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Sample records for japan collaborative cohort

  1. Multiple roles and all-cause mortality: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ikeda, Ai; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tamakoshi, Koji; Iso, Hisoyasu

    2013-02-01

    Two contrasting perspectives on the effects of multiple roles; the 'role overload hypothesis' and the 'role enhancement model', have been proposed to predict variations in health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of multiple roles on all-cause mortality in Japan where gender roles are currently changing. A total of 76,758 individuals from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated from proportional hazard models to estimate the risk of all-cause mortality according to multiple roles (spouse, parent and worker, and combinations of these roles). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the risks of all-cause mortality were elevated among men and women without a role. The number of roles was also associated with all-cause mortality risk, showing the highest risk values among those with no roles compared with those with triple roles (HR: 1.66 in men and 1.78 in women). The impact of the lack of a role was generally greater in men than in women and also in the middle-aged than in the elderly. A beneficial effect of multiple roles was suggested among Japanese. The fewer roles they had, the higher all-cause mortality risks were observed. The risk values of those with fewer roles were generally higher in men than in women and also in the middle-aged than in the elderly, partially explained by greater role overload in middle-aged women than other groups in Japan.

  2. Prospective study of seaweed consumption and thyroid cancer incidence in women: the Japan collaborative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaochen; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Li, Yuanying; Ota, Atsuhiko; Tamakoshi, Koji; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mikami, Haruo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-05-01

    Excess intake of iodine is a suspected risk factor for thyroid cancer. Previous epidemiological research from Japan reported that daily intake of seaweed was associated with a four-fold higher risk in postmenopausal women, whereas others reported a null association. A major source of iodine intake in Japan is from edible seaweeds, and it is reported to be among the highest in the world. We examined the association between seaweed intake frequency and the risk of thyroid cancer in women in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study followed from 1988 to 2009. Seaweed intake, together with other lifestyle-related information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire at baseline. Seaweed intake frequency was categorized as follows: 1-2 times/week or less, 3-4 times/week, and almost daily. Hazard ratios and the 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer incidence according to seaweed intake frequency were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During 447 876 person-years of follow-up (n=35 687), 94 new cases of thyroid cancer were identified. The crude incidence rate was 20.9 per 100 000 person-years. The hazard ratio of thyroid cancer in women who consumed seaweed daily compared with women who ate it 1-2 times/week or less was 1.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.69-1.90, P for trend=0.59). Further analyses did not indicate any association between seaweed intake and the risk of thyroid cancer on statistically adjusting for potential confounding variables as well as on stratification by menopausal status. The present study did not find an association between seaweed intake and thyroid cancer incidence in premenopausal or in postmenopausal women.

  3. Psychological factors and mortality in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer (JACC).

    PubMed

    Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi

    2007-01-01

    Psychological factors may have an influence on disease processes and therefore they were investigated in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. Overall there were very few consistent associations with cancer death. Persons with 'ikigai', defined as 'that which most makes one's life seem worth living', demonstrated decreased risk of mortality from all causes, ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD).There was no consistent link with being quick to judge, although those answering no to quick judgement were at increased risk of all cause, IHD and CVD mortality. psychological stress was related to a slightly elevated risk of all cause death, IHD in men and CVD in women. However, a sense of hurry was linked to a slightly reduced risk for mortality from all causes and CVD. Persons who were likely to be angry had an increased risk for mortality from all causes. In women not likely to be angry there were also positive links to death from cancers like breast. Joyfulness was associated with decreased mortality, especially from CVD. A feeling of being trusted was also protective, again particularly for CVD.

  4. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Esophageal Cancer Mortality: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Okada, Emiko; Nakamura, Koshi; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Sakata, Kiyomi; Date, Chigusa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Several case-control studies have associated dietary patterns with esophageal cancer (EC) risk, but prospective studies are scarce. We investigated dietary pattern and EC mortality risk associations by smoking status. Participants were 26,562 40- to 79-yr-old Japanese men, who enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study between 1988 and 1990. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EC mortality in nonsmokers and smokers were estimated using Cox proportional models. During follow-up (1988-2009), 132 participants died of EC. Using a baseline food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis, vegetable, animal, and dairy product food patterns were identified. EC risk decreased significantly with a higher factor score for the dairy product pattern (Ptrend = 0.042) and was more pronounced in smokers [multivariable HR (4th vs. 1st quartiles) = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.30, 1.09; Ptrend = 0.021]. Neither vegetable nor animal food patterns were significant overall; however, EC risk increased with a higher factor score for the animal food pattern in nonsmokers [multivariable HR (4th vs. 1st quartiles) = 6.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 30.88; Ptrend = 0.021], although the small number of events was a limitation. Our findings suggest a dairy product pattern may reduce EC risk in Japanese men, especially smokers.

  5. Alcohol consumption and mortality from aortic disease among Japanese men: The Japan Collaborative Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Toru; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2017-11-01

    Only a few population-based prospective studies have examined the association between alcohol consumption and abdominal aortic aneurysm, and the results are inconsistent. Moreover, no evidence exists for aortic dissection. We examined the effect of alcohol consumption on risk of mortality from aortic diseases. A total of 34,720 men from the Japan Collaborative Cohort study, aged 40-79 years, without history of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline 1988 and 1990 were followed up until the end of 2009 for their mortality and its underlying cause. Hazard ratios of mortality from aortic diseases were estimated according to alcohol consumption categories of never-drinkers, ex-drinkers, regular drinkers of ≤30 g, and >30 g ethanol per day. During the median 17.9-year follow-up period, 45 men died of aortic dissection and 41 men died of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Light to moderate drinkers of ≤30 g ethanol per day had lower risk of mortality from total aortic disease and aortic dissection compared to never-drinkers. The respective multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.46 (0.28-0.76) for total aortic disease and 0.16 (0.05-0.50) for aortic dissection. Heavy drinkers of >30 g ethanol per day did not have reduced risk of mortality from total aortic disease, albeit had risk variation between aortic dissection and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with reduced mortality from aortic disease among Japanese men. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Consumption of soy foods and the risk of breast cancer: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Kazuko; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Kondo, Takaaki; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akio; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan; Lin, Yingsong; Wakai, Kenji; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2007-10-01

    The association between a lower incidence of breast cancer within the Asian population and the consumption of a diet high in soy has recently been the subject of much attention. To examine whether soy foods really have protective effects against breast cancer and how their influence on breast cancer is modified according to menopausal status, we conducted a population-based, prospective cohort study in Japan. We analyzed the data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study. From 1988 to 1990, 30,454 women aged 40-79 years, completed a questionnaire on diet and other lifestyle features. Hazard ratios (HRs) were computed to examine the association between soy intake and the risk of breast cancer. During the mean follow-up of 7.6 years, 145 cases of breast cancer were documented. We found no significant association between the risk of breast cancer and consumption of tofu, boiled beans, and miso soup; the multivariate HRs (95% CI) in the highest category of consumption were 1.14 (0.74-1.77), 0.77 (0.47-1.27) and 1.01 (0.65-1.56), respectively. Only among postmenopausal women, we found no significant associations between soy foods and the risk of breast cancer. This prospective study suggests that consumption of soy food has no protective effects against breast cancer. Further large-scale investigations eliciting genetic factors may clarify different roles of various soybean-ingredient foods on the risk of breast cancer.

  7. Inverse correlation between coffee consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome: baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takami, Hidenobu; Nakamoto, Mariko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Katsuura, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Sawachika, Fusakazu; Juta, Tomoya; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of coffee and green tea is associated with metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study enrolled 554 adults who had participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Consumption of coffee and green tea was assessed using a questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (JASSO). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between consumption of coffee and green tea and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components. After adjustment for sex, age, and other potential confounders, greater coffee consumption was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome, as defined by NCEP ATP III criteria (P for trend = 0.03). Participants who drank more coffee had a lower odds ratio (OR) for high serum triglycerides (P for trend = 0.02), but not for increased waist circumference or high blood pressure. Using JASSO criteria, moderate coffee consumption (1.5 to <3 cups/day) was associated with a significantly lower OR for high plasma glucose (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.93). Green tea consumption was not associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome or any of its components. Coffee consumption was inversely correlated with metabolic syndrome diagnosed using NCEP ATP III criteria, mainly because it was associated with lower serum triglyceride levels. This association highlights the need for further prospective studies of the causality of these relationships.

  8. Association between average daily television viewing time and the incidence of ovarian cancer: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, Shigekazu; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Mori, Mitsuru; Ikehara, Satoyo; Shirakawa, Toru; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2018-02-01

    Seventy-five percent of epidemiological studies have reported that sedentary behavior is associated with ovarian cancer incidence. Although Japan has one of the most sedentary populations, with median sitting times of 7 h/day, this association has not been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the association between average daily television (TV) viewing time, which is a major sedentary behavior, and the incidence of ovarian cancer in a large-scale nationwide cohort study in Japan. A total of 34,758 female participants aged 40-79 years without a history of cancer at baseline were included in the study. The inverse probability weighted competing risk model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the incidence of ovarian cancer. During a median follow-up of 19.4 years, 59 participants developed ovarian cancer (ICD-10: C56), 2,706 participants developed other types of cancer, and 4,318 participants died. Participants who watched TV for ≥ 5 h/day were more likely to develop ovarian cancer than those who watched TV for < 2 h/day (HR 2.15; 95% CI 1.54-2.99). Our findings suggest that reducing the amount of time spent sedentarily may be beneficial for preventing ovarian cancer.

  9. "Ikigai", Subjective Wellbeing, as a Modifier of the Parity-Cardiovascular Mortality Association - The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Sumiyo; Eguchi, Eri; Ogino, Keiki; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2018-04-25

    Nulliparity is associated with an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). "Ikigai", subjective wellbeing in Japan, is associated with reduced risk of CVD. The impact of ikigai on the association between parity and the risk of CVD, however, has not been reported.Methods and Results:A total of 39,870 Japanese women aged 40-79 years without a history of CVD, cancer or insufficient information at baseline in 1988-1990, were enrolled and followed until the end of 2009. They were categorized into 7 groups according to parity number 0-≥6. Using Cox regression hazard modeling, the associations between parity and mortality from stroke, coronary artery disease, and total CVD were investigated. During the follow-up period, 2,121 total CVD deaths were documented. No association was observed between parity and stroke and CVD mortality in women with ikigai, but there was an association in those without ikigai. The multivariable hazard ratios of stroke and total CVD mortality for nulliparous women without ikigai vs. those with 1 child were 1.87 (95% CI: 1.15-3.05) and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.07-2.01), respectively, and that for stroke mortality in high parity women without ikigai was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.00-2.45). Nulliparous or high parity women without ikigai had higher mortality from stroke and/or total CVD, suggesting that ikigai attenuated the association between parity and CVD mortality in Japanese women.

  10. Fish Intake and Death From Pulmonary Embolisms Among Japanese Men and Women - The Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2018-06-27

    Numerous studies have reported the association of cardiovascular risk factors with pulmonary embolism (PE), but the association of dietary factors, especially fish intake, with the risk of PE has not been fully established.Methods and Results:Using a prospective design, we studied the risk of PE mortality in relation to fish intake in 90,791 community-dwelling men and women in Japan aged 40-79 years. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PE death were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Compared with participants in the lowest fresh fish intake group (<1 time/month), the HRs (95% CIs) for PE death for those in the other intake groups were 0.35 (0.08-1.59) for 1-2 times/month, 0.19 (0.05-0.69) for 1-2 times/week, 0.20 (0.06-0.74) for 3-4 times/week, and 0.18 (0.05-0.66) for fish intake every day. In addition to these findings, compared with the participants in the lowest 10% of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, those in the other groups had a 60-76% lower risk of PE death. Fresh fish intake, even 1-2 times/week, is associated with a lower risk of death from PE among Japanese men and women.

  11. Relations between dietary sodium and potassium intakes and mortality from cardiovascular disease: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risks.

    PubMed

    Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Date, Chigusa; Yamamoto, Akio; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Shogo; Koizumi, Akio; Kondo, Takaaki; Inaba, Yutaka; Tanabe, Naohito; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2008-07-01

    Limited evidence is available about the relations between sodium and potassium intakes and cardiovascular disease in the general population. The objective was to investigate relations between sodium and potassium intakes and cardiovascular disease in Asian populations whose mean sodium intake is generally high. Between 1988 and 1990, a total of 58,730 Japanese subjects (n = 23,119 men and 35,611 women) aged 40-79 y with no history of stroke, coronary heart disease, or cancer completed a lifestyle questionnaire including food intake frequency under the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Sports and Science. After 745,161 person-years of follow-up, we documented 986 deaths from stroke (153 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 227 intraparenchymal hemorrhages, and 510 ischemic strokes) and 424 deaths from coronary heart disease. Sodium intake was positively associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and total cardiovascular disease. The multivariable hazard ratio for the highest versus the lowest quintiles of sodium intake after adjustment for age, sex, and cardiovascular disease risk factors was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.21, 2.00; P for trend < 0.001) for total stroke, 2.04 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.94; P for trend < 0.001) for ischemic stroke, and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.69; P for trend < 0.001) for total cardiovascular disease. Potassium intake was inversely associated with mortality from coronary heart disease and total cardiovascular disease. The multivariable hazard ratio for the highest versus the lowest quintiles of potassium intake was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.39, 1.06; P for trend = 0.083) for coronary heart disease and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.92; P for trend = 0.018) for total cardiovascular disease, and these associations were more evident for women than for men. A high sodium intake and a low potassium intake may increase the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease.

  12. Association Between Average Daily Television Viewing Time and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-Related Mortality: Findings From the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ukawa, Shigekazu; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Ando, Masahiko; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background Sedentary behavior is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer morbidity, and watching television (TV) is an important sedentary behavior. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between TV viewing time and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related mortality in Japanese adults. Methods Using the Cox proportional hazard model, we assessed COPD-related mortality by TV viewing time in a national cohort of 33 414 men and 43 274 women without cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction, or tuberculosis at baseline (1988–1990). Results The median follow-up was 19.4 years; 244 men and 34 women died of COPD. Men watching ≥4 hours/day of TV were more likely to die of COPD than those watching <2 hours/day (hazard ratio 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–2.55), independent of major confounders. No association was found in women. Conclusions Avoiding a sedentary lifestyle, particularly prolonged TV viewing, may help in preventing death from COPD among men. PMID:25947581

  13. Cohort profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC).

    PubMed

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2014-06-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70,000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  14. Cohort Profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC)

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan AC

    2014-01-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70 000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org). PMID:23599235

  15. Associations of food and nutrient intakes with serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-b1, total SOD activity and sFas levels among middle-aged Japanese: the Japan Collaborative Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Koutatsu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ito, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Inaba, Yutaka; Tajima, Kazuo; Nakachi, Kei; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-12-01

    No observational study has examined whether cancer-related biomarkers are associated with diet in Japanese. We therefore assessed sex-specific food and nutrient intakes according to serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-b1, total SOD activity and sFas levels, under a cross-sectional study of 10,350 control subjects who answered the food frequency questionnaire in the first-wave nested case-control study within the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. For both men and women, IGF-I levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, fruits, green tea, calcium and vitamin C. IGF-II levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and miso soup, and lower intakes of rice, coffee and carbohydrate. IGFBP-3 levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and vitamin C, and lower intakes of rice, energy, protein, carbohydrate, sodium and polyunsaturated fatty acids. TGF-b1 levels were associated with lower intakes of coffee intakes, and higher intakes of miso soup and sodium. Total SOD activity levels were associated with lower intakes of most nutrients other than energy, carbohydrate, iron, copper, manganese, retinol equivalents, vitamin A, B2, B12, niacin, folic acid, vitamin C and fish fat. sFas levels were associated with higher intakes of manganese and folic acids. The results of the present study should help to account for findings on those biomarkers regarding risks of cancer and other lifestyle-related diseases in terms of dietary confounding as causality.

  16. International HIV and AIDS prevention: Japan/United States collaboration.

    PubMed

    Umenai, T; Narula, M; Onuki, D; Yamamoto, T; Igari, T

    1997-01-01

    As the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS pandemic shifts from Africa to Asia, Japan is becoming ever more aware of the importance of containing and preventing spread of the virus. International collaboration, particularly with the United States, is a logical approach because it allows utilization of expertise from countries in other stages of the pandemic, can prevent duplication of efforts, and complements efforts of the other countries. Further, both Japan and the United States can use their combined influence and prestige to encourage cooperation among all nations. In 1994, Japan established the Global Issues Initiative to extend cooperation to developing countries in the areas of population and AIDS control. It has disbursed more than $460 million (U.S.$) to promote active cooperation and stimulate international attention to the importance of addressing these health issues. Japan has established four main programs for international collaboration for control of HIV and AIDS, three operated by ministries and one by a Japanese nongovernmental organization. Japanese/United States collaboration is developing through the United States/Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program, the Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective, the Paris Summit, and the United Nations Joint Programme on AIDS. It is critical that Japan and the United States, as the two largest donors to international development, demonstrate, through their collaboration, ways to maximize the use of limited resources, reduce duplication, and promote sustainable development programs in which HIV prevention and AIDS care programs are systemically integrated.

  17. Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study: study design, methods, and implementation.

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Kengo; Shimizu, Miho; Toyama, Tadashi; Koya, Daisuke; Koshino, Yoshitaka; Abe, Hideharu; Mori, Kiyoshi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Imanishi, Masahito; Iwano, Masayuki; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Kusano, Eiji; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Suzuki, Yoshiki; Okuda, Seiya; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Iwata, Yasunori; Kaneko, Shuichi; Nishi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiko; Haneda, Masakazu; Makino, Hirofumi; Wada, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy, leading to end-stage renal disease, has a considerable impact on public health and the social economy. However, there are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy in Japan. The aims of this prospective cohort study are to obtain clinical data and urine samples for revising the clinical staging of diabetic nephropathy, and developing new diagnostic markers for early diabetic nephropathy. The Japanese Society of Nephrology established a nationwide, web-based, and prospective registry system. On the system, there are two basic registries; the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (JRBR), and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (JKDR). In addition to the two basic registries, we established a new prospective registry to the system; the Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study (JDNCS), which collected physical and laboratory data. We analyzed the data of 321 participants (106 female, 215 male; average age 65 years) in the JDNCS. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 130.1 and 72.3 mmHg, respectively. Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 33.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Proteinuria was 1.8 g/gCr, and serum levels of albumin were 3.6 g/dl. The majority of the JDNCS patients presented with preserved eGFR and low albuminuria or low eGFR and advanced proteinuria. In the JRBR and JKDR registries, 484 and 125 participants, respectively, were enrolled as having diabetes mellitus. In comparison with the JRBR and JKDR registries, the JDNCS was characterized by diabetic patients presenting with low proteinuria with moderately preserved eGFR. There are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy to evaluate prognosis in Japan. Future analysis of the JDNCS will provide clinical insights into the epidemiology and renal and cardiovascular outcomes of type 2 diabetic patients in Japan.

  18. Coffee and risk of death from hepatocellular carcinoma in a large cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kurozawa, Y; Ogimoto, I; Shibata, A; Nose, T; Yoshimura, T; Suzuki, H; Sakata, R; Fujita, Y; Ichikawa, S; Iwai, N; Tamakoshi, A

    2005-09-05

    We examined the relation between coffee drinking and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study). In total, 110,688 cohort members (46,399 male and 64,289 female subjects) aged 40-79 years were grouped by coffee intake into three categories: one or more cups per day, less than one cup per day and non-coffee drinkers. Cox proportional hazards model by SAS was used to obtain hazard ratio of HCC mortality for each coffee consumption categories. The hazard ratios were adjusted for age, gender, educational status, history of diabetes and liver diseases, smoking habits and alcohol. The hazard ratio of death due to HCC for drinkers of one and more cups of coffee per day, compared with non-coffee drinkers, was 0.50 (95% confidence interval 0.31-0.79), and the ratio for drinkers of less than one cup per day was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.54-1.25). Our data confirmed an inverse association between coffee consumption and HCC mortality.

  19. Coffee and risk of death from hepatocellular carcinoma in a large cohort study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kurozawa, Y; Ogimoto, I; Shibata, A; Nose, T; Yoshimura, T; Suzuki, H; Sakata, R; Fujita, Y; Ichikawa, S; Iwai, N; Tamakoshi, A

    2005-01-01

    We examined the relation between coffee drinking and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study). In total, 110 688 cohort members (46 399 male and 64 289 female subjects) aged 40–79 years were grouped by coffee intake into three categories: one or more cups per day, less than one cup per day and non-coffee drinkers. Cox proportional hazards model by SAS was used to obtain hazard ratio of HCC mortality for each coffee consumption categories. The hazard ratios were adjusted for age, gender, educational status, history of diabetes and liver diseases, smoking habits and alcohol. The hazard ratio of death due to HCC for drinkers of one and more cups of coffee per day, compared with non-coffee drinkers, was 0.50 (95% confidence interval 0.31–0.79), and the ratio for drinkers of less than one cup per day was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.54–1.25). Our data confirmed an inverse association between coffee consumption and HCC mortality. PMID:16091758

  20. Collaborative Curriculum Renewal in a Tertiary Vocational Institution in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Ian D.

    The process of revising the second language curriculum in a Japanese postsecondary vocational school is described, focusing on the collaborative approach taken. The school provides second language instruction and vocational training in several occupational areas. A number of research teams or "focus groups" were established, each with a…

  1. Changing Teachers' Epistemological Perspectives: A Case Study of Teacher-Researcher Collaborative Lesson Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, Jun; Horino, Ryosuke; Oshima, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Inagaki, Shigenori; Takenaka, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Etsuji; Murayama, Isao; Nakayama, Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    Lesson study in Japan, the practice in which teachers work collaboratively and reflectively with colleagues on improving their classroom teaching, has recently attracted attention internationally as an effective means of teachers' professional development. Although lesson study is very useful for helping new teachers join the profession and for…

  2. [Research related to the status of "collaboration" among municipal public health nurses in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Takako; Higashino, Sadanori

    2006-10-01

    The two main goals of this research were: (1) To clarify the current state of collaboration among municipal public health nurses throughout Japan (referred to collectively as "Public Health Nurses"); and (2) To identify personal factors that separate Public Health Nurses who collaborate frequently from those who do not, and to clarify the characteristics of relevant interventions. The author believes that the results of this study should be valuable in demonstrating specific methodologies related to the ability of Public Health Nurses the ability to execute collaborative activities. Before conducting the main survey, a preliminary survey was performed to determine the affiliate divisions for Public Health Nurses employed by all of the 3,190 municipalities in Japan. Based on this survey, we gained an understanding of factors such as the number of Public Health Nurses and their places of employment. Next, during December 2003 to August 2004, we carried out a questionnaire survey by post to the 21,631 Public Health Nurses in Japan who had been identified through the preliminary survey. Survey items included: the Public Health Nurse's gender, age, position, most recent academic history, total years of work, number of years working with the current employer, affiliated division, types of tasks undertaken, status of execution of those tasks, and collaborative activities, as well as specialists institutions and organizations involved in such collaboration. Data were gathered from 13,024 Public Health Nurses, which represents roughly 80% of the Public Health Nurses in Japan. First, regarding collaboration, links with health and medical institutions, health centers, and other government institutions appeared active, but this was not the case for social welfare facilities for the physically or mentally disabled. Furthermore, although the subjects collaborated with Public Health Nurses from other institutions, as well as with government administrators and doctors, there was

  3. Lung cancer risk comparison among male smokers between the "six-prefecture cohort" in Japan and the British physicians' cohort.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, S; Akiba, S; Hirayama, T

    1989-12-01

    We estimated the effective duration of cigarette smoking using the data of lung cancer mortality among male smokers of a large-scale cohort study in Japan and evaluated its role in the lung cancer risk difference between male smokers of the Japanese cohort and the British physicians' cohort. By selecting male cohort members who answered that they had started smoking at ages 18-22 (average = 20.3), the subjects of our analysis, which numbered 49,013, were made relatively homogeneous in terms of age at which smoking was started. Assuming lung cancer mortality to be proportional to the 4.5th power of the effective duration of cigarette smoking, i.e., (age-theta)4.5, as was proposed on the basis of the British cohort study by Doll and Peto, the parameter theta was estimated to be 29.4 for male smokers aged 40-64 in 1966; therefore, the estimated duration of cigarette smoking was, on average, 9.1 years (95% confidence interval = 5.8-11.6) shorter than that calculated from the reported age at which smoking was started. Our findings suggested that the low lung cancer mortality relative to daily cigarette consumption in Japan resulted from the shorter duration of cigarette smoking in the Japanese cohort, possibly due to the severe shortage of cigarettes during and shortly after World War II. Once the effective duration of cigarette smoking was adjusted, lung cancer mortality in the range of 5-34 cigarettes per day was fairly comparable to that observed among the cohort of male British physicians.

  4. Development of an interprofessional competency framework for collaborative practice in Japan.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Junji; Yoshida, Kazue; Goto, Michiko; Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Ichikawa, Shuhei; Mori, Youhei; Yoshimi, Kenji; Otsuka, Mariko

    2018-01-30

    Rapid aging of the population necessitates improved collaboration among healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, interprofessional collaboration has yet to be implemented effectively in Japan. Therefore, we aimed to develop an interprofessional competency framework for Japanese healthcare professionals. The project was conducted as a four-step process, starting with initial categorization of potential competency domains,, followed by guiding principle and prototype development, feedback on the prototype, and final consensus. First, authors (JH and MO) collected opinions about competency in interprofessional collaboration at two academic meetings of the Japan Association for Interprofessional Education (JAIPE) and then analyzed the data thematically. Second, a project team consisting of JAIPE and University representatives extracted the domains and statements as prototype 1. Third, seven representatives from professional organizations joined the project team and developed prototype 2. We then called for feedback on the revised prototype 2 at both an open symposium and via public comments. Following revision of prototype 2, a new project team including 20 university, professional organization and health practitioner representatives finally discussed prototype 3, developed the final draft and reached a consensus. In analysis after collecting the data, we extracted 11 themes. We developed four key principles which applied to six domains as prototype 1-3. Finally, our competency framework included two core domains of "Patient-/client-/family-/community-centered" and "Interprofessional communication", and four peripheral domains of "Role contribution", "Facilitation of relationships", "Reflection" and "Understanding of others". We developed an interprofessional competency framework in Japan which consists of two core and four peripheral domains. The interprofessional competency framework is likely to affect the understanding of "high-context" and "relationalism" in

  5. Mortality of rheumatoid arthritis in Japan: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hakoda, M; Oiwa, H; Kasagi, F; Masunari, N; Yamada, M; Suzuki, G; Fujiwara, S

    2005-10-01

    To determine the mortality risk of Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis, taking into account lifestyle and physical factors, including comorbidity. 91 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis were identified during screening a cohort of 16 119 Japanese atomic bomb survivors in the period 1958 to 1966. These individuals and the remainder of the cohort were followed for mortality until 1999. Mortality risk of the rheumatoid patients was estimated by the Cox proportional hazards model. In addition to age and sex, lifestyle and physical factors such as smoking status, alcohol consumption, blood pressure, and comorbidity were included as adjustment factors for the analysis of total mortality and for analysis of mortality from each cause of death. 83 of the rheumatoid patients (91.2%) and 8527 of the non-rheumatoid controls (52.9%) died during mean follow up periods of 17.8 and 28.0 years, respectively. The age and sex adjusted hazard ratio for mortality in the rheumatoid patients was 1.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 1.99), p < 0.001. Multiple adjustments, including for lifestyle and physical factors, resulted in a similar mortality hazard ratio of 1.57 (1.25 to 1.94), p < 0.001. Although mortality risk tended to be higher in male than in female rheumatoid patients, the difference was not significant. Pneumonia, tuberculosis, and liver disease were significantly increased as causes of death in rheumatoid patients. Rheumatoid arthritis is an independent risk factor for mortality. Infectious events are associated with increased mortality in rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. A trial map and GIS class on junior high school with university collaboration in Yokohama, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabe, Toshimitsu; Ohnishi, Koji

    2018-05-01

    On the new curriculum of high school in Japan, geography will be compulsory subject in Japan from 2022. The indexes of new high school geography as compulsory subject will be 1. Using of maps and GIS, 2. Understanding of the world and International collaboration: Life and culture, issues of world, 3. Disaster prevention and ESD: natural environment and disaster, and construction of ideal society. The instruction of the GIS will be one of the issues for social studies teachers in the new curriculum. The aim of this study is to make the utilize map and GIS education content through trial class in junior high school. Trial class was done on Tsurugamine junior high school in Yokohama city with university and Yokohama city school board collaboration. In the trial class, the teacher indicated the old and new topographical maps to students and asked them to consider the characteristics of the area and the land use change. Transparent sheets overlaying is useful this activity. Transparent usage indicated the GIS function of overlay. It is good activity for students to understand the function of GIS. After the considering land use changes, they considered the future of their town. The several unused lands are spread in this area. Students present their opinions how to develop them. The important thing to carry out map and GIS class through neighborhood area is preparation of adequate maps. For this preparation, collaboration with university geography stuffs or undergraduate students are effective.

  7. The Cohort Model: Lessons Learned When Principals Collaborate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umekubo, Lisa A.; Chrispeels, Janet H.; Daly, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored a formal structure, the cohort model that a decentralized district put in place over a decade ago. Schools were clustered into cohorts to facilitate professional development for leadership teams for all 44 schools within the district. Drawing upon Senge's components of organizational learning, we used a single case study design…

  8. Educational Levels and Risk of Suicide in Japan: The Japan Public Health Center Study (JPHC) Cohort I.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Takashi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Honjo, Kaori; Ikehara, Satoyo; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-06-05

    Suicide rates have been related to educational level and other socioeconomic statuses. However, no prospective study has examined the association between educational level and the risk of suicide in Japan. We examined the association of education level and suicide risk in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women aged 40-59 years in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study Cohort I. In the baseline survey initiated in 1990, a total of 46 156 subjects (21 829 men and 24 327 women) completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included a query of educational level, and were followed up until the end of December 2011. Educational levels were categorized into four groups (junior high school, high school, junior or career college, and university or higher education). During a median follow-up of 21.6 years, the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of suicide according to educational level were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusted for age; study area; previous history of stroke, ischemic heart disease, or cancer; self-reported stress; alcohol consumption; smoking; living with spouse; and employment status. A total of 299 deaths attributed to suicide occurred. The HR for university graduates or those with higher education versus junior high school graduates was 0.47 (95% CI, 0.24-0.94) in men, and that for high school graduates versus junior high school graduates was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.24-0.79) in women. High educational levels were associated with a reduced risk of suicide for both Japanese men and women.

  9. A Quality Improvement Collaborative Program for Neonatal Pain Management in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yokoo, Kyoko; Funaba, Yuuki; Fukushima, Sayo; Fukuhara, Rie; Uchida, Mieko; Aiba, Satoru; Doi, Miki; Nishimura, Akira; Hayakawa, Masahiro; Nishimura, Yutaka; Oohira, Mitsuko

    2017-01-01

    Background: Neonatal pain management guidelines have been released; however, there is insufficient systematic institutional support for the adoption of evidence-based pain management in Japan. Purpose: To evaluate the impact of a collaborative quality improvement program on the implementation of pain management improvements in Japanese neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Methods: Seven Japanese level III NICUs participated in a neonatal pain management quality improvement program based on an Institute for Healthcare Improvement collaborative model. The NICUs developed evidence-based practice points for pain management and implemented these over a 12-month period. Changes were introduced through a series of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, and throughout the process, pain management quality indicators were tracked as performance measures. Jonckheere's trend test and the Cochran-Armitage test for trend were used to examine the changes in quality indicator implementations over time (baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months). Findings: Baseline pain management data from the 7 sites revealed substantial opportunities for improvement of pain management, and testing changes in the NICU setting resulted in measurable improvements in pain management. During the intervention phase, all participating sites introduced new pain assessment tools, and all sites developed electronic medical record forms to capture pain score, interventions, and infant responses to interventions. Implications for Practice: The use of collaborative quality improvement techniques played a key role in improving pain management in the NICUs. Implications for Research: Collaborative improvement programs provide an attractive strategy for solving evidence-practice gaps in the NICU setting. PMID:28114148

  10. Cumulative Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in a Working Population: The Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huanhuan; Nakagawa, Tohru; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nishiura, Chihiro; Imai, Teppei; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Naoko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Murakami, Taizo; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Tomita, Kentaro; Nagahama, Satsue; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Dohi, Seitaro

    2018-05-04

    We estimated the cumulative risk of type 2 diabetes from age 30 to 65 years in a large working population in Japan. We used data from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study. Participants (46,065 men and 7,763 women) were aged 30-59 years, free of diabetes at baseline, and followed up for a maximum of 7 years. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined based on fasting and casual glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and current medical treatment for type 2 diabetes. We calculated the sex-specific cumulative risk of type 2 diabetes using the Practical Incidence Estimator macro, which was created to produce several estimates of disease incidence for prospective cohort studies based on a modified Kaplan-Meier method. During 274,349 person-years of follow-up, 3,587 individuals (3,339 men and 248 women) developed type 2 diabetes. The cumulative risk was 34.7% (95% confidence interval, 33.1-36.3%) for men and 18.6% (95% confidence interval, 15.5-21.7%) for women. In BMI-stratified analysis, obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ) and overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 ) men and women had a much higher cumulative risk of type 2 diabetes (obese: 77.3% for men and 64.8% for women; overweight: 49.1% and 35.7%, respectively) than those with BMI <25 kg/m 2 (26.2% and 13.4% for men and women, respectively). The present data highlight the public health burden of type 2 diabetes in the working population. There is a need for effective programs for weight management and type 2 diabetes screening, especially for young obese employees, to prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  12. NanoJapan: international research experience for undergraduates program: fostering U.S.-Japan research collaborations in terahertz science and technology of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Sarah R.; Matherly, Cheryl A.; Kono, Junichiro

    2014-09-01

    The international nature of science and engineering research demands that students have the skillsets necessary to collaborate internationally. However, limited options exist for science and engineering undergraduates who want to pursue research abroad. The NanoJapan International Research Experience for Undergraduates Program is an innovative response to this need. Developed to foster research and international engagement among young undergraduate students, it is funded by a National Science Foundation Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) grant. Each summer, NanoJapan sends 12 U.S. students to Japan to conduct research internships with world leaders in terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, nanophotonics, and ultrafast optics. The students participate in cutting-edge research projects managed within the framework of the U.S-Japan NSF-PIRE collaboration. One of our focus topics is THz science and technology of nanosystems (or `TeraNano'), which investigates the physics and applications of THz dynamics of carriers and phonons in nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this article, we will introduce the program model, with specific emphasis on designing high-quality international student research experiences. We will specifically address the program curriculum that introduces students to THz research, Japanese language, and intercultural communications, in preparation for work in their labs. Ultimately, the program aims to increase the number of U.S. students who choose to pursue graduate study in this field, while cultivating a generation of globally aware engineers and scientists who are prepared for international research collaboration.

  13. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  14. Hba1c, Blood Pressure, and Lipid Control in People with Diabetes: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huanhuan; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Sasaki, Naoko; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Nagahama, Satsue; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kochi, Takeshi; Imai, Teppei; Okino, Akiko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kashino, Ikuko; Akter, Shamima; Kurotani, Kayo; Nanri, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-01-01

    Aims The control of blood glucose levels, blood pressure (BP), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels reduces the risk of diabetes complications; however, data are scarce on control status of these factors among workers with diabetes. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of participants with diabetes who meet glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), BP, and LDL-C recommendations, and to investigate correlates of poor glycemic control in a large working population in Japan. Methods The Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health (J-ECOH) Study is an ongoing cohort investigation, consisting mainly of employees in large manufacturing companies. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 3,070 employees with diabetes (2,854 men and 216 women) aged 20–69 years who attended periodic health examinations. BP was measured and recorded using different company protocols. Risk factor targets were defined using both American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines (HbA1c < 7.0%, BP < 140/90 mmHg, and LDL-C < 100 mg/dL) and Japan Diabetes Society (JDS) guidelines (HbA1c < 7.0%, BP < 130/80 mmHg, and LDL-C < 120 mg/dL). Logistic regression models were used to explore correlates of poor glycemic control (defined as HbA1c ≥ 8.0%). Results The percentages of participants who met ADA (and JDS) targets were 44.9% (44.9%) for HbA1c, 76.6% (36.3%) for BP, 27.1% (56.2%) for LDL-C, and 11.2% (10.8%) for simultaneous control of all three risk factors. Younger age, obesity, smoking, and uncontrolled dyslipidemia were associated with poor glycemic control. The adjusted odds ratio of poor glycemic control was 0.58 (95% confidence interval, 0.46–0.73) for participants with treated but uncontrolled hypertension, and 0.47 (0.33–0.66) for participants with treated and controlled hypertension, as compared with participants without hypertension. There was no significant difference in HbA1c levels between participants with treated but uncontrolled hypertension and

  15. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  16. Current status of collaborative relationships between dialysis facilities and dental facilities in Japan: results of a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Masami; Shirayama, Yasuhiko; Imoto, Issei; Hinode, Daisuke; Yanagisawa, Shizuko; Takeuchi, Yuko

    2015-02-12

    Recent studies have reported an association between periodontal disease and mortality among dialysis patients. Therefore, preventive dental care should be considered very important for this population. In Japan, no systematic education has been undertaken regarding the importance of preventive dental care for hemodialysis patients--even though these individuals tend to have oral and dental problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the current state of collaborative relationships between hemodialysis facilities and dental services in Japan and also to identify strategies to encourage preventive dental visits among hemodialysis outpatients. A nationwide questionnaire on the collaborative relationship between dialysis facilities and dental facilities was sent by mail to all medical facilities in Japan offering outpatient hemodialysis treatment. Responses were obtained from 1414 of 4014 facilities (35.2%). Among the 1414 facilities, 272 (19.2%) had a dental service department. Approximately 100,000 dialysis outpatients were receiving treatment at these participating facilities, which amounts to one-third of all dialysis patients in Japan. Of those patients, 82.9% received hemodialysis at medical facilities without dental departments. Only 87 of 454 small clinics without in-house dental departments (19.2%) had collaborative registered dental clinics. Medical facilities with registered dental clinics demonstrated a significantly more proactive attitude to routine collaboration on dental matters than facilities lacking such clinics. Our nationwide survey revealed that most dialysis facilities in Japan have neither an in-house dental department nor a collaborative relationship with a registered dental clinic. Registration of dental clinics appears to promote collaboration with dental facilities on a routine basis, which would be beneficial for oral health management in hemodialysis patients.

  17. A Comparison of Telecollaborative Classes between Japan and Asian-Pacific Countries--Asian-Pacific Exchange Collaboration (APEC) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Pack, Dwayne; Kano, Mikio; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yamamura, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare the effects of "telecollaborative classes" between students in Japan and those in Asian-Pacific countries such as Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States (Hawaii). The telecollaborative classes are part of the Asian-Pacific Exchange Collaboration (APEC) project, a 4-year project involving students…

  18. Dietary habits and risk of urothelial cancer death in a large-scale cohort study (JACC Study) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakauchi, Fumio; Mori, Mitsuru; Washio, Masakazu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Ozasa, Kotaro; Hayashi, Kyohei; Miki, Tsuneharu; Nakao, Masahiro; Mikami, Kazuya; Ito, Yoshinori; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the associations of dietary habits with the risk of urothelial cancer death were evaluated taking into consideration sex, age, and smoking habits. The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study was established in 1988-1990 and consisted of 47,997 men and 66,520 women observed until the end of 1999. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used as a baseline survey. Hazard ratios for dietary factors were calculated by Cox's proportional hazards model. During the observation period, 63 men and 25 women died of urothelial cancer. Increasing age, male gender, and history of smoking were all significantly associated with increased risk of urothelial cancer death. A high intake of milk and fruits other than oranges reduced the risk significantly and dose dependently, in particular among subjects with smoking history. However, consumption of butter and yogurt had no associations with the risk. Intakes of cabbage, lettuce, green leafy vegetables, carrots, squash, tomatoes, and oranges were not significantly associated with the risk. It was suggested that urothelial cancer death could be potentially preventable by smoking cessation and regular intake of milk and fruit.

  19. The Influence of Social Media on Collaborative Learning in a Cohort Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandera, Silas; James-Waldon, Natasha; Bromley, Debbi; Henry, Zandra

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the impact that social media has on the development of collaborative learning within a cohort environment in a doctoral program. The researchers surveyed doctoral students in an education program to determine how social media use has influenced the doctoral students. The study looked at the following areas: a)…

  20. The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort: constructing a deep phenotyping collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Monica E.; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Moore, Tyler M.; Burstein, Marcy; Behr, Meckenzie A; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Ruparel, Kosha; Wolf, Daniel H.; Roalf, David R.; Mentch, Frank D.; Qiu, Haijun; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Connolly, John J.; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2015-01-01

    Background An integrative multidisciplinary approach is required to elucidate the multiple factors that shape neurodevelopmental trajectories of mental disorders. The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC), funded by the National Institute of Mental Health Grand Opportunity (GO) mechanism of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, was designed to characterize clinical and neurobehavioral phenotypes of genotyped youths. Data generated, which are recently available through the NIMH Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP), have garnered considerable interest. We provide an overview of PNC recruitment and clinical assessment methods to allow informed use and interpretation of the PNC resource by the scientific community. We also evaluate the structure of the assessment tools and their criterion validity. Methods Participants were recruited from a large pool of youths (n=13,958) previously identified and genotyped at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. A comprehensive computerized tool for structured evaluation of psychopathology domains (GOASSESS) was constructed. We administered GOASSESS to all participants and used factor analysis to evaluate its structure. Results A total of 9,498 youths (ages 8-21; mean age=14.2; European-American=55.8%; African-American=32.9%; Other=11.4%) were enrolled. Factor analysis revealed a strong general psychopathology factor, and specific ‘anxious-misery’, ‘fear’ and ‘behavior’ factors. The ‘behavior’ factor had a small negative correlation (−0.21) with overall accuracy of neurocognitive performance, particularly in tests of executive and complex reasoning. Being female had a high association with the ‘anxious-misery’ and low association with the ‘behavior’ factors. The psychosis spectrum was also best characterized by a general factor and three specific factors: ideas about ‘special abilities/persecution,’ ‘unusual thoughts/perceptions,’ and ‘negative/disorganized’ symptoms

  1. Income Related Inequality of Health Care Access in Japan: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Misuzu; Hata, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0–74 years) who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40–59-year-old men and 60–69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40–59 and 60–69-year-olds of both sexes and 70–74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts. PMID:26978270

  2. JAMSTEC multibeam surveys and submersible dives around the Hawaiian Islands: a collaborative Japan-USA exploration of Hawaii's deep seafloor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Joel E.; Eakins, Barry W.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Takahashi, Eiichi; Satake, Kenji; Smith, John R.; Clague, David A.; Yokose, Hisayoshi

    2006-01-01

    This database release, USGS Data Series 171, contains data collected during four Japan-USA collaborative cruises that characterize the seafloor around the Hawaiian Islands. The Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) sponsored cruises in 1998, 1999, 2001, and 2002, to build a greater understanding of the deep marine geology around the Hawaiian Islands. During these cruises, scientists surveyed over 600,000 square kilometers of the seafloor with a hull-mounted multibeam seafloor-mapping sonar system (SEA BEAM® 2112), observed the seafloor and collected samples using robotic and manned submersible dives, collected dredge and piston-core samples, and performed single-channel seismic surveys.

  3. Prospective Cohort Study of Stress, Life Satisfaction, Self-Rated Health, Insomnia, and Suicide Death in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tokui, Noritaka; Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2005-01-01

    The association between many psychosocial factors and risk of suicide was examined. A cohort was conducted over 14 years of follow up among the general population (15,597 people) in Japan. A baseline survey of psychosocial characteristics was conducted by self-administrated questionnaire. The relative risks of occasional emotional stress,…

  4. EBT Fidelity Trajectories Across Training Cohorts Using the Interagency Collaborative Team Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Debra; Aarons, Greg; Fettes, Danielle; Hurlburt, Michael; Ledesma, Karla

    2015-01-01

    The Interdisciplinary Collaborative Team (ICT) strategy uses front-line providers as adaptation, training and quality control agents for multi-agency EBT implementation. This study tests whether an ICT transmits fidelity to subsequent provider cohorts. SafeCare was implemented by home visitors from multiple community-based agencies contracting with child welfare. Client-reported fidelity trajectories for 5,769 visits, 957 clients and 45 providers were compared using three-level growth models. Provider cohorts trained and live-coached by the ICT attained benchmark fidelity after 12 weeks, and this was sustained. Hispanic clients reported high cultural competency, supporting a cultural adaptation crafted by the ICT. PMID:25586878

  5. EBT Fidelity Trajectories Across Training Cohorts Using the Interagency Collaborative Team Strategy.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Mark; Hecht, Debra; Aarons, Greg; Fettes, Danielle; Hurlburt, Michael; Ledesma, Karla

    2016-03-01

    The Interdisciplinary Collaborative Team (ICT) strategy uses front-line providers as adaptation, training and quality control agents for multi-agency EBT implementation. This study tests whether an ICT transmits fidelity to subsequent provider cohorts. SafeCare was implemented by home visitors from multiple community-based agencies contracting with child welfare. Client-reported fidelity trajectories for 5,769 visits, 957 clients and 45 providers were compared using three-level growth models. Provider cohorts trained and live-coached by the ICT attained benchmark fidelity after 12 weeks, and this was sustained. Hispanic clients reported high cultural competency, supporting a cultural adaptation crafted by the ICT.

  6. Troubled Partnership. An Assessment of U.S.-Japan Collaboration on the FS-X Fighter,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Technology Transfer and Flowback 32 Commercial Spinoffs to Japan Exaggerated 33 Emphasis on Technology Flowback from Japan Was Political...take part in the development of the FS-X, and en- sure flowback of Japanese technology to the United States. In return, Japan paid $60 million to LFWC...involved flowback and access to Japanese technology. The government agreements stipulated that Japan would provide all technology applied to the FS-X

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Collaborative Leadership Skills Employed by Graduates of Cohort Based and Non-Cohort Based Doctoral Programs in Eduational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton Caminos, Michelle Evangeline

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative comparative case analysis investigates the leadership approaches of the graduates of two educational leadership doctoral programs in Upstate New York--one a cohort-modeled program, the other a non-cohort program--with specific attention to collaboration. Responses from participants indicate key differences in Engaging Communities,…

  8. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of major congenital anomalies for pregnancies in Japan: A nationwide birth cohort study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Mizuno, Satoshi; Metoki, Hirohito; Hoshiai, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Zen; Sakurai, Kasumi; Ishikuro, Mami; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Arima, Takahiro; Nakai, Kunihiko; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-05-01

    We analyzed data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), on the association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) use during pregnancy and the risk of developing of major congenital anomalies in Japan. JECS is an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. The study includes 95 994 single pregnant women and their offspring. Among them, 172 used any SSRI up to the 12 th gestational week. Crude analyses show a significantly increased incidence of upper limb, abdominal, and urogenital abnormalities. In particular, the incidence of microcephaly, hydrencephalus, esophageal atresia, small intestinal atresia, and achondroplasia was significantly higher with than without exposure to these substances. On multivariate analyses, urogenital abnormality was significant (odds ratio 3.227; 95% confidence interval: 1.460-7.134). This Japanese nationwide birth cohort survey clarified that the use of any SSRI until the 12 th gestational week was associated with urogenital abnormality in children. The survey for association with minor classification abnormality needs further examination in Japan. © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society.

  9. Non-working nurses in Japan: estimated size and its age-cohort characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Satoru

    2008-12-01

    This paper aims to forecast the total number of non-working nursing staff in Japan both overall and in terms of separate age groups for assistant nurses and fully qualified nurses. This also examines policy implications of those forecasts. Although the existence of around 550,000 of non-working nursing staff has been announced, the actual number of non-working nurses is not so clear that we might make errors in making policy to meet nurse workforce demand and supply in Japan. Estimations by integrating various data on the quantitative characteristics of non-working nursing staff were carried out. Considering the length and the type of education or training in referred four nursing positions; registered nurses, assistant nurses, public health nurses and midwives, we first estimated the number of students who completed a full course. And then multiplying by the ratio for gender and age classifications at the time of entry into courses, the number of those who obtained licenses was estimated. The number of non-working nurses was estimated at 100,000 higher than those in 2005 by government. Looking at age group, it is also possible to see a strong reflection of an employment pattern that follows the life cycle of female workers. Further analysis of life cycle effects and cohort effects proved the effect of life cycles even when subtracting the differences between the working behaviours of different generations. Our findings strongly suggest the need to provide an urgent policy that workplace conditions can be created in which a balance between work and family is achievable. Moreover, to empower clinical activity, we also believe there is an urgent need to reexamine the overall career vision for assistant nurses including in terms of compensation. Relevance to clinical practice. Our findings strongly suggests that consideration for work-life balance of nursing staff; particularly, female staff is all the more important to provide a stable quality care.

  10. International collaboration between Japan and Chile to improve detection rates in colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takuya; Tanaka, Koji; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Ito, Takashi; Nishikage, Tetsuro; Odagaki, Tomoyuki; Zárate, Alejandro J; Kronberg, Udo; López-Köstner, Francisco; Karelovic, Stanko; Flores, Sergio; Estela, Ricardo; Tsubaki, Masahiro; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Tatsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) has increased rapidly. To help address this issue, the Prevention Project for Neoplasia of the Colon and Rectum (PRENEC) program was initiated in 2012 with intensive support from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) in Tokyo, Japan, as part of an international collaboration. From June 2012 to July 2014, a total of 10,575 asymptomatic participants were enrolled in PRENEC. Participants with positive immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) results or a family history of CRC underwent colonoscopy. The colonoscopy results from a similar, previous project in Chile (PREVICOLON) were compared with those from PRENEC. Furthermore, the initial colonoscopies of 1562 participants in PRENEC were analyzed according to whether the colonoscopists were from TMDU or Chile. The complete colonoscopy, adenoma detection, and cancer detection rates were 88.0%, 26.7%, and 1.1%, respectively, in PREVICOLON, while the corresponding values were 94.4%, 41.8%, and 6.0%, respectively, in PRENEC. In PRENEC, 107 cases of CRC were detected, amounting for 1.0% of all participants. Considering initial colonoscopies in PRENEC, the complete colonoscopy, adenoma detection, and cancer detection rates were 97.4%, 45.3%, and 9.3%, respectively, for physicians at TMDU and 93.3%, 41.5%, and 5.1%, respectively for Chilean physicians. The detection rates of intramucosal cancer were 7.3% and 3.7%, respectively, for TMDU and Chilean physicians. Quality indicators of colonoscopy substantially improved from PREVICOLON to PRENEC. The assessments made by Chilean physicians alone were improved in PRENEC, but remained better in the TMDU group. Moreover, physicians from TMDU detected more CRCs than Chilean physicians, especially at earlier stages. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  11. Overview of the Japan Children’s Study 2004–2009; Cohort Study of Early Childhood Development

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Zentaro; Maeda, Tadahiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro

    2010-01-01

    Background There are still a lot of unknown aspects about the childhood development of sociability which are based on neuroscientific basis. Purpose of the Japan Children’s Study (JCS) was to verify the normal process of child development of sociability; the trajectory and factors related development of sociability, and to collect findings and integrate the knowledge to make the plan of long-term and large scale cohort study. Methods A child cohort study underway in Japan since 2005. There are the cohort study including a infant cohort study at age of 4 months to 30 months and a preschool cohort study at age of 5 years old to 8 years old. Questionnaires, direct observation of children and cognitive testing were performed. Results In infant cohort study, 465 infants were recruited at 4 months and 367 children were followed up to 30 months, follow up rate was 78.9% and in the preschool cohort study, total 192 children (112 at 2005 and 80 at 2007) at age of 5 years old and 169 followed up to 6 years (follow up rate was 88.0%), and 79 children were followed up to 8 years old (follow up rate was 70.5%) old. Several new measurements to evaluate child sociability were developed. Some factors related to development of child sociability were found for example the ‘praise’ was related to child sociability in cohort study based on neuroscience findings. Conclusions Though the trajectory of child sociability development were not clarified, some significant factors related to development of sociability, and the basic findings to conduct a long-term and large scale cohort study were provided. PMID:20179361

  12. Obstetrical Complications in Women with Endometriosis: A Cohort Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Takashi; Taniguchi, Fuminori; Onishi, Kazunari; Kurozawa, Youichi; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Harada, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    Background Endometriosis, which occurs in approximately 10% of women of reproductive age, is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Women with endometriosis are more likely to have difficulty conceiving and tend to receive infertility treatment, including assisted reproductive technology (ART) therapy. There has not yet been a prospective cohort study examining the effects of endometriosis on pregnancy outcome in pregnant Japanese women. Methodology This was a prospective cohort study of the incidence of obstetrical complications in women with endometriosis using data of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study (JECS). Included in this study were 9,186 pregnant women in the JECS with or without a history of endometriosis who gave birth or stillbirth or whose pregnancy was terminated with abortion between February and December 2011. Main Outcome Measures The effects of endometriosis on pregnancy outcome. Results Of the 9,186 pregnant women in the JECS, 4,119 (44.8%) had obstetrical complications; 330 participants reported a diagnosis of endometriosis before pregnancy, and these women were at higher risk for complications of pregnancy than those without a history of endometriosis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20 to 1.87). Logistic regression analyses showed that the adjusted OR for obstetrical complications of pregnant women who conceived naturally and had a history of endometriosis was 1.45 (CI 1.11 to 1.90). Among pregnant women with endometriosis, the ORs of preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) and placenta previa were significantly higher compared with women never diagnosed with endometriosis who conceived naturally or conceived after infertility treatment, except for ART therapy (OR 2.14, CI 1.03–4.45 and OR 3.37, CI 1.32–8.65). Conclusions This study showed that endometriosis significantly increased the incidence of preterm PROM and placenta previa after adjusting for confounding of the

  13. Current status of health among workers in Japan: Results from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    KUWAHARA, Keisuke; UEHARA, Akihiko; YAMAMOTO, Makoto; NAKAGAWA, Tohru; HONDA, Toru; YAMAMOTO, Shuichiro; OKAZAKI, Hiroko; SASAKI, Naoko; OGASAWARA, Takayuki; HORI, Ai; NISHIURA, Chihiro; MIYAMOTO, Toshiaki; KOCHI, Takeshi; EGUCHI, Masafumi; TOMITA, Kentaro; IMAI, Teppei; NISHIHARA, Akiko; NAGAHAMA, Satsue; MURAKAMI, Taizo; SHIMIZU, Makiko; KABE, Isamu; MIZOUE, Tetsuya; KUNUGITA, Naoki; SONE, Tomofumi; DOHI, Seitaro

    2016-01-01

    Data are limited on the sex-specific prevalence of diseases and their risk factors in middle-aged and older workers in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the age- and sex-specific prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome (defined using joint statement criteria), obesity, underweight, abdominal obesity, and smoking among approximately 70,000 to 90,000 Japanese workers (predominantly men) aged 20–69 years in 2014. We also investigated the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness in 2012 and no leisure-time exercise in 2014. In both sexes, the prevalence of lifestyle-related risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and abdominal obesity, was increased with aging. In contrast, the prevalence of underweight was decreased with aging. Smoking prevalence exceeded 30% in men regardless of age, whereas the prevalence was around 10% in women of all age groups. Prevalence of no leisure-time exercise exceeded 50% among middle-aged and older workers in both sexes. Among workers aged 50–64 years, less than half of men had low fitness, whereas more than half of women had low fitness. Given the high prevalence of lifestyle-related risk factors among middle-aged and older workers, effective strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease in this age group are needed in Japan. PMID:27430963

  14. Predicting failure to follow-up screened high blood pressure in Japan: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Tsujimura, Yuka; Miyazaki, Kikuko; Satoh, Toshihiko; Ikeda, Shunya; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of working-age individuals who did not follow-up for possible hypertension that was detected in the population-based screening. We conducted a retrospective cohort study, using the database of health insurance claims and health checkups from several health insurance societies for employees in Japan. Screened participants aged ≥20 years, with possible hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg) and without known antihypertensive treatment, were included. The outcome was lack of clinical follow-up for possible hypertension within 6 months of the latest screening. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors. Among 17,173 participants (15,793 males and 1380 females) who were identified as possible hypertensives, 89.7 and 82.3% of them, respectively, did not consult physicians for screened possible hypertension. Predictors of no clinical follow-up for males included younger age, lower body mass index (BMI), lower hemoglobin A1c and milder hypertension. Predictors for females included younger age, lower BMI and being insured. Approximately 80% of participants failed to consult physicians even with positive screening results. Younger individuals with lower BMI are at high risk of no clinical follow-up. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Physician's Perceptions of Interprofessional Collaboration in Clinical Training Hospitals in Northeastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Minamizono, Sachiko; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Hasunuma, Naoko; Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Motohashi, Yutaka; Inoue, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Effective and efficient interprofessional collaboration (IPC) is needed between departments in a healthcare setting. Although Japanese physicians are expected to provide leadership in IPC, it has been suggested that their perception of IPC is more negative than among other healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to clarify Japanese physician's perceptions of IPC and what factors influenced their views. This cross-sectional study surveyed 732 medical doctors at a university hospital and six foundation hospitals in a prefecture located in Tohoku district, northeastern Japan. Those hospitals were approved for delivery of postgraduate clinical training. Physician's perceptions of IPC were investigated for three items, namely providing patient-centered care, preventing medical accidents, and improving the quality of medical care. A total of 409 doctors who were engaged in clinical practice, responded adequately to the survey. Factors associated with negative perceptions towards IPC among physicians were analyzed using a logistic regression model. The proportion of negative perceptions of IPC for providing patient-centered care, preventing medical accidents, and improving the quality of medical care were 41.1%, 34.0% and 33.7%, respectively. Negative perceptions of IPC for providing patient-centered care were associated with older age (50 + years; odds ratio (OR): 2.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11 - 6.68) and a lower frequency of interprofessional meetings (no meetings; OR: 2.95; 95%CI: 1.43 - 6.08). Negative perceptions of IPC for preventing medical accidents were associated with a lower frequency of interprofessional meetings (no meetings, OR: 3.23; 95%CI: 1.58 - 6.62). Negative perceptions of IPC for improving the quality of medical care were associated with middle age (40 - 49 years, OR: 2.93; 95%CI: 1.20 - 7.12) and a lower frequency of interprofessional meetings (no meetings; OR: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.34 - 5.66). Physician's negative perceptions of

  16. Capturing the fragile X premutation phenotypes: a collaborative effort across multiple cohorts.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jessica Ezzell; Sherman, Stephanie; Grigsby, Jim; Kogan, Cary; Cornish, Kim

    2012-03-01

    To capture the neuropsychological profile among male carriers of the FMR1 premutation allele (55-200 CGG repeats) who do not meet diagnostic criteria for the late-onset fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, FXTAS. We have initiated a multicenter collaboration that includes 3 independent cohorts, totaling 100 carriers of the premutation and 216 noncarriers. The initial focus of this collaboration has been on executive function. Four executive function scores are shared among the 3 cohorts (Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Stroop Color-Word Test, and Wechsler backward digit span and letter-number sequencing) whereas additional executive function scores are available for specific cohorts (Behavior Dyscontrol Scale, Hayling Sentence Completion Test Part B, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Raw scores were analyzed by using statistical models that adjust for cohort-specific effects as well as age and education. Carriers scored significantly lower compared to noncarriers on the Stroop Color-Word Test (p = .01), Hayling Sentence Completion Test Part B (p < .01), and Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale (p = .03), with the Hayling displaying a significant age-related decline (p = .01), as assessed by an age and repeat length-group interaction. Follow-up analysis of the collective data did not identify any specific age groups or repeat length ranges (i.e., low premutation = 55-70 repeats, midpremutation = 71-100 repeats, high premutation = 101-199 repeats) that were associated with an increased risk of executive function deficits. Preliminary analyses do not indicate global executive function impairment among male carriers without FXTAS compared to noncarriers. However, impairment in inhibitory capacity may be present among a subset of carriers, though the risk factors for this group do not appear to be related to age or repeat length.

  17. Reproductive factors and gallbladder/bile duct cancer: a population-based cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makiuchi, Takeshi; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-07-01

    Reproductive/menstrual factors may be involved in the etiology of gallbladder cancer (GBC) and bile duct cancer (BDC). However, the results from previous epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. We investigated the association of reproductive/menstrual factors with the risk for GBC and BDC in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Data on reproductive/menstrual factors were collected through a self-administered questionnaire at baseline. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 55 786 women enrolled between 1990 and 1994 were included in the analysis, and 115 GBC and 113 BDC cases were identified, with 944 861 person-years follow-up until 2010. For GBC, irregular and longer cycles were moderately associated with an increased risk [HR=2.12 (95% CI: 1.30-3.47) and HR=1.76 (95% CI: 1.08-2.89), respectively]. This effect tended to be greater in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, older age at first pregnancy tended to be associated with an increased risk [HR=1.84 (95% CI: 1.03-3.29), P-trend=0.036], whereas increased duration of fertility tended to be associated with a decreased risk [HR=0.59 (95% CI: 0.35-1.01), P-trend=0.055] of GBC. No clear association with BDC was observed. This finding suggests that women with irregular or longer cycles may have an increased risk for GBC and female hormones may play an important role in the etiology of GBC.

  18. Collaborative investigations of in-service irradiated material from the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.; Broadhead, B.L.; Suzuki, M.

    1997-02-01

    There is a need to validate the results of irradiation effects research by the examination of material taken directly from the wall of a pressure vessel that has been irradiated during normal service. Just such an evaluation is currently being conducted on material from the wall of the pressure vessel from the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). The research is being jointly performed at the Tokai Research Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-funded Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  19. Multivitamin use and risk of stroke mortality: the Japan collaborative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-05-01

    An effect of multivitamin supplement on stroke risk is uncertain. We aimed to examine the association between multivitamin use and risk of death from stroke and its subtypes. A total of 72 180 Japanese men and women free from cardiovascular diseases and cancers at baseline in 1988 to 1990 were followed up until December 31, 2009. Lifestyles including multivitamin use were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of total stroke and its subtypes in relation to multivitamin use. During a median follow-up of 19.1 years, we identified 2087 deaths from stroke, including 1148 ischemic strokes and 877 hemorrhagic strokes. After adjustment for potential confounders, multivitamin use was associated with lower but borderline significant risk of death from total stroke (HR, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.01), primarily ischemic stroke (HR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.01), but not hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.18). In a subgroup analysis, there was a significant association between multivitamin use and lower risk of mortality from total stroke among people with fruit and vegetable intake <3 times/d (HR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.98). That association seemed to be more evident among regular users than casual users. Similar results were found for ischemic stroke. Multivitamin use, particularly frequent use, was associated with reduced risk of total and ischemic stroke mortality among Japanese people with lower intake of fruits and vegetables. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Association of measles and mumps with cardiovascular disease: The Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yasuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-08-01

    Although it has been suggested that exposure to infections during childhood could decrease risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), the evidence is scarce. We investigated the association of measles and mumps with CVD. 43,689 men and 60,147 women aged 40-79 years at baseline (1988-1990) completed a lifestyle questionnaire, including their history of measles and mumps, and were followed until 2009. Histories of infections were categorized as having no infection (reference), measles only, mumps only, or both infections. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality from CVD across histories of infections were calculated. Men with measles only had multivariable HR (95% confidence interval) of 0.92 (0.85-0.99) for total CVD, those with mumps only had 0.52 (0.28-0.94) for total stroke and 0.21 (0.05-0.86) for hemorrhagic stroke, and those with both infections had 0.80 (0.71-0.90) for total CVD, 0.71 (0.53-0.93) for myocardial infarction, and 0.83 (0.69-0.98) for total stroke. Women with both infections had 0.83 (0.74-0.92) for total CVD and 0.84 (0.71-0.99) for total stroke. We also compared subjects with measles only or mumps only (reference) and those with both infections. Men with both infections had 0.88 (0.78-0.99) for total CVD. Women with both infections had 0.85 (0.76-0.94) for total CVD, 0.79 (0.67-0.93) for total stroke, 0.78 (0.62-0.98) for ischemic stroke and 0.78 (0.62-0.98) for hemorrhagic stroke. Measles and mumps, especially in case of both infections, were associated with lower risks of mortality from atherosclerotic CVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Troubled Partnership. A History of U.S.-Japan Collaboration on the

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    and intellectual contributions of Project AIR FORCE managers, particularly Michael Kennedy, Dennis Smallwood , Jeff Drezner, and Robert Roll. Cindy...June 14-20, 1993b. Lerner, Preston, "Stall Tactics," Air & Space, April/May 1991. Levin, Norman D., Japan’s Changing Defense Posture, Santa...Monica, Calif: RAND, N-2739-OSD, 1988. Levin, Norman D., Mark Lorell, and Arthur Alexander, The Wary Warriors: Future Directions in Japanese Security

  2. Effectiveness in Regular Practice of Collaborative Care for Depression Among Adolescents: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shippee, Nathan D; Mattson, Angela; Brennan, RoxAnne; Huxsahl, John; Billings, Marcie L; Williams, Mark D

    2018-05-01

    Depression is common among adolescents, but many lack ready access to mental health services. Integrated models of care for depression are needed, along with evidence to support their use in regular practice. The authors examined the effectiveness of an ongoing collaborative care program for depressed adolescents embedded in a busy primary care practice. This retrospective cohort study assessed EMERALD (Early Management and Evidence-based Recognition of Adolescents Living with Depression), a collaborative care program. All patients ages 12-17 and age 18 and still in high school with a score of ≥10 on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire for Adolescents (PHQ-9A) and without a diagnosis of bipolar disorder were eligible. The sample included 162 EMERALD participants and 499 similarly eligible non-EMERALD patients. Outcomes were six-month remission of depression (score <5) and six-month treatment response (>50% reduction from baseline) as measured by the PHQ-9A. Analyses included logistic regression and propensity score matching to adjust for differences in demographic factors and number of contacts-observations. After propensity score matching, EMERALD patients had better adjusted rates of depression remission (11 percentage points higher, p=.035) and treatment response (14 percentage points higher, p<.001) than comparison patients. Results from primary analyses were as conservative as or more conservative than results from all sensitivity analyses tested. Collaborative care for adolescents in regular practice led to better remission and treatment response than usual care. Future studies could examine which groups might benefit most and flexible payment models to support these services.

  3. Vitamin D status and the risk of type 2 diabetes: the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Heath, Alicia K; Williamson, Elizabeth J; Hodge, Allison M; Ebeling, Peter R; Eyles, Darryl W; Kvaskoff, David; O'Dea, Kerin; Giles, Graham G; English, Dallas R

    2018-05-18

    Inverse associations between vitamin D status and risk of type 2 diabetes observed in epidemiological studies could be biased by confounding and reverse causality. We investigated the prospective association between vitamin D status and type 2 diabetes and the possible role of reverse causality. We conducted a case-cohort study within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS), including a random sample of 628 participants who developed diabetes and a sex-stratified random sample of the cohort (n=1,884). Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in samples collected at recruitment. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of type 2 diabetes for quartiles of 25(OH)D relative to the lowest quartile and per 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D, adjusting for confounding variables. The ORs for the highest versus lowest 25(OH)D quartile and per 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.81) and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.92; p=0.004), respectively. In participants who reported being in good/very good/excellent health approximately four years after recruitment, ORs for the highest versus lowest 25(OH)D quartile and per 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D were 0.46 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.72) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.89; p=0.003), respectively. In this sample of middle-aged Australians, vitamin D status was inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes, and this association did not appear to be explained by reverse causality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Sociodemographic patterning of long-term diabetes mellitus control following Japan's 3.11 triple disaster: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Leppold, Claire; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Nomura, Shuhei; Shimada, Yuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the sociodemographic patterning of changes in glycaemic control of patients with diabetes affected by the 2011 triple disaster in Japan (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident). Methods A retrospective cohort study was undertaken with 404 patients with diabetes at a public hospital in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured in 2010, 2011 and 2012 to capture changes in glycaemic control postdisaster. Age, sex, urban/rural residency, evacuation status and medication use were also assessed. Results There was an overall deterioration in glycaemic control after the disaster, with the mean HbA1c rising from 6.77% in 2010 to 6.90% in 2012 (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, NGSP). Rural residency was associated with a lower likelihood of deteriorating control (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.84), compared with urban residency. Older age (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.98) was also slightly protective against increased HbA1c. Evacuation and sex were not significant predictors. Conclusions Patients with diabetes who were affected by Japan's triple disaster experienced a deterioration in their glycaemic control following the disasters. The extent of this deterioration was mediated by sociodemographic factors, with rural residence and older age protective against the effects of the disaster on glycaemic control. These results may be indicative of underlying social determinants of health in rural Japan. PMID:27388360

  5. Allergic profiles of mothers and fathers in the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS): a nationwide birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Hanada, Kiwako; Yang, Limin; Ishitsuka, Kazue; Ayabe, Tadayuki; Mezawa, Hidetoshi; Konishi, Mizuho; Shoda, Testsuo; Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) is a nationwide, multicenter, prospective birth cohort investigation launched by the Ministry of Environment in Japan. The purpose of the JECS is to evaluate the influence of prenatal and postnatal exposures to environmental factors on the postnatal health of the children. In this study, we evaluated the allergic characteristics of parents within the JECS cohort. This study covered a wide geographical area and encompassed 15 regional centers. We obtained information regarding doctor diagnosed allergic diseases by using maternal and/or paternal self-administered questionnaires during the first trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples were also obtained from mothers and/or fathers to detect serum IgE concentrations. The prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), atopic dermatitis, and food allergy were 10.9, 36.0, 15.7 and 4.8%, respectively, among 99,013 mothers; these prevalences among 49,991 fathers were 10.8, 30.3, 11.2 and 3.3%, respectively. Any positive antigen-specific IgE sensitization was found in 73.9% of mothers. The most abundant antigen sensitization in mothers was to Japanese cedar (55.6%), followed by Der p 1 (48%); only 1.0% of mothers were sensitized to egg white. This is the first epidemiological report on allergic disorders and allergen sensitization of parents during pregnancy among the Japanese general population.

  6. Collaborative Simulation Grid: Multiscale Quantum-Mechanical/Classical Atomistic Simulations on Distributed PC Clusters in the US and Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kikuchi, Hideaki; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Ogata, Shuji; Kouno, Takahisa; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Tsuruta, Kanji; Saini, Subhash; hide

    2002-01-01

    A multidisciplinary, collaborative simulation has been performed on a Grid of geographically distributed PC clusters. The multiscale simulation approach seamlessly combines i) atomistic simulation backed on the molecular dynamics (MD) method and ii) quantum mechanical (QM) calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT), so that accurate but less scalable computations are performed only where they are needed. The multiscale MD/QM simulation code has been Grid-enabled using i) a modular, additive hybridization scheme, ii) multiple QM clustering, and iii) computation/communication overlapping. The Gridified MD/QM simulation code has been used to study environmental effects of water molecules on fracture in silicon. A preliminary run of the code has achieved a parallel efficiency of 94% on 25 PCs distributed over 3 PC clusters in the US and Japan, and a larger test involving 154 processors on 5 distributed PC clusters is in progress.

  7. Collaborative derivation of reference intervals for major clinical laboratory tests in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Yomamoto, Yoshikazu; Hotta, Taeko; Hosogaya, Shigemi; Miyachi, Hayato; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Ishibashi, Midori; Kang, Dongchon

    2016-05-01

    Three multicentre studies of reference intervals were conducted recently in Japan. The Committee on Common Reference Intervals of the Japan Society of Clinical Chemistry sought to establish common reference intervals for 40 laboratory tests which were measured in common in the three studies and regarded as well harmonized in Japan. The study protocols were comparable with recruitment mostly from hospital workers with body mass index ≤28 and no medications. Age and sex distributions were made equal to obtain a final data size of 6345 individuals. Between-subgroup differences were expressed as the SD ratio (between-subgroup SD divided by SD representing the reference interval). Between-study differences were all within acceptable levels, and thus the three datasets were merged. By adopting SD ratio ≥0.50 as a guide, sex-specific reference intervals were necessary for 12 assays. Age-specific reference intervals for females partitioned at age 45 were required for five analytes. The reference intervals derived by the parametric method resulted in appreciable narrowing of the ranges by applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method in 10 items which were closely associated with prevalent disorders among healthy individuals. Sex- and age-related profiles of reference values, derived from individuals with no abnormal results in major tests, showed peculiar patterns specific to each analyte. Common reference intervals for nationwide use were developed for 40 major tests, based on three multicentre studies by advanced statistical methods. Sex- and age-related profiles of reference values are of great relevance not only for interpreting test results, but for applying clinical decision limits specified in various clinical guidelines. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Calibration between the Estimated Probability of the Risk Assessment Chart of Japan Atherosclerosis Society and Actual Mortality Using External Population: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan (EPOCH-JAPAN).

    PubMed

    Nakai, Michikazu; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Higashiyama, Aya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    In Japan Atherosclerosis Society guidelines for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases 2012 (JAS2012), NIPPON DATA80 risk assessment chart (ND80RAC) was adopted to estimate the 10-year probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality. However, there was no comparison between the estimated mortality calculated by ND80RAC and actual mortality in external populations. Accordingly, we used the large pooled database of cohorts in Japan, EPOCH-JAPAN, as an external population. The participants of EPOCH-JAPAN without a history of cardiovascular disease (15,091 men and 18,589 women aged 40-74 years) were analyzed based on sex. The probability of a 10-year risk of CAD/stroke mortality was estimated by ND80RAC. The participants were divided into both decile of their estimated mortality and three categories according to JAS2012. The calibration between the mean estimated mortality and the actual mortality was performed by the Hosmer and Lemeshow (H-L) test. In both sexes, the estimated CAD mortality was higher than the actual mortality, particularly in higher deciles of estimated mortality, and the estimated stroke mortality was almost concordant with the actual mortality in low/moderate deciles of estimated mortality. As for the categories according to JAS2012, the estimated CAD mortality was higher than the actual mortality in both sexes; actual mortality in Category III was lower than that in Category II in women. However, it increased in the ascending order of category when we excluded the presence of diabetes from Category III. The estimated CAD mortality by ND80RAC tended to be higher than the actual mortality in the population in which the baseline survey was more recently performed.

  9. Industry-University Collaborations in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA – With Emphasis on Publication Freedom and Managing the Intellectual Property Lock-Up Problem

    PubMed Central

    Kneller, Robert; Mongeon, Marcel; Cope, Jeff; Garner, Cathy; Ternouth, Philip

    2014-01-01

    As industry-university collaborations are promoted to commercialize university research and foster economic growth, it is important to understand how companies benefit from these collaborations, and to ensure that resulting academic discoveries are developed for the benefit of all stakeholders: companies, universities and public. Lock up of inventions, and censoring of academic publications, should be avoided if feasible. This case-study analysis of interviews with 90 companies in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA assesses the scope of this challenge and suggests possible resolutions. The participating companies were asked to describe an important interaction with universities, and most described collaborative research. The most frequently cited tensions concerned intellectual property management and publication freedom. IP disagreements were most frequent in the context of narrowly-focused collaborations with American universities. However, in the case of exploratory research, companies accepted the IP management practices of US universities. It might make sense to let companies have an automatic exclusive license to IP from narrowly defined collaborations, but to encourage universities to manage inventions from exploratory collaborations to ensure development incentives. Although Canada, the UK and US have strong publication freedom guarantees, tensions over this issue arose frequently in focused collaborations, though were rare in exploratory collaborations. The UK Lambert Agreements give sponsors the option to control publications in return for paying the full economic cost of a project. This may offer a model for the other three countries. Uniquely among the four countries, Japan enables companies to control exclusively most collaborative inventions and to censor academic publications. Despite this high degree of control, the interviews suggest many companies do not develop university discoveries to their full potential. The steps suggested above may rebalance the

  10. Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores collaboration between library media educators and regular classroom teachers. The article focuses on the context of the issue, positions on the issue, the impact of collaboration, and how to implement effective collaboration into the school system. Various books and professional journals are used to support conclusions…

  11. Mortality in migrants living with HIV in western Europe (1997-2013): a collaborative cohort study.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Many migrants face adverse socioeconomic conditions and barriers to health services that can impair timely HIV diagnosis and access to life-saving treatments. We aimed to assess the differences in overall mortality by geographical origin in HIV-positive men and women using data from COHERE, a large European collaboration of HIV cohorts from 1997 to 2013. In this observational cohort study, we included HIV-positive, antiretroviral-naive people accessing care in western Europe from COHERE. Individuals were eligible if enrolled in a cohort that collected information on geographical origin or ethnic origin from Jan 1, 1997, to March 19, 2013, aged 18-75 years, they had available information about sex, they were not infected perinatally or after the receipt of clotting factor concentrates, and were naive to combination antiretroviral therapy at cohort entry. Migrants' origins were grouped into seven regions: western Europe and similar countries (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the USA); eastern Europe; North Africa and the Middle East; sub-Saharan Africa; Latin America; the Caribbean; and Asia and the rest of Oceania (excluding Australia and New Zealand). Crude and adjusted mortality rate ratios were calculated by use of Poisson regression stratified by sex, comparing each group with the native population. Multiple imputation with chained equations was used to account for missing values. Between Oct 25, 1979, and March 19, 2013, we recruited 279 659 individuals to the COHERE collaboration in EuroCoord. Of these 123 344 men and 45 877 women met the inclusion criteria. Our data suggested effect modification by transmission route (pinteraction=0·12 for men; pinteraction=0·002 for women). No significant difference in mortality was identified by geographical origin in men who have sex with men. In heterosexual populations, most migrant men had mortality lower than or equal to that of native men, whereas no group of migrant women had mortality lower than that in

  12. An orthogeriatric collaborative intervention program for fragility fractures: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Leung, Andraay Hon-Chi; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Chan, Tan; Sze, Pan-Ching; Lau, Thomas; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2011-11-01

    This retrospective cohort study aims to investigate the impact of regular pre- and postoperative geriatric input into the management of geriatric patients with hip fracture, with specific interests in morbidity and mortality. Patients with hip fracture (n = 548) older than 60 years were identified within a 2-year period. In the first year, the patients (n = 270) were managed mainly by orthopedics and this group constituted the control group. In the second year, this group of patients (orthogeriatric group, n = 278) had reviews by orthopedic surgeons and geriatricians (physicians specializing in medicine for the elderly), within 48 hours of admission and regularly thereafter. The main outcomes measured included demographics, length of hospital stay, postoperative complications, mortality, and functional outcomes. Data were collected from records of acute and rehabilitation admissions, and outpatient consultations. The admission to operation time for those in the orthogeriatric group was shorter by 17% (p = 0.02). The percentage of patients deceased at 12 months postoperative was 11.5% for the orthogeriatric group and 20.4% for the conventional group (p = 0.02). A higher percentage of patients in the orthogeriatric group remained independent for daily living activities (24.5%) when compared with the conventional group (23.7%; p = 0.02). In addition to existing evidence that postoperative orthogeriatric collaboration improves mortality and functional outcomes in older patients with hip fractures, this study suggests that allowing preoperative geriatric input in this model of care can produce even more superior results.

  13. Effects of socioeconomic status on physical and mental health of hemodialysis patients in Japan: differences by age, period, and cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Study purpose Whether or not socioeconomic status (SES)-related differences in the health of hemodialysis patients differ by age, period, and birth cohort remains unclear. We examined whether SES-related gaps in physical and mental health change with age, period, and birth cohort for hemodialysis patients. Methods Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, with members of a national patients’ association as participants. We used raking adjustment to create a database which had similar characteristics to the total sample of dialysis patients in Japan. SES was assessed using family size-adjusted income levels. We divided patients into three groups based on their income levels: below the first quartile, over the second quartile and under the third quartile, and over the fourth quartile. We used the number of dialysis complications as a physical health indicator and depressive symptoms as a mental health indicator. We used a cross-classified random-effects model that estimated fixed effects of age categories and period as level-1 factors, and random effects of birth cohort as level-2 factors. Results Relative risk of dialysis complications in respondents below the first quartile compared with ones over the fourth quartile was reduced in age categories >60 years. Mean differences in depressive symptoms between respondents below the first quartile and ones over the fourth quartile peaked in the 50- to 59-year-old age group, and were reduced in age groups >60 years. In addition, mean differences varied across periods, widening from 1996 to 2006. There were no significant birth cohort effects on income differences for dialysis complications or depressive symptoms. Conclusion The number of dialysis complications and depressive symptoms in dialysis patients were affected by income differences, and the degree of these differences changed with age category and period. PMID:27471405

  14. Sociodemographic patterning of long-term diabetes mellitus control following Japan's 3.11 triple disaster: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Leppold, Claire; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Nomura, Shuhei; Shimada, Yuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Ochi, Sae; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Hill, Sarah

    2016-07-07

    To assess the sociodemographic patterning of changes in glycaemic control of patients with diabetes affected by the 2011 triple disaster in Japan (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident). A retrospective cohort study was undertaken with 404 patients with diabetes at a public hospital in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured in 2010, 2011 and 2012 to capture changes in glycaemic control postdisaster. Age, sex, urban/rural residency, evacuation status and medication use were also assessed. There was an overall deterioration in glycaemic control after the disaster, with the mean HbA1c rising from 6.77% in 2010 to 6.90% in 2012 (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, NGSP). Rural residency was associated with a lower likelihood of deteriorating control (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.84), compared with urban residency. Older age (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.98) was also slightly protective against increased HbA1c. Evacuation and sex were not significant predictors. Patients with diabetes who were affected by Japan's triple disaster experienced a deterioration in their glycaemic control following the disasters. The extent of this deterioration was mediated by sociodemographic factors, with rural residence and older age protective against the effects of the disaster on glycaemic control. These results may be indicative of underlying social determinants of health in rural Japan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. WINDS (KIZUNA)-based Collaborative e-Learning Project in Thailand, Malaysia and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisanaga, Makoto; Takahashi, Shin; Kameyama, Keisuke; Fukui, Yukio; Kitawaki, Nobuhiko

    The expanding digital divide deprives students in developing countries with opportunities for education. Advanced countries have the ability to enhance those opportunities. For this study, the authors set up and tested a remote lecture system using a commercial communication satellite beginning in 2002. This project attempted to solve issues in remote lecture systems using conventional satellite systems, and to build up a real-time collaborative lecture delivery system using a new satellite, called the Wideband InterNetworking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite (WINDS). This work proposes a remote education system using satellites, enabling the issues raised in the pilot experiments to be solved. Principal outcomes in this project include improvements of the quality of image and sound, and the communication delay. The authors also demonstrate the usefulness of WINDS in the education field.

  16. Driver development of IFE power plant in Japan Collaborative process with industry and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, S.; Yamanaka, M.; Kitagawa, Y.; Fujita, K.; Heya, M.; Mima, K.; Izawa, Y.; Nakatsuka, M.; Murakami, M.; Ueda, K.; Sasaki, T.; Mori, Y.; Kanabe, T.; Hiruma, T.; Kan, H.; Kawashima, T.

    2006-06-01

    The typical specifications of the laser driver for a commercial IFE power plant are (1) total energy (MJ/pulse) with a tailored 20-40 ns pulse, (2) repetition operation (˜ 10 Hz), (3) efficiency (˜ 10%) with enough robustness and low cost. The key elements of the DPSSL driver technology are under development with HALNA. The HALNA 10 (High Average-power Laser for Nuclear-fusion Application) demonstrated 10 J × 10 Hz operation and the HALNA 100 (100 J × 10 Hz) is now under construction. By using the high average power and high intensity lasers, new industrial applications are being proceeded. The collaborative process for the development of high power laser with industry and for the industrial applications is effective and essential in the development of the laser driver for IFE power plant.

  17. Overtime Work and Prevalence of Diabetes in Japanese Employees: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Akiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Uehara, Akihiko; Kuroda, Reiko; Omoto, Daisuke; Kurotani, Kayo; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2014-01-01

    Objective Epidemiologic evidence on long working hour and diabetes has been conflicting. We examined the association between overtime work and prevalence of diabetes among Japanese workers. Methods The subjects were 40,861 employees (35,170 men and 5,691 women), aged 16 to 83 years, of 4 companies in Japan. Hours of overtime were assessed using self-reported questionnaires. Diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l), hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol), or current use of anti-diabetic drug. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratio of diabetes for each category of overtime. Results After adjustment for age, sex, company, smoking, and BMI, there was a suggestion of U-shaped relationship between overtime work and prevalence of diabetes (P for quadratic trend = 0.07). Compared with those who worked <45 hours of overtime per month, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of diabetes were 0.86 (0.77–0.94), 0.69 (0.53–0.89), and 1.03 (0.72–1.46) for those who worked 45–79, 80–99, and ≥100 hours of overtime per month, respectively. In one company (n = 33,807), where other potential confounders including shift work, job position, type of department, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, leisure time physical activity, and family history of diabetes was additionally adjusted for, similar result was obtained (P for quadratic trend = 0.05). Conclusions Long hours of overtime work may not be associated with increased prevalence of diabetes among Japanese workers. PMID:24787995

  18. Overtime work and prevalence of diabetes in Japanese employees: Japan epidemiology collaboration on occupational health study.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Uehara, Akihiko; Kuroda, Reiko; Omoto, Daisuke; Kurotani, Kayo; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on long working hour and diabetes has been conflicting. We examined the association between overtime work and prevalence of diabetes among Japanese workers. The subjects were 40,861 employees (35,170 men and 5,691 women), aged 16 to 83 years, of 4 companies in Japan. Hours of overtime were assessed using self-reported questionnaires. Diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l), hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol), or current use of anti-diabetic drug. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratio of diabetes for each category of overtime. After adjustment for age, sex, company, smoking, and BMI, there was a suggestion of U-shaped relationship between overtime work and prevalence of diabetes (P for quadratic trend = 0.07). Compared with those who worked <45 hours of overtime per month, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of diabetes were 0.86 (0.77-0.94), 0.69 (0.53-0.89), and 1.03 (0.72-1.46) for those who worked 45-79, 80-99, and ≥100 hours of overtime per month, respectively. In one company (n = 33,807), where other potential confounders including shift work, job position, type of department, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, leisure time physical activity, and family history of diabetes was additionally adjusted for, similar result was obtained (P for quadratic trend = 0.05). Long hours of overtime work may not be associated with increased prevalence of diabetes among Japanese workers.

  19. Collaborate!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2007-01-01

    This article explores different approaches that facilitate online collaboration. The newest efforts in collaboration revolve around wikis. These websites allow visitors to add, remove, edit, and change content directly online. Another fairly affordable approach involves open source, a programming language that is, in many ways, collaborative…

  20. Economic evaluation of vaccination programme of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to the birth cohort in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Shu-ling; Kondo, Masahide; Okubo, Ichiro

    2013-06-07

    Japan is now preparing to incorporate PCV-7 into the national childhood immunisation programme. Our recently published economic evaluation of using PCV-7 to the birth cohort suggests that the cost to gain one QALY is lower than the WHO's cost-effectiveness criterion for intervention. However, many countries have started to introduce PCV-13 into their national immunisation schedule replacing PCV-7 for preventing pneumococcal diseases among young children. These raise the need to appraise the 'value for money' of replacing PCV-7 with PCV-13 vaccination programme in Japan. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis with Markov model and calculated incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Our base-case analyses, which assumed both PCVs have no net indirect effect and set the cost of PCV-7/PCV-13 per shot at ¥10,000 (US$125)/¥13,000 (US$163). The results show that in Base-case A (assumed PCV-13 has no additional protection against AOM compared to PCV-7), replacing PCV-7 with PCV-13 will cost ¥37,722,901 (US$471,536) or ¥35,584,455 (US$444,850) per QALY when the caregiver's productivity loss is not included or is included, respectively. While in Base-case B (assumed PCV-13 has additional protection against AOM compared to PCV-7), ¥343,830 (US$4298) per QALY or more QALY is gained by saving money without or with caregiver's productivity loss, respectively. We also find that, in Base-case B if cost per PCV-13 shot is equal to or less than that ¥17,000, then a PCV-13 vaccination programme offered to the birth cohort in Japan is likely to be a socially acceptable option compared to the current PCV-7 vaccination programme. Furthermore, if cost per PCV-13 shot is equal to or less than ¥12,000, replacing PCV-7 with PCV-13 will save money and gain more QALYs. While in Base-case A, the replacement can only be socially acceptable if cost per PCV-13 shot is equal to or less than ¥11,000. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal sleep and small for gestational age infants in the Japan Environment and Children's Study: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Morokuma, Seiichi; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Kato, Kiyoko; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Shibata, Eiji; Tsuji, Mayumi; Senju, Ayako; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Kusuhara, Koichi

    2017-08-11

    Small for gestational age infants have an increased risk of immediate complications, short-term morbidity and mortality, and long-term neurologic and metabolic disorders in adulthood. Previous research has shown that reduced sleep duration is a risk factor for SGA birth. However, only a few studies have evaluated maternal sleep as a risk factor for SGA birth. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the amount and quality of mothers' sleep and infants' birth weight. This cohort study (n = 8631) used data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, an ongoing cohort study that began in January 2011. Data on sleep status (sleep duration and one indicator of sleep quality) and potential confounding factors were recorded. A log-binomial regression model was used to estimate the risk of small for gestational age birth, and the results were expressed as risk ratios and their respective 95% confidence interval. No significant results were observed for sleep duration or tiredness upon waking. Neither the amount nor the quality of mothers' sleep was associated with the risk of small for gestational age birth.

  2. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration: A pooling project of studies participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Hazel B.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Wright, Lauren B.; McGowan, Craig; Brook, Mark N.; McClain, Kathleen M.; Jones, Michael E.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Agnoli, Claudia; Baglietto, Laura; Bernstein, Leslie; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Blot, William J.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Butler, Lesley; Chen, Yu; Doody, Michele M.; Dossus, Laure; Eliassen, A. Heather; Giles, Graham G.; Gram, Inger T.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hoffman-Bolton, Judy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Kirsh, Victoria A.; Kitahara, Cari M.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Larsson, Susanna C.; Lund, Eiliv; Ma, Huiyan; Merritt, Melissa A.; Milne, Roger L.; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Ozasa, Kotaro; Palmer, Julie R.; Peeters, Petra H.; Riboli, Elio; Rohan, Thomas E.; Sadakane, Atsuko; Sund, Malin; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vatten, Lars; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Willett, Walter C.; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Sandler, Dale P.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individual-level data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This paper describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations. PMID:28600297

  3. Assessment of questionnaire-based PCB exposure focused on food frequency in birth cohorts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Otake, Masae; Hanazato, Masamichi; Suzuki, Norimichi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Nakaoka, Hiroko; Todaka, Emiko; Mori, Chisato

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) responses and serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels of mothers and fathers recruited from the Chiba Regional Center, which is one of the 15 regional centers of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (mothers: n = 1477, fathers: n = 219). The expected PCB values were estimated from the participants' FFQ answers and medical records (age, body mass index and number of deliveries). Based on the stepwise forward selection results of Bayesian regression models, age and fish and egg consumption were positively associated with PCB concentrations and a number of deliveries were negatively associated with PCB concentrations in mothers, whereas only age was positively associated with PCB concentrations in fathers.These findings indicated that the estimation of daily dietary intake may be useful for the prediction of PCB concentration for mothers.

  4. Economic evaluation of vaccination programme of mumps vaccine to the birth cohort in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Shu-ling; Kondo, Masahide; Okubo, Ichiro

    2014-07-16

    The most common preventative measure against mumps is vaccination with mumps vaccine. In most parts of the world, mumps vaccine is routinely delivered through live attenuated Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine. In Japan, receiving mumps vaccine is voluntary and vaccine uptake rate is less than 30%. The introduction of mumps vaccine into routine vaccination schedule has become one of the current topics in health policy and has raised the need to evaluate efficient ways in protecting children from mumps-related diseases in Japan. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis with Markov model and calculated incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of 11 different programmes; a single-dose programme at 12-16 months and 10 two-dose programmes with second dose uptakes at ages 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11. Our base-case analyse set the cost per shot at ¥6951 (US$72; 1US$=96.8). Results show that single-dose programme dominates status quo. On the other hand, ICERs of all 10 two-dose programmes are under ¥6,300,000 (US$65,082) per QALY from payer's perspective while it ranged from cost-saving to <¥7,000,000 (US$72,314) per QALY from societal perspective. By adopting WHO's classification that an intervention is cost-effective if ICER (in QALY) is between one and three times of GDP as a criterion, either of the vaccination programme is concluded as cost-effective from payer's or societal perspectives. Likewise, to uptake second dose at 3-5 years old is more favourable than an uptake at any other age because of lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. US-Japan Collaborative Research on Evaluation Tools and Methods Comparison of Evaluation Tools and Methods Used in the United States (U.S.) and Japan.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-04-01

    The United States (U.S.) and Japan have similar transportation challenges, and share a common belief that cooperative systems can deliver significant societal benefits for road users, especially in terms of safer, more energy-efficient, and environme...

  6. Effect of Patient Experience on Bypassing a Primary Care Gatekeeper: a Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takuya; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Ikenoue, Tatsuyoshi; Kaneko, Makoto; Kise, Morito; Fujinuma, Yasuki; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2018-05-01

    To discuss how best to implement the gatekeeping functionality of primary care; identifying the factors that cause patients to bypass their primary care gatekeepers when seeking care should be beneficial. To examine the association between patient experience with their primary care physicians and bypassing them to directly obtain care from higher-level healthcare facilities. This prospective cohort study was conducted in 13 primary care clinics in Japan. We assessed patient experience of primary care using the Japanese version of Primary Care Assessment Tool (JPCAT), which comprises six domains: first contact, longitudinality, coordination, comprehensiveness (services available), comprehensiveness (services provided), and community orientation. The primary outcome was the patient bypassing their usual primary care physician to seek care at a hospital, with this occurring at least once in a year. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to adjust clustering within clinics and individual covariates. Data were analyzed from 205 patients for whom a physician at a clinic served as their usual primary care physician. The patient follow-up rate was 80.1%. After adjustment for patients' sociodemographic and health status characteristics, the JPCAT total score was found to be inversely associated with patient bypass behavior (odds ratio per 1 SD increase, 0.44; 95% credible interval, 0.21-0.88). The results of various sensitivity analyses were consistent with those of the primary analysis. We found that patient experience of primary care in Japan was inversely associated with bypassing a primary care gatekeeper to seek care at higher-level healthcare facilities, such as hospitals. Our findings suggest that primary care providers' efforts to improve patient experience should help to ensure appropriate use of healthcare services under loosely regulated gatekeeping systems; further studies are warranted.

  7. Immunogenicity study to investigate the interchangeability among three different types of polio vaccine: A cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohfuji, Satoko; Ito, Kazuya; Ishibashi, Motoki; Shindo, Shizuo; Takasaki, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Takashi; Yokoyama, Takato; Yamashita, Yuji; Shibao, Keigo; Nakano, Takashi; Tsuru, Tomomi; Irie, Shin; Hirota, Yoshio

    2017-06-01

    In Japan, the routine immunization program with oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been suspended since September 2012, when a program with 4 doses of inactivated monovalent polio vaccine (IPV) or quadrivalent vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus with IPV (DTaP-IPV) was introduced. The aim of this study was to examine the interchangeability among these 3 types of polio vaccines.We conducted a prospective cohort study at 5 pediatric clinics in Japan. A total of 153 infants were assigned to 1 of the 4 groups by considering the vaccination history of OPV and trivalent vaccine against DTaP. Eleven infants with a history of OPV received 3 doses of DTaP-IPV; 49 infants with a history of OPV and DTaP received 3 doses of IPV; 50 polio vaccine-naïve infants received 2 doses of IPV followed by 2 doses of DTaP-IPV; and 43 polio vaccine-naive infants received 2 doses of DTaP-IPV followed by IPV. The immunogenicity after polio vaccination was evaluated among these 4 groups.After 2 doses of polio vaccination, more than 80% of the infants exhibited a neutralization antibody titer ≥1:8 for all Sabin strains and wild strains in all groups. After the third dose, the seroprotection proportion (i.e., a neutralization antibody titer ≥1:8) reached about 100%. After the fourth dose, a neutralization antibody titer exceeded the required protective levels (i.e., a neutralization antibody titer ≥1:8) considerably in all groups.Four doses of polio vaccines induced a sufficient level of immunity in Japanese infants, irrespective of vaccine combinations or order.

  8. Risk of lung cancer and consumption of vegetables and fruit in Japanese: A pooled analysis of cohort studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Kenji; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Nagata, Chisato; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Keitaro; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Sasazuki, Shizuka

    2015-08-01

    International reviews have concluded that consumption of fruit and vegetables might decrease the risk of lung cancer. However, the relevant epidemiological evidence still remains insufficient in Japan. Therefore, we performed a pooled analysis of data from four population-based cohort studies in Japan with >200 000 participants and >1700 lung cancer cases. We computed study-specific hazard ratios by quintiles of vegetable and fruit consumption as assessed by food frequency questionnaires. Summary hazard ratios were estimated by pooling the study-specific hazard ratios with a fixed-effect model. In men, we found inverse associations between fruit consumption and the age-adjusted and area-adjusted risk of mortality or incidence of lung cancer. However, the associations were largely attenuated after adjustment for smoking and energy intake. The significant decrease in risk among men remained only for a moderate level of fruit consumption; the lowest summary hazard ratios were found in the third quintile of intake (mortality: 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.84; incidence: 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.70-0.98). This decrease in risk was mainly detected in ever smokers. Conversely, vegetable intake was positively correlated with the risk of incidence of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and energy intake in men (trend P, 0.024); the summary hazard ratio for the highest quintile was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.05-1.50). However, a similar association was not detected for mortality from lung cancer. In conclusion, a moderate level of fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in men among the Japanese population. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  9. Workplace social capital and the onset of major depressive episode among workers in Japan: a 3-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sakuraya, Asuka; Imamura, Kotaro; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Takahashi, Masaya; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the prospective association of workplace social capital (WSC) with major depressive episode (MDE) among Japanese employees. A 3-year prospective cohort study was conducted among 1058 employees from a private think-tank company who participated in a baseline survey; after excluding those with MDE in the past 12 months, 929 were followed up. WSC at baseline was measured using a 3-item scale. MDE was assessed at baseline and at follow-up every year, by using a web-based, self-administered version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI) 3.0 depression section, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition: Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)/DSM-5 criteria. Cox discrete-time hazards analyses were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs, adjusting for covariates. A group with middle-level WSC scores had the lowest risk of MDE after being fully adjusted (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.84, p=0.02). The relationship between WSC and MDE was U-shaped, although a non-linear model fit better than a linear model, with only marginally statistical significance (p=0.06). Dichotomised and continuous variables of WSC scores were significantly and negatively associated with MDE (p=0.03 and p<0.01, respectively). The current study replicated a previous finding from Finland that WSC was a protective factor of the onset of MDE in Japan. The slightly U-shaped relationship, that is, the group with high WSC having a small elevated risk of MDE, may reflect a dark side of WSC in a country with collectivity-oriented and hierarchy-oriented culture, such as Japan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Risk of lung cancer and consumption of vegetables and fruit in Japanese: A pooled analysis of cohort studies in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Wakai, Kenji; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Nagata, Chisato; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Keitaro; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Sasazuki, Shizuka

    2015-01-01

    International reviews have concluded that consumption of fruit and vegetables might decrease the risk of lung cancer. However, the relevant epidemiological evidence still remains insufficient in Japan. Therefore, we performed a pooled analysis of data from four population-based cohort studies in Japan with >200 000 participants and >1700 lung cancer cases. We computed study-specific hazard ratios by quintiles of vegetable and fruit consumption as assessed by food frequency questionnaires. Summary hazard ratios were estimated by pooling the study-specific hazard ratios with a fixed-effect model. In men, we found inverse associations between fruit consumption and the age-adjusted and area-adjusted risk of mortality or incidence of lung cancer. However, the associations were largely attenuated after adjustment for smoking and energy intake. The significant decrease in risk among men remained only for a moderate level of fruit consumption; the lowest summary hazard ratios were found in the third quintile of intake (mortality: 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.60–0.84; incidence: 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.70–0.98). This decrease in risk was mainly detected in ever smokers. Conversely, vegetable intake was positively correlated with the risk of incidence of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and energy intake in men (trend P, 0.024); the summary hazard ratio for the highest quintile was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.05–1.50). However, a similar association was not detected for mortality from lung cancer. In conclusion, a moderate level of fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in men among the Japanese population. PMID:26033436

  11. Residency hospital type and career paths in Japan: an analysis of physician registration cohorts.

    PubMed

    Koike, Soichi; Kodama, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Shinya; Ide, Hiroo; Yasunaga, Hideo; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, a new postgraduate medical training system was introduced in Japan and a shift of new graduates from university hospitals to other postgraduate education hospitals happened. The aim of this study is to analyse the past trends on postgraduate medical education choices and subsequent career options to discuss possible outcomes of the current shift and policy implications. Data from the national physician survey from 1976 to 2006 were analysed. The proportion change of physicians started their career in university hospitals was calculated. The career paths for physicians by different residency type were presented. More than 90% of physicians experienced university hospital work at least once in their 20-year careers. In their first 10 years of their career, physicians who started their residency in a university hospital tended to spend more years working in university hospitals, and those who started in other post-graduate training hospitals tended to spend less in university hospitals. Then, these groups presented quite similar patterns in their career choices. University hospitals need to strengthen their function as continuing education and career development centres and to adopt a less paternalistic approach, as fewer residents start their career in university hospitals.

  12. Social networks and mortality based on the Komo-Ise cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Otani, Tetsuya; Sunaga, Rumiko; Miyazaki, Hiroko; Xiao, Liu; Wang, Naren; Yosiaki, Sasazawa; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2002-12-01

    No prospective studies have examined the association between social networks and all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged Japanese. The study of varied populations may contribute to clarifying the robustness of the observed effects of social networks and extend their generalizability. To clarify the association between social networks and mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese, a community-based prospective study, the Komo-Ise Study, was conducted in two areas of Gunma Prefecture, Japan. A total of 11 565 subjects aged 40-69 years at baseline in 1993 completed a self-administered questionnaire. During the 7-year follow-up period, 335 men and 155 women died and the relative risk (RR) of each social network item was estimated by the Cox proportional hazard model. Single women had significantly increased risks of all-cause (multivariate RR = 2.2), and all circulatory system disease (age-area adjusted RR = 2.6) mortality. Men who did not participate in hobbies, club activities, or community groups had significantly higher multivariate RR for all-cause (RR = 1.5), all circulatory system disease (RR = 1.6) and non-cancer and non-circulatory system disease (RR = 2.3) mortality. Urban women who rarely or never met close relatives had significantly elevated risks of all-cause (RR = 2.4), all cancer (RR = 2.6), and non-cancer and non-circulatory system disease (RR = 2.7) mortality after adjustment for established risk factors. This study provides evidence that social networks are an important predictor of mortality risk for middle-aged and elderly Japanese men and women. Lack of participation, for men, and being single and lack of meeting close relatives, for women, were independent risk factors for mortality.

  13. First direct comparison of clinical outcomes between European and Asian cohorts in transcatheter aortic valve implantation: the Massy study group vs. the PREVAIL JAPAN trial.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Hayashida, Kentaro; Takayama, Morimasa; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nanto, Shinsuke; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Kuratani, Toru; Tobaru, Tetsuya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Lefèvre, Thierry; Sawa, Yoshiki; Morice, Marie-Claude

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy and safety of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in Asian populations were unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare directly the clinical outcomes of the first Japanese trial and a European single-center experience after TAVI. Between April 2010 and October 2011, 64 patients were included in the PREVAIL JAPAN multicenter trial which was set up to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Edwards SAPIEN XT™ (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) in high-risk Japanese patients with severe aortic stenosis. Between March 2010 and January 2012, 237 consecutive patients treated with TAVI using the Edwards SAPIEN XT™ prosthesis at Institut Cardiovasculaire Paris Sud were prospectively included in the Massy cohort. We compared the clinical outcomes of these two cohorts. Patients were of similar age (83.4±6.6 years vs. 84.5±6.1 years, p=0.25), but logistic EuroSCORE was higher in the Massy cohort (20.2±11.7% vs. 15.6±8.0%, p<0.01). Body surface area was smaller in the PREVAIL JAPAN cohort (1.41±0.14m(2) vs. 1.72±0.18m(2); p<0.01) as was the annulus diameter (20.4±1.46mm vs. 22.0±1.84mm, p<0.01). The transfemoral approach was used in 57.8% in the Japanese cohort vs. 51.5% in the Massy cohort. Device success was similar (89.1% vs. 94.1%, p=0.21, respectively), as well as 30-day and 6-month survival rates (92.2% vs. 90.7% and 89.1% vs. 83.1%, p=0.71 and p=0.25, respectively). The incidence of major vascular complications was not significantly different between the two groups (9.4% vs. 5.9%, p=0.23, respectively). A higher post-procedural mean pressure gradient was observed in the PREVAIL JAPAN cohort (12.7±11.4mmHg vs. 10.1±3.6mmHg, p=0.01), but satisfactory improvement in 6-month functional status was obtained in both cohorts (76.5% vs. 77.2%, p=0.91). Clinical outcomes after TAVI in the patients included in the PREVAIL JAPAN trial were acceptable and as safe as that of a single-center European cohort. Copyright © 2014 Japanese

  14. Smoking and subsequent risk of acute myeloid leukaemia: A pooled analysis of 9 cohort studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ugai, Tomotaka; Matsuo, Keitaro; Oze, Isao; Ito, Hidemi; Wakai, Kenji; Wada, Keiko; Nagata, Chisato; Nakayama, Tomio; Liu, Rong; Kitamura, Yuri; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Tsuji, Ichiro; Sugawara, Yumi; Sawada, Norie; Sadakane, Atsuko; Tanaka, Keitaro; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Shimazu, Taichi

    2018-02-01

    Smoking has been identified as a significant risk factor for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However, epidemiological evidence for the effect of smoking on the risk of AML among Asians is scarce. Here, we investigated the impact of smoking habits on the risk of AML by conducting a pooled analysis of 9 population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan. We analysed original data on smoking habits at baseline from 9 cohort studies. Hazard ratios (HRs) in the individual studies were calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for potential confounders and combined using a random-effects model. During 4 808 175 person-years of follow-up for a total of 344 676 participants (165 567 men and 179 109 women), 245 AML cases (139 men and 106 women) were identified. For both sexes combined, current smokers had a marginally significant increased risk of AML compared to never smokers (HR = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-2.14). Ever smokers with more than 30 pack-years had a statistically significant increased risk of AML compared to never smokers among both sexes combined (HR = 1.66, 95% CI, 1.06-2.63). By sex, this significant association was observed only among men, with an HR of 1.69 (95% CI, 1.00-2.87) for ever smokers with more than 30 pack-years relative to never smokers. In conclusion, this study confirmed that cigarette smoking increases the risk of AML in Japanese. This study provides important evidence that smoking increases the risk of AML among Asians, which has already been shown in Western populations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Collaboration

    Science.gov Websites

    Los Alamos National Laboratory Search Site submit About Mission Business Newsroom Publications Los Innovation in New Mexico Los Alamos Collaboration for Explosives Detection (LACED) SensorNexus Exascale Computing Project (ECP) User Facilities Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Los Alamos Neutron

  16. Cohort-Specific Online Discussion Experiences: A Collaborative and Multidisciplinary Approach to Improving Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selhorst, Adam L.; Klein, Eric; Harrison, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Research addressing the effects of cohort size on student success in asynchronous online discussions is sparse. As such, the following study attempted to determine an optimal student cohort size to enhance success and engagement within online discussions in general education courses at a large post-secondary university consisting of predominately…

  17. Practicing Collaboration: What We Learn from a Cohort that Functions Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Dorene D.; Stafford, Lynn; Church-Pupke, Penny; Bondy, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Students in the Unified Elementary/Special Education Program at the University of Florida are organized into cohort groups, a common recommendation within the special education teacher education literature. Although highly effective in some instances, the literature also documents numerous problems in the use of cohorts. The current study was…

  18. Effect of the National Stress Check Program on mental health among workers in Japan: A 1-year retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Kotaro; Asai, Yumi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Hiro, Hisanori; Odagiri, Yuko; Yoshikawa, Toru; Yoshikawa, Etsuko; Kawakami, Norito

    2018-04-18

    This retrospective cohort study evaluated the impact of the Stress Check Program, a recently introduced national policy and program aimed at reducing psychological distress among Japanese workers. A baseline survey was conducted from November 2015 to February 2016, the period when Japan began enforcing the Stress Check Program. A one-year follow-up survey was conducted in December 2016. In the follow-up survey, two exposure variables were collected: having taken the annual stress survey, and experiencing an improvement in the psychosocial work environment. Psychological distress was assessed using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) at baseline and 1-year follow-up. The two exposure variables were used to define four groups: "Neither", "Stress survey (SS) only", "Psychosocial work environment improvement (WI) only", and "Both". BJSQ results were analyzed using repeated measures general linear modeling (GLM). The study included 2,492 participants: 1,342 in the "Neither" group, 1,009 in the "SS only" group, 76 in the "WI only" group, and 65 in the "Both" group. Overall time-group interaction effects were not significant. The "Both" group showed significantly greater improvements in psychological distress than the "Neither" group (p = 0.02) at the 1-year follow-up, although the effect size was small (d = -0.14). Combination of the annual stress survey and improvement in psychosocial work environment may have been effective in reducing psychological distress in workers, although the effect size was small.

  19. Information exchange using a prescribed form and involvement of occupational health nurses promotes occupational physicians to collaborate with attending physicians for supporting workers with illness in Japan.

    PubMed

    Muto, Go; Nakamura, Rina Ishii; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Omori, Yuki; Saito, Masahiko; Endo, Motoki

    2017-12-19

    The maintenance of a balance between work and disease treatment is an important issue in Japan. This study explored factors that affect collaboration between occupational physicians (OPs) and attending physicians (APs). A questionnaire was mailed to 1,102 OPs. The questionnaire assessed the demographic characteristics of OPs; their opinions and behaviors related to collaboration, including the exchange of medical information with APs; and the occupational health service system at their establishments. In total, 275 OPs completed the questionnaire (25.0% response rate). Over 80% of respondents believed OPs should collaborate with APs. After adjusting for company size, collaboration >10 times/year (with regard to both returning to work following sick leave and annual health check-ups for employees) was significantly associated with environmental factors, such as the presence of occupational health nurses (odds ratio (OR): 5.56 and 5.01, respectively, p<0.05) and the use of prescribed forms for information exchange (OR: 4.21 and 3.63, respectively, p<0.05) but not with the demographic characteristics of the OPs (p>0.05). The majority of OPs believed that collaboration with APs is important for supporting workers with illnesses. Support systems including prescribed forms of information exchange and occupational health nurses, play pivotal roles in promoting this collaboration.

  20. Sleep Duration and the Risk of Mortality From Stroke in Japan: The Takayama Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Toshiaki; Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Nagata, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke). During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke) were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16-1.97) and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16-2.35) for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep) was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.01), although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06). The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively). There was a significant risk reduction of hemorrhagic stroke mortality for ≤6 h of sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.98; P for trend = 0.08). The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16-0.64). Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men.

  1. Trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia in 1950-2004: comparative study of Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore using age, period and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Ma, Enbo; Tanaka, Hideo; Ioka, Akiko; Nakahara, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Hideto

    2012-02-15

    To characterize the temporal trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia and to better interpret the causes of the trends, we performed age, period and cohort analysis (APC analysis) on the mortality rates in Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore during 1950-2004, as well as the rates in the US as a control population. For the APC analysis, Holford's approach was used to avoid the identification problem. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) decreased consistently in all four areas during the observation period in both males and females. Japan had the highest ASMR in both sexes, followed by Singapore, Hong Kong and the US, but the differences in ASMR among the four areas diminished with time. The results of APC analysis suggested that the decreasing mortality rates in Eastern Asia were caused by the combination of decreasing cohort effect since the end of the 1800s and decreasing period effect from the 1950s. The US showed similar results, but its decreases in the period and cohort effect preceded those of Eastern Asia. Possible causes for the decrease in the cohort effect include improvement in the socioeconomic conditions during childhood and a decrease in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, while possible causes for the decrease in the period effect include a decrease in dietary salt intake and improvements in cancer detection and treatment. These findings may help us to predict future changes in the mortality rates of stomach cancer. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  2. The ecology of medical care on an isolated island in Okinawa, Japan: a retrospective open cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Makoto; Matsushima, Masato; Irving, Greg

    2017-01-14

    We aimed to describe the ecology of medical care on an isolated island with limited access to secondary care, and to evaluate the gatekeeping function of the island's primary care clinic through comparison with a previous nationwide survey. We conducted this retrospective, open cohort study on Iheya, an isolated island in Okinawa Prefecture that has one primary care clinic. We considered Iheya as unique location in which to examine the role of primary care in Japan. Participants were patients who visited the island's clinic between February 1, 2013 and January 31, 2014. We calculated the number of visits to the clinic and referrals to off-island medical facilities using electronic medical records. We also compared data for Iheya with a nationwide survey conducted in 2003. Iheya had 1314 inhabitants in 2013. Of the 5682 visits to the clinic in the 1-year study period, 290 people were referred to off-island medical institutions. There were 64 referrals to emergency departments; of these, 57 people were admitted to hospital. The rate of visits to the clinic per month per 1000 inhabitants was 360.4 visits (95% confidence interval: 351.0-369.7). Of these, 18.4 (16.3-20.5) were referred off-island, with 4.1 (3.1-5.1) referrals to emergency departments and 3.6 (2.6-4.6) hospitalizations. Despite the high incidence of visits to the primary care clinic, the rates of hospital-based outpatient clinic visits, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations were lower than rates reported in a previous Japanese study. This suggests that several dimensions of primary care, its gatekeeping function in particular, are likely to play important roles in this geographical setting.

  3. Can a disaster affect rheumatoid arthritis status? A retrospective cohort study after the 2011 triple disaster in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Sae; Kato, Shigeaki; Leppold, Claire; Morita, Tomohiro; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Shineha, Ryuzaburo; Kanazawa, Yukio; Fujiwara, Masatoshi

    2018-06-01

    As status of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is highly affected by environmental factors, a catastrophic disaster may also affect RA activity. Herein we conducted a retrospective cohort study in the disaster area of the 2011 triple disaster in Fukushima, Japan: an earthquake, tsunamis and a nuclear accident. Clinical records of RA patients who attended a hospital near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were collected. For those who underwent whole-body counter testing, internal radiation exposure levels were also collected. As clinical parameters may fluctuate in the absence of a disaster, changes in values before and after the disaster were also compared. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors affecting RA status. Fifty-three patients (average age, 64.2 years; females, 83%; average disease duration, 15.7 years) were included in the study. Five patients lived within the no-entry zone, 37 evacuated immediately after the disaster, and four temporarily stopped RA treatment. The proportions of patients who showed worsened tender joint counts, swollen joint counts and rheumatoid factor values were significantly higher after the disaster compared to those before. Among the 16 patients who underwent whole-body counter testing, only one showed a detectable, but negligible, radioactive cesium level. Use of methotrexate was identified as a possible preventive factor for RA exacerbation in this setting. This is the first study to analyze detailed profiles of RA patients after a disaster. As methotrexate may prevent disease exacerbation, continuity of care for this common chronic disease should be considered in disaster settings. © 2018 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Assessment Report of US-Japan-Europe Collaborative Research on Probe Data International Probe Data Work Group Phase 2.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-01-01

    The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), the Road Bureau of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism (MLIT) of Japan, and the European Unions European Commission Directorate General for Communications Networks, Conte...

  5. Insurability of HIV-positive people treated with antiretroviral therapy in Europe: collaborative analysis of HIV cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Kaulich-Bartz, Josee; Dam, Wayne; May, Margaret T.; Lederberger, Bruno; Widmer, Urs; Phillips, Andrew N.; Grabar, Sophie; Mocroft, Amanda; Vilaro, Josep; van Sighem, Ard; Moreno, Santiago; Dabis, François; Monforte, Antonella D’Arminio; Teira, Ramon; Ingle, Suzanne M.; Sterne, Jonathan A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To increase equitable access to life insurance for HIV-positive individuals by identifying subgroups with lower relative mortality. Design: Collaborative analysis of cohort studies. Methods: We estimated relative mortality from 6 months after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART), compared with the insured population in each country, among adult patients from European cohorts participating in the ART Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) who were not infected via injection drug use, had not tested positive for hepatitis C, and started triple ART between 1996–2008. We used Poisson models for mortality, with the expected number of deaths according to age, sex and country specified as offset. Results: There were 1236 deaths recorded among 34 680 patients followed for 174 906 person-years. Relative mortality was lower in patients with higher CD4 cell count and lower HIV-1 RNA 6 months after starting ART, without prior AIDS, who were older, and who started ART after 2000. Compared with insured HIV-negative lives, estimated relative mortality of patients aged 20–39 from France, Italy, United Kingdom, Spain and Switzerland, who started ART after 2000 had 6-month CD4 cell count at least 350 cells/μl and HIV-1 RNA less than104 copies/ml and without prior AIDS was 459%. The proportion of exposure time with relative mortality below 300, 400, 500 and 600% was 28, 43, 61 and 64%, respectively, suggesting that more than 50% of patients (those with lower relative mortality) could be insurable. Conclusion: The continuing long-term effectiveness of ART implies that life insurance with sufficiently long duration to cover a mortgage is feasible for many HIV-positive people successfully treated with ART for more than 6 months. PMID:23449349

  6. [Construction of the collaborative relationship for the complicated patients with the Critical care centers and the Emergency departments in regional hospitals in Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yasufumi

    2016-02-01

    All the people have the right to die with dignity, but increase of elderly people and progress of the depauperation and isolation in Japan make it more difficult in this decade. As one of some solutions, we propose structuring the collaborative relationship between the critical care centers and the regional hospitals for the complicated patients. Patients inferred seriously ill should be transported first to the critical care center with substantial medical equipment and enough staff, diagnosed and stabilized in it. After those procedures, patients are transfered to and followed in the regional hospital for a certain period. These allotments of functions between hospitals are useful in the present condition.

  7. An MBA Cohort's Use of an Enterprise Social Network for Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Glen D.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid pace of social media means that our understanding of the way in which it facilitates the learning process continues to lag. The findings of a longitudinal study of an executive MBA cohort over a period of eight months in their use of the social media application Yammer is presented. Student interaction data was analysed using a form of…

  8. Tenofovir in second-line ART in Zambia and South Africa: Collaborative analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Wandeler, Gilles; Keiser, Olivia; Mulenga, Lloyd; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Wood, Robin; Chaweza, Thom; Brennan, Alana; Prozesky, Hans; Garone, Daniela; Giddy, Janet; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Boulle, Andrew; Egger, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Tenofovir (TDF) is increasingly used in second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. We compared outcomes of second-line ART containing and not containing TDF in cohort studies from Zambia and the Republic of South Africa (RSA). Methods Patients aged ≥ 16 years starting protease inhibitor-based second-line ART in Zambia (1 cohort) and RSA (5 cohorts) were included. We compared mortality, immunological failure (all cohorts) and virological failure (RSA only) between patients receiving and not receiving TDF. Competing risk models and Cox models adjusted for age, sex, CD4 count, time on first-line ART and calendar year were used to analyse mortality and treatment failure, respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) were combined in fixed-effects meta-analysis. Findings 1,687 patients from Zambia and 1,556 patients from RSA, including 1,350 (80.0%) and 206 (13.2%) patients starting TDF, were followed over 4,471 person-years. Patients on TDF were more likely to have started second-line ART in recent years, and had slightly higher baseline CD4 counts than patients not on TDF. Overall 127 patients died, 532 were lost to follow-up and 240 patients developed immunological failure. In RSA 94 patients had virologic failure. Combined HRs comparing tenofovir with other regimens were 0.60 (95% CI 0.41–0.87) for immunologic failure and 0.63 (0.38–1.05) for mortality. The HR for virologic failure in RSA was 0.28 (0.09–0.90). Conclusions In this observational study patients on TDF-containing second-line ART were less likely to develop treatment failure than patients on other regimens. TDF seems to be an effective component of second-line ART in southern Africa. PMID:22743595

  9. Cesarean Outcomes in US Birth Centers and Collaborating Hospitals: A Cohort Comparison.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Patrick; McFarlin, Barbara L; Park, Chang; Rankin, Kristin; Schorn, Mavis; Finnegan, Lorna; Stapleton, Susan

    2017-01-01

    High rates of cesarean birth are a significant health care quality issue, and birth centers have shown potential to reduce rates of cesarean birth. Measuring this potential is complicated by lack of randomized trials and limited observational comparisons. Cesarean rates vary by provider type, setting, and clinical and nonclinical characteristics of women, but our understanding of these dynamics is incomplete. We sought to isolate labor setting from other risk factors in order to assess the effect of birth centers on the odds of cesarean birth. We generated low-risk cohorts admitted in labor to hospitals (n = 2527) and birth centers (n = 8776) using secondary data obtained from the American Association of Birth Centers (AABC). All women received prenatal care in the birth center and midwifery care in labor, but some chose hospital admission for labor. Analysis was intent to treat according to site of admission in spontaneous labor. We used propensity score adjustment and multivariable logistic regression to control for cohort differences and measured effect sizes associated with setting. There was a 37% (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.79) to 38% (adjusted OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.49-0.79) decreased odds of cesarean in the birth center cohort and a remarkably low overall cesarean rate of less than 5% in both cohorts. These findings suggest that low rates of cesarean in birth centers are not attributable to labor setting alone. The entire birth center care model, including prenatal preparation and relationship-based midwifery care, should be studied, promoted, and implemented by policy makers interested in achieving appropriate cesarean rates in the United States. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. Insufficient Sleep and Incidence of Dental Caries in Deciduous Teeth among Children in Japan: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyan; Tanaka, Shiro; Arai, Korenori; Yoshida, Satomi; Kawakami, Koji

    2018-04-27

    To examine whether late bedtime and short nighttime sleep duration at age 18 months are associated with risk of caries in deciduous teeth. Population-based cohort study using health check-up data of 71 069 children born in Kobe City, Japan, who were free of caries at age 18 months and had information on sleep variables at age 18 months and records of dental examinations at age 3 years. Sleep variables were assessed by standardized parent-reported questionnaires, and the incidence of caries in deciduous teeth was defined as the occurrence of at least 1 decayed, missing, or filled tooth assessed by qualified dentists without radiographs. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of late bedtime and short sleep duration on dental caries with adjustment for clinical and lifestyle characteristics. Overall, 11 343 (16.0%) cases of caries were observed at age 3 years. aORs for children with late or irregular bedtimes compared with those with bedtimes before 21:00 were 1.26 (95% CI 1.19-1.33), 1.48 (1.38-1.58), 1.74 (1.58-1.92), 1.90 (1.58-2.29), and 1.66 (1.53-1.81) for bedtimes at 21:00, 22:00, 23:00, 0:00, and irregular bedtime, respectively. aORs for children with short or irregular sleep duration compared with those with sleep duration of ≥11 hours were 1.30 (95% CI 1.15-1.47), 1.16 (1.09-1.24), 1.11 (1.05-1.18), and 1.35 (1.25-1.46) for sleep duration of ≤ 8, 9, 10 hours, and irregular sleep duration, respectively. In this exploratory study, late bedtime and short sleep duration were both consistently associated with increased risk of caries in deciduous teeth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada. PMID:23356884

  12. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sonia S; Vasudevan, Anil; Gupta, Milan; Morrison, Katherine; Kurpad, Anura; Teo, Koon K; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2013-01-28

    People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada.

  13. Mortality of treated HIV-1 positive individuals according to viral subtype in Europe and Canada: collaborative cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    2016-01-28

    To estimate prognosis by viral subtype in HIV-1-infected individuals from start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and after viral failure. Collaborative analysis of data from eight European and three Canadian cohorts. Adults (N>20 000) who started triple ART between 1996 and 2012 and had data on viral subtype were followed for mortality. We estimated crude and adjusted (for age, sex, regimen, CD4 cell count, and AIDS at baseline, period of starting ART, stratified by cohort, region of origin and risk group) mortality hazard ratios (MHR) by subtype. We estimated MHR subsequent to viral failure defined as two HIV-RNA measurements greater than 500 copies/ml after achieving viral suppression. The most prevalent subtypes were B (15 419; 74%), C (2091; 10%), CRF02AG (1057; 5%), A (873; 4%), CRF01AE (506; 2.4%), G (359; 1.7%), and D (232; 1.1%). Subtypes were strongly patterned by region of origin and risk group. During 104 649 person-years of observation, 1172/20 784 patients died. Compared with subtype B, mortality was higher for subtype A, but similar for all other subtypes. MHR for A versus B were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.85,1.50) when stratified by cohort, increased to 1.78 (1.27,2.51) on stratification by region and risk, and attenuated to 1.59 (1.14,2.23) on adjustment for covariates. MHR for A versus B was 2.65 (1.64,4.28) and 0.95 (0.57,1.57) for patients who started ART with CD4 cell count below, or more than, 100 cells/μl, respectively. There was no difference in mortality between subtypes A, B and C after viral failure. Patients with subtype A had worse prognosis, an observation which may be confounded by socio-demographic factors.

  14. Introducing laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer in general practice: a retrospective cohort study based on a nationwide registry database in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kodera, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Kumamaru, Hiraku; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Hiki, Naoki; Etoh, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Michitaka; Miyata, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Yuichi; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kitano, Seigo; Konno, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-09

    Although laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) is considered a technically demanding procedure with safety issues, it has been performed in several hospitals in Japan. Data from a nationwide web-based data entry system for surgical procedures (NCD) that started enrollment in 2011 are now available for analysis. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from 32,144 patients who underwent total gastrectomy and were registered in the NCD database between January 2012 and December 2013. Mortality and morbidities were compared between patients who received LTG and those who underwent open total gastrectomy (OTG) in the propensity score-matched Stage I cohort and Stage II-IV cohort. There was no significant difference in mortality rate between LTG and OTG in both cohorts. Operating time was significantly longer in LTG while the blood loss was smaller. In the Stage I cohort, LTG, performed in 33.6% of the patients, was associated with significantly shorter hospital stay but significantly higher incidence of readmission, reoperation, and anastomotic leakage (5.4% vs. 3.6%, p < 0.01). In the Stage II-IV cohort, LTG was performed in only 8.8% of the patients and was associated with significantly higher incidence of leakage (5.7% vs. 3.6%, p < 0.02) although the hospital stay was shorter (15 days vs. 17 days, p < 0.001). LTG was more discreetly introduced than distal gastrectomy, but remained a technically demanding procedure as of 2013. This procedure should be performed only among the well-trained and informed laparoscopic team.

  15. Relationship Between Dietary Vitamin D and Deaths From Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sheerah, Haytham A; Eshak, Ehab S; Cui, Renzhe; Imano, Hironori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2018-02-01

    There is growing evidence about the importance of vitamin D for cardiovascular health. Therefore, we examined the relationship between dietary vitamin D intake and risk of mortality from stroke and coronary heart disease in Japanese population. A prospective study encompassing 58 646 healthy Japanese adults (23 099 men and 35  547 women) aged of 40 to 79 years in whom dietary vitamin D intake was determined via a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. The median follow-up period was 19.3 years (1989-2009). The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of mortality were calculated using categories of vitamin D intake. During 965 970 person-years of follow-up, 1514 stroke and 702 coronary heart disease deaths were documented. Vitamin D intake was inversely associated with risk of mortality from total stroke especially intraparenchymal hemorrhage but not from coronary heart disease; the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest (≥440 IU/d) versus lowest (<110 IU/D) categories of vitamin D intake were 0.70 (0.54-0.91; P for trend=0.04) for total stroke and 0.66 (0.46-0.96; P for trend=0.04) for intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Dietary vitamin D intake seems to be inversely associated with mortality from stroke. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Rituximab Retreatment in Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Real-life Cohort: Data from the CERERRA Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Chatzidionysiou, Katerina; Lie, Elisabeth; Lukina, Galina; Hetland, Merete L; Hauge, Ellen-Margrethe; Pavelka, Karel; Gabay, Cem; Scherer, Almut; Nordström, Dan; Canhao, Helena; Santos, Maria José; Tomsic, Matija; Rotar, Ziga; Hernández, M Victoria; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Ancuta, Ioan; Kvien, Tore K; van Vollenhoven, Ronald

    2017-02-01

    Several aspects of rituximab (RTX) retreatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) need to be further elucidated. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of repeated courses of RTX on disease activity and to compare 2 retreatment strategies, fixed-interval versus on-flare retreatment, in a large international, observational, collaborative study. In the first analysis, patients with RA who received at least 4 cycles with RTX were included. In the second analysis, patients who received at least 1 RTX retreatment and for whom information about the strategy for retreatment was available were identified. Two retreatment strategies (fixed-interval vs on-flare) were compared by fitting-adjusted, mixed-effects models of 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) over time for first and second retreatment. A total of 1530 patients met the eligibility criteria for the first analysis. Significant reductions of mean DAS28 between the starts of subsequent treatment cycles were observed (at start of first treatment cycle: 5.5; second: 4.3; third: 3.8; and fourth: 3.5), suggesting improved response after each additional cycle (p < 0.0001 for all pairwise comparisons). A total of 800 patients qualified for the second analysis: 616 were retreated on flare and 184 at fixed interval. For the first retreatment, the fixed-interval retreatment group yielded significantly better results than the on-flare group (estimated marginal mean DAS28 = 3.8, 95% CI 3.6-4.1 vs 4.6, 95% CI 4.5-4.7, p < 0.0001). Similar results were found for the second retreatment. Repeated treatment with RTX leads to further clinical improvement after the first course of RTX. A fixed-interval retreatment strategy seems to be more effective than on-flare retreatment.

  17. Cross-sectional analysis of BioBank Japan clinical data: A large cohort of 200,000 patients with 47 common diseases.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Makoto; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Nagai, Akiko; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Yamagata, Zentaro; Kubo, Michiaki; Muto, Kaori; Mushiroda, Taisei; Murakami, Yoshinori; Yuji, Koichiro; Furukawa, Yoichi; Zembutsu, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ohnishi, Yozo; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuda, Koichi

    2017-03-01

    To implement personalized medicine, we established a large-scale patient cohort, BioBank Japan, in 2003. BioBank Japan contains DNA, serum, and clinical information derived from approximately 200,000 patients with 47 diseases. Serum and clinical information were collected annually until 2012. We analyzed clinical information of participants at enrollment, including age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, and smoking and drinking status, across 47 diseases, and compared the results with the Japanese database on Patient Survey and National Health and Nutrition Survey. We conducted multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for sex and age, to assess the association between family history and disease development. Distribution of age at enrollment reflected the typical age of disease onset. Analysis of the clinical information revealed strong associations between smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, drinking and esophageal cancer, high body mass index and metabolic disease, and hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with a family history of keloid exhibited a higher odds ratio than those without a family history, highlighting the strong impact of host genetic factor(s) on disease onset. Cross-sectional analysis of the clinical information of participants at enrollment revealed characteristics of the present cohort. Analysis of family history revealed the impact of host genetic factors on each disease. BioBank Japan, by publicly distributing DNA, serum, and clinical information, could be a fundamental infrastructure for the implementation of personalized medicine. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Past physical activity and age-related macular degeneration: the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Myra B; Karahalios, Amalia; Simpson, Julie A; Guymer, Robyn H; Robman, Luba D; Hodge, Allison M; Cerin, Ester; Giles, Graham G; Finger, Robert P

    2016-10-01

    To assess the association between past physical activity and early, intermediate and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a community-based cohort study in Melbourne, Australia. Diet and lifestyle information was recorded at baseline (1990-1994) and total recreational activity was derived from walking, vigorous and non-vigorous exercise. At follow-up (2003-2007), digital macular photographs were graded for early, intermediate and late AMD. Data were analysed using multinomial logistic regression controlling for age, sex, smoking, region of descent, diet and alcohol. Effect modification by sex was investigated. Out of 20 816 participants, early, intermediate and late AMD were detected at follow-up in 4244 (21%), 2661 (13%) and 122 (0.6%) participants, respectively. No association was detected between past total recreational physical activity and early, intermediate or late AMD. Frequent (≥3 times/week) and less frequent (1-2 times/week) vigorous exercise were associated with lower odds of intermediate and late AMD in univariable models. After controlling for confounders, there was evidence of effect modification by sex and frequent vigorous exercise was associated with a 22% decrease in the odds of intermediate AMD (95% CI 4% to 36%) in women, but no association was found for men. Past frequent vigorous exercise may be inversely related to the presence of intermediate AMD in women. Further studies are needed to confirm whether physical activity and exercise have a protective effect for AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique P; Gonçalves, Helen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. This paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. METHODS: The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields. PMID:19142353

  20. [Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Béhague, Dominique P; Gonçalves, Helen

    2008-12-01

    Although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. This paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields.

  1. The increase in prescriptions of bisphosphonates and the incidence proportion of osteonecrosis of the jaw after risk communication activities in Japan: a hospital-based cohort study†

    PubMed Central

    Sumi, Eriko; Yamazaki, Toru; Tanaka, Shiro; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Nakayama, Takeo; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Yokode, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of risk communication about bisphosphonate (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) on the number of reported cases to the Drug Adverse Reactions Reporting System and on the incidence proportion of ONJ in a hospital-based cohort study in Japan. Method We conducted a survey of the safety information on BP-related ONJ available from regulatory authorities, pharmaceutical manufacturers and academic associations. We also performed a trend analysis of a dataset from the Drug Adverse Reactions Reporting System and a sub-analysis, using previously constructed data from a retrospective cohort study. Results Risk communication from pharmaceutical manufacturers and academic associations began within 1 year after revisions were made to the package inserts, in October 2006. Twenty times more cases of ONJ have been reported to regulatory authority since 2007, compared with the period before 2007. In our cohort, the incidence proportion of ONJ during and after 2009 was four times greater than before 2009. During this period, BPs were frequently prescribed, whereas there was no increase in the use of alternative agents, such as selective estrogen receptor modulators. Conclusion ONJ was increasingly diagnosed after risk communication efforts, but the impact of the communications was not clear. Safety notifications were diligently disseminated after the package insert was revised. However, there was no surveillance for ONJ before the revision. © 2014 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24399628

  2. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequent risk of total and site specific cancers in Japanese population: large case-cohort study within Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort

    PubMed Central

    Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Hidaka, Akihisa; Sawada, Norie; Tanaka-Mizuno, Sachiko; Kuchiba, Aya; Charvat, Hadrien; Goto, Atsushi; Kojima, Satoshi; Sudo, Natsuki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and the subsequent risk of overall and site specific cancer in a large cohort study. Design Nested case-cohort study within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort. Setting Nine public health centre areas across Japan. Participants 3301 incident cases of cancer and 4044 randomly selected subcohort participants. Exposure Plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D measured by enzyme immunoassay. Participants were divided into quarters based on the sex and season specific distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D among subcohorts. Weighted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for overall and site specific cancer across categories of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, with the lowest quarter as the reference. Main outcome measure Incidence of overall or site specific cancer. Results Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was inversely associated with the risk of total cancer, with multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for the second to fourth quarters compared with the lowest quarter of 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94), 0.75 (0.65 to 0.87), and 0.78 (0.67 to 0.91), respectively (P for trend=0.001). Among the findings for cancers at specific sites, an inverse association was found for liver cancer, with corresponding hazard ratios of 0.70 (0.44 to 1.13), 0.65 (0.40 to 1.06), and 0.45 (0.26 to 0.79) (P for trend=0.006). A sensitivity analysis showed that alternately removing cases of cancer at one specific site from total cancer cases did not substantially change the overall hazard ratios. Conclusions In this large prospective study, higher vitamin D concentration was associated with lower risk of total cancer. These findings support the hypothesis that vitamin D has protective effects against cancers at many sites. PMID:29514781

  3. Development of Risk Score for Predicting 3-Year Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    PubMed

    Nanri, Akiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Okazaki, Hiroko; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Tomita, Kentaro; Nagahama, Satsue; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Sasaki, Naoko; Hori, Ai; Sakamoto, Nobuaki; Nishiura, Chihiro; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Kato, Noritada; Fukasawa, Kenji; Huanhuan, Hu; Akter, Shamima; Kurotani, Kayo; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2015-01-01

    Risk models and scores have been developed to predict incidence of type 2 diabetes in Western populations, but their performance may differ when applied to non-Western populations. We developed and validated a risk score for predicting 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population. Participants were 37,416 men and women, aged 30 or older, who received periodic health checkup in 2008-2009 in eight companies. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dl, random plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5%, or receiving medical treatment for diabetes. Risk scores on non-invasive and invasive models including FPG and HbA1c were developed using logistic regression in a derivation cohort and validated in the remaining cohort. The area under the curve (AUC) for the non-invasive model including age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, and smoking status was 0.717 (95% CI, 0.703-0.731). In the invasive model in which both FPG and HbA1c were added to the non-invasive model, AUC was increased to 0.893 (95% CI, 0.883-0.902). When the risk scores were applied to the validation cohort, AUCs (95% CI) for the non-invasive and invasive model were 0.734 (0.715-0.753) and 0.882 (0.868-0.895), respectively. Participants with a non-invasive score of ≥ 15 and invasive score of ≥ 19 were projected to have >20% and >50% risk, respectively, of developing type 2 diabetes within 3 years. The simple risk score of the non-invasive model might be useful for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, and its predictive performance may be markedly improved by incorporating FPG and HbA1c.

  4. Occurrence of Anti-Drug Antibodies against Interferon-Beta and Natalizumab in Multiple Sclerosis: A Collaborative Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mbogning, Cyprien; Link, Jenny; Ryner, Malin; Ramanujam, Ryan; Auer, Michael; Hyldgaard Jensen, Poul Erik; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Warnke, Clemens; Ingenhoven, Kathleen; Buck, Dorothea; Grummel, Verena; Lawton, Andy; Donnellan, Naoimh; Hincelin-Mery, Agnès; Sikkema, Dan; Pallardy, Marc; Kieseier, Bernd; Hemmer, Bernard; Hartung, Hans Peter; Soelberg Sorensen, Per; Deisenhammer, Florian; Dönnes, Pierre; Davidson, Julie; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna; Broët, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Immunogenicity of biopharmaceutical products in multiple sclerosis is a frequent side effect which has a multifactorial etiology. Here we study associations between anti-drug antibody (ADA) occurrence and demographic and clinical factors. Retrospective data from routine ADA test laboratories in Sweden, Denmark, Austria and Germany (Dusseldorf group) and from one research study in Germany (Munich group) were gathered to build a collaborative multi-cohort dataset within the framework of the ABIRISK project. A subset of 5638 interferon-beta (IFNβ)-treated and 3440 natalizumab-treated patients having data on at least the first two years of treatment were eligible for interval-censored time-to-event analysis. In multivariate Cox regression, IFNβ-1a subcutaneous and IFNβ-1b subcutaneous treated patients were at higher risk of ADA occurrence compared to IFNβ-1a intramuscular-treated patients (pooled HR = 6.4, 95% CI 4.9–8.4 and pooled HR = 8.7, 95% CI 6.6–11.4 respectively). Patients older than 50 years at start of IFNβ therapy developed ADA more frequently than adult patients younger than 30 (pooled HR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.4–2.3). Men developed ADA more frequently than women (pooled HR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.6). Interestingly we observed that in Sweden and Germany, patients who started IFNβ in April were at higher risk of developing ADA (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.4 and HR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5–3.9 respectively). This result is not confirmed in the other cohorts and warrants further investigations. Concerning natalizumab, patients older than 45 years had a higher ADA rate (pooled HR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–1.8) and women developed ADA more frequently than men (pooled HR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–2.0). We confirmed previously reported differences in immunogenicity of the different types of IFNβ. Differences in ADA occurrence by sex and age are reported here for the first time. These findings should be further investigated taking into account other exposures and biomarkers. PMID

  5. Occurrence of Anti-Drug Antibodies against Interferon-Beta and Natalizumab in Multiple Sclerosis: A Collaborative Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bachelet, Delphine; Hässler, Signe; Mbogning, Cyprien; Link, Jenny; Ryner, Malin; Ramanujam, Ryan; Auer, Michael; Hyldgaard Jensen, Poul Erik; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Warnke, Clemens; Ingenhoven, Kathleen; Buck, Dorothea; Grummel, Verena; Lawton, Andy; Donnellan, Naoimh; Hincelin-Mery, Agnès; Sikkema, Dan; Pallardy, Marc; Kieseier, Bernd; Hemmer, Bernard; Hartung, Hans Peter; Soelberg Sorensen, Per; Deisenhammer, Florian; Dönnes, Pierre; Davidson, Julie; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna; Broët, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Immunogenicity of biopharmaceutical products in multiple sclerosis is a frequent side effect which has a multifactorial etiology. Here we study associations between anti-drug antibody (ADA) occurrence and demographic and clinical factors. Retrospective data from routine ADA test laboratories in Sweden, Denmark, Austria and Germany (Dusseldorf group) and from one research study in Germany (Munich group) were gathered to build a collaborative multi-cohort dataset within the framework of the ABIRISK project. A subset of 5638 interferon-beta (IFNβ)-treated and 3440 natalizumab-treated patients having data on at least the first two years of treatment were eligible for interval-censored time-to-event analysis. In multivariate Cox regression, IFNβ-1a subcutaneous and IFNβ-1b subcutaneous treated patients were at higher risk of ADA occurrence compared to IFNβ-1a intramuscular-treated patients (pooled HR = 6.4, 95% CI 4.9-8.4 and pooled HR = 8.7, 95% CI 6.6-11.4 respectively). Patients older than 50 years at start of IFNβ therapy developed ADA more frequently than adult patients younger than 30 (pooled HR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.3). Men developed ADA more frequently than women (pooled HR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6). Interestingly we observed that in Sweden and Germany, patients who started IFNβ in April were at higher risk of developing ADA (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4 and HR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.9 respectively). This result is not confirmed in the other cohorts and warrants further investigations. Concerning natalizumab, patients older than 45 years had a higher ADA rate (pooled HR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.8) and women developed ADA more frequently than men (pooled HR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.0). We confirmed previously reported differences in immunogenicity of the different types of IFNβ. Differences in ADA occurrence by sex and age are reported here for the first time. These findings should be further investigated taking into account other exposures and biomarkers.

  6. Obesity, overweight and cancer mortality in the Asia-Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration: pooled analyses of 424 519 participants

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Christine Louise; Batty, G. David; Lam, Tai Hing; Barzi, Federica; Fang, Xianghua; Ho, Suzanne C; Jee, Sun Ha; Ansary-Moghaddam, Alireza; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel R

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Excess weight is an established risk factor for several cancers but there are sparse data from Asian populations in whom overweight and obesity is increasing rapidly and adiposity can be substantially greater for the same body mass index (BMI) compared to Caucasians. Methods We examined associations of adult BMI with cancer mortality (overall and 20 sites) in geographic populations from Asia and Australia/New Zealand (ANZ) within the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration using Cox regression. Pooled data from 39 cohorts (recruitment 1961-99, median follow-up 4 years) were analyzed for 424 519 participants (77% Asian; 41% female; mean recruitment age 48 years) with individual data on BMI. Findings After excluding follow-up < 3 years, 4872 cancer deaths occurred in 401 215 participants. Hazard ratios (95% CI) for cancer sites with increased mortality risk in the obese (≥30 kg/m2) relative to the normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) were: 1.21 (1.09-1.36) for all-cause cancer (excluding lung and upper-aero digestive tract), 1.50 (1.13-1.99) for colon, 1.68 (1.06-2.67) for rectum, 1.63 (1.13-2.35) for breast in women aged ≥ 60 years, 2.62 (1.57-4.37) for ovary, 4.21 (1.89-9.39) for cervix, 1.45 (0.97-2.19) for prostate, and 1.66 (1.03-2.68) for leukaemia with the increased risk associated with a 5-unit increment in BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m2 ranging from 1.13 (0.91-1.40) for rectum to 1.45 (1.00-2.11) for cervix. There was little evidence of regional differences in relative risk except for oropharynx and larynx where the association was inverse in ANZ but absent in Asia. Interpretation Overweight and obese individuals in populations across the Asia-Pacific region are at significantly increased risk of mortality from cancer. Strategies to prevent overweight and obesity across Asia are required to reduce the burden of cancer expected to occur if the obesity epidemic continues. Funding The APCSC has been funded by the National Health and Medical Research

  7. Life-event stress induced by the Great East Japan Earthquake was associated with relapse in ulcerative colitis but not Crohn's disease: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shiga, Hisashi; Miyazawa, Teruko; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Seiichi; Tominaga, Gen; Takahashi, Hiroki; Takagi, Sho; Obana, Nobuya; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Oomori, Shinya; Nomura, Eiki; Shiraki, Manabu; Sato, Yuichirou; Takahashi, Shuichiro; Umemura, Ken; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Endo, Katsuya; Kakuta, Yoichi; Aizawa, Hiroki; Matsuura, Masaki; Kimura, Tomoya; Kuroha, Masatake; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-01-01

    Objective Stress is thought to be one of the triggers of relapses in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We examined the rate of relapse in IBD patients before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Design A retrospective cohort study. Settings 13 hospitals in Japan. Participants 546 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 357 Crohn's disease (CD) patients who received outpatient and inpatient care at 13 hospitals located in the area that were seriously damaged by the earthquake. Data on patient's clinical characteristics, disease activity and deleterious effects of the earthquake were obtained from questionnaires and hospital records. Primary outcome We evaluated the relapse rate (from inactive to active) across two consecutive months before and two consecutive months after the earthquake. In this study, we defined ‘active’ as conditions with a partial Mayo score=2 or more (UC) or a Harvey-Bradshaw index=6 or more (CD). Results Among the UC patients, disease was active in 167 patients and inactive in 379 patients before the earthquake. After the earthquake, the activity scores increased significantly (p<0.0001). A total of 86 patients relapsed (relapse rate=15.8%). The relapse rate was about twice that of the corresponding period in the previous year. Among the CD patients, 86 patients had active disease and 271 had inactive disease before the earthquake. After the earthquake, the activity indices changed little. A total of 25 patients experienced a relapse (relapse rate=7%). The relapse rate did not differ from that of the corresponding period in the previous year. Multivariate analyses revealed that UC, changes in dietary oral intake and anxiety about family finances were associated with the relapse. Conclusions Life-event stress induced by the Great East Japan Earthquake was associated with relapse in UC but not CD. PMID:23396562

  8. Incidence of skin tears in the extremities among elderly patients at a long-term medical facility in Japan: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Hiromi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Koyano, Yuiko; Iizaka, Shinji; Sugama, Junko

    2015-08-01

    There is a lack of data from cohort studies for the incidence of skin tears among an elderly population in an Asian country. We estimated the cumulative incidence of skin tear, and identify its risk factor. The present prospective cohort study was carried out at a long-term medical facility in Japan. Participants included patients (n = 368) aged 65 years or older receiving hospital care. The 3-month cumulative incidence of skin tears was estimated by identifying them using direct inspection of the extremities. In order to find the risk factors for the skin tear incidence, odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of skin tear development in association with the factors were estimated using logistic regression analyses. A total of 14 patients developed skin tears, and their cumulative incidence was 3.8%. No patients with skin tears developed multiple wounds on their extremities. Half of the skin tears occurred on the outside of the right forearm, and just three skin tears were found in the lower legs. Multiple logistic analyses showed that pre-existing skin tears (odds ratio 15.42, 95% confidence interval 3.53-67.43, P < 0.001) and a 6-point decrease in the total score of the Braden Scale (odds ratio 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.83, P < 0.033) were significantly associated with skin tear development. Patients with pre-existing skin tears and a low score of the Braden Scale have a higher risk of skin tear development during 3 months. These factors could be used to identify patients requiring prevention care for skin tears. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Fermented Food Consumption and Psychological Distress in Pregnant Women: A Nationwide Birth Cohort Study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Mizuno, Satoshi; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Sakurai, Kasumi; Ishikuro, Mami; Iwama, Noriyuki; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Nakai, Kunihiko; Sugiyama, Takashi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-12-01

    Health benefits of fermented foods are attracting attention worldwide, and they have been traditionally eaten in Japan. Moreover, a recent study showed the association between the higher intake of yogurt and lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Psychological problems, such as anxiety and depression, during pregnancy are serious health concerns and may increase the risk of adverse outcomes in children. In this study, we explored the association between fermented food consumption and psychological distress in 10,129 pregnant Japanese women, using the fixed data of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), an ongoing nation-wide birth cohort study. Food consumption was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6) was administered to eligible women during their second or third trimester to eliminate overlap with the period of hyperemesis gravidarum. The mean median gestation in the subjects was 24.8 weeks. In total, 9,030 subjects completed the K6 questionnaire and FFQ. Importantly, the prevalence of the K6 score of ≥ 13 was 3.1% (280 subjects). This value was lower compared to precedent studies, which may reflect that cooperative and health conscious subject participated in the survey. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicates that the intake of yogurt, lactic acid beverages, cheese, Japanese pickles, miso soup, or fermented soybeans was not significantly associated with a K6 score of ≥ 13. In conclusion, the present cohort study shows no association between fermented food consumption and psychological distress symptoms during the second or third trimester of pregnancy.

  10. Development of Risk Score for Predicting 3-Year Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Akiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Okazaki, Hiroko; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Tomita, Kentaro; Nagahama, Satsue; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Sasaki, Naoko; Hori, Ai; Sakamoto, Nobuaki; Nishiura, Chihiro; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Kato, Noritada; Fukasawa, Kenji; Huanhuan, Hu; Akter, Shamima; Kurotani, Kayo; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk models and scores have been developed to predict incidence of type 2 diabetes in Western populations, but their performance may differ when applied to non-Western populations. We developed and validated a risk score for predicting 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population. Methods Participants were 37,416 men and women, aged 30 or older, who received periodic health checkup in 2008–2009 in eight companies. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥126 mg/dl, random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%, or receiving medical treatment for diabetes. Risk scores on non-invasive and invasive models including FPG and HbA1c were developed using logistic regression in a derivation cohort and validated in the remaining cohort. Results The area under the curve (AUC) for the non-invasive model including age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, and smoking status was 0.717 (95% CI, 0.703–0.731). In the invasive model in which both FPG and HbA1c were added to the non-invasive model, AUC was increased to 0.893 (95% CI, 0.883–0.902). When the risk scores were applied to the validation cohort, AUCs (95% CI) for the non-invasive and invasive model were 0.734 (0.715–0.753) and 0.882 (0.868–0.895), respectively. Participants with a non-invasive score of ≥15 and invasive score of ≥19 were projected to have >20% and >50% risk, respectively, of developing type 2 diabetes within 3 years. Conclusions The simple risk score of the non-invasive model might be useful for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, and its predictive performance may be markedly improved by incorporating FPG and HbA1c. PMID:26558900

  11. Economic evaluation of lupus nephritis in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics inception cohort using a multistate model approach.

    PubMed

    Barber, Megan R W; Hanly, John G; Su, Li; Urowitz, Murray B; Pierre, Yvan St; Romero-Diaz, Juanita; Gordon, Caroline; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Bernatsky, Sasha; Wallace, Daniel J; Isenberg, David A; Rahman, Anisur; Ginzler, Ellen M; Petri, Michelle; Bruce, Ian N; Fortin, Paul R; Gladman, Dafna D; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Khamashta, Munther A; Aranow, Cynthia; Mackay, Meggan; Alarcón, Graciela S; Manzi, Susan; Nived, Ola; Jönsen, Andreas; Zoma, Asad A; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Sam Lim, S; Kalunian, Kenneth C; Inanc, Murat; Kamen, Diane L; Peschken, Christine A; Jacobsen, Soren; Askanase, Anca; Theriault, Chris; Farewell, Vernon; Clarke, Ann E

    2017-11-28

    Little is known about the long-term costs of lupus nephritis (LN). These were compared between patients with and without LN based on multistate modelling. Patients from 32 centres in 11 countries were enrolled in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort within 15 months of diagnosis and provided annual data on renal function, hospitalizations, medications, dialysis, and selected procedures. LN was diagnosed by renal biopsy or the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. Renal function was assessed annually using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or proteinuria (ePrU). A multistate model was used to predict 10-year cumulative costs by multiplying annual costs associated with each renal state by the expected state duration. 1,545 patients participated, 89.3% female, mean age at diagnosis 35.2 years (SD 13.4), 49.0% Caucasian, and mean follow up 6.3 years (SD 3.3). LN developed in 39.4% by the end of follow up. Ten-year cumulative costs were greater in those with LN and an eGFR < 30 ml/min ($310 579 2015 Canadian dollars versus $19 987 if no LN and eGFR > 60 ml/min) or with LN and ePrU > 3 g/d ($84 040 versus $20 499 if no LN and ePrU < 0.25 g/d). Patients with eGFR < 30 ml/min incurred 10-year costs 15-fold higher than those with normal eGFR. By estimating the expected duration in each renal state and incorporating associated annual costs, disease severity at presentation can be used to anticipate future healthcare costs. This is critical knowledge for cost-effectiveness evaluations of novel therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes Over Time in Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Differences in Smoking: A Comparison of Cohort Studies From Britain, Finland, and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Pietiläinen, Olli; Ferrie, Jane; Kivimäki, Mika; Lahti, Jouni; Marmot, Michael; Rahkonen, Ossi; Sekine, Michikazu; Shipley, Martin; Tatsuse, Takashi; Lallukka, Tea

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Socioeconomic differences in smoking over time and across national contexts are poorly understood. We assessed the magnitude of relative and absolute social class differences in smoking in cohorts from Britain, Finland, and Japan over 5–7 years. Methods: The British Whitehall II study (n = 4350), Finnish Helsinki Health Study (n = 6328), and Japanese Civil Servants Study (n = 1993) all included employed men and women aged 35–68 at baseline in 1997–2002. Follow-up was in 2003–2007 (mean follow-up 5.1, 6.5, and 3.6 years, respectively). Occupational social class (managers, professionals and clerical employees) was measured at baseline. Current smoking and covariates (age, marital status, body mass index, and self-rated health) were measured at baseline and follow-up. We assessed relative social class differences using the Relative Index of Inequality and absolute differences using the Slope Index of Inequality. Results: Social class differences in smoking were found in Britain and Finland, but not in Japan. Age-adjusted relative differences at baseline ranged from Relative Index of Inequality 3.08 (95% confidence interval 1.99–4.78) among Finnish men to 2.32 (1.24–4.32) among British women, with differences at follow-up greater by 8%–58%. Absolute differences remained stable and varied from Slope Index of Inequality 0.27 (0.15–0.40) among Finnish men to 0.10 (0.03–0.16) among British women. Further adjustment for covariates had modest effects on inequality indices. Conclusions: Large social class differences in smoking persisted among British and Finnish men and women, with widening tendencies in relative differences over time. No differences could be confirmed among Japanese men or women. Implications: Changes over time in social class differences in smoking are poorly understood across countries. Our study focused on employees from Britain, Finland and Japan, and found relative and absolute and class differences among British and

  13. Standardization of Quantitative PCR for Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 in Japan: a Collaborative Study

    PubMed Central

    Okuma, Kazu; Yamochi, Tadanori; Sato, Tomoo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Umeki, Kazumi; Kubota, Ryuji; Sobata, Rieko; Matsumoto, Chieko; Kaneko, Noriaki; Naruse, Isao; Yamagishi, Makoto; Nakashima, Makoto; Momose, Haruka; Araki, Kumiko; Mizukami, Takuo; Mizusawa, Saeko; Okada, Yoshiaki; Ochiai, Masaki; Utsunomiya, Atae; Koh, Ki-Ryang; Ogata, Masao; Nosaka, Kisato; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Iwanaga, Masako; Sagara, Yasuko; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Satake, Masahiro; Okayama, Akihiko; Mochizuki, Manabu; Izumo, Shuji; Saito, Shigeru; Itabashi, Kazuo; Kamihira, Shimeru; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was used to assess the amount of HTLV-1 provirus DNA integrated into the genomic DNA of host blood cells. Accumulating evidence indicates that a high proviral load is one of the risk factors for the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. However, interlaboratory variability in qPCR results makes it difficult to assess the differences in reported proviral loads between laboratories. To remedy this situation, we attempted to minimize discrepancies between laboratories through standardization of HTLV-1 qPCR in a collaborative study. TL-Om1 cells that harbor the HTLV-1 provirus were serially diluted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells to prepare a candidate standard. By statistically evaluating the proviral loads of the standard and those determined using in-house qPCR methods at each laboratory, we determined the relative ratios of the measured values in the laboratories to the theoretical values of the TL-Om1 standard. The relative ratios of the laboratories ranged from 0.84 to 4.45. Next, we corrected the proviral loads of the clinical samples from HTLV-1 carriers using the relative ratio. As expected, the overall differences between the laboratories were reduced by half, from 7.4-fold to 3.8-fold on average, after applying the correction. HTLV-1 qPCR can be standardized using TL-Om1 cells as a standard and by determining the relative ratio of the measured to the theoretical standard values in each laboratory. PMID:26292315

  14. Standardization of Quantitative PCR for Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 in Japan: a Collaborative Study.

    PubMed

    Kuramitsu, Madoka; Okuma, Kazu; Yamochi, Tadanori; Sato, Tomoo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Umeki, Kazumi; Kubota, Ryuji; Sobata, Rieko; Matsumoto, Chieko; Kaneko, Noriaki; Naruse, Isao; Yamagishi, Makoto; Nakashima, Makoto; Momose, Haruka; Araki, Kumiko; Mizukami, Takuo; Mizusawa, Saeko; Okada, Yoshiaki; Ochiai, Masaki; Utsunomiya, Atae; Koh, Ki-Ryang; Ogata, Masao; Nosaka, Kisato; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Iwanaga, Masako; Sagara, Yasuko; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Satake, Masahiro; Okayama, Akihiko; Mochizuki, Manabu; Izumo, Shuji; Saito, Shigeru; Itabashi, Kazuo; Kamihira, Shimeru; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshiki; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was used to assess the amount of HTLV-1 provirus DNA integrated into the genomic DNA of host blood cells. Accumulating evidence indicates that a high proviral load is one of the risk factors for the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. However, interlaboratory variability in qPCR results makes it difficult to assess the differences in reported proviral loads between laboratories. To remedy this situation, we attempted to minimize discrepancies between laboratories through standardization of HTLV-1 qPCR in a collaborative study. TL-Om1 cells that harbor the HTLV-1 provirus were serially diluted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells to prepare a candidate standard. By statistically evaluating the proviral loads of the standard and those determined using in-house qPCR methods at each laboratory, we determined the relative ratios of the measured values in the laboratories to the theoretical values of the TL-Om1 standard. The relative ratios of the laboratories ranged from 0.84 to 4.45. Next, we corrected the proviral loads of the clinical samples from HTLV-1 carriers using the relative ratio. As expected, the overall differences between the laboratories were reduced by half, from 7.4-fold to 3.8-fold on average, after applying the correction. HTLV-1 qPCR can be standardized using TL-Om1 cells as a standard and by determining the relative ratio of the measured to the theoretical standard values in each laboratory. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Age-specific impact of diabetes mellitus on the risk of cardiovascular mortality: An overview from the evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in the Japan Research Group (EPOCH-JAPAN).

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Okayama, Akira; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Sakata, Kiyomi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the age-specific association of diabetes with cardiovascular risk, especially in the elderly, remains unclear in non-Western populations. A pooled analysis was conducted using 8 cohort studies (mean follow-up period, 10.3 years) in Japan, combining the data from 38,854 individual participants without history of cardiovascular disease. In all, 1867 of the participants had diabetes, defined based on the 1998 World Health Organization criteria. The association between diabetes and the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke was estimated using a stratified Cox model, accounting for variability of baseline hazard functions among cohorts. During the follow-up, 1376 subjects died of cardiovascular disease (including 268 of coronary heart disease and 621 of stroke). Diabetes was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio [HR] 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-1.94). Similarly, diabetes was a risk factor for CHD (HR 2.13; 95% CI, 1.47-3.09) and stroke (HR 1.40; 95% CI, 1.05-1.85). In the age-stratified analysis of the risk of cardiovascular death, the relative effects of diabetes were consistent across age groups (p for heterogeneity = 0.18), whereas the excess absolute risks of diabetes were greater in participants in their 70s and 80s than in younger subjects. The management of diabetes is important to reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, not only in midlife but also in late life, in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2016. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequent risk of total and site specific cancers in Japanese population: large case-cohort study within Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Hidaka, Akihisa; Yamaji, Taiki; Sawada, Norie; Tanaka-Mizuno, Sachiko; Kuchiba, Aya; Charvat, Hadrien; Goto, Atsushi; Kojima, Satoshi; Sudo, Natsuki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2018-03-07

    To evaluate the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and the subsequent risk of overall and site specific cancer in a large cohort study. Nested case-cohort study within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort. Nine public health centre areas across Japan. 3301 incident cases of cancer and 4044 randomly selected subcohort participants. Plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D measured by enzyme immunoassay. Participants were divided into quarters based on the sex and season specific distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D among subcohorts. Weighted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for overall and site specific cancer across categories of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, with the lowest quarter as the reference. Incidence of overall or site specific cancer. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was inversely associated with the risk of total cancer, with multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for the second to fourth quarters compared with the lowest quarter of 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94), 0.75 (0.65 to 0.87), and 0.78 (0.67 to 0.91), respectively (P for trend=0.001). Among the findings for cancers at specific sites, an inverse association was found for liver cancer, with corresponding hazard ratios of 0.70 (0.44 to 1.13), 0.65 (0.40 to 1.06), and 0.45 (0.26 to 0.79) (P for trend=0.006). A sensitivity analysis showed that alternately removing cases of cancer at one specific site from total cancer cases did not substantially change the overall hazard ratios. In this large prospective study, higher vitamin D concentration was associated with lower risk of total cancer. These findings support the hypothesis that vitamin D has protective effects against cancers at many sites. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Sleep Duration, Snoring Prevalence, Obesity, and Behavioral Problems in a Large Cohort of Primary School Students in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Naoko; Gozal, David; Smith, Dale L; Yang, Limin; Morimoto, Noriko; Wada, Hiroo; Maruyama, Kotatsu; Ikeda, Ai; Suzuki, Yohei; Nakayama, Meiho; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    Poor or short sleep and the presence of snoring indicative of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) have been associated with behavioral problems in school-aged children. We examined the relationship between SDB, sleep duration, obesity risk, and behavioral characteristics in Japanese elementary school students using a large-scale survey. We conducted a cross-sectional study of children enrolled in all 46 public primary schools in Matsuyama city, Japan. The children's parents or guardians completed a questionnaire that covered sleep habits, presence of SDB risk, and behavioral characteristics. In total, 24 296 responses were received (90% response rate). After excluding incomplete responses, we analyzed complete datasets for 17 769 children. Mean sleep duration decreased with age, as did the prevalence of pediatric SDB. We found an increased risk for the presence of SDB and short sleep among overweight/obese children. With SDB or short sleep, we observed significantly increased odds of restless behaviors, fidgety behaviors, and poor concentration in school. Shorter sleep duration was associated with increased risk of obesity, and in turn, obesity increased SDB risk. Both short sleep duration and SDB risk were significantly associated with behavioral problems in school. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Predictors of hyperglycaemic individuals who do not follow up with physicians after screening in Japan: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Yuka; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Kuriyama, Akira; Miyazaki, Kikuko; Satoh, Toshihiko; Ikeda, Shunya; Kimura, Shinya; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-08-01

    Although people screened as being hyperglycaemic often fail to follow up with physicians for clinical assessment, epidemiologic findings on the frequency and predictors of not following up (hereafter, "no follow-up") are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the no follow-up rate with physicians after screening for diabetes and predictors of no follow-up. We assessed cases of no follow-up with physicians within six months after screening based on medical claims data from employee-based social health insurance programs in Japan, for people aged 20 to 68 years from 2005 to 2010. Among 3878 screened participants with hyperglycaemia, 2527 (65%) did not follow up with their physicians within six months after screening. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger age and lower blood glucose level predicted no follow-up among both men and women, while lower body mass index and negative proteinuria also predicted no follow-up among men. Treatment for dyslipidaemia facilitated follow-up among both genders, and treatment for hypertension or depression facilitated follow-up among men. Approximately two thirds of individuals screened as having hyperglycaemia did not follow up with their physicians within six months after screening. Predictors of no follow-up were younger age and milder hyperglycaemia. Being on treatment for co-morbidities tended to facilitate follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Organizational justice and psychological distress among permanent and non-permanent employees in Japan: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko

    2013-06-01

    Organizational justice has recently been introduced as a new concept as psychosocial determinants of employee health, and an increase in precarious employment is a challenging issue in occupational health. However, no study investigated the association of organizational justice with mental health among employees while taking into account employment contract. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prospective association of organizational justice (procedural justice and interactional justice) with psychological distress by employment contract among Japanese employees. A total of 373 males and 644 females from five branches of a manufacturing company in Japan were surveyed. At baseline (August 2009), self-administered questionnaires, including the Organizational Justice Questionnaire (OJQ), the K6 scale (psychological distress scale), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R), and other covariates, were used. After one-year follow-up (August 2010), the K6 scale was used again to assess psychological distress. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted by sex and employment contract. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, psychological distress, and neuroticism at baseline, low procedural justice was significantly associated with a higher risk of psychological distress at follow-up among non-permanent female employees, while no significant association of procedural justice or interactional justice with psychological distress at follow-up was observed among permanent male or female employees. The results of non-permanent male employees could not be calculated because of small sample size. Low procedural justice may be an important predictor of psychological distress among non-permanent female employees.

  20. The "DGPPN-Cohort": A national collaboration initiative by the German Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (DGPPN) for establishing a large-scale cohort of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Schmidt, Heike; Adler, Lothar; Aly, Chadiga; Anghelescu, Ion-George; Bauer, Michael; Baumgärtner, Jessica; Becker, Joachim; Bianco, Roswitha; Becker, Thomas; Bitter, Cosima; Bönsch, Dominikus; Buckow, Karoline; Budde, Monika; Bührig, Martin; Deckert, Jürgen; Demiroglu, Sara Y; Dietrich, Detlef; Dümpelmann, Michael; Engelhardt, Uta; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Feldhaus, Daniel; Figge, Christian; Folkerts, Here; Franz, Michael; Gade, Katrin; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Gruber, Oliver; Gullatz, Verena; Gusky, Linda; Heilbronner, Urs; Helbing, Krister; Hegerl, Ulrich; Heinz, Andreas; Hensch, Tilman; Hiemke, Christoph; Jäger, Markus; Jahn-Brodmann, Anke; Juckel, Georg; Kandulski, Franz; Kaschka, Wolfgang P; Kircher, Tilo; Koller, Manfred; Konrad, Carsten; Kornhuber, Johannes; Krause, Marina; Krug, Axel; Lee, Mahsa; Leweke, Markus; Lieb, Klaus; Mammes, Mechthild; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mühlbacher, Moritz; Müller, Matthias J; Nieratschker, Vanessa; Nierste, Barbara; Ohle, Jacqueline; Pfennig, Andrea; Pieper, Marlenna; Quade, Matthias; Reich-Erkelenz, Daniela; Reif, Andreas; Reitt, Markus; Reininghaus, Bernd; Reininghaus, Eva Z; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Rienhoff, Otto; Roser, Patrik; Rujescu, Dan; Schennach, Rebecca; Scherk, Harald; Schmauss, Max; Schneider, Frank; Schosser, Alexandra; Schott, Björn H; Schwab, Sybille G; Schwanke, Jens; Skrowny, Daniela; Spitzer, Carsten; Stierl, Sebastian; Stöckel, Judith; Stübner, Susanne; Thiel, Andreas; Volz, Hans-Peter; von Hagen, Martin; Walter, Henrik; Witt, Stephanie H; Wobrock, Thomas; Zielasek, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Jörg; Zitzelsberger, Antje; Maier, Wolfgang; Falkai, Peter G; Rietschel, Marcella; Schulze, Thomas G

    2013-12-01

    The German Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (DGPPN) has committed itself to establish a prospective national cohort of patients with major psychiatric disorders, the so-called DGPPN-Cohort. This project will enable the scientific exploitation of high-quality data and biomaterial from psychiatric patients for research. It will be set up using harmonised data sets and procedures for sample generation and guided by transparent rules for data access and data sharing regarding the central research database. While the main focus lies on biological research, it will be open to all kinds of scientific investigations, including epidemiological, clinical or health-service research.

  1. Exploration of potential biomarkers and related biological pathways for PCB exposure in maternal and cord serum: A pilot birth cohort study in Chiba, Japan.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Sakurai, Kenichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Mori, Chisato

    2017-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been associated with adverse human reproductive and fetal developmental measures or outcomes because of their endocrine-disrupting effects; however, the biological mechanisms of adverse effects of PCB exposure in humans are not currently well established. In this study, we aimed to identify the biological pathways and potential biomarkers of PCB exposure in maternal and umbilical cord serum using a hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) metabolomics platform. The median concentration of total PCBs in maternal (n=93) and cord serum (n=93) were 350 and 70pgg -1 wet wt, respectively. PCB levels in maternal and fetal serum from the Chiba Study of Mother and Children's Health (C-MACH) cohort are comparable to those of earlier cohort studies conducted in Japan, the USA, and European countries. We used the random forest model with the metabolome profile to predict exposure levels of PCB (first quartile [Q1] and fourth quartile [Q4]) for pregnant women and fetuses. In the prediction model for classification of Q1 versus Q4 (area-under-curve [AUC]: pregnant women=0.812 and fetuses=0.919), citraconic acid level in maternal serum and ethanolamine, p-hydroxybenzoate, and purine levels in cord serum had >0.70 AUC values. These candidate biomarkers and metabolite included in composited models were related to glutathione and amino acid metabolism in maternal serum and the amino acid metabolism and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis in cord serum (FDR <0.10), indicating disruption of metabolic pathways by PCB exposure in pregnant women and fetuses. These results showed that metabolome analysis might be useful to explore potential biomarkers and related biological pathways for PCB exposure. Thus, more detailed studies are needed to verify sensitivity of the biomarkers and clarify the biochemical changes resulting from PCB exposure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  2. Knee pain and future self-reliance in older adults: evidence from a community-based 3-year cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Yuji; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yamada, Mutsuko; Eto, Norihito; Takebayashi, Toru

    2011-01-01

    Although knee pain is common in older persons and can cause ambulatory limitation, its impact on self-reliance has rarely been examined in Japan, particularly in a community setting. The aim of this 3-year cohort study was to investigate the association of knee pain with dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and mortality in community-dwelling older Japanese adults. In 2005, presence of knee pain was assessed by a home visit survey of 1391 older adults aged 65 years or older (participation proportion = 97.3%). A total of 1265 participants who were ADL-independent at baseline were followed for 3 years, and information on outcomes, namely death and dependence in ADL, was collected. Participants who always had knee pain were more likely to become dependent in ADL than those who reported no knee pain (multivariate-adjusted OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.03-3.83); however, always having knee pain was not associated with mortality or a composite outcome of ADL dependence and death. Further analyses of each component of ADL dependence revealed that knee pain was associated with a need for assistance at home (long-term care eligibility, bathing, dressing, and transferring), but not with institutionalization. The participants were highly representative of the target population and the rate of follow-up was almost perfect (99.4%). The results suggest that knee pain is associated with future dependence in ADL, particularly a need for assistance at home.

  3. Birth cohort study on the effects of desert dust exposure on children's health: protocol of an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Kanatani, Kumiko T; Adachi, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Noma, Hisashi; Onishi, Kazunari; Hamazaki, Kei; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Isao; Egawa, Miho; Sato, Keiko; Go, Tohshin; Kurozawa, Youichi; Inadera, Hidekuni; Konishi, Ikuo; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-06-23

    Desert dust is estimated to constitute about 35% of aerosol in the troposphere. Desertification, climatic variability and global warming all can contribute to increased dust formation. This study aims to examine possible health effects of desert dust exposure on pregnant women and their children. The purpose of this report was to present the study protocol. This 4-year birth cohort study began in 2011 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children's Study (JECS) involving three regions: Kyoto, Toyama and Tottori. The JECS participants of the three regions above who also agreed to participate in this adjunct study were enrolled prior to delivery. Light Detecting and Ranging (LIDAR) with a polarisation analyser, which can distinguish mineral dust particles from other particles, is used for exposure measurements. Outcomes are allergic symptoms for mothers and development of asthma and other allergic or respiratory diseases for their children. Data are acquired in a timely manner by connecting local LIDAR equipment to an online questionnaire system. Participants answer the online questionnaire using mobile phones or personal computers. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Kyoto University, University of Toyama and Tottori University. All participants provided written informed consent. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the scientific community and general public. UMIN000010826. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Birth cohort study on the effects of desert dust exposure on children's health: protocol of an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanatani, Kumiko T; Adachi, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Noma, Hisashi; Onishi, Kazunari; Hamazaki, Kei; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Isao; Egawa, Miho; Sato, Keiko; Go, Tohshin; Kurozawa, Youichi; Inadera, Hidekuni; Konishi, Ikuo; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Desert dust is estimated to constitute about 35% of aerosol in the troposphere. Desertification, climatic variability and global warming all can contribute to increased dust formation. This study aims to examine possible health effects of desert dust exposure on pregnant women and their children. The purpose of this report was to present the study protocol. Methods and analysis This 4-year birth cohort study began in 2011 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study (JECS) involving three regions: Kyoto, Toyama and Tottori. The JECS participants of the three regions above who also agreed to participate in this adjunct study were enrolled prior to delivery. Light Detecting and Ranging (LIDAR) with a polarisation analyser, which can distinguish mineral dust particles from other particles, is used for exposure measurements. Outcomes are allergic symptoms for mothers and development of asthma and other allergic or respiratory diseases for their children. Data are acquired in a timely manner by connecting local LIDAR equipment to an online questionnaire system. Participants answer the online questionnaire using mobile phones or personal computers. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Kyoto University, University of Toyama and Tottori University. All participants provided written informed consent. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the scientific community and general public. Trial Registration number UMIN000010826. PMID:24958210

  5. Clinical Improvement by Switching to an Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor in Hemophiliac Patients with HIV: The Japan Cohort Study of HIV Patients Infected through Blood Products.

    PubMed

    Kawado, Miyuki; Hashimoto, Shuji; Oka, Shin-Ichi; Fukutake, Katsuyuki; Higasa, Satoshi; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Ogane, Miwa; Okamoto, Manabu; Shirasaka, Takuma

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine improvement in HIV RNA levels and the CD4 cell count by switching to an antiretroviral regimen with an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) in patients with HIV. This study was conducted on Japanese patients with HIV who were infected by blood products in the 1980s. Data were collected between 2007 and 2014. Data of 564 male hemophiliac patients with HIV from the Japan Cohort Study of HIV Patients Infected through Blood Products were available. Changes in antiretroviral regimen use, HIV RNA levels, and the CD4 cell count between 2007 and 2014 were examined. From 2007 to 2014, the proportion of use of a regimen with an INSTI increased from 0.0% to 41.0%. For patients with HIV who used a regimen, including an INSTI, the proportion of HIV RNA levels <50 copies/mL significantly increased from 58.3% in 2007 to 90.6% in 2014. Additionally, the median CD4 cell count significantly increased from 380/μL to 438/μL. There is a large effect of switching to an antiretroviral regimen with an INSTI for Japanese patients with HIV who are infected by blood products. This suggests that performing this switch in clinical practice will lead to favorable effects.

  6. Real-world practice patterns for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: multicenter retrospective cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Hiroshi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Minato, Koichi; Katsura, Hideki; Taniguchi, Kazuko; Arunachalam, Ashwini; Kothari, Smita; Cao, Xiting; Kato, Terufumi

    2017-01-01

    Recommended therapies for advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have changed with the advent of targeted therapies. The objectives of this retrospective chart review study were to describe treatment patterns, biomarker testing practices, and health care resource use for advanced NSCLC at 5 sites in Japan. We studied anonymized medical record data of patients aged ≥18 years who initiated systemic therapy for newly diagnosed stage IIIB or IV NSCLC from January 2011 through June 2013. Data were analyzed descriptively by histology and mutation status. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. We studied 175 patients, including 43 (25%), 129 (74%), and 3 (2%) with squamous, nonsquamous, and unknown NSCLC histology, respectively; 83% had stage IV NSCLC. Overall, 123 patients (70%) were male; the median age was 70 years (range, 47-86); and 33 (19%) were never-smokers. In the nonsquamous cohort, 105 (81%) and 25 (19%) of patients were tested for epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK ) rearrangement, respectively; 44 (42%) had EGFR -positive NSCLC and 2 (8%) had ALK -positive NSCLC, including 26/46 (57%) women and 21/46 (46%) never-smokers. In the squamous cohort, 17 (40%) and 4 (9%), respectively, were tested; 1 EGFR -positive tumor was detected. After first-line therapy, 105 (60%) patients received second-line, and 54/105 (51%; or 31% overall) received third-line therapy. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors were most commonly prescribed for EGFR -positive NSCLC across all lines. In the nonsquamous EGFR / ALK -negative/unknown cohort, most received first-line platinum combinations, particularly younger patients (78% ≥75 years vs 93% <75 years old). The average hospitalization was 21 days/admission. The median (95% CI) overall survival from start of first-line therapy was 9.9 months (7.6-11.7) for all patients and 17.9 months (9.9-24.4) for patients with EGFR / ALK -positive status

  7. Precarious employment and the risk of serious psychological distress: a population-based cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kachi, Yuko; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2014-09-01

    This study examines whether precarious employment increases the risk of serious psychological distress (SPD) in a nationally representative cohort of Japanese middle-aged people. From 2005-2009, we followed 8486 male and 6736 female participants (aged 50-59 years) in the Longitudinal Survey of Middle-aged and Elderly Persons. All individuals were employed and free of SPD, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. The participants were classified into two groups based on their baseline employment contract: precarious and full-time permanent work. SPD was assessed at each year during the study, using the K6 scale, a self-rated 6-item scale that screens for mood or anxiety disorders. We used discrete-time survival analysis, with a complementary log-log link, to examine the effect of precarious employment on SPD incidence. During a maximum follow-up period of four years, 374 men and 364 women developed SPD. Male precarious employees were more likely to develop SPD than male full-time permanent employees (hazard ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval 1.28-2.51) in the full model, after adjusting for sociodemographic and occupational factors, cardiovascular disease risk, and K6 scores at baseline. By contrast, no significant association was observed among female employees. However, an analysis stratified by marital status revealed an association similar to that found among men but only among unmarried women. The findings suggest that precarious employment is associated with double the risk of SPD incidence among middle-aged Japanese men and - when stratified by marital status - among unmarried women. This highlights a major gender difference in the association between precarious employment and risk of SPD.

  8. Relationship between prostate-specific antigen and obesity in prostate cancer screening: analysis of a large cohort in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yasuaki; Seike, Kensaku; Maeda, Shinichi; Shinohara, Yuka; Iwata, Masamitsu; Sugimoto, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in obese men might decrease the sensitivity of prostate cancer screening, leading to delayed diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis. We examined whether the effect of obesity is important in prostate cancer screening of Japanese men, who have a low prevalence of obesity. We analyzed 19,294 male subjects from a large cohort of Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) employees (aged > 50 years, serum PSA level ≤ 4.0 ng/mL) who underwent physical examinations from August 2006 to December 2009. The relationship between PSA level and obesity-related factors was analyzed by simple and multiple regression analysis. The relationships between six body mass index (BMI) categories, and PSA level and PSA mass (PSA concentration × plasma volume) were analyzed. PSA level decreased significantly with increasing BMI, but the coefficient of determination was very low. Mean PSA values decreased from 1.02 to 0.85 ng/mL as BMI increased from underweight (BMI <18.5) to morbidly obese (BMI >35). However, PSA mass peaked in the overweight category and was slightly reduced with increasing BMI. On multiple regression analysis, PSA level was influenced by age, diastolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein as well as BMI. We found an inverse but weak relationship between PSA level and BMI. Obesity seems to have very limited influence on prostate cancer screening in this population. Nonetheless, when considering indications for prostatic biopsy in obese men, we should be aware that the hemodilution effect might reduce PSA levels. © 2010 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Ascertainment and verification of end-stage renal disease and end-stage liver disease in the north american AIDS cohort collaboration on research and design.

    PubMed

    Kitahata, Mari M; Drozd, Daniel R; Crane, Heidi M; Van Rompaey, Stephen E; Althoff, Keri N; Gange, Stephen J; Klein, Marina B; Lucas, Gregory M; Abraham, Alison G; Lo Re, Vincent; McReynolds, Justin; Lober, William B; Mendes, Adell; Modur, Sharada P; Jing, Yuezhou; Morton, Elizabeth J; Griffith, Margaret A; Freeman, Aimee M; Moore, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The burden of HIV disease has shifted from traditional AIDS-defining illnesses to serious non-AIDS-defining comorbid conditions. Research aimed at improving HIV-related comorbid disease outcomes requires well-defined, verified clinical endpoints. We developed methods to ascertain and verify end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and validated screening algorithms within the largest HIV cohort collaboration in North America (NA-ACCORD). Individuals who screened positive among all participants in twelve cohorts enrolled between January 1996 and December 2009 underwent medical record review to verify incident ESRD or ESLD using standardized protocols. We randomly sampled 6% of contributing cohorts to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of ESLD and ESRD screening algorithms in a validation subcohort. Among 43,433 patients screened for ESRD, 822 screened positive of which 620 met clinical criteria for ESRD. The algorithm had 100% sensitivity, 99% specificity, 82% PPV, and 100% NPV for ESRD. Among 41,463 patients screened for ESLD, 2,024 screened positive of which 645 met diagnostic criteria for ESLD. The algorithm had 100% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 27% PPV, and 100% NPV for ESLD. Our methods proved robust for ascertainment of ESRD and ESLD in persons infected with HIV.

  10. The changing patterns of dispensing branded and generic drugs for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease between 2006 and 2011 in Japan: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kyoko; Hinotsu, Shiro; Hamada, Shota; Ezoe, Yasumasa; Muto, Manabu; Kawakami, Koji

    2015-02-27

    Despite rising healthcare costs, generic drugs are less frequently dispensed in Japan compared with other developed countries. This study aimed to describe changes in dispensing of branded and generic drugs and to explore possible factors that promote the use of generic drugs. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a Japanese medical and pharmacy claims database. All proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) with indications for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) described on Japanese labels were included. Patterns of dispensing branded and generic drugs for the treatment of GERD between 2006 and 2011 were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to investigate factors associated with receiving generic drugs. The study cohort included 14,590 patients (male: 50.2%, mean age: 43.1 years). Branded drugs for GERD were still frequently dispensed despite an increase in the share of generic drugs. Only 4.3% of patients who initially received branded drugs switched to generic drugs. The percentage of patients who received only generic drugs increased over time (6.5% to 22.1%). The frequency of generic drug dispensing was the highest in the setting where both prescription and dispensing were implemented in clinics (43.3%), while the lowest in the setting where both prescription and dispensing were implemented in hospitals (11.5%). Factors associated with receiving generic drugs included year of dispensing (adjusted OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.94 to 2.55 for 2009-11 v 2006-8), prescription and dispensing setting (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.26 for prescription in hospitals and dispensing in community pharmacies; OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.72 for prescription in clinics and dispensing in community pharmacies; and OR 4.55, 95% CI 3.68 to 5.62 for prescription and dispensing in clinics v prescription and dispensing in hospitals) and H2RAs (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.49 to 1.81 compared to PPIs). The share of generic drugs for the

  11. Utilizing harmonization and common surveillance methods to consolidate 4 cohorts: the Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health (WATCH) study

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Kathryn R.; Wolfe, Abbie W.; Metzger, Jesse S.; Austin, Melissa A.; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Kaufmann, Cristiane; Jolly, Stacey E.; Ebbesson, Sven O.E.; Umans, Jason G.; Howard, Barbara V.; Boyer, Bert B.

    2013-01-01

    Background According to health status reports, chronic disease prevalence appears to be rising in western Alaska Native (AN) people, and accurate population-based data are needed. Four cohort studies of western AN people were conducted in the Norton Sound and Yukon-Kuskokwim regions, but none have been large enough to allow reliable estimates of rates of chronic diseases and evaluate their risk factors. Objective In this article, the methods used to combine 4 major cohort studies of rural western AN people are described and the benefits and challenges encountered in combining data and standardizing surveillance methods for these studies are discussed. Design Tribal permission was obtained for each cohort study and the consolidated study. Data from baseline exams were directly combined or harmonized into new variables. Common surveillance methods were developed and implemented to identify incidence and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and type 2 diabetes. Results A cohort of 4,569 western AN participants (2,116 men and 2,453 women), aged 18–95 years, was established to study CVD and diabetes prevalence. Prospective surveillance data over an average 6.7-year follow-up can now be used to study CVD and diabetes incidence and associated risk factors in a subset of 2,754 western AN participants (1,218 men and 1,536 women) who consented to initial surveillance. Conclusions The combined cohort provides statistical power to examine incidence rates and risk factors for CVD and diabetes and allows for analyses by geographic region. The data can be used to develop intervention programmes in these populations and others. PMID:23671836

  12. Comparative Effectiveness of Emergency Resuscitative Thoracotomy versus Closed Chest Compressions among Patients with Critical Blunt Trauma: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kodai; Inoue, Shigeaki; Morita, Seiji; Watanabe, Nobuo; Shintani, Ayumi; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Ogura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Although emergency resuscitative thoracotomy is performed as a salvage maneuver for critical blunt trauma patients, evidence supporting superior effectiveness of emergency resuscitative thoracotomy compared to conventional closed-chest compressions remains insufficient. The objective of this study was to investigate whether emergency resuscitative thoracotomy at the emergency department or in the operating room was associated with favourable outcomes after blunt trauma and to compare its effectiveness with that of closed-chest compressions. This was a retrospective nationwide cohort study. Data were obtained from the Japan Trauma Data Bank for the period between 2004 and 2012. The primary and secondary outcomes were patient survival rates 24 h and 28 d after emergency department arrival. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariable generalized mixed-effects regression analysis. We adjusted for the effects of different hospitals by introducing random intercepts in regression analysis to account for the differential quality of emergency resuscitative thoracotomy at hospitals where patients in cardiac arrest were treated. Sensitivity analyses were performed using propensity score matching. In total, 1,377 consecutive, critical blunt trauma patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department or operating room were included in the study. Of these patients, 484 (35.1%) underwent emergency resuscitative thoracotomy and 893 (64.9%) received closed-chest compressions. Compared to closed-chest compressions, emergency resuscitative thoracotomy was associated with lower survival rate 24 h after emergency department arrival (4.5% vs. 17.5%, respectively, P < 0.001) and 28 d after arrival (1.2% vs. 6.0%, respectively, P < 0.001). Multivariable generalized mixed-effects regression analysis with and without a propensity score-matched dataset revealed that the odds ratio for an unfavorable survival rate after 24 h was lower for emergency

  13. Knee Pain and Future Self-Reliance in Older Adults: Evidence From a Community-Based 3-Year Cohort Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishiwaki, Yuji; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yamada, Mutsuko; Eto, Norihito; Takebayashi, Toru

    2011-01-01

    Background Although knee pain is common in older persons and can cause ambulatory limitation, its impact on self-reliance has rarely been examined in Japan, particularly in a community setting. The aim of this 3-year cohort study was to investigate the association of knee pain with dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and mortality in community-dwelling older Japanese adults. Methods In 2005, presence of knee pain was assessed by a home visit survey of 1391 older adults aged 65 years or older (participation proportion = 97.3%). A total of 1265 participants who were ADL-independent at baseline were followed for 3 years, and information on outcomes, namely death and dependence in ADL, was collected. Results Participants who always had knee pain were more likely to become dependent in ADL than those who reported no knee pain (multivariate-adjusted OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.03–3.83); however, always having knee pain was not associated with mortality or a composite outcome of ADL dependence and death. Further analyses of each component of ADL dependence revealed that knee pain was associated with a need for assistance at home (long-term care eligibility, bathing, dressing, and transferring), but not with institutionalization. Conclusions The participants were highly representative of the target population and the rate of follow-up was almost perfect (99.4%). The results suggest that knee pain is associated with future dependence in ADL, particularly a need for assistance at home. PMID:21422701

  14. Development of a prediction model for child maltreatment recurrence in Japan: A historical cohort study using data from a Child Guidance Center.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Hiroyuki; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Musumari, Patou Masika; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    To develop a prediction model for the first recurrence of child maltreatment within the first year after the initial report, we carried out a historical cohort study using administrative data from 716 incident cases of child maltreatment (physical abuse, psychological abuse, or neglect) not receiving support services, reported between April 1, 1996 through March 31, 2011 to Shiga Central Child Guidance Center, Japan. In total, 23 items related to characteristics of the child, the maltreatment, the offender, household, and other related factors were selected as predictive variables and analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model for association with first recurrence of maltreatment. According to the stepwise selection procedure six factors were identified that include 9-13year age of child (AOR=3.43/95%CI=1.52-7.72), <40year age of the offender (AOR=1.65/95%CI=1.09-2.51), offender's history of maltreatment during childhood (AOR=2.56/95%CI=1.31-4.99), household financial instability or poverty (AOR=1.64/95%CI=1.10-2.45), absence of someone in the community who could watch over the child (AOR=1.68/95%CI=1.16-2.44), and the organization as the referral source (AOR=2.21/95%CI=1.24-3.93). Using these six predictors, we generated a linear prediction model with a sensitivity and specificity of 45.2% and 82.4%, respectively. The model may be useful to assess the risk of further maltreatment and help the child and family welfare administrations to develop preventive strategies for recurrence. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of Adverse Clinical Course and Ingested Substances among Patients with Deliberate Drug Poisoning: A Cohort Study from an Intensive Care Unit in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ichikura, Kanako; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Some patients with deliberate drug poisoning subsequently have an adverse clinical course. The present study aimed to examine whether the type of drugs ingested and psychiatric diagnoses were related to an adverse clinical course. We conducted a cohort study of patients with deliberate drug poisoning admitted to the intensive care unit of a university hospital located in Tokyo, Japan, between September 2006 and June 2013. Intensive care unit (ICU) stay of ≥4 days was used as a primary outcome measure, while the incidence of aspiration pneumonitis was used as a secondary outcome measure. Ingested substances and psychiatric diagnoses were used as explanatory variables. Of the 676 patients with deliberate drug poisoning, 88% had a history of psychiatric treatment and 82% had ingested psychotropic drugs. Chlorpromazine-promethazine-phenobarbital combination drug (Vegetamin®) ranked fifth among the most frequently ingested substances in cases of deliberate drug poisoning and had the highest incidence of prolonged ICU stay (20%) and aspiration pneumonitis (29%). The top three major classes consisted of benzodiazepines (79%), new-generation antidepressants (25%), and barbiturates/non-barbiturates (23%). Barbiturate overdose was independently associated with increased odds of both prolonged ICU stay (8% vs. 17%; odds ratio [OR], 2.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-5.55) and aspiration pneumonitis (8% vs. 24%; OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.18-6.79) relative to those associated with overdose of only other sedative-hypnotics (i.e., benzodiazepines). These results suggest that judicious prescribing of barbiturates by psychiatrists could reduce the risk of an adverse clinical course when a patient attempts an overdose.

  16. The relationship between vegetable/fruit consumption and gallbladder/bile duct cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makiuchi, Takeshi; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Ishihara, Junko; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-03-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption may have a protective effect against several types of cancers. However, the effect on biliary cancers is unclear. We investigated the association of vegetable/fruit consumption with the risks of gallbladder cancer (GBC), intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC) and extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC) in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model, and the exposure level was categorized into quartiles, with the lowest group used as the reference. A total of 80,371 people aged 45 to 74 years were enrolled between 1995 and 1999, and followed up for 1,158,632 person-years until 2012, during which 133 GBC, 99 IHBDC, and 161 EHBDC cases were identified. Increased consumption of total vegetable and fruit was significantly associated with a decreased risk of EHBDC (HR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29-0.81 for the highest group; p trend = 0.005). From the analysis of relevant nutrients, significantly decreased risk of EHBDC was associated with folate and insoluble fiber (HR = 0.48, 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28-0.85, 0.31-0.88 for the highest group; p trend = 0.010, 0.023; respectively), and a significant trend of decreased EHBDC risk associated with vitamin C was observed (p trend = 0.029). No decreased risk of GBC and IHBDC was found. Our findings suggest that increased vegetable/fruit consumption may decrease a risk of EHBDC, and folate, vitamin C, and insoluble fiber might be key contributors to the observed protective effect. © 2016 UICC.

  17. Elevated serum uric acid increases risks for developing high LDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia: A five-year cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Masanari; Borghi, Claudio; Cicero, Arrigo F G; Hisatome, Ichiro; Niwa, Koichiro; Ohno, Minoru; Johnson, Richard J; Lanaspa, Miguel A

    2018-06-15

    High serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with the dyslipidemia, but whether hyperuricemia predicts an increase in serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is unknown. This study is to evaluate whether an elevated SUA predicts the development of high LDL cholesterol as well as hypertriglyceridemia. This is a retrospective 5-year cohort study of 6476 healthy Japanese adults (age, 45.7 ± 10.1 years; 2.243 men) who underwent health examinations at 2004 and were reevaluated in 2009 at St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Subjects were included if at their baseline examination they did not have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, or if they were on medication for hyperuricemia and/or gout. The analysis was adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking and drinking habits, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), baseline SUA and SUA change over the 5 years. High baseline SUA was an independent risk for developing high LDL cholesterol both in men (OR: 1.159 per 1 mg/dL increase, 95% CI:1.009-1.331) and women (OR: 1.215, 95% CI:1.061-1.390). Other risk factors included a higher baseline LDL cholesterol, higher BMI, and higher baseline eGFR (the latter two in women only). Increased SUA over 5 years were also independent risks for developing high LDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, but not for low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. This is the first study to report that an elevated SUA increases the risk for developing high LDL cholesterol, as well as hypertriglyceridemia. This may shed light into the role of SUA in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ICE COLD ERIC--International collaborative effort on chronic obstructive lung disease: exacerbation risk index cohorts--study protocol for an international COPD cohort study.

    PubMed

    Siebeling, Lara; ter Riet, Gerben; van der Wal, Willem M; Geskus, Ronald B; Zoller, Marco; Muggensturm, Patrick; Joleska, Irena; Puhan, Milo A

    2009-05-06

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a systemic disease; morbidity and mortality due to COPD are on the increase, and it has great impact on patients' lives. Most COPD patients are managed by general practitioners (GP). Too often, GPs base their initial assessment of patient's disease severity mainly on lung function. However, lung function correlates poorly with COPD-specific health-related quality of life and exacerbation frequency. A validated COPD disease risk index that better represents the clinical manifestations of COPD and is feasible in primary care seems to be useful. The objective of this study is to develop and validate a practical COPD disease risk index that predicts the clinical course of COPD in primary care patients with GOLD stages 2-4. We will conduct 2 linked prospective cohort studies with COPD patients from GPs in Switzerland and the Netherlands. We will perform a baseline assessment including detailed patient history, questionnaires, lung function, history of exacerbations, measurement of exercise capacity and blood sampling. During the follow-up of at least 2 years, we will update the patients' profile by registering exacerbations, health-related quality of life and any changes in the use of medication. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes will be exacerbation frequency and mortality. Using multivariable regression analysis, we will identify the best combination of variables predicting these outcomes over one and two years and, depending on funding, even more years. Despite the diversity of clinical manifestations and available treatments, assessment and management today do not reflect the multifaceted character of the disease. This is in contrast to preventive cardiology where, nowadays, the treatment in primary care is based on patient-specific and fairly refined cardiovascular risk profile corresponding to differences in prognosis. After completion of this study, we will have a

  19. The Collaborative Payer Provider Model Enhances Primary Care, Producing Triple Aim Plus One Outcomes: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Doerr, Thomas; Olsen, Lisa; Zimmerman, Deborah

    2017-08-27

    Rising health care costs are threatening the fiscal solvency of patients, employers, payers, and governments. The Collaborative Payer Provider Model (CPPM) addresses this challenge by reinventing the role of the payer into a full-service collaborative ally of the physician. From 2010 through 2014, a Medicare Advantage plan prospectively deployed the CPPM, averaging 30,561 members with costs that were 73.6% of fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare ( p < 0.001). The health plan was not part of an integrated delivery system. After allocating $80 per member per month (PMPM) for primary care costs, the health plan had medical cost ratios averaging 75.1% before surplus distribution. Member benefits were the best in the market. The health plan was rated 4.5 Stars by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for years 1-4, and 5 Stars in study year 5 for quality, patient experience, access to care, and care process metrics. Primary care and specialist satisfaction were significantly better than national benchmarks. Savings resulted from shifts in spending from inpatient to outpatient settings, and from specialists to primary care physicians when appropriate. The CPPM is a scalable model that enables a win-win-win system for patients, providers, and payers.

  20. A comparative analysis of risk factors and stroke risk for Asian and non-Asian men: the Asia Pacific cohort studies collaboration.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Karice K; Huxley, Rachel R; Arima, Hisatomi; Woo, Jean; Lam, Tai Hing; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Fang, Xianghua; Peters, Sanne A E; Jee, Sun Ha; Giles, Graham G; Barzi, Federica; Woodward, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The risk of stroke is high in men among both Asian and non-Asian populations, despite differences in risk factor profiles; whether risk factors act similarly in these populations is unknown. To study the associations between five major risk factors and stroke risk, comparing Asian with non-Asian men. We obtained data from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration, a pooled analysis of individual participant data from 44 studies involving 386 411 men with 9·4 years follow-up. Using cohorts from Asia and Australia/New Zealand Cox models were fitted to estimate risk factor associations for ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke. We identified significant, positive associations between all five risk factors and risk of ischemic stroke. The associations between body mass index, smoking, and diabetes with ischemic stroke were comparable for men from Asia and Australia/New Zealand. The association between systolic blood pressure and ischemic stroke was stronger for Asian than Australia/New Zealand cohorts, whereas the reverse was true for total cholesterol. For haemorrhagic stroke, only systolic blood pressure and smoking were associated with increased risk, although the relationship with systolic blood pressure was significantly stronger for men from Asia than Australia/New Zealand (P interaction  = 0·03), whereas the reverse was true for smoking (P interaction  = 0·001). There was an inverse trend of total cholesterol with haemorrhagic stroke, significant only for Asian men. Men from the Asia-Pacific region share common risk factors for stroke. Strategies aimed at lowering population levels of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, body mass index, smoking, and diabetes are likely to be beneficial in reducing stroke risk, particularly for ischemic stroke, across the region. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  1. Nutritional Status Changes and Activities of Daily Living after Hip Fracture in Convalescent Rehabilitation Units: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study from the Japan Rehabilitation Nutrition Database.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Shinta; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Momosaki, Ryo

    2018-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that malnutrition impedes functional recovery in patients with hip fracture, but there are few reports on improvement in nutritional status and return to activities of daily living (ADL) in these patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between change in nutritional status and recovery of ADL in malnourished patients after hip fracture and to identify predictors of functional recovery among the characteristic features of undernutrition. This was a retrospective observational cohort study. Data for patients aged ≥65 years with hip fracture and malnutrition (Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form [MNA-SF] score ≤7) at the time of admission to convalescent rehabilitation units were obtained from the Japan Rehabilitation Nutrition Database between November 2015 and August 2017. The main outcome measures were Functional Independence Measure (FIM) at discharge and the proportion of patients discharged home. Patients were divided into two groups based on MNA-SF scores at discharge: improvement in nutritional status (>7, IN group) and non-improvement in nutritional status (≤7, NN group). Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between the groups. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to adjust for confounders including age, sex, comorbidity, pre-fracture ADL level, and FIM score on admission. Of 876 patients, 110 met the eligibility criteria (mean age, 85 years; 78.2% female); 77 of the patients were assigned to the IN group and 33 to the NN group. The patients in the IN group were younger and had higher FIM and MNA-SF scores on admission than those in the NN group. At discharge, the median FIM score was significantly higher in the IN group than in the NN group (110 vs 83, P<0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed a significant association between improvement in nutritional status and higher FIM score at discharge (B=7.377 [B=partial regression coefficient], P=0.036) but no association with

  2. Age-related cognitive decline and associations with sex, education and apolipoprotein E genotype across ethnocultural groups and geographic regions: a collaborative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lipnicki, Darren M; Crawford, John D; Dutta, Rajib; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Kochan, Nicole A; Andrews, Gavin; Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Castro-Costa, Erico; Brayne, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E; Stephan, Blossom C M; Lipton, Richard B; Katz, Mindy J; Ritchie, Karen; Scali, Jacqueline; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Yannakoulia, Mary; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Lam, Linda C W; Wong, Candy H Y; Fung, Ada W T; Guaita, Antonio; Vaccaro, Roberta; Davin, Annalisa; Kim, Ki Woong; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Butterworth, Peter; Scazufca, Marcia; Kumagai, Shuzo; Chen, Sanmei; Narazaki, Kenji; Ng, Tze Pin; Gao, Qi; Reppermund, Simone; Brodaty, Henry; Lobo, Antonio; Lopez-Anton, Raúl; Santabárbara, Javier; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of dementia varies around the world, potentially contributed to by international differences in rates of age-related cognitive decline. Our primary goal was to investigate how rates of age-related decline in cognitive test performance varied among international cohort studies of cognitive aging. We also determined the extent to which sex, educational attainment, and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) carrier status were associated with decline. We harmonized longitudinal data for 14 cohorts from 12 countries (Australia, Brazil, France, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Singapore, Spain, South Korea, United Kingdom, United States), for a total of 42,170 individuals aged 54-105 y (42% male), including 3.3% with dementia at baseline. The studies began between 1989 and 2011, with all but three ongoing, and each had 2-16 assessment waves (median = 3) and a follow-up duration of 2-15 y. We analyzed standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and memory, processing speed, language, and executive functioning test scores using linear mixed models, adjusted for sex and education, and meta-analytic techniques. Performance on all cognitive measures declined with age, with the most rapid rate of change pooled across cohorts a moderate -0.26 standard deviations per decade (SD/decade) (95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.35, -0.16], p < 0.001) for processing speed. Rates of decline accelerated slightly with age, with executive functioning showing the largest additional rate of decline with every further decade of age (-0.07 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.10, -0.03], p = 0.002). There was a considerable degree of heterogeneity in the associations across cohorts, including a slightly faster decline (p = 0.021) on the MMSE for Asians (-0.20 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.28, -0.12], p < 0.001) than for whites (-0.09 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.16, -0.02], p = 0.009). Males declined on the MMSE at a slightly slower rate than females (difference = 0.023 SD/decade, 95% CI [0.011, 0.035], p

  3. Age-related cognitive decline and associations with sex, education and apolipoprotein E genotype across ethnocultural groups and geographic regions: a collaborative cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lipnicki, Darren M.; Crawford, John D.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Castro-Costa, Erico; Stephan, Blossom C. M.; Lipton, Richard B.; Katz, Mindy J.; Ritchie, Karen; Scali, Jacqueline; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Yannakoulia, Mary; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Lam, Linda C. W.; Fung, Ada W. T.; Vaccaro, Roberta; Davin, Annalisa; Kim, Ki Woong; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Butterworth, Peter; Scazufca, Marcia; Kumagai, Shuzo; Chen, Sanmei; Narazaki, Kenji; Lobo, Antonio; Lopez-Anton, Raúl; Santabárbara, Javier; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of dementia varies around the world, potentially contributed to by international differences in rates of age-related cognitive decline. Our primary goal was to investigate how rates of age-related decline in cognitive test performance varied among international cohort studies of cognitive aging. We also determined the extent to which sex, educational attainment, and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) carrier status were associated with decline. Methods and findings We harmonized longitudinal data for 14 cohorts from 12 countries (Australia, Brazil, France, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Singapore, Spain, South Korea, United Kingdom, United States), for a total of 42,170 individuals aged 54–105 y (42% male), including 3.3% with dementia at baseline. The studies began between 1989 and 2011, with all but three ongoing, and each had 2–16 assessment waves (median = 3) and a follow-up duration of 2–15 y. We analyzed standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and memory, processing speed, language, and executive functioning test scores using linear mixed models, adjusted for sex and education, and meta-analytic techniques. Performance on all cognitive measures declined with age, with the most rapid rate of change pooled across cohorts a moderate -0.26 standard deviations per decade (SD/decade) (95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.35, -0.16], p < 0.001) for processing speed. Rates of decline accelerated slightly with age, with executive functioning showing the largest additional rate of decline with every further decade of age (-0.07 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.10, -0.03], p = 0.002). There was a considerable degree of heterogeneity in the associations across cohorts, including a slightly faster decline (p = 0.021) on the MMSE for Asians (-0.20 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.28, -0.12], p < 0.001) than for whites (-0.09 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.16, -0.02], p = 0.009). Males declined on the MMSE at a slightly slower rate than females (difference = 0

  4. The contribution of smoking to socioeconomic differentials in mortality: results from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, Mohammad; English, Dallas; Powles, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the contribution of smoking to the inverse association of mortality with years of formal education in men in Australia. Design Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study that included 17 049 men in Melbourne recruited from 1990 to 1994, most of whom were aged between 40 and 69 years at baseline. The outcome measured was all‐cause mortality. The contribution of smoking to socioeconomic status differentials was estimated by including smoking as a variable in a Cox's proportional hazards model that also included education and other potential confounding variables. Results In men, the association between education and mortality was attenuated after adjustment for smoking, and the aetiological fraction for low levels of education was reduced from 16.5% to 10.6%. Conclusions In men, smoking contributes substantially to socioeconomic differentials in mortality. Effective policies and interventions that target smoking among socially disadvantaged groups may substantially reduce socioeconomic differentials in health. PMID:17108305

  5. Age-, sex-, and diagnosis-specific incidence rate of medically certified long-term sick leave among private sector employees: The Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health (J-ECOH) study.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Chihiro; Nanri, Akiko; Kashino, Ikuko; Hori, Ai; Kinugawa, Chihiro; Endo, Motoki; Kato, Noritada; Tomizawa, Aki; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Imai, Teppei; Okino, Akiko; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Naoko; Tomita, Kentaro; Nagahama, Satsue; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Okazaki, Hiroko; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2017-12-01

    Long-term sick-leave is a major public health problem, but data on its incidence in Japan are scarce. We aimed to present reference data for long-term sick-leave among private sector employees in Japan. The study population comprised employees of 12 companies that participated in the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study. Details on medically certified sick-leave lasting ≥30 days were collected from each company. Age- and sex-specific incidence rate of sick-leave was calculated for the period of April 2012 to March 2014. A total of 1422 spells in men and 289 in women occurred during 162,989 and 30,645 person-years of observation, respectively. The three leading causes of sick-leave (percentage of total spells) were mental disorders (52%), neoplasms (12%), and injury (8%) for men; and mental disorders (35%), neoplasms (20%), and pregnancy-related disease (14%) for women. Incidence rate of sick-leave due to mental disorders was relatively high among men in their 20s-40s but tended to decrease with age among women. Incidence rate of sick-leave due to neoplasms started to increase after age 50 in men and after age 40 in women, making neoplasms the leading cause of sick-leave after age 50 for women and after age 60 for men and the second leading cause after age 40 for women and after age 50 for men. Pregnancy-related disease was the second leading cause of sick-leave among women aged 20-39 years. These results suggest that mental disorder, neoplasms, and pregnancy-related disease are the major causes of long-term sick-leave among private sector employees in Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of anthropometric measures as predictors of cancer incidence: A pooled collaborative analysis of 11 Australian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jessica L; Shaw, Jonathan E; Anstey, Kaarin J; Adams, Robert; Balkau, Beverley; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Briffa, Tom; Davis, Timothy M E; Davis, Wendy A; Dobson, Annette; Flicker, Leon; Giles, Graham; Grant, Janet; Huxley, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew; Luszcz, Mary; MacInnis, Robert J; Mitchell, Paul; Pasco, Julie A; Reid, Christopher; Simmons, David; Simons, Leon; Tonkin, Andrew; Woodward, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Magliano, Dianna J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. However, it is not known if general adiposity, as measured by body mass index (BMI) or central adiposity [e.g., waist circumference (WC)] have stronger associations with cancer, or which anthropometric measure best predicts cancer risk. We included 79,458 men and women from the Australian and New Zealand Diabetes and Cancer Collaboration with complete data on anthropometry [BMI, WC, Hip Circumference (HC), WHR, waist to height ratio (WtHR), A Body Shape Index (ABSI)], linked to the Australian Cancer Database. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between each anthropometric marker, per standard deviation and the risk of overall, colorectal, post-menopausal (PM) breast, prostate and obesity-related cancers. We assessed the discriminative ability of models using Harrell's c-statistic. All anthropometric markers were associated with overall, colorectal and obesity-related cancers. BMI, WC and HC were associated with PM breast cancer and no significant associations were seen for prostate cancer. Strongest associations were observed for WC across all outcomes, excluding PM breast cancer for which HC was strongest. WC had greater discrimination compared to BMI for overall and colorectal cancer in men and women with c-statistics ranging from 0.70 to 0.71. We show all anthropometric measures are associated with the overall, colorectal, PM breast and obesity-related cancer in men and women, but not prostate cancer. WC discriminated marginally better than BMI. However, all anthropometric measures were similarly moderately predictive of cancer risk. We do not recommend one anthropometric marker over another for assessing an individuals' risk of cancer. © 2015 UICC.

  7. Invasive cervical cancer risk among HIV-infected women: A North American multi-cohort collaboration prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Alison G; Strickler, Howard D; Jing, Yuezhou; Gange, Stephen J; Sterling, Timothy R; Silverberg, Michael; Saag, Michael; Rourke, Sean; Rachlis, Anita; Napravnik, Sonia; Moore, Richard D; Klein, Marina; Kitahata, Mari; Kirk, Greg; Hogg, Robert; Hessol, Nancy A; Goedert, James J; Gill, M John; Gebo, Kelly; Eron, Joseph J; Engels, Eric A; Dubrow, Robert; Crane, Heidi M; Brooks, John T; Bosch, Ronald; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2013-01-01

    Objective HIV infection and low CD4+ T-cell count are associated with an increased risk of persistent oncogenic HPV infection – the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Few reported prospective cohort studies have characterized the incidence of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in HIV-infected women. Methods Data were obtained from HIV-infected and -uninfected female participants in the NA-ACCORD with no history of ICC at enrollment. Participants were followed from study entry or January, 1996 through ICC, loss-to follow-up or December, 2010. The relationship of HIV infection and CD4+ T-cell count with risk of ICC was assessed using age-adjusted Poisson regression models and standardized incidence ratios (SIR). All cases were confirmed by cancer registry records and/or pathology reports. Cervical cytology screening history was assessed through medical record abstraction. Results A total of 13,690 HIV-infected and 12,021 HIV-uninfected women contributed 66,249 and 70,815 person-years (pys) of observation, respectively. Incident ICC was diagnosed in 17 HIV-infected and 4 HIV-uninfected women (incidence rate of 26 and 6 per 100,000 pys, respectively). HIV-infected women with baseline CD4+ T-cells of ≥ 350, 200–349 and <200 cells/uL had a 2.3-times, 3.0-times and 7.7-times increase in ICC incidence, respectively, compared with HIV-uninfected women (Ptrend =0.001). Of the 17 HIV-infected cases, medical records for the 5 years prior to diagnosis showed that 6 had no documented screening, 5 had screening with low grade or normal results, and 6 had high-grade results. Conclusions This study found elevated incidence of ICC in HIV-infected compared to -uninfected women, and these rates increased with immunosuppression. PMID:23254153

  8. Communication of information to patients with inflammatory bowel disease: A European Collaborative Study in a multinational prospective inception cohort.

    PubMed

    Politi, P; Bodini, P; Mortilla, M G; Beltrami, M; Fornaciari, G; Formisano, D; Munkholm, P; Riis, L; Wolters, F; Hoie, O; Katsanos, K; O'Morain, C; Shuhaibar, M; Lalli, P; De Falco, M; Pereira, S; Freitas, J; Odes, S; Stockbrügger, R W

    2008-09-01

    Communication to patients of information about their disease has become increasingly important in modern medicine, and particularly with chronic nonfatal disorders like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the subject is not adequately researched or understood. We studied the media and preferences for communication of information in a multi-national community-based inception cohort of European and Israeli patients with IBD and 10 years follow-up, using structured questionnaires categorizing demographics, disease status, current and preferred sources of information, use of electronic media, role of patients' associations, and satisfaction level. The 917 patients completing the questionnaire were derived from northern (60%) and southern (40%) countries. The mean age was 48.3 years (62% under 50 years); 51% were males; 67% had ulcerative colitis, 33% Crohn's disease. Sixty-six percent of patients designated the specialist as their primary source of information, 77% indicated satisfaction with their current information, and 65% reported not receiving information about medical treatment in the past year. Patient concerns were about new research into their illness (64%), medical treatments (58%), risks and complications (51%) and genetics (42%). Preferred sources of information were paper bulletin (76%), electronic media (30%) and international organization (79%). Diagnosis (ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease), gender, education level and country impacted significantly on patients' choices. In providing health care information to patients with IBD their individual attitudes and preferences must be considered. There should be greater roles for IBD patients' associations and international IBD-research organizations, and an increasing use of electronic media.

  9. AZT Impairs Immunological Recovery on First-line ART: Collaborative analysis of cohort studies in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    WANDELER, Gilles; GSPONER, Thomas; MULENGA, Lloyd; GARONE, Daniela; WOOD, Robin; MASKEW, Mhairi; PROZESKY, Hans; HOFFMANN, Christopher; EHMER, Jochen; DICKINSON, Diana; DAVIES, Mary-Ann; EGGER, Matthias; KEISER, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Zidovudine (AZT) is recommended for first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource limited settings. AZT may, however, lead to anemia and impaired immunological response. We compared CD4 counts over 5 years between patients starting ART with and without AZT in Southern Africa. Design Cohort study Methods Patients aged ≥16 years who started first-line ART in South Africa, Botswana, Zambia or Lesotho were included. We used linear mixed-effect models to compare CD4 cell count trajectories between patients on AZT-containing regimens and patients on other regimens, censoring follow-up at first treatment change. Impaired immunological recovery, defined as a CD4 count below 100 cells/μl at 1 year, was assessed in logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for baseline CD4 count and haemoglobin level, age, gender, type of regimen, viral load monitoring and calendar year. Results 72,597 patients starting ART, including 19,758 (27.2%) on AZT, were analysed. Patients on AZT had higher CD4 cell counts (150 vs.128 cells/μl) and haemoglobin level (12.0 vs. 11.0 g/dl) at baseline, and were less likely to be female than those on other regimens. Adjusted differences in CD4 counts between regimens containing and not containing AZT were −16 cells/μl (95% CI −18 to −14) at 1 year and −56 cells/μl (95% CI −59 to −52) at 5 years. Impaired immunological recovery was more likely with AZT compared to other regimens (odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.22–1.61). Conclusions In Southern Africa AZT is associated with inferior immunological recovery compared to other backbones. Replacing AZT with another NRTI could avoid unnecessary switches to second-line ART. PMID:23660577

  10. Impact of Early Valve Surgery on Outcome of Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Valve Infective Endocarditis: Analysis in the International Collaboration of Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chirouze, Catherine; Alla, François; Fowler, Vance G.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Corey, G. Ralph; Chu, Vivian H.; Wang, Andrew; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Hannan, Margaret M.; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Miró, José M.; Muñoz, Patricia; Murdoch, David R.; Tattevin, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Hoen, Bruno; Clara, Liliana; Sanchez, Marisa; Nacinovich, Francisco; Oses, Pablo Fernandez; Ronderos, Ricardo; Sucari, Adriana; Thierer, Jorge; Casabé, José; Cortes, Claudia; Altclas, Javier; Kogan, Silvia; Spelman, Denis; Athan, Eugene; Harris, Owen; Kennedy, Karina; Tan, Ren; Gordon, David; Papanicolas, Lito; Eisen, Damon; Grigg, Leeanne; Street, Alan; Korman, Tony; Kotsanas, Despina; Dever, Robyn; Jones, Phillip; Konecny, Pam; Lawrence, Richard; Rees, David; Ryan, Suzanne; Feneley, Michael P.; Harkness, John; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzanne; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzanne; Jones, Phillip; Post, Jeffrey; Reinbott, Porl; Ryan, Suzanne; Gattringer, Rainer; Wiesbauer, Franz; Andrade, Adriana Ribas; de Brito, Ana Cláudia Passos; Guimarães, Armenio Costa; Grinberg, Max; Mansur, Alfredo José; Siciliano, Rinaldo Focaccia; Strabelli, Tania Mara Varejao; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; de Medeiros Tranchesi, Regina Aparecida; Paiva, Marcelo Goulart; Fortes, Claudio Querido; de Oliveira Ramos, Auristela; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna; Golebiovski, Wilma; Lamas, Cristiane; Santos, Marisa; Weksler, Clara; Karlowsky, James A.; Keynan, Yoav; Morris, Andrew M.; Rubinstein, Ethan; Jones, Sandra Braun; Garcia, Patricia; Cereceda, M; Fica, Alberto; Mella, Rodrigo Montagna; Barsic, Bruno; Bukovski, Suzana; Krajinovic, Vladimir; Pangercic, Ana; Rudez, Igor; Vincelj, Josip; Freiberger, Tomas; Pol, Jiri; Zaloudikova, Barbora; Ashour, Zainab; El Kholy, Amani; Mishaal, Marwa; Rizk, Hussien; Aissa, Neijla; Alauzet, Corentine; Alla, Francois; Campagnac, Catherine; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Selton-Suty, Christine; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Habib, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier; Thuny, Franck; Delahaye, François; Delahaye, Armelle; Vandenesch, Francois; Donal, Erwan; Donnio, Pierre Yves; Michelet, Christian; Revest, Matthieu; Tattevin, Pierre; Violette, Jérémie; Chevalier, Florent; Jeu, Antoine; Sorel, Claire; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Bernard, Yvette; Chirouze, Catherine; Hoen, Bruno; Leroy, Joel; Plesiat, Patrick; Naber, Christoph; Neuerburg, Carl; Mazaheri, Bahram; Naber, Christoph; Neuerburg, Carl; Athanasia, Sofia; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Mylona, Elena; Paniara, Olga; Papanicolaou, Konstantinos; Pyros, John; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Sharma, Gautam; Francis, Johnson; Nair, Lathi; Thomas, Vinod; Venugopal, Krishnan; Hannan, Margaret; Hurley, John; Gilon, Dan; Israel, Sarah; Korem, Maya; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Rubinstein, Ethan; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Casillo, Roberta; Cuccurullo, Susanna; Dialetto, Giovanni; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Irene, Mattucci; Ragone, Enrico; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Utili, Riccardo; Cecchi, Enrico; De Rosa, Francesco; Forno, Davide; Imazio, Massimo; Trinchero, Rita; Tebini, Alessandro; Grossi, Paolo; Lattanzio, Mariangela; Toniolo, Antonio; Goglio, Antonio; Raglio, Annibale; Ravasio, Veronica; Rizzi, Marco; Suter, Fredy; Carosi, Giampiero; Magri, Silvia; Signorini, Liana; Baban, Tania; Kanafani, Zeina; Kanj, Souha S.; Yasmine, Mohamad; Abidin, Imran; Tamin, Syahidah Syed; Martínez, Eduardo Rivera; Soto Nieto, Gabriel Israel; van der Meer, Jan T.M.; Chambers, Stephen; Holland, David; Morris, Arthur; Raymond, Nigel; Read, Kerry; Murdoch, David R.; Dragulescu, Stefan; Ionac, Adina; Mornos, Cristian; Butkevich, O.M.; Chipigina, Natalia; Kirill, Ozerecky; Vadim, Kulichenko; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Edathodu, Jameela; Halim, Magid; Lum, Luh-Nah; Tan, Ru-San; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Logar, Mateja; Mueller-Premru, Manica; Commerford, Patrick; Commerford, Anita; Deetlefs, Eduan; Hansa, Cass; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Almela, Manuel; Armero, Yolanda; Azqueta, Manuel; Castañeda, Ximena; Cervera, Carlos; del Rio, Ana; Falces, Carlos; Garcia-de-la-Maria, Cristina; Fita, Guillermina; Gatell, Jose M.; Marco, Francesc; Mestres, Carlos A.; Miró, José M.; Moreno, Asuncion; Ninot, Salvador; Paré, Carlos; Pericas, Joan; Ramirez, Jose; Rovira, Irene; Sitges, Marta; Anguera, Ignasi; Font, Bernat; Guma, Joan Raimon; Bermejo, Javier; Bouza, Emilio; Fernández, Miguel Angel Garcia; Gonzalez-Ramallo, Victor; Marín, Mercedes; Muñoz, Patricia; Pedromingo, Miguel; Roda, Jorge; Rodríguez-Créixems, Marta; Solis, Jorge; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; Tornos, Pilar; de Alarcón, Arístides; Parra, Ricardo; Alestig, Eric; Johansson, Magnus; Olaison, Lars; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Pachirat, Orathai; Pachirat, Pimchitra; Pussadhamma, Burabha; Senthong, Vichai; Casey, Anna; Elliott, Tom; Lambert, Peter; Watkin, Richard; Eyton, Christina; Klein, John L.; Bradley, Suzanne; Kauffman, Carol; Bedimo, Roger; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Crowley, Anna Lisa; Douglas, Pamela; Drew, Laura; Fowler, Vance G.; Holland, Thomas; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Mudrick, Daniel; Samad, Zaniab; Sexton, Daniel; Stryjewski, Martin; Wang, Andrew; Woods, Christopher W.; Lerakis, Stamatios; Cantey, Robert; Steed, Lisa; Wray, Dannah; Dickerman, Stuart A.; Bonilla, Hector; DiPersio, Joseph; Salstrom, Sara-Jane; Baddley, John; Patel, Mukesh; Peterson, Gail; Stancoven, Amy; Afonso, Luis; Kulman, Theresa; Levine, Donald; Rybak, Michael; Cabell, Christopher H.; Baloch, Khaula; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Dixon, Christy C.; Fowler, Vance G.; Harding, Tina; Jones-Richmond, Marian; Pappas, Paul; Park, Lawrence P.; Redick, Thomas; Stafford, Judy; Anstrom, Kevin; Athan, Eugene; Bayer, Arnold S.; Cabell, Christopher H.; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Fowler, Vance G.; Hoen, Bruno; Karchmer, A. W.; Miró, José M.; Murdoch, David R.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Wang, Andrew; Bayer, Arnold S.; Cabell, Christopher H.; Chu, Vivian; Corey, G. Ralph; Durack, David T.; Eykyn, Susannah; Fowler, Vance G.; Hoen, Bruno; Miró, José M.; Moreillon, Phillipe; Olaison, Lars; Raoult, Didier; Rubinstein, Ethan; Sexton, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The impact of early valve surgery (EVS) on the outcome of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVIE) is unresolved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between EVS, performed within the first 60 days of hospitalization, and outcome of SA PVIE within the International Collaboration on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study. Methods. Participants were enrolled between June 2000 and December 2006. Cox proportional hazards modeling that included surgery as a time-dependent covariate and propensity adjustment for likelihood to receive cardiac surgery was used to evaluate the impact of EVS and 1-year all-cause mortality on patients with definite left-sided S. aureus PVIE and no history of injection drug use. Results. EVS was performed in 74 of the 168 (44.3%) patients. One-year mortality was significantly higher among patients with S. aureus PVIE than in patients with non–S. aureus PVIE (48.2% vs 32.9%; P = .003). Staphylococcus aureus PVIE patients who underwent EVS had a significantly lower 1-year mortality rate (33.8% vs 59.1%; P = .001). In multivariate, propensity-adjusted models, EVS was not associated with 1-year mortality (risk ratio, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, .39–1.15]; P = .15). Conclusions. In this prospective, multinational cohort of patients with S. aureus PVIE, EVS was not associated with reduced 1-year mortality. The decision to pursue EVS should be individualized for each patient, based upon infection-specific characteristics rather than solely upon the microbiology of the infection causing PVIE. PMID:25389255

  11. The Clinical Research Center for Depression Study: Baseline Characteristics of a Korean Long-Term Hospital-Based Observational Collaborative Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Suk; Jeong, Seung Hee; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study is a 9-year observational collaborative prospective cohort study for the clinical outcomes in participants with depressive disorders in Korea. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of the depressive participants as the hospital-based cohort. Methods Participants were assessed using various instruments including the Clinical Global Impression scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Scale for Suicide Ideation, and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instruments-abbreviated version. Also, personal histories of medical and psychiatric illnesses and the range of socio-epidemiologic and clinical data were collected from each participant. Results One thousand one hundred eighty three participants were recruited from 18 hospitals. The mean age of the participants was 47.9±15.9 year-old, 74.4% were female, 82.9% had been diagnosed of major depressive disorder, 40.9% were experiencing their first depressive episode, and 21.4% had a past history of suicide attempts. The majority (85.3%) of the participants were moderately to severely ill. The average HDRS-17 was 19.8±6.1. Significant gender differences at baseline were shown in age, education, marriage, employment, religion, and first depressive episode. Conclusion The baseline findings in the CRESCEND study showed some different characteristics of depression in Korea, suggesting a possibility of ethnic and cultural factors in depression. PMID:21519530

  12. Impact of early valve surgery on outcome of Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic valve infective endocarditis: analysis in the International Collaboration of Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chirouze, Catherine; Alla, François; Fowler, Vance G; Sexton, Daniel J; Corey, G Ralph; Chu, Vivian H; Wang, Andrew; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Hannan, Margaret M; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Miró, José M; Muñoz, Patricia; Murdoch, David R; Tattevin, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Hoen, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    The impact of early valve surgery (EVS) on the outcome of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVIE) is unresolved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between EVS, performed within the first 60 days of hospitalization, and outcome of SA PVIE within the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study. Participants were enrolled between June 2000 and December 2006. Cox proportional hazards modeling that included surgery as a time-dependent covariate and propensity adjustment for likelihood to receive cardiac surgery was used to evaluate the impact of EVS and 1-year all-cause mortality on patients with definite left-sided S. aureus PVIE and no history of injection drug use. EVS was performed in 74 of the 168 (44.3%) patients. One-year mortality was significantly higher among patients with S. aureus PVIE than in patients with non-S. aureus PVIE (48.2% vs 32.9%; P = .003). Staphylococcus aureus PVIE patients who underwent EVS had a significantly lower 1-year mortality rate (33.8% vs 59.1%; P = .001). In multivariate, propensity-adjusted models, EVS was not associated with 1-year mortality (risk ratio, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, .39-1.15]; P = .15). In this prospective, multinational cohort of patients with S. aureus PVIE, EVS was not associated with reduced 1-year mortality. The decision to pursue EVS should be individualized for each patient, based upon infection-specific characteristics rather than solely upon the microbiology of the infection causing PVIE. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular mortality accounting for possible misclassification of intake: 11-year follow-up of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Harriss, Linton R; English, Dallas R; Hopper, John L; Powles, John; Simpson, Julie A; O'Dea, Kerin; Giles, Graham G; Tonkin, Andrew M

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between usual daily alcohol intake, beverage type and drinking frequency on cardiovascular (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, accounting for systematic misclassification of intake. Prospective cohort study with mean follow-up of 11.4 years. Setting The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, Australia. A total of 38 200 volunteers (23 044 women) aged 40-69 years at baseline (1990-1994). Self-reported alcohol intake using beverage-specific quantity-frequency questions (usual intake) and drinking diary for previous week. Compared with life-time abstention, usual daily alcohol intake was associated with lower CVD and CHD mortality risk for women but not men. For women, the hazard ratio [HR (95% CI)] for CVD for those drinking > 20 g/day alcohol was 0.43 (0.19-0.95; P trend = 0.18), and for CHD, 0.19 (0.05-0.82; P trend = 0.24). Male former drinkers had over twice the mortality risk for CVD [HR = 2.58 (1.51-4.41)] and CHD [HR = 2.91 (1.59-5.33)]. Wine was the only beverage associated inversely with mortality for women. Compared with drinkers who consumed no alcohol in the week before baseline, drinking frequency was associated inversely with CVD and CHD mortality risk for men but not women. HR for men drinking 6-7 days/week was 0.49 (0.29-0.81; P trend = 0.02) for CVD, and 0.49 (0.26-0.92: P trend = 0.23) for CHD. Usual daily alcohol intake was associated with reduced CVD and CHD mortality for women but not men. This benefit appeared to be mainly from wine, although comparison of beverages was not possible. Drinking frequency was associated inversely with CVD and CHD death for men but not women.

  14. Clustering of risk factors and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease in Asian and Caucasian populations: results from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Sanne A E; Wang, Xin; Lam, Tai-Hing; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Ho, Suzanne; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Knuiman, Matthew; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Bots, Michael L; Woodward, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between risk factor clusters and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in Asian and Caucasian populations and to estimate the burden of CVD attributable to each cluster. Setting Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Participants Individual participant data from 34 population-based cohorts, involving 314 024 participants without a history of CVD at baseline. Outcome measures Clusters were 11 possible combinations of four individual risk factors (current smoking, overweight, blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol). Cox regression models were used to obtain adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for CVD associated with individual risk factors and risk factor clusters. Population-attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Results During a mean follow-up of 7 years, 6203 CVD events were recorded. The ranking of HRs and PAFs was similar for Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) and Asia; clusters including BP consistently showed the highest HRs and PAFs. The BP–smoking cluster had the highest HR for people with two risk factors: 4.13 (3.56 to 4.80) for Asia and 3.07 (2.23 to 4.23) for ANZ. Corresponding PAFs were 24% and 11%, respectively. For individuals with three risk factors, the BP–smoking–cholesterol cluster had the highest HR (4.67 (3.92 to 5.57) for Asia and 3.49 (2.69 to 4.53) for ANZ). Corresponding PAFs were 13% and 10%. Conclusions Risk factor clusters act similarly on CVD risk in Asian and Caucasian populations. Clusters including elevated BP were associated with the highest excess risk of CVD. PMID:29511013

  15. Birth cohorts in Asia: The importance, advantages, and disadvantages of different-sized cohorts.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Reiko; Araki, Atsuko; Minatoya, Machiko; Itoh, Sachiko; Goudarzi, Houman; Miyashita, Chihiro

    2018-02-15

    Asia contains half of the world's children, and the countries of Asia are the most rapidly industrializing nations on the globe. Environmental threats to the health of children in Asia are myriad. Several birth cohorts were started in Asia in early 2000, and currently more than 30 cohorts in 13 countries have been established for study. Cohorts can contain from approximately 100-200 to 20,000-30,000 participants. Furthermore, national cohorts targeting over 100,000 participants have been launched in Japan and Korea. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss the importance of Asian cohorts, and the advantages and disadvantages of different-sized cohorts. As for case, one small-sized (n=514) cohort indicate that even relatively low level exposure to dioxin in utero could alter birth size, neurodevelopment, and immune and hormonal functions. Several Asian cohorts focus prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyo substances and reported associations with birth size, thyroid hormone levels, allergies and neurodevelopment. Inconsistent findings may possibly be explained by the differences in exposure levels and target chemicals, and by possible statistical errors. In a smaller cohort, novel hypotheses or preliminary examinations are more easily verifiable. In larger cohorts, the etiology of rare diseases, such as birth defects, can be analyzed; however, they require a large cost and significant human resources. Therefore, conducting studies in only one large cohort may not always be the best strategy. International collaborations, such as the Birth Cohort Consortium of Asia, would cover the inherent limitation of sample size in addition to heterogeneity of exposure, ethnicity, and socioeconomic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Less subclinical atherosclerosis in Japanese men in Japan than in White men in the United States in the post-World War II birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Sekikawa, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Kadowaki, Takashi; El-Saed, Aiman; Okamura, Tomonori; Takamiya, Tomoko; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Murata, Kiyoshi; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Evans, Rhobert W; Kita, Yoshikuni; Kuller, Lewis H

    2007-03-15

    Coronary heart disease incidence and mortality remain very low in Japan despite major dietary changes and increases in risk factors that should have resulted in a substantial increase in coronary heart disease rates (Japanese paradox). Primary genetic effects are unlikely, given the substantial increase in coronary heart disease in Japanese migrating to the United States. For men aged 40-49 years, levels of total cholesterol and blood pressure have been similar in Japan and the United States throughout their lifetimes. The authors tested the hypothesis that levels of subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary artery calcification, and intima-media thickness of the carotid artery in men aged 40-49 years are similar in Japan and the United States. They conducted a population-based study of 493 randomly selected men: 250 in Kusatsu City, Shiga, Japan, and 243 White men in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, in 2002-2005. Compared with the Whites, the Japanese had a less favorable profile regarding many risk factors. The prevalence ratio for the presence of a coronary calcium score of > or =10 for the Japanese compared with the Whites was 0.52 (95% confidence interval: 0.35, 0.76). Mean intima-media thickness was significantly lower in the Japanese (0.616 mm (standard error, 0.005) vs. 0.672 (standard error, 0.005) mm, p < 0.01). Both associations remained significant after adjusting for risk factors. The findings warrant further investigations.

  17. Less subclinical atherosclerosis in Japanese men in Japan than in white men in the United States in the post World-War-II birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sekikawa, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Kadowaki, Takashi; El-Saed, Aiman; Okamura, Tomonori; Takamiya, Tomoko; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Murata, Kiyoshi; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Evans, Rhobert W.; Kita, Yoshikuni; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence and mortality remain very low in Japan despite major dietary changes and increases in CHD risk factors that should have resulted in substantial increase in CHD rates (Japanese paradox). Primary genetic effects are unlikely, given the substantial increase in CHD in migrant Japanese to the U.S. For men aged 40–49, levels of total cholesterol and blood pressure have been similar in Japan and the U.S. throughout their lifetime. The authors tested the hypothesis that levels of subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary artery calcification and intima-media thickness of the carotid artery (IMT), in men aged 40–49 are similar in Japan and the U.S. The authors conducted a population-based study of 493 randomly-selected men: 250 men in Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan, and 243 white men in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, U.S. in 2002–2005. The Japanese had a less favorable profile of many risk factors than the whites. Prevalence ratio for the presence of coronary calcium score ≥10 in the Japanese compared to the whites was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.35, 0.76). Mean (SE) IMT was significantly lower in the Japanese (0.616 (0.005) versus 0.672 (0.005) mm, p<0.01). Both associations remained significant after adjusting for risk factors. The findings warrant further investigations. PMID:17244636

  18. Impact of late diagnosis and treatment on life expectancy in people with HIV-1: UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Gompels, Mark; Delpech, Valerie; Porter, Kholoud; Post, Frank; Johnson, Margaret; Dunn, David; Palfreeman, Adrian; Gilson, Richard; Gazzard, Brian; Hill, Teresa; Walsh, John; Fisher, Martin; Orkin, Chloe; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Bansi, Loveleen; Phillips, Andrew; Leen, Clifford; Nelson, Mark; Anderson, Jane; Sabin, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate life expectancy for people with HIV undergoing treatment compared with life expectancy in the general population and to assess the impact on life expectancy of late treatment, defined as CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 at start of antiretroviral therapy. Design Cohort study. Setting Outpatient HIV clinics throughout the United Kingdom. Population Adult patients from the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Study with CD4 count ≤350 cells/mm3 at start of antiretroviral therapy in 1996-2008. Main outcome measures Life expectancy at the exact age of 20 (the average additional years that will be lived by a person after age 20), according to the cross sectional age specific mortality rates during the study period. Results 1248 of 17 661 eligible patients died during 91 203 person years’ follow-up. Life expectancy (standard error) at exact age 20 increased from 30.0 (1.2) to 45.8 (1.7) years from 1996-9 to 2006-8. Life expectancy was 39.5 (0.45) for male patients and 50.2 (0.45) years for female patients compared with 57.8 and 61.6 years for men and women in the general population (1996-2006). Starting antiretroviral therapy later than guidelines suggest resulted in up to 15 years’ loss of life: at age 20, life expectancy was 37.9 (1.3), 41.0 (2.2), and 53.4 (1.2) years in those starting antiretroviral therapy with CD4 count <100, 100-199, and 200-350 cells/mm3, respectively. Conclusions Life expectancy in people treated for HIV infection has increased by over 15 years during 1996-2008, but is still about 13 years less than that of the UK population. The higher life expectancy in women is magnified in those with HIV. Earlier diagnosis and subsequent timely treatment with antiretroviral therapy might increase life expectancy. PMID:21990260

  19. Enterococcal endocarditis in the beginning of the 21st century: analysis from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chirouze, C; Athan, E; Alla, F; Chu, V H; Ralph Corey, G; Selton-Suty, C; Erpelding, M-L; Miro, J M; Olaison, L; Hoen, B

    2013-12-01

    Enterococci are reportedly the third most common group of endocarditis-causing pathogens but data on enterococcal infective endocarditis (IE) are limited. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics and prognostic factors of enterococcal IE within the International Collaboration on Endocarditis. In this multicentre, prospective observational cohort study of 4974 adults with definite IE recorded from June 2000 to September 2006, 500 patients had enterococcal IE. Their characteristics were described and compared with those of oral and group D streptococcal IE. Prognostic factors for enterococcal IE were analysed using multivariable Cox regression models. The patients' mean age was 65 years and 361/500 were male. Twenty-three per cent (117/500) of cases were healthcare related. Enterococcal IE were more frequent than oral and group D streptococcal IE in North America. The 1-year mortality rate was 28.9% (144/500). E. faecalis accounted for 90% (453/500) of enterococcal IE. Resistance to vancomycin was observed in 12 strains, eight of which were observed in North America, where they accounted for 10% (8/79) of enterococcal strains, and was more frequent in E. faecium than in E. faecalis (3/16 vs. 7/364 , p 0.01). Variables significantly associated with 1-year mortality were heart failure (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.7--3.5, p <0.0001), stroke (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3--2.8, p 0.001) and age (HR 1.02 per 1-year increment, 95% CI 1.01--1.04, p 0.002). Surgery was not associated with better outcome. Enterococci are an important cause of IE, with a high mortality rate. Healthcare association and vancomycin resistance are common in particular in North America. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  20. Economic Burden of Herpes Zoster and Post-Herpetic Neuralgia in Adults 60 Years of Age or Older: Results from a Prospective, Physician Practice-Based Cohort Study in Kushiro, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Mizukami, Akiko; Adachi, Koichi; Matthews, Sean; Holl, Katsiaryna; Asano, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Akihiro; Adachi, Riri; Kiuchi, Mariko; Kobayashi, Keiju; Sato, Keiko; Matsuki, Taizo; Kaise, Toshihiko; Curran, Desmond

    2017-12-01

    Herpes zoster has a high incidence rate among people aged ≥ 60 years and can lead to serious complications such as post-herpetic neuralgia. There are currently no data on the economic burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Japan, and the objective of this study was to address this gap. A total of 412 patients aged ≥ 60 years diagnosed with herpes zoster were recruited. Demographic, clinical, and healthcare resource utilization data on patients with herpes zoster or post-herpetic neuralgia collected via case report forms were used to estimate direct medical cost. Data obtained from a questionnaire survey among patients with herpes zoster/post-herpetic neuralgia were used to estimate transportation cost and productivity loss. The mean number of outpatient visits was 5.7. Prescription medications were the main cost driver accounting for 60% of the direct medical cost. The mean direct medical and total herpes zoster-related costs per patient were ¥43,925 and ¥57,112, respectively, and were higher in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia than in those with herpes zoster without complications. Direct medical cost represented 77%, productivity loss 19%, and transportation cost 4% of the total. This is the first study of the economic burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Japan and it demonstrated substantial direct medical cost as a result of the multiple outpatient visits and prescription medications required. These findings provide baseline data for possible future economic evaluations of new herpes zoster/post-herpetic neuralgia interventions. This cost analysis is part of a prospective, physician practice-based cohort study conducted between June 2013 and February 2015 in Kushiro, Japan (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01873365, registered on 6 June, 2013).

  1. Pretreatment CD4 Cell Slope and Progression to AIDS or Death in HIV-Infected Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy—The CASCADE Collaboration: A Collaboration of 23 Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wolbers, Marcel; Babiker, Abdel; Sabin, Caroline; Young, Jim; Dorrucci, Maria; Chêne, Geneviève; Mussini, Cristina; Porter, Kholoud; Bucher, Heiner C.

    2010-01-01

    Background CD4 cell count is a strong predictor of the subsequent risk of AIDS or death in HIV-infected patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). It is not known whether the rate of CD4 cell decline prior to therapy is related to prognosis and should, therefore, influence the decision on when to initiate cART. Methods and Findings We carried out survival analyses of patients from the 23 cohorts of the CASCADE (Concerted Action on SeroConversion to AIDS and Death in Europe) collaboration with a known date of HIV seroconversion and with at least two CD4 measurements prior to initiating cART. For each patient, a pre-cART CD4 slope was estimated using a linear mixed effects model. Our primary outcome was time from initiating cART to a first new AIDS event or death. We included 2,820 treatment-naïve patients initiating cART with a median (interquartile range) pre-cART CD4 cell decline of 61 (46–81) cells/µl per year; 255 patients subsequently experienced a new AIDS event or death and 125 patients died. In an analysis adjusted for established risk factors, the hazard ratio for AIDS or death was 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.97–1.04) for each 10 cells/µl per year reduction in pre-cART CD4 cell decline. There was also no association between pre-cART CD4 cell slope and survival. Alternative estimates of CD4 cell slope gave similar results. In 1,731 AIDS-free patients with >350 CD4 cells/µl from the pre-cART era, the rate of CD4 cell decline was also not significantly associated with progression to AIDS or death (hazard ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.94–1.03, for each 10 cells/µl per year reduction in CD4 cell decline). Conclusions The CD4 cell slope does not improve the prediction of clinical outcome in patients with a CD4 cell count above 350 cells/µl. Knowledge of the current CD4 cell count is sufficient when deciding whether to initiate cART in asymptomatic patients. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID

  2. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in birth centers versus hospitals among women with low-risk pregnancies in Japan: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Yaeko; Masuzawa, Yuko; Kato, Chiho; Eto, Hiromi

    2018-01-01

    In order for low-risk pregnant women to base birth decisions on the risks and benefits, they need evidence of birth outcomes from birth centers. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the maternal and neonatal outcomes of low-risk women who gave birth in birth centers and hospitals in Japan. The participants were 9588 women who had a singleton vaginal birth at 19 birth centers and two hospitals in Tokyo. The data were collected from their medical records, including their age, parity, mode of delivery, maternal position at delivery, duration of labor, intrapartum blood loss, perineal trauma, gestational weeks at birth, birth weight, Apgar score, and stillbirths. For the comparison of birth centers with hospitals, adjusted odds ratios for the birth outcomes were estimated by using a logistic regression analysis. The number of women who had a total blood loss of >1 L was higher in the midwife-led birth centers than in the hospitals but the incidence of perineal lacerations was lower. There were fewer infants who were born at the midwife-led birth centers with Apgar scores of <7, compared to the hospitals. This study was the first to compare important maternal and neonatal outcomes of birth centers and hospitals. Additional research, using matched baseline characteristics, could clarify the comparisons for maternal and neonatal outcomes. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  3. Determinants of polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in erythrocytes of pregnant Japanese women from a birth cohort study: study protocol and baseline findings of an adjunct study of the Japan environment & Children's study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shoji; Kawabata, Terue; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Kimura, Fumiko; Miyazawa, Teruo; Mizuno, Satoshi; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Arima, Takahiro; Kagawa, Yasuo; Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Tsuno, Kanami; Ito, Yuki; Kamijima, Michihiro; Nakai, Kunihiko; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-04-04

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may have multiple beneficial effects on the outcome of pregnancy, maternal health and child development. The present study introduced the protocol of a birth cohort study to examine the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA status in pregnant Japanese women as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). The JECS participants in the coastal areas of Miyagi Prefecture were further invited to participate in this adjunct study, and 1,878 pregnant women were enrolled prior to delivery. Their n-3 PUFA status was evaluated with fatty acid profiles in erythrocytes of maternal blood collected from 1,623 mothers at 24-30 weeks of gestation and cord blood from 1,505 deliveries. The baseline results, including comprehensive data on the fatty acid status and determinants affecting the PUFA status, were analyzed. In stepwise multivariate analyses, the cord blood docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) level was found to be significantly influenced by the DHA level in maternal blood, the child's sex, and the gestational period. The maternal DHA level was influenced by fish intake, maternal age, and the prepregnancy body mass index. While cord blood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was influenced by maternal EPA, fish intake, and season at birth, additional factors such as maternal education, household income, and smoking habits affected the maternal EPA content. Further studies are warranted to clarify the nutritional impacts of n-3 PUFA in pregnant Japanese women of the cohort study.

  4. Pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive women in Ukraine, 2000-12 (European Collaborative Study in EuroCoord): an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bagkeris, Emmanouil; Malyuta, Ruslan; Volokha, Alla; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Bailey, Heather; Townsend, Claire L; Thorne, Claire

    2015-09-01

    Women living with HIV are potentially at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, due to a range of factors, including immunosuppression, use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and injecting drug use. Rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Ukraine have declined to around 2-4%, but little is known about other pregnancy outcomes in this setting. We used data from an observational prospective cohort study to assess pregnancy outcomes among HIV-positive women in Ukraine. The European Collaborative Study (ECS) in EuroCoord is a continuing cohort study, established in Ukraine in 2000. Eligible women are those with a diagnosis of HIV infection before or during pregnancy (including intrapartum) who deliver liveborn babies at seven sites. Maternal sociodemographic, HIV-related, and delivery (mother and infant) data were collected with study-specific questionnaires. We used Poisson regression models to identify factors associated with preterm delivery (before 37 weeks' gestation) and small weight for gestational age (less than the tenth percentile of weight for gestational age), based on complete cases. Between January, 2000, and July, 2012, data were collected on 8884 HIV-positive mother and liveborn infant pairs. Median maternal age was 26·5 years (IQR 23·1-30·3). 832 (11%) women had WHO stage 3 or 4 HIV and 1474 (17%) had a history of injecting drug use. 7348 (83%) had received antenatal ART. Among 7435 for whom ART type was available, 4396 (50%) had received zidovudine monotherapy and 2949 (33%) combination ART. Preterm delivery was seen in 780 (9%, 95% CI 8-9) of 8860 births overall and in 77 (9%, 7-11) of 889 babies with small size for gestational age. Factors associated with preterm delivery were history of injecting drug use (adjusted risk ratio 1·64, 95% CI 1·38-1·95), no ART (2·94, 2·43-3·57 vs zidovudine monotherapy), antenatal combination ART (1·40, 1·14-1·73 vs zidovudine monotherapy), WHO stage 4 HIV (2·42, 1·71-3·41 vs

  5. Changes in the effects of living with no siblings or living with grandparents on overweight and obesity in children: Results from a national cohort study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Fuse, Kana; Nishi, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Effects of living without siblings and living with grandparents on overweight and obesity may change with child’s age. We aimed to examine these effects from early childhood to school age at the national level in Japan. Subjects were 43,046 children born in Japan during two weeks in 2001 who were followed annually from 2.5 to 13 years of age in the Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st Century. We used measured body height and weight reported by participants at each survey and followed the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force to define overweight and obesity. Random-effects logit models by sex, adjusted for time-varying and time-invariant covariates, assessed odds ratios of overweight and obesity for living without siblings and for living with grandparents at each age. The likelihood of overweight and obesity was significantly higher at 8 years and older among children living without siblings, compared with those living with siblings, and odds ratios were highest at 11 years of age in boys (1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49, 2.33) and at 10 and 13 years of age in girls (1.75 [95% CI: 1.36, 2.23] and 1.73 [95% CI: 1.30, 2.31], respectively). It was also significantly higher at 5.5 years and older among children living with grandparents, compared with those living without grandparents, and odds ratios were highest at 10 and 13 years of age in boys (1.53 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.80] and 1.54 [95% CI: 1.27, 1.86], respectively) and at 11 years of age in girls (1.51, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.84). In Japan, living without siblings and living with grandparents may increase the likelihood of overweight and obesity at 8 and 5.5 years and older, respectively. Child’s age should be considered during formulation of strategies for prevention of overweight and obesity in these groups. PMID:28414810

  6. Changes in the effects of living with no siblings or living with grandparents on overweight and obesity in children: Results from a national cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Nayu; Fuse, Kana; Nishi, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Effects of living without siblings and living with grandparents on overweight and obesity may change with child's age. We aimed to examine these effects from early childhood to school age at the national level in Japan. Subjects were 43,046 children born in Japan during two weeks in 2001 who were followed annually from 2.5 to 13 years of age in the Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st Century. We used measured body height and weight reported by participants at each survey and followed the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force to define overweight and obesity. Random-effects logit models by sex, adjusted for time-varying and time-invariant covariates, assessed odds ratios of overweight and obesity for living without siblings and for living with grandparents at each age. The likelihood of overweight and obesity was significantly higher at 8 years and older among children living without siblings, compared with those living with siblings, and odds ratios were highest at 11 years of age in boys (1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49, 2.33) and at 10 and 13 years of age in girls (1.75 [95% CI: 1.36, 2.23] and 1.73 [95% CI: 1.30, 2.31], respectively). It was also significantly higher at 5.5 years and older among children living with grandparents, compared with those living without grandparents, and odds ratios were highest at 10 and 13 years of age in boys (1.53 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.80] and 1.54 [95% CI: 1.27, 1.86], respectively) and at 11 years of age in girls (1.51, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.84). In Japan, living without siblings and living with grandparents may increase the likelihood of overweight and obesity at 8 and 5.5 years and older, respectively. Child's age should be considered during formulation of strategies for prevention of overweight and obesity in these groups.

  7. Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) the capital city of Japan, Tokyo Bay and the neighboring cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Chiba are seen in this view of Japan. This great international seaport facility covers almost all of the bayfront and is home to over thirty million people.

  8. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  9. Leg extension power is a pre-disaster modifiable risk factor for post-traumatic stress disorder among survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Momma, Haruki; Niu, Kaijun; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Huang, Cong; Otomo, Atsushi; Chujo, Masahiko; Tadaura, Hiroko; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological problem following natural disasters. Although pre-disaster risk factors are important for early detection and proactive support, the examination of such has been limited to sociodemographic factors, which were largely unaffected by the disasters. We examined the association between pre-disaster physical functioning and lifestyle and PTSD symptoms five months after the earthquake in the Great East Japan Earthquake survivors who were participating in a pre-existing cohort study. We designed a retrospective cohort study of a cooperative association in Sendai from August 2010 to August 2011. In 2010, lifestyle, physical condition, and sociodemographic factors were examined by self-reported questionnaires completed by 522 employees of this organization. We also measured the leg extension power of all the participants. PTSD symptoms were evaluated by the Japanese version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R-J) following the earthquake of 2011. In multivariate linear regression analysis, leg extension power (β = -0.128, P = 0.025), daily drinking (β  = 0.203, P = 0.006), and depressive symptoms (β  = 0.139, P = 0.008) were associated with total score of the IES-R-J among men. Moreover, for the IES-R-J subscale, leg extension power was also negatively associated with Intrusion (β = -0.114, P = 0.045) and Hyperarousal (β = -0.163, P = 0.004) after adjusting for all other significant variables. For women, hypertension (β  = 0.226, P = 0.032) and depressive symptoms (β  = 0.205, P = 0.046) were associated with the total score of the IES-R-J. Leg extension power is a potentially modifiable pre-disaster risk factor among men for attenuating the severity of PTSD symptoms associated with great disasters such as the Great East Japan Earthquake among men.

  10. Advances in cancer epidemiology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideo

    2014-02-15

    Epidemiologists in Japan have been performing calculations to estimate nationwide cancer incidence rates as well as 5-year survival rates using population-based cancer registry data. There have been remarkable changes in cancer incidence and/or mortality in cancers of the lung, liver and stomach, which were thought to be attributed to the changing impact of exposure to cigarette smoking, chronic hepatitis C virus infection and Helicobacter pylori infection, respectively. In systematic reviews providing evidence in risk/protective factors for cancer sites using case-control and cohort studies of the Japanese population, there were associations between cancer sites (esophagus, stomach, colo-rectum, liver, pancreas, lung and breast) and various lifestyle factors. In the past 10 years, a hospital-based case-control study at Aichi Cancer Center provided valuable evidence of gene-environment interaction on the development of cancer [i.e., the effects of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) polymorphism and heavy alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer, ALDH2 polymorphism and smoking on lung cancer, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and heavy alcohol drinking on pancreatic cancer]. The database with stored DNA was also used and identified seven loci containing significant but low-penetrance polymorphisms associated with the development of breast cancer. These findings together with established risk factors are likely to be useful to predict personalized breast cancer risk in East Asian women. In 2005, the Japan Multi-Institution Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched to elucidate gene-environment interactions as well as to confirm preclinical diagnostic biomarkers of cancer. J-MICC, which has recruited 92,000 healthy individuals by the end of 2012, will follow the individuals until 2025. © 2013 UICC.

  11. Sites, frequencies, and causes of self-reported fractures in 9,720 rheumatoid arthritis patients: a large prospective observational cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Kensuke; Furuya, Takefumi; Ikari, Katsunori; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Momohara, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    Sites, frequencies, and causes of self-reported fractures in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were evaluated in a prospective, observational cohort study. The incidence and cause of fracture differ by anatomical site, sex, and age. These differences may be considered in establishing custom strategies for preventing fractures in RA patients in the future. The literature contains limited data describing the details of fractures at different skeletal sites in patients with RA. We evaluated the details of fractures in Japanese RA patients on the basis of our Institute of Rheumatology Rheumatoid Arthritis cohort study in 9,720 RA patients (82 % women; mean age, 56 years) who were enrolled from 2000 to 2010. The details of fractures were obtained through biannual patient self-report questionnaires. Over a mean duration of 5.2 years, 1,317 patients (13.5 %) reported 2,323 incident fractures comprising 563 (24.2 %) clinical vertebral fractures and 1,760 (75.8 %) nonvertebral fractures. Rib fractures were the most common fractures in men, followed by clinical vertebral and hip fractures; the most common fractures in women were clinical vertebral fractures, followed by rib, foot, and hip fractures. There was a significant difference between sexes in the rates of rib, clavicle, shoulder, and ankle fractures. Spontaneous event was the primary cause of clinical vertebral fracture (65.4 %), whereas falls were the primary cause of upper extremity (76.5 %) and lower extremity (57.8 %) fractures. Rates of clinical vertebral and hip fractures increased, while those of rib and foot fractures decreased with increasing age. Incidence of falls, as causes of nonvertebral fractures, also increased in older age groups. Our results suggest that the causes of fractures may differ depending on anatomical site and that prevention of falls may be the most effective way to reduce upper and lower extremity fractures, especially in older patients with RA.

  12. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; P<0.0001 versus group with systolic BP <120 mm Hg and total cholesterol <4.7 mmol/L). The adjusted hazard ratios of systolic BP (per 20 mm Hg) increased with increases in total cholesterol categories (hazard ratio, 1.52; P<0.0001 in group with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L). Similarly, the adjusted hazard ratios of total cholesterol increased with increases in systolic BP categories (P for interaction ≤0.04). Systolic BP was positively associated with ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage death, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Japan Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-18

    increased profitability, productivity and more effective management ." Members of the British side also called for an increase in Japan’s defense...copyright transfer, or rental permission is called technology trade. According to the Statistic Bureau of the Management and Coordina- tion Agency...1- 8.8 -Swizerland 6.3 5.6 Others 13.1 Source: Statistics Bureau of the Management and Coordination Agency China. 66.2% of Japan’s imported

  14. Association between institutional procedural preference and in-hospital outcomes in laparoscopic surgeries; Insights from a retrospective cohort analysis of a nationwide surgical database in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Mori, Masaki; Kokudo, Norihiro; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Konno, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Go; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ono, Minoru; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kumamaru, Hiraku; Kohsaka, Shun; Iwanaka, Tadashi

    2018-01-01

    To assess the use of laparoscopic surgeries (LS) and the association between its performance and hospitals' preference for LS over open surgeries. LS is increasingly used in many abdominal surgeries, albeit both with and without solid guideline recommendations. To date, the hospitals' preference (LS vs. open surgeries) and its association with in-hospital outcomes has not been evaluated. We enrolled patients undergoing 8 types of gastrointestinal surgeries in 2011-2013 in the Japanese National Clinical Database. We assessed the use of LS and the occurrences of surgery-related morbidity and mortality during the study period. Further, for 4 typical LS procedures, we assessed the hospitals' preference for LS by modeling the propensity to perform LS (over open surgeries) from patient-level factors, and estimating each institution's observed/expected (O/E) ratio for LS use. Institutions with O/E>2 were defined as LS-dominant. Using hierarchical logistic regression models, we assessed the association between LS preference and in-hospital outcomes. Among 1,377,118 patients undergoing gastrointestinal procedures in 2,336 participating hospitals, use of LS increased in all 8 procedures (35.1% to 44.7% for distal gastrectomy (DG), and 27.5% to 43.2% for right hemi colectomy (RHC)). Those operated at LS-dominant hospitals were at an increased risk of operative death (OR 1.83 [95%CI, 1.37-2.45] for DG, 1.79 [95%CI, 1.43-2.25] for RHC) compared to standard O/E level hospitals (0.5≤O/E<2.0). LS use widely increased during 2011-2013 in Japan. Facilities with higher than expected LS use had higher mortality compared to other hospitals, suggesting a need for careful patient selection and dissemination of the procedure.

  15. Interpersonal conflict and depression among Japanese workers with high or low socioeconomic status: findings from the Japan Work Stress and Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito

    2010-07-01

    Research that focuses on the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work (i.e., intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict) and depression that also considers differences in socioeconomic status (SES) is limited. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work and depression at different levels of SES. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 17,390 males and 2923 females employed in nine factories located in several regions of Japan. These participants were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire that included self-reported measures of interpersonal conflict at work (intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict), SES (education and occupation), worksite support (supervisor support and coworker support), depression (assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] scale), and other demographic covariates. Those who had scores of 16 + on the CES-D scale (4066 males and 873 females) were classified as experiencing depression. The association of interpersonal conflict with depression was significantly greater among males of a high SES (i.e., higher educational status and non-manual workers) than males of a low SES (i.e., lower educational status and manual workers) after adjusting for demographic variables, supervisor support, and coworker support. More specifically, the association of intergroup conflict with depression was significantly greater among males of a high SES than males of a low SES. However, this pattern was not observed in females. The current study suggests that males of a higher SES are more vulnerable to interpersonal conflict at work in terms of developing depression than males of a lower SES. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Daily total physical activity level and total cancer risk in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Manami; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-08-15

    The impact of total physical activity level on cancer risk has not been fully clarified, particularly in non-Western, relatively lean populations. The authors prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity (using a metabolic equivalents/day score) and subsequent cancer risk in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. A total of 79,771 general-population Japanese men and women aged 45-74 years who responded to a questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for total cancer incidence (4,334 cases) through 2004. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of cancer in both sexes. In men, hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.07), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), respectively (p for trend = 0.005); in women, hazard ratios were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.05), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.97), respectively (p for trend = 0.007). The decreased risk was more clearly observed in women than in men, especially among the elderly and those who regularly engaged in leisure-time sports or physical exercise. By site, decreased risks were observed for cancers of the colon, liver, and pancreas in men and for cancer of the stomach in women. Increased daily physical activity may be beneficial in preventing cancer in a relatively lean population.

  17. Association of radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis with health-related quality of life in a population-based cohort study in Japan: the ROAD study.

    PubMed

    Muraki, S; Akune, T; Oka, H; En-yo, Y; Yoshida, M; Saika, A; Suzuki, T; Yoshida, H; Ishibashi, H; Tokimura, F; Yamamoto, S; Nakamura, K; Kawaguchi, H; Yoshimura, N

    2010-09-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a major public health issue causing chronic pain and disability. However, there is little information on the impact of this disease on quality of life (QOL) in Japanese men and women. The objective of the present study was to clarify the impact of radiographic and symptomatic knee OA on QOL in Japan. This study examined the association of radiographic and symptomatic knee OA with QOL parameters such as the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-8 (SF-8), EuroQOL (EQ-5D) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Radiographic knee OA was defined according to Kellgren/Lawrence (KL) grades, and symptomatic knee OA was defined as KL=3 or 4 with knee pain. We also examined the independent association of symptomatic knee OA and grip strength with QOL. From the 3040 participants in the Research on Osteoarthritis Against Disability (ROAD) study, the present study analyzed 2126 subjects older than 40 years who completed the questionnaires (767 men and 1359 women; mean age, 68.9+/-10.9 years). Subjects with KL=3 or 4 had significantly lower physical QOL as measured by the physical component summary (PCS) score of the SF-8 and pain domains of the WOMAC, whereas mental QOL, as measured by the mental component summary (MCS) score of the SF-8, was higher in subjects with KL=3 or 4 than KL=0 or 1. Symptomatic knee OA was significantly more likely than radiographic knee OA without pain to be associated with physical QOL loss as measured by the PCS score and physical domains of the WOMAC. Symptomatic knee OA and grip strength were independently associated with physical QOL. This cross-sectional study revealed that subjects with symptomatic knee OA had significantly lower physical QOL than subjects without it. Copyright 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Survival of macrovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic respiratory disease, cancer and smoking in patients with type 2 diabetes: BioBank Japan cohort.

    PubMed

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Nagai, Akiko; Hirata, Makoto; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Muto, Kaori; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Matsuda, Koichi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2017-03-01

    The number of patients with diabetes is increasing worldwide. Macrovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic respiratory disease, cancer and smoking frequently accompany type 2 diabetes. Few data are available related to mortality of Asians with diabetes associated with these serious comorbidities. The present study aimed to quantify the excess mortality risks of type 2 diabetic patients with comorbidities. We analysed the available records of 30,834 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes from the BioBank Japan Project between 2003 and 2007. Men and women were followed up for median 8.03 and 8.30 years, respectively. We applied Cox proportional hazard model and Kaplan-Meier estimates for survival curves to evaluate mortality in diabetic patients with or without macrovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, chronic kidney disease, cancer and smoking. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality were 1.39 (95% CI, 1.09-1.78) for male sex, 2.01 (95% CI, 1.78-2.26) per 10-year increment of age. Adjusted HRs of primary interest were 1.77 (95% CI, 1.42-2.22), macrovascular disease; 1.58 (95% CI, 1.08-2.31), chronic respiratory disease; 2.03 (95% CI, 1.67-2.47), chronic kidney disease; 1.16 (95% CI, 0.86-1.56), cancer; and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.30-2.31), current smoking. Diabetic patients with a past or current history of chronic kidney, macrovascular or respiratory diseases or smoking habit have exhibited the highest risk of mortality. Data were limited to those of survivors of comorbidities but we propose the need to improve comorbidities and terminate cigarette smoking for better prognosis in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between institutional procedural preference and in-hospital outcomes in laparoscopic surgeries; Insights from a retrospective cohort analysis of a nationwide surgical database in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Mori, Masaki; Kokudo, Norihiro; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Konno, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Go; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ono, Minoru; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kumamaru, Hiraku; Kohsaka, Shun; Iwanaka, Tadashi

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of laparoscopic surgeries (LS) and the association between its performance and hospitals’ preference for LS over open surgeries. Summary background data LS is increasingly used in many abdominal surgeries, albeit both with and without solid guideline recommendations. To date, the hospitals’ preference (LS vs. open surgeries) and its association with in-hospital outcomes has not been evaluated. Methods We enrolled patients undergoing 8 types of gastrointestinal surgeries in 2011–2013 in the Japanese National Clinical Database. We assessed the use of LS and the occurrences of surgery-related morbidity and mortality during the study period. Further, for 4 typical LS procedures, we assessed the hospitals’ preference for LS by modeling the propensity to perform LS (over open surgeries) from patient-level factors, and estimating each institution’s observed/expected (O/E) ratio for LS use. Institutions with O/E>2 were defined as LS-dominant. Using hierarchical logistic regression models, we assessed the association between LS preference and in-hospital outcomes. Results Among 1,377,118 patients undergoing gastrointestinal procedures in 2,336 participating hospitals, use of LS increased in all 8 procedures (35.1% to 44.7% for distal gastrectomy (DG), and 27.5% to 43.2% for right hemi colectomy (RHC)). Those operated at LS-dominant hospitals were at an increased risk of operative death (OR 1.83 [95%CI, 1.37–2.45] for DG, 1.79 [95%CI, 1.43–2.25] for RHC) compared to standard O/E level hospitals (0.5≤O/E<2.0). Conclusions LS use widely increased during 2011–2013 in Japan. Facilities with higher than expected LS use had higher mortality compared to other hospitals, suggesting a need for careful patient selection and dissemination of the procedure. PMID:29505561

  20. Macrosomic Neonates Carry Increased Risk of Dental Caries in Early Childhood: Findings from a Cohort Study, the Okinawa Child Health Study, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Taichiro; Suzuki, Kohta; Akiyama, Tomoki; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many studies have discussed health risks in neonates with a low birth weight, few studies have focused on the risks in neonates with a high birth weight. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in the incidence of dental caries in early childhood are associated with birth weight status. Methods A total of 117,175 children born in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan from 1997 to 2007 were included in this study. Medical professionals collected information about birth records, growth and development, parental child-rearing practices and dental health at 3 months, 18 months and 3 years of age. The risk of dental caries among neonates with macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g) was compared with that among neonates with normal weight (2500–3999 g). Sensitivity analyses included ‘large for gestational age’ (LGA, birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age), which was relative to ‘appropriate for gestational age’ (birth weight between 10th and 90th percentiles). Relative risks and relative risk increases were estimated by multivariate Poisson regression. Results At 3 years of age, the relative risk increases for dental caries after adjusting for confounding factors were 19% [95% confidence interval (CI), 11%–28%, P < 0.001] for macrosomic neonates and 12% (95% CI, 9%–16%, P < 0.001) for LGA neonates. Conclusion Macrosomia and LGA were associated with an increased risk of dental caries in early childhood. Particular attention should be paid to abnormally large neonates. PMID:26207737

  1. A Collaboration on Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's 2003-2004 Leadership Development Program class recognized that effective collaborations are often the key to achieving mission success. Personal connections and common goals were key elements of their work together and key findings of their collaboration benchmarking within the agency.

  2. Long-term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Clinical Stage II/III Gastric Cancer: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan (LOC-A Study).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Takahiro; Uyama, Ichiro; Terashima, Masanori; Noshiro, Hirokazu; Nagai, Eishi; Obama, Kazutaka; Tamamori, Yutaka; Nabae, Toshinaga; Honda, Michitaka; Abe, Takayuki

    2018-04-24

    A large-scale multicenter historical cohort study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) in comparison to open gastrectomy (OG) for locally advanced gastric cancer. LG is now practiced widely, but its applicability for advanced gastric cancer is still controversial. As oncologic outcomes of randomized trials are still pending, there is an urgent need for information that would be relevant to current practice. Through a consensus meeting involving surgeons and biostatisticians, 30 preoperative variables possibly influencing the choice of surgical approach and associated with outcome were identified to enable rigorous estimation of propensity scores. A total of 1948 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy for clinical stage II/III gastric adenocarcinoma between 2008 and 2014 were identified, and their clinical data were collected from 8 participating hospitals. After propensity score matching, 610 cases (OG = 305, LG = 305) were finally selected for comparison of long-term outcomes. In the propensity-matched OG and LG populations, the mean observation period was 3.5 and 3.4 years, and the 5-year overall survival was 53.0% and 54.2%, respectively. The hazard ratio (LG/OG) for overall survival was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.29), and noninferiority of LG was demonstrated statistically as the upper 95% confidence limit was less than the prespecified margin (1.33). The recurrence rate was 30.8% and 29.8% for OG and LG, respectively, and the hazard ratio for recurrence was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.31). The patterns of recurrence in the 2 groups were similar. This observational study strictly adjusted for confounding factors has provided evidence to suggest that LG is oncologically comparable to OG for locally advanced gastric cancer. The validity of this result will be examined in ongoing randomized trials.

  3. Dietary sodium-to-potassium ratio as a risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in Japan: the NIPPON DATA80 cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Okayama, Akira; Okuda, Nagako; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Hayakawa, Takehito; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Arai, Yusuke; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Takashima, Naoyuki; Yoshita, Katsushi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Zaid, Maryam; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of dietary sodium and potassium (Na–K) ratio on mortality from total and subtypes of stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes, using 24-year follow-up data of a representative sample of the Japanese population. Setting Prospective cohort study. Participants In the 1980 National Cardiovascular Survey, participants were followed for 24 years (NIPPON DATA80, National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease And its Trends in the Aged). Men and women aged 30–79 years without hypertensive treatment, history of stroke or acute myocardial infarction (n=8283) were divided into quintiles according to dietary Na–K ratio assessed by a 3-day weighing dietary record at baseline. Age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted HRs were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method and Cox proportional hazards model. Primary outcome measures Mortality from total and subtypes of stroke, CVD and all causes. Results A total of 1938 deaths from all causes were observed over 176 926 person-years. Na–K ratio was significantly and non-linearly related to mortality from all stroke (p=0.002), CVD (p=0.005) and total mortality (p=0.001). For stroke subtypes, mortality from haemorrhagic stroke was positively related to Na–K ratio (p=0.024). Similar relationships were observed for men and women. The observed relationships remained significant after adjustment for other risk factors. Quadratic non-linear multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) in the highest quintile versus the lowest quintile of Na–K ratio were 1.42 (1.07 to 1.90) for ischaemic stroke, 1.57 (1.05 to 2.34) for haemorrhagic stroke, 1.43 (1.17 to 1.76) for all stroke, 1.39 (1.20 to 1.61) for CVD and 1.16 (1.06 to 1.27) for all-cause mortality. Conclusions Dietary Na–K ratio assessed by a 3-day weighing dietary record was a significant risk factor for mortality from haemorrhagic stroke, all stroke, CVD and all causes among a Japanese population

  4. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-03

    of Keidanren’s U.S. Investment Mission, who is also vice chairman of the Industrial Bank of Japan; Mamoru Sakai, leader of the B Group of...Keidanren’s U.S. Investment Mission, who is also a director of the Japan Long-Term Credit Bank ; Masayoshi Tozaki, leader of the C Group of Keidanren’s U.S...Constitution. At the same time, Federal Reserve Bank Chairman Volcker has repeatedly stressed that maintaining the value of the dollar is essential. In

  5. Japan: Tsunami

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off Japan's northeastern coast about 130 kilometers (82 ... inland from the eastern shoreline is visible in the post-earthquake image. The white sand beaches visible in the pre-earthquake view are ...

  6. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and incidence rate of coronary artery calcification in Japanese in Japan and United States whites – population-based prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sekikawa, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Lee, Sunghee; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Kadowaki, Takashi; Evans, Rhobert W.; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Okamura, Tomonori; Bertolet, Marnie; Masaki, Kamal H.; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma J. M.; Willcox, Bradley J.; Kadota, Aya; Seto, Todd B.; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Kuller, Lewis H.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether serum levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFAs) contribute to the difference in incidence rate of coronary artery calcification (CAC) between Japanese in Japan and U.S. whites. Methods In a population-based prospective-cohort study, 214 Japanese and 152 white men aged 40–49 years at baseline (2002–2006) with coronary calcium score (CCS) = 0 were reexamined for CAC in 2007–2010. Among these, 175 Japanese and 113 whites participated in the follow-up exam. Incident cases were defined as participants with CCS ≥ 10 at follow-up. A relative risk regression analysis was used to model incidence rate ratio between Japanese and whites. The incidence rate ratio was first adjusted for potential confounders at baseline and then further adjusted for serum LCn3PUFAs at baseline. Results Mean (standard deviation) serum percentage of LCn3PUFA was > 100% higher in Japanese than in whites (9.08 (2.49) versus 3.84 (1.79), respectively, p<0.01). Japanese had a significantly lower incidence rate of CAC compared to whites (0.9 versus 2.9/100 person-years, respectively, p < 0.01). Incidence rate ratio of CAC taking follow-up time into account between Japanese and white men was 0.321 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.150, 0.690: p<0.01). After adjusting for age, systolic-blood pressure, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, and other potential confounders, the ratio remained significant: 0.262 (95% CI: 0.094, 0.731, p=0.01). After further adjusting for LCn3PUFAs, however, the ratio was attenuated and became non-significant (0.376 (95% CI: 0.090, 1.572, p=0.18). Conclusions LCn3PUFAs significantly contributed to the difference in CAC incidence between Japanese and white men. PMID:24352736

  7. Evaluation of pre-hospital administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) by emergency medical services for patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest in Japan: controlled propensity matched retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Shinji; Tomio, Jun; Takahashi, Hideto; Ichikawa, Masao; Nishida, Masamichi; Morimura, Naoto; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2013-12-10

    To evaluate the effectiveness of pre-hospital adrenaline (epinephrine) administered by emergency medical services to patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest. Controlled propensity matched retrospective cohort study, in which pairs of patients with or without (control) adrenaline were created with a sequential risk set matching based on time dependent propensity score. Japan's nationwide registry database of patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest registered between January 2007 and December 2010. Among patients aged 15-94 with out of hospital cardiac arrest witnessed by a bystander, we created 1990 pairs of patients with and without adrenaline with an initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT) and 9058 pairs among those with non-VF/VT. Overall and neurologically intact survival at one month or at discharge, whichever was earlier. After propensity matching, pre-hospital administration of adrenaline by emergency medical services was associated with a higher proportion of overall survival (17.0% v 13.4%; unadjusted odds ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.60) but not with neurologically intact survival (6.6% v 6.6%; 1.01, 0.78 to 1.30) among those with VF/VT; and higher proportions of overall survival (4.0% v 2.4%; odds ratio 1.72, 1.45 to 2.04) and neurologically intact survival (0.7% v 0.4%; 1.57, 1.04 to 2.37) among those with non-VF/VT. Pre-hospital administration of adrenaline by emergency medical services improves the long term outcome in patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest, although the absolute increase of neurologically intact survival was minimal.

  8. Japan Environment and Children's Study: backgrounds, activities, and future directions in global perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ishitsuka, Kazue; Nakayama, Shoji F; Kishi, Reiko; Mori, Chisato; Yamagata, Zentaro; Ohya, Yukihiro; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2017-07-14

    There is worldwide concern about the effects of environmental factors on children's health and development. The Miami Declaration was signed at the G8 Environment Ministers Meeting in 1997 to promote children's environmental health research. The following ministerial meetings continued to emphasize the need to foster children's research. In response to such a worldwide movement, the Ministry of the Environment, Japan (MOE), launched a nationwide birth cohort study with 100,000 pairs of mothers and children, namely, the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), in 2010. Other countries have also started or planned large-scale studies focusing on children's environmental health issues. The MOE initiated dialogue among those countries and groups to discuss and share the various processes, protocols, knowledge, and techniques for future harmonization and data pooling among such studies. The MOE formed the JECS International Liaison Committee in 2011, which plays a primary role in promoting the international collaboration between JECS and the other children's environmental health research projects and partnership with other countries. This review article aims to present activities that JECS has developed. As one of the committee's activities, a workshop and four international symposia were held between 2011 and 2015 in Japan. In these conferences, international researchers and government officials, including those from the World Health Organization, have made presentations on their own birth cohort studies and health policies. In 2015, the MOE hosted the International Advisory Board meeting and received constructive comments and recommendations from the board. JECS is a founding member of the Environment and Child Health International Birth Cohort Group, and has discussed harmonization of exposure and outcome measurements with member parties, which will make it possible to compare and further combine data from different studies, considering the diversity in the

  9. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  10. Antistaphylococcal β-Lactams versus Vancomycin for Treatment of Infective Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Susceptible Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci: a Prospective Cohort Study from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Petti, C. A.; Arnold, C.; Miro, J. M.; Pericàs, J. M.; Garcia de la Maria, C.; Kanafani, Z.; Baddley, J.; Wray, D.; Klein, J. L.; Delahaye, F.; Fernandez-Hidalgo, N.; Hannan, M. M.; Murdoch, D.; Bayer, A.; Chu, V. H.

    2016-01-01

    The phenotypic expression of methicillin resistance among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is heterogeneous regardless of the presence of the mecA gene. The potential discordance between phenotypic and genotypic results has led to the use of vancomycin for the treatment of CoNS infective endocarditis (IE) regardless of methicillin MIC values. In this study, we assessed the outcome of methicillin-susceptible CoNS IE among patients treated with antistaphylococcal β-lactams (ASB) versus vancomycin (VAN) in a multicenter cohort study based on data from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) Prospective Cohort Study (PCS) and the ICE-Plus databases. The ICE-PCS database contains prospective data on 5,568 patients with IE collected between 2000 and 2006, while the ICE-Plus database contains prospective data on 2,019 patients with IE collected between 2008 and 2012. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Secondary endpoints were 6-month mortality and survival time. Of the 7,587 patients in the two databases, there were 280 patients with methicillin-susceptible CoNS IE. Detailed treatment and outcome data were available for 180 patients. Eighty-eight patients received ASB, while 36 were treated with VAN. In-hospital mortality (19.3% versus 11.1%; P = 0.27), 6-month mortality (31.6% versus 25.9%; P = 0.58), and survival time after discharge (P = 0.26) did not significantly differ between the two cohorts. Cox regression analysis did not show any significant association between ASB use and the survival time (hazard ratio, 1.7; P = 0.22); this result was not affected by adjustment for confounders. This study provides no evidence for a difference in outcome with the use of VAN versus ASB for methicillin-susceptible CoNS IE. PMID:27527083

  11. A novel early risk assessment tool for detecting clinical outcomes in patients with heat-related illness (J-ERATO score): Development and validation in independent cohorts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kei; Kondo, Yutaka; Hifumi, Toru; Shimazaki, Junya; Oda, Yasutaka; Shiraishi, Shinichiro; Fukuda, Tatsuma; Sasaki, Junichi; Shimizu, Keiki

    2018-01-01

    We sought to develop a novel risk assessment tool to predict the clinical outcomes after heat-related illness. Prospective, multicenter observational study. Patients who transferred to emergency hospitals in Japan with heat-related illness were registered. The sample was divided into two parts: 60% to construct the score and 40% to validate it. A binary logistic regression model was used to predict hospital admission as a primary outcome. The resulting model was transformed into a scoring system. A total of 3,001 eligible patients were analyzed. There was no difference in variables between development and validation cohorts. Based on the result of a logistic regression model in the development phase (n = 1,805), the J-ERATO score was defined as the sum of the six binary components in the prehospital setting (respiratory rate≥22 /min, Glasgow coma scale<15, systolic blood pressure≤100 mmHg, heart rate≥100 bpm, body temperature≥38°C, and age≥65 y), for a total score ranging from 0 to 6. In the validation phase (n = 1,196), the score had excellent discrimination (C-statistic 0.84; 95% CI 0.79-0.89, p<0.0001) and calibration (P>0.2 by Hosmer-Lemeshow test). The observed proportion of hospital admission increased with increasing J-ERATO score (score = 0, 5.0%; score = 1, 15.0%; score = 2, 24.6%; score = 3, 38.6%; score = 4, 68.0%; score = 5, 85.2%; score = 6, 96.4%). Multivariate analyses showed that the J-ERATO score was an independent positive predictor of hospital admission (adjusted OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.06-2.87; P<0.001), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (3.73; 2.95-4.72; P<0.001) and in-hospital mortality (1.65; 1.18-2.32; P = 0.004). The J-ERATO score is simply assessed and can facilitate the identification of patients with higher risk of heat-related hospitalization. This scoring system is also significantly associated with the higher likelihood of ICU admission and in-hospital mortality after heat-related hospitalization.

  12. Incidence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Population Based Cohort using Revised 1997 American College of Rheumatology and the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinic Classification Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Ungprasert, Patompong; Sagar, Vinay; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Amin, Shreyasee; Makol, Ashima; Ernste, Floranne C.; Osborn, Thomas G.; Moder, Kevin G.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Maradit-Kremers, Hilal; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Chowdhary, Vaidehi R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinic (SLICC) group published a new set of classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Studies applying these criteria to real life scenarios have found either equal or greater sensitivity and equal or lower specificity to the 1997 ACR classification criteria (ACR 97). Nonetheless, there are no studies that have used the SLICC 12 criteria to investigate the incidence of lupus. We utilized the resource of the Rochetser Epidemiology Project to identify incident cases of SLE in Olmsted County, Minnesota from 1993-2005 who fulfilled the ACR 97 or SLICC 12 criteria. A total of 58 patients met criteria by SLICC 12 and 44 patients met criteria by ACR 97. The adjusted incidence of 4.9 per 100,000 person-years by SLICC 12 was higher than that by ACR 97 (3.7 per 100,000 person-years, p=0.04). The median duration from the appearance of first criteria to fulfillment of the criteria was shorter for the SLICC 12 than for ACR 97 (3.9 months vs 8.1 months). The higher incidence by SLICC 12 criteria came primarily from the ability to classify patients with renal-limited disease, the expansion of the immunologic criteria and the expansion of neurologic criteria. PMID:27365370

  13. Incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in a population-based cohort using revised 1997 American College of Rheumatology and the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, P; Sagar, V; Crowson, C S; Amin, S; Makol, A; Ernste, F C; Osborn, T G; Moder, K G; Niewold, T B; Maradit-Kremers, H; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Chowdhary, V R

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) group published a new set of classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Studies applying these criteria to real-life scenarios have found either equal or greater sensitivity and equal or lower specificity to the 1997 ACR classification criteria (ACR 97). Nonetheless, there are no studies that have used the SLICC 12 criteria to investigate the incidence of lupus. We used the resource of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify incident SLE patients in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1993 to 2005, who fulfilled the ACR 97 or SLICC 12 criteria. A total of 58 patients met criteria by SLICC 12 and 44 patients met criteria by ACR 97. The adjusted incidence of 4.9 per 100,000 person-years by SLICC 12 was higher than that by ACR 97 (3.7 per 100,000 person-years, p = 0.04). The median duration from the appearance of first criterion to fulfillment of the criteria was shorter for the SLICC 12 than for ACR 97 (3.9 months vs 8.1 months). The higher incidence by SLICC 12 criteria came primarily from the ability to classify patients with renal-limited disease, the expansion of the immunologic criteria and the expansion of neurologic criteria.

  14. [Current Status and Future Perspectives of SCRUM-Japan].

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Atsushi; Goto, Koichi; Yoshino, Takayuki; Okamoto, Wataru; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2017-08-01

    SCRUM-Japan was launched as a nation-wide genome screening consortium for recruiting patients to 35 sponsor-/investigator- initiated registration trials in collaboration with 15 pharmaceutical companies and 240 hospitals. During the first period between February 2015 and March 2017, a total of 4,805 patients have been enrolled. Genomic profiling of each cancer were analyzed and newdrug applications of label expansion are in preparation based on the results of several registration studies including investigator-initiated trial of vandetanib for RET fusion gene positive non-small cell lung cancer. In addition, on-time clinical-genome data sharing with industries and academic institutions and prospective cohort registry for new drug evaluation as a historical control data have already initiated, which will facilitate new agent development in Japan. In the second period started from April 2017, new studies using cutting-edge liquid biopsy and immune-genome panel for precision medi- cine will start soon. These efforts are attempted towards a leading group for innovative clinical/translations researches in the world.

  15. Impact of intrapatient variability (IPV) in tacrolimus trough levels on long-term renal transplant function: multicentre collaborative retrospective cohort study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Petra M; Bottomley, Matthew J; Okechukwu, Okidi; Ross, Victoria C; Ghita, Ryan; Wandless, David; Falconer, Stuart J; Papachristos, Stavros; Nash, Philip; Androshchuk, Vitaliy; Clancy, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Introduction High intrapatient variability (IPV) in tacrolimus trough levels has been shown to be associated with higher rates of renal transplant failure. There is no consensus on what level of IPV constitutes a risk of graft loss. The establishment of such a threshold could help to guide clinicians in identifying at-risk patients to receive targeted interventions to improve IPV and thus outcomes. Methods and analysis A multicentre Transplant Audit Collaborative has been established to conduct a retrospective study examining tacrolimus IPV and renal transplant outcomes. Patients in receipt of a renal transplant at participating centres between 2009 and 2014 and fulfilling the inclusion criteria will be included in the study. The aim is to recruit a minimum of 1600 patients with follow-up spanning at least 2 years in order to determine a threshold IPV above which a renal transplant recipient would be considered at increased risk of graft loss. The study also aims to determine any national or regional trends in IPV and any demographic associations. Ethics and dissemination Consent will not be sought from patients whose data are used in this study as no additional procedures or information will be required from participants beyond that which would normally take place as part of clinical care. The study will be registered locally in each participating centre in line with local research and development protocols. It is anticipated that the results of this audit will be disseminated locally, in participating NHS Trusts, through national and international meetings and publications in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:28756385

  16. Influence of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration on the outcome of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus left-sided infective endocarditis treated with antistaphylococcal β-lactam antibiotics: a prospective cohort study by the International Collaboration on Endocarditis⋆

    PubMed Central

    Pericàs, J.M.; Messina, J.A.; Garcia-de-la-Mària, C.; Park, L.; Sharma-Kuinkel, B.K.; Marco, F.; Wray, D.; Kanafani, Z.A.; Carugati, M.; Durante-Mangoni, E.; Tattevin, P.; Chu, V.H.; Moreno, A.; Fowler, V.G.; Miró, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Left-sided methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) endocarditis treated with cloxacillin has a poorer prognosis when the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is ≥1.5 mg/L. We aimed to validate this using the International Collaboration on Endocarditis cohort and to analyse whether specific genetic characteristics were associated with a high vancomycin MIC (≥1.5 mg/L) phenotype. Methods All patients with left-sided MSSA infective endocarditis treated with antistaphylococcal β-lactam antibiotics between 2000 and 2006 with available isolates were included. Vancomycin MIC was determined by Etest as either high (≥1.5 mg/L) or low (<1.5 mg/L). Isolates underwent spa typing to infer clonal complexes and multiplex PCR for identifying virulence genes. Univariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association between in-hospital and 1-year mortality, and vancomycin MIC phenotype. Results Sixty-two cases met the inclusion criteria. Vancomycin MIC was low in 28 cases (45%) and high in 34 cases (55%). No significant differences in patient demographic data or characteristics of infection were observed between patients with infective endocarditis due to high and low vancomycin MIC isolates. Isolates with high and low vancomycin MIC had similar distributions of virulence genes and clonal lineages. In-hospital and 1-year mortality did not differ significantly between the two groups (32% (9/28) vs. 27% (9/34), p 0.780; and 43% (12/28) vs. 29% (10/34), p 0.298, for low and high vancomycin MIC respectively). Conclusions In this international cohort of patients with left-sided MSSA endocarditis treated with antistaphylococcal β-lactams, vancomycin MIC phenotype was not associated with patient demographics, clinical outcome or virulence gene repertoire. PMID:28159672

  17. Is there continued evidence for an association between abacavir usage and myocardial infarction risk in individuals with HIV? A cohort collaboration.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Caroline A; Reiss, Peter; Ryom, Lene; Phillips, Andrew N; Weber, Rainer; Law, Matthew; Fontas, Eric; Mocroft, Amanda; de Wit, Stephane; Smith, Colette; Dabis, Francois; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Lundgren, Jens D

    2016-03-31

    In March 2008, the D:A:D study published results demonstrating an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) for patients on abacavir (ABC). We describe changes to the use of ABC since this date, and investigate changes to the association between ABC and MI with subsequent follow-up. A total of 49,717 D:A:D participants were followed from study entry until the first of an MI, death, 1 February 2013 or 6 months after last visit. Associations between a person's 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the likelihood of initiating or discontinuing ABC were assessed using multivariable logistic/Poisson regression. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between current ABC use and MI risk, adjusting for potential confounders, and a test of interaction was performed to assess whether the association had changed in the post-March 2008 period. Use of ABC increased from 10 % of the cohort in 2000 to 20 % in 2008, before stabilising at 18-19 %. Increases in use pre-March 2008, and subsequent decreases, were greatest in those at moderate and high CVD risk. Post-March 2008, those on ABC at moderate/high CVD risk were more likely to discontinue ABC than those at low/unknown CVD risk, regardless of viral load (≤1,000 copies/ml: relative rate 1.49 [95 % confidence interval 1.34-1.65]; >1,000 copies/ml: 1.23 [1.02-1.48]); no such associations were seen pre-March 2008. There was some evidence that antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve persons at moderate/high CVD risk post-March 2008 were less likely to initiate ABC than those at low/unknown CVD risk (odds ratio 0.74 [0.48-1.13]). By 1 February 2013, 941 MI events had occurred in 367,559 person-years. Current ABC use was associated with a 98 % increase in MI rate (RR 1.98 [1.72-2.29]) with no difference in the pre- (1.97 [1.68-2.33]) or post- (1.97 [1.43-2.72]) March 2008 periods (interaction P = 0.74). Despite a reduction in the channelling of ABC for patients at higher CVD risk since 2008, we continue to

  18. Is Hypospadias Associated with Prenatal Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors? A French Collaborative Controlled Study of a Cohort of 300 Consecutive Children Without Genetic Defect.

    PubMed

    Kalfa, Nicolas; Paris, Françoise; Philibert, Pascal; Orsini, Mattea; Broussous, Sylvie; Fauconnet-Servant, Nadège; Audran, Françoise; Gaspari, Laura; Lehors, Hélène; Haddad, Myriam; Guys, Jean-Michel; Reynaud, Rachel; Alessandrini, Pierre; Merrot, Thierry; Wagner, Kathy; Kurzenne, Jean-Yves; Bastiani, Florence; Bréaud, Jean; Valla, Jean-Stéphane; Lacombe, Gérard Morisson; Dobremez, Eric; Zahhaf, Amel; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Sultan, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the association between endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and hypospadias. Phenotype variability, the absence of representative comparison groups and concomitant genetic testing prevent any definitive conclusions. To identify the role of occupational and environmental exposures to EDCs in nongenetic isolated hypospadias. A total of 408 consecutive children with isolated hypospadias and 302 normal boys were prospectively included (2009-2014) in a multi-institutional study in the south of France, the area of the country with the highest prevalence of hypospadias surgery. In patients without AR, SRD5A2, and MAMLD1 mutations, parental occupational and professional exposures to EDCs were evaluated based on European questionnaire QLK4-1999-01422 and a validated job-exposure matrix for EDCs. Environmental exposure was estimated using the zip code, the type of surrounding hazards, and distance from these hazards. Multivariate analysis was performed. Fetal exposure to EDCs around the window of genital differentiation was more frequent in the case of hypospadias (40.00% vs 17.55%, odds ratio 3.13, 95% confidence interval 2.11-4.65). The substances were paints/solvents/adhesives (16.0%), detergents (11.0%), pesticides (9.0%), cosmetics (5.6%), and industrial chemicals (4.0%). Jobs with exposure were more frequent in mothers of hypospadiac boys (19.73% vs 10.26%, p=0.0019), especially cleaners, hairdressers, beauticians, and laboratory workers. Paternal job exposure was more frequent in the cases of hypospadias (40.13% vs 27.48%, p=0.02). Industrial areas, incinerators, and waste areas were more frequent within a 3-km radius for mothers of hypospadiac boys (13.29% vs. 6.64%, p<0.00005). Association of occupational and environmental exposures increases this risk. This multicenter prospective controlled study with a homogeneous cohort of hypospadiac boys without genetic defects strongly suggests that EDCs are a risk factor for hypospadias

  19. Determinants of social inequalities in stroke incidence across Europe: a collaborative analysis of 126 635 individuals from 48 cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Marco M; Veronesi, Giovanni; Kee, Frank; Chambless, Lloyd E; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Jørgensen, Torben; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bobak, Martin; Cesana, Giancarlo; Drygas, Wojciech; Ferrieres, Jean; Giampaoli, Simona; Iacoviello, Licia; Nikitin, Yuri; Pajak, Andrzej; Peters, Annette; Salomaa, Veikko; Soderberg, Stefan; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Wilsgaard, Tom; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge on the origins of the social gradient in stroke incidence in different populations is limited. This study aims to estimate the burden of educational class inequalities in stroke incidence and to assess the contribution of risk factors in determining these inequalities across Europe. The MORGAM (MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph) Study comprises 48 cohorts recruited mostly in the 1980s and 1990s in four European regions using standardised procedures for baseline risk factor assessment and fatal and non-fatal stroke ascertainment and adjudication during follow-up. Among the 126 635 middle-aged participants, initially free of cardiovascular diseases, generating 3788 first stroke events during a median follow-up of 10 years, we estimated differences in stroke rates and HRs for the least versus the most educated individuals. Compared with their most educated counterparts, the overall age-adjusted excess hazard for stroke was 1.54 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.91) and 1.41 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.71) in least educated men and women, respectively, with little heterogeneity across populations. Educational class inequalities accounted for 86-413 and 78-156 additional stroke events per 100 000 person-years in the least compared with most educated men and women, respectively. The additional events were equivalent to 47%-130% and 40%-89% of the average incidence rates. Inequalities in risk factors accounted for 45%-70% of the social gap in incidence in the Nordic countries, the UK and Lithuania-Kaunas (men), but for no more than 17% in Central and South Europe. The major contributors were cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and body mass index. Social inequalities in stroke incidence contribute substantially to the disease rates in Europe. Healthier lifestyles in the most disadvantaged individuals should have a prominent impact in reducing both inequalities and the stroke burden. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  20. NCI Cohort Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium is an extramural-intramural partnership formed by the National Cancer Institute to address the need for large-scale collaborations to pool the large quantity of data and biospecimens necessary to conduct a wide range of cancer studies.

  1. When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy in Children Aged 2–5 Years: A Collaborative Causal Modelling Analysis of Cohort Studies from Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schomaker, Michael; Egger, Matthias; Ndirangu, James; Phiri, Sam; Moultrie, Harry; Technau, Karl; Cox, Vivian; Giddy, Janet; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Wood, Robin; Gsponer, Thomas; Bolton Moore, Carolyn; Rabie, Helena; Eley, Brian; Muhe, Lulu; Penazzato, Martina; Essajee, Shaffiq; Keiser, Olivia; Davies, Mary-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on the optimal timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in children 2–5 y of age. We conducted a causal modelling analysis using the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS–Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaborative dataset to determine the difference in mortality when starting ART in children aged 2–5 y immediately (irrespective of CD4 criteria), as recommended in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 guidelines, compared to deferring to lower CD4 thresholds, for example, the WHO 2010 recommended threshold of CD4 count <750 cells/mm3 or CD4 percentage (CD4%) <25%. Methods and Findings ART-naïve children enrolling in HIV care at IeDEA-SA sites who were between 24 and 59 mo of age at first visit and with ≥1 visit prior to ART initiation and ≥1 follow-up visit were included. We estimated mortality for ART initiation at different CD4 thresholds for up to 3 y using g-computation, adjusting for measured time-dependent confounding of CD4 percent, CD4 count, and weight-for-age z-score. Confidence intervals were constructed using bootstrapping. The median (first; third quartile) age at first visit of 2,934 children (51% male) included in the analysis was 3.3 y (2.6; 4.1), with a median (first; third quartile) CD4 count of 592 cells/mm3 (356; 895) and median (first; third quartile) CD4% of 16% (10%; 23%). The estimated cumulative mortality after 3 y for ART initiation at different CD4 thresholds ranged from 3.4% (95% CI: 2.1–6.5) (no ART) to 2.1% (95% CI: 1.3%–3.5%) (ART irrespective of CD4 value). Estimated mortality was overall higher when initiating ART at lower CD4 values or not at all. There was no mortality difference between starting ART immediately, irrespective of CD4 value, and ART initiation at the WHO 2010 recommended threshold of CD4 count <750 cells/mm3 or CD4% <25%, with mortality estimates of 2.1% (95% CI: 1.3%–3.5%) and 2.2% (95% CI: 1.4%–3.5%) after 3 y, respectively. The

  2. Sleep, serotonin, and suicide in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews evidence supporting the hypothesis that suicide rates in Japan could be reduced by elevating serotonin levels via increasing the average duration of sleep. Seven major relevant findings were apparent in the literature: 1) Sleep loss is associated with suicide, but the direction of causality is equivocal. 2) Decreased serotonergic activity may be involved in suicidal behavior. 3) Sleep debt may decrease serotonergic activity. 4) The suicide rate in Japan has remained at a heightened level for the past 12 years. 5) The average sleep duration in Japan has decreased over the past 40 years. 6) The average sleep duration in Japan is among the lowest in the world. 7) The average sleep duration in Japan plateaued in 1995 and has been relatively stable since. From the research reviewed, two major problematic issues were apparent: 1) Most people in Japan receive inadequate sleep. 2) Individuals whose sleep is inadequate are unlikely to be sufficiently physically active to stimulate serotonergic systems to a desirable level. I propose that public health initiatives encouraging a longer duration of sleep may provide a relatively simple way of addressing the disturbing current trend in Japan. The combination of actigraph and brain serotonin level measurement could allow large population-based cohort studies to be designed, to elucidate the causal links between sleep duration, serotonin levels, and suicide rates.

  3. Description of the EuroTARGET cohort: A European collaborative project on TArgeted therapy in renal cell cancer-GEnetic- and tumor-related biomarkers for response and toxicity.

    PubMed

    van der Zanden, Loes F M; Vermeulen, Sita H; Oskarsdottir, Arna; Maurits, Jake S F; Diekstra, Meta H M; Ambert, Valentin; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Castellano, Daniel; Fritsch, Achim; Garcia Donas, Jesus; Guarch Troyas, Rosa; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Hartmann, Arndt; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina; Jaehde, Ulrich; Junker, Kerstin; Martinez-Cardus, Anna; Masson, Gisli; Oosterwijk-Wakka, Jeannette; Radu, Marius T; Rafnar, Thorunn; Rodriguez-Antona, Cristina; Roessler, Max; Ruijtenbeek, Rob; Stefansson, Kari; Warren, Anne; Wessels, Lodewyk; Eisen, Tim; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Oosterwijk, Egbert

    2017-08-01

    For patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC), treatment choice is mainly based on clinical parameters. With many treatments available and the limited response to treatment and associated toxicities, there is much interest in identifying better biomarkers for personalized treatment. EuroTARGET aims to identify and characterize host- and tumor-related biomarkers for prediction of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in mRCC. Here, we describe the EuroTARGET mRCC patient cohort. EuroTARGET is a European collaborative project designed as an observational study for which patients with mRCC were recruited prospectively in 62 centers. In addition, 462 patients with mRCC from previous studies were included. Detailed clinical information (baseline and follow-up) from all patients was entered in web-based case record forms. Blood was collected for germline DNA and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses and, where available, fresh-frozen tumor material was collected to perform tumor DNA, RNA, kinome, and methylome analyses. In total, 1,210 patients with mRCC were included. Of these, 920 received a tyrosine kinase inhibitor as first-line targeted treatment (sunitinib [N = 713, 78%], sorafenib [N = 41, 4%], or pazopanib [N = 166, 18%]) and had at least 6 months of outcome assessment (median follow-up 15.3 months [interquartile range: 8.5-30.2 months]). Germline DNA samples were available from 824 of these patients, fresh-frozen tumor material from 142 patients, fresh-frozen normal kidney tissue from 95 patients, and tissue microarrays created from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor material from 247 patients. Of the 920 patients, germline DNA variant chip data were successfully generated for 811 patients (Illumina HumanOmniExpress BeadChip). For 80 patients, next-generation exome sequencing of germline and tumor DNA was performed, tumor RNA sequencing was performed for 124 patients, kinome activity measured and processed for 121 patients (PamChip), and

  4. DNA Data Bank of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mashima, Jun; Kodama, Yuichi; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Katayama, Toshiaki; Okuda, Yoshihiro; Kaminuma, Eli; Ogasawara, Osamu; Okubo, Kousaku; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2017-01-01

    The DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) has been providing public data services for thirty years (since 1987). We are collecting nucleotide sequence data from researchers as a member of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, http://www.insdc.org), in collaboration with the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). The DDBJ Center also services Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive (JGA), with the National Bioscience Database Center to collect human-subjected data from Japanese researchers. Here, we report our database activities for INSDC and JGA over the past year, and introduce retrieval and analytical services running on our supercomputer system and their recent modifications. Furthermore, with the Database Center for Life Science, the DDBJ Center improves semantic web technologies to integrate and to share biological data, for providing the RDF version of the sequence data. PMID:27924010

  5. Association between maternal age at childbirth and child and adult outcomes in the offspring: a prospective study in five low-income and middle-income countries (COHORTS collaboration)

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Caroline H D; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Restrepo-Mendez, Maria Clara; Victora, Cesar; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Sinha, Shikha; Tandon, Nikhil; Adair, Linda; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane; Richter, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Both young and advanced maternal age is associated with adverse birth and child outcomes. Few studies have examined these associations in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and none have studied adult outcomes in the offspring. We aimed to examine both child and adult outcomes in five LMICs. Methods In this prospective study, we pooled data from COHORTS (Consortium for Health Orientated Research in Transitioning Societies)—a collaboration of five birth cohorts from LMICs (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa), in which mothers were recruited before or during pregnancy, and the children followed up to adulthood. We examined associations between maternal age and offspring birthweight, gestational age at birth, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z scores in childhood, attained schooling, and adult height, body composition (body-mass index, waist circumference, fat, and lean mass), and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose concentration), along with binary variables derived from these. Analyses were unadjusted and adjusted for maternal socioeconomic status, height and parity, and breastfeeding duration. Findings We obtained data for 22 188 mothers from the five cohorts, enrolment into which took place at various times between 1969 and 1989. Data for maternal age and at least one outcome were available for 19 403 offspring (87%). In unadjusted analyses, younger (≤19 years) and older (≥35 years) maternal age were associated with lower birthweight, gestational age, child nutritional status, and schooling. After adjustment, associations with younger maternal age remained for low birthweight (odds ratio [OR] 1·18 (95% CI 1·02–1·36)], preterm birth (1·26 [1·03–1·53]), 2-year stunting (1·46 [1·25–1·70]), and failure to complete secondary schooling (1·38 [1·18–1·62]) compared with mothers aged 20–24 years. After adjustment, older maternal age remained

  6. Collaborative Hierarchy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Mariann

    The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee writing program is collaborative, not divisionary, as some, such as Jeanne Gunner, have suggested. Three terms are useful in understanding the relationships and ethics governing operations at Wisconsin-Milwaukee: (1) authority and collaboration; (2) hierarchical difference; (3) professional respect.…

  7. Collaboration Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2006-01-01

    Collaborative practices of library media specialists and teachers as set forth in "Information Power" and implemented by the Institute for Library and Information Literacy Education (ILILE) are the focus of this article. Much has been written about collaboration in the past and much is still to be learned. "Information Power" tells everyone that…

  8. Collaboration Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbry, Stephanie; Hurwitz, Marc; Adair, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Theories of collaboration exist at the interfirm and intergroup level, but not the intragroup or team level. Team interactions are often framed in terms of leadership and followership, a categorization which may, or may not, accurately reflect the dynamics of intragroup interactions. To create a grounded theory of collaboration, the Farmer's…

  9. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized meteorological conditions, measured the atmospheric ... flew overhead. These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 ...

  10. Japan's funding supremo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2018-02-01

    Yasuhiro Iye, a condensed-matter physicist who is executive director of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, talks to Matin Durrani about the pressures and challenges facing Japan's biggest funding agency

  11. Physics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sameen Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    I read your Japan special report with a keen interest. My first visit to Japan was in March 1994 to attend the JSPS-KEK International Spring School: High Energy Ion Beams – Novel Beam Techniques and their Applications.

  12. Tohoku Tsunami Debris, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-14

    The Mar. 11, 2011, Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami devastated a large extent of the northeastern Japan coast, and virtually erased many villages and cities from the map. NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image of Sendai on Mar. 14, 2011.

  13. Hospital-based child protection teams that care for parents who abuse or neglect their children recognize the need for multidisciplinary collaborative practice involving perinatal care and mental health professionals: a questionnaire survey conducted in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okato, Ayumi; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Tanaka, Mami; Tachibana, Masumi; Machizawa, Akira; Okayama, Jun; Endo, Mamiko; Senda, Masayoshi; Saito, Naoki; Iyo, Masaomi

    2018-01-01

    Child abuse and/or neglect is a serious issue, and in many cases, parents are the perpetrators. Hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) play pivotal roles in the management of not only abused and/or neglected children but also of their parents; this is generally conducted through multidisciplinary practice. The aim of this study is to survey hospital-based CPT members to determine the professions they perceive to be most applicable to participation in CPTs. The participants were members of CPTs affiliated with hospitals that had pediatric emergency departments and which were located in Chiba Prefecture; specifically, 114 CPT members from 23 hospitals responded to this survey. The two main questionnaire items concerned are as follows: 1) each respondent's evaluation of conducting assessments, providing support, and implementing multidisciplinary collaborative practice in the treatment of abusive and negligent parents, and 2) each CPT member's opinion on the professions that are most important for CPT activities. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to explore the factor structure of the data, and a correlation analysis was performed using the result obtained. The EFA returned two factors: multidisciplinary collaborative practice (α = 0.84) and assessment and support (α = 0.89). A correlational analysis showed that multidisciplinary collaborative practice had a positive correlation for obstetricians ( r = 0.315, p = 0.001), neonatologists ( r = 0.261, p = 0.007), midwives ( r = 0.248, p = 0.011), and psychiatrists ( r = 0.194, p = 0.048); however, assessment and support was only significantly correlated with midwives ( r = 0.208, p = 0.039). This study showed that hospital-based CPT members highly evaluate multidisciplinary collaborative practice for the management of abusive and/or negligent parents, and they believe that, in addition to pediatric physicians and nurses, perinatal care and mental health professionals are the most important

  14. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  15. Associations of ikigai as a positive psychological factor with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese people: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Yaegashi, Yumi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-07-01

    To determine whether presence of ikigai as a positive psychological factor is associated with decreased risks for all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men and women. From 1988 to 1990, a total of 30,155 men and 43,117 women aged 40 to 79 years completed a lifestyle questionnaire including a question about ikigai. Mortality follow-up was available for a mean of 12.5 years and was classified as having occurred in the first 5 years or the subsequent follow-up period. Associations between ikigai and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were assessed using a Cox's regression model. Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for age, body mass index, drinking and smoking status, physical activity, sleep duration, education, occupation, marital status, perceived mental stress, and medical history. During the follow-up period, 10,021 deaths were recorded. Men and women with ikigai had decreased risks of mortality from all causes in the long-term follow-up period; multivariate HRs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were 0.85 (0.80-0.90) for men and 0.93 (0.86-1.00) for women. The risk of cardiovascular mortality was reduced in men with ikigai; the multivariate HR (95% CI) was 0.86 (0.76-0.97). Furthermore, men and women with ikigai had a decreased risk for mortality from external causes; multivariate HRs (95% CIs) were 0.74 (0.59-0.93) for men and 0.67 (0.51-0.88) for women. The findings suggest that a positive psychological factor such as ikigai is associated with longevity among Japanese people.

  16. The Collaborative Development of Teacher Training Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillwell, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes "mentor development", a means of collaborative professional development through peer observation that was initiated by the author with 18 peers, all native English speaker EFL teachers at Kanda University of International Studies in Chiba, Japan. It shows how such a programme allows teachers to learn from one another…

  17. Interprofessional Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Joyce; Taplay, Karyn; Stobbe, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In this hermeneutic phenomenological study, we examined the experience of interprofessional collaboration from the perspective of nursing and medical students. Seventeen medical and nursing students from two different universities participated in the study. We used guiding questions in face-to-face, conversational interviews to explore students’ experience and expectations of interprofessional collaboration within learning situations. Three themes emerged from the data: the great divide, learning means content, and breaking the ice. The findings suggest that the experience of interprofessional collaboration within learning events is influenced by the natural clustering of shared interests among students. Furthermore, the carry-forward of impressions about physician–nurse relationships prior to the educational programs and during clinical placements dominate the formation of new relationships and acquisition of new knowledge about roles, which might have implications for future practice. PMID:28462293

  18. JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Papenbrock, Thomas

    2014-05-16

    The grant “JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei ” (DOE DE-FG02-06ER41407) ran from 02/01/2006 thru 12/31/2013. JUSTIPEN is a venue for international collaboration between U.S.-based and Japanese scientists who share an interest in theory of rare isotopes. Since its inception JUSTIPEN has supported many visitors, fostered collaborations between physicists in the U.S. and Japan, and enabled them to deepen our understanding of exotic nuclei and their role in cosmos.

  19. Association of extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in a pooled analysis of 9 cohort studies including 43,407 individuals: The EPOCH-JAPAN study.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Aya; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Watanabe, Makoto; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2018-02-08

    The effect of very high or extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not well described. Although a few recent studies have reported the adverse effects of extremely high levels of HDL-C on CVD events, these did not show a statistically significant association between extremely high levels of HDL-C and cause-specific CVD mortality. In addition, Asian populations have not been studied. We examine the impact of extremely high levels of HDL-C on cause-specific CVD mortality using pooled data of Japanese cohort studies. We performed a large-scale pooled analysis of 9 Japanese cohorts including 43,407 participants aged 40-89 years, dividing the participants into 5 groups by HDL-C levels, including extremely high levels of HDL-C ≥2.33 mmol/L (≥90 mg/dL). We estimated the adjusted hazard ratio of each HDL-C category for all-cause death and cause-specific deaths compared with HDL-C 1.04-1.55 mmol/L (40-59 mg/dL) using a cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. During a 12.1-year follow-up, 4995 all-cause deaths and 1280 deaths due to overall CVD were identified. Extremely high levels of HDL-C were significantly associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic CVD mortality (hazard ratio = 2.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-4.09 for total) and increased risk for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. In addition, the risk for extremely high HDL-C was more evident among current drinkers. We showed extremely high levels of HDL-C had an adverse effect on atherosclerotic CVD mortality in a pooled analysis of Japanese cohorts. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Collaborative Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Debora

    2014-01-01

    This practitioner research study investigates the power of multimodal texts within a real-world context and argues that a participatory culture focused on literary arts offers marginalized high school students opportunities for collaborative design and authoring. Additionally, this article invites educators to rethink the at-risk label. This…

  1. Collaborative Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    When architects discuss the educational facilities of the next century and beyond, the conversation turns to collaborative spaces. They envision flexible and fluid spaces that will encourage creative and critical thinking, and free students to communicate clearly about the task at hand. While these are admirable ideals, there are some fundamental…

  2. Collaborative Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kast, David

    1993-01-01

    The crisis confronting calculus and mathematics education generally results from a number of failed assumptions implicit in the dominant lecture-homework-exam methodology used in teaching mathematics. Positive resolution of this crisis can be found in adopting a noncompetitive, collaborative approach to mathematics education. (Author)

  3. Collaboration Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Danielle; Otero, Valerie K.

    2005-01-01

    What happens when university curriculum developers are mixed with motivated elementary teachers? ? An awesome learning collaboration that benefits researchers, teachers, and students! That's what the authors discovered when they--university researchers involved in the Physics for Elementary Teachers (PET) project--teamed up with local elementary…

  4. Re-testing and misclassification of HIV-2 and HIV-1&2 dually reactive patients among the HIV-2 cohort of The West African Database to evaluate AIDS collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Tchounga, Boris K; Inwoley, Andre; Coffie, Patrick A; Minta, Daouda; Messou, Eugene; Bado, Guillaume; Minga, Albert; Hawerlander, Denise; Kane, Coumba; Eholie, Serge P; Dabis, François; Ekouevi, Didier K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction West Africa is characterized by the circulation of HIV-1 and HIV-2. The laboratory diagnosis of these two infections as well as the choice of a first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is challenging, considering the limited access to second-line regimens. This study aimed at confirming the classification of HIV-2 and HIV-1&2 dually reactive patients followed up in the HIV-2 cohort of the West African Database to evaluate AIDS collaboration. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to December 2012 in Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire and Mali among patients classified as HIV-2 or HIV-1&2 dually reactive according to the national HIV testing algorithms. A 5-ml blood sample was collected from each patient and tested in a single reference laboratory in Côte d’Ivoire (CeDReS, Abidjan) with two immuno-enzymatic tests: ImmunoCombII® (HIV-1&2 ImmunoComb BiSpot – Alere) and an in-house ELISA test, approved by the French National AIDS and hepatitis Research Agency (ANRS). Results A total of 547 patients were included; 57% of them were initially classified as HIV-2 and 43% as HIV-1&2 dually reactive. Half of the patients had CD4≥500 cells/mm3 and 68.6% were on ART. Of the 312 patients initially classified as HIV-2, 267 (85.7%) were confirmed as HIV-2 with ImmunoCombII® and in-house ELISA while 16 (5.1%) and 9 (2.9%) were reclassified as HIV-1 and HIV-1&2, respectively (Kappa=0.69; p<0.001). Among the 235 patients initially classified as HIV-1&2 dually reactive, only 54 (23.0%) were confirmed as dually reactive with ImmunoCombII® and in-house ELISA, while 103 (43.8%) and 33 (14.0%) were reclassified as HIV-1 and HIV-2 mono-infected, respectively (kappa= 0.70; p<0.001). Overall, 300 samples (54.8%) were concordantly classified as HIV-2, 63 (11.5%) as HIV-1&2 dually reactive and 119 (21.8%) as HIV-1 (kappa=0.79; p<0.001). The two tests gave discordant results for 65 samples (11.9%). Conclusions Patients with HIV-2 mono-infection are correctly

  5. TWELVE DOORS TO JAPAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEARDSLEY, RICHARD K.; HALL, JOHN WHITNEY

    THE TWELVE DOORS OF THIS COLLEGE-LEVEL TEXT ARE TWELVE CHAPTERS ON ASPECTS OF JAPAN AND JAPANESE CULTURE AS TREATED BY VARIOUS ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES. THE AUTHORS' PURPOSE IN CHOOSING THIS FORMAT WAS TO PRESENT INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION ABOUT JAPAN AND TO ACQUAINT STUDENTS WITH THE AIMS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS OF DISCIPLINES OTHER THAN THE ONE THEY…

  6. A Cultural Experience: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robert W.; And Others

    This activities unit for teaching about Japan is designed for use with elementary students. The activities reflect the growing importance of Japan in today's world, and the belief that the social studies curriculum should reflect principles of global education. The unit is intended to explore seven major goals included in the social studies…

  7. Japan: Teaching Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Marilyn, Ed.; And Others

    This teaching guide was developed by undergraduate elementary education students as part of the requirements for a social studies methods course. The guide presents nine teaching units about various aspects of Japan. The unit topics range from the broad to the specific, and reflect a variety of approaches for teaching about Japan in the public…

  8. Japan's High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P.

    The author, an anthropologist, spent 14 months (1974-75) in the industrial port city of Kobe (Japan) observing a cross section of urban high schools, including Japan's most elite private school and a night vocational school plagued by absenteeism and delinquency. He reports on the character of the institutions and of the experience via…

  9. Cohort Profile: HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Sophie; Cescon, Angela; Samji, Hasina; Cui, Zishan; Yip, Benita; Lepik, Katherine J; Moore, David; Lima, Viviane D; Nosyk, Bohdan; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio SG; Shannon, Kate; Wood, Evan; Hogg, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Since 1986, antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been available free of charge to individuals living with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through the BC Centre of Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) Drug Treatment Program (DTP). The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort was established in 1996 to maintain a prospective record of clinical measurements and medication profiles of a subset of DTP participants initiating HAART in BC. This unique cohort provides a comprehensive data source to investigate mortality, prognostic factors and treatment response among people living with HIV in BC from the inception of HAART. Currently over 5000 individuals are enrolled in the HOMER cohort. Data captured include socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, health authority), clinical variables (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma HIV viral load, AIDS-defining illness, hepatitis C co-infection, mortality) and treatment variables (e.g. HAART regimens, date of treatment initiation, treatment interruptions, adherence data, resistance testing). Research findings from the HOMER cohort have featured in numerous high-impact peer-reviewed journals. The HOMER cohort collaborates with other HIV cohorts on both national and international scales to answer complex HIV-specific research questions, and welcomes input from external investigators regarding potential research proposals or future collaborations. For further information please contact the principal investigator, Dr Robert Hogg (robert_hogg@sfu.ca). PMID:24639444

  10. Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies are the strongest predictor of clinically relevant radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients achieving remission or low disease activity: A post hoc analysis of a nationwide cohort in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Akitomo; Fukuda, Takaaki; Hidaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Tomonori; Ueki, Yukitaka; Kodera, Takao; Nakashima, Munetoshi; Takahashi, Yuichi; Honda, Seiyo; Horai, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Ryu; Okuno, Hiroshi; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Izumiyama, Tomomasa; Takai, Osamu; Miyashita, Taiichiro; Sato, Shuntaro; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Origuchi, Tomoki; Nakamura, Hideki; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) achieving remission or low disease activity (LDA) in clinical practice. Methods Using data from a nationwide, multicenter, prospective study in Japan, we evaluated 198 biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD)-naïve RA patients who were in remission or had LDA at study entry after being treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs). CRRP was defined as the yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS) >3.0 U. We performed a multiple logistic regression analysis to explore the factors to predict CRRP at 1 year. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to estimate the performance of relevant variables for predicting CRRP. Results The mean Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) was 2.32 ± 0.58 at study entry. During the 1-year observation, remission or LDA persisted in 72% of the patients. CRRP was observed in 7.6% of the patients. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) positivity at baseline (OR = 15.2, 95%CI 2.64–299), time-integrated DAS28-ESR during the 1 year post-baseline (7.85-unit increase, OR = 1.83, 95%CI 1.03–3.45), and the mTSS at baseline (13-unit increase, OR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.06–1.42). Conclusions ACPA positivity was the strongest independent predictor of CRRP in patients with RA in remission or LDA. Physicians should recognize ACPA as a poor-prognosis factor regarding the radiographic outcome of RA, even among patients showing a clinically favorable response to DMARDs. PMID:28505163

  11. Influence of subjective economic hardship on new onset of neck pain (so-called: katakori) in the chronic phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Takuya; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Sugawara, Yumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Tanji, Fumiya; Watanabe, Takashi; Yabe, Yutaka; Koide, Masashi; Itaya, Nobuyuki; Itoi, Eiji; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2018-06-19

    Studies have suggested that musculoskeletal symptoms increase after natural disasters. The Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and accompanying tsunami placed a huge financial burden on the local population. This study determined whether subjective economic hardship influenced the new onset of neck pain (katakori) in the chronic phase after the GEJE. This study used longitudinal data from 1359 adults who had responded to the self-report questionnaire at 2 and 3 years after the GEJE. New-onset neck pain was defined as neck pain absent at 2 years and present at 3 years. Subjective economic hardship at 2 years after the GEJE was categorized into 4 groups: "normal," "a little bit hard," "hard," and "very hard." Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) in order to examine the association between subjective economic hardship and new-onset neck pain. Among the participants, 12.9% (n = 175) reported new-onset neck pain. A significantly higher rate of new-onset neck pain was observed in participants who considered their subjective economic hardship to be "hard" (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.34-3.30) or "very hard" (OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.83-5.46; p for trend <0.001) compared with those who considered their hardship to be "normal." Subjective economic hardship was significantly associated with new-onset neck pain in the chronic phase of the GEJE. (228/300). Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A prospective earthquake forecast experiment for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Sayoko; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi

    2013-04-01

    One major focus of the current Japanese earthquake prediction research program (2009-2013) is to move toward creating testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose we started an experiment of forecasting earthquake activity in Japan under the framework of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) through an international collaboration. We established the CSEP Testing Centre, an infrastructure to encourage researchers to develop testable models for Japan, and to conduct verifiable prospective tests of their model performance. On 1 November in 2009, we started the 1st earthquake forecast testing experiment for the Japan area. We use the unified JMA catalogue compiled by the Japan Meteorological Agency as authorized catalogue. The experiment consists of 12 categories, with 4 testing classes with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years) and 3 testing regions called All Japan, Mainland, and Kanto. A total of 91 models were submitted to CSEP-Japan, and are evaluated with the CSEP official suite of tests about forecast performance. In this presentation, we show the results of the experiment of the 3-month testing class for 5 rounds. HIST-ETAS7pa, MARFS and RI10K models corresponding to the All Japan, Mainland and Kanto regions showed the best score based on the total log-likelihood. It is also clarified that time dependency of model parameters is no effective factor to pass the CSEP consistency tests for the 3-month testing class in all regions. Especially, spatial distribution in the All Japan region was too difficult to pass consistency test due to multiple events at a bin. Number of target events for a round in the Mainland region tended to be smaller than model's expectation during all rounds, which resulted in rejections of consistency test because of overestimation. In the Kanto region, pass ratios of consistency tests in each model showed more than 80%, which was associated with good balanced forecasting of event

  13. PHENIX Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chang, B. S.; Chang, W. C.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Guragain, H.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Harper, C.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Hayashi, S.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klatsky, J.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Kofarago, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Krizek, F.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Layton, D.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Ma, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Masumoto, S.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Midori, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, A. J.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Nattrass, C.; Nederlof, A.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nukariya, A.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; Obayashi, H.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Oide, H.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Sodre, T.; Solano, S.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Tomita, Y.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Voas, B.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; Whitaker, S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xie, W.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2014-12-01

    We thank the staff of the Collider-Accelerator and Physics Departments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the staff of the other PHENIX participating institutions for their vital contributions. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, a sponsored research grant from Renaissance Technologies LLC, Abilene Christian University Research Council, Research Foundation of SUNY, and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University (USA), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Brazil), Natural Science Foundation of China, (People's Republic of China), Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (Croatia), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, and Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (France), Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, and Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Germany), OTKA NK 101 428 grant and the Ch. Simonyi Fund (Hungary), Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology (India), Israel Science Foundation (Israel), National Research Foundation and WCU program of the Ministry Education Science and Technology (Republic of Korea), Physics Department, Lahore University of Management Sciences (Pakistan), Ministry of Education and Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Agency of Atomic Energy (Russia), VR and Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), the US Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, and the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  14. PHENIX Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chang, B. S.; Chang, W. C.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Guragain, H.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Harper, C.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Hayashi, S.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klatsky, J.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Kofarago, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Krizek, F.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Layton, D.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Maai, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Masumoto, S.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Midori, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, A. J.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Nattrass, C.; Nederlof, A.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nukariya, A.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; Obayashi, H.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Oide, H.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Sodre, T.; Solano, S.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Tomita, Y.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Voas, B.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; Whitaker, S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xie, W.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2014-11-01

    We thank the staff of the Collider-Accelerator and Physics Departments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the staff of the other PHENIX participating institutions for their vital contributions. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, a sponsored research grant from Renaissance Technologies LLC, Abilene Christian University Research Council, Research Foundation of SUNY, and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University (USA), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and Fundaç ao de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Brazil), Natural Science Foundation of China (People's Republic of China), Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (Croatia), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, and Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (France), Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, and Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Germany), OTKA NK 101 428 grant and the Ch. Simonyi Fund (Hungary), Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology (India), Israel Science Foundation (Israel), National Research Foundation and WCU program of the Ministry Education Science and Technology (Korea), Physics Department, Lahore University of Management Sciences (Pakistan), Ministry of Education and Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Agency of Atomic Energy (Russia), VR and Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), the US Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, and the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  15. Japan's aging economics.

    PubMed

    Ezrati, M

    1997-01-01

    "Japan's population is aging faster than that of any other country in the world. The unprecedented increase in retirees relative to the size of Japan's work force will force radical change if the nation is to avoid a fiscal crisis, or worse. These seemingly innocent demographic changes will force Japan to shrink its famously high savings rate, reverse its proud trade surplus, send more industry overseas, liberalize its tightly controlled markets, and take on a more active, high-profile foreign policy. Ultimately, these changes will shift the balance of power in East Asia." excerpt

  16. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  17. Microelectronics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  18. Microelectronics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  19. Star Week- A Successful Campaign in Japan -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, J.

    2006-08-01

    In 1995, we started a campaign of the star week as between August 1 and 7 when it is usually expected that most part of Japan should be good weather after the rainy season during the summer holiday. Several hundreds of astronomical facilities for general public in Japan, including planetariums, museums, and public observatories participated in our campaign, together with make good collaborations for education purpose. More than 200 astronomical events such as star parties were coordinated for general public every year. Japan is one of the worst countries for light pollution. Especially most of children have no experience of seeing Milky Way. Let them see the real stars. Let them feel the universe by inviting them to the related astronomical facilities located all over Japan. For realizing this purpose, it is better to set the special week, similar to the "Bird Week" by arranging various astronomical events in these facilities in order to invite all the general public. This is the motivation of the beginning of the star week. Such outreach program should give opportunity for general public to understand the excitement of the astronomy. In this paper, we will introduce present situation of our campaign, along with some statistics.

  20. Space communications in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.

    This paper outlines some of the planned satellite comunication projects in Japan over the next 5-7 years. In addition, Japanese space development policies are set out along with a historic review of the development of artificial satellites.

  1. Japan Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Japan is the world's largest liquefied natural gas importer and ranks in the top four countries for the highest coal imports, net imports of petroleum and other liquids, and consumption of crude oil and petroleum products.

  2. Literacy in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaya, Toshio

    1979-01-01

    Examines three causes for Japan's high literacy rate: (1) emphasis on literacy in Japanese society; (2) pervasive effect of the modern Japanese school system; (3) special structural features of the Japanese language which aid in functional use. (DR)

  3. The CODATwins Project: The Cohort Description of Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins to Study Macro-Environmental Variation in Genetic and Environmental Effects on Anthropometric Traits.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Aaltonen, Sari; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Ning, Feng; Ji, Fuling; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Hong, Changhee; Chong, Youngsook; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Rasmussen, Finn; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-08-01

    For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.

  4. The CODAtwins project: the cohort description of COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins to study macro-environmental variation in genetic and environmental effects on anthropometric traits

    PubMed Central

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Aaltonen, Sari; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Ning, Feng; Ji, Fuling; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Haworth, Claire MA; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Hong, Changhee; Chong, Youngsook; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth JF; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl-Aslan, Anna K; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Rasmussen, Finn; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    For over one hundred years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically 1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and 2) to study the effects of birth related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects including both monozygotic and dizygotic twins using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes. PMID:26014041

  5. Microsystems Research in Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    microsystems applications, like microfluidic systems, will require more than planar lithography -based fabrication processes. The committee was impressed by the...United States focused on exploiting silicon planar lithography as the core technology for microstructure fabrication, whereas Japan explored a wide...including LIGA and its extensions, micro-stereolithography, and e-beam lithography . The range of materials seen in Japan was broader than in the

  6. Occurrence of depressive tendency and associated social factors among elderly persons forced by the Great East Japan Earthquake and nuclear disaster to live as long-term evacuees: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yujiro; Iwasa, Hajime; Goto, Aya; Yoshida, Kazuki; Matsuda, Kumiko; Iwamitsu, Yumi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2017-09-03

    This study examined the incidence of depression and associated factors among elderly persons from Iitate village after the March 2011 earthquake. This was a prospective cohort study. As a baseline survey, in May 2010 a self-assessment Basic Checklist (BCL) was distributed to 1611 elderly villagers, of which 1277 responded. Of these respondents, 885 without a tendency to depression (69.3%) were given a follow-up survey in May 2013. The BCL was used to assess depression tendency, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), physical function, nutritional status, oral function, homeboundness, cognitive function and social activities. Univariate analysis was used to examine differences in risk between those with a presence of depression tendency (PDT) and those without (non-PDT) depending on demographic and BCL variables. Variables found to be significant were analysed by Poisson regression analysis. Of the 438 respondents in the second survey, 163 (37.2%) showed depression tendency. PDT risk was significantly increased by female gender, age, history of diabetes and cognitive disorder. It was significantly reduced by increased IADL. Engagement in social activities decreased PDT risk in rental accommodation. Renters faced a higher risk of PDT than persons evacuated in groups to purpose-built housing. The inclusion of social activities in the multivariate Poisson regression analysis weakened this effect. Female gender, a history of diabetes, reduced IADL and a tendency to cognitive disorder each independently affected PDT risk. These findings may inform future responses to earthquakes and the technical disasters that may accompany them. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Evaluation of pre-hospital administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) by emergency medical services for patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest in Japan: controlled propensity matched retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tomio, Jun; Takahashi, Hideto; Ichikawa, Masao; Nishida, Masamichi; Morimura, Naoto; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of pre-hospital adrenaline (epinephrine) administered by emergency medical services to patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest. Design Controlled propensity matched retrospective cohort study, in which pairs of patients with or without (control) adrenaline were created with a sequential risk set matching based on time dependent propensity score. Setting Japan’s nationwide registry database of patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest registered between January 2007 and December 2010. Participants Among patients aged 15-94 with out of hospital cardiac arrest witnessed by a bystander, we created 1990 pairs of patients with and without adrenaline with an initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT) and 9058 pairs among those with non-VF/VT. Main outcome measures Overall and neurologically intact survival at one month or at discharge, whichever was earlier. Results After propensity matching, pre-hospital administration of adrenaline by emergency medical services was associated with a higher proportion of overall survival (17.0% v 13.4%; unadjusted odds ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.60) but not with neurologically intact survival (6.6% v 6.6%; 1.01, 0.78 to 1.30) among those with VF/VT; and higher proportions of overall survival (4.0% v 2.4%; odds ratio 1.72, 1.45 to 2.04) and neurologically intact survival (0.7% v 0.4%; 1.57, 1.04 to 2.37) among those with non-VF/VT. Conclusions Pre-hospital administration of adrenaline by emergency medical services improves the long term outcome in patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest, although the absolute increase of neurologically intact survival was minimal. PMID:24326886

  8. Industrial lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karube, Norio

    1991-03-01

    I am to report on some aspects of industrial lasers in Japan. Mostly centering on the market. In Japan, the history of laser developnent is rather profound. And long. Ever since the first invention of the laser in this country in 1960. This is partly because of the fact that in Japan the spectroscopic studies of the ruby was very popular in the late 1950's. Ever since niost of the work has been done in the research laboratories of the industry, not in the universities or not in the governmental laboratories. And since that time our first activity was mainly centering on the basic research, but after that time we have the evolution of the technology. One of the features in Japan is that the activity of developement and research of laser technology from the very basic phase up to the present commercialization has been done by the same group of people, including ine. We had a national project which ended about six years ago which was sponsored by MITI. MITI is Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan. And because of this national project, the effect of this project had a very enlightening effect in Japan. And after that our Japanese laser market became very flourishing.

  9. Using Collaborative Engineering to Inform Collaboration Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration is a critical competency for modern organizations as they struggle to compete in an increasingly complex, global environment. A large body of research on collaboration in the workplace focuses both on teams, investigating how groups use teamwork to perform their task work, and on the use of information systems to support team processes ("collaboration engineering"). This research essay presents collaboration from an engineering perspective ("collaborative engineering"). It uses examples from professional and student engineering teams to illustrate key differences in collaborative versus collaboration engineering and investigates how challenges in the former can inform opportunities for the latter.

  10. Glaucoma incidence in an unselected cohort of diabetic patients: is diabetes mellitus a risk factor for glaucoma? DARTS/MEMO collaboration. Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Study. Medicines Monitoring Unit.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J D; Evans, J M; Ruta, D A; Baines, P S; Leese, G; MacDonald, T M; Morris, A D

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for the development of primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT). A historical cohort study of an unselected population comprising all residents of the Tayside region of Scotland was performed using record linkage techniques followed by case note review. Ascertainment of prevalent diabetes was achieved using the Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Study (DARTS) validated regional diabetes register. Glaucoma and treated OHT were defined by encashment of community prescriptions and the statutory surgical procedure coding database. The study population comprised 6631 diabetic subjects and 166 144 non-diabetic subjects aged >40 years without glaucoma or OHT at study entry. 65 patients with diabetes and 958 without diabetes were identified as new cases of glaucoma or treated OHT during the 24 month study period, yielding a standardised morbidity ratio of 127 (95% CI, 96-158). Case note review demonstrated non-differential misclassification of prevalent glaucoma and OHT as incident disease (diabetic cohort 20%, non-diabetic cohort 24%; p=0.56) primarily as a result of non-compliance in medically treated disease. Removing misclassified cases and adjusting for age yielded an incidence of primary open angle glaucoma in diabetes of 1.1/1000 patient years (95% CI, 0.89-1. 31) compared to 0.7/1000 patient years (95% CI, 0.54-0.86) in the non-diabetic cohort; RR 1.57 (95% CI, 0.99-2.48). This study failed to confirm an association between diabetes mellitus and primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. A non-significant increase in diagnosed and treated disease in the diabetic population was observed, but evidence was also found that detection bias contributes to this association.

  11. US-Japan collaborative research on probe data : assessment report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-11-01

    This flyer summarizes the identified human factors research needs for integrated in-vehicle systems for Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO), one of five configurations of in-vehicle safety and driver information systems. A complete review of the rese...

  12. Japan's advanced medicine.

    PubMed

    Sho, Ri; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Murakami, Masayasu

    2013-10-01

    Like health care systems in other developed countries, Japan's health care system faces significant challenges due to aging of the population and economic stagnation. Advanced medicine (Senshin Iryou) is a unique system of medical care in Japan offering highly technology-driven medical care that is not covered by public health insurance. Advanced medicine has recently developed and expanded as part of health care reform. Will it work? To answer this question, we briefly trace the historical development of advanced medicine and describe the characteristics and current state of advanced medical care in Japan. We then offer our opinions on the future of advanced medicine with careful consideration of its pros and cons. We believe that developing advanced medicine is an attempt to bring health care reform in line rather than the goal of health care reform.

  13. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  14. Dust over Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    March 24, 2010 - Dust over Japan This image of gray/brown dust being blown over Japan was captured on March 21, 2010 by the MODIS on the Terra satellite. On the left is the Korean peninsula. Japan stretches diagonally across the image, up to the top right corner. The dust is likely from the sandstorm that swept across the China the previous day. The sand and dust originated from the south and east of Inner Mongolia. In this image from March 20, the dust is nearly obscuring the Bohai Sea, which is just west of the Korean peninsula. Here is a handy map. For more information related to this image go to: modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/individual.php?db_date=2010-0... For more information about Goddard Space Flight Center go here: www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/home/index.html

  15. Yoga Therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, By Keishin

    2017-08-01

    This perspective piece gives an overview of the current situation of yoga therapy in Japan today. Traditional yoga in Japan suffered a serious setback in 1995 with a nerve gas terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway, which was carried out by a cult that recruited members through yoga classes. But with the increase in popularity with modern forms of yoga such as Iyengar yoga, Ashtanga yoga and hot yoga in the West, the general public in Japan today is forgetting its aversion to yoga and considers it to be something that can contribute to good health. In 2012, the Japan Yoga Therapy Society (JYTS) conducted a study on adverse events in yoga classes throughout Japan with the University of Kyushu School of Medicine, with support from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This study indicated that more than half of people attending yoga classes have some form of chronic illness, with 42.3% receiving outpatient care. This survey was the beginning of growing interest from both the government and universities in yoga therapy. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. This perspective piece introduces some of the developments in yoga therapy research and practice in

  16. Yoga Therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Keishin

    2017-11-01

    This perspective piece gives an overview of the current situation of yoga therapy in Japan today. Traditional yoga in Japan suffered a serious setback in 1995 with a nerve gas terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway, which was carried out by a cult that recruited members through yoga classes. But with the increase in popularity with modern forms of yoga such as Iyengar yoga, Ashtanga yoga and hot yoga in the West, the general public in Japan today is forgetting its aversion to yoga and considers it to be something that can contribute to good health. In 2012, the Japan Yoga Therapy Society (JYTS) conducted a study on adverse events in yoga classes throughout Japan with the University of Kyushu School of Medicine, with support from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This study indicated that more than half of people attending yoga classes have some form of chronic illness, with 42.3% receiving outpatient care. This survey was the beginning of growing interest from both the government and universities in yoga therapy. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. This perspective piece introduces some of the developments in yoga therapy research and practice in

  17. Divorce in contemporary Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukurai, H; Alston, J

    1990-10-01

    Data from the 1985-86 Japanese census are analysed to explore the determinants of the divorce rates in Japan's forty-seven prefectures, using two theoretical models: (a) the social integration model, which is shown to have a greater utility in predicting Japanese divorce levels than (b), the human capital model. Female emigration patterns play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Population increase and net household income are also important predictors of the Japanese divorce rate and urbanization has a great influence in modern Japan. Demographic and aggregate variables such as migration, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors are useful when organized under a social integration model.

  18. Chronic heart failure in Japan: implications of the CHART studies.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Nobuyuki; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) still remains poor, despite the recent advances in medical and surgical treatment. Furthermore, CHF is a major public health problem in most industrialized countries where the elderly population is rapidly increasing. Although the prevalence and mortality of CHF used to be relatively low in Japan, the disorder has been markedly increasing due to the rapid aging of the society and the Westernization of lifestyle that facilitates the development of coronary artery disease. The Chronic Heart Failure Analysis and Registry in the Tohoku District (CHART)-1 study was one of the largest cohorts in Japan. The study has clarified the characteristics and prognosis of Japanese patients with CHF, demonstrating that their prognosis was similarly poor compared with those in Western countries. However, we still need evidence for the prevention and treatment of CHF based on the large cohort studies or randomized treatment trials in the Japanese population. Since the strategy for CHF management is now changing from treatment to prevention, a larger-size prospective cohort, called the CHART-2 study, has been initiated to evaluate the risk factors of CHF in Japan. This review summarizes the current status of CHF studies in Japan and discusses their future perspectives.

  19. Association of the OPRM1 Variant rs1799971 (A118G) with Non-Specific Liability to Substance Dependence in a Collaborative de novo Meta-Analysis of European-Ancestry Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Li-Shiun; Hartz, Sarah M; Culverhouse, Robert C; Chen, Xiangning; Coon, Hilary; Frank, Josef; Kamens, Helen M; Konte, Bettina; Kovanen, Leena; Latvala, Antti; Legrand, Lisa N; Maher, Brion S; Melroy, Whitney E; Nelson, Elliot C; Reid, Mark W; Robinson, Jason D; Shen, Pei-Hong; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Andrews, Judy A; Aveyard, Paul; Beltcheva, Olga; Brown, Sandra A; Cannon, Dale S; Cichon, Sven; Corley, Robin P; Dahmen, Norbert; Degenhardt, Louisa; Foroud, Tatiana; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Giegling, Ina; Glatt, Stephen J; Grucza, Richard A; Hardin, Jill; Hartmann, Annette M; Heath, Andrew C; Herms, Stefan; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Hoffmann, Per; Hops, Hyman; Huizinga, David; Ising, Marcus; Johnson, Eric O; Johnstone, Elaine; Kaneva, Radka P; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kiefer, Falk; Kranzler, Henry R; Krauter, Ken S; Levran, Orna; Lucae, Susanne; Lynskey, Michael T; Maier, Wolfgang; Mann, Karl; Martin, Nicholas G; Mattheisen, Manuel; Montgomery, Grant W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murphy, Michael F; Neale, Michael C; Nikolov, Momchil A; Nishita, Denise; Nöthen, Markus M; Nurnberger, John; Partonen, Timo; Pergadia, Michele L; Reynolds, Maureen; Ridinger, Monika; Rose, Richard J; Rouvinen-Lagerström, Noora; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schmäl, Christine; Soyka, Michael; Stallings, Michael C; Steffens, Michael; Treutlein, Jens; Tsuang, Ming; Wall, Tamara L; Wodarz, Norbert; Yuferov, Vadim; Zill, Peter; Bergen, Andrew W; Chen, Jingchun; Cinciripini, Paul M; Edenberg, Howard J; Ehringer, Marissa A; Ferrell, Robert E; Gelernter, Joel; Goldman, David; Hewitt, John K; Hopfer, Christian J; Iacono, William G; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Kremensky, Ivo M; Madden, Pamela A F; McGue, Matt; Munafò, Marcus R; Philibert, Robert A; Rietschel, Marcella; Roy, Alec; Rujescu, Dan; Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Swan, Gary E; Todorov, Alexandre A; Vanyukov, Michael M; Weiss, Robert B; Bierut, Laura J; Saccone, Nancy L

    2016-03-01

    The mu1 opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, has long been a high-priority candidate for human genetic studies of addiction. Because of its potential functional significance, the non-synonymous variant rs1799971 (A118G, Asn40Asp) in OPRM1 has been extensively studied, yet its role in addiction has remained unclear, with conflicting association findings. To resolve the question of what effect, if any, rs1799971 has on substance dependence risk, we conducted collaborative meta-analyses of 25 datasets with over 28,000 European-ancestry subjects. We investigated non-specific risk for "general" substance dependence, comparing cases dependent on any substance to controls who were non-dependent on all assessed substances. We also examined five specific substance dependence diagnoses: DSM-IV alcohol, opioid, cannabis, and cocaine dependence, and nicotine dependence defined by the proxy of heavy/light smoking (cigarettes-per-day >20 vs. ≤ 10). The G allele showed a modest protective effect on general substance dependence (OR = 0.90, 95% C.I. [0.83-0.97], p value = 0.0095, N = 16,908). We observed similar effects for each individual substance, although these were not statistically significant, likely because of reduced sample sizes. We conclude that rs1799971 contributes to mechanisms of addiction liability that are shared across different addictive substances. This project highlights the benefits of examining addictive behaviors collectively and the power of collaborative data sharing and meta-analyses.

  20. Super-family P2 C-96-125 observed by Japan-URSS Joint Emulsion Chamber Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibuya, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed description of the event detected in the second chamber of Japan-URSS Collaboration is presented. A preliminary description was already published and from that time a careful microscopic scanning was carried out.

  1. Collaboration rules.

    PubMed

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  2. Collaborative outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanmarti-Vila, Lydia; García-Matos, Marta; Beduini, Federica; Carrasco, Silvia

    2016-09-01

    Many research projects and scientific initiatives multiple their impact and relevance through collaborations. It is the contact and exchange with others that often brings a scientist's work to the next level. The same happens with outreach: sharing activities, concepts, materials and knowhow may lead to greater impact, more innovative, inspirational ideas with enough potential to create pioneering outreach activities. A good example for this is the FP7 European project "GoPhoton!", an initiative of ECOP (European Centres of Outreach in Photonics) that ran through 2014 and 2015 and finished at the beginning of 2016 and was directed at the general public, young minds as well as current and future entrepreneurs. This project was based on the idea of sharing activities - which is at the core of ECOP's identity- already existing in other nodes (institutions within the project), or created within GoPhoton! The main concept was the effective leverage of local links such as the networks of educators and professionals in general, industrial clusters, museums, universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations, all from a Pan-European perspective possible through ECOP. This has resulted in over 200 events impacting over two million people. The sharing of activities across institutions that have different resources, facilities, and cultural environments is not straightforward. One of the biggest challenges for the consortium was to be able to extract the concept and identity of each activity, so that it could be realistically adapted to each local context. A crucial point was being able to effectively use the knowhow gained from a partner's activity, in a way that the essence of the activity remained untainted across the participating nodes, while still triggering innovation locally.

  3. Cohort Profile: HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Sophie; Cescon, Angela; Samji, Hasina; Cui, Zishan; Yip, Benita; Lepik, Katherine J; Moore, David; Lima, Viviane D; Nosyk, Bohdan; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio S G; Shannon, Kate; Wood, Evan; Hogg, Robert S

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been available free of charge to individuals living with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through the BC Centre of Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) Drug Treatment Program (DTP). The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort was established in 1996 to maintain a prospective record of clinical measurements and medication profiles of a subset of DTP participants initiating HAART in BC. This unique cohort provides a comprehensive data source to investigate mortality, prognostic factors and treatment response among people living with HIV in BC from the inception of HAART. Currently over 5000 individuals are enrolled in the HOMER cohort. Data captured include socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, health authority), clinical variables (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma HIV viral load, AIDS-defining illness, hepatitis C co-infection, mortality) and treatment variables (e.g. HAART regimens, date of treatment initiation, treatment interruptions, adherence data, resistance testing). Research findings from the HOMER cohort have featured in numerous high-impact peer-reviewed journals. The HOMER cohort collaborates with other HIV cohorts on both national and international scales to answer complex HIV-specific research questions, and welcomes input from external investigators regarding potential research proposals or future collaborations. For further information please contact the principal investigator, Dr Robert Hogg (robert_hogg@sfu.ca). © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  4. [Films: China and Japan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumport, Roberta H.

    The history of filmmaking in China and Japan and film usage in teaching are considered in this document. Pointing out how films describe historical context and culture, the document also describes various techniques of film making. Films in China were heavily influenced by western models and have tended to be tools of the power structure, as…

  5. Country Profiles. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Minoru

    This occasional paper on Japan is one of a series setting forth the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in specified countries. Here, an overview is given of population characteristics and growth patterns, the relationship of population growth to socioeconomic development, and the history of population concerns and…

  6. Employment in Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Ken; And Others

    This paper presents guidelines and suggestions for non-Japanese English-as-a-Second-Language teachers seeking employment in Japan. The first section outlines the educational qualifications needed to teach in language schools, secondary schools, and higher education institutions, and notes common employment patterns and the timing required to make…

  7. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-18

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image.

  8. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  9. Education Policy Outlook: Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miki, Tadakazu; Pont, Beatriz; Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Peterka, Judith; Fraccola, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Japan is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectorial policy knowledge base, the…

  10. Teaching Unit: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina

    The cultural diversity of Japan can provide a rewarding learning experience for children of all grade levels. This teaching unit includes resources and ideas for the study of Japanese society, art, folklore, and poetry. Included among the instructional objectives are: (1) children will compare U.S. lifestyles with Japanese lifestyles by reading…

  11. Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-25

    NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge or Pearl Bridge, the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world, at 1991 meters, connecting the city of Kobe, Japan with Iwaja on Awaji Island by crossing the busy Akashi Strait.

  12. Advanced composites in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diefendorf, R. Judd; Hillig, William G.; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Pipes, R. Byron; Perepezko, John H.; Sheehan, James E.

    1994-01-01

    The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high-performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic, and carbon matrices. Because of a strong carbon and fiber industry, Japan is the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation-resistant carbon/carbon composite program. With its outstanding technical base in carbon technology, Japan should be able to match present technology in the U.S. and introduce lower-cost manufacturing methods. However, the panel did not see any innovative approaches to oxidation protection. Ceramic and especially intermetallic matrix composites were not yet receiving much attention at the time of the panel's visit. There was a high level of monolithic ceramic research and development activity. High temperature monolithic intermetallic research was just starting, but notable products in titanium aluminides had already appeared. Matrixless ceramic composites was one novel approach noted. Technologies for high temperature composites fabrication existed, but large numbers of panels or parts had not been produced. The Japanese have selected aerospace as an important future industry. Because materials are an enabling technology for a strong aerospace industry, Japan initiated an ambitious long-term program to develop high temperature composites. Although just starting, its progress should be closely monitored in the U.S.

  13. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  14. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  15. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene...

  18. Globalization and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  19. Networking of Quality Assurance Agencies in the Asia-Pacific Region and the Role of Japan University Accreditation Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinaga, Tatsuhiko

    2004-01-01

    There is a trend toward international collaboration among quality assurance agencies (QAAs) and the internationalisation of higher education in Japan. This paper is examines how Japan University Accreditation Association (JUAA) can establish a network in the region as it promised to do in the Tokyo Declaration. However, it is very hard for JUAA, a…

  20. Education, Politics and Sino-Japanese Relations: Reflections on a Three-Year Project on "East Asian Images of Japan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a recent collaborative and interdisciplinary study of East Asian Images of Japan, this article discusses contemporary Chinese portrayals of Japan, their political context, and their significance for Sino-Japanese relations. It questions some widely-held assumptions concerning the extent of "thought control" in an authoritarian…

  1. Association of the OPRM1 variant rs1799971 (A118G) with non-specific liability to substance dependence in a collaborative de novo meta-analysis of European-ancestry cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Li-Shiun; Hartz, Sarah M.; Culverhouse, Robert C.; Chen, Xiangning; Coon, Hilary; Frank, Josef; Kamens, Helen M.; Konte, Bettina; Kovanen, Leena; Latvala, Antti; Legrand, Lisa N.; Maher, Brion S.; Melroy, Whitney E.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Reid, Mark W.; Robinson, Jason D.; Shen, Pei-Hong; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Andrews, Judy A.; Aveyard, Paul; Beltcheva, Olga; Brown, Sandra A.; Cannon, Dale S.; Cichon, Sven; Corley, Robin P.; Dahmen, Norbert; Degenhardt, Louisa; Foroud, Tatiana; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Giegling, Ina; Glatt, Stephen J.; Grucza, Richard A.; Hardin, Jill; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Herms, Stefan; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Hoffmann, Per; Hops, Hyman; Huizinga, David; Ising, Marcus; Johnson, Eric O.; Johnstone, Elaine; Kaneva, Radka P.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kiefer, Falk; Kranzler, Henry R.; Krauter, Ken S.; Levran, Orna; Lucae, Susanne; Lynskey, Michael T.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mann, Karl; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Montgomery, Grant W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murphy, Michael F.; Neale, Michael C.; Nikolov, Momchil A.; Nishita, Denise; Nöthen, Markus M; Nurnberger, John; Partonen, Timo; Pergadia, Michele L.; Reynolds, Maureen; Ridinger, Monika; Rose, Richard J.; Rouvinen-Lagerström, Noora; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schmäl, Christine; Soyka, Michael; Stallings, Michael C.; Steffens, Michael; Treutlein, Jens; Tsuang, Ming; Wall, Tamara L.; Wodarz, Norbert; Yuferov, Vadim; Zill, Peter; Bergen, Andrew W.; Chen, Jingchun; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Edenberg, Howard J; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Gelernter, Joel; Goldman, David; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Iacono, William G.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Kremensky, Ivo M.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; McGue, Matt; Munafò, Marcus R.; Philibert, Robert A.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roy, Alec; Rujescu, Dan; Saarikoski, Sirkku T.; Swan, Gary E.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Weiss, Robert B.; Bierut, Laura J.; Saccone, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    The mu1 opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, has long been a high-priority candidate for human genetic studies of addiction. Because of its potential functional significance, the non-synonymous variant rs1799971 (A118G, Asn40Asp) in OPRM1 has been extensively studied, yet its role in addiction has remained unclear, with conflicting association findings. To resolve the question of what effect, if any, rs1799971 has on substance dependence risk, we conducted collaborative meta-analyses of 25 datasets with over 28,000 European-ancestry subjects. We investigated non-specific risk for “general” substance dependence, comparing cases dependent on any substance to controls who were non-dependent on all assessed substances. We also examined five specific substance dependence diagnoses: DSM-IV alcohol, opioid, cannabis, and cocaine dependence, and nicotine dependence defined by the proxy of heavy/light smoking (cigarettes-per-day > 20 versus ≤ 10). The G allele showed a modest protective effect on general substance dependence (OR = 0.90, 95% C.I. [0.83–0.97], p-value = 0.0095, N = 16,908). We observed similar effects for each individual substance, although these were not statistically significant, likely because of reduced sample sizes. We conclude that rs1799971 contributes to mechanisms of addiction liability that are shared across different addictive substances. This project highlights the benefits of examining addictive behaviors collectively and the power of collaborative data sharing and meta-analyses. PMID:26392368

  2. Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Cancer.gov

    Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium collaborates with three genomic facilities, epidemiologists, population geneticists, and biostatisticians from multiple institutions to study hormone-related gene variants and environmental factors in breast and prostate cancers.

  3. A brief history of the Japan Society for Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Y; Okigaki, T

    2001-02-01

    The Japan Society for Cell Biology (JSCB) was first founded in 1950 as the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry under the vigorous leadership of Seizo Katsunuma, in collaboration with Shigeyasu Amano and Satimaru Seno. The Society was provisionally named as above simply because cell biology had not yet been coined at that time in Japan, although in prospect and reality the Society was in fact for the purpose of pursuing cell biology. Later in 1964, the Society was properly renamed as the Japan Society for Cell Biology. After this renaming, the JSCB made great efforts to adapt itself to the rapid progress being made in cell biology. For this purpose the Society's constitution was created in 1966 and revised in 1969. According to the revised constitution, the President, Executive Committee and Councils were to be determined by ballot vote. The style of the annual meetings was gradually modified to incorporate general oral and poster presentations in addition to Symposia (1969-1974). The publication of annual periodicals in Japanese called Symposia of the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry (1951-1967) and later Symposia of the Japan Society for Cell Biology (1968-1974) was replaced by a new international journal called Cell Structure and Function initiated in 1975. This reformation made it possible for the Society to participate in the Science Council of Japan in 1975 and finally in 1993 to acquire its own study section of Cell Biology with grants-in-aid from the Ministry of Education and Science, Japan. The JSCB hosted the 3rd International Congress on Cell Biology (ICCB) in 1984 and the 3rd Asian-Pacific Organization for Cell Biology (APOCB) Congress in 1998, thus contributing to the international advancement of cell biology. Now the membership of JSCB stands at approximately 1,800 and the number of presentations per meeting is 300 to 400 annually. Although a good number of interesting and important findings in cell biology have been reported from Japan, the

  4. Mortality According to CD4 Count at Start of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-infected Patients Followed for up to 15 Years After Start of Treatment: Collaborative Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T.; Vehreschild, Jorg-Janne; Trickey, Adam; Obel, Niels; Reiss, Peter; Bonnet, Fabrice; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Samji, Hasina; Cavassini, Matthias; Gill, Michael John; Shepherd, Leah C.; Crane, Heidi M.; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Burkholder, Greer A.; Johnson, Margaret M.; Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Domingo, Pere; Zangerle, Robert; Justice, Amy C.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Miró, José M.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. CD4 count at start of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is strongly associated with short-term survival, but its association with longer-term survival is less well characterized. Methods. We estimated mortality rates (MRs) by time since start of ART (<0.5, 0.5–0.9, 1–2.9, 3–4.9, 5–9.9, and ≥10 years) among patients from 18 European and North American cohorts who started ART during 1996–2001. Piecewise exponential models stratified by cohort were used to estimate crude and adjusted (for sex, age, transmission risk, period of starting ART [1996–1997, 1998–1999, 2000–2001], and AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA at baseline) mortality rate ratios (MRRs) by CD4 count at start of ART (0–49, 50–99, 100–199, 200–349, 350–499, ≥500 cells/µL) overall and separately according to time since start of ART. Results. A total of 6344 of 37 496 patients died during 359 219 years of follow-up. The MR per 1000 person-years was 32.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.2–35.5) during the first 6 months, declining to 16.0 (95% CI, 15.4–16.8) during 5–9.9 years and 14.2 (95% CI, 13.3–15.1) after 10 years’ duration of ART. During the first year of ART, there was a strong inverse association of CD4 count at start of ART with mortality. This diminished over the next 4 years. The adjusted MRR per CD4 group was 0.97 (95% CI, .94–1.00; P = .054) and 1.02 (95% CI, .98–1.07; P = .32) among patients followed for 5–9.9 and ≥10 years, respectively. Conclusions. After surviving 5 years of ART, the mortality of patients who started ART with low baseline CD4 count converged with mortality of patients with intermediate and high baseline CD4 counts. PMID:27025828

  5. Risk Factor Effects and Total Mortality in Older Japanese Men in Japan and Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Robert D.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Hozawa, Atsushi; Okamura, Tomonori; Kadowaki, Takashi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okuda, Nagako; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Okayama, Akira; Kita, Yoshikuni; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Yano, Katsuhiko; Curb, J. David

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To identify factors related to total mortality in older Japanese men in Japan and Hawaii. Methods Baseline data were collected from 1980 to 1982 in 1,379 men in Hawaii and 954 men in Japan. Ages ranged from 61 to 81 years with mortality follow-up over a 19 year period. Results Compared to Japan, men in Hawaii had a 2-fold excess of diabetes and a 4-fold excess of prevalent coronary heart disease (p<0.001). Total cholesterol and body mass index were also higher in Hawaii (p<0.001). In contrast, men in Japan had higher systolic blood pressure and were nearly 3-times more likely to smoke cigarettes (p<0.001). Although each cohort had elements of a poor risk factor profile, there was a 1.4-fold excess in the risk of death in Japan (49.4 vs. 36.2/1,000 person-years, p<0.001). While mortality was similar after risk factor adjustment, only blood pressure and cigarette smoking accounted for the higher risk of death in Japan. Conclusions Cigarette smoking and hypertension explain much of the excess mortality in Japan versus Hawaii. In this comparison of genetically similar cohorts, evidence further suggests that Japanese in Japan are equally susceptible to develop the same adverse risk factor conditions that exist in Hawaii. PMID:19041590

  6. Collaborative Systems Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocatilu, Paul; Ciurea, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative systems are widely used today in various activity fields. Their complexity is high and the development involves numerous resources and costs. Testing collaborative systems has a very important role for the systems' success. In this paper we present taxonomy of collaborative systems. The collaborative systems are classified in many…

  7. Network Collaboration with UNIX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Wm. Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Discusses networking as a collaboration tool in the teaching of technical writing. Argues that some degree of collaboration is innate to all writing, that word processing already facilitates that collaboration, and that networking is the next enhancement to the collaborative process. (RS)

  8. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-20

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  9. Mt. Fuji, Honshu, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-10-14

    STS002-09-390 (12-14 Nov. 1981) --- Honshu Island, Japan, and its snow-covered Fuji-San or Fuji-Yama volcano are the features of this 70mm frame. The volcano peak is 12,400 feet tall. The western suburbs of Tokyo are at right edge of the photograph. Isu Peninsula is at the bottom, separating the Suruga and Sagami Bay. Other large cities include Yokohama, Kozu, Shizuoka, Namazu and Odawara. Photo credit: NASA

  10. In Defense of Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-01-03

    national elections. The party majority gives Abe the potential to formally amend Article 9 of the Japanese constitution to authorize the Japanese Self ...Pacific. Japanese Constitution; Article 9; The United States and Japan Bi-lateral defense treaty; Collective Self Defense; Pacifism; Japanese Self ...involvement in collective self -defense (CSD). Factors leading up to this decision are a rapidly evolving strategic and political environment in

  11. Northeast Coast, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-02

    The northeast coast of Hokkaido and Kunashir Island, Japan (44.0N, 143.0E) are seen bordered by drifting sea ice. The sea ice has formed a complex pattern of eddies in response to surface water currents and winds. Photos of this kind aid researchers in describing local ocean current patterns and the effects of wind speed and direction on the drift of surface material, such as ice floes or oil. Kunashir is the southernmost of the Kuril Islands.

  12. Psychology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. [Abortion in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Hayase, T

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, the artificial abortion is a penal offence; only in the presence of certain conditions it is authorized under the provision of the Eugenic Protection Law which was promulgated in 1948. According to the law, the artificial abortion is restricted to the period, in which the fetus is not viable outside of the uterus. This period is prescribed by notification from the Ministry of Public Welfare; up to now it has been shortened twice (1976, 1991). Due to the introduction of economic reasons in the list of conditions and the simplification of the procedure the artificial abortion in Japan was virtually liberalized. Prosecution for illegal abortion is very rare in recent years. The number of reported artificial abortions decreases; in the about last 30 years it reduced by half. However, the increase in the number of abortions in women younger than 20 years of age is a problem. The abortion in teenagers is late compared with that in other age groups. Although the number of neonaticides does not seem to increase, the increase in the number of abortions in teenagers remains a serious problem in Japan.

  14. Development of an interprofessional competency framework in Japan.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Junji; Sakai, Ikuko; Otsuka, Mariko; Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Yoshida, Kazue; Goto, Michiko; Shimoi, Toshinori

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a project that aimed to identify a set of competencies (domains and statements) to prepare Japanese students and healthcare practitioners for collaborative practice. The Japan Association for Interprofessional Education (JAIPE) has started a government-funded project to formulate its interprofessional competency framework, in cooperation with professional organisations (e.g. Japan Society for Medical Education) in healthcare and social sciences. This three-year project is underway as part of the Initiative to Build up the Core Healthcare Personnel programme of Mie University. This project consists of five stages: literature review, data collection, prototype development, consensus formation, and finalisation. Our efforts will culminate in Japan's first interprofessional competency framework, with consensus from relevant academic societies and other stakeholders. We hope that the involvement of stakeholder participation will improve the usability of the final interprofessional competency framework.

  15. Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood: an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Honda, Chika; Hjelmborg, Jacob vB; Möller, Sören; Ooki, Syuichi; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rebato, Esther; Busjahn, Andreas; Kandler, Christian; Saudino, Kimberly J; Jang, Kerry L; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Gao, Wenjing; Yu, Canqing; Li, Liming; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth Jf; Heikkilä, Kauko; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos Cem; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Chong, Youngsook; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Pedersen, Nancy L; Tynelius, Per; Lichtenstein, Paul; Haworth, Claire Ma; Plomin, Robert; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Willemsen, Gonneke; Rasmussen, Finn; Goldberg, Jack H; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2016-08-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking. We analyzed the genetic and environmental contributions to BMI variation from infancy to early adulthood and the ways they differ by sex and geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low levels (East Asia) of obesogenic environments. Data were available for 87,782 complete twin pairs from 0.5 to 19.5 y of age from 45 cohorts. Analyses were based on 383,092 BMI measurements. Variation in BMI was decomposed into genetic and environmental components through genetic structural equation modeling. The variance of BMI increased from 5 y of age along with increasing mean BMI. The proportion of BMI variation explained by additive genetic factors was lowest at 4 y of age in boys (a(2) = 0.42) and girls (a(2) = 0.41) and then generally increased to 0.75 in both sexes at 19 y of age. This was because of a stronger influence of environmental factors shared by co-twins in midchildhood. After 15 y of age, the effect of shared environment was not observed. The sex-specific expression of genetic factors was seen in infancy but was most prominent at 13 y of age and older. The variance of BMI was highest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation to total variation remained roughly similar across different regions. Environmental factors shared by co-twins affect BMI in childhood, but little evidence for their contribution was found in late adolescence. Our results suggest that genetic factors play a major role in the variation of BMI in adolescence among populations of different ethnicities exposed to different environmental factors related to obesity. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Think Tank on Metabolomics and Prospective Cohorts: How to Leverage Resources

    Cancer.gov

    This Think Tank identified resources that can be used collaboratively across prospective cohorts; developed strategies to leverage resources for advancing the use of metabolomics in prospective cohort studies; identified the best strategies for performing analyses using metabolomics data across multiple studies; and, established a collaborative group that will identify and tackle research projects that cannot be effectively investigated by one independent group.

  17. Psychological attitudes and risk of breast cancer in Japan: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Kenji; Kojima, Masayo; Nishio, Kazuko; Suzuki, Sadao; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Lin, Yingsong; Kondo, Takaaki; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yamamoto, Akio; Tokudome, Shinkan; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2007-04-01

    To examine the association between psychological factors and the risk of breast cancer prospectively in a non-Western population. Data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study were analyzed. From 1988 to 1990, 34,497 women aged 40-79 years completed a questionnaire on medical, lifestyle and psychosocial factors. The rate ratios (RRs) of their responses were computed by fitting to proportional hazards models. During the mean follow-up period of 7.5 years, 149 breast cancer cases were documented. Those individuals who possessed "ikigai" (Japanese term meaning something that made one's life worth living) showed a significantly lower risk of breast cancer (multivariate-adjusted RR=0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.47-0.94). Those who perceived themselves as able to make decisions quickly also had a lower risk of breast cancer (multivariate-adjusted RR=0.56; 95% CI=0.36-0.87). The other factors investigated, including ease of anger arousal and self-perceived stress of daily life were not associated with breast cancer risk. Although further studies will be necessary to verify these findings, our results suggest that having "ikigai" and being decisive decrease an individual's subsequent risk of breast cancer.

  18. Psychological Factors and Mortality Risk in a Rural Area of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tokushima, Yasuko; Hosoda, Takenobu; Okamoto, Mikizo; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to assess the association between psychological factors and mortality risk from all causes. Methods We used follow-up data for 4,181 persons from 40 to 79 years over a period of 17.6 years from one part of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study). The status of the individuals comprising the data of the study as of the end of December 2006 was determined from their registration cards and death records. We calculated the proportions of selected variables among 5 psychological factors by sex. Cox’s proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the associations between psychological factors and mortality risk from all causes. Data were adjusted for age, medical history, education, job status, marital status, drinking, smoking, physical activity, sleeping duration, body mass index and breakfast. Results During the follow-up period, a total of 791 deaths were recorded. Men who reported feelings of being trusted had a decreased risk for mortality risk from all causes compared with the risk of those who reported “maybe”, whereas those without feelings of being trusted had increased risk for mortality risk from all causes. Conclusion This study suggests that the absence of feelings of being trusted increases the risk of all causes of mortality among middle-aged and elderly men in a rural area. Our findings suggest that interpersonal relationships comprise an important factor in longevity. PMID:25324588

  19. Educational Television in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vera, Jose Maria

    With an eye toward further collaboration between U.S. and Japanese broadcasters, the overall approach and effect of Japanese educational television (ETV) is examined. While in the United States ETV has no advertisement and is non-profit, the Japanese only require that any advertisement be not obstructive to social education. Their broadcasting has…

  20. [Application of cohort study in cancer prevention and control].

    PubMed

    Dai, Min; Bai, Yana; Pu, Hongquan; Cheng, Ning; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Cancer control is a long-term work. Cancer research and intervention really need the support of cohort study. In the recent years, more and more cohort studies on cancer control were conducted in China along with the increased ability of scientific research in China. Since 2010, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, collaborated with Lanzhou University and the Worker' s Hospital of Jinchuan Group Company Limited, have carried out a large-scale cohort study on cancer, which covered a population of more than 50 000 called " Jinchang cohort". Since 2012, a National Key Public Health Project, "cancer screening in urban China" , has been conducted in Jinchang, which strengthened the Jinchang cohort study. Based on the Jinchang cohort study, historical cohort study, cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study have been conducted, which would provide a lot of evidence for the cancer control in China.

  1. Liver transplantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Soyama, Akihiko; Eguchi, Susumu; Egawa, Hiroto

    2016-10-01

    As of December 31, 2014, 7937 liver transplants (7673 living donor transplants and 264 deceased donor liver transplantations [DDLTs; 261 from heart-beating donors and 3 from non-heart-beating donors]) have been performed in 67 institutions in Japan. The revised Organ Transplant Law in Japan came into effect in July 2010, which allows organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, with family consent if the patient had not previously refused organ donation. However, the number of deceased donor organ donations has not increased as anticipated. The rate of deceased organ donations per million population (pmp) has remained at less than 1. To maximize the viability of the limited numbers of donated organs, a system has been adopted that includes the partnership of well-trained transplant consultant doctors and local doctors. For compensating for the decreased opportunity of on-site training, an educational system regarding quality organ procurement for transplant surgeons has also been established. Furthermore, experts in the field of liver transplantation are currently discussing adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score for allocation, promoting split-liver transplantation, arranging in-house coordinators, and improving the frequency of proposing the option to donate organs to the families. To overcome the shortage of donors during efforts to promote organ donation, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been developed in Japan. Continuous efforts to increase DDLT in addition to the successful experience of LDLT will increase the benefits of liver transplantation for more patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1401-1407 2016 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Tsugaru Iwaki Skyline, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-03

    The Tsugaru Iwaki Skyline is a toll road in northern Japan, which partially ascends Mount Iwaki stratovolcano, and is notable for its steep gradient and 69 hairpin turns. The road ascends 806 meters over an average gradient of 8.66%, with some sections going up to 10%. The Tsugaru Iwaki Skyline has been considered one of the most dangerous mountain roads in the world. (Wikipedia) The image was acquired May 26, 2015, and is located at 40.6 degrees north, 140.3 degrees east. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22385

  3. The imminent healthcare and emergency care crisis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tetsuji; Nishida, Masamichi; Suzuki, Yuriko; Kobayashi, Kunio

    2008-05-01

    Japan has a universal healthcare system, and this paper describes the reality of the healthcare services provided, as well as current issues with the system. Academic, government, and press reports on Japanese healthcare systems and healthcare guidelines were reviewed. The universal healthcare system of Japan is considered internationally to be both low-cost and effective because the Japanese population enjoys good health status with a long life expectancy, while healthcare spending in Japan is below the average given by the Organization for Economic Corporation and Development (OECD). However, in many regions of Japan the existing healthcare resources are seriously inadequate, especially with regard to the number of physicians and other health professionals. Because healthcare is traditionally viewed as "sacred" work in Japan, healthcare professionals are expected to make large personal sacrifices. Also, public attitudes toward medical malpractice have changed in recent decades, and medical professionals are facing legal issues without experienced support of the government or legal professionals. Administrative response to the lack of resources and collaboration among communities are beginning, and more efficient control and management of the healthcare system is under consideration. The Japanese healthcare system needs to adopt an efficient medical control organization to ease the strain on existing healthcare professionals and to increase the number of physicians and other healthcare resources. Rather than continuing to depend on healthcare professionals being able and willing to make personal sacrifices, the government, the public and medical societies must cooperate and support changes in the healthcare system.

  4. Psychological first aid training after Japan's triple disaster: changes in perceived self competency.

    PubMed

    Semlitz, Linda; Ogiwara, Kaori; Weissbecker, Inka; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Sato, Maiko; Taniguchi, Machi; Ishii, Chikako; Sawa, Chie

    2013-01-01

    International Medical Corps and TELL, a local mental health non-profit organization in Japan, collaborated to develop localized Psychological First Aid (PFA) training of welfare and volunteer organizations supporting survivors of the Japan March 11, 2011 triple disaster The trainings significantly increased participants 'perceived competency in applying PFA principles and in interacting with the disaster affected populations in a safe manner The collaboration between International Medical Corps and TELL in developing, implementing and evaluating the training has potential to inform PFA activities in other disaster affected settings.

  5. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  6. Women of courage. Japan.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    JOICFP President Shidzue Kato was influenced by and friends with Margaret Sanger from their initial meeting in 1920 to Sanger's death in 1966. Bruce Alfred is currently directing and producing a 90-minute documentary film about Sanger and her pioneering work in promoting the development and use of family planning. Once completed in the Spring of 1997, the film will be broadcast nationally in the US on Public Television. It is being produced with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities and several private foundations. Alfred interviewed Kato for three hours to gain insight into the life and legacy of Margaret Sanger. Sanger inspired Kato to make birth control her life's work. Kato spoke about how the prewar, pronatalist Japanese government allowed Sanger to visit Japan in 1922 only on the condition that she not speak about birth control. This official opposition and the subsequent reaction, however, actually fueled interest in Sanger and her message, and caused her ideas to become widely known among the Japanese public. While in Japan, Sanger did manage to discuss family planning, but in English in a closed meeting. Oddly enough, the government honored Sanger after the second World War with the highest award presented to non-Japanese. Kato noted how unfortunate it was that Sanger died in 1966 without witnessing the realization of the UNFPA.

  7. Influence of municipal- and individual-level socioeconomic conditions on mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Nishi, Nobuo; Nakaya, Tomoki; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tanabe, Naohito; Suzuki, Sadao; Subramanian, S V; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    The health effect of area socioeconomic conditions has been evident especially in Western countries; however, limited research has focused on the effect of municipal-level socioeconomic conditions, especially in Asia. Multilevel research using data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study, a large cohort study followed from 1990 to 2006, was conducted to examine individual as well as municipal socioeconomic conditions on risk of death, adjusting for each other. We included 24,460 men and 32,649 women aged 40 to 65 years at baseline in 35 municipalities as our study population. Primary predictors were municipal socioeconomic conditions (proportion of college graduates, per capita income, unemployment rate, and proportion of households receiving public assistance) and individual socioeconomic conditions (education level and occupation). Among men, the multilevel logistic estimate (standard errors) of proportion of college graduates and unemployment rate for mortality from cardiovascular disease were -0.399 (0.094) and -0.343 (0.122), respectively. Among women, the multilevel logistic estimate (standard errors) of proportion of college graduates and per capita annual income for mortality from injuries were -0.386 (0.171) and -1.069 (0.407). Individual education level and occupation were associated with all-cause mortality, in particular, mortality from cardiovascular disease or injuries. Interactions between individual education level and indicators of municipal socioeconomic conditions were observed for mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease among men and mortality from injuries among women. Municipal and individual socioeconomic conditions were independently and interactively associated with premature death; this suggests that reducing social inequalities in health demands a focus on municipal conditions in addition to those of individuals.

  8. Reminiscences, collaborations and reflections.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, T

    1994-02-01

    their subunits of plant-type enzyme molecules derived from the prokaryotic photosynthetic bacteria; (c) molecular evolution of RuBisCO genes; (d) mode of actions (formation, intracellular transport and secretion) of rice seed α-amylase and its structural characteristics (distinctive glycosylation), and (e) DNA methylation and regulatory mechanism of photosynthesis gene expression in plastids (amyloplasts). In each step of my research, I shared joy, excitement, disappointment, and agony with my colleagues, an experience that may be common to all researchers. Although it is now becoming well recognized among the scientific community in Japan, I want to point out that interaction of multinational scientific minds in the laboratory produces a vital and creative atmosphere for performance of successful research. I experienced and realized this important fact in my earlier days in the USA and the Philippines. Inasmuch as I believe that this is the most crucial element for any research laboratory to possess, I fondly remember the friendships gained with numerous overseas visitors and collaborators who have contributed immensely to our work.

  9. Collaboration Agreement | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    A Collaboration Agreement is appropriate for research collaboration involving intellectual and material contributions by the Frederick National Laband external partner(s). It is useful for proof-of-concept studies. Includes brief rese

  10. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  11. Drug Use before and during Pregnancy in Japan: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Metoki, Hirohito; Ishikuro, Mami; Mizuno, Satoshi; Sakurai, Kasumi; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Nakai, Kunihiko; Mano, Nariyasu; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-04-10

    Purpose: To elucidate drug use before and during pregnancy in Japan. Methods: The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) is an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. We analyzed data from JECS involving cases where drugs were used for 12 months before pregnancy was diagnosed, between the time of diagnosis of pregnancy until week 12 of pregnancy, and after week 12 of pregnancy. Results: We analyzed data from 97,464 pregnant women. The percentages of pregnant women who had taken one or more drugs and supplements before diagnosis of pregnancy, between the time of diagnosis of pregnancy until week 12 of pregnancy, and after week 12 of pregnancy, were 78.4%, 57.1%, and 68.8% respectively. Excluding iron supplements, folic acid, and other vitamins and minerals, the percentages of women taking supplements were 75.3%, 36.0%, and 51.7% at each respective time point. The following drugs and supplements were frequently used for 12 months before pregnancy diagnosis: Commercially available antipyretics, analgesics, and/or medicine for treating common cold (34.7%), antipyretics, analgesics, and/or medicine for treating common colds, which were prescribed in hospitals (29.8%), antimicrobial drugs (14.0%), and anti-allergy drugs (12.5%). The following drugs and supplements were frequently used from the time of pregnancy diagnosis until week 12 of pregnancy, and after week 12 of pregnancy: folic acid (28.9% and 26.2%), antipyretics, analgesics and/or medicines for treating common cold, that were prescribed in hospitals (7.8% and 13.3%), Chinese herbal medicines (6.0% and 9.4%, and uterine relaxants (5.1% and 15.2%). Conclusions: The analysis of a nationwide cohort study showed that a high percentage of Japanese pregnant women were taking medicinal drugs. Further research is required to elucidate the relationship between drug use during pregnancy and birth defects in Japan.

  12. Nursing scholarship in Japan: development, facilitators, and barriers.

    PubMed

    Turale, Sue; Ito, Misae; Murakami, Kyoko; Nakao, Fujiko

    2009-06-01

    This qualitative study sought a contemporary view of the development, facilitators of, and barriers to nursing scholarship in Japan from the perspectives of the scholars. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 scholars across Japan, which were digitally recorded, and the data were subjected to content analysis. Five themes emerged: a spirit of collectivism; a lack of nursing control; a lack of English ability; a high workload; and collaboration. The participants considered that culturally based consensus and communication behaviors, as well as the control and dominance by the medical profession, were hampering nursing scholarship. Furthermore, Japanese nurses were not in control of the profession in a period of unprecedented growth in university nursing education and a growing nursing shortage. A lack of English-speaking and English-writing abilities hindered collaboration with scholars internationally and the writing of international publications. Most of the participants felt unable to compare the extent and nature of Japanese scholarship with that of their Asian neighbors. The Japanese scholars need to grasp opportunities to learn English, collaborate with other nurses nationally and internationally, learn assertion and political skills to give them the confidence to take control of nursing education, and be more involved in research collaboration and international publications.

  13. [WHO Healthy City Initiative in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Kazuko

    2013-01-01

    City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others. Out of the 26 cities, 13 cities returned the completed questionnaire. As for factors important for promoting the initiatives, 10 (77%) out of the 13 cities answered "consciousness of residents", while five (38%) chose "budget". This result suggests that community participation is a more important factor than budget for promoting and succeeding in the initiatives. Aging is a problem in any of the member cities, and six cities out the 13 falls under the category of superaged society, which is defined as a society with the proportion of aged people < 65 years being greater than 21% of the whole population. Eleven cities (85%) agreed that bicycles are an alternative means of transportation to cars; however, infrastructure for ensuring safety needs further improvement. In the promotion of Healthy City, networking among the member cities in Japan and worldwide should be promoted. Community participation with empowerment from the planning stage should lead to sustainable initiatives. The function of AFHC in collaboration among the members should be strengthened to cope with the rapidly changing city environment.

  14. Experiences of Collaborative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The author's personal history of the research that led to his recognition in economics is described, focusing on the process of collaboration and on the experience of controversy. The author's collaboration with Amos Tversky dealt with 3 major topics: judgment under uncertainty, decision making, and framing effects. A subsequent collaboration,…

  15. Collaboration in Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoubrey, Sharon, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Educators are familiar with working together to produce curriculum packages, to team teach a unit, to host a parent event, to put on a school-wide concert, or to plan a conference. Collaboration in art education as presented in this publication is a team effort that is slightly different and beyond ordinary collaboration. Collaborative art-making…

  16. Dreaming of Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston-Parsons, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    Marilyn Johnston-Parsons writes about collaboration. She describes several university-school collaborations with which she has been involved in terms of the tensions and the dialogue that has been associated with them. While she worries about the state of collaboration in this educational age, she admits to "cautious optimism" that more…

  17. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  18. Barbarian medicine in feudal Japan.

    PubMed

    Fodstad, Harald; Hariz, Marwan I; Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Ohye, Chihiro

    2002-10-01

    THE FIRST EUROPEANS to discover Japan were Portuguese traders who arrived in 1542. Fifteen years later, the Portuguese Jesuit priest and surgeon Luis De Almeida (1525-1583) founded the first Western hospital in Japan, for the care of lepers, syphilitics, and orphans. Because the hospital had a negative influence on the spread of Christianity, the Jesuits closed it in 1586. During the Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868), when Japan was secluded from the rest of the world, the only foreign physicians allowed to enter Japan were those employed by the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki. Only four of those physicians left behind seeds for the foundation of Western medicine in Japan, namely Caspar Schambergen, who founded a Japanese school of surgery in 1650; Engelbert Kämpfer, who visited Japan in 1691 to 1692; Carl Peter Thunberg, who botanically explored Japan in 1775 to 1776; and Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold, who practiced medicine in Nagasaki in 1823 to 1829 and 1859 to 1861. On the whole, Western medicine and surgery never established a real foothold in Japan until the fall of the shogunate and the restoration of the emperor in 1868.

  19. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  20. Mathematics Curricula and Age Cohort Participation: A Six Nation Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsoulas, Anthula

    Secondary level mathematics programs of England, Finland, France, Israel, Japan and Swaziland are compared using data from the Second International Mathematics Study and United Nations sources. Within a clearly defined school structure, the number of mathematics course options, age cohort enrollments and male/female ratios are considered with an…

  1. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  2. Revealing the Intricate Effect of Collaboration on Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hiroyasu; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2015-01-01

    We studied the Japan and U.S. patent records of several decades to demonstrate the effect of collaboration on innovation. We found that statistically inventor teams slightly outperform solo inventors while company teams perform equally well as solo companies. By tracking the performance record of individual teams, we found that inventor teams’ performance generally degrades with more repeat collaborations. Though company teams’ performance displays strongly bursty behavior, long-term collaboration does not significantly help innovation. To systematically study the effect of repeat collaboration, we defined the repeat collaboration number of a team as the average number of collaborations over all the teammate pairs. We found that mild repeat collaboration improves the performance of Japanese inventor teams and U.S. company teams. Yet, excessive repeat collaboration does not significantly help innovation at both the inventor and company levels in both countries. To control for unobserved heterogeneity, we performed a detailed regression analysis and the results were consistent with our simple observations. The presented results revealed the intricate effect of collaboration on innovation, which may also be observed in other creative projects. PMID:25799138

  3. Revealing the intricate effect of collaboration on innovation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroyasu; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2015-01-01

    We studied the Japan and U.S. patent records of several decades to demonstrate the effect of collaboration on innovation. We found that statistically inventor teams slightly outperform solo inventors while company teams perform equally well as solo companies. By tracking the performance record of individual teams, we found that inventor teams' performance generally degrades with more repeat collaborations. Though company teams' performance displays strongly bursty behavior, long-term collaboration does not significantly help innovation. To systematically study the effect of repeat collaboration, we defined the repeat collaboration number of a team as the average number of collaborations over all the teammate pairs. We found that mild repeat collaboration improves the performance of Japanese inventor teams and U.S. company teams. Yet, excessive repeat collaboration does not significantly help innovation at both the inventor and company levels in both countries. To control for unobserved heterogeneity, we performed a detailed regression analysis and the results were consistent with our simple observations. The presented results revealed the intricate effect of collaboration on innovation, which may also be observed in other creative projects.

  4. Disability Evaluation in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    To examine the current state and social ramifications of disability evaluation in Japan, public data from Annual Reports on Health and Welfare 1998-1999 were investigated. All data were analyzed based on the classification of disabilities and the effects of age-appropriate welfare services, which have been developed through a half-century of legislative efforts to support disability evaluation. These data suggest that disability evaluation, while essentially affected by age and impairment factors at a minimum, was impacted more by the assistive environment for disabilities. The assistive environment was found to be closely linked with the welfare support system related to a global assessment in the field of community-based rehabilitation. PMID:19503677

  5. Oil, Japan, and globalization

    SciTech Connect

    Bina, C.

    Today, the globalization of the international economy is nowhere as evident and complete as in the oil industry. Indeed, the production, distribution, and pricing of oil have already been infused into a transnational network of interconnected, transparent, and competitive markets. This sort of market arrangement, unlike its previous cartelized counterpart, rests upon a highly globalized economic framework whose very existence discourages a need for Western military intervention for the sake of oil. Returning to the bygone era, and judging the oil business accordingly, would create an impression that nothing has changed. This article describes the conflict of hegemony between themore » U.S. and Japan in the context of the global oil market.« less

  6. Will Japan Rearm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-10

    Faculty Accepte d th is _________ day of~~~U)~4 l977~c~y.11 -~~~~~~~~~~~~D i rector , Master of Militar y Art Science . The opinions and...j~ s’ri : ‘~~~~ ~ IC . _ __~~~~~~ i 1~~~~~n Unhi ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 150 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ L~ MASTER OF MILITARY ART ... SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate Joseph Bertrand Berger, Jr. Major, Air Defense Artillery T it le of Thes i s W i l l Japan Rearm

  7. Japan: seeds of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Domoto, A

    1993-01-01

    Historically, women's bodies in Japan have been viewed as tools to support larger national populations. Men remain emotionally and physically in control sexual relations. Women are deprived of adequate information to exert control over their bodies and fertility. Health and welfare policies view women's sexuality strictly in terms of marriage and motherhood; the reproductive health needs of unmarried women are ignored. There are no clinics where women can receive information about sexuality or contraception, despite the existence since 1952 of a national family planning program. Abortion remains the predominant form of birth control since oral contraceptives are not available and diaphragms and IUDs are difficult to obtain. Japanese women are beginning to organize for gender, reproductive, and sexual rights, but traditional attitudes remain a barrier. If Japanese women are to control their own bodies, they must first understand them through access to sex education. Clinics should be established where women can obtain information, counseling and services on sex, abortion, and contraception.

  8. Typhoon Chataan off Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Slowly winding its way down, Typhoon Chataan had dropped to tropical storm status by Thursday, July 11, 2002, when this image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was captured. In the image, the storm is located off the east coast of central Japan in the Pacific Ocean. The storm is much less organized than it was in the previous day's image. Through a gap in the clouds to the southwest of the storm's eye, Tokyo can be seen as a grayish cluster of pixels surrounding a small bay or inlet that protrudes into the island of Honshu. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; data provided by the MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  9. Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

  10. Winds over Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Before World War II, weather forecasters had little knowledge of upper-air wind patterns above 20000 feet. Data were seldom avai able at these heights, and the need was not great because commercial aircraft seldom flew at these altitudes. The war in the Pacific changed all that. Wind forecasts for 30000 feet plus became urgent to support the XXI Bomber Command in its bombing mission over Japan.The U.S. Army Air Force Pacific Ocean Area (AAFPOA) placed a Weather Central in the Marianas Islands in 1944 (Saipan in 1944 and Guam in 1945) to provide forecasting support for this mission. A forecasting procedure was put into operation that combined the elements known as "single-station forecasting" and an advanced procedure that used "altirmeter corrections" to analyze upper-airdata and make prognoses. Upper-air charts were drawn for constant pressure surfaces rather than constant height surfaces. The constant pressure surfaces were tied together by means of the atmospheric temperature field represented by specific temperature anomalies between pressure surfaces. Wind forecasts over the Marianas-Japan route made use of space cross sections that provided the data to forecast winds at each 5000-ft level to 35000 ft along the mission flight path. The new procedures allowed the forecaster to construct internally consistent meteorological charts in three dimensions in regions of sparse data.Army air force pilots and their crews from the Marianas were among the first to experience the extreme wind conditions now known as the "jet stream". Air force forecasters demonstrated that, with experience, such winds could reasonably be forecast under difficult operational conditions.

  11. Collaborative Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyle, Steve

    Collaborative Data Mining is a setting where the Data Mining effort is distributed to multiple collaborating agents - human or software. The objective of the collaborative Data Mining effort is to produce solutions to the tackled Data Mining problem which are considered better by some metric, with respect to those solutions that would have been achieved by individual, non-collaborating agents. The solutions require evaluation, comparison, and approaches for combination. Collaboration requires communication, and implies some form of community. The human form of collaboration is a social task. Organizing communities in an effective manner is non-trivial and often requires well defined roles and processes. Data Mining, too, benefits from a standard process. This chapter explores the standard Data Mining process CRISP-DM utilized in a collaborative setting.

  12. Collaborative research: Accomplishments & potential

    PubMed Central

    Katsouyanni, Klea

    2008-01-01

    Although a substantial part of scientific research is collaborative and increasing globalization will probably lead to its increase, very few studies actually investigate the advantages, disadvantages, experiences and lessons learned from collaboration. In environmental epidemiology interdisciplinary collaboration is essential and the contrasting geographical patterns in exposure and disease make multi-location projects essential. This paper is based on a presentation given at the Annual Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology, Paris 2006, and is attempting to initiate a discussion on a framework for studying collaborative research. A review of the relevant literature showed that indeed collaborative research is rising, in some countries with impressive rates. However, there are substantial differences between countries in their outlook, need and respect for collaboration. In many situations collaborative publications receive more citations than those based on national authorship. The European Union is the most important host of collaborative research, mainly driven by the European Commission through the Framework Programmes. A critical assessment of the tools and trends of collaborative networks under FP6, showed that there was a need for a critical revision, which led to changes in FP7. In conclusion, it is useful to study the characteristics of collaborative research and set targets for the future. The added value for science and for the researchers involved may be assessed. The motivation for collaboration could be increased in the more developed countries. Particular ways to increase the efficiency and interaction in interdisciplinary and intercultural collaboration may be developed. We can work towards "the principles of collaborative research" in Environmental Epidemiology. PMID:18208596

  13. European Birth Cohorts for Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna; Carmichael, Amanda; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Eller, Esben; Fantini, Maria P.; Fernández, Mariana F.; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Hohmann, Cynthia; Karvonen, Anne M.; Keil, Thomas; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koppen, Gudrun; Krämer, Ursula; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Magnus, Per; Majewska, Renata; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Patelarou, Evridiki; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Pierik, Frank H.; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Santos, Ana Cristina; Slama, Rémy; Sram, Radim J.; Thijs, Carel; Tischer, Christina; Toft, Gunnar; Trnovec, Tomáš; Vandentorren, Stephanie; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M.; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning. Objectives: Our goal was to create a comprehensive overview of European birth cohorts with environmental exposure data. Methods: Birth cohort studies were included if they a) collected data on at least one environmental exposure, b) started enrollment during pregnancy or at birth, c) included at least one follow-up point after birth, d) included at least 200 mother–child pairs, and e) were based in a European country. A questionnaire collected information on basic protocol details and exposure and health outcome assessments, including specific contaminants, methods and samples, timing, and number of subjects. A full inventory can be searched on www.birthcohortsenrieco.net. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 37 cohort studies of > 350,000 mother–child pairs in 19 European countries. Only three cohorts did not participate. All cohorts collected biological specimens of children or parents. Many cohorts collected information on passive smoking (n = 36), maternal occupation (n = 33), outdoor air pollution (n = 27), and allergens/biological organisms (n = 27). Fewer cohorts (n = 12–19) collected information on water contamination, ionizing or nonionizing radiation exposures, noise, metals, persistent organic pollutants, or other pollutants. All cohorts have information on birth outcomes; nearly all on asthma, allergies, childhood growth and obesity; and 26 collected information on child neurodevelopment. Conclusion: Combining forces in this field will yield more efficient and conclusive studies and ultimately improve causal inference. This impressive resource of existing birth cohort data could form the basis for longer-term and worldwide coordination of research on environment and child health. PMID

  14. Connecting Indigenous Ainu, University and Local Industry in Japan: The Urespa Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Koji; Okano, Kaori H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how collaboration amongst university, indigenous community and private sector companies can promote Ainu participation in higher education, drawing on a case study of the Urespa Project in Sapporo University, Japan. In this project, the university offers scholarships to Ainu students, requiring them to take a special course in…

  15. University-Industry Cooperation and the Transition to Innovation Ecosystems in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranga, Marina; Mroczkowski, Tomasz; Araiso, Tsunehisa

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of university-industry collaboration (UIC) policies in Japan since the mid-1990s to the present and analyses their role in shaping the country's innovation ecosystem. UIC policies are examined within a multidimensional innovation policy framework that encompasses five Science and Technology Basic Plans and a…

  16. Developing a Public Health Training and Research Partnership between Japan and Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Aya; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Van, Nguyen Thi Tu; Phuc, Trinh Huu; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Yasumura, Seiji; Khue, Nguyen Thi

    2007-01-01

    Development of academic partnerships between developing and developed countries is a sustainable approach to build research capacity in the developing world. International collaboration between the Department of Public Health of Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine in Japan and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City…

  17. Whistleblowing in Japan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Anne J; Konishi, Emiko

    2007-03-01

    This article, written from research data, focuses on the possible meaning of the data rather than on detailed statistical reporting. It defines whistleblowing as an act of the international nursing ethical ideal of advocacy, and places it in the larger context of professional responsibility. The experiences, actions, and ethical positions of 24 Japanese nurses regarding whistleblowing or reporting a colleague for wrongdoing provide the data. Of these respondents, similar in age, educational level and clinical experience, 10 had previously reported another nurse and 12 had reported a physician for a wrongful act. These data raise questions about overt actions to expose a colleague in a culture that values group loyalty and saving face. Additional research is needed for an in-depth understanding of whistleblowing, patient advocacy and professional responsibility across cultures, especially those that value group loyalty, saving face and similar concepts to the Japanese Ishin Denshin, where the value is on implicit understanding requiring indirect communication. Usually, being direct and openly discussing sensitive topics is not valued in Japan because such behavior disrupts the most fundamental value, harmony (wa).

  18. Nagano, Japan 1998

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite captured this stunning view of Japan’ four largest islands on February 20, 2004. The snow-covered southern arm of Hokkaido extends into the upper left corner. Honshu, Japan’s largest island, curves across the center of the image. Shikoku, right, and Kyushu, left, form the southern tip of the group. Japan is mostly mountainous, and, as the dusting of snow in this image shows, is cold in the north and more tropical in the south. A single red dot marks the location of an active fire. Credit: Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. Typhoon Neoguri Approaching Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-09

    NASA's Terra satellite captured this visible image on July 9 at 02:30 UTC (July 8 at 10:30 p.m. EDT) as Typhoon Neoguri was approaching Kyushu, Japan. The visible image revealed that Neoguri's eye had disappeared and the center has become somewhat elongated as the storm weakened into a tropical storm. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC noted that an upper level analysis revealed that Neoguri is now in a more harsh environment as northerly vertical wind shear increased to as much as 30 knots. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  1. GO-NGO collaboration in FP programs.

    PubMed

    1997-10-01

    JOICFP has conducted the Seminar on Family Planning Administration for Senior Officers II regularly since 1967, providing training in family planning to 1151 participants in more than 70 countries over the period. 16 representatives from governmental (GO) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from Bangladesh, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Mexico, Nepal, the Philippines, and Tanzania attended the 1997 seminar, held in Japan from August 25 through September 12. It was the first time that one representative each of a GO and an NGO from each country attended the training course. GO-NGO collaboration was emphasized throughout the seminar with the goal of fostering better GO-NGO working relationships. Participants were provided with background on the promotion of family planning and maternal and child health (FP/MCH) in Japan from postwar times up to the present and the role played by GO-NGO collaboration in the success of these activities and the preventive healthcare movement in general. The other major theme of the event was the development of strategies to achieve the self-reliance of programs such as the community-based promotion of integrated programs. Excerpts are presented from interviews with 3 participants.

  2. Separate Spheres or Increasing Equality? Changing Gender Beliefs in Postwar Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Tufis, Paula A.; Alwin, Duane F.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates change in gender beliefs in Japan during a period of economic hard times in the late 1990s. Using data from the International Social Survey Programme on the Japanese population from 1994 (n = 1,054) and 2002 (n = 872), we examined how cohort replacement and intracohort change contributed to changes in gender beliefs. We…

  3. Contraception in Japan: Current trends.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Honami; Sakamoto, Haruka; Leslie, Asuka; Takahashi, Osamu; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Kitamura, Kunio

    2016-06-01

    High proportion of Japanese uses condoms; lower proportion uses oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). We examined the longitudinal patterns for contraceptive usage in Japan and evaluated differences before and after OCP government approval. We accessed nationally representative survey data for women aged 16-49years from 1950 to 2014. Usage of condoms and OCP was 83.4% and 3.0%, respectively in 2014. OCP use before (1.21%) and after (1.97%) government approval did not differ significantly (p=.58). The prevalence of OCP usage remains low in Japan. A wide gap in use between Japan and other developed countries exists. Through a wide gap in OCP use between Japan and other countries, we revealed how choices of contraceptive methods and their benefits could be openly available for women of reproductive age, and how health care professionals disseminate appropriate knowledge about contraception for women in need. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  5. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  6. High definition systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

    1991-01-01

    The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

  7. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this. Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11166

  8. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Unzen Volcano, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-13

    This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano, on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in 1991. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 93rd orbit on April 15, 1994. The image shows an area 41.5 kilometers by 32.8 kilometers (25.7 miles by 20.3 miles) that is centered at 32.75 degrees north latitude and 130.15 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received); green represents the average of L-band and C-band (vertically transmitted and received); blue represents the C-band (vertically transmitted and received). Unzen is one of 15 "Decade" volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since 1991. Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00504

  10. Toward Collaboration Sensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Bertrand; Pea, Roy

    2014-01-01

    We describe preliminary applications of network analysis techniques to eye-tracking data collected during a collaborative learning activity. This paper makes three contributions: first, we visualize collaborative eye-tracking data as networks, where the nodes of the graph represent fixations and edges represent saccades. We found that those…

  11. Online Collaboration: Two Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Sue; McKinzie, LeAnn

    This paper describes two collaborative projects conducted with graduate students from Texas A&M University-Commerce and West Texas A&M University during the fall semesters of 1997 and 1998. The instructors, with a history of personal collaboration both in person and online, designed an activity to provide their graduate students with the…

  12. Collaboration: Assumed or Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between collaboration and gifted and talented students often is assumed to be an easy and successful learning experience. However, the transition from working alone to working with others necessitates an understanding of issues related to ability, sociability, and mobility. Collaboration has been identified as both an asset and a…

  13. Advances in Collaborative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Campos, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative evaluation is an approach that offers, among others, many advantages in terms of access to information, quality of information gathered, opportunities for creative problem-solving, and receptivity to findings. In the last decade, collaborative evaluation has grown in popularity along with similar participatory, empowerment, and…

  14. Developing Collaborative Workstations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Ralph B.; Kaiser, Anthony; Kaunelis, David

    2007-01-01

    Anyone who spends time on a university campus will notice the number of students working collaboratively on projects. These students often encounter problems finding a place with both space and equipment to support their work. Collaboration usually is also a bit noisier than other coursework. Although the library is often a main meeting place…

  15. Solo Librarians Working Collaboratively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickel, Robbie

    2011-01-01

    The Elko County School District in Nevada has elementary school librarians that are "solo" librarians. Over the last several years they have worked to collaborate on meeting monthly--even though the district covers 17,100 square miles--and on providing professional development face to face and online. Sharing and collaboration help them…

  16. Electronic Collaboration Logbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysin, Suzanne; Mandrichenko, Igor; Podstavkov, Vladimir; Vittone, Margherita

    2012-12-01

    In HEP, scientific research is performed by large collaborations of organizations and individuals. The logbook of a scientific collaboration is an important part of the collaboration record. Often it contains experimental data. At Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), we developed an Electronic Collaboration Logbook (ECL) application, which is used by about 20 different collaborations, experiments and groups at FNAL. The ECL is the latest iteration of the project formerly known as the Control Room Logbook (CRL). We have been working on mobile (IOS and Android) clients for the ECL. We will present the history, current status and future plans of the project, as well as design, implementation and support solutions made by the project.

  17. [Research activities in Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Centers].

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Hotta, Hak

    2013-01-01

    Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Center was established in Institute of Tropical Disease (ITD), Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2007 under the program of ''Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases'' supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and then it has been under the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID) since 2010. Japanese researchers have been stationed at ITD, conducting joint researches on influenza, viral hepatitis, dengue and infectious diarrhea. Also, another Japanese researcher has been stationed at Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, carrying out joint researches on'' Identification of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) substances and development of HCV and dengue vaccines'' in collaboration with University of Indonesia and Airlangga University through the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) since 2009. In this article, we briefly introduce the background history of Kobe University Research Center in Indonesia, and discuss the research themes and outcomes of J-GRID and SATREPS activities.

  18. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Onodera, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume, originate.

  19. Student Perceptions of a Successful Online Collaborative Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Michael L.; Su, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This paper shares the perceptions of a group of 11 successful online students regarding the value of the collaborative learning community that developed as part of their participation in the first cohort of the WebIT online Master of Science Degree in Instructional Technology program, at The University of Tennessee at Knoxville during 2008-2010.…

  20. NCI Cohort Consortium Membership

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.

  1. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Michael; Bryson, Joe

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reactingmore » to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.« less

  2. Assessing Online Collaborative Discourse.

    PubMed

    Breen, Henny

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study using transcript analysis was undertaken to clarify the value of Harasim's Online Collaborative Learning Theory as a way to assess the collaborative process within nursing education. The theory incorporated three phases: (a) idea generating; (b) idea organizing; and (c) intellectual convergence. The transcripts of asynchronous discussions from a 2-week module about disaster nursing using a virtual community were analyzed and formed the data for this study. This study supports the use of Online Collaborative Learning Theory as a framework for assessing online collaborative discourse. Individual or group outcomes were required for the students to move through all three phases of the theory. The phases of the Online Collaborative Learning Theory could be used to evaluate the student's ability to collaborate. It is recommended that group process skills, which have more to do with interpersonal skills, be evaluated separately from collaborative learning, which has more to do with cognitive skills. Both are required for practicing nurses. When evaluated separately, the student learning needs are more clearly delineated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Project oriented klystron developments in Japan, China and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Shigeki

    2017-12-01

    Modern accelerators are based on the rf technology and the klystron is the one of key components. Some special accelerator projects require their specified klystrons i.e., project-oriented klystrons. In this paper, project-oriented klystron developments for a decade in Japan are described. Related projects are ILC, cERL and SKEKB. Usually klystron is very expensive but has a finite life and needs to procure again. Trial to introduce the compatible tubes and have a competitive tender to reduce the cost is described. At the same time, since an efficiency improvement is one of the recent trend, such an attempt is also presented. International klystron collaboration among the Asian countries has been performed for a long time. In this paper, collaboration with China and India is introduced. Since topics are covered mainly author's experience, related counties described are limited.

  4. Cohort Default Rate Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Default Management Div.

    This guide is designed to assist schools with their Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFEL) and the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program cohort default rate. The guide is a reference tool in understanding cohort default rates and processes. This guide incorporates two former guides, the "Draft Cohort Default Rate…

  5. Comprehensive multiplatform collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kundan; Wu, Xiaotao; Lennox, Jonathan; Schulzrinne, Henning G.

    2003-12-01

    We describe the architecture and implementation of our comprehensive multi-platform collaboration framework known as Columbia InterNet Extensible Multimedia Architecture (CINEMA). It provides a distributed architecture for collaboration using synchronous communications like multimedia conferencing, instant messaging, shared web-browsing, and asynchronous communications like discussion forums, shared files, voice and video mails. It allows seamless integration with various communication means like telephones, IP phones, web and electronic mail. In addition, it provides value-added services such as call handling based on location information and presence status. The paper discusses the media services needed for collaborative environment, the components provided by CINEMA and the interaction among those components.

  6. Integrated Database And Knowledge Base For Genomic Prospective Cohort Study In Tohoku Medical Megabank Toward Personalized Prevention And Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ogishima, Soichi; Takai, Takako; Shimokawa, Kazuro; Nagaie, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Tohoku Medical Megabank project is a national project to revitalization of the disaster area in the Tohoku region by the Great East Japan Earthquake, and have conducted large-scale prospective genome-cohort study. Along with prospective genome-cohort study, we have developed integrated database and knowledge base which will be key database for realizing personalized prevention and medicine.

  7. Unzen Volcano, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano, on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in 1991. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 93rd orbit on April 15, 1994. The image shows an area 41.5 kilometers by 32.8 kilometers (25.7 miles by 20.3 miles) that is centered at 32.75 degrees north latitude and 130.15 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received); green represents the average of L-band and C-band (vertically transmitted and received); blue represents the C-band (vertically transmitted and received). Unzen is one of 15 'Decade' volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since 1991. Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The

  8. Pregnancy and birth cohort resources in europe: a large opportunity for aetiological child health research.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Adamson, Ashley; Barros, Henrique; Bonde, Jens Peter; Brescianini, Sonia; Brophy, Sinead; Casas, Maribel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Devereux, Graham; Eggesbø, Merete; Fantini, Maria Pia; Frey, Urs; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Heude, Barbara; Hryhorczuk, Daniel O; Inskip, Hazel; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Kelleher, Cecily; Kiess, Wieland; Koletzko, Berthold; Kuehni, Claudia Elisabeth; Kull, Inger; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Magnus, Per; Momas, Isabelle; Murray, Dierdre; Pekkanen, Juha; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Poulsen, Gry; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Roeleveld, Nel; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Sram, Radim J; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Thijs, Carel; Van Eijsden, Manon; Wright, John; Vrijheid, Martine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2013-07-01

    During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross-cohort collaboration, it is necessary to have accessible information on each cohort and its individual characteristics. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of European pregnancy and birth cohorts registered in a freely accessible database located at http://www.birthcohorts.net. European pregnancy and birth cohorts initiated in 1980 or later with at least 300 mother-child pairs enrolled during pregnancy or at birth, and with postnatal data, were eligible for inclusion. Eligible cohorts were invited to provide information on the data and biological samples collected, as well as the timing of data collection. In total, 70 cohorts were identified. Of these, 56 fulfilled the inclusion criteria encompassing a total of more than 500,000 live-born European children. The cohorts represented 19 countries with the majority of cohorts located in Northern and Western Europe. Some cohorts were general with multiple aims, whilst others focused on specific health or exposure-related research questions. This work demonstrates a great potential for cross-cohort collaboration addressing important aspects of child health. The web site, http://www.birthcohorts.net, proved to be a useful tool for accessing information on European pregnancy and birth cohorts and their characteristics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The educational system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  10. Collaboration in young children.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Michael; Hamann, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Humans accomplish much of what they do in collaboration with others. In ontogeny, children's earliest abilities to collaborate develop in two basic steps. First, 1- and 2-year-olds learn to form with others joint goals and joint attention--which include an understanding of the individual roles and perspectives involved. Second, as they approach their third birthdays, children's collaborative interactions with others take on a more normative dimension involving obligations to the partner. In addition, their cognitive abilities to conceptualize simultaneously both their own role and perspective along with those of the other develop considerably as well. This form of collaborative interaction is underlain by species-unique skills and motivations for shared intentionality that make possible, ultimately, such things as complex cultural institutions.

  11. Collaborative Procurement Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GPP's Clean Energy Collaborative Procurement Initiative provides a platform for deploying clean energy technologies across multiple government and educational organizations for maximum impact on installed solar system capacity and local economic activity.

  12. Collaborative engagement experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullens, Katherine; Troyer, Bradley; Wade, Robert; Skibba, Brian; Dunn, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts within the Joint Robotics Program (JRP) to provide a picture of the future of unmanned warfare. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRL/MLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center - San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle experiments for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This paper describes the work by these organizations to date and outlines some of the plans for future work.

  13. EPA Collaboration with Israel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States and Israel focus on scientific and technical collaboration to protect the environment, by exchanging scientific and technical information, arranging visits of scientific personnel, cooperating in scientific symposia and workshops, etc.

  14. EPA Collaboration with Mexico

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA works with our Mexican neighbors on the U.S.-Mexico Environmental Program, a collaboration between the United States and Mexico to improve the environment and protect the health of the nearly 12 million people living along the border.

  15. Collaborative Learning through Teletutorials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idrus, Rozhan

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of audiographic teleconferencing for distance education courses for adult higher education at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Telecommunications is discussed, and a collaborative learning strategy is explained that emphasizes the student-teacher relationship. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)

  16. [Professionalization of public health officers in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yoko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I describe how public health officers in Japan in the period of the late Taisho and early Showa eras claimed their position as professionals in the sanitary administrations of central and local governments. In the background of this push for recognition, there were related international and national movements. Internationally, public health ministries were established in developed countries and the League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO) was created. LNHO wanted to improve the level of public health officials world-wide, so the organization sponsored international exchanges of officials. These activities made a strong impression on Japanese public health officials, who realized that they belonged to an internationally recognized profession and that they needed to work hard to improve the substandard Japanese public health situation. Meanwhile, at the level of domestic politics, there were several movements of technical experts in different fields of government administration that worked to fight the unfair treatment of administrative officials, a situation that had existed since Meiji Period. The public health officers collaborated with the other technical experts to improve their positions and to play key roles in society. But while the other technical experts actively pursued social leadership, public health officials wanted to remain scientists. This is because the sanitary departments in the local governments were organized within police departments. In this environment, the law was dominant and science was secondary. But public health officials insisted that the basis of public health should be science, so they emphasized their scientific expertise.

  17. Projected future distribution of dentists in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Miho; Ono, Sachiko; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Koike, Soichi

    2016-06-01

    Appropriate health policies for the supply of dentists have been an ongoing issue in many developed countries. The purpose of this study was to estimate the future distribution of dentists with different working statuses in Japan and to discuss policy implications about the supply of dentists in any country. This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Survey of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists for 1972-2012. Based on data from the 2010 and 2012 surveys, we calculated by means of a Markov model the future number of dentists with different working statuses until 2042 according to sex. We estimated that the total number of active dentists will decrease from 2012 to 2042. The number of active dentists per 1,000 population was predicted to reach a peak in 2018, decrease by 4.2% from 2012 to 2038, and thereafter slightly increase. With regard to working status, the number of dentists with their own practices per 1,000 people was predicted to have reached a peak in 2014 and decrease by 22.0% until 2042. We estimated that the number of dentists used in dental clinics per 1,000 population will increase continuously between 2012 and 2042 by 20.0%. Our study suggests that maintaining this supply of dentists may lead to maldistribution of their working status in the future. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  18. Another typhoid patient from Japan.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Rachana; Banskota, Nalin; Pokharel, Jhapindra; Subedi, Bishnu H; Basnyat, Buddha

    2010-01-01

    Typhoid treatment was empirically started in a Japanese patient with undifferentiated fever in Nepal since Japanese tourists, unlike most Americans and Europeans to South Asia, are unable to obtain typhoid vaccination in Japan even for travel to this area of high endemicity. Subsequently, his blood culture grew out Salmonella typhi.

  19. Japan Studies Association Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichel, Philip L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles grouped under the topic of…

  20. Resources for Teaching about Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This book lists resources for materials and ideas for teaching about Japan. The resource listings are not intended to be encyclopedic and are not intended to be a comprehensive listing of every useful curriculum item. The attempt has been made to highlight especially those organizations that work with kindergarten through grade 12 teachers,…

  1. Modernization of Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The document traces the development of education in Japan from the 17th century to the present. It is presented in four chapters. Chapter one discusses the Tokugawa Period (1603-1867). Principal forms of schooling were hanko for the Samurai class and terakoya for the commoners. The hanko were established for the benefit of the fiefs; objectives of…

  2. The Japan of Today, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo (Japan).

    Following an introduction which discusses the history and geography of Japan, this book focuses on topics related to this country's government, economy, social conditions, and cultural life. Topics related to government include: constitution and emperor; legislature; executive power; judiciary system; foreign relations; and defense. Topics related…

  3. How Japan Supports Novice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    When U.S. educators first hear that Japanese teacher preparation programs require only four weeks of formal student teaching at the end of the credential program, they're appalled: How can this be? More surprising still, few new teachers in Japan (1.35 percent) leave the profession during their first year. So where are these beginning teachers…

  4. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    PubMed

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  5. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficultmore » terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.« less

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-06

    Sought ( Nobuaki Teraoka; PUROMETEUSU, Nov 87) 62 IPCR Molecular Laser Uranium Enrichment Method Discussed (GENSHIRYOKU IINKAI GEPPO, Nov 87... Kobayashi ) Investigation of Tokyo University character of winter (Professor Tatsuo thunder on Japan Kawamura, Sea side by new Assistant...PUROMETEUSU in Japanese Nov 87 pp 78-81 [Article by Nobuaki Teraoka, Technology Development Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency

  7. Teaching and Learning in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P., Ed.; LeTendre, Gerald K., Ed.

    The essays gathered in this volume are united by the common goal of understanding teaching and learning in Japan as it actually occurs. The essays seek to answer questions about the actual conduct of learning in different settings and at different points in the life cycle. This volume explores the expectations and associations found in specific…

  8. [Review of the health technology assessment on surgeries in Japan].

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Tatsuto; Kawakami, Koji; Goto, Rei; Hida, Koya; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is the systematic evaluation to measure the value of new health technologies. It improves the quality of choices on hand for cost-effective health technologies that are considered valuable. Japan has built a society of longevity consisted of the institution of the universal health care system, which is financially unsustainable. In Japan, no independent HTA organization has been publicly established but the government is contemplating implementation of such system. To advance the usage of HTA into surgery, we need to establish methods for evaluating new surgical technologies with steep learning curves. The promotion of clinical researches is also essential, especially by taking advantage of observational studies from medical big data such as the Japanese nationwide database which has more than four million surgical cases registered. In addition, we need more clinical information regarding each surgical patient's quality of life and socioeconomic status. The countries already introduced HTA into their health care system have measures to solve the problems that arose and have developed necessary evaluating methods. To introduce and promote HTA in Japan without taking away the benefit of our current healthcare, it is required that surgeons collaborate with other specialists such as methodologists and health economists.

  9. Breaking ground in Tanzania. GO-NGO collaboration.

    PubMed

    1998-05-01

    JOICFP's reproductive health(RH)-oriented Integrated Project (IP) is being implemented by JOICFP's counterpart, the Family Planning Association of Tanzania (UMATI). The Japanese government usually provides support to help governmental programs. However, through this collaborative effort, the government of Japan is providing commodity and equipment assistance to support the RH/family planning and safe motherhood activities promoted by UMATI in collaboration with the Tanzanian government, with support provided through multilateral-bilateral assistance in collaboration with UNFPA. The Japanese government has agreed to provide US$170,000 annually in commodity and equipment assistance to the project over the period 1997-2000. The funds will be used to support family planning/maternal and child health clinics and dispensaries in project areas run by the government, as well as to support UMATI activities.

  10. Collaborative Student Leadership Conference.

    PubMed

    Ward, Susan L; LaFramboise, Louise M; Cosimano, Amy J

    2016-01-01

    In April 2008, the New Careers in Nursing (NCIN) Program launched a collaborative initiative between the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. One of the main goals of this initiative was to provide leadership development through structured activities for NCIN scholars. In order to meet this goal, 3 participating NCIN schools came together to plan and conduct a collaborative student-focused, scholar-led leadership conference for accelerated nursing students. Admittedly, collaboration among institutions of higher education is sometimes not a standard practice. Although sharing the common goal of preparing future nurses to provide high-quality care, many schools of nursing often compete for scarce resources including recruitment of faculty and students, securing clinical placements, and new graduates and alumni compete for jobs. However, there are advantages to sharing financial and intellectual resources in order to ensure a richer educational experience for NCIN scholars and for all accelerated nursing students. Using the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation monies awarded for our Legacy Project, 3 NCIN program liaisons overseeing accelerated nursing programs in Nebraska met to discuss the advantages and disadvantages related to planning and conducting a collaborative student leadership activity for NCIN scholars and their peer-accelerated nursing students. The program liaisons wanted to establish common goals for the endeavor and ensure the use of approaches that would foster leadership development of the NCIN scholars and establish mechanisms by which the group would create a collaborative environment. Although the 3 collaborating colleges were and continue to be competitors for prospective accelerated students, the benefit of collaborating on a joint leadership development project for the NCIN scholars and their peers was clear. Program liaisons recognized that this opportunity would strengthen leadership development and

  11. Collaborative engagement experiment (CEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

    2005-05-01

    Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Ground and air collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. These engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. The Office of the Secretary of Defense, Joint Robotics Program (JRP) sponsored Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts to provide a Joint capability. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRLMLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center-San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This program will assess information requirements and conduct experiments to identify and resolve technical risks for collaborative engagements using Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It will research, develop and physically integrate multiple unmanned systems and conduct live collaborative experiments. Modeling and Simulation systems will be upgraded to reflect engineering fidelity levels to greater understand technical challenges to operate as a team. This paper will provide an update of a multi-year program and will concentrate primarily on the JTC

  12. Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection of Sika Deer, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Makoto; Tajima, Tomoko; Torii, Harumi; Yabutani, Mitsutaka; Ishii, Joji; Harasawa, Makiko; Isogai, Emiko

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether Ehrlichia chaffeensis exists in Japan, we used PCR to examine blood from sika deer in Nara, Japan. Of 117 deer, 36 (31%) were infected with E. chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA base and GroEL amino acid sequences from Japan were most closely related to those of E. chaffeensis Arkansas. PMID:19961683

  13. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  14. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  15. The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumano, Ruriko

    2007-01-01

    During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

  16. Recent meteor observing activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M.

    2005-02-01

    The meteor train observation (METRO) campaign is described as an example of recent meteor observing activity in Japan. Other topics of meteor observing activities in Japan, including Ham-band radio meteor observation, the ``Japan Fireball Network'', the automatic video-capture software ``UFOCapture'', and the Astro-classroom programme are also briefly introduced.

  17. History Textbook Controversies in Japan. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masalski, Kathleen Woods

    Currently, there is a controversy in Japan about textbook treatments of Japanese military actions during World War II. This digest examines: (1) the importance of history textbooks in schools in Japan and the United States; (2) the context of history textbook controversies in Japan; (3) the current issues and contending positions in the Japanese…

  18. Teaching about Japan: Lessons and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.; Wojtan, Linda S., Ed.

    This document is a revised and updated version of two publications: "Modern Japan: An Idea Book for K-12 Teachers" and "Resources for Teaching About Japan." These lesson plans were developed by teachers who participated in a summer institute on Japan, sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of…

  19. Clinical and Demographic Evaluation of a Holoprosencephaly Cohort From the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yu; Kruszka, Paul; Martinez, Ariel F; Roessler, Erich; Shiota, Kohei; Yamada, Shigehito; Muenke, Maximilian

    2018-06-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorder involving developmental defects. HPE is a rare condition (1/10,000-20,000 newborns) but can be found as frequently as 1/250 among conceptions, suggesting that most HPE embryos are incompatible with postnatal life and result in spontaneous abortions during the first trimester of gestation. Beginning in 1961, the Kyoto University in Japan collected over 44,000 human conceptuses in collaboration with several hundred domestic obstetricians. Over 200 cases of HPE have been identified in the Kyoto collection, which represents the largest single cohort of HPE early stage embryo specimens. In this study, we present a comprehensive clinical and demographic evaluation of this HPE cohort prior to genomic analysis. The total percentage of the threatened abortion among HPE embryos in the Kyoto collection was 67%. Almost 20% of the women with embryos affected by HPE had experienced spontaneous miscarriage. In addition, there was a significant tendency that the mothers with HPE cases had fewer live births than the control. Moreover, in 70% of cases, the mother reported bleeding during pregnancy, a higher percentage than expected, indicating that most of the conceptions with HPE embryos tend to be terminated spontaneously. There were no differences in smoking between mothers with HPE affected and unaffected pregnancies; however, alcohol use was higher in women with pregnancies affected by HPE. In this study, we precisely characterize the phenotype and environmental influences of embryos affected by HPE allowing the future leveraging of genomic technologies to further understand the genetics of forebrain development. Anat Rec, 301:973-986, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Age-period-cohort analysis of suicides among Japanese 1950-2003: a Bayesian cohort model analysis.

    PubMed

    Ooe, Yosuke; Ohno, Yuko; Nakamura, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    The suicide rate in Japan is one of the highest in the world and presents us with a considerable challenge. Demographic statistics show that the number of suicides is on the rise, and at roughly 30,000 people per year have committed suicide since 1998. Suicide trends are not only related to economic boom and bust but also to certain generations and age groups. During the 1950s, there was a remarkably high suicide rate among people in their 20s, and this cohort was identical to that of the middle-age generation in the 1980s. It is important to separately understand both the trend of suicide rates and the numbers analyzed to determine the different factors that influence suicide. These include age, time period, cohort, interaction between age and time period, and changes in population composition. We performed an age-period-cohort analysis of annual trends of suicide rates by age group in Japan using a Bayesian cohort model. With the help of the Nakamura method, we have been able to break down the effects of age, time period, cohort, and the age-by-period interaction. The cohort comprised of people born in the 1930s demonstrated a relatively high suicide rate. Men currently in their 50s also belong to a high suicide rate cohort. Regarding the period effect, business cycles and by-period interaction effect, it became apparent that the high suicide rate among young adults in their early 20s around 1960 was slowing, especially among men. Instead, there was an obvious recent trend for men in their late 50s to have the highest suicide rate. This study confirmed that age-period-cohort analysis can describe these trends of suicide mortality of the Japanese.

  1. Cohort profile: cerebral palsy in the Norwegian and Danish birth cohorts (MOBAND-CP).

    PubMed

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg; Petersen, Tanja Gram; Moster, Dag; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Wilcox, Allen J

    2016-09-02

    The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts-the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort. MOBAND-CP includes maternal interview/questionnaire data collected during pregnancy and follow-up, plus linked information from national health registries. Initial harmonisation of data from the 2 cohorts has created 140 variables for children and their mothers. In the MOBAND-CP cohort, 438 children with CP have been identified through record linkage with validated national registries, providing by far the largest such sample with prospectively collected detailed pregnancy data. Several studies investigating various hypotheses regarding CP aetiology are currently on-going. Additional data can be harmonised as necessary to meet requirements of new projects. Biological specimens collected during pregnancy and at delivery are potentially available for assay, as are results from assays conducted on these specimens for other projects. The study size allows consideration of CP subtypes, which is rare in aetiological studies of CP. In addition, MOBAND-CP provides a platform within the context of a merged birth cohort of exceptional size that could, after appropriate permissions have been sought, be used for cohort and case-cohort studies of other relatively rare health conditions of infants and children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-11-09

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies.

  3. Impairments in Activities of Daily Living in Older Japanese Men in Hawaii and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Robert D.; Kadota, Aya; Miura, Katsuyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kadowaki, Takashi; Okamura, Tomonori; Okayama, Akira; Masaki, Kamal H.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Hypertension and cigarette smoking are dominant risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Japan while in westernized countries, broader effects encompass obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. This paper examines whether different associations also appear important in the manifestation of activities of daily living (ADL) in older Japanese men in Hawaii and Japan. Methods. Measures of ADL (feeding, toileting, dressing, bathing, and walking around the house) were assessed from 1995 to 1999 in 1,893 men in Hawaii and 543 men in Japan. Concomitant risk factors were measured from 1990 to 1993. Results. In Hawaii, diabetes increased the odds of ≥1 ADL impairment nearly 1.5-fold (P = .020). A similar association was absent in Japan. In contrast, the odds of an ADL impairment in Japan was increased more than 5-fold in the presence of stroke (P < .001). The association in Hawaii was significantly weaker (P = .007). In both cohorts, past alcohol use was associated with a greater likelihood of ADL impairment. Conclusion. In this comparison of genetically similar samples, findings suggest that different strengths in risk factor associations with cardiovascular disease in Japan and westernized countries may also include different strengths in associations with impaired ADL. PMID:21766031

  4. Free Resources for Teaching about Japan. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    A collection of sources of information about Japan and resource materials available for teaching about Japan are included in this document. Part one, "Who and Where" lists names and addresses from a variety of sources including the Embassy and Consulates General of Japan, the Japan Foundation, Japan Trade Centers (Japan External Trade…

  5. Millennium Cohort Study: A Department of Defense Research Project

    Science.gov Websites

    Milco Logo service logos Home Start Survey About the Study FAQ Resources Endorsements Infographics Awards Press Collaboration Study Topics Update Contact Info Contact Us Memorial Day 2018 carousel panel MedicalXpress Logo UT San Diego Logo Click on logos to view content associated with the Millennium Cohort Study

  6. The collaboration imperative.

    PubMed

    Nidumolu, Ram; Ellison, Jib; Whalen, John; Billman, Erin

    2014-04-01

    Addressing global sustainability challenges--including climate change, resource depletion, and ecosystem loss--is beyond the individual capabilities of even the largest companies. To tackle these threats, and unleash new value, companies and other stakeholders must collaborate in new ways that treat fragile and complex ecosystems as a whole. In this article, the authors draw on cases including the Latin American Water Funds Partnership, the Sustainable Apparel Coalition (led by Nike, Patagonia, and Walmart), and Action to Accelerate Recycling (a partnership between Alcoa, consumer packaged goods companies, and local governments, among others) to describe four new collaboration models that create shared value and address environmental protection across the value stream. Optimal collaborations focus on improving either business processes or outcomes. They start with a small group of key organizations, bring in project management expertise, link self-interest to shared interest, encourage productive competition, create quick wins, and, above all, build and maintain trust.

  7. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Jessica K.; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O.; Mattsson, Jens G.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

    2015-01-01

    A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings. PMID:23856451

  8. Communication and collaboration technologies.

    PubMed

    Cheeseman, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    This is the third in a series of columns exploring health information technology (HIT) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The first column provided background information on the implementation of information technology throughout the health care delivery system, as well as the requisite informatics competencies needed for nurses to fully engage in the digital era of health care. The second column focused on information and resources to master basic computer competencies described by the TIGER initiative (Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform) as learning about computers, computer networks, and the transfer of data.1 This column will provide additional information related to basic computer competencies, focusing on communication and collaboration technologies. Computers and the Internet have transformed the way we communicate and collaborate. Electronic communication is the ability to exchange information through the use of computer equipment and software.2 Broadly defined, any technology that facilitates linking one or more individuals together is a collaborative tool. Collaboration using technology encompasses an extensive range of applications that enable groups of individuals to work together including e-mail, instant messaging (IM ), and several web applications collectively referred to as Web 2.0 technologies. The term Web 2.0 refers to web applications where users interact and collaborate with each other in a collective exchange of ideas generating content in a virtual community. Examples of Web 2.0 technologies include social networking sites, blogs, wikis, video sharing sites, and mashups. Many organizations are developing collaborative strategies and tools for employees to connect and interact using web-based social media technologies.3.

  9. The Technology of Technology Transfer. The Case of the Japan-Singapore Technical Institute. Discussion Paper No. 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Oliveira, Joao Batista; Pillay, Gerald F.

    The new economic and industrial policies of the 1980s called for a major restructuring of the industrial profile of Singapore. The government decided to set up three new technical institutes to prepare and supply skilled workers to new investors: French-, German-, and Japan-Singapore Technical Institutes with the collaboration of the government…

  10. Letter: Imported paracoccidioidomycosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Onda, Hiroshi; Komine, Mayumi; Murata, Satoru; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro

    2011-12-15

    A 39-year-old man from Argentina, who had come to Japan 13 years previously, had been suffering from oral pain for several months. He was biopsied twice and treated with oral predonisolone without improvement. A number of white granular lesions with erosions were observed on the hard palate and buccal mucosa. Histopathological examination revealed a well-demarcated abscess with an accumulation of neutrophils, surrounded by epithelioid cell granulomas. Round eosinophilic bodies, considered to be fungal elements, positive for PAS and Grocott staining, were observed. Chest CT revealed cavities in the lung. A white yeast-like colony was cultured from bronchial lavage fluid and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was identified. The patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B followed by oral itraconazole 400 mg/day, with a favorable clinical course. Paracoccidioidomycosis, an imported mycosis, is rare in Japan and sometimes causes difficulty in diagnosis, resulting in inappropriate treatment.

  11. Endangered vascular plants in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iwatsuki, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can surmise that the conservation of threatened species in Japan has been promoted to some extent. Based on the results of such a study, proposals are made to contribute to the sustainable use of plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago under a global conspectus. PMID:18941303

  12. [Counterfeit medicines--Japan and the world].

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisaku

    2014-01-01

    Circulating counterfeit medicines in the market is a public health threat. Counterfeit medicines become common problem, not only in developing countries, but also in industrialised countries, as internet has made them more accessible. In Japan, the recent survey on the medicines purchased through on-line pharmacy (targeting Japanese consumers) showed that the majority of erectile dysfunction (ED) medicines imported by individuals in Japan were counterfeit version. The survey of Japanese consumers, who privately imported medicines through on-line pharmacy, indicated that 16% of these consumers experienced adverse events associated with these products. Not only that it is just fake brand, but fake medicines may even cause health hazard. The counterfeit version of Avastin recently detected in the United States became a serious threat for those who desperately need these medicines for life-threatening disease. The Japanese regulatory authorities have provided risk information of counterfeit medicines to general public, as well as monitored on-line pharmacies and conducted enforcement action where necessary. However, more resources of compliance activity should be allocated to respond to the situation of growing threats of counterfeit medicines. Purchasing medicines from abroad through unauthorised channel is the major source of counterfeit medicines. It is essential to prevent circulation of counterfeit medicines through international collaboration of various regulatory authorities. To address these problems, the World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new Member States Mechanism (MSM) to build network of the authorities. Also, INTERPOL (ICPO) initiated globally concerted enforcement actions (Operation Pangea) against pharmaceutical crime as well as built partnership with pharmaceutical industry to create Pharmaceutical Crime Programme. It is also necessary to prevent consumers encountering counterfeit medicines and to prevent health hazard. The Ministry of

  13. Real Time Earthquake Information System in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, K.; Kato, T.

    2003-12-01

    An early earthquake notification system in Japan had been developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) as a governmental organization responsible for issuing earthquake information and tsunami forecasts. The system was primarily developed for prompt provision of a tsunami forecast to the public with locating an earthquake and estimating its magnitude as quickly as possible. Years after, a system for a prompt provision of seismic intensity information as indices of degrees of disasters caused by strong ground motion was also developed so that concerned governmental organizations can decide whether it was necessary for them to launch emergency response or not. At present, JMA issues the following kinds of information successively when a large earthquake occurs. 1) Prompt report of occurrence of a large earthquake and major seismic intensities caused by the earthquake in about two minutes after the earthquake occurrence. 2) Tsunami forecast in around three minutes. 3) Information on expected arrival times and maximum heights of tsunami waves in around five minutes. 4) Information on a hypocenter and a magnitude of the earthquake, the seismic intensity at each observation station, the times of high tides in addition to the expected tsunami arrival times in 5-7 minutes. To issue information above, JMA has established; - An advanced nationwide seismic network with about 180 stations for seismic wave observation and about 3,400 stations for instrumental seismic intensity observation including about 2,800 seismic intensity stations maintained by local governments, - Data telemetry networks via landlines and partly via a satellite communication link, - Real-time data processing techniques, for example, the automatic calculation of earthquake location and magnitude, the database driven method for quantitative tsunami estimation, and - Dissemination networks, via computer-to-computer communications and facsimile through dedicated telephone lines. JMA operationally

  14. Tropical Storm Toraji Approaching Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Tropical Storm Toraji Approaching Japan, 09/03/2013 at 02:10 UTC. Terra/MODIS NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  15. Japan Report - Science and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-17

    Stock of Bacillus Subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a relative of bacillus natto that has been in use in Japan from the ancient times. It is safe and...addition to the advantages of this combination of personal styles, the two had great confidence in each other. Chairman Kaneo is the so-called "fair...sixth year of his presidency. That has been just the right age for a president, and given these advantages Sunagane has a good chance of becoming

  16. Marketing medical devices in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, J

    1998-01-01

    The control of medical devices in Japan has recently undergone significant changes as the country brings its systems into line with those of the United States and Europe. This article discusses pre-market approval, quality system requirements and post-market surveillance. Many technical issues have been harmonized but language is likely to continue to be a barrier to trade. Details of information services that are available to foreign manufacturers and importers are supplied.

  17. A population-based analysis of increasing rates of suicide mortality in Japan and South Korea, 1985-2010.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sun Y; Reither, Eric N; Masters, Ryan K

    2016-04-23

    In the past two decades, rates of suicide mortality have declined among most OECD member states. Two notable exceptions are Japan and South Korea, where suicide mortality has increased by 20 % and 280 %, respectively. Population and suicide mortality data were collected through national statistics organizations in Japan and South Korea for the period 1985 to 2010. Age, period of observation, and birth cohort membership were divided into five-year increments. We fitted a series of intrinsic estimator age-period-cohort models to estimate the effects of age-related processes, secular changes, and birth cohort dynamics on the rising rates of suicide mortality in the two neighboring countries. In Japan, elevated suicide rates are primarily driven by period effects, initiated during the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. In South Korea, multiple factors appear to be responsible for the stark increase in suicide mortality, including recent secular changes, elevated suicide risks at older ages in the context of an aging society, and strong cohort effects for those born between the Great Depression and the aftermath of the Korean War. In spite of cultural, demographic and geographic similarities in Japan and South Korea, the underlying causes of increased suicide mortality differ across these societies-suggesting that public health responses should be tailored to fit each country's unique situation.

  18. [Rabies contingency plan in Japan].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Satoshi

    2005-12-01

    In Japan, rabies has been culled out since 1957 thanks to the strong implementation of measures against rabies, such as vaccination of dogs, quarantine and control of wild dogs under the 'Rabies Prevention Law' enacted in 1950. Nevertheless one cannot deny the possibility of introduction of rabies into Japan in view of the recent increase in the international movements of people and animals. Should an outbreak of rabies be suspected now in Japan, the society would probably overreact due to a decreased awareness of risks and a lack of correct knowledge about this disease. Officials of the government and the municipalities, veterinarians and doctors should exchange correct information on rabies and on prevention control and raise their awareness, while providing also information to the public on a timely basis. Besides it is needless to say that it is important to set up a crisis management system allowing a quick and adequate response in case of an outbreak of rabies and to continue to implement appropriate prevention measures in normal times.

  19. Collecting the Data: Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGriff, Nancy; Harvey, Carl A.; Preddy, Leslie B.

    2004-01-01

    Collaboration is considered a key to the survival of the school library media specialist in the 21st century school. It is a measure of a library media specialist's abilities and successes as an educator. It is a means for illustrating the need for a professional in the school's library media center during difficult times when trying to save…

  20. Collaborative Movie Annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zad, Damon Daylamani; Agius, Harry

    In this paper, we focus on metadata for self-created movies like those found on YouTube and Google Video, the duration of which are increasing in line with falling upload restrictions. While simple tags may have been sufficient for most purposes for traditionally very short video footage that contains a relatively small amount of semantic content, this is not the case for movies of longer duration which embody more intricate semantics. Creating metadata is a time-consuming process that takes a great deal of individual effort; however, this effort can be greatly reduced by harnessing the power of Web 2.0 communities to create, update and maintain it. Consequently, we consider the annotation of movies within Web 2.0 environments, such that users create and share that metadata collaboratively and propose an architecture for collaborative movie annotation. This architecture arises from the results of an empirical experiment where metadata creation tools, YouTube and an MPEG-7 modelling tool, were used by users to create movie metadata. The next section discusses related work in the areas of collaborative retrieval and tagging. Then, we describe the experiments that were undertaken on a sample of 50 users. Next, the results are presented which provide some insight into how users interact with existing tools and systems for annotating movies. Based on these results, the paper then develops an architecture for collaborative movie annotation.

  1. Collaborative Support for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanahuja-Gavaldà, Josep M.; Olmos-Rueda, Patricia; Morón-Velasco, Mar

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, in Catalonia, students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly in regular schools although their presence, participation, learning and success are unequal. Barriers towards inclusion often depend on how to organise supporting at regular schools and the teachers' collaboration during this process. In this paper, the support…

  2. The Circle of Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Jacki; Discher, Stephanie; Ingle, Krista

    This brief paper describes the Circle of Collaboration approach at one elementary school in Utah that is focusing on development of an inclusive school for all students and implementation of a program (Balance Literacy) to enhance students' reading skills. Balance Literacy incorporates phonemic awareness, phonic instruction, fluency, vocabulary,…

  3. Creating a Collaborative Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey; Fisher, Alice; Brown, Genevieve; Irby, Beverly; Lunenburg, Fred; Creighton, Ted; Czaja, Marion; Merchant, Jimmy; Christianson, Judy

    More and more research is focusing on the importance of a healthy work environment and its impact on workers' well-being and productivity. A culture of collaboration has been shown to have an important impact on school-reform efforts and is recognized by several authors as an effective platform for progress within an organization. A collaborative…

  4. Can Colleges Really Collaborate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Edwin H.

    2008-01-01

    Seven small private colleges in three states have found a way to reduce their administrative technology costs and expand their technological capability at the same time. They have done it by choosing the common-sense, yet unconventional, college and university strategy of genuine collaboration. The result, the Independent College Enterprise (ICE),…

  5. Cultivating Labor Management Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    In many districts, the notion of labor groups and district administration working together conjures descriptions of war and battle rather than cooperation and collaboration. However, in San Juan Unified School District, the headline, "Union and District Exhibit Positive Partnership" exemplifies the changing relationship between teacher…

  6. Leadership through Professional Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeil, Jessica; Hirsch, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    Leaders in mathematics are responsible for implementing positive change within their school districts and motivating teachers of mathematics to improve their practices. One way mathematics leaders can achieve this goal is by establishing professional collaborations. We analyzed the research and summarized the common attributes found in successful…

  7. Collaborative Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This collection consists of 41 collaborative lesson plans developed by 99 Virginia teachers at 18 primarily High Schools that Work (HSTW) and tech prep sites. It is divided into three sections: career connection, community connection, and consumer connection. Two types of lesson descriptions which support HSTW key practices, and Virginia's Tech…

  8. A Failure to Collaborate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Based on a successful scholarly collaboration experience, the writer assigned a group project in a graduate seminar that confronted a wave of resentment. Small clusters of students were to tackle a multi-layered research assignment requiring textual decisions, bibliographic work, critical theory, historical research, and editorial design. As the…

  9. Collaborative Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry; Fidel, Raya

    1999-01-01

    Researchers from the University of Washington, Microsoft Research, Boeing, and Risoe National Laboratory in Denmark have embarked on a project to explore the manifestations of Collaborative Information Retrieval (CIR) in work settings and to propose technological innovations and organizational changes that can support, facilitate, and improve CIR.…

  10. Team Collaboration Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Schrock, Mitchell; Baldwin, John R.; Borden, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    The Ground Resource Allocation and Planning Environment (GRAPE 1.0) is a Web-based, collaborative team environment based on the Microsoft SharePoint platform, which provides Deep Space Network (DSN) resource planners tools and services for sharing information and performing analysis.

  11. Creative Conflict: Collaborative Playwriting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    In some ways, the project which the author's class had undertaken--creating collaborative plays about issues important in students' lives--was going very well. The students, 20 high school seniors, seemed engaged and invested in the work, from brainstorming and improvising to writing and revising. The class had read and watched a variety of…

  12. Collaborative Teaching: Teaching Strangers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panter, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    One calls people on the street strangers if he or she doesn't know who they are, so students whom the librarian has never dealt with are just that, strangers. When the school librarian gets involved in collaboration, most of the time they don't see the student's Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), language barriers, or anything else that…

  13. Collaborative Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Feedback on assessed work is invaluable to student learning, but there is a limit to the amount of feedback an instructor may provide. Peer feedback increases the volume of feedback possible, but potentially reduces the quality of the feedback. This research proposes a model of collaborative peer feedback designed to increase quality of peer…

  14. Using Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    Describes collaborative strategic reading (CSR), a technique for teaching students, such as those with learning disabilities, reading comprehension and vocabulary skills in a cooperative setting. Covers teaching the four strategies of CSR (preview, click and clunk, get the gist, and wrap up), as well as teaching students cooperative learning group…

  15. Making collaboration work.

    PubMed

    Sims, Alison

    2016-10-07

    The Children's Hospitals Network (CHN) was formed in 2012 following a review of national specialist services. Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (OUH) and the University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust (UHS) collaborated in its formation, with the CHN hosting clinical and operational networks across more than 20 district general hospitals in the Thames Valley and Wessex regions.

  16. Collaborating for Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrzeniecki, Aimee; Poole, Ken; Troppe, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Collaborating to define clear roles, responsibilities, and expectations can help a college and its partners avoid misunderstandings and "turf" problems. In this article, the authors describe vital partnerships between community colleges and economic development organizations to foster economic growth. The authors also share some lessons…

  17. The Promise of Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauml, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Whether a teacher loves it or dreads it, lesson planning is a crucial step in the teaching process. Done effectively, collaborative lesson planning--in which teachers work together to design lessons--leads to increased professional learning, higher job satisfaction for teachers, and better lesson plans. The process poses challenges for both…

  18. Collaborative Learning, Circa 1880.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Theodora Penny

    Collaborative learning, such as student-team learning or work-group learning, has become the focus of inservice workshops for teachers, a theme in professional journals, and the daily routine in an increasing number of classrooms. The women's study clubs in late 19th-century United States used a similar pedagogy. By the early 1900s, perhaps as…

  19. Preparing for Collaborative Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Rachel; Smith, Beryl

    1987-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration with other professionals was the theme of a preservice training activity in England in which 18 students enrolled in a teacher training program for learning difficulties were paired with students of speech and language pathology to observe, discuss, and assess a severely disabled child in the school setting. (JW)

  20. Perspectives on Interagency Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western States Technical Assistance Resource, Monmouth, OR.

    Seven papers are presented from a 1982 conference on interagency collaboration in special education. Participants at the conference represented a variety of disciplines. B. McNulty and E. Soper cite 14 critical elements of successful interagency practice in chapter I, including communication, conflict resolution strategies, commitment to an…

  1. Cohort profile: cerebral palsy in the Norwegian and Danish birth cohorts (MOBAND-CP)

    PubMed Central

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg; Petersen, Tanja Gram; Moster, Dag; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Wilcox, Allen J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. Participants MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts—the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort. MOBAND-CP includes maternal interview/questionnaire data collected during pregnancy and follow-up, plus linked information from national health registries. Findings to date Initial harmonisation of data from the 2 cohorts has created 140 variables for children and their mothers. In the MOBAND-CP cohort, 438 children with CP have been identified through record linkage with validated national registries, providing by far the largest such sample with prospectively collected detailed pregnancy data. Several studies investigating various hypotheses regarding CP aetiology are currently on-going. Future plans Additional data can be harmonised as necessary to meet requirements of new projects. Biological specimens collected during pregnancy and at delivery are potentially available for assay, as are results from assays conducted on these specimens for other projects. The study size allows consideration of CP subtypes, which is rare in aetiological studies of CP. In addition, MOBAND-CP provides a platform within the context of a merged birth cohort of exceptional size that could, after appropriate permissions have been sought, be used for cohort and case-cohort studies of other relatively rare health conditions of infants and children. PMID:27591025

  2. Computerizing medical records in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Hideo; Imamura, Tomoaki; Yamaki, Shintaro; Endo, Hiroyoshi

    2008-10-01

    The present study reports the current status of computerizing medical records in Japan. In 2001, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare formulated the Grand Design for the Development of Information Systems in the Healthcare and Medical Fields. The Grand Design stated a numerical target for "spreading the use of electronic medical records (EMR) in at least 60% of Japan's hospitals with 400 or more beds by 2006." The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which EMR and order entry systems (OES) have been adopted as of February 2007 and to evaluate the Japanese government's policy regarding the computerization of medical records. We conducted a postal survey targeting medical institutions throughout Japan. In February 2007, we mailed self-administered questionnaires to all 1574 hospitals with 300 or more beds, and to a random selection of 1000 hospitals with less than 300 beds in addition to 4000 clinics. Responses were received from 812 (51.6%), 504 (50.5%), and 1769 (44.8%), respectively. We asked questions concerning: (i) the extent to which EMR and OES had been introduced; (ii) the reasons why certain institutions had not introduced EMR and (iii) the subjective evaluation of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of EMR. The percentage of institutions that had introduced EMR as of February 2007 was 10.0% for hospitals and 10.1% for clinics. Even the percentage for hospitals with 400 or more beds was just 31.2%, illustrating that the government's target had not been reached. The most common reason given for not introducing EMR was: "The cost is high" which was observed in 82.0% of hospitals. It was considered that the introduction of EMR could improve 'inter-hospital networks', and 'time efficiency for physicians' by around 45% and 25% of hospitals, respectively. Healthcare information computerization in Japan is behind schedule because the introductory costs are high. For the computerization of healthcare information to be further promoted, prices

  3. Collaborative research, knowledge and emergence.

    PubMed

    Zittoun, Tania; Baucal, Aleksandar; Cornish, Flora; Gillespie, Alex

    2007-06-01

    We use the notion of emergence to consider the sorts of knowledge that can be produced in a collaborative research project. The notion invites us to see collaborative work as a developmental dynamic system in which various changes constantly occur. Among these we examine two sorts of knowledge that can be produced: scientific knowledge, and collaborative knowledge. We argue that collaborative knowledge can enable researchers to reflectively monitor their collaborative project, so as to encourage its most productive changes. On the basis of examples taken from this special issue, we highlight four modes of producing collaborative knowledge and discuss the possible uses of such knowledge.

  4. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-10

    Contents (partial): Japan: Fabrication of Diamond Single Crystal Thin Film by Ion Beam Deposition; Japan: Hitachi Metal Develops New Semi Solid Metal Processing Technology; Japan: NTT Develops Fuel Cell System That Uses Both City Gas, LPG; Japan: Daihatsu Motor Completes Prototype EV; Japan: NIRIM Announces Success With Synthetic Bone Development; Japan: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Plans Clinical Trials of Gene Therapy to Cerebral Tumor in Japan; Japan: MITI To Provide Aid for Residential Solar Power Generation Systems; Japan: MELCO To Provide Satellite Solar Cell Panel for SSL, USA; Japan: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Leads Nuclear Research; Japan: Kobe Steel`s Superconducting Magnetmore » Ready to Go Fast; Japan: MPT To Begin Validation Test for Electric Money Implementation; and Japan: Defense Agency to Send ASDF`s Pilots to Russia for Training.« less

  5. [Experience and present situation of Western China Gastric Cancer Collaboration].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiankun; Zhang, Weihan; Western China Gastric Cancer Collaboration, China

    2017-03-25

    The Western China Gastric Cancer Collaboration (WCGCC) was founded in Chongqing, China in 2011. At the early stage of the collaboration, there were only about 20 centers. While now, there are 36 centers from western area of China, including Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Shanxi, Guizhou, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Tibet. During the past few years, the WCGCC organized routinely gastric cancer standardized treatment tours, training courses of mini-invasive surgical treatment of gastric cancer and the clinical research methodology for members of the collaboration. Meanwhile, the WCGCC built a multicenter database of gastric cancer since 2011 and the entering and management refer to national gastric cancer registration entering system of Japan Gastric Cancer Association. During the entering and collection of data, 190 items of data have unified definition and entering standard from Japan Gastric Cancer Guidelines. Nowadays, this database included about 11 872 gastric cancer cases, and in this paper we will introduce the initial results of these cases. Next, the collaboration will conduct some retrospective studies based on this database to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of patients in the western area of China. Besides, the WCGCC performed a prospective study, also. The first randomized clinical trial of the collaboration aims to compare the postoperative quality of life between different reconstruction methods for total gastrectomy(WCGCC-1202, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02110628), which began in 2015, and now this study is in the recruitment period. In the next steps, we will improve the quality of the database, optimize the management processes. Meanwhile, we will engage in more exchanges and cooperation with the Chinese Cochrane Center, reinforce the foundation of the clinical trials research methodology. In aspect of standardized surgical treatment of gastric cancer, we will further strengthen communication with other international

  6. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-20

    ;Partial Contents: Energy (Japan: MHI Discovers Maritime Photo Plankton that Produces Ethanol from CO2, Japan: Tokyo Electric Power Co.`s PAFC Development); Telecommunications (Japan: Report on 1st Asian Telecommunications Industry Exchange, Japan: MPT Reports Test Evaluation Results for PHS); Defense Industries (Japan: Expert on Shipbuilding, Welding Technology, Japan: Komatsu R&D Chief on Dream of Ground Robots; Japan: Defense Simulator Series, Part 7: Torpedo Simulator).

  7. Exploring How Collaborative Dialogues Facilitate Synchronous Collaborative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative writing (CW) research has gained prevalence in recent years. However, the ways in which students interact socially to produce written texts through synchronous collaborative writing (SCW) is rarely studied. This study aims to investigate the effects of SCW on students' writing products and how collaborative dialogues facilitate SCW.…

  8. Training for Collaboration: Collaborative Practice Skills for Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischoff, Richard J.; Springer, Paul R.; Reisbig, Allison M. J.; Lyons, Sheena; Likcani, Adriatik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify skills that mental health practitioners need for successful collaborative practice in medical settings. Known experts in the field of collaborative health care completed a survey designed to elicit their suggestions about what is needed for successful collaborative care practice. Through qualitative…

  9. Cost and Price Collaboration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    competitions and dual sourcing. [patrick.n.watkins4.civ@mail.mil] Abstract This paper examines how collaboration between the cost analysis and price ...analysis. A review of the CSDRs by the price analyst led to the conclusion that the level of detail in the CSDR between recurring and non -recurring hours...Reports (CSDRs) – Starting in 2004 renewed emphasis on contractually requiring CSDR – CSDRs report actual and non -recurring costs • Price Negotiation

  10. Explaining Meiji Japans Top Down Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    enabled Japan to become a great power also provides insights into how Japan became what it is today—an economically strong but militarily weak country...top- down nature of the Japanese revolution allowed for effective decision-making that centralized domestic politics and boosted economic ...other road focuses on changes made to compete with the West in the economic and military realm. Since Meiji Japan began in reaction to hostile Western

  11. Will Japan Become a Military Superpower?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-15

    SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK ý;NiT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. CCESSiON NO 11. TITLE (Include Security Ciassification) Will Japan Become a... competition , Japan can no longer continue with status quo. Security relationships within the Asia-Pacific region are changing. The end of the Cold War...of the work on the aircraft while Mitsubishi would pick up the remaining 60 percent. This aircraft will use leading-edge technology. Japan wants to

  12. Collaborative Information Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, William; Casper, Thomas

    1999-11-01

    Significant effort has been expended to provide infrastructure and to facilitate the remote collaborations within the fusion community and out. Through the Office of Fusion Energy Science Information Technology Initiative, communication technologies utilized by the fusion community are being improved. The initial thrust of the initiative has been collaborative seminars and meetings. Under the initiative 23 sites, both laboratory and university, were provided with hardware required to remotely view, or project, documents being presented. The hardware is capable of delivering documents to a web browser, or to compatible hardware, over ESNET in an access controlled manner. The ability also exists for documents to originate from virtually any of the collaborating sites. In addition, RealNetwork servers are being tested to provide audio and/or video, in a non-interactive environment with MBONE providing two-way interaction where needed. Additional effort is directed at remote distributed computing, file systems, security, and standard data storage and retrieval methods. This work supported by DoE contract No. W-7405-ENG-48

  13. Leadership Training for Collaboration. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon L.

    Based in part on a 1992 study of 72 United States early care collaborations and leaders, this paper explores conventional understandings of leadership, reviews the leadership literature, and goes on to compare and discuss collaborative leadership in detail. The paper notes that collaborative leadership stresses the relatedness of systems wherein…

  14. Culture-Aware Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economides, Anastasios A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In a collaborative learning environment there will be many learners with diverse cultures. These learners should be supported to communicate and collaborate among themselves. The variety of the communication and collaboration tools and modes available to each learner would depend on his/her personal cultural background. The purpose of…

  15. Cultural Diversity: Implications for Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairrels, Veda

    1999-01-01

    Explores the implications of an increasingly diverse school population for the process of teacher collaboration. Focuses on the competencies for collaboration as pertinent to diverse exceptional learners, the role of the special education teacher, and the concept of collaboration across disciplines. (Author/CR)

  16. Understanding Nomadic Collaborative Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    The paper builds on the work of Rossitto "et al." on collaborative nomadic work to develop three categories of practice of nomadic collaborative learning groups. Our study is based on interviews, workshops and observations of two undergraduate student's group practices engaged in self-organised, long-term collaborations within the frame…

  17. Regulating Collaboration in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobber, Marjolein; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Verloop, Nico; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration in teacher education can be seen as a way to prepare student teachers for future social practices at school. When people collaborate with each other, they have to regulate their collaboration. In the Dutch teacher education programme that was investigated, student teachers were members of different types of groups, each of which had…

  18. JPRS Report; Science & Technology Japan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-02

    jwmitod JPRS-JST-89-009 2 MAY 1989 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY JAPAN CONTENTS ADVANCED MATERIALS Properties of S-SiAlON Prepared by HIP [Kazuya...Yabuta, Hiroaki Nishio, et al.; 8TH HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS KISO TORONKAI, 10-11 Nov 88] 1 Properties of SißN^-SiC Whisker Ceramics lYasuhiro...Goto, Takeyuki Yonezawa, et al,; 8TH HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS KISO TORONKAI, 10-11 Nov 88] 6 Si-Nz-SiC Nanocomposites [Koichi Shinhara, Atsushi

  19. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  20. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  1. Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-10

    The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan has the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world at 1991 m. The total length of the bridge is 3911 m. It links the city of Kobe on the mainland of Honshu to Iwaya on Awaji Island, crossing the busy Akashi Strait. The image was acquired April 26, 2014, covers an area of 8.1 by 11.2 km, and is located at 34.6 degrees north, 135 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19747

  2. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  3. Alterations in physique among young children after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Results from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Kikuya, Masahiro; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Sato, Yuki; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Kato, Noriko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2017-10-01

    Data for earthquake-related alterations in physique among young children in developed countries is lacking. The Great East Japan Earthquake caused severe damage in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures in northeastern Japan. We retrospectively obtained anthropometric measurements in nursery school from 40,046 (cohort 1, historical control) and 53,492 (cohort 2) children aged 3.5-4.5 years without overweight in October 2008, and in October 2010, respectively. At the time of the earthquake in March, 2011, children in cohort 1 had already graduated from nursery school; however, children in cohort 2 were still enrolled in nursery school at this time. We compared the onset of overweight at 1 year after the baseline between children enrolled in their school located in one of the three target prefectures versus those in other prefectures using a logistic regression model, with adjustment for sex, age, history of disease, and obesity index at baseline. Overweight was defined as an obesity index of >+15%, which was calculated as (weight minus sex- and height-specific standard weight)/sex- and height-specific standard weight. The odds ratio (OR) for the onset of overweight in the three target prefectures was significant in cohort 2 (OR 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.55) but not in cohort 1. When the two cohort were pooled (n = 93,538), the OR of the interaction term for school location × cohort was significant (OR 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.23). Incident overweight in young children was significantly more common in the three prefectures affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake than in other prefectures after the disaster. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurosurgeons in Japan Are Exclusively Brain Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Asamoto, Shunji

    2017-03-01

    In Japan, neurosurgeons have traditionally mainly treated brain diseases, with most cases involving the spine and spinal diseases historically being treated by orthopedists. Nowadays, spinal surgery is 1 of the many subspecialties in the neurosurgical field in Japan. Most patients with neurological deficits or suspected neurological diseases see board-certified neurosurgeons directly in Japan, not through referrals from family physicians or specialists in other fields. Problems originating in the spine and spinal cord have been overlooked or misdiagnosed in these situations. Neurosurgeons in Japan must rethink the educational program to include advanced trauma life support and spinal surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. MMI: Increasing Community Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbraith, N. R.; Stocks, K.; Neiswender, C.; Maffei, A.; Bermudez, L.

    2007-12-01

    Building community requires a collaborative environment and guidance to help move members towards a common goal. An effective environment for community collaboration is a workspace that fosters participation and cooperation; effective guidance furthers common understanding and promotes best practices. The Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project has developed a community web site to provide a collaborative environment for scientists, technologists, and data managers from around the world to learn about metadata and exchange ideas. Workshops, demonstration projects, and presentations also provide community-building opportunities for MMI. MMI has developed comprehensive online guides to help users understand and work with metadata standards, ontologies, and other controlled vocabularies. Documents such as "The Importance of Metadata Standards", "Usage vs. Discovery Vocabularies" and "Developing Controlled Vocabularies" guide scientists and data managers through a variety of metadata-related concepts. Members from eight organizations involved in marine science and informatics collaborated on this effort. The MMI web site has moved from Plone to Drupal, two content management systems which provide different opportunities for community-based work. Drupal's "organic groups" feature will be used to provide workspace for future teams tasked with content development, outreach, and other MMI mission-critical work. The new site is designed to enable members to easily create working areas, to build communities dedicated to developing consensus on metadata and other interoperability issues. Controlled-vocabulary-driven menus, integrated mailing-lists, member-based content creation and review tools are facets of the new web site architecture. This move provided the challenge of developing a hierarchical vocabulary to describe the resources presented on the site; consistent and logical tagging of web pages is the basis of Drupal site navigation. The new MMI web site

  6. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  7. Lifetime comorbidities between phobic disorders and major depression in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Ono, Yutaka; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Tachimori, Hisateru; Iwata, Noboru; Uda, Hidenori; Nakane, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Naganuma, Yoichi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Hata, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Masayo; Miyake, Yuko; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kikkawa, Takehiko; Kessler, Ronald C

    2009-01-01

    Although often considered of minor significance in themselves, evidence exists that early-onset phobic disorders might be predictors of later more serious disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of phobic disorders with the onset of MDD in the community in Japan. Data from the World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey were analyzed. A total of 2,436 community residents aged 20 and older were interviewed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 (response rate, 58.4%). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to predict the onset of MDD as a function of prior history of DSM-IV specific phobia, agoraphobia, or social phobia, adjusting for gender, birth-cohort, other anxiety disorders, education, and marital status at survey. Social phobia was strongly associated with the subsequent onset of MDD (hazard ratio [HR]=4.1 [95% CI: 2.0-8.7]) after adjusting for sex, birth cohort, and the number of other anxiety disorders. The association between agoraphobia or specific phobia and MDD was not statistically significant after adjusting for these variables. Social phobia is a powerful predictor of the subsequent first onset of MDD in Japan. Although this finding argues against a simple neurobiological model and in favor of a model in which the cultural meanings of phobia play a part in promoting MDD, an elucidation of causal pathways will require more fine-grained comparative research.

  8. Lifetime comorbidities between phobic disorders and major depression in Japan: Results from the World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Ono, Yutaka; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Tachimori, Hisateru; Iwata, Noboru; Uda, Hidenori; Nakane, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Naganuma, Yoichi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Hata, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Masayo; Miyake, Yuko; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kikkawa, Takehiko; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although often considered of minor significance in themselves, evidence exists that early-onset phobic disorders might be predictors of later more serious disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of phobic disorders with the onset of MDD in the community in Japan. Methods Data from the World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey were analyzed. A total of 2,436 community residents aged 20 and older were interviewed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 (response rate, 58.4%). A Cox proportional hazards model was used to predict the onset of MDD as a function of prior history of DSM-IV specific phobia, agoraphobia, or social phobia, adjusting for gender, birth cohort, other anxiety disorders, education, and marital status at survey. Results Social phobia was strongly associated with the subsequent onset of MDD (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.1 [95%CI: 2.0-8.7]) after adjusting for sex, birth cohort, and the number of other anxiety disorders. The association between agoraphobia or specific phobia and MDD was not statistically significant after adjusting for these variables. Conclusions Social phobia is a powerful predictor of the subsequent first onset of MDD in Japan. While this finding argues against a simple neurobiological model and in favor of a model in which the cultural meanings of phobia play a part in promoting MDD, an elucidation of causal pathways will require more fine-grained comparative research. PMID:19195005

  9. Collaborative Learning in the Texas Medicaid 1115 Waiver Program.

    PubMed

    Revere, Lee; Semaan, Adele; Lievsay, Nicole; Hall, Jessica; Wang, Zheng M; Begley, Charles

    The Texas Medicaid 1115 Transformation Waiver reforms the state's safety net systems by creating a Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment incentive pool for innovative healthcare delivery. The Waiver supports the design and implementation of transformative projects. As part of the Waiver requirements, regions created Learning Collaboratives to collaborate on project implementation and outcomes. This paper describes the experience of one region in adapting the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Breakthrough Series (IHI BTS) model, as a framework for their Learning Collaborative. Implementation of the Learning Collaborative was systematic, multidimensional, and regularly evaluated. Some features of the IHI model were adapted, specifically longer Plan-Do-Check-Act cycles and the lack of a single clinical focus. This experience demonstrates the ability of a region to improve health from a more diverse perspective than the traditional IHI BTS Collaboratives. Within the region, organizations are connecting, agencies are building continuums of care, and stakeholders are involved in healthcare delivery. The initial stages show a remarkable increase in communication and enhanced relationships between providers. At the end of the 5-year Waiver, evaluation of the impact of the regional and cohort Learning Collaboratives will determine how well the adapted IHI BTS model facilitated improvements in the community's health.

  10. What to Know About Medicines With New Active Ingredients Approved in FY 2016 / 2016 in Japan and EU: A Brief Comparison of New Medicines Approved in Japan and the EU in 2016.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hideyuki; Saint-Raymond, Agnès; Yasuda, Naoyuki

    2018-03-01

    The Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) in Japan and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) have a long-standing experience of reviews of new medicines, and they meet their target pre-market review periods. In FY 2016 / 2016, 112 and 83 new medicines were approved in Japan and EU, respectively. Out of these medicines, 41 and 27 medicines containing new active ingredients were approved with total pre-market review periods of 209 days and 428 days in Japan and EU, respectively. Approximately one-third of these medicines were reviewed by the Agencies in close timing, within 1 year between pre-market review applications in Japan and in EU. Taking into account the increasing number of global clinical trials and constant number of consultations or scientific advice related to global clinical trials in Japan, it is clear that the importance of the continuous, collaborative relationship between EMA and PMDA is more and more crucial, as it does facilitate close and timely exchange of information and opinions on products and technologies under development. There already are effective collaborative frameworks between PMDA and EMA in addition to daily communication, and our findings support the development and best use of regulatory tools such as consultation services and scientific advice/protocol assistance for the benefit of the pharmaceutical industry but mostly of patients.

  11. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data ismore » not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.« less

  12. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data ismore » not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.« less

  13. Medical facility statistics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Takuya; Hasebe, Ryo; Myat Cho, Su; Khaing, Moe; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Mon Saw, Yu; Yamamoto, Eiko

    2017-11-01

    Medical facility statistics provide essential information to policymakers, administrators, academics, and practitioners in the field of health services. In Japan, the Health Statistics Office of the Director-General for Statistics and Information Policy at the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is generating these statistics. Although the statistics are widely available in both Japanese and English, the methodology described in the technical reports are primarily in Japanese, and are not fully described in English. This article aimed to describe these processes for readers in the English-speaking world. The Health Statistics Office routinely conduct two surveys called the Hospital Report and the Survey of Medical Institutions. The subjects of the former are all the hospitals and clinics with long-term care beds in Japan. It comprises a Patient Questionnaire focusing on the numbers of inpatients, admissions, discharges, and outpatients in one month, and an Employee Questionnaire, which asks about the number of employees as of October 1. The Survey of Medical Institutions consists of the Dynamic Survey, which focuses on the opening and closing of facilities every month, and the Static Survey, which focuses on staff, facilities, and services as of October 1, as well as the number of inpatients as of September 30 and the total number of outpatients during September. All hospitals, clinics, and dental clinics are requested to submit the Static Survey questionnaire every three years. These surveys