadema Species (Diadema-sp) from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Seinen; Kajigaya, Yoshikazu; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Niwa, Kentaro; Shibuno, Takuro; Nanami, Atsushi; Kiyomoto, Setuo

    2014-01-01

    Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema -sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene in the “D. savignyi-like” samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu) to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands) to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE). Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century. PMID:25054386

  13. High performance computing beyond the peta scale in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Toichi

    2007-07-01

    Since last year, with funding from the Japanese government, RIKEN has been conducting a project to build a next generation supercomputer, which will be capable of carrying out peta or higher scale simulations and will be in full operation by the end of FY2011. Its main objectives are to keep leading edge hardware technology inside Japan, and also to stimulate the use of simulations in R&D in academia and industry in order to investigate sophisticated natural phenomena in ways which are only possible with such large scale simulations, for example, designing novel functional materials to create future industrial technologies. To promote this kind of use of the supercomputer, nano-science and life sciences have been selected as grand challenges, in which specially designed supercomputer codes are to be developed. This paper presents the key features of the project.

  14. School Uniforms, Routine Activities, and the Social Control of Delinquency in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanioka, Ichiro; Glaser, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    Unofficial rates of delinquency (RDs) were studied in Japan for a representative population sample of 1,121 high school students in the Osaka prefecture, mostly from private schools. RD correlations and interpretations were compared with those of similar U.S. studies. Reasons self-reported delinquency in Japan was much lower are discussed. (SLD)

  15. The Utility of Decision Trees in Oncofertility Care in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuki; Shiraishi, Eriko; Kato, Atsuko; Haino, Takayuki; Sugimoto, Kouhei; Okamoto, Aikou; Suzuki, Nao

    2017-03-01

    To identify the utility and issues associated with the use of decision trees in oncofertility patient care in Japan. A total of 35 women who had been diagnosed with cancer, but had not begun anticancer treatment, were enrolled. We applied the oncofertility decision tree for women published by Gardino et al. to counsel a consecutive series of women on fertility preservation (FP) options following cancer diagnosis. Percentage of women who decided to undergo oocyte retrieval for embryo cryopreservation and the expected live-birth rate for these patients were calculated using the following equation: expected live-birth rate = pregnancy rate at each age per embryo transfer × (1 - miscarriage rate) × No. of cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte retrieval was performed for 17 patients (48.6%; mean ± standard deviation [SD] age, 36.35 ± 3.82 years). The mean ± SD number of cryopreserved embryos was 5.29 ± 4.63. The expected live-birth rate was 0.66. The expected live-birth rate with FP indicated that one in three oncofertility patients would not expect to have a live birth following oocyte retrieval and embryo cryopreservation. While the decision trees were useful as decision-making tools for women contemplating FP, in the context of the current restrictions on oocyte donation and the extremely small number of adoptions in Japan, the remaining options for fertility after cancer are limited. In order for cancer survivors to feel secure in their decisions, the decision tree may need to be adapted simultaneously with improvements to the social environment, such as greater support for adoption.

  16. Successful Hospital Evacuation After the Kumamoto Earthquakes, Japan, 2016.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Takashi; Himeno, Shinkichi; Himeno, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Manabu; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Hashizume, Makoto; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Masami

    2017-02-22

    Two major earthquakes struck Kumamoto Prefecture in Japan in April 2016. Disaster response was immediately provided, including disaster medical services. Many hospitals were damaged and patients needed immediate evacuation to alternative facilities. The hospital bed capacity of Kumamoto Prefecture was overwhelmed, and transportation of more than 100 patients was needed. Hospital evacuation was carried out smoothly with the coordinated efforts of multiple agencies. The overall operation was deemed a success because patients were transported in a timely manner without any significant adverse events. Upon repair of facilities in Kumamoto Prefecture, patients were returned safely to their previous facilities. The management of inpatients after this natural disaster in Kumamoto Prefecture can serve as a model for hospital evacuation with multi-agency coordination in the future. Future efforts are needed to improve interfacility communications immediately following a natural disaster. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;0:1-5).

  17. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  18. A detrended cross correlation analysis for stock markets of the United States, Japan, and the Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Taro

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the long range cross covariances among the stock price returns for the United States, Japan, and the Europe. Empirical results suggest that the stock price returns of these regions have cross covariances of slow moving fluctuations.

  19. Space activities in the Soviet Union, Japan, and the People's Republic of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezell, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    The space programs of the Soviet Union, Japan, and China are discussed. The types of launch vehicles they used and the classes of spacecraft they launched are examined. The political motivations of these nations are analyzed.

  20. Economic internationalization: the new migration in Japan and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1993-01-01

    "The general proposition argued in this paper is that international migrations are embedded in larger social, economic and political processes.... The first section of the paper addresses the impact of economic internationalization on the formation of new immigration flows into the U.S. during the last 25 years. The second section examines both the magnitude and forms of Japan's recent economic presence in South and Southeast Asia. The third and fourth sections briefly review questions of policy in the U.S. and Japan during the last few years.... The fifth section conveys evidence of illegal immigration to Japan. The sixth section discusses conditions in receiving countries that make possible the adaptation of immigrants with a view to understanding how illegal immigrants in Japan could become part of the Japanese economy involving Japanese employers deeply steeped in an anti-immigration culture." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  1. The Problem With the Plate Boundary in the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Horne, A.; Sato, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Kato, N.

    2015-12-01

    The boundary between the North American and Eurasian plates in NE Asia is 'shifty.' It is sometimes drawn through the Sea of Japan, sometimes through the Hokkaido axial zone, or not at all. The boundary may or may not extend through central Japan along the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL). How to explain this uncertainty? Geodetic models suggest that NE Japan moves independently from Eurasia, but the inferred plate boundary cannot be constrained geologically or seismologically. Available published data provides other constraints. A series of destructive (M>7) intraplate earthquakes in the Japan Sea with E-thrusting focal mechanisms was thought to be evidence of nascent subduction, but the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu (M7.7) earthquake, was shown to have occurred on the boundary between thick oceanic crust and island-arc crust of central Japan. These earthquakes appear to result from reactivation of inherited structures that formed during back-arc opening, rather than from subduction. Furthermore, seismic images show no crustal discontinuities that could be interpreted as a plate boundary. As for the ISTL, available geological and seismological evidence indicates that the southern ISTL marks a W-dipping deformation boundary related to the collision of the Izu-Bonin arc with SW Japan (15 Ma). Although indented by the collision, the geological structure/basement of SW Japan are continuous across the ISTL, making it an unlikely plate boundary. The northern ISTL has a different origin, as an E-dipping boundary fault for a Neogene rift basin. The fault has been inactive in the late Quaternary and, again, does not constitute a major geological discontinuity in the basement. Hence, the problem: geodetic models imply a plate boundary between Japan and Eurasia, but published geological and seismological evidence does not support placing it in the Japan Sea or at the ISTL. If, as studies show, almost half of the convergence between North America and Eurasia is taken up in

  2. 78 FR 10134 - Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... International Trade Administration Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited... pipe) from Japan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act).\\1\\ On the... line pipe from Japan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Sunset Initiation. The Department...

  3. A Study of Postwar Japan (1945-1950): What Insights and Lessons Can be Gained From the United States Led Rebirth of Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-16

    government, at the local level, was in many ways, a return to what Japan was like prior to the war years. The first postwar Prime Minister, Shigeru Yoshida...February 1947, the Japanese unions called for a general strike. The communists had obtained control of some of the unions. In reaction, MacArthur banned ...occupation forces gave full support, and even helped keep in power, early established leaders in Japan. This was especially true with Shigeru

  4. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-14

    bring exchange rates to a more reasonable level. Prime Minister Nakasone told the Diet Wednesday his government intends to make its utmost efforts to... make the Japanese market more accessible to imports. He suggested stepped up capital exports as one way to whittle down Japan’s huge trade surplus...confirming the agreement. In Bangladesh, shallow wells and rivers are the main supply sources of drinkable water . The Bangladesh Government has

  5. 76 FR 41761 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Revocation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Revocation... ball bearings and parts thereof from Japan and the United Kingdom. DATES: Effective Date: July 16, 2011... ball bearings and parts thereof from Japan and the United Kingdom (collectively, the orders) in the...

  6. Condoned or condemned: the situational affordance of anger and shame in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Boiger, Michael; Mesquita, Batja; Uchida, Yukiko; Feldman Barrett, Lisa

    2013-04-01

    Two studies tested the idea that the situations that people encounter frequently and the situations that they associate most strongly with an emotion differ across cultures in ways that can be understood from what a culture condones or condemns. In a questionnaire study, N = 163 students from the United States and Japan perceived situations as more frequent to the extent that they elicited condoned emotions (anger in the United States, shame in Japan), and they perceived situations as less frequent to the extent that they elicited condemned emotions (shame in the United States, anger in Japan). In a second study, N = 160 students from the United States and Japan free-sorted the same situations. For each emotion, the situations could be organized along two cross-culturally common dimensions. Those situations that touched upon central cultural concerns were perceived to elicit stronger emotions. The largest cultural differences were found for shame; smaller, yet meaningful, differences were found for anger.

  7. Lay Proselytization of Christianity in Japan in the Meiji Period: The Career of E. Warren Clark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metraux, Daniel A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the work of E. Warren Clark, a lay missionary officially employed by the Japanese government as a university teacher during the 1870s. Provides excerpts from Clark's book, "Life and Adventure in Japan" (1878), written after his return. (JDH)

  8. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in the societies of physics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, H.; Sasao, M.; Nemoto, K.; Tamechika, E.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Although the percentage of women members increases from 2% to 6% in the last 30 years, the ratio is still low in both the Physical Society of Japan and the Japan Society of Applied Physics. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in both societies, the development of the next generation of members, organizing international workshops and domestic symposiums, and so on, are introduced in this paper.

  9. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    prayer at the Yasukuni Shinto Shrine in downtown Tokyo, which is dedicated to Japan’s many war dead. The visit, on the occasion of the shrine’s...Visits Yasukini Shrine for War Dead (KYODO, 22 Apr 85) 4 Atlantic Institute Holds Heated Security Debate (KYODO, 19 Apr 85) 5 Disaster...between him and Kakuei Tanaka. 12930 CSO: 4105/198 JPRS-JAR-85-014 24 May 1985 POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL NAKASONE VISITS YASUKINI SHRINE FOR

  10. 75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and... orders on stainless steel wire rod (SSWR) from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Spain, and... notice of initiation of the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on SSWR from Italy, Japan...

  11. 76 FR 15940 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... and parts thereof from ] France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the period May 1... thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom. See Ball Bearings and Parts...

  12. Japan Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-18

    the government should reduce expenditures for military hardware if it is difficult to hold defense spending within 1 percent of the GNP. Noting... expenditure , as well as a greater contribution to Pacific defense . According to Prior, a conservative parliamentarian and former secretary of state for...Northern Ireland, with Britain’s experience in Asia, it should join with Japan to help the United States with its Asian defense . Japanese Chairman

  13. Assessment of "TIMELINE" for river floods in Japan based on geographical and societal backgrounds: Case studies in Japan and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, S.; Kanae, S.

    2016-12-01

    "TIMELINE" is a tool that supports people in disaster cases. After "TIMELINE" was used effectively in the United States at Hurricane Sandy, it was introduced in Japan to apply for river flood cases. In terms of Japan, "TIMELINE" is a developing method. Therefore, the objective of our research is to contribute for the effective application of "TIMELINE" in Japan. To achieve our objective, we tried two steps. First, to understand the reason of "TIMELINE" making, we found the primal concept of "TIMELINE" by case study in the United States. In this part, by using bibliographic survey, we researched the history of disaster prevention acts in the United States and tried to find the root of "TIMELINE". Second, we extracted the difference of attitudes toward river floods between Japan and the United States with studying actual river flood cases. To catch issues with several aspects, we focused on geographical and societal backgrounds in both countries. About time scale of our research, we picked up from early 20th century to now. In this era, both Japan and the United States started to operate the modern approaches to river floods. As a result, we found that it might be important to recognize the difference of geographical and societal aspects between Japan and the United States for effective application of "TIMELINE". Our research would also contribute for effective application of "TIMELINE" on flash floods.

  14. 76 FR 54206 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... International Trade Administration Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited... review of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan. As a result of this... duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan \\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

  15. 75 FR 69402 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United... duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United...

  16. Current status of health among workers in Japan: Results from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Sasaki, Naoko; Ogasawara, Takayuki; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Tomita, Kentaro; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Nagahama, Satsue; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Makiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-12-07

    Data are limited on the sex-specific prevalence of diseases and their risk factors in middle-aged and older workers in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the age- and sex-specific prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome (defined using joint statement criteria), obesity, underweight, abdominal obesity, and smoking among approximately 70,000 to 90,000 Japanese workers (predominantly men) aged 20-69 years in 2014. We also investigated the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness in 2012 and no leisure-time exercise in 2014. In both sexes, the prevalence of lifestyle-related risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and abdominal obesity, was increased with aging. In contrast, the prevalence of underweight was decreased with aging. Smoking prevalence exceeded 30% in men regardless of age, whereas the prevalence was around 10% in women of all age groups. Prevalence of no leisure-time exercise exceeded 50% among middle-aged and older workers in both sexes. Among workers aged 50-64 years, less than half of men had low fitness, whereas more than half of women had low fitness. Given the high prevalence of lifestyle-related risk factors among middle-aged and older workers, effective strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease in this age group are needed in Japan.

  17. Current status of health among workers in Japan: Results from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    KUWAHARA, Keisuke; UEHARA, Akihiko; YAMAMOTO, Makoto; NAKAGAWA, Tohru; HONDA, Toru; YAMAMOTO, Shuichiro; OKAZAKI, Hiroko; SASAKI, Naoko; OGASAWARA, Takayuki; HORI, Ai; NISHIURA, Chihiro; MIYAMOTO, Toshiaki; KOCHI, Takeshi; EGUCHI, Masafumi; TOMITA, Kentaro; IMAI, Teppei; NISHIHARA, Akiko; NAGAHAMA, Satsue; MURAKAMI, Taizo; SHIMIZU, Makiko; KABE, Isamu; MIZOUE, Tetsuya; KUNUGITA, Naoki; SONE, Tomofumi; DOHI, Seitaro

    2016-01-01

    Data are limited on the sex-specific prevalence of diseases and their risk factors in middle-aged and older workers in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the age- and sex-specific prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome (defined using joint statement criteria), obesity, underweight, abdominal obesity, and smoking among approximately 70,000 to 90,000 Japanese workers (predominantly men) aged 20–69 years in 2014. We also investigated the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness in 2012 and no leisure-time exercise in 2014. In both sexes, the prevalence of lifestyle-related risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and abdominal obesity, was increased with aging. In contrast, the prevalence of underweight was decreased with aging. Smoking prevalence exceeded 30% in men regardless of age, whereas the prevalence was around 10% in women of all age groups. Prevalence of no leisure-time exercise exceeded 50% among middle-aged and older workers in both sexes. Among workers aged 50–64 years, less than half of men had low fitness, whereas more than half of women had low fitness. Given the high prevalence of lifestyle-related risk factors among middle-aged and older workers, effective strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease in this age group are needed in Japan. PMID:27430963

  18. Advances in R&D in near-infrared spectroscopy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Sumio; Iwamoto, Mutsuo

    1991-02-01

    More than 20 years ago when Mr. K. H. Norris firstly introduced the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a powerful technology in the field of composition analysis of cereals those who were interested in the area of classical spectroscopy would not like to recognize its potential. This tendency still remains at present however it leaves no room for doubt that from viewpoints of applied spectroscopy the NIRS has consolidated its position. From a viewpoint of NIRS application in the field of nondestructive or non invasive measuring techniques history of this technology is only the last decade in Japan. However since the technology was firstly introduced to composition analysis of agricultural commodities in the same manner as in other countries R and D have been growing more actively in diversified fields such as agriculture and industry as well as medical science. In addition the NIRS technology are becoming of general interest by combining other techniques to create various hyphenated instrumentations such as FTNIR MCFTNIR NIRCT and NIR-NMR. In this paper new trends of R D on NIR spectroscopy which are being conducted in Japan will be reviewed. 2. S1JMMARY OF PRESENT R D ON NIRS IN JAPAN NIRS applications reported in the last 3 years are summarized in Table 1. Table 1 Applications of NIRS in Japan Application for Agriculture Taste evaluation of rice and coffee Determination of chemical compositions rice for breeding Determination of chemical compositions in tea Determination of sugar contents in intact peaches Japanese pears Satsuma oranges and apples Determination of sugars and acids in intact tomatoes Determination of forage composition Application for Industry Analysis of state of water in foods Application of analyzing Maillard Reaction''s Process Pattern recognition of NIR spectra as related to process control of roasting coffee beans Quality control of tea processing Determination of moisture content of Surimi products 2 / SPIE Vol. 1379 Optics in Agriculture

  19. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    KYODO, 23 Apr 85)........ 58 PRC Ensuring Ability To Pay for Imports (KYODO, 7 May 85) 59 OECD Official Interviewed on Trade Surplus...Security Council session, claiming the council has failed to denounce Iraq for using chemical weapons against Iran. De Cuellar and Japanese officials...infarction, a loss of blood supply to the brain , and would require two or three months to recover. Tanaka is regarded as Japan’s most powerful

  20. [Transition of the blind acupuncture and massage industry and its impacts in Japan].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    After being introduced to Japan, the Chinese acupuncture and massage therapy has changed a lot, in which the influence aroused by the blind practitioners cannot be ignored. Through analyzing the development and the transition of the blind acupuncture and massage industry in Japan, it is found that the tube needle technique, changeable acupoints concept, technical deviation and the importance on acupoints rather than meridians are still existed commonly today, which are introduced by the blind acupuncture and massage practitioners, the special group in Japan. In the process of development, the interaction with the governmental strategy has played the essential role in the consolidation of the above features.

  1. 76 FR 76478 - Request for Comments on Japan's Expression of Interest in the Proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Comments on Japan's Expression of Interest in the Proposed Trans...: Request for comments. SUMMARY: Japanese Prime Minister Noda recently announced Japan's intention to begin... Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is assessing Japan's expression of interest in...

  2. 78 FR 75371 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan; Scheduling of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... COMMISSION Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan; Scheduling of the Final... of less-than-fair-value imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel- plated flat-rolled steel... diffusion-annealed, nickel- plated flat-rolled steel products from Japan are being sold in the United States...

  3. 77 FR 38825 - Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Clad Steel Plate From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... revocation of the antidumping duty order on clad steel plate from Japan would be likely to lead to...

  4. 78 FR 12784 - Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on welded large diameter line pipe from Japan would be...

  5. Recommendations for saving mothers' lives in Japan: Report from the Maternal Death Exploratory Committee (2010-2014).

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Katsuragi, Shinji; Osato, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Kayo; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Nakata, Masahiko; Ishiwata, Isamu

    2016-12-01

    To make recommendations for saving mothers' lives, issues related to maternal deaths including diseases, causes, treatments, and hospital and regional systems are analyzed by the Maternal Death Exploratory Committee in Japan. In this report, we present ten clinical important recommendations based on the analysis of maternal deaths between 2010 and 2014 in Japan. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Seismic structure of the northwestern Japan convergent margin: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Horiuchi, Shigeki; Umino, Norihito

    1994-11-01

    Many studies recently made on the basis of seismic observations have revealed a detailed structure of the crust and the upper mantle beneath the northeastern Japan arc and its relationship to seismic and volcanic activity. Spatial distributions of the depths to the Conrad and the Moho discontinuities, estimated from shallow earthquake data and seismic explosion data, show that both discontinuities are deep in the middle of the land area and shallow toward the coastlines of the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The Pn velocity has a lateral variation; it is as low as approximately 7.5 km/s beneath the land area, while that beneath the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean is 8.0-8.2 km/s. It changes abruptly at the transition zones, which are located along the coastlines. Precise structure and location of the subducted Pacific plate beneath the land area is inferred from converted or reflected seismic waves at the top or bottom of the plate. The Pacific plate is composed of a thin (approximately 5 km) low-velocity upper layer and a thick high-velocity lower layer, its total thickness being 80-90 km. The upper plane seismicity of the double seismic zone is confined to the thin low-velocity upper layer, which probably corresponds to the subducted former oceanic crust. The lower plane seismicity lies at the middle of the high-velocity lower layer, and the lower half of the plate below it is incapable of generating earthquakes. The shallower portion of the upper surface of the plate beneath the Pacific Ocean, along which major seismicity with low-angle thrust faultings is actually occurring, is also located by seismic observations on land and in the sea. The Pacific plate subducts at an extremely low angle of approximately 5 deg for the first approximately 25-km depth, and then the dip steepens rather abruptly to approximately 30 deg. Normal-fault type events at the top of the plate have not been detected in the portion where the downward-bending is the largest, but have been

  7. Back-arc basin opening and closure along the southern margin of the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Claringbould, Johan; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Abe, Susumu; Kawasaki, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    Following the tsunami disaster produced by 2001 Off-Tohoku earthquake (M9) along the Pacific coast of Japan, the Japanese government started an intense evaluation of tsunami hazards. This evaluation spanned along the full Japanese coast, including the Sea of Japan coast on the western side of the Japan arc. In the Sea of Japan, tsunamis are produced by crustal faults. As the longer interval of faulting activity, the historical records of tsunamis in the Sea of Japan are not enough for the evaluation of tsunami height. Thus, the evaluation is carried out based on structural analyses of the margin of the Sea of Japan. To get better understanding of the present-day structural geometry and develop a source-fault model in this region, intense seismic reflection profiling has been carried out since 2013. We introduce the results of the seismic reflection profiles and discuss the structural evolution of the southern margin of the Sea of Japan. 2D seismic reflection profiles were acquired using 1950 cu. in. air-gun and 2100 m streamer cable. The seismic profiles provide the image image up to 3 seconds TWT. The southern margin of the Sea of Japan was produced by back-arc opening and post-rift deformation, and the structural evolution of this area is divided into several stages: rifting (25 - 14 Ma), post-rift compression (14 - 5 Ma), weak thrusting (5 - 1 Ma), and strike-slip deformation (1 Ma to present). During the rifting stage that is associated with the fan-shaped opening of the Sea of Japan, grabens and half-grabens were formed trending parallel to the extension of SW-Japan arc. These grabens were filled by syn-rift sediments, and the maximum thickness of basin fill is observed along the southern margin of the rifted crust. The opening of the Sea of Japan ceased as a result of the collision of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system at the Izu collision zone on the central part of Honshu, Japan. Soon after the this event, the young Shikoku basin within the Philippine Sea plate

  8. Introduction to the Special Issue on "State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan 2015".

    PubMed

    Tokumitsu, Masahiro; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2016-08-23

    This Special Issue, "State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan 2015", collected papers on different kinds of sensing technology: fundamental technology for intelligent sensors, information processing for monitoring humans, and information processing for adaptive and survivable sensor systems.[...].

  9. [History of organ transplantation in the field of pediatric surgery in Japan].

    PubMed

    Inomata, Yukihiro

    2014-11-01

    In Japan, liver transplantation was first attempted 50 years ago, around the same time as the development of pediatric surgery. In 1989, clinical liver transplantation in Japan started with a living related-donor transplantation in a boy with biliary atresia. In the early years, the majority of recipients were children worldwide, which is why pediatric surgeons played a major role in the establishment of liver transplantation in Japan. From 1998, most of the indications for pediatric patients needing liver transplantation have been covered by governmental health insurance. Since that year, the annual number of pediatric liver transplantations, mainly living-donor transplantations, has remained stable at around 130. Biliary atresia is still the most common indication, but others like metabolic disease and hepatoblastoma have been increasing. Deceased-donor liver transplantation started in 1999 in Japan, but pediatric donors are very rare. Intestinal transplantation in Japan also started in a pediatric patient with short bowel syndrome in 1996. Deceased-donor intestinal transplantation is also performed, but the number of those on the waiting list for bowel transplantations in Japan has been very limited, probably due to financial constraints and relatively poor long-term results. With the change in the Organ Transplant Law in 2010, organ donations in Japan have increased slightly. Cadaveric split-liver transplantation has the potential to expand the benefit to pediatric recipients. A universal system for the long-term follow-up of pediatric recipients should be established to manage their transition to adulthood.

  10. Dynamic Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo

    2017-04-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes are a series of earthquakes occurred in the Kumamoto Prefecture in Kyushu Region of Japan, including a magnitude 7.0 mainshock which struck at 01:25 JST on April 16, 2016 beneath Kumamoto City, at a depth of about 10 km, and a foreshock earthquake with a magnitude 6.2 at 21:26 JST on April 14, 2016, at a depth of about 11 km. This series earthquake killed at least 50 people and injured about 3,000 others in total. Severe damage occurred in Kumamoto and Oita Prefectures, with numerous structures collapsing and catching fire. More than 44,000 people were evacuated from their homes due to the disaster. Kumamoto Prefecture lies at the southern end of the Japan Median Tectonic Line, Japan's longest, where a system of active faults forks in two directions at the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. Specifically, the series of quakes ruptured the 81-km-long Hinagu Fault and 64-km-long Futagawa Fault to its north, as well as lesser but discernable interaction with the farther flung Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. A 27-km section of the Futagawa Fault Zone slid 3.5 meters. The earthquakes are occurring along the Beppu-Shimabara graben, with epicenters moving from west to east over time. In this study, we analyze the dynamic rupture process of this earthquake. Our analyzing procedure is as follows, 1) Obtain the spatial-temporal stress distribution on the fault surface from the kinematic source model inverted from strong motion data (Zhang & Zhen, the abstract of this meeting, No. EGU2017ASC20162770). Estimate the strength excess (yielding stress) and the frictional stress level for each subfault; 2) Estimate the critical slip-weakening distance Dc for each subfault assuming a simple slip-weakening law and according to the method of Mikumo et al. (2003); 3) Reconstruct the dynamic source rupture process using those dynamic source parameters with the slip-weakening friction law; and 4) Simultaneously, simulate the near source ground motions based on the

  11. Modelling Psychological Responses to the Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Incident

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Robin; Takahashi, Masahito; Sun, Shaojing; Gaines, Stanley O.

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11–13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events. PMID:22666380

  12. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Takahashi, Masahito; Sun, Shaojing; Gaines, Stanley O

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  13. The burden of rare cancer in Japan: application of the RARECARE definition.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tomoko; Dong, Yiqi; Ohno, Yuko; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Akiko

    2014-10-01

    Despite the fact that rare cancer is a new target of cancer control in Japan, the incidence of rare cancers is unknown and there is no generally accepted definition of rare cancers in this country. With the aim of calculating incidences of rare cancers in Japan, we therefore adopted a definition and classification of rare cancers that had been published in the European Union (EU) in 2011. Using incidence data between 1998 and 2007 submitted by 12 of population based cancer registries in Japan that met our quality criteria and drawing on the EU definition (incidence <6 per 100,000 per year), we estimated the incidences of 845 combinations of tumor sites and histological groups and thus identified the cancers that are rare in Japan. After identifying 193 combinations of tumor sites and histological groups that fit our criteria for rare cancers, we estimated their incidence to be about 75 per 100,000, which corresponds to about 94,800 new diagnoses in 2012 or approximately 15% of all cancer diagnoses. The categorization of rare and common cancers was almost the same in Japan as in EU. The present study provides an indication of the size of the rare cancer burden in Japan and epidemiological information to explore this. We are expecting further discussion based on our results with stakeholders in order to construct a Japanese definition of rare cancers. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. DOE Robotic and Remote Systems Assistance to the Government of Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Wadsworth; Victor Walker

    2013-02-01

    At the request of the Government of Japan, DOE did a complex wide survey of available remotely operated and robotic systems to assist in the initial assessment of the damage to the Fukushima Daiichi reactors following an earthquake and subsequent tsunami. As a result several radiation hardened cameras and a Talon robot were identified as systems that could immediately assist in the effort and were subsequently sent to Japan. These systems were transferred to the Government of Japan and used to map radiation levels surrounding the damaged facilities. This report describes the equipment, its use, data collected, and lessons learned from the experience.

  15. The decline of leprosy in Japan: patterns and trends 1964-2008.

    PubMed

    Koba, Ai; Ishii, Norihisa; Mori, Shuichi; Fine, Paul E M

    2009-12-01

    Our purpose was to elucidate the patterns and trends of autochthonous leprosy in Japan from 1964 to 2008, to compare them with the findings from other studies of leprosy in decline, and to determine whether M. leprae transmission persists in Japan. Data on registered leprosy cases in Japan in the period 1964-2008 were analysed with reference to trends in case detection, geographical distribution, age at diagnosis, sex, classification, family history and broad correlation with socioeconomic conditions. A consistent decline in leprosy case detection was observed in all areas of the country over the period 1964-2008. Highest incidence was consistently in Okinawa, the southernmost part of Japan. Autochthonous leprosy has not been reported in anyone born in Japan since 1980. Increasing average age and a shift towards lower latitudes were demonstrated throughout the period. There was an inverse association between regional measures of wealth and leprosy incidence. Leprosy has declined throughout the past century in Japan. Autochthonous transmission has probably stopped in mainland Japan, but may still occur at a low level in Okinawa, the country's southernmost region. Analyses of data on autochthonous cases revealed patterns similar to those reported in other countries with declining leprosy. Detailed comparisons between countries with very low leprosy incidence may help us to better understand the epidemiology of leprosy.

  16. Palynofloras from the upper Barremian-Aptian Nishihiro Formation (Outer Zone of southwest Japan) and the appearance of angiosperms in Japan.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Julien; Yamada, Toshihiro; Nishida, Harufumi

    2014-03-01

    Palynomorphs are reported for the first time from the Nishihiro Formation (Wakayama Prefecture, Outer Zone of southwest Japan). The Nishihiro Formation consists of brackish to shallow marine deposits, dated as late Barremian to Aptian from geological correlations. Spores prevail in the assemblage, representing Filicopsida (mainly Cyatheaceae and Anemiaceae), Marchantiopsida and Lycopsida. The pollen assemblage is dominated by Coniferales, whereas Gnetales and Bennettitales/Cycadales are only rarely observed. Moreover, we report angiosperm pollen grains of the genus Retimonocolpites for the first time in the Early Cretaceous sediments of Japan. Pollen grains of the Retimonocolpites Group are typical of early angiosperms and commonly found in assemblages from the early to mid-Cretaceous of all paleofloristic provinces. Until this paper, the oldest angiosperm fossils in Japan were represented by a single seed and a wood reported from the Albian of Hokkaido. The oldest reliable angiosperm pollen grains were reported in Hokkaido from the Cenomanian, and in Honshu from the Coniacian. Thus, Retimonocolpites pollen grains reported in the present study represent the oldest record of angiosperms in Japan. They indicate an appearance of the angiosperms in Japan older than thought until now, which is consistent with that proposed elsewhere in eastern Asia.

  17. Comparative epidemiological features of Japanese encephalitis in the Republic of Korea, China (Taiwan) and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Reisaku; Kim, Kyong Ho

    1969-01-01

    The epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in the Republic of Korea from 1949 to 1966 is described and comparisons are made with the situations in Japan and China (Taiwan). Some similarities and some differences are noted. Recent epidemics in Korea coincided with those in southern Japan but the annual fluctuations were more distinct in Korea. The disease mainly affected children in Korea and, in contrast to the situation in Japan, persons in the older age-groups were rarely affected. The authors also discuss the geographical pathology of Japanese encephalitis in Korea. PMID:4308334

  18. Radioactivity inspection of Taiwan for food products imported from Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Huang-Sheng; Huang, Ping-Ji; Wuu, Jyi-Lan; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-11-01

    The 3-11 Earthquake occurred in Japan last year had greatly damaged the lives and properties and also caused the core meltdown accident in the Fukushima nuclear power plant followed by the leakage of radioactive materials into biosphere. In order to protect against the detriment of radiation from foods which were imported from Japan, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan started to conduct radioactivity inspection of food products from Japan after the accident. A total of about 20,000 samples had been tested from March 24 2011 to March 31 2012. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Upper-Layer Circulation of the Japan Sea and the Arabian Marginal Seas and Gulfs: Historical Data Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    The Upper-Layer Circulation of the Japan Sea and the Arabian Marginal Seas and Gulfs: Historical Data Analysis Dr. Amy S. Bower Department of...circulation of the Japan Sea is characterized by significant temporal and spatial variability due to several factors, including seasonal fluctuations in the...these branches. The long-range objective of the Japan Sea study is to understand the dynamical processes that govern this variability. The long-range

  20. Extratropical transitioning in the RMS Japan typhoon wind field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loridan, Thomas; Scherer, Emilie; Khare, Shree

    2013-04-01

    Given its meridional extent and location within the Pacific basin, Japan is regularly impacted by strong winds from cyclones at different stages of their lifecycle. To quantify the associated risk of damage to properties, catastrophe models such as the ones developed by RMS aim to simulate wind fields from thousands of stochastic storms that extrapolate historical events. In a recent study using 25 years of reanalysis data, Kitabatake (2011) estimated that 40 % of all Pacific tropical cyclones completed their transition as an extra tropical system. From a cat modelling point of view it is the increase in wind field asymmetry observed during these transitioning episodes that is critical, with examples like typhoon Tokage in 2004 showing the potential for damaging gusts on both sides of the storm track. In this context a compromise has to be found between the need for complex numerical models able to simulate wind field variability around the cyclone during its entire evolution, and obvious running time constrains. The RMS wind field model is based on an optimized version of the Willoughby parametric profile (Willoughby et al., 2006) which requires calibration against targets representative of cyclone wind fields throughout their lifecycle. We here present the different sources of data involved in the development of this model. This includes (1) satellite products to characterize wind fields from fully tropical storms, (2) high resolution simulations of key transitioning events using the WRF mesoscale model to complement the database at other stages (i.e. for transitioning and fully extra tropical wind fields), and (3) reanalysis data which can be used with Hart (2003)'s cyclone phase space methodology to provide an estimate of the mean duration of transitioning episodes in the Pacific. Kitabatake, N., 2011: Climatology of extratropical transition of tropical cyclones in the Western North Pacific defined by using cyclone phase space. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 89, 309

  1. Oblique convergence and deformation along the Kuril and Japan trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demets, Charles

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that present-day deformation within the southern Kuril forearc is driven by oblique subduction of the Pacific plate is tested using 397 horizontal slip directions derived from shallow-thrust earthquakes from the Kuril and Japan trenches for the period 1963-1991. A simple two-plate model fits the 397 slip vectors significantly worse than a model that permits strike-slip motion of the southern Kuril forearc relative to the overlying plate. Weighted, mean slip directions along the southern Kuril trench are systematically rotated toward the direction orthogonal to the trench, which implies that the net convergence is partitioned into less oblique subduction and trench-parallel displacement of the southern Kuril forearc. The angular discrepancy between the observed slip direction and the direction predicted by the NUVEL-1 Pacific-North America Euler vector implies that the southern Kuril forearc translates 6-11 mm/yr to the southwest relative to the overlying North American plate. These results are consistent with geologically, geodetically, and seismologically observed convergence at the leading edge of the forearc sliver in southern Kokkaido and with previously inferred extension at the trailing edge of the sliver, which is located at the Bussol Strait at 46 deg N.

  2. Anelastic properties beneath the Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Toru

    2017-02-01

    We estimate the three-dimensional (3D) P-wave attenuation structure beneath the Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone (NKTZ), central Japan, using high-quality waveform data from a large number of stations. The obtained results confirm the segmentation of the NKTZ into three regions, as suggested by 3D seismic velocity models, and reveal characteristic structures related to surface deformation, shallow subduction of the Philippine Sea slab, and magmatism. The lower crust beneath the NKTZ west of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) is overall characterized by distinct high attenuation, whereas the upper crust shows marked high attenuation to the east of the ISTL. Differences in the depths of anelastically weakened parts of the crust probably result in a first-order spatial variation in surface deformation, forming wide (width of 100 km) and narrow (width of 25-40 km) deformation zones on the western and eastern sides of the ISTL, respectively. Many M ≥ 6.5 earthquakes occur in the upper crust where seismic attenuation in the underlying lower crust varies sharply, suggesting that spatial variations in rates of anelastic deformation in the lower crust result in stress concentration in the overlying brittle crust. We interpret a moderate- to low-attenuation zone located in the lower crust at the northeast of Biwa Lake to reflect low-temperature conditions that are developed locally as a result of shallow subduction of the cold Philippine Sea slab.

  3. The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Tatsuo; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Ito, Kenta; Takahashi, Jun; Miyata, Satoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2012-11-01

    While previous studies reported a short-term increase in individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) after great earthquakes, mid-term occurrences of all types of CVDs after great earthquakes are unknown. We addressed this important issue in our experience with the Great East Japan Earthquake (11 March 2011). We retrospectively examined the impact of the Earthquake on the occurrences of CVDs and pneumonia by comparing the ambulance records made by doctors in our Miyagi Prefecture, the centre of the disaster area, during the periods of 2008-11 (n = 124,152). The weekly occurrences of CVDs, including heart failure (HF), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stroke, cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA), and pneumonia were all significantly increased after the Earthquake compared with the previous 3 years. The occurrences of ACS and CPA showed the rapid increase followed by a sharp decline, whereas those of HF and pneumonia showed a prolonged increase for more than 6 weeks and those of stroke and CPA showed a second peak after the largest aftershock (7 April 2011). Furthermore, the occurrence of CPA was increased in the first 24 h after the Earthquake, followed by other diseases later on. These increases were independent of age, sex, or residence area (seacoast vs. inland). These results indicate that the occurrences of all types of CVDs and pneumonia were increased in somewhat different time courses after the Earthquake, including the first observation of the marked and prolonged increase in HF, emphasizing the importance of intensive medical management of all types of CVDs after great earthquakes.

  4. The Impact of Japan's 2004 Postgraduate Training Program on Intra-Prefectural Distribution of Pediatricians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Rie; Wang, Wei; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Goto, Rei; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. Methods The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1) predominantly urban and 2) others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. Results The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p value<.0001) and pediatricians (p value = 0.0057). For all physicians, the trends worsened after 2004 both in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0012) and others (p value<0.0001), whereas, for pediatricians, the distribution worsened in others (p value = 0.0343), but not in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0584). Conclusion The intra-prefectural distribution of physicians worsened after the launch of the new training program, which may reflect the impact of the new postgraduate program. In pediatrics, changes in the Gini trend differed significantly before and after the launch of the new training program in others, but not in predominantly urban prefectures. Further observation is needed to explore how this difference in trends affects

  5. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  6. Autumn CO2 chemistry in the Japan Sea and the impact of discharges from the Changjiang River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Naohiro; Sasano, Daisuke; Ishii, Masao; Enyo, Kazutaka; Saito, Shu

    2016-08-01

    We made comprehensive surface water CO2 chemistry observations in the Japan Sea during each autumn from 2010 to 2014. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in surface water, 312-329 μatm, was 10-30 μatm lower in the Japan Sea than in the same latitude range of the western North Pacific adjacent to Japan. According to the sensitivity analysis of pCO2, the lower pCO2 in the Japan Sea was primarily attributable to a large seasonal decrease of pCO2 associated with strong cooling in autumn, particularly in the northern Japan Sea. In contrast, the lower pCO2 in relatively warm, freshwater in the southern Japan Sea was attributable to not only the thermodynamic effect of the temperature changes but also high total alkalinity. This alkalinity had its origin in Changjiang River and was transported by Changjiang diluted water (CDW) which seasonally runs into the Japan Sea from the East China Sea. The input of total alkalinity through CDW also elevated the saturation state of calcium carbonate minerals and mitigated the effects of anthropogenic ocean acidification, at least during autumn. These biogeochemical impacts of CDW in the Japan Sea last until November, although the inflow from the East China Sea to the Japan Sea almost ceases by the end of September. The long duration of the high saturation state of calcium carbonate benefits calcareous marine organisms.

  7. Report by the Japan High Energy Physics Delegation to China, March 1979 (Selected Pages).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-04

    S AD-AO86 538 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV bRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH F/6 20/8 REPORT BY THE JAPAN HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS DELEGATION TO CHINA, MA--ETC(U...UNCLASSIFIED FTD-ID(RS)T-0274-80 NLE’illllEEEllE m mh........h llEEEElll~l- 0FTD-ID(RS )T-0274-80 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISIONI 0 REPORT BY THE JAPAN HIGH...that Japan is considered by them as a nation which has the industrial techno- logy necessary for construction of accelerators and advanced experience

  8. Risk and preventive factors for prostate cancer in Japan: The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective (JPHC) study

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Norie

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in Asian than in Western populations. Lifestyle and dietary habits may play a major role in the etiology of this cancer. Given the possibility that risk factors for prostate cancer differ by disease aggressiveness, and the fact that 5-year relative survival rate of localized prostate cancer is 100%, identifying preventive factors against advanced prostate cancer is an important goal. Using data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, the author elucidates various lifestyle risk factors for prostate cancer among Japanese men. The results show that abstinence from alcohol and tobacco might be important factors in the prevention of advanced prostate cancer. Moreover, the isoflavones and green tea intake in the typical Japanese diet may decrease the risk of localized and advanced prostate cancers, respectively. PMID:28135193

  9. Ohtsuki Kenji and the beginnings of lay analysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Blowers, G; Chi, S Y

    2001-02-01

    The authors outline the major role played by Ohtsuki Kenji in the formation of the Japanese Psychoanalytic Society. Unlike the other pioneers of psychoanalysis in Japan, Ohtsuki never went abroad or met Freud. He was a literature graduate who taught himself the fundamentals of psychoanalysis. He organised the translation of Freud's complete works, formed a psychoanalytic training institute and started a journal that carried English-language editorials. These became the major means whereby foreign analysts came to know and understand the Japanese psychoanalytic scene. A number of rival groups amalgamated to form the Japanese Psychoanalytical Association in the mid-fifties, excluding Ohtsuki's group despite its pre-war prominence. The authors reconsider Ohtsuki's role in the light of his many articles, his autobiography, new information uncovered in interviews conducted with current analysts and with Ohtsuki's widow and son. They describe his championing of lay analysis, and his criticisms of medicalisation of the discipline and of the view from abroad that questioned the suitability of Japanese culture for psychoanalytic therapy, as well as his efforts to modify some of the basic tenets of psychoanalysis to accord with his own views in his later work.

  10. Annual variation in the atmospheric radon concentration in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Yasuoka, Yumi; Omori, Yasutaka; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Sanada, Tetsuya; Muto, Jun; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Homma, Yoshimi; Ihara, Hayato; Kubota, Kazuhito; Mukai, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    Anomalous atmospheric variations in radon related to earthquakes have been observed in hourly exhaust-monitoring data from radioisotope institutes in Japan. The extraction of seismic anomalous radon variations would be greatly aided by understanding the normal pattern of variation in radon concentrations. Using atmospheric daily minimum radon concentration data from five sampling sites, we show that a sinusoidal regression curve can be fitted to the data. In addition, we identify areas where the atmospheric radon variation is significantly affected by the variation in atmospheric turbulence and the onshore-offshore pattern of Asian monsoons. Furthermore, by comparing the sinusoidal regression curve for the normal annual (seasonal) variations at the five sites to the sinusoidal regression curve for a previously published dataset of radon values at the five Japanese prefectures, we can estimate the normal annual variation pattern. By fitting sinusoidal regression curves to the previously published dataset containing sites in all Japanese prefectures, we find that 72% of the Japanese prefectures satisfy the requirements of the sinusoidal regression curve pattern. Using the normal annual variation pattern of atmospheric daily minimum radon concentration data, these prefectures are suitable areas for obtaining anomalous radon variations related to earthquakes.

  11. Influence of the great East Japan earthquake and tsunami 2011 on occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases in Iwate, Japan.

    PubMed

    Omama, Shinichi; Yoshida, Yuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanno, Kozo; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Sakata, Kiyomi

    2013-06-01

    Little information is available regarding the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases after tsunamis. This study was performed to determine the influence of the tsunami damage caused by the Great East Japan earthquake on occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases. Subjects from the coastline and inland areas of Iwate Prefecture who developed cerebrovascular diseases before and after the disaster were included in the analysis. Standardized incidence ratios of 2011 against the previous 3 years were calculated in two 4-week periods before and four 4-week periods after the disaster, according to stroke subtype, sex, age group, and flood damage. The standard incidence ratio for cerebrovascular diseases was 1.20 (1.00-1.40) in the first 4-week period after the disaster and was not significant in other periods. The standard incidence ratios in the first 4-week period for cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage were 1.22 (0.98-1.46), 1.15 (0.76-1.55), and 1.20 (0.52-1.88), respectively. These values were 1.51 (1.19-1.88) for men, 1.35 (1.06-1.64) for subjects aged ≥ 75 years, and 1.35 (1.06-1.64) for the high flooding areas. The standard incidence ratio of cerebral infarction in the first 4-week period for men aged ≥ 75 years in the high flooding areas was 2.34 (1.34-3.34). In the areas highly flooded by the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan earthquake, the occurrence of cerebral infarction among elderly men more than doubled in the first 4 weeks after the disaster.

  12. Chest injuries and the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kimiaki; Kobayashi, Michio; Ishibashi, Satoru; Ueda, Shinsaku; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    Chest injuries caused during a major earthquake remain unclear. We have described profiles of patients with chest injuries who were diagnosed and treated at the area that was most affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 3938 patients who were transferred to the Japanese Red Cross Ishinomaki Hospital during the first week after the earthquake (March 11-17). In total, 77 patients were declared dead on arrival at the hospital. Of the remaining 3861 patients, 42 (1.1%) sustained chest injuries. Diagnosis of the chest injury was based on results of physical examination, chest radiography, and computed tomography. Chest injury was diagnosed in 42 patients, including 22 men and 20 women (age range, 21-99 years). The most common cause of injury was tsunami (n=21), followed by falls (n=9), and traffic accidents (n=1), although this information was missing in 11 cases. The most common type of chest injury was superficial trauma such as laceration and contusion (n=37). Only 5 patients had rib fractures with intrathoracic damages such as pneumothorax (n=3), hemothorax (n=1), and aspiration (n=1). The number of patients with chest injury was surprisingly small. Most patients did not require hospitalization. The small number of survivors with serious chest injuries can most likely be explained by the tsunami caused by the earthquake. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Fault Damage Zone of the Shallow Japan Trench Megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keren, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake resulted in an unprecedented coseismic slip of >50 m in the shallow portion of the Japan Trench subduction zone. We present analyses of core recovered during IODP Expedition 343/343T (JFAST) that define structures surrounding the inferred plate boundary décollement, and use the results to constrain the fault's long-term strength. The plate boundary fault is centered at 821.5 m below the sea floor, with a damage zone extending 15.5 m below and 51.5 m above. The damage zone is defined by shear fractures, subsidiary faults, deformation bands, mode I fractures, breccia zones, and sediment-filled veins. Orientations of mutually crosscutting shear fractures decrease in dip angle nearing the fault in the hanging wall, from 67° at 50 m above the fault down to 25°. In the footwall, dips range from 88° at 9.6 m below the fault to 30° at 11 m below. The damage zone characteristics were established using a set of criteria to eliminate drilling-, coring-, and handling-induced damage in core. Core-scale fracture density increases from 21 fractures/m at 51 m above the fault to 247 fractures/m adjacent to the fault in the hanging wall, and from 28 fractures/m at 11 m below the fault to 254 fractures/m adjacent to the fault in the footwall. The fall-off in fracture density is fit by power law functions in the hanging wall and footwall, with decay exponent n values of 0.70 and 1.45, respectively. Microstructures include shear fractures, veins, crystallographic preferred orientation bands, shear zones, and undifferentiated fractures. Microstructure density in the footwall increases from 0.32 fractures/mm 10 m below the fault to 2.04 fractures/mm adjacent to the fault, and is fit by a power law function with n = 1.27. Orientations of shear fractures have attitudes consistent with normal and reverse faults, indicating the stress field underwent significant reorientations multiple times. This is consistent with the inferred stress field changes

  14. Critical Success Factors of Internet Shopping: The Case of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchariyachanvanich, Kanokwan; Okada, Hitoshi; Sonehara, Noboru

    This paper presents the results from a study conducted on the effect of differing factors on a customer's attitude towards using Internet shopping in Japan. The research model used was an extended version of the consumers' acceptance of virtual stores model with the addition of a new factor, need specificity, and a grouping of critical success factors based on their customer-centric and website-centric viewpoints sources. It examines how differences in the individual characteristics of customers affect the actual use of Internet shopping. According to an online questionnaire filled out by 1,215 online customers used to conduct a multiple regression analysis and a structural equation modeling analysis, the participant's gender, education level, innovativeness, net-orientation, and need specificity, which are the factors for the customer-centric viewpoints, have a positive impact on the actual use of Internet shopping. The implication also shows that Japanese online customers do not worry about the quality of service of Internet shopping, a factor in the website-centric viewpoint, as significantly as offline customers do.

  15. Specialization and medical mycology in the US, Britain and Japan.

    PubMed

    Homei, Aya

    2008-03-01

    This paper attempts to bring new insights to a long-standing historical debate over medical specialization by analyzing the formation of medical mycology, a somewhat marginal biomedical discipline that emerged in the mid-twentieth century around studies of fungal disease in humans. The study of fungi predates that of bacteria and viruses, but from the 1880s it became eclipsed by bacteriology. However, in the postwar period, there were moves to establish medical mycology as an independent speciality. I trace the processes that led to the launch of professional societies in the United States, Britain and Japan, three major players in medical mycology, and more broadly in biomedicine. The analysis of the three different national contexts illustrates how geographical, medico-technological, epidemiological, political and social conditions gave the specialty a distinctive character in each country; this was further complicated by the different and changing medical fields in which fungal diseases were studied and treated. The three case studies show medical specialization as a process that is not simply cumulative but responds to specific historical events and developments.

  16. [Problems in the management of clinical laboratories in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kayaba, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    In Japan, laboratory automation has spread over the last two decades. Laboratory automation has saved time and labor for routine sample tests in clinical laboratories, and contributed to the downsizing of the division. This "contribution" resulted in re-arrangement of the work-force, namely, shrinkage of the blood chemistry division and expansion of the physiological tests and diagnostic imaging division. Some may call this re-arrangement as an adaptation for survival. However, I am concerned that extreme adaptation may cause irreversible shrinkage of clinical laboratories and laboratory medicine itself. In fact, outsourcing of sample tests including microbiological tests has become very popular over the last decade. Since the cost for microbiological tests is suppressed by the national health insurance policy, it is becoming difficult to keep microbiological laboratories in small-scale hospitals. The presence of a microbiological laboratory in a hospital is crucial for prompt and appropriate therapies for infectious diseases, and is essential for advanced infection control activities. The government is pushing forward fixed-term employment in national universities and hospitals, threatening long-term career planning for medical technologists. We have to keep in mind that nurturing medical personnel with special skills and extensive knowledge is mandatory to university hospitals, and laboratory medicine is crucial to the progress of modern medicine.

  17. [The anaplastic thyroid carcinoma research consortium of Japan].

    PubMed

    Sugitani, Iwao

    2012-07-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most lethal neoplasia in humans, with a disease-specific mortality rate approaching 100%. ATC is uncommon and represents only 1-2% of all thyroid carcinomas. The aggressive nature and rarity of this disease make it difficult to improve the quality of evidence on it. To date, most existing knowledge of ATC is derived from single-institution studies with limited cohorts and short-term follow-up. To obtain further insights into this "orphan disease," we established the ATC Research Consortium of Japan (ATCCJ) in January 2009 as a multicenter registry that accumulates, analyzes, and reviews all information on ATC available in the country. As of July 2011, the ATCCJ database included 721 cases of ATC from 38 institutions. Using the database, the members of the ATCCJ have performed several retrospective studies, covering prognostic factors, therapeutic strategies, and pathologic features of ATC. Moreover, prospective trials are being planned as multicenter collaborations to determine the most beneficial treatment, with the ultimate purpose of improving the survival rate of patients with ATC.

  18. 3-D GRACE gravity model for the 2011 Japan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastry, Rambhatla G.; Sonker, Mahendra K.

    2017-02-01

    The GRACE mission has contributed to the seismic characterization of major earthquakes in offshore regions of the world. Here, we isolate satellite gravity signal (μGal range) for the Japan Earthquake of 2011 using a difference method. Contrary to the existing gravity models, we propose a unit vertical pyramid based five-layer 3-D thrust fault model, which extends to the hypocenter and honors the ocean water layer and sea floor upheaval also. Our model partly uses existing seismological information (hypocenter depth of 32 km, rupture length of 300 km and vertical slip of 4 m), provides a snapshot of episodic subduction of the Pacific Plate below the Atlantic Plate and its gravity response closely matches the observed gravity (RMS error of 3.4012×10-13μGal), fully accounting for co-seismic mass redistribution including sea surface deformation. Our inferred rupture length, rupture velocity, average seismic moment magnitude and momentum, respectively, are 300 km, 4.49 km/s, 1.152×1021-1.8816×1021 N m and 2.319×106 GNs, which fairly agree with the literature. Further, our model inferred momentum at the sea floor corresponds to an area pulse that led to Tsunami generation.

  19. Crustal Deformation Measurements Using Repeat-pass JERS 1 SAR Interferometry Near the Izu Peninsula, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujiwara, Satoshi; Rosen, Paul A.; Tobita, Mikio; Murakami, Makoto

    1997-01-01

    We have examined the precision of interferometric SAR measurements of surface deformation of the Earth using 24-cm wavelength data acqured by the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite 1 (JERS 1) spacecraft, over the Izu Peninsula, Japan.

  20. Labor Market Changes and Adjustments: How Do the U.S. and Japan Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarzik, Robert W.; Shiells, Clinton R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors analyze labor market flexibility and adjustment capabilities of Japan and the United States. They examine the job shift to services and trends in wages, productivity, and exchange rates to judge the international competitive position of each country. (CH)

  1. Crustal Deformation Measurements Using Repeat-pass JERS 1 SAR Interferometry Near the Izu Peninsula, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujiwara, Satoshi; Rosen, Paul A.; Tobita, Mikio; Murakami, Makoto

    1997-01-01

    We have examined the precision of interferometric SAR measurements of surface deformation of the Earth using 24-cm wavelength data acqured by the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite 1 (JERS 1) spacecraft, over the Izu Peninsula, Japan.

  2. The Development of Teacher Education in Japan 1868-1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kevin A.

    1989-01-01

    This article examines the introduction of teacher education into Japan; the manner in which foreign, governmental, and industrial influences have affected the development of teacher education; and the nature of current educational reforms. (IAH)

  3. Posttraumatic stress in professional firefighters in Japan: rescue efforts after the Great East Japan Earthquake (Higashi Nihon Dai-Shinsai).

    PubMed

    Fushimi, Masahito

    2012-10-01

    Firefighters are often exposed to stressful duty-related events and may experience extreme trauma. Such work-related stress can result in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is therefore important to understand the traumatic stress experienced by firefighters in the course of their work and to promote appropriate intervention when necessary. Data were collected from 118 workers (all males) in the Fire Department of Akita City, Japan who had participated in the Great East Japan Earthquake (Higashi Nihon Dai-Shinsai) rescue effort from March 11 through March 31, 2011. Study participants completed self-report surveys at three time intervals: shortly after return from the rescue effort, approximately two weeks after return from the rescue effort, and approximately one month after return from the rescue effort. The surveys included questions of demographics, physical complaints, medical history, and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) Japanese version, in which a cut-off point of 24/25 was set to screen for PTSD. A total of 117 participants undertook the initial survey with a range of 0-36 points obtained on the IES-R score. For the initial survey, two of 117 participants scored ≥25 points. For the intermediate survey phase, a range of 0-19 was obtained for 116 participants and for the final survey phase, a range of 0-11 points was obtained for 114 participants. Contrary to expectations, the survey results showed no participant was judged to require prompt consultation for PTSD. The firefighters who participated in this study were in good mental health. However, more detailed study is required to ascertain whether these findings adequately and clearly reflect the mental health status of these participants.

  4. Layered anisotropy within the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, C. P.; Zhao, L.; Deschamps, F.; Chen, Q.-F.

    2016-10-01

    Continental rifting during the Oligocene to mid-Miocene caused the opening of the Sea of Japan and the separation between the Japanese Islands and the Eurasian Plate. The tectonic evolution in the Sea of Japan is important for understanding the evolution of back-arc regions in active convergent margins. Here, we use data from the seismic stations surrounding the Sea of Japan to map the Rayleigh-wave azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the Sea of Japan. We explore the variations of Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity beneath the Sea of Japan in a broad period range (30-80 s). Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves are measured by the two-station technique for a total of 231 interstation paths using vertical-component broad-band waveforms at 22 seismic stations around the Sea of Japan from 1411 global earthquakes. The resulting maps of Rayleigh-wave phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy allow the examination of azimuthal anisotropy at specific periods. They exhibit several regions with different isotropic and anisotropic patterns: the Japan Basin displays fast velocities at shorter periods (30 and 40 s) with NNE-SSW anisotropy, whereas at 60 s and longer, the velocities become slow even if the anisotropy remains NE-SW; the East China Sea shows fast velocities at all periods (30-80 s) with constant NW-SE anisotropy. Trench-normal anisotropy beneath the Japanese Islands is found at short periods (30-40 s) and become trench-parallel at periods of 60 s and longer. Overall, our model resolves two layers of anisotropy, the shallowest and deepest layers being potentially related to frozen deformation due to recent geodynamic events, and asthenospheric flow, respectively.

  5. Proceedings of the 9th U.S.-Japan natural resources panel for earthquake research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Ellsworth, William L.

    2015-01-01

    The Panel strongly urges that the appropriate agencies in the U.S. and Japan that are represented on this panel work together with the academic sector to support and coordinate scientific work in these areas of cooperation. The Panel recognizes the importance of promoting the exchange of scientific personnel, exchange of data, and fundamental studies to advance progress in earthquake research. The U.S. and Japan should promote these exchanges throughout the world. The Panel endorses continuation of these activities.

  6. Relationship between the stockperson's attitudes and dairy productivity in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Michiru; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Higashiyama, Yumi; Komatsu, Tokushi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the factors that comprise farmer attitudes toward dairy cows and jobs in Japan, and examine the relationship between these attitudes and dairy productivity. At first, we executed a questionnaire survey to determine factors that comprise attitudes of farmers toward their jobs and dairy cows, and three factors were extracted. These were named as 'Positive beliefs to cows', 'Negative beliefs to cows' and 'Job satisfaction', respectively. Second, we examined the relationships between attitude and dairy productivity in 35 dairy farms. The positive beliefs scores correlated positively both with milk yield and milk urea nitrogen concentration. We found there to be three farm groups by cluster analysis using three attitude score. The group B farms showed significantly higher positive beliefs scores and job satisfaction scores; on the other hand, the group C farms showed significantly lower positive beliefs scores and higher negative belief scores. The milk yield in group B was significantly higher than that in group C. This study showed that Japanese farmers' attitudes toward cows considerably resemble those seen in previous studies in Western cultures. Positive attitudes toward cows could enhance stockmanship, and could improving animal welfare and productivity. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. The Black Forest in a Bamboo Garden: Missionary Kindergartens in Japan, 1868-1912.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollons, Roberta

    1993-01-01

    Traces the history of kindergartens in Japan. Maintains that the Japanese government embraced the concept and modified it to encourage modernization. Includes 10 photographs of wood block prints showing how Friedrich Froebel's moral lessons were replicated in Japanese settings. (CFR)

  8. The Black Forest in a Bamboo Garden: Missionary Kindergartens in Japan, 1868-1912.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollons, Roberta

    1993-01-01

    Traces the history of kindergartens in Japan. Maintains that the Japanese government embraced the concept and modified it to encourage modernization. Includes 10 photographs of wood block prints showing how Friedrich Froebel's moral lessons were replicated in Japanese settings. (CFR)

  9. Internationalizing Practical ChE Education: The M.I.T. Practice School in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Andrea J.; Kandas, Angelo W.; Natori, Yukikazu; Hatton, T. Alan

    1999-01-01

    Describes the establishment, benefits, and difficulties of an overseas branch of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) chemical engineering Practice School for student internship study at the Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation's Mizushima Plant in Kurashiki, Japan. (WRM)

  10. [The growing-up and background of clinical neurology in Japan].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akira

    2002-11-01

    Japan strictly closed the country to foreigners except for the Dutch and Chinese in the days of Tokugawa Regime for about 200 years (1639-1858). During this period, Japanese neurology made a start. In 1774, five Dutch scholars in Edo (Tokyo at present) translated the Dutch version of a German textbook "Anatomische Tabellen". After the Meiji Restoration, Japan was rapidly westernized. The modern neurology was introduced mainly from Germany, France and the United Kingdom into Japan, and exerted a fruitful influence on the subsequent Japanese neurology. Prof. Hiroshi KAWAHARA published the first textbook of neurology (in Japanese) in 1897. Prof. Kinnosuke MIURA founded the first neurological journal in Japan in 1902. These two pioneers in Japanese neurology had their medical education under Prof. Erwin Baelz at the University of Tokyo during the last-eighteenth century.

  11. Japan wields industrial policy to try to become the world leader in environmental technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jubak, J.; D`Amico, M.

    1993-12-31

    From the Shinkansen, the famous Japanese bullet train, it is hard to see much besides the urban and industrial sprawl of twentieth-century Japan. As the rain speeds out of Tokyo, it passes miles of undistinguished houses on narrow, drab streets. Even the few remaining tilled gardens seem dispirited. Mt. Fuji rises out of this techno-industrial plain like a half-remembered woodcut of traditional Japan, the Japan of spring green rice fields, an bunraku puppets, and purple iris against century-old pines. At the right hour, even from the train, the sun seems to guild its peak. Of course, nobody who knows Japan would be surprised to learn that the government is seriously considered a proposal to build a four-story, 500-vehicle parking garage halfway up the slope.

  12. Educational Levels and Risk of Suicide in Japan: The Japan Public Health Center Study (JPHC) Cohort I

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Takashi; Honjo, Kaori; Ikehara, Satoyo; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicide rates have been related to educational level and other socioeconomic statuses. However, no prospective study has examined the association between educational level and the risk of suicide in Japan. Methods We examined the association of education level and suicide risk in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women aged 40–59 years in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study Cohort I. In the baseline survey initiated in 1990, a total of 46 156 subjects (21 829 men and 24 327 women) completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included a query of educational level, and were followed up until the end of December 2011. Educational levels were categorized into four groups (junior high school, high school, junior or career college, and university or higher education). During a median follow-up of 21.6 years, the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of suicide according to educational level were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusted for age; study area; previous history of stroke, ischemic heart disease, or cancer; self-reported stress; alcohol consumption; smoking; living with spouse; and employment status. A total of 299 deaths attributed to suicide occurred. Results The HR for university graduates or those with higher education versus junior high school graduates was 0.47 (95% CI, 0.24–0.94) in men, and that for high school graduates versus junior high school graduates was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.24–0.79) in women. Conclusions High educational levels were associated with a reduced risk of suicide for both Japanese men and women. PMID:27064129

  13. Genetic competence of midwives in the UK and Japan.

    PubMed

    Skirton, Heather; Murakami, Kyoko; Tsujino, Kumiko; Kutsunugi, Saeko; Turale, Sue

    2010-09-01

    In the UK and Japan, midwives provide health services for women with concerns about a genetic condition or who are considering antenatal screening. In both countries, competences related to genetic health care have been devised but there is little evidence about midwifery competence in practice. A systematic literature review was undertaken to determine the extent to which midwives are achieving the genetic competences that are prescribed for their practice. English and Japanese literature from January 1999 to March 2009 was retrieved. Original studies or reviews, in which an aspect of midwifery practice was related to genetic competences, were eligible for inclusion. After a critical appraisal, six UK and five Japanese papers were eligible for inclusion. The findings indicated that midwives are not achieving the competences, nor are they confident about their genetics knowledge. Moreover, women are not being supported to make informed decisions regarding antenatal screening. We have confirmed that little research is being undertaken in both countries regarding competency achievement in practice. Changes to midwifery curricula and further continuing education are required to ensure that midwives are able to provide effective care regarding genetics.

  14. Snow-cover condition in Japan and damage of the Sugi (Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don)

    Treesearch

    Taira Hideaki

    1991-01-01

    Japan is one of the most snowiest regions in the world. Particularly the mountainous area of Honshu (the main island), along the Japan Sea has heavy snow in winter. In some places, snow piles up more than four meters and the ground is covered with snow about one hundred and forty days a year. The sugi tree is widely planted in snowy regions, and snow-pressure damages,...

  15. ['Surgery by the red-haired barbarians'; Dutch physicians in Japan, 1600-1870].

    PubMed

    Veldman, J E

    2001-12-29

    Approximately 400 years ago, Dutch physicians laid the foundations for Western medicine in Japan. Around 1860, Dutch naval surgeons, trainees of the College of Army Surgeons in Utrecht, were to become the founders of the Medical Faculties at the Universities of Nagasaki, Tokyo and Osaka. The earlier Deshima-settlement surgeons Engelbert Kaempfer and Philipp Franz von Siebold played a highly important role in our knowledge of Japan during the 18th and 19th centuries.

  16. On the homogeneous structure found in the system of the population of cities in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K

    1982-05-01

    The author applies Auerbach and Zipf's rank-size rule for the population of cities to data for the nine regions of Japan for 1960, 1965, 1970, and 1975. The rule is successfully applied, and the author concludes that "the system of population of cities in Japan was so homogeneous that the distribution of the population in cities in each of the regions of this country could be described by this same rank-size rule." Some theoretical considerations concerning the rank-size rule are also discussed. (summary in JPN) excerpt

  17. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer in Japan - results from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sandin, Sven; Inoue, Manami; Shimazu, Taichi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for invasive primary epithelial ovarian cancer among Japanese women. In 1990-1994, 45,748 women aged 40-69 years were enrolled in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort. Only 86 epithelial ovarian cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up through 2008, reflecting the low ovarian cancer incidence rates in Japan. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to the exposure of interest. The median age at epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosis was 59 years, with a median follow-up before diagnosis of 7.6 years. There were no statistically significant associations for age at menarche or first birth, breastfeeding, use of exogenous hormones, menopausal status at cohort enrollment, height, body mass index, smoking status, second-hand smoke, alcohol consumption, physical activity and family history of cancer in a first-degree relative. The linear decrease in HR associated with each additional birth was 0.75 (95% CI 0.56-0.99). Among women who usually slept >7 h per day, an HR of 0.4 (95% CI 0.2-0.9) emerged compared to those who slept <6 h. This study did not confirm risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer among Japanese women that have been reported in studies carried out elsewhere. Usual sleep duration of >7 h per day was inversely associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk, which is a novel finding that needs to be confirmed in other studies.

  18. Trends in the Economy, Labor Market, and Career Guidance in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Susumu

    1997-01-01

    Discusses trends in the domestic economy and labor market in Japan as well as the status and developmental tasks ahead for career guidance. Describes government efforts to upgrade guidance services and train and certify counselors. (JOW)

  19. Non-Military Activities in Japan and Korea for the Months of September - October 1945

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-10-01

    the textile industry, Japan must obtain raw cotton, wool, wood pulp, flax, hemp , jute and ramie. While some small amounts of flax, hemp , jute and... Fiber 31 Rayon production in Japan is at an abnormally low stage. The greatest need is caustic soda for the manufacture of rayon from pulp. Caustic...amount in the hands of staple fiber firms. The annual requirement for contemplated production is 170,000 tons. - 64 - The present annual plant

  20. Science and technology in 19th century Japan: The Scottish connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craik, Alex D. D.

    2007-01-01

    From 1853, Japan's policy of isolation began to be eroded; and, following the Meiji restoration of 1868, the country experienced an unprecedented phase of rapid Westernisation and industrialisation. Until the mid-1880s, many Europeans and Americans worked as merchants, bankers, engineers, doctors and educators; but most were soon replaced by the first generation of well-trained Japanese experts. Many of these Westerners were from Scotland, and this article reviews their contributions to the early development of modern Japan.

  1. Current trends in medical English education and the Japan College of Rheumatology International School.

    PubMed

    Jego, Eric Hajime; Amengual, Olga

    2017-04-11

    In light of the present revolution happening in medical education in Japan as medical schools implement new curricula to conform to global standards, there is a growing demand for more internationalization and higher quality practical medical English education. In response, many institutions including governmental organizations, universities and academic associations are moving ahead with new initiatives to adapt to these changing demands. This paper reviews the current trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan. This paper also describes one initiative by the Japan College of Rheumatology (JCR) known as the JCR International School held yearly in Karuizawa. By examining recent trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan, the most relevant and applicable can be elucidated to illuminate a path forward for improved medical English education within the JCR.

  2. Involvement of anticancer drugs in the relief system for adverse drug reactions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hideki; Kurokawa, Tatsuo

    2013-12-01

    The compensation scheme for adverse drug reactions in Japan was implemented more than three decades ago as relief system by regulatory agencies. Because of the high frequency of adverse drug reactions, anticancer drugs have been excluded from coverage by the relief system since its implementation. Requests have recently been made by some patient advocates for the expansion of relief coverage to include anticancer drugs. In response to these requests, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan established a committee to discuss relief from anticancer drug-induced health damages in June 2011. We conducted comprehensive research into the compensation scheme for adverse drug reactions in the world. We also investigated the situation of compensation and the committee for discussing inclusion of anticancer drugs into the relief system in Japan. Many countries including the United States and UK do not have relief or compensation schemes for no-fault compensation. We investigated whether a no-fault compensation system exists in Nordic countries (Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland), France, Germany, New Zealand and Taiwan in the world, although they offer different services from Japan. We also reviewed current situation and the fundamental difficulties associated with including anticancer drugs in the systems in Japan. The present study investigated the current situation and the fundamental difficulties associated with including anticancer drugs in the systems in Japan and pointed out part of the reason why the committee could not conclude involvement of anticancer drugs in the relief system.

  3. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty.

  4. Oncofertility in Japan: advances in research and the roles of oncofertility consortia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nao

    2016-10-01

    In Japan, an important issue is to be able to provide young cancer patients with timely and accurate information about the indications and options for fertility preservation when it is applicable. Therefore, it is necessary to create an environment that assists young cancer patients to make a decision about whether or not to choose fertility preservation. The Japan Society for Fertility Preservation was established in 2012, as Japan's first oncofertility association. Its purpose is to create an environment in which cancer patients can receive evidence-based oncofertility care. Accordingly, the mantra of the Japan Society for Fertility Preservation is: 'While anticancer treatment should be prioritized, fertility preservation may also be chosen to allow the patient to fight cancer without losing hope of a normal future'.

  5. [Recent trends of the mean age at marriage in Japan in comparison with other countries].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Yamamoto, M

    1985-04-01

    Recent trends in the mean age at marriage in Japan are compared with other countries. Research is based upon statistics taken from various surveys conducted from 1947 to 1983 on males and females in numerous countries to determine the mean age at marriage. In a table showing the mean age at marriage in Japan, the US, and England from 1947 to 1956, it is shown that during this 10-year period mean ages of marriage for both men and women increased slightly in Japan but decreased slightly in both the US and England. A similar increase from 1968 to 1982 is shown in a table giving the average age at marriage for men and women in Japan only: the average age of men rose from 27.9 to 29.0 and for women, it rose from 24.8 to 26.1. Others charts show mean age at 1st marriage for men and women in 50 countries from 1972 to 1981. By again comparing the 3 countries--Japan, the US, and England--one finds that Japan has the highest mean age at 1st marriage. For instance, in 1979 the mean age of men at 1st marriage was 24.1 in the US, 25.3 in England, and 27.7 in Japan; for women it was 22.0 in the US, 23.0 in England, and 25.2 in Japan. On the whole, the mean age at marriage is increasing and this is 1 of the reasons birth rates have decreased throughout the world.

  6. The art of separation and adsorption: Historical review of apheresis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hidenori

    2017-09-05

    Apheresis therapy was first introduced into Japan from the United State as plasmapheresis by a centrifuge method. However, the invention of hollow fiber has subsequently lead to a membrane plasma separation. Selective removal of the plasma or cell component has been improved and matured in clinical application. Therapeutic apheresis has progressed and diversified with the development of technology for membrane separation by hollow fiber and adsorption with a physicochemical adsorbent in Japan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sources Of Evolution Of The Japan Air Self Defense Force’s Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    EVOLUTION OF THE JAPAN AIR SELF- DEFENSE FORCE’S STRATEGY by Kisung Nam December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Wade L. Huntley Co-Advisor: Robert...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SOURCES OF EVOLUTION OF THE JAPAN AIR SELF-DEFENSE FORCE’S STRATEGY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...decade of this century seem to deviate from the exclusively defense-oriented policy. This thesis investigates what is driving the evolution of

  8. STS-47 MS Jemison works in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) module aboard OV-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison appears to be clicking her heels in zero gravity in the center aisle of the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Making her first flight in space, Dr. Jemison was joined by five other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for eight days of research in support of the SLJ mission, a joint effort between Japan and United States.

  9. Laser applications in the electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washio, Kunihiko

    1999-07-01

    This paper explains current status and technological trends in laser materials processing applications in electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan. Various laser equipment based on solid state lasers or gas lasers such as excimer lasers or CO2 lasers has been developed and applied in manufacturing electronic and optoelectronic devices to meet the strong demands for advanced device manufacturing technologies for high-performance, lightweight, low power-consumption portable digital electronic appliances, cellular mobile phones, personal computers, etc. Representative applications of solid-state lasers are, opaque and clear defects repairing of photomasks for LSIs and LCDs, trimming of thick-film chip resistors and low resistance metal resistors, laser cutting and drilling of thin films for high-pin count semiconductor CSP packages, laser patterning of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells, and laser welding of electronic components such as hard-disk head suspensions, optical modules, miniature relays and lithium ion batteries. Compact and highly efficient diode- pumped and Q-switched solid-state lasers in second or third harmonic operation mode are now being increasingly incorporated in various laser equipment for fine material processing. Representative applications of excimer lasers are, sub-quarter micron design-rule LSI lithography and low- temperature annealing of poly-silicon TFT LCD.

  10. [Role of urologists in the era of new treatment modalities for CRPC in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ozono, Seiichiro

    2014-07-01

    New medical treatment modalities for castration resistant prostate cancer(CRPC), including hormonal therapy and chemotherapy, will be approved in Japan. Here, we discuss the management of these new treatment strategies by urologists.

  11. Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager: an advanced GEO imager for Japan, East Asia, and the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Lowe, Howard A.; Jeter, James W.; Kus, Steven M.; Gilman, David; Rogers, David L.; Hoelter, Roger L.; Ravella, Russ

    2003-06-01

    The Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager (JAMI) introduces next generation technology geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) imagers for operational meteorological remote sensing. Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing is building JAMI for Space Systems/Loral as the imager subsystem for Japan"s MTSAT-1R system. JAMI represents the best balance between heritage and newer space-qualified technology and meets all Japan Ministry of Transport MTSAT requirements from beginning to end of life with considerable margin, using a simple, inherently low risk design. The advanced technology built into this image benefits operational meteorological imaging for Japan, East Asia and Australia by enabling significantly better radiometric sensitivity and absolute accuracy, higher spatial resolution and faster full disk coverage times than available from current GEO imagers.

  12. Back-arc Mantle Evolution inferred from Peridotite Xenotlishs from the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, T.; Ichiyama, Y.; Tamura, A.; Arai, S.

    2014-12-01

    Peridotite xenoliths are recovered in basaltic to andesitic lavas from several localities in the Japan Sea, a Miocene back-arc basin of the Western Pacific region. These peridotites are classified into two groups: two-pyroxene peridotitess and dunite-wehrlite groups. Although slight chemical modifications are observed in these peridotite samples, two-pyroxene peridotite group has retained their original residual mantle geochemical signatures left after partial melting. The dunite-wehrlite group is, on the other hand, probably formed by extensive interaction of the two-pyroxene peridotite group. We examined trace element characteristics of clinopyroxene in these xenoliths. Light REE-depleted clinopyroxenes that are usually interpreted as a simple residual mantle after anhydrous partial melting are similar to those of abyssal peridotite recovered from mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins. Other samples show LREE-enriched patterns that are residues after influx melting caused by hydrous melt/supercritical fluids released from the subducted slab at high pressure conditions. The geotectonic and geochemical variations of the peridotite xenoliths from the Japan Sea (Shirabeshi Seamount, Seifu Seamount and Oshima-Oshima Island) suggest that the mantle beneath the Japan Sea are suffered from hydrous to anhydrous melting as the Japan Sea forms. This is consistent with the geochemical and isotopic results from Miocene basaltic rocks formed during opening of the Japan Sea (Sato et al., Jour. Petrol., 2013). The Japan Sea peridotite xenoliths also shed lights on the origin of ophiolites.

  13. Profile of tuberculosis among the foreign-born population in Japan, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Kawatsu, Lisa; Uchimura, Kazuhiro; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Ohkado, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of foreign-born people among the newly notified tuberculosis (TB) patients has been increasing in recent years and potentially poses a new challenge to TB control in Japan. In this report, we analysed the data from the Japan TB surveillance system between 2007 and 2014 to gain an overview of the trends and characteristics of foreign-born TB patients in Japan. We found that the proportion of foreign-born TB patients was especially high among the younger age groups - 44.1% among the 20-29 years age group in 2014. The largest groups of foreign-born patients were from China and the Philippines; however, the number of those from Nepal and Viet Nam was on the rise. Students comprised the second largest professional category group for TB after regular workers, and its proportion increased over the study period. Compared to Japan-born TB patients, foreign-born patients were more likely to be diagnosed through routine medical check-ups. Treatment successes and patients still on treatment were significantly lower among foreign-born patients than their Japan-born counterparts; and transferred-out and unknown outcomes were higher. Our results indicated that distinctive subgroups within the foreign-born population in Japan, especially students and regular workers, might have a higher risk of developing TB. Measures to ensure early diagnosis and treatment adherence should be adapted to such populations.

  14. Development of Observatories for the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyo, N.; Namba, Y.; Saruhashi, T.; Sawada, I.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Kano, Y.; Yamano, M.; Muraki, H.; Fulton, P. M.; Brodsky, E. E.; Davis, E. E.; Sun, T.; Mori, J. J.; Chester, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake and accompanying tsunami produced the largest slip ever recorded in an earthquake and devastated much of northern Japan on March 11, 2011. The IODP proposal for JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling project) planned to drill into the Tohoku subduction zone using the research ship Chikyu, measure the fault zone physical properties, recover fault zone material, and install an observatory to directly record the temperature anomaly caused by frictional slip during the earthquake. Considering the significant technical and operational challenges related to the great water depth of ~7,000 meters, and timing constraints, the observatory needed to be both robust and simple. After frequent discussions among scientists, engineers and operators, we decided to prepare two different types of observatories. 1. Autonomous MTL (Miniature Temperature Logger) observatory. The important temperature monitoring is accomplished by 55 MTLs attached to a string (Vectran rope) which is suspended inside a 4.5" casing in the borehole. The string latches at the top of the casing to allow retrieval using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Kaiko operated by JAMSTEC. This observatory avoids risks associated with a thermistor cable and wellhead data logger, and increases reliability by applying proven technologies. Perhaps most importantly, this configuration allows flexibility in defining the final depth distribution of the temperature sensors. This is advantageous since information of the exact depth of the fault zone will be known only after drilling and logging. Also, the judicious placement of weak links along the string helps to minimize possible loss of the entire sensor string if it is clamped by post-seismic movements that deform the casing. 2. Telemetered PT (Pressure and Temperature) observatory. Based on the previous deployment experience of the NanTroSEIZE C0010 observatory, we prepared another system that enables long term monitoring and repeated ROV data

  15. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-11-09

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies.

  16. Construction/Application of the Internet Observatories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, T.; Tsubota, Y.; Matsumoto, N.; Takahashi, N.

    2000-05-01

    We have successfully built two Internet Observatories in Japan: one at Noda campus of the Science University of Tokyo and another at Hiyoshi campus of the Keio Senior High School. Both observatories are equipped with a computerized Meade LX-200 telescope (8" tube at the SUT site and 12" at the Keio site) with a CCD video camera inside the sliding-roof type observatory. Each observatory is controlled by two personal computer: one controls almost everything, including the roof, the telescope, and the camera, while another is dedicated to encode the real-time picture from the CCD video camera into the RealVideo format for live broadcasting. A user can operate the observatory through the web-based interface and can enjoy the real-time picture of the objects via the RealPlayer software. The administrator can run a sequence of batch commands with which no human interaction is needed from the beginning to the end of an observation. Although our observatories are primarily for educational purposes, this system can easily be converted to a signal-triggered one which may be very useful to observe transient phenomena, such as afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. The most remarkable feature of our observatories is that it is very inexpensive (it costs only a few tens of grands). We'll report details of the observatories in the poster, and at the same time, will demonstrate operating the observatories using an internet-connected PC from the meeting site. This work has been supported through the funding from the Telecommunicaitons Advancement Foundation for FY 1998 and 1999.

  17. Deep Groundwater Property in the Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marui, A.

    2001-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is Japan's largest plain, and is also that country's largest groundwater basin. Tokyo City is located in the central part of the plain, and the area was famous for the land subsidence in 20-30 years ago. The plain was enclosed by mountains in the northern and western side, and the groundwater is thought to be infiltrated in the mountain and though the plain. The basin is constituted by marine layers (over than 3000m thick) that contain fossil water, as well as, in some parts, natural gas and fossil seawater. Past research has led one to estimate that the groundwater was recharged by meteoric water in the deep part of the layers. In this study, groundwater taken from hot spring wells was analyzed in order to clarify the chemical characteristics, origin, and flow system of deep groundwater, and chemical analysis of major dissolved ion and isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen was carried out. As a result, deep groundwater in the Kanto Plain was divided into two types: one with low EC and Na-HCO3 water quality, and one with high EC and Na-Cl water quality. The isotopic composition leads one to estimate that the former was groundwater originated from meteoric water, and that the latter has been formed by the mixing of meteoric water and fossil seawater. In deeper parts, more than 1,000m in coastal areas, the Cl- concentration of groundwater was lower than that of seawater. This result suggests the existence of a deep groundwater flow system. The groundwater shallower than 400m is controlled by government regulations in the Kanto plain, especially around Tokyo, because of prevent the previous damages like land subsidence. The recent development of hot springs and leisure land, which use deeper groundwater, contribute the study of deep groundwater flow system.

  18. Crude oil bioremediation field experiment in the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Maki, Hideaki; Hirayama, Noriko; Hiwatari, Takehiko; Kohata, Kunio; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Watanabe, Masataka; Yamasaki, Fumio; Furuki, Masakazu

    2003-01-01

    Experimental bioremediation of crude oil was conducted for approximately 3 months in the intertidal zone of the Sea of Japan, Hyogo Prefecture. Artificial mixtures of weathered Arabian light crude oil and sand taken from the experimental site were wrapped in polyester net envelopes. The envelopes were placed in drum-shaped acrylic vessels with perforated sides to facilitate seawater exchange. The vessels were laid in the intertidal area. Slow release nitrogen and phosphorus synthetic fertilizer granules were added to the oil-sand mixtures in three different amounts. Some oil-sand mixtures were unfertilized controls. The oil-sand mixtures were periodically sampled and changes in the composition of the residual oils were monitored. Oil samples were subjected to gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for analysis of some representative semi-volatile aliphatic and aromatic compounds. All values for each analyte were normalized against that of hopane to evaluate the extent of oil biodegradation. Significant increases in the concentrations of both nitrogen and phosphorus were found in the fertilized sections in accordance with the amounts of added fertilizers. Although significant natural attenuation of oil was observed in the unfertilized sections, fertilization stimulated the degradation rate of the oil in the early stage of the experimental term. The extent of the oil biodegradation increased as the amount of added fertilizer increased. However, the final degradation efficiencies for each oil component in the fertilized sections were not significantly different from those in the unfertilized sections, and the degradation of each oil component had almost ceased after 6 weeks. We conclude that excessive amounts of macronutrients are required to accelerate oil biodegradation and that fertilization is only effective in the early stages.

  19. Okinawa: an exception to the social gradient of life expectancy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, W C; Yamori, Y

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines why the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply in Japan when Okinawa is considered. The social gradient thesis links differences in longevity to social rank, with people and populations in higher status hierarchical positions having lower mortality and longer life expectancies than those beneath them in the social scale. Japan has been cited as a major example of this thesis in that Japanese life expectancy improved dramatically as Japan rose to the top echelon of nations in economic rank in the late 20th century. Thus it follows that Japan's most affluent and leading prefectures should be the major catalysts behind the nation's rise in life expectancy as well to the number one position in the world. However, this is not the case as life expectancy in Okinawa, Japan's poorest prefecture, exceeds that of Japan as a whole. We find that the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply at the prefectural level and question its validity for geographical areas. We suggest that healthy lifestyles, especially diet and the social support of family and friends, are more important than sense of hierarchy for longevity in Okinawa.

  20. THE ANALYSIS OF GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION TARGETS IN JAPAN USING A COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namazu, Michiko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    In this study, a recursive dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model which can deal with Greenhouse Gas (GHG) constraint is applied to Japan. Based on several references, Japan's emissions reduction targets are determined as 25% reduction from 1990 level by 2020 and 80% reduction from 2005 level by 2050 in this study. Several cases with different scenarios for nuclear power plant, international emissions trading, and CO2 Capture and Strage (CCS) technology are simulated using the CGE model. By comparison among the results of each case, the effects, especially economic effects are evaluated and analyzed quantitatively. The results show that the most important counter measure to achieve GHG emissions reduction targets in Japan is whether Japan joins international emissions trading or not. In a no-trading case, in which GHG emissions constraints are imposed and Japan does not participate to the trading, GHG reduction costs reach 2,560 USD/tCO2-eq,yr (2005 price) in 2050. In addition, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) decreases 3.8% compared with a counter measure case in which GHG constraints are imposed but the emissions trading is allowed. The results also show that in case Japan targets no nuclear power plants in 2050, CCS technology and emissions trading are able to make up for the gap resulted from the nuclear power decrease. About the speed of CCS technology introduction, the share of power plants with CCS technology is changed depended on the speed; however, GDP and GHG reduction costs do not affected so much.

  1. Tsunami source uncertainty estimation: The 2011 Japan tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmer, Jan; Hawkins, Rhys; Cummins, Phil R.; Hossen, Jakir; Sambridge, Malcolm; Hino, Ryota; Inazu, Daisuke

    2016-06-01

    This paper studies the initial sea surface displacement and its uncertainty after an earthquake based on tsunami waveforms. The spatial distribution is inferred with a Bayesian approach that provides probabilities that are interpreted as uncertainties of the displaced sea surface. The parameterization is nonlinear and treats apparent rupture velocity as unknown but assumes rise time to be fixed at 30 s. Importantly, the spatial complexity of the source is constrained by observations using a transdimensional algorithm based on a wavelet decomposition of the displacement field. In this approach, the number of wavelet coefficients is an unknown random variable that is also estimated as part of the inversion. The resulting parameterization is parsimonious in that it can adapt to the spatially varying source complexity while being consistent with the information in the tsunami waveforms. In this way, the resolution of displacement varies across the source region with more parameters introduced for parts of the source that are resolved well by the data and/or have significant complexity. The noise level (standard deviation) at each gauge is initially treated as unknown to estimate data covariance matrices. These matrices are applied in subsequent inversion and include unknown scaling which eliminates the requirement to assume station weights and accounts for temporally correlated waveform noise. The method is applied to waveforms recorded during the 2011 Japan Tsunami and results show high resolution (low uncertainty) in most parts of the source region and a previously unreported level of source detail. In particular, the main peak of the source is elongated trench parallel and shows a well-resolved bimodal finger-like feature in the northern source region that closely follows the trench.

  2. Coseismic slip distribution of the 1923 Kanto earthquake, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Nyst, M.; Nishimura, T.; Thatcher, W.

    2005-01-01

    The slip distribution associated with the 1923 M = 7.9 Kanto, Japan, earthquake is reexamined in light of new data and modeling. We utilize a combination of first-order triangulation, second-order triangulation, and leveling data in order to constrain the coseismic deformation. The second-order triangulation data, which have not been utilized in previous studies of 1923 coseismic deformation, are associated with only slightly smaller errors than the first-order triangulation data and expand the available triangulation data set by about a factor of 10. Interpretation of these data in terms of uniform-slip models in a companion study by Nyst et al. shows that a model involving uniform coseismic slip on two distinct rupture planes explains the data very well and matches or exceeds the fit obtained by previous studies, even one which involved distributed slip. Using the geometry of the Nyst et al. two-plane slip model, we perform inversions of the same geodetic data set for distributed slip. Our preferred model of distributed slip on the Philippine Sea plate interface has a moment magnitude of 7.86. We find slip maxima of ???8-9 m beneath Odawara and ???7-8 m beneath the Miura peninsula, with a roughly 2:1 ratio of strike-slip to dip-slip motion, in agreement with a previous study. However, the Miura slip maximum is imaged as a more broadly extended feature in our study, with the high-slip region continuing from the Miura peninsula to the southern Boso peninsula region. The second-order triangulation data provide good evidence for ???3 m right-lateral strike slip on a 35-km-long splay structure occupying the volume between the upper surface of the descending Philippine Sea plate and the southern Boso peninsula. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Public Outreach Program of the Planetary society of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyori, Tasuku

    2002-01-01

    The Planetary Society of Japan, TPS/J, was founded on October 6, 1999 as the first international wing of The Planetary Society. The Society's objectives are to support exploration of the solar system and search for extraterrestrial life at the grass-roots level in terms of enhancing Japanese people's concern and interest in them. With close-knit relationships with the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, ISAS, and The Planetary Society, TPS/J has been trying to fulfil its goal. Introduced below are major public outreach programs. Planetary Report in Japanese The key vehicle that reaches members. The publication is offered to members together with the English issue every two months. Reprint of Major Texts from The Planetary Report for Science Magazine Major texts from The Planetary Report are reprinted in Nature Science, the science magazine with monthly circulation of 20,000. The science monthly has been published with an aim to provide an easier access to science. Website: http://www.planetary.or.jp A mainstay of the vehicle to reach science-minded people. It covers planetary news on a weekly basis, basics of the solar system and space exploring missions. In order to obtain support of many more people, the weekly email magazine is also provided. It has been enjoying outstanding popularity among subscribers thanks to inspiring commentaries by Dr. Yasunori Matogawa, the professor of ISAS. Public Outreach Events TPS/J's first activity of this kind was its participation in the renowned open-house event at ISAS last August. The one-day event has attracted 20,000 visitors every summer. TPS/J joined the one-day event with the Red Rover, Red Rover project for children, exhibition of winning entries of the international space art contest and introduction of SETI@home. TPS/J also participated in a couple of other planetary events, sponsored by local authorities. TPS/J will continue to have an opportunity to get involved in these public events Tie-up with the

  4. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Child's IQ.

    PubMed

    Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Satoh, Hiroshi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2015-09-01

    To assess the neurodevelopmental effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake in resident children. The disaster on March 11, 2011, caused severe damage to the Sanriku coastal area, where we had been conducting a birth cohort study since 2003. It occurred in the middle of our 7-year-old examination. Approximately 500 mother-child pairs were compulsorily divided into 2 groups: 123 children finished the examination in the predisaster period, and 289 did in the postdisaster period. The remainder died or moved from that area. At the time of 7-year-old examination, we administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition and electrocardiography to assess autonomic function. According to the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 2-3 years and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children that had been administered at 30 months and 42 months of age, respectively, there were no significant differences in them between the 2 groups. Verbal IQ, including information, arithmetic, and vocabulary subscores of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, at 7 years of age was significantly lower in the postdisaster group than in the predisaster group. However, there were no significant differences in performance IQ, full-scale IQ, or autonomic nervous indicators between the 2 groups. Since many schools were utilized as primary refuges after the disaster, the deficits in verbal IQ of 7-year-old children may have been due to the interrupted schooling. Further follow-up and more specific posttraumatic stress disorder testing will be required to determine the cause and long-term implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trends in diet and Alzheimer's disease during the nutrition transition in Japan and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Grant, William B

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) rates in Japan and developing countries have risen rapidly in recent years. Researchers have associated factors such as the Western diet, obesity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with risk of AD. This paper evaluates whether the dietary transition might explain the rising trend of AD prevalence in Japan and in developing countries, evaluating other factors when possible. This study used two approaches to see whether dietary or other changes could explain AD trends in Japan and developing countries. One approach involved comparing trends of AD in Japan with changes in national dietary supply factors, alcohol consumption, and lung cancer mortality rates from zero to 25 years before the prevalence data. The second compared AD prevalence values for eight developing countries with dietary supply factors from zero to 25 years before the prevalence data. For Japan, alcohol consumption, animal product, meat and rice supply, and lung cancer rates correlated highly with AD prevalence data, with the strongest correlation for a lag of 15-25 years. In the eight-country study, total energy and animal fat correlated highly with AD prevalence data, with a lag of 15-20 years. Mechanisms to explain the findings include increased obesity for the eight countries, and increases in cholesterol, saturated fat, and iron from increases in animal products and meat supply for Japan. Evidently AD rates will continue rising in non-Western countries for some time unless we address major risk factors involving diet, obesity, and smoking.

  6. Rehabilitation in Japan, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japanese Society for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, Tokyo.

    The scope of Japan's rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities is reviewed and discussed from the perspective of social and demographic change in that country. An introductory chapter on the current situation in Japan looks at characteristics of the land, the people, the government, industry and the economy, and the culture. The second…

  7. 69 FR 61403 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-10-18

    ... COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will...)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan...

  8. The United States and Japan. A Wingspread Conference of Editors from Japan and the United States (Racine, Wisconsin, November 2-5, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Millard C.

    The purpose of this conference of news executives from Japan and the United States was to exchange views on the relationship of the two nations and to identify areas of common concern. In general, it was agreed that the two nations are getting along very well despite their cultural differences. The first session dealt with the U.S. role in Asia.…

  9. Landslides Triggered by the Great Tohoku, Japan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartman, J.; Dunham, L.; Tiwari, B.; Pradel, D.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides were an important co-seismic feature of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Reports indicate that landslides were the direct cause of at least 14 fatalities in the earthquake. Landslides also damaged many buildings, temporarily obstructed transportation networks throughout the region, and blocked the natural flow of rivers. As perhaps the best documented and recorded (> 3,000 strong ground motion stations) major seismic event in history, the Tohoku Earthquake will likely become a benchmark event for landslide research community. We conducted a field reconnaissance of landslides shortly after the earthquake, and later used high resolution satellite imagery to identify slope failures over a 26,000 km2 area located along a portion of Northeastern Japan that roughly coincided with the fault zone. A majority of the landslides were disrupted failures; however, lateral spreading was also an important mode of failure, and overall, contributed more to erosion of the study area than all other landslide modes combined. Disrupted landslides were common in sedimentary units in the steeper terrain portions of the study area. In a large majority of cases, landslides of this type originated at the crest of the slope, suggesting that topographic amplification of the ground motions played a role in their triggering. Lateral spreads primarily occurred in Quaternary units, although lesser fractions were also observed in sedimentary and volcanic units. Nevertheless, when considered in the context of erosion, the effects of lateral spreads were almost entirely limited to Quaternary units. There were relatively few coherent landslides, but owing to their large sizes, those that occurred in developed regions were often highly destructive. In many cases, their initiation was directly related to anthropogenic activities, especially those undertaken for land development.

  10. The lightest market in the world: light and mild cigarettes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Assunta, Mary; Chapman, Simon

    2008-05-01

    This article reviews the history of the introduction and use of light and mild labeled cigarettes in Japan, the "lightest" market in the world. Systematic keyword and opportunistic Web site searches were conducted on tobacco industry internal documents relevant to Japan, supplemented with relevant material from the tobacco trade and sociological literatures. Certain "market quirks" of the Japanese society benefited the tobacco industry in promoting its light and mild cigarettes. Japan's is a trend-conscious society with a penchant for new fashion and products. The Japanese are innovative, with the propensity to transform concepts into something characteristically their own marked by a distinct cultural style, such as the concept of keihaku tansho ("light-thin-short-small"). With big-budget sophisticated advertising, tobacco companies developed a lucrative market for mild, light, and ultra-low-tar cigarettes. Smokers had a preference for charcoal filters, which they believed protected them. Tar numbers meant little to smokers. The transnational tobacco companies capitalized on consumer concerns about the health hazards of smoking to promote low-tar cigarettes as a safer alternative. This may be one factor that explains why smoking prevalence in Japan remains high. Light and mild cigarettes are popular in Japan because Japanese smokers believe low tar/nicotine cigarette with charcoal filters protect them and help mollify their health concerns about smoking.

  11. Reuse of secondhand TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi

    2010-06-01

    The trade of secondhand electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) from developed to developing countries has become a growing environmental issue owing to concerns about improper recycling of these goods in developing countries. We followed a 12-m cargo container of cathode-ray-tube color TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines in February 2008. We surveyed the number of TVs damaged in transport, as well as the number of malfunctioning TVs from this shipment. In addition, we present the results of interviews with 113 Filipino consumers who intended to buy secondhand EEE at nine secondhand shops in Metro Manila. Approximately 3% of the imported TVs were damaged upon arrival. The importer sold some of the units directly to local dealers, and kept the rest to repair, refurbish and resell. Approximately 40% of the imported TVs malfunctioned and needed repair in addition to basic reconditioning. Most interviewees indicated that they prefer to buy secondhand EEE because the prices are lower than those of brand-new products. Consumers indicated that they planned on using the product for an average of about 5years, but the actual period of use may be lower. Most end-of-life EEE in the Philippines is dismantled and recycled by unregulated companies and untrained individuals in markets or near landfill sites, and it is clear that a proper collection system and treatment methods are needed for e-waste. In addition to the material flow of secondhand TVs, we also discuss several economic aspects and appropriate control measures of the international reuse of secondhand TVs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reuse of secondhand TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi

    2010-06-15

    The trade of secondhand electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) from developed to developing countries has become a growing environmental issue owing to concerns about improper recycling of these goods in developing countries. We followed a 12-m cargo container of cathode-ray-tube color TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines in February 2008. We surveyed the number of TVs damaged in transport, as well as the number of malfunctioning TVs from this shipment. In addition, we present the results of interviews with 113 Filipino consumers who intended to buy secondhand EEE at nine secondhand shops in Metro Manila. Approximately 3% of the imported TVs were damaged upon arrival. The importer sold some of the units directly to local dealers, and kept the rest to repair, refurbish and resell. Approximately 40% of the imported TVs malfunctioned and needed repair in addition to basic reconditioning. Most interviewees indicated that they prefer to buy secondhand EEE because the prices are lower than those of brand-new products. Consumers indicated that they planned on using the product for an average of about 5 years, but the actual period of use may be lower. Most end-of-life EEE in the Philippines is dismantled and recycled by unregulated companies and untrained individuals in markets or near landfill sites, and it is clear that a proper collection system and treatment methods are needed for e-waste. In addition to the material flow of secondhand TVs, we also discuss several economic aspects and appropriate control measures of the international reuse of secondhand TVs.

  13. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  14. Big mantle wedge, anisotropy, slabs and earthquakes beneath the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng

    2017-09-01

    The Japan Sea is a part of the western Pacific trench-arc-backarc system and has a complex bathymetry and intense seismic activities in the crust and upper mantle. Local seismic tomography revealed strong lateral heterogeneities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, which was determined using P and S wave arrival times of suboceanic earthquakes relocated precisely with sP depth phases. Ambient-noise tomography revealed a thin crust and a thin lithosphere beneath the Japan Sea and significant low-velocity (low-V) anomalies in the shallow mantle beneath the western and eastern margins of the Japan Sea. Observations with ocean-bottom seismometers and electromagnetometers revealed low-V and high-conductivity anomalies at depths of 200-300 km in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the subducting Pacific slab, and the anomalies are connected with the low-V zone in the normal mantle wedge beneath NE Japan, suggesting that both shallow and deep slab dehydrations occur and contribute to the arc and back-arc magmatism. The Pacific slab has a simple geometry beneath the Japan Sea, and earthquakes occur actively in the slab down to a depth of ∼600 km beneath the NE Asian margin. Teleseismic P and S wave tomography has revealed that the Philippine Sea plate has subducted aseismically down to the mantle transition zone (MTZ, 410-660 km) depths beneath the southern Japan Sea and the Tsushima Strait, and a slab window is revealed within the aseismic Philippine Sea slab. Seismic anisotropy tomography revealed a NW-SE fast-velocity direction in the BMW, which reflects corner flows induced by the fast deep subduction of the Pacific slab. Large deep earthquakes (M > 7.0; depth > 500 km) occur frequently beneath the Japan Sea western margin, which may be related to the formation of the Changbai and Ulleung intraplate volcanoes. A metastable olivine wedge is revealed within the cold core of the Pacific slab at the MTZ depth, which may be related

  15. Letter from President Millard Fillmore to the Emperor of Japan: The President's Letter Opened a Closed Country to the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkert, Marvin; Potter, Lee Ann

    2004-01-01

    In 1852, Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy sailed to Japan with instructions to deliver a letter from President Millard Fillmore to the Emperor. The letter eventually led to the 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa and the opening of Japan to trade with Western nations. The State Department's letter book copy of the letter is featured in this…

  16. Letter from President Millard Fillmore to the Emperor of Japan: The President's Letter Opened a Closed Country to the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkert, Marvin; Potter, Lee Ann

    2004-01-01

    In 1852, Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy sailed to Japan with instructions to deliver a letter from President Millard Fillmore to the Emperor. The letter eventually led to the 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa and the opening of Japan to trade with Western nations. The State Department's letter book copy of the letter is featured in this…

  17. Japans Defense Program Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Japan and the Republic of Korea, 78.8 percent of Japanese people feel that the relationship is not good. In the case of China, the percentage of those...phenomenon? Japanese observers argue that the reasons why citizens of the Republic of Korea dislike Japan include Confucianism, egoism , biased education

  18. Reshaping the Sword and Chrysanthemum: Regional Implications of Expanding the Mission of the Japan Self Defense Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    resistance to change among regional partners. In order for changes to succeed without upsetting the regional balance of power, Japan must improve not only the capability, but also the international trust and standing of the JSDF. This thesis provides information to allow policy makers to better understand the challenges that the Government of Japan faces in response to changes in security

  19. Japan's High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P.

    The author, an anthropologist, spent 14 months (1974-75) in the industrial port city of Kobe (Japan) observing a cross section of urban high schools, including Japan's most elite private school and a night vocational school plagued by absenteeism and delinquency. He reports on the character of the institutions and of the experience via…

  20. Higher Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Teiichi

    This paper presents a portrait of the higher education system in Japan. After providing demographic information about Japan, the document outlines the overall educational structure through brief statements about kindergarten education, compulsory education, the elementary school, the lower secondary school, upper secondary education, curriculum,…