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Sample records for japan nikko japan

  1. Distinct S wave reflector in the midcrust beneath Nikko-Shirane volcano in the northeastern Japan arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Akira

    1996-02-01

    Distinct S waves reflected from a midcrustal seismic velocity discontinuity are detected beneath Nikko-Shirane volcano in the southernmost part of the northeastern Japan arc. A detailed travel time analysis of the reflected S waves by using data acquired through a dense seismic network temporarily set up in this region shows that this unusual S wave reflector is distributed over an area of 15 × 15 km2 at depths ranging from 8 to 15 km. The reflector has a conical shape becoming shallow toward the summit of Nikko-Shirane volcano. Observed amplitude spectral ratios of reflected S waves to direct S waves show that the reflector body has a strong velocity contrast to the surrounding medium and its thickness is of the order of 100 m at most. The reflector body is approximated by two thin layers probably filled with partially molten materials. Cutoff depth for shallow seismicity in this area is 3-5 km above the reflector and becomes shallow toward Nikko-Shirane volcano, nearly parallel to the reflector. The depth to brittle-ductile transition zone seems to be prescribed by the existence of the reflector body, which is perhaps a thin magma body.

  2. Occurrence and effects of the parasitic copepod Salmincola carpionis on salmonids in the Nikko District, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Kazuya; Ikuta, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Hidefumi; Shikama, Toshio; Kitamura, Shoji

    1998-06-01

    Salmincola carpionis (Krøyer, 1837) occurred on brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and whitespotted charr ( Salvelinus leucomaenis) reared at a fisheries research institute in the Nikko District, central Japan, and also on a wild population of the latter species that had returned for spawning from a lake to streams near the institute. Its infection levels on these salmonids were associated with age and size of fish and the location of rearing ponds, older (larger) fish reared in the lower-located ponds being more frequently and heavily infected than smaller (younger) fish from the upper-located ponds. Swellings were observed at sites where the bulla of S. carpionis was deeply implanted. The condition factor of heavily infected (>50 copepods) fish was lower than those of lightly infected fish (1-18 copepods). Salmincola carpionis did not occur on lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush) which belong to the subgenus Cristivomer, as well as on salmonids of the genera Oncorhynchus and Salmo, possibly due strict host specificity.

  3. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  4. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  5. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  6. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  7. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  8. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  9. Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  10. Distinct S wave reflector in the midcrust beneath Nikko-Shirane volcano in the northeastern Japan arc

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Akira

    1996-02-10

    This paper investigates the geometry and the features of the midcrustal s wave reflector beneath Nikko-Shirane valcano in detail based on data acquired through seismic observations with a dense station network. The geometry and internal structure of the reflector is discribed.

  11. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-03

    10503« JPRS-JAR-87-001 3 FEBRUARY 1987 Japan Report 19980629 058 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE BTIO QUALITY INSPECTED 6... JAPAN REPORT CONTENTS POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL Impact of Miyazawa’s Appointment as Finance Minister (Kenzo Uchida, et al.; ZAIKAI TEMBO, Oct 86...Direct U.S. Investment Discussed (Akio Morita, et? al.; KEIDANREN GEPPO, Sep 86) 30 Japan -PRC Trade Expansion Council Officially Inaugurated

  12. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-30

    172068 JPRS-JAR-85-0 1 0 3 0 April 198 5 Japan Report 19980722 116 »TIC QUALITY SfSPECTED 3 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE...85-010 30 April 19 85 JAPAN REPORT CONTENTS POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL Break Up of Tanaka-Nakasone Alliance Anticipated (Taro Maki; SEKAI, Jan 85...minister. It became "When I was prime minister, Japan was isolated in international society," and although at the U.S.- Japan summit talks President Reagan

  13. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-09

    expenditure . He said that he hoped for greater effort on Japan’s part in regard to the defense of Japan itself and its periphery. This means he clearly set...Forces into real combat forces and their unification with U.S. Forces. They dealt with the mounting defense expenditure , which is also connected with...governments of Japan and the United States on "guidelines for Japan -U.S. cooperation on defense " in 1978. Throughout 1984, even Prime Minister Nakasone

  14. Japan: Tsunami

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tsunami Inundation Along Japan's Eastern Coast   ... The extent of inundation from the destructive and deadly tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off ... March 16, 2001 and March 12, 2011 - Before and after tsunami inundation along Japan's eastern coast. project:  ...

  15. Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) the capital city of Japan, Tokyo Bay and the neighboring cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Chiba are seen in this view of Japan. This great international seaport facility covers almost all of the bayfront and is home to over thirty million people.

  16. Update Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  17. Rearming Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    roughly ~’ Ibid., pp. 14-16, 27-30. 12 3.5 percent of their GDP towards defense while Japan spends slightly over 1 percent. Yet, when compared with...runs up huge trade surpluses in its commerce with the United States and Western Europe. Conversely, Japan spends just slightly over one percent of...its GNP on defense indicating to many in the U.S. and Western Europe that Japan is enjoying a free ride and waxing rich under American military

  18. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    Industry , says the exhibition of about 70,000 foreign products mainly agricultural goods, household appliances, liquor, confectionaries , industrial ...Fishery Talks Restart (KYODO, 13 Apr 85) 38 Forest Products Industry To Get Government Aid (KYODO, 25 Mar 85) 39 China Asked To Curb Cotton...Customs-Cleared Trade 66 USSR-Japan Fishery Talks 66 Auto Exports 66 Japan, Malaysia Air Service 66 Trade Friction 67 Strategic Aid 67 Trade

  19. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    apprehensions of Europe and America that China would become closely related with Japan alone and that Japan might monopolize the Chinese market . As a...out of the 300 billion yen, 100 billion yen is supplier’s credit from concerted action by the Ex-Im Bank and the Open Market Bank, 130 billion yen is...to launch production in the U.S. in the belief that Japanese automakers will have to continue some form of export restraints for the American market

  20. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-19

    Bonds 57 Australian Tianium Contract 53 Grants to Mongolia 50 Light-Controlling Glass 58 Host Computer Models 53 New Cancer-Heating Device 53 - b...6 million yen vli) Development studies: increase from 252 to 281 studies: measures to pre- vent desertification (150 million yen); measures for...Tokyo KYODO in English 0357 GMT 25 Jan 85 OW] GRANTS TO MONGOLIA —Tokyo, 25 Jan (KYODO)—Japan will extend grants totaling 16 million yen (63,000 dollars

  1. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-14

    bring exchange rates to a more reasonable level. Prime Minister Nakasone told the Diet Wednesday his government intends to make its utmost efforts to... make the Japanese market more accessible to imports. He suggested stepped up capital exports as one way to whittle down Japan’s huge trade surplus...confirming the agreement. In Bangladesh, shallow wells and rivers are the main supply sources of drinkable water . The Bangladesh Government has

  2. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    KYODO, 23 Apr 85)........ 58 PRC Ensuring Ability To Pay for Imports (KYODO, 7 May 85) 59 OECD Official Interviewed on Trade Surplus...Security Council session, claiming the council has failed to denounce Iraq for using chemical weapons against Iran. De Cuellar and Japanese officials...infarction, a loss of blood supply to the brain , and would require two or three months to recover. Tanaka is regarded as Japan’s most powerful

  3. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    prayer at the Yasukuni Shinto Shrine in downtown Tokyo, which is dedicated to Japan’s many war dead. The visit, on the occasion of the shrine’s...Visits Yasukini Shrine for War Dead (KYODO, 22 Apr 85) 4 Atlantic Institute Holds Heated Security Debate (KYODO, 19 Apr 85) 5 Disaster...between him and Kakuei Tanaka. 12930 CSO: 4105/198 JPRS-JAR-85-014 24 May 1985 POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL NAKASONE VISITS YASUKINI SHRINE FOR

  4. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  5. Japan Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-18

    the government should reduce expenditures for military hardware if it is difficult to hold defense spending within 1 percent of the GNP. Noting... expenditure , as well as a greater contribution to Pacific defense . According to Prior, a conservative parliamentarian and former secretary of state for...Northern Ireland, with Britain’s experience in Asia, it should join with Japan to help the United States with its Asian defense . Japanese Chairman

  6. Japan: Tradition and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    This textbook is designed to increase students' awareness of Japan. The study of Japan is worthwhile because Japan currently is and likely will continue to be one of the world's most important countries. U.S. knowledge of Japan is still quite limited compared to the level of understanding most Japanese exhibit about the United States. It is hoped…

  7. A Rearmed Japan: Implications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Japan started its initial rearmament effort. Japan’s defense expenditures have fluctuated from near 3% of GNP to as low...Klein, Donald W. " Japan 1979: The Second Oil Crisis’ Asian Survey, January 1980. Lee, William T. "Soviet Defense Expenditures in an Era of SALT." United...relationship to the options Japan can take. In very general terms, Japan has two options: to solely rely on the D.S.-Japanese Mutual Defense Treaty for

  8. Tohoku Tsunami Debris, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-14

    The Mar. 11, 2011, Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami devastated a large extent of the northeastern Japan coast, and virtually erased many villages and cities from the map. NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image of Sendai on Mar. 14, 2011.

  9. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  10. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  11. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  12. Japans Defense Program Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Japan and the Republic of Korea, 78.8 percent of Japanese people feel that the relationship is not good. In the case of China, the percentage of those...phenomenon? Japanese observers argue that the reasons why citizens of the Republic of Korea dislike Japan include Confucianism, egoism , biased education

  13. Rehabilitation in Japan, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japanese Society for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, Tokyo.

    The scope of Japan's rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities is reviewed and discussed from the perspective of social and demographic change in that country. An introductory chapter on the current situation in Japan looks at characteristics of the land, the people, the government, industry and the economy, and the culture. The second…

  14. Japan's High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P.

    The author, an anthropologist, spent 14 months (1974-75) in the industrial port city of Kobe (Japan) observing a cross section of urban high schools, including Japan's most elite private school and a night vocational school plagued by absenteeism and delinquency. He reports on the character of the institutions and of the experience via…

  15. Higher Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Teiichi

    This paper presents a portrait of the higher education system in Japan. After providing demographic information about Japan, the document outlines the overall educational structure through brief statements about kindergarten education, compulsory education, the elementary school, the lower secondary school, upper secondary education, curriculum,…

  16. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  17. Journey to Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Lorraine

    1978-01-01

    Create a variety of activities related to the country you are studying--Japan, for example--and arrange them by such subjects as art, games, creative writing, maps, dress and greetings. These activities can be tied in with classroom learning centers or stations. Here students make passports, learn about traditional styles of dress in Japan, learn…

  18. Japan's High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P.

    The author, an anthropologist, spent 14 months (1974-75) in the industrial port city of Kobe (Japan) observing a cross section of urban high schools, including Japan's most elite private school and a night vocational school plagued by absenteeism and delinquency. He reports on the character of the institutions and of the experience via…

  19. TWELVE DOORS TO JAPAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEARDSLEY, RICHARD K.; HALL, JOHN WHITNEY

    THE TWELVE DOORS OF THIS COLLEGE-LEVEL TEXT ARE TWELVE CHAPTERS ON ASPECTS OF JAPAN AND JAPANESE CULTURE AS TREATED BY VARIOUS ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES. THE AUTHORS' PURPOSE IN CHOOSING THIS FORMAT WAS TO PRESENT INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION ABOUT JAPAN AND TO ACQUAINT STUDENTS WITH THE AIMS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS OF DISCIPLINES OTHER THAN THE ONE THEY…

  20. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  1. Microelectronics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  2. Japan Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Japan is the world's largest liquefied natural gas importer and ranks in the top four countries for the highest coal imports, net imports of petroleum and other liquids, and consumption of crude oil and petroleum products.

  3. GPM Arrives in Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An international satellite that will set a new standard for global precipitation measurements from space has completed a 7,300-mile journey from the United States to Japan, where it now will underg...

  4. Space communications in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.

    This paper outlines some of the planned satellite comunication projects in Japan over the next 5-7 years. In addition, Japanese space development policies are set out along with a historic review of the development of artificial satellites.

  5. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  6. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  7. Psychology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015.

  8. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; McCain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  9. Occupational asthma in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to advances in anti-asthma medication, control by medical treatment tends to be emphasized and the search for causative antigens seems to be neglected. Furthermore, we do not have a Japanese guideline for diagnosis and management of OA. This article discusses the current state of OA in Japan. PMID:22872819

  10. Yoga Therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, By Keishin

    2017-08-01

    This perspective piece gives an overview of the current situation of yoga therapy in Japan today. Traditional yoga in Japan suffered a serious setback in 1995 with a nerve gas terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway, which was carried out by a cult that recruited members through yoga classes. But with the increase in popularity with modern forms of yoga such as Iyengar yoga, Ashtanga yoga and hot yoga in the West, the general public in Japan today is forgetting its aversion to yoga and considers it to be something that can contribute to good health. In 2012, the Japan Yoga Therapy Society (JYTS) conducted a study on adverse events in yoga classes throughout Japan with the University of Kyushu School of Medicine, with support from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This study indicated that more than half of people attending yoga classes have some form of chronic illness, with 42.3% receiving outpatient care. This survey was the beginning of growing interest from both the government and universities in yoga therapy. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. This perspective piece introduces some of the developments in yoga therapy research and practice in

  11. Globalization and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  12. Globalization and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  13. Early Reading in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, E. Marcia

    There are several reasons why Japan has one of the world's highest literacy rates. One reason is the nature of the Japanese written language, which employs a dual code of ideographs representing specific objects and a syllabary, in which each symbol represents a separate syllable. The syllable symbols are read consistently the same way, and…

  14. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-18

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image.

  15. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  16. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  17. Photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  18. Teaching Unit: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina

    The cultural diversity of Japan can provide a rewarding learning experience for children of all grade levels. This teaching unit includes resources and ideas for the study of Japanese society, art, folklore, and poetry. Included among the instructional objectives are: (1) children will compare U.S. lifestyles with Japanese lifestyles by reading…

  19. Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-25

    NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge or Pearl Bridge, the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world, at 1991 meters, connecting the city of Kobe, Japan with Iwaja on Awaji Island by crossing the busy Akashi Strait.

  20. Country Profiles. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Minoru

    This occasional paper on Japan is one of a series setting forth the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in specified countries. Here, an overview is given of population characteristics and growth patterns, the relationship of population growth to socioeconomic development, and the history of population concerns and…

  1. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  2. The Graying of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Linda G.

    1989-01-01

    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought…

  3. The Japan Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jackson H.; And Others

    This publication contains three papers on college student exchange between Japan and the United States. The first paper, entitled "The University of Massachusetts and Hokkaido University: A Case Study in Educational Cooperation," by Barbara B. Burn, describes the long-standing relationship between these two institutions in order to…

  4. Advanced composites in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diefendorf, R. Judd; Hillig, William G.; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Pipes, R. Byron; Perepezko, John H.; Sheehan, James E.

    1994-01-01

    The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high-performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic, and carbon matrices. Because of a strong carbon and fiber industry, Japan is the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation-resistant carbon/carbon composite program. With its outstanding technical base in carbon technology, Japan should be able to match present technology in the U.S. and introduce lower-cost manufacturing methods. However, the panel did not see any innovative approaches to oxidation protection. Ceramic and especially intermetallic matrix composites were not yet receiving much attention at the time of the panel's visit. There was a high level of monolithic ceramic research and development activity. High temperature monolithic intermetallic research was just starting, but notable products in titanium aluminides had already appeared. Matrixless ceramic composites was one novel approach noted. Technologies for high temperature composites fabrication existed, but large numbers of panels or parts had not been produced. The Japanese have selected aerospace as an important future industry. Because materials are an enabling technology for a strong aerospace industry, Japan initiated an ambitious long-term program to develop high temperature composites. Although just starting, its progress should be closely monitored in the U.S.

  5. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  6. "Hands on" Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borries, Richard

    Cultural learning kits designed by Evansville, Indiana teachers, supervisors, and community advisory groups were compiled to provide information about Japan to community organizations and students. This document provides a key to the contents of the kits. The kits contain teaching materials and information about food, school materials, language…

  7. Dutch surgery in Japan.

    PubMed

    van Gulik, Thomas M; Nimura, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of Nagasaki, called Decima. Western culture and science reached the Japanese exclusively through the Dutch on Decima. Health care on Decima was provided by Dutch barber-surgeons, who introduced Western surgical practice in Japan. Official interpreters were the only Japanese allowed on Decima. It was from among these interpreters that the first Japanese surgeons arose who, having mastered the Dutch language, translated several Dutch anatomic and surgical texts. Genpaku Sugita translated a Dutch anatomy textbook into Japanese, which was completed in 1774. This book, entitled Kaitai Shinsho [New Book on Anatomy], was the first Western scientific monograph to be translated entirely into Japanese. Several Dutch surgical schools were founded through which Dutch surgery, known in Japan as "surgery of the red-haired" was propagated. According to the custom of the surgical guilds in Holland, certificates were granted to Japanese apprentices who had completed their training in Dutch surgery. About 60 Dutch surgeons had served on Decima up to 1850, providing the basis for surgery to develop in Japan. Among them, Philipp Franz von Siebold was an exceptional scholar who also had a great impact in making Japanese culture known to the Western world.

  8. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  9. Teaching Unit: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina

    The cultural diversity of Japan can provide a rewarding learning experience for children of all grade levels. This teaching unit includes resources and ideas for the study of Japanese society, art, folklore, and poetry. Included among the instructional objectives are: (1) children will compare U.S. lifestyles with Japanese lifestyles by reading…

  10. Japan's builders study platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, R.G.

    1984-07-05

    This paper discusses the developing role of Japan as a major supplier of offshore drilling and production equipment. Different firms are discussed along with their capacity. The marketing areas, work experience, and plans for designs are also included. There is special attention payed on the potential for developing Arctic platforms.

  11. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  12. [Films: China and Japan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumport, Roberta H.

    The history of filmmaking in China and Japan and film usage in teaching are considered in this document. Pointing out how films describe historical context and culture, the document also describes various techniques of film making. Films in China were heavily influenced by western models and have tended to be tools of the power structure, as…

  13. Sapovirus in water, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hansman, Grant S; Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Omura, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters.

  14. Reforming Japan's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishizaka, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    Japan's Central Council on Education was established in 1987 and charged with recommending changes in the national curriculum. Expected changes within the next five years include reducing the school week to five days, introducing a program for gifted and talented students, providing more full-time counselors, improving and integrating…

  15. Teacher Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimahara, Nobuo

    A discussion is presented on the education of Japanese teachers, their roles in the schools, and proposed reforms in their education. In describing the pre-World War II background of teacher education in Japan, three ideological forces are discussed: Western thought that impacted upon early Meiji reforms, Confucianism, and nationalism. Western…

  16. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  17. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 μm thickness.

  18. Water reuse in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogoshi, M; Suzuki, Y; Asano, T

    2001-01-01

    Even though Japan has mean annual precipitation of 1,714 mm and hundreds of dams and reservoirs constructed, frequent and severe droughts have occurred in wide regions of the country. Because of rapid economic growth and concentrations of population in urban areas, water demands in large cities have stressed reliability of water supply systems and necessitated the development of new water resources with considerable economic and environmental costs. To alleviate these situations, wastewater reclamation and reuse have been implemented widely in major cities. This paper summarizes the current status of water reuse in Japan and discusses dominant uses of reclaimed water, emphasizing non-potable urban applications such as toilet flushing, industrial reuse, and environmental water.

  19. DPAL activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  20. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  1. Mt. Fuji, Honshu, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-10-14

    STS002-09-390 (12-14 Nov. 1981) --- Honshu Island, Japan, and its snow-covered Fuji-San or Fuji-Yama volcano are the features of this 70mm frame. The volcano peak is 12,400 feet tall. The western suburbs of Tokyo are at right edge of the photograph. Isu Peninsula is at the bottom, separating the Suruga and Sagami Bay. Other large cities include Yokohama, Kozu, Shizuoka, Namazu and Odawara. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-20

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  3. Northeast Coast, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-02

    The northeast coast of Hokkaido and Kunashir Island, Japan (44.0N, 143.0E) are seen bordered by drifting sea ice. The sea ice has formed a complex pattern of eddies in response to surface water currents and winds. Photos of this kind aid researchers in describing local ocean current patterns and the effects of wind speed and direction on the drift of surface material, such as ice floes or oil. Kunashir is the southernmost of the Kuril Islands.

  4. Japan Report, No. 184.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-10

    Iraw war escalated further. Speaking at a press conference, Tokio Nagayama, president of Petroleum As- sociation of Japan and also president of...figures were 41.0 percent and 31.8 percent respectively. This tendency is stronger among blue -collar 31 workers than white-collar workers. It would...respectively.) Furthermore, in a great majority of the workshop groups, whether it be blue collar or white collar jobs, a large number of

  5. Terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yasufumi; Arnold, Jeffrey L

    2003-01-01

    Although the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack probably was the most widely reported terrorist event in Japan to date (5,500 injured, 12 dead), the country has suffered numerous other large terrorism-related events in recent decades, including bombings of the headquarters of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Tokyo in 1974 (207 injured, 8 dead), the Hokkaido Prefectural Government office building in Sapporo in 1976 (80 injured, 2 dead), and the Yosakoi-Soran Festival in Sapporo in 2000 (10 injured, none dead). Japan also has experienced two other mass-casualty terrorist events involving chemical releases, including the 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack (600 injured, 7 dead) and the 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident (67 injured, 4 dead). Until 1995, emergency management in Japan focused on planning and preparedness at the local level for the frequent disasters caused by natural events. Since that time, substantial progress has been made in advancing emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events, including the designation of disaster centers in each prefecture, the implementation of several education and training programs for nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism, and the establishment of a national Anti terrorism Office within the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare.

  6. Sharing expertise. Japan.

    PubMed

    1998-02-01

    The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) contracted JOICFP to organize and implement the Population/Reproductive Health Course of the JICA Prospective Expert Training Program, held in Japan and Nepal from November 17 to December 19. The course was attended by seven experts, all co-medicals except for an IEC expert and a medical economic expert. This was the fourth such course and the third one organized and managed by JOICFP. It was conducted as part of Japanese official development assistance activities under the Global Issues Initiative (GII) on Population and AIDS. The course is designed to train Japanese technical experts in providing technical cooperation in Japanese government projects in developing countries. Four of the five participant's of the previous year's course are now working in developing countries in JICA-related projects. Two participants of the 1997 course had received overseas assignments by the end of the course. In Tokyo, participants were given an overview of international population, reproductive health, and bilateral assistance, as well as Japan's experience in family planning and maternal-child health. The team then went upon a 2-week study tour in Nepal. Noting that most of the trainees were women, participants suggested that more men be trained in future courses.

  7. Equine keratomycosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wada, Shinya; Hobo, Seiji; Ode, Hirotaka; Niwa, Hidekazu; Moriyama, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    To describe the incidence, clinical progress, visual outcome, and laboratory findings of equine keratomycosis in Japan.  Retrospective study of the medical records of horses clinically and mycologically diagnosed with keratomycosis at the Equine Hospitals of the Japan Racing Association from 2005 to 2011. The diagnosis of keratomycosis was confirmed in eight horses (40.0% of the 20 horses with infectious keratitis from which fungi and/or bacteria were isolated). Fungi recovered from corneal swabs were identified as Aspergillus flavus (4), Aspergillus niger (1), Fusarium solani (1), and Mortierella wolfii (2). All horses were treated medically with topical antifungals, and one horse was also treated surgically. The median of treatment period was 40 days. Two horses were rendered blind in the affected eye and the others retained vision. Equine keratomycosis comprises a considerable portion of infectious keratitis in Japan, and the causative fungi that we isolated had been isolated previously from horses with keratomycosis in other regions with the exception of M. wolfii. Culture and cytological examination of corneal lesions should be immediately performed on eyes with signs of keratitis, particularly on those not improving with antibacterial medication, as early initiation of aggressive antifungal treatment tended to result in better outcome and shorter treatment period. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Japan-Russia Pediatric Society.

    PubMed

    Nihei, K; Thunemathu, Y; Kobayashi, N

    1993-12-01

    In March 1990, medical interchange between Japan and the Soviet Union began with a letter from the local health bureau of Khabarovsk. We visited Khabarovsk three times and Kamchatka once, and saw many hospitals and patients. Russian doctors of pediatrics visited Japan. Medical information was exchanged and discussed. The Japan-Russia Pediatric Society was established to perform interchange of medical information, technology and staff such as doctors, nurses and technicians between Japan and Russia, especially the Far East district of Russia. The Society meeting has been held three times: Tokyo (1991), Khabarovsk (1992) and Niigata (1993). It is necessary to continue the interchange between the two countries.

  9. The graying of Japan.

    PubMed

    Martin, L G

    1989-07-01

    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought to have been strong traditionally, the recent decline in co-residence with children is 1 indication that the way support is given may be changing. This issue is of particular concern to the government, which wants to avoid any greater responsibility for the elderly than is necessary given the dramatic population aging yet to come. The government is also encouraging employers to provide more employment opportunities for the elderly at the same time that it is trying to raise the eligibility age for the receipt of public pensions. There is resistance on the part of employers, however, because wages and retirement allowances in Japan are positively related to length of employment. Furthermore, it is not clear whether elderly Japanese of the future will be as willing to work, if they learn to enjoy increased leisure early in their careers. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that population aging will lead to Japan's economic decline. Although the savings rate may decline somewhat, restructuring of the economy and continued overseas investment should keep the economy growing in the long run. Important in both the care of the frail elderly and the continued growth of the economy will be the roles played by middle-aged Japanese women.

  10. Astrogeodetic geoid of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganeko, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Three kinds of astrogeodetic geoid maps for Japan are presented: one referred to the global (18, 18) geoid of the 1973 Smithsonian Standard Earth (III) (SE III), referred to the best-fitting ellipsoid of SE III, and one referred to the reference ellipsoid of the Tokyo datum. Interpolations of the deflection of the vertical are carried out by a least squares estimation method. The geoid height differences obtained are compared with solutions of satellite-derived station positions. Good agreement is found in a comparison with Doppler tracking stations.

  11. Ijime in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Masayoshi; Okada, Kaori; Hamada, Shoko; Asaga, Reiko; Honjo, Shuji

    2011-12-09

    This paper reviews the problem of ijime in Japan from a variety of perspectives, primarily through studies conducted in this country. The term ijime is not uniform in concept, open to different interpretations given the disparity in definitions among different circles, making precise assessment of the actual conditions difficult. Such being the case, what is needed is further study on the mechanisms and actual state of ijime accounting for the flow of the times, and compilation of research to enable the creation of ever more effective modes of prevention and intervention.

  12. Japan's Relations with Its Asian Neighbors. Japan Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, James

    The nations of the Pacific Rim comprise an increasingly important world economic region. Of these countries, Japan is clearly the most powerful and important. While the United States is an important trading partner for Japan, the Japanese are paying increasing attention to the neighboring nations of the Pacific Rim. This digest examines the…

  13. 69 FR 61403 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-10-18

    ... COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will...)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  15. Women of courage. Japan.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    JOICFP President Shidzue Kato was influenced by and friends with Margaret Sanger from their initial meeting in 1920 to Sanger's death in 1966. Bruce Alfred is currently directing and producing a 90-minute documentary film about Sanger and her pioneering work in promoting the development and use of family planning. Once completed in the Spring of 1997, the film will be broadcast nationally in the US on Public Television. It is being produced with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities and several private foundations. Alfred interviewed Kato for three hours to gain insight into the life and legacy of Margaret Sanger. Sanger inspired Kato to make birth control her life's work. Kato spoke about how the prewar, pronatalist Japanese government allowed Sanger to visit Japan in 1922 only on the condition that she not speak about birth control. This official opposition and the subsequent reaction, however, actually fueled interest in Sanger and her message, and caused her ideas to become widely known among the Japanese public. While in Japan, Sanger did manage to discuss family planning, but in English in a closed meeting. Oddly enough, the government honored Sanger after the second World War with the highest award presented to non-Japanese. Kato noted how unfortunate it was that Sanger died in 1966 without witnessing the realization of the UNFPA.

  16. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  17. Teaching Elementary Students about Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper presents a study unit on Japan for elementary students which can be adapted for any level. Lessons include: (1) "Video Traveling Activities To Accompany Students on Their Journey to Japan"; (2) "Travel Brochure"; (3) "Discovering Culture by Using a Realia Kit"; (4) "Comparative Geography Using the Five…

  18. China and Japan (Theme Issue).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.; Pyne, John, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue is devoted to the theme "China and Japan" and contains six articles that focus on educational, political, and cultural issues in the two Asian countries. In the first article, "China and Japan: A New Era in Relations with the United States," Henry Kiernan and John Pyne provide a brief overview of the history…

  19. [The MEN consortium of Japan].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Akihiro

    2012-07-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) is not as well recognized in Asia, including Japan, as in the West. The clinical features of MEN and management conditions have yet to be clarified in Japan. Thus, we established a MEN study group designated the MEN Consortium of Japan in 2008. Its missions are to: 1) clarify the current status of clinical management of MEN; 2) promote basic research; 3) improve the diagnosis and treatment of MEN; 4) undertake public relations to increase awareness of MEN; and 5) support and collaborate with patient advocacy groups, etc. Clinical and genetic information on more than 1,000 patients was collected and analyzed. The database established by the MEN Consortium of Japan is the first such database for Asian patients and is one of the most extensive MEN databases worldwide. This is anticipated to promote clarification of the current status of MEN in Japan and improve future clinical management.

  20. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  1. [Buddhist mummies in Japan].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, I

    1993-08-01

    The mummy of priest Kochi (preserved at Saishoji Temple, Teradomari, Niigata Pref.) has become famous, since it appeared in the book "Snow Country Tales" written by Bokushi Suzuki in 1841 (Fig. 1). In a country of high humidity, such as Japan, the belief that mummification could not, and did not, exist would not be altogether unfounded, but rather more a matter of common sense. There are two dozen Buddhist mummies in this country. It was not known until 1961 that a reliable source of artificial mummification has existed in Japan. The Japanese Buddhist mummies, apart from those of the Fujiwara family, a powerful clan of northeast Japan in the 12th century, dated mostly from the 17th to the 19th century as given in Table 1. Three principal types of mummification described by Vreeland, Jr. and Cockburn (1980) could be identified in the Japanese Buddhist mummies: type I, natural mummification; type II, intentional natural; and type III, artificial. Matsumoto (1990) classified the mummies into four groups, based on their ideological backgrounds: group A, mummies of the priests having faith in the Amitabha (the Supreme Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the West); group B, sokushin-butsu mummies of the priests belonging to the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo-daishi); group C, nyujo mummies of the priests having faith in the Maitreya (the Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the North, or the Buddha of the future); and group D, other mummies. These mummies of groups A, B, C and D are respectively listed in Table 2. Previous papers have shown that the mummies of the groups A, C and D belonged to the mummification of type I (natural mummification) or type II (intentional natural), whereas those of only the group B were of type III (artificial). The mummies of groups A to D were given as follows. a) Mummies of group A. The four mummies of the Fujiwara family in the Amitabha faith (preserved at Chusonji Temple, Hiraizumi, Iwate Pref.), which

  2. Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

  3. Winds over Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Before World War II, weather forecasters had little knowledge of upper-air wind patterns above 20000 feet. Data were seldom avai able at these heights, and the need was not great because commercial aircraft seldom flew at these altitudes. The war in the Pacific changed all that. Wind forecasts for 30000 feet plus became urgent to support the XXI Bomber Command in its bombing mission over Japan.The U.S. Army Air Force Pacific Ocean Area (AAFPOA) placed a Weather Central in the Marianas Islands in 1944 (Saipan in 1944 and Guam in 1945) to provide forecasting support for this mission. A forecasting procedure was put into operation that combined the elements known as "single-station forecasting" and an advanced procedure that used "altirmeter corrections" to analyze upper-airdata and make prognoses. Upper-air charts were drawn for constant pressure surfaces rather than constant height surfaces. The constant pressure surfaces were tied together by means of the atmospheric temperature field represented by specific temperature anomalies between pressure surfaces. Wind forecasts over the Marianas-Japan route made use of space cross sections that provided the data to forecast winds at each 5000-ft level to 35000 ft along the mission flight path. The new procedures allowed the forecaster to construct internally consistent meteorological charts in three dimensions in regions of sparse data.Army air force pilots and their crews from the Marianas were among the first to experience the extreme wind conditions now known as the "jet stream". Air force forecasters demonstrated that, with experience, such winds could reasonably be forecast under difficult operational conditions.

  4. Japan (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Japan, a country generally successful in solving population problems, now faces the problem of an aging population. It must provide welfare for its aged population and give them a role in society. Recognizing the vital importance to economic and social development of population problems in developing countries, Japan has cooperated through bilateral and multilateral channels in assisting various projects of developing countries concerned about population problems. As for bilateral aid, Japan extends technical cooperation to Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region countries by providing them with experts, by conducting surveys, by giving equipment, and by organizing training courses, particularly in the field of family planning. Japan also cooperates with some of the developing countries of the ESCAP region by providing them with financial assistance in the form of multilateral cooperation. Japan makes a cash contribution the the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) as the biggest donor country. In fiscal year 1984, the Japanese contribution to UNFPA totaled $US 40.1 million; the contribution will amount of $US 42.9 million in 1985. Aware of the importance of human resource development in the field of population, Japan has organized annual group training courses for the developing countries, namely: the Seminar on Family Planning Administration for Senior Officers; the Seminar on Community-Based Family Planning Strategy; and the Seminar on Health Aspects of Family Planning. Japan generally supports the work of ESCAP with regard to training in the field of population.

  5. Multiple personality disorder in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Y; Suzuki, K; Sato, T; Murakami, Y; Takahashi, T

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the features of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in Japan are similar to those in North America, although a wide disparity exists in the prevalence of MPD between the two areas. In order to describe the features of MPD in Japan, we obtained clinical data from MPD case reports, including two of our own cases, published in Japanese academic journals and compared it with the data from other countries. The cases in Japan differed significantly from those in North America in the mean number of personalities and prevalence of sexual and/or physical abuse.

  6. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene... practice. (c) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene... practice. (c) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene... practice. (c) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do...

  9. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-meyer, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  11. Contraception in Japan: Current trends.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Honami; Sakamoto, Haruka; Leslie, Asuka; Takahashi, Osamu; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Kitamura, Kunio

    2016-06-01

    High proportion of Japanese uses condoms; lower proportion uses oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). We examined the longitudinal patterns for contraceptive usage in Japan and evaluated differences before and after OCP government approval. We accessed nationally representative survey data for women aged 16-49years from 1950 to 2014. Usage of condoms and OCP was 83.4% and 3.0%, respectively in 2014. OCP use before (1.21%) and after (1.97%) government approval did not differ significantly (p=.58). The prevalence of OCP usage remains low in Japan. A wide gap in use between Japan and other developed countries exists. Through a wide gap in OCP use between Japan and other countries, we revealed how choices of contraceptive methods and their benefits could be openly available for women of reproductive age, and how health care professionals disseminate appropriate knowledge about contraception for women in need. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all 'H. pylori infection' was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections.

  13. Japan Report, Science and Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    include water temperature, water quality, ocean currents, sea ice, wave conditions, coastal conditions, and marine resources. Environmental polution ... air , and food supplies (procured in Japan) to the station for use by its crew. It is also a real possibility that Japan’s data relay satellite (DRTS...the pressurized unit via a mechanical manipulator and an air lock to permit the exchange of equipment and samples and the assembly of space

  14. High definition systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

    1991-01-01

    The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

  15. High definition systems in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

    1991-02-01

    The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

  16. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  17. Women's health in Japan.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    In Japan, the Women's Center in Osaka operates a women's health information hotline for 3 days/month. An analysis of 730 calls to the Centre during 1990-1992 shows that abortion and contraception are not major concerns. (Safe abortion is accessible. Oral contraceptives are banned. Condoms and the rhythm method are the most common family planning methods.) The bulk of the calls (22.6%) centered around menstruation, followed by reproductive diseases (21.5%), menopause (7%), and infertility (7%). Irregular menstruation, no menstruation, and painful periods made up most menstruation concerns. These cases tended not to be serious, which explains why physicians were not interested in them, resulting in client dissatisfaction. Physicians are usually concerned about menstruation only as it pertains to desire for pregnancy. Mothers who call the hotline with questions about their daughters' menstruation ask about menstruation as it relates to fertility. Clearly, woman's role is to bear children. Physicians prescribe medication to women with concerns about infertility but women have difficulty asking their physicians any questions about the medication. Women concerned about infertility do not consider other options such as alternative treatments, adoption, or not bearing children. Once fertility has diminished, physicians are no longer interested in women. Women with questions about menopause who do not get the information from their physician or respectful attention from their physician call the hotline. Most menopause- related complaints revolve around symptoms.

  18. Dysphagia Rehabilitation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, one of the most common causes of death in elderly people is aspiration pneumonia. Maintenance of oral hygiene and feeding functions are important elements, especially in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke, neurological diseases, and after operations on the head and neck cancer, as well as in the elderly to prevent aspiration pneumonia. It should also be noted that not only oral health care and physical therapy related to feeding functions but also dental treatment is included in the clinical management during interventions whenever needed. On the other hand, for the patients and/or elderly in need of assistance in maintaining a safe diet, it is recommended that a specialized team comprising physicians, dentists, and speech therapists in functional rehabilitation observes meal conditions of the subjects and evaluates such factors as meal contents, posture during meals, usage of dishes and cutlery, meal times, status of consciousness, perception, and motivation. First, I will present the clinical interventions to those patients, which include oral health care, dental treatment, physical therapy and meal assistance, as well as team approaches in those circumstances. In addition, clinical and basic research results will be introduced, which are expected to foster the understanding of physiology in chewing and swallowing. These results are also expected to develop the clinical technology to maintain or recover the feeding functions.

  19. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, F.

    Scientific ballooning activity in Japan during 2001 and 2002 is presented. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) launched 10 balloons from Sanriku Balloon Center (SBC) located 500 km north of Tokyo in 2001. Six flights were for scientific observations, observations of high energy cosmic electrons, cryogenic sampling of the air at high altitude, an observation of atmospheric ozone distribution, an observation of hard X-ray spectra of solar flare and a sampling of microorganism in the stratosphere. Two balloons made with 3.4 micron polyethylene film, of 30,000 m^3 without exhaust tube and 1,000 m^3 with exhaust tube were successfully flown and reached at altitudes of 50.7 km and 30.8 km respectively. It has been scheduled to launch 10 balloons in 2002 to observe solar flare, NO_2 and O_3 in the atmosphere, low frequency radiation in the environment, and atmospheric ozone density and to sample the air at high altitude. International collaborative balloon observations of cosmic-rays, Galactic infrared radiation and atmospheric ozone density were successfully conducted in USA, India and Spitzbergen, respectively in 2001. Two balloons will be flown from antarctica for the observations of cosmic-ray electrons and for auroral X-rays, respectively in December of 2002.

  20. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  1. Global update: Japan.

    PubMed

    Sipp, Doug

    2011-11-01

    Japan continues to be a major player in stem cell biology and related fields, boasting multiple world-class programs in a broad spectrum of stem cell studies, a permissive regulatory framework, an active society for regenerative medicine and a growing industry involvement. The most noted work in recent years has of course originated in the laboratory of Shinya Yamanaka, with the first report of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) in 2006, and numerous technical advancements since, which prompted the government to establish a Center for iPS Cell Research and Application in 2010 (see below). Additional concentrations of stem cell research excellence can be found in Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe and Kumamoto. In 2011, Yoshiki Sasai's laboratory in the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, achieved another remarkable result in inducing optic cup-like structures from embryonic stem cells using 4D tissue culture techniques, building on previous work in which the group had generated stratified cerebral cortex-like tissue from embryonic stem cells in vitro.

  2. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, January 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-28

    ;Partial Contents: Japan: AIST`s Frontier Carbon Technology Research Project Under Way; Japan: Sumitomo Electric Develops Aluminum Nitride Substrate; Japan: NASDA To Develop Small, High Performance, Low Cost Satellite; Japan to Haive Rocket Launch Cost; Japan: Combined-Cycle Technology for Higher Thermal Efficiency Using Various Fuels; Japan: S&T Corporation Develops Carbon Thin Film Solar Cell; Japan: Atomic Energy Commission of Japan Suports Using ITER for Japan`s Experimental Reactor; Japan: NO New Nuclear Power Plant Construction in Sight; and Japan: Mitsubishi Electric Executive on Guided Missile Development.

  3. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this. Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11166

  5. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Proton therapy in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunemoto, H.; Morita, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Furukawa, S.; Kawachi, K.; Kanai, T.; Ohara, H.; Kitagawa, T.; Inada, T.

    1985-01-01

    There are two facilities for clinical trials with protons in Japan: the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, and the Particle Radiation Medical Science Center (PARMS), University of Tsukuba. At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, patient treatment with the 70 MeV proton beam began in November 1979, and 29 patients were treated through December 1984. Of 11 patients who received protons only, 9 have had local control of the tumor. Two of the 9 patients, suffering from recurrent tumor after radical photon beam irradiation, developed complications after proton treatment. In the patients treated with photons or neutrons followed by proton boost, tumors were controlled in 12 of 18 patients (66.6%), and no complications were observed in this series. Malignant melanoma could not be controlled with the proton beam. A spot-beam-scanning system for protons has been effectively used in the clinical trials to minimize the dose to the normal tissues and to concentrate the dose in the target volume. At the Particle Radiation Medical Science Center, University of Tsukuba, treatment with a vertical 250 MeV proton beam was begun in April 1983, and 22 patients were treated through February 1984. Local control of the tumor was observed in 14 of 22 patients (63.6%), whereas there was no local control in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. There have been no severe complications in patients treated at PARMS. The results suggest that local control of tumors will be better with proton beams than with photon beams, whereas additional modalities are required to manage radioresistant tumors.

  7. Unzen Volcano, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-13

    This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano, on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in 1991. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 93rd orbit on April 15, 1994. The image shows an area 41.5 kilometers by 32.8 kilometers (25.7 miles by 20.3 miles) that is centered at 32.75 degrees north latitude and 130.15 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received); green represents the average of L-band and C-band (vertically transmitted and received); blue represents the C-band (vertically transmitted and received). Unzen is one of 15 "Decade" volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since 1991. Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00504

  8. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, April 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-10

    ;Partial Contents: Biotechnology (Japan: Japan`s RITE Introduces Biotech Projects, Japan: Pharmacia Biotech Develops Detection Method for Point Mutation); Energy (Japan: New Catalyst for Synthesis Gas Reduces Energy Needs, Japan: Major Company Activities for Promotion of Wind Power Generation, Japan: Waste Power Generation System in Saitama Draws Much Attention); Environment (Japan: AIST`s NIMC To Develop Efficient Decomposition Method for Waste Using Super-Critial Water, Japan: Kyoei Co. Develops High Temperature Fusion Furnace for Industrial Waste Treatment, Japan: Air Dry Cleaning for Recycling Chemically Contaminated Plastic Sheets); Microelectronics (Japan: Toshiba Corp. DEC To jointly Develop LSI for ATM); Science and Technology Policy (Japan`s MITI To Begin Electronic Commerce Experiment Project); Technology Transfer (Japan: Nissho Iwai Delivers Cleaner Plant to Russia`s Energiya, Japan: Energy Agency Transfers Coal Fired Power Generation Technology to Indonesia); Telecommunications (Japan`s MPT Releases Study Report on Advanced Information Technologies).

  9. Psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, Toshiya; Inagaki, Ataru

    2015-08-01

    Psychotropic dose equivalence is an important concept when estimating the approximate psychotropic doses patients receive, and deciding on the approximate titration dose when switching from one psychotropic agent to another. It is also useful from a research viewpoint when defining and extracting specific subgroups of subjects. Unification of various agents into a single standard agent facilitates easier analytical comparisons. On the basis of differences in psychopharmacological prescription features, those of available psychotropic agents and their approved doses, and racial differences between Japan and other countries, psychotropic dose equivalency tables designed specifically for Japanese patients have been widely used in Japan since 1998. Here we introduce dose equivalency tables for: (i) antipsychotics; (ii) antiparkinsonian agents; (iii) antidepressants; and (iv) anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics available in Japan. Equivalent doses for the therapeutic effects of individual psychotropic compounds were determined principally on the basis of randomized controlled trials conducted in Japan and consensus among dose equivalency tables reported previously by psychopharmacological experts. As these tables are intended to merely suggest approximate standard values, physicians should use them with discretion. Updated information of psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan is available at http://www.jsprs.org/en/equivalence.tables/. [Correction added on 8 July 2015, after first online publication: A link to the updated information has been added.].

  10. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers

  11. The educational system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  12. The educational system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  13. Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights from Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ishihara, Masaharu

    2016-10-01

    We report the history and new insights of takotsubo syndrome based on the achievements that Japanese researchers have contributed and summarize the evidence originally presented from Japan. Takotsubo syndrome is a newly described heart failure characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. We should be aware of this entity as a syndrome, not actual cardiomyopathy. Japanese researchers focus on the experimental approaches for clinical diagnosis and treatment of takotsubo syndrome. As representatives from a country originally naming this syndrome takotsubo, a global registry for takotsubo syndrome including Japan should be established. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... whether revocation of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to...

  15. 70 FR 2656 - Drafting Machines From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Drafting Machines From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on drafting machines from Japan would be...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China... ingredient is used at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. (c) Prior sanctions for this...

  17. Is Japan a military threat to Asia?

    SciTech Connect

    Halloran, R.

    1994-11-01

    The foreign minister of Japan, Yohei Kono, stood in the UN General Assembly in September and sought to reassure delegates that Japan would not again employ military power in the international area. {open_quotes}Japan does not, nor will it, resort to the use of force prohibited by its constitution,{close_quotes} Kono said, {open_quotes}Japan will remain resolutely a nation of peace.{close_quotes}

  18. Unzen Volcano, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano, on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in 1991. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 93rd orbit on April 15, 1994. The image shows an area 41.5 kilometers by 32.8 kilometers (25.7 miles by 20.3 miles) that is centered at 32.75 degrees north latitude and 130.15 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received); green represents the average of L-band and C-band (vertically transmitted and received); blue represents the C-band (vertically transmitted and received). Unzen is one of 15 'Decade' volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since 1991. Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The

  19. Free Resources for Teaching about Japan. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    A collection of sources of information about Japan and resource materials available for teaching about Japan are included in this document. Part one, "Who and Where" lists names and addresses from a variety of sources including the Embassy and Consulates General of Japan, the Japan Foundation, Japan Trade Centers (Japan External Trade…

  20. Free Resources for Teaching about Japan. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    A collection of sources of information about Japan and resource materials available for teaching about Japan are included in this document. Part one, "Who and Where" lists names and addresses from a variety of sources including the Embassy and Consulates General of Japan, the Japan Foundation, Japan Trade Centers (Japan External Trade…

  1. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  2. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan... antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  3. Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection of Sika Deer, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Makoto; Tajima, Tomoko; Torii, Harumi; Yabutani, Mitsutaka; Ishii, Joji; Harasawa, Makiko; Isogai, Emiko

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether Ehrlichia chaffeensis exists in Japan, we used PCR to examine blood from sika deer in Nara, Japan. Of 117 deer, 36 (31%) were infected with E. chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA base and GroEL amino acid sequences from Japan were most closely related to those of E. chaffeensis Arkansas. PMID:19961683

  4. 69 FR 78474 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-12-30

    ... COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of a full review pursuant to... revocation of the antidumping duty order on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead...

  5. 59 FR- Unshu Oranges From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-03-21

    ... Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations governing the importation and interstate movement of Unshu oranges from Japan by... pv. citri (Hasse) Dye. The strain of citrus canker that occurs in Japan infects the twigs,...

  6. 63 FR 41279 - Acrylic Sheet From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-08-03

    ... COMMISSION Acrylic Sheet From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on acrylic sheet from Japan. SUMMARY: The... order on acrylic sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  7. 70 FR 8822 - Outboard Engines From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Outboard Engines From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... the United States is not materially retarded, by reason of imports from Japan of outboard engines and... notification of a preliminary determination by Commerce that imports of outboard engines from Japan were...

  8. 63 FR 41290 - Synthetic Methionine From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-08-03

    ... COMMISSION Synthetic Methionine From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on synthetic methionine from Japan... antidumping duty order on synthetic methionine from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation...

  9. 66 FR 60220 - Sodium Azide From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-12-03

    ... COMMISSION Sodium Azide From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the suspended investigation on sodium azide from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on sodium azide from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  10. 64 FR 67311 - Defrost Timers From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-12-01

    ... COMMISSION Defrost Timers From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on defrost timers from Japan. SUMMARY... order on defrost timers from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  11. 63 FR 41284 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-08-03

    ... COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on polychloroprene rubber from Japan... antidumping duty order on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation...

  12. 63 FR 41282 - Melamine From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-08-03

    ... COMMISSION Melamine From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on melamine from Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission... melamine from Japan would be likely to ] lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. Pursuant...

  13. The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumano, Ruriko

    2007-01-01

    During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

  14. Teaching about Japan: Lessons and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.; Wojtan, Linda S., Ed.

    This document is a revised and updated version of two publications: "Modern Japan: An Idea Book for K-12 Teachers" and "Resources for Teaching About Japan." These lesson plans were developed by teachers who participated in a summer institute on Japan, sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of…

  15. Some Aspects of Higher Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich

    1972-01-01

    Contemporary Japanese higher education is reviewed, taking into account German influences especially. Three main objectives of post-war reforms are discussed along with the entrance examination system in Japan. Available from: Japan Cultural Society, 101018, Shirokane-dai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. (LBH)

  16. Education and Youth Employment in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Hidetoshi

    The education/employment situation of young people in Japan is examined as part of a project to broaden perspectives on social, educational, and employment issues in contemporary societies. Youth problems in Japan stem from the incredibly rapid industrialization and social change that have taken place in Japan since World War II. In spite of this…

  17. Preparing Teachers for Japan's Classrooms. Fastback 394.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Edward R.

    This volume reviews the development of teacher education in Japan from 1868 to the present. The first section examines teacher education in Japan from 1868 to 1945, covering the development of normal schools; the Tokyo Normal School, Japan's first modern teacher education institute, founded in 1872; conservative reaction during the 1880s and the…

  18. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  19. Historical Characteristics of Adult Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyasaka, Kosaku

    In its modern sense, adult education in Japan began after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Until 1945, adult education functioned as an agent to indoctrinate the nationalistic and military ideology. Since World War II, Japan has adopted the democratic social system and has become a capitalist society like the West. In Japan, social education is the…

  20. Resources for Teaching about Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This book lists resources for materials and ideas for teaching about Japan. The resource listings are not intended to be encyclopedic and are not intended to be a comprehensive listing of every useful curriculum item. The attempt has been made to highlight especially those organizations that work with kindergarten through grade 12 teachers,…

  1. Modernization of Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The document traces the development of education in Japan from the 17th century to the present. It is presented in four chapters. Chapter one discusses the Tokugawa Period (1603-1867). Principal forms of schooling were hanko for the Samurai class and terakoya for the commoners. The hanko were established for the benefit of the fiefs; objectives of…

  2. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  3. Japan and America: Culture Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Barry D.

    1989-01-01

    Cultural distinctions in the approach to social relationships, access to information, personal motivation, and hierarchy make Japan an effective economic power. U.S. business can learn from the Japanese ways to create more information-based organizations, think in global terms, foster links between business and education, and develop internal…

  4. Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Jiro

    The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

  5. Innovative shotcreting system in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takashi

    1995-12-31

    Robotization of shotcreting has advanced remarkably in Japan in a short span of time for the purpose of avoiding exposure of human workers to adverse conditions. This paper provides an overview of various devices used in shotcreting and discusses the development of improved systems which ensure higher safety and larger productivity.

  6. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  7. Modernization of Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The document traces the development of education in Japan from the 17th century to the present. It is presented in four chapters. Chapter one discusses the Tokugawa Period (1603-1867). Principal forms of schooling were hanko for the Samurai class and terakoya for the commoners. The hanko were established for the benefit of the fiefs; objectives of…

  8. [[On population policy in Japan

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Y

    1995-05-01

    "In this paper, the author presents his idea on the concept of population policy, emphasizing the importance of indirect measures. As an example the child allowance system in Japan is explained and evaluated by comparing [it] with those in Western countries." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  9. JPRS Report, East Asia, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    three-dimensional mensuration engineering, and with Charmilles Technologies S.A. (Switzerland) in electronic discharging machines. This international...RATE MOVEMENT IN A DAY Spot rate; March 31, 1987; Japan time Citibank hikes prime rats Baker worries about Dollar drop Baldridge sayi market

  10. Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Jiro

    The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

  11. How Japan Supports Novice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    When U.S. educators first hear that Japanese teacher preparation programs require only four weeks of formal student teaching at the end of the credential program, they're appalled: How can this be? More surprising still, few new teachers in Japan (1.35 percent) leave the profession during their first year. So where are these beginning teachers…

  12. Japan's Intellectual Challenge: The Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Lawrence P.

    1984-01-01

    Questions Japan's ability to maintain its economic success without substantially changing its approach to education. Discusses international responses to the nation's level of exports, the maturing and stabilization of its economy, and the rapid aging of its population and work force as trends that may require significant change. (BC)

  13. Japan Studies Association Journal, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among three thematic…

  14. Japan Studies Association Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichel, Philip L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles grouped under the topic of…

  15. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 3, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-03

    Contents (selected articles): Japan: Nissan To Use Nickel-Hydrogen Battery in EV; Japan: Takii To Commercialize Cauliflower-Broccoli Hybrid; Japan: Kawasaki Steel Improves Recovery of Metals from Furnace Residue; Japan: Japan`s NEC Corp. To Develop Cost-Effective Photodection Chip; Japan: Japanese Companies Establish Research Association to Develop 16-gigabit DRAMS; Japan: Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Actual Achievements; Japan: Future for Nuclear Fuel Recycle as a Result of Monju Accident; Japan: Superconducting Magnet System Using No Liquid Helium; Japan: Hitachi`s MULTI Network Security Technologies; Japan: Defense Bureau Chief Tokita Interviewed; Japan: DRC Executive on GSDF, High Technology; and Japan: Retired Admiral on Post-Cold War MSDF Strategy.

  16. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-10

    Contents (partial): Japan: Fabrication of Diamond Single Crystal Thin Film by Ion Beam Deposition; Japan: Hitachi Metal Develops New Semi Solid Metal Processing Technology; Japan: NTT Develops Fuel Cell System That Uses Both City Gas, LPG; Japan: Daihatsu Motor Completes Prototype EV; Japan: NIRIM Announces Success With Synthetic Bone Development; Japan: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Plans Clinical Trials of Gene Therapy to Cerebral Tumor in Japan; Japan: MITI To Provide Aid for Residential Solar Power Generation Systems; Japan: MELCO To Provide Satellite Solar Cell Panel for SSL, USA; Japan: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Leads Nuclear Research; Japan: Kobe Steel`s Superconducting Magnet Ready to Go Fast; Japan: MPT To Begin Validation Test for Electric Money Implementation; and Japan: Defense Agency to Send ASDF`s Pilots to Russia for Training.

  17. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-20

    ;Partial Contents: Energy (Japan: MHI Discovers Maritime Photo Plankton that Produces Ethanol from CO2, Japan: Tokyo Electric Power Co.`s PAFC Development); Telecommunications (Japan: Report on 1st Asian Telecommunications Industry Exchange, Japan: MPT Reports Test Evaluation Results for PHS); Defense Industries (Japan: Expert on Shipbuilding, Welding Technology, Japan: Komatsu R&D Chief on Dream of Ground Robots; Japan: Defense Simulator Series, Part 7: Torpedo Simulator).

  18. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, May 7, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-07

    ;Partial Contents: Japan: FH1 Aerospace Division Executive on UAV R&D; JapaN: MHI Delivers First F-2 Flight Test Model; Nuclear Technologies; Japan: Nuclear Material Research in Cross-Over Research Project; Japan: MITI To Subsidize Development of Cryptography; Defense Industries; Japan: JADI Announces FY96 Major Events Schedule; Japan: Rollout Ceremony Held for First OH-X Flight Test Model; and Japan: KHI Weapons Designer OH-X Development.

  19. Endangered vascular plants in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iwatsuki, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can surmise that the conservation of threatened species in Japan has been promoted to some extent. Based on the results of such a study, proposals are made to contribute to the sustainable use of plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago under a global conspectus. PMID:18941303

  20. Japan's research on gaseous flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niioka, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Although research studies on gaseous flames in microgravity in Japan have not been one-sided, they have been limited, for the most part, to comparatively fundamental studies. At present it is only possible to achieve a microgravity field by the use of drop towers, as far as gaseous flames are concerned. Compared with experiments on droplets, including droplet arrays, which have been vigorously performed in Japan, studies on gaseous flames have just begun. Experiments on ignition of gaseous fuel, flammability limits, flame stability, effect of magnetic field on flames, and carbon formation from gaseous flames are currently being carried out in microgravity. Seven subjects related to these topics are introduced and discussed herein.

  1. Japan Report, Science and Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    processes, and its quality is improved. Nicotine from tobacco leaves and caffeine from coffee beans can also be extracted by making use of the... coffee and tea Deodorization of fats and oils Denicotinization of tobacco Extraction of plant oil from seeds Extraction of edible pigments from...Stations in Japan] 55 First wall Pellet ■— (Something like ceram- ic prepared by roast - ing oxides of uranium into solid.form) Second wall

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    for lowering tritium emissions. 59 Research Into Systematizing Safety Data at Reprocessing Facilities The Tokai reprocessing plant is Japan’s only...axis drive in the PWR control rod drive mechanism by coating it with chromium carbide (0^02) . This procedure has not only enabled it to cope with...about 65 percent cobalt). (2) Making the PWR fuel handling and transfer equipment maintenance-free through application of silicon nitride (Si3N^) to

  3. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, T

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system."

  4. Japan Report, Science and Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    International under contract from SJAC. According to the report, it is quite difficult for the Japanese aircraft industry to export fuel systems...JAPAN-WEEKLY in English 22 Dec 86 pp 2, 3 [Text] The Defense Agency (JDA) sent a seven-man survey team, led by Internal Bureau R&D Director...sections; internal and external winchs; internal cargo handling system; additional fuel tanks; rotor brake and so on. TRDI Completes Tests on AQM-1

  5. Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishitoya, Junichi; Sakuma, Yasunori; Tsukuda, Mamoru

    2010-09-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis is a heterogeneous disease. In Europe and the United States, it has recently been divided into two subgroups: chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). The majority of CRSwNP cases have a strong tendency to recur after surgery and show eosinophil-dominant inflammation. However, this definition has proved difficult to apply in Japan and East Asia, because more than half of the CRSwNP cases do not exhibit eosinophil-dominant inflammation in these areas of the world. In Japan in the 1990s, refractory CRSwNP to the standard treatment was focused on in clinical studies and the term "eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis" (ECRS) was introduced to identify this subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis in 2001. ECRS is different from non-ECRS in terms of many clinical features: symptom appearance, occurrence site of nasal polyps, CT scan findings, the histology of nasal polyps, blood examination findings, clinical course after surgery, and co-morbid asthma, etc. In this review, we describe these clinical features and mention how to make a clinical diagnosis of ECRS as well as how to treat it. Finally, we discuss the pathophysiology of ECRS. The concept of ECRS in Japan would be applicable for CRSwNP in other countries including Europe and the United States.

  6. Dermatological legal claims in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sachiko; Isogawa, Naoyuki; Ushiro, Shin; Ayuzawa, Junko; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-07-01

    Health-care safety management has recently been highlighted for patient safety. However, specialist-based risks in clinical settings have hardly been discussed in Japan so far. A review of dermatological legal claims may delineate these risks. This study examined court precedents from the databases "Courts in Japan" and LEX/DB. Thirty-four dermatology-related civil cases were found from 1968-2006. Of the 34 cases, 32 (94%) were judged and two (6%) were retried. Of these 32 cases, 11 (34%) were appealed to higher courts. Among the 34 litigations, the defendants of eight (23%) were dermatology specialists, 20 (59%) were non-dermatologists and six (18%) of unknown specialty. The defendants' negligence was determined at either level in court in 25 of the 34 cases. The negligence in these 25 cases was categorized into five groups: (i) delayed diagnosis (none); (ii) complication during diagnosis procedure (one, 4%); (iii) inappropriate treatment (nine, 36%); (iv) complication during treatment procedure (10, 40%); and (v) insufficient informed consent (five, 20%). The present study may help to improve strategies for health-care safety management in the dermatological field in Japan.

  7. Japan's hidden youths: mainstreaming the emotionally distressed in Japan.

    PubMed

    Borovoy, Amy

    2008-12-01

    One of the most talked-about social issues in Japan in recent years has been the problem of the nation's purportedly one million "hidden" youths, known as hikikomori (literally, "the withdrawn"). Most observers agree that the category of hikikomori encompasses a wide range of problems and provocations. The fact that these various dilemmas lead to the shared outcome of shutting oneself away at home is the point of departure here. The article explores the spheres of mental health care, education and family, focusing on the reluctance to highlight underlying psychological dimensions of hikikomori and the desire on the part of schools and families to "mainstream" Japanese children, accommodating as many as possible within standardized public education. Hikikomori can perhaps be seen as a manifestation of Japanese democracy, in which the good society is imagined as cohesive, protective and secure, rather than one in which the individual can freely exercise the right to be different. Schools, families and the sphere of mental health care have focused on producing social inclusion but have discouraged citizens from being labeled as "different" -- even when such a distinction might help them. The dearth of facilities and discourse for caring for the mentally ill or learning disabled is, in many respects, the darker side of Japan's successes. Those who cannot adjust are cared for through the institutions of families, companies and various other spheres that offer spaces to rest and to temporarily "drop out"; however, the expectation is that rest will eventually lead to a re-entry into mainstream society. Often the psychological problem or disability that led to the problem goes unnamed and untreated (hikikomori, psychiatry, special education, youth, family, Japan).

  8. Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, David H; Menlove, Howard O; Hori, Masato; Kawakubo, Yoko; Mcclelland - Kerr, J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

  9. Neurosurgeons in Japan Are Exclusively Brain Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Asamoto, Shunji

    2017-03-01

    In Japan, neurosurgeons have traditionally mainly treated brain diseases, with most cases involving the spine and spinal diseases historically being treated by orthopedists. Nowadays, spinal surgery is 1 of the many subspecialties in the neurosurgical field in Japan. Most patients with neurological deficits or suspected neurological diseases see board-certified neurosurgeons directly in Japan, not through referrals from family physicians or specialists in other fields. Problems originating in the spine and spinal cord have been overlooked or misdiagnosed in these situations. Neurosurgeons in Japan must rethink the educational program to include advanced trauma life support and spinal surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Research on Winter Lightning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Masaru

    Winter lightning in Japan is known for such characteristics as frequent occurrence of upward lightning and of positive ground flashes. On the engineering side, higher frequencies of troubles at transmission lines or wind turbines in winter due to lightning than those in summer have been experienced in the winter thunderstorm area of Japan, despite the much smaller number of lightning strokes in winter observed by lightning location systems (LLS). Such frequent troubles by lightning in the cold season are unique in Japan, which have promoted intensive research on winter lightning in Japan since 1980s.

  11. The Growing Role of Japan in International Politics and Economics. Japan Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, James

    With its increasing economic importance throughout the world, Japan has the potential to expand its political influence as well. Generally, however, Japan has been reluctant to use its growing power to influence political affairs both in Asia and in the rest of the world. This digest surveys the factors affecting Japan's role in world affairs, and…

  12. Teachers' Unions and the Politics of Education in Japan. SUNY Series on Japan in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspinall, Robert W.

    In 1989, the Japan Teachers' Union, Nikkyoso, split into two unions after 2 years of factional infighting. Japan has two political camps, the governing conservative Liberal Democratic Party and the left-wing Japan Socialist Party. The teachers' union is a powerful member in the camp of the latter. This book incorporates studies of the links…

  13. Japan and Iraq: A Comparison

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-10

    and military infrastructure simply vanished in the whirlwind of Operation Iraqi Freedom. A memo from General Fellers , MacArthur’s Military...vi Ibid, pp 324-5. vii MacArthur in Japan, p 203. viii Ibid, pp 73-4. ix Cobra II, Michael R. Gordon and General Bernard E. Trainor, p 531 x...Beginner’s Guide, p 100. xv Dower, pp 360-373. xvi Looking At Germany xvii Iraqi Constitution xviii Dower, p 562. xix Gordon , et al, p 563. xx

  14. Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-10

    The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan has the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world at 1991 m. The total length of the bridge is 3911 m. It links the city of Kobe on the mainland of Honshu to Iwaya on Awaji Island, crossing the busy Akashi Strait. The image was acquired April 26, 2014, covers an area of 8.1 by 11.2 km, and is located at 34.6 degrees north, 135 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19747

  15. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  16. Japan Biotech Forum: London 2010.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamahi, Asma

    2010-11-01

    The Japan Biotech Forum, held in London, included topics covering new licensing developments in the Japanese pharma and biotech industries. This conference report highlights selected presentations on licensing opportunities from several Japanese companies, including CanBas, LivTech, REGiMMUNE, D Western Therapeutics Institute and Chiome Bioscience. Investigational drugs discussed include CBP-501 (CanBas), LIV-2008 (LivTech), RGI-2001 (REGiMMUNE), IVX-214 (D Western Therapeutics Institute/ Nippon Shinyaku) and anti-Sema 3A (Chiome Bioscience).

  17. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  18. Japan taxis already on LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, K.D.

    1980-09-15

    Most of Japan's taxi fleet has been using liquefied propane or butane gas for more than a decade. About 45,000 taxis in Tokyo, logging an average of approx. 75,000 mi/yr, use LPG because of significant (50%) savings on fuel costs. LPG use requires good engineering of the vehicle and rigorous maintenance, including a mandatory change of gas tanks every two years. Peoples Gas Light and Coke Co. is planning to fuel its fleet of automotive vehicles with natural gas.

  19. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  20. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  1. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  2. On earthquake prediction in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeda, Seiya

    2013-01-01

    Japan's National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author's view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology - on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors.

  3. MIPS Standard activities in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akisada, M

    1990-01-01

    The Medical Image Processing System (MIPS) plan is a standard plan for the online communication of imaging data in Japan. The ACR-NEMA Standard is not always easy for manufacturers in Japan to comply with. This situation led to the formulation of MIPS Plan Minimum Set-87 (MIPS Standard-87), which uses reciprocal corresponding patterns to ACR-NEMA Standards. The working groups on current and future trends study data collected with a questionnaire in 1985 regarding (1) current technology and (2) its future direction as well as (3) the status of utilization of medical imaging and its data management. In 1986, they engaged in further investigations on the above subjects and presented their views on standardization. Conformance tests have been discussed and the conclusions were published in 1987 and 1988. Protocol conversion between MIPS Standard-87 and ACR-NEMA Standard was also discussed and the conclusions were reported. At the beginning of 1988, validation from medical viewpoints, e.g. the setting of anatomical position codes, was requested by medical members. Each layer of MIPS is compared briefly with the ACR-NEMA Standard. A small picture archiving and communication (PAC) system for three X-ray computer tomography units (X-CTs) has been constructed at the University of Tokyo Hospital. In this implementation, X-CTs and an imaging filing system are successfully connected by MIPS Standard-87. Some problems of MIPS Standard-87 are mentioned.

  4. Educational Reform in Japan for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawachi, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the current state of affairs and reform in Japan in 2007 of the theory, policy, and practice of lifelong education. As in most countries, Japan has been talking of decentralisation in government, of giving more local autonomy to communities and of promoting individuality in education. In line with these aims, the government…

  5. Understanding earthquake design criteria used in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Park, Y.J.; Costello, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the current earthquake design criteria used in Japan for nuclear power plants. Information is presented on the codes and standards and seismic requirements for reactor buildings and containment structures. The most interesting features of the earthquake design criteria used in Japan, in the light of those used in the United States, are summarized.

  6. People of Japan: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Japan by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Japan is given, covering the following: history, government, the economy, education,…

  7. Outdoor Education and Camping in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebashi, Shinshiro

    Professor Shinshiro Ebashi of the University of Tokyo discusses outdoor education in Japan, especially in relation to legislation (e.g., the Sport Promotion Law of 1961) and programs endorsed by the Ministry of Education. A typical outdoor education program for junior-high students is given. Also discussed are the programs of the All Japan Senior…

  8. Outdoor Education and Camping in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebashi, Shinshiro

    Professor Shinshiro Ebashi of the University of Tokyo discusses outdoor education in Japan, especially in relation to legislation (e.g., the Sport Promotion Law of 1961) and programs endorsed by the Ministry of Education. A typical outdoor education program for junior-high students is given. Also discussed are the programs of the All Japan Senior…

  9. The trend of imported mycoses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Katsuhiko; Sano, Ayako; Kikuchi, Ken; Makimura, Koichi; Niimi, Masakazu; Suzuki, Kazuo; Uehara, Yoshimasa; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Nishimura, Kazuko; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-03-01

    Pathogenic fungi that are non-native in Japan are highly virulent and present a significant health hazard to persons in the environment into which they are introduced. Little is known, however, about the precise trend of infection by imported mycoses in Japan. To clarify this issue, all available cases were collected through a search of MEDLINE and Japana Centra Revuo Medicine and analyzed. Also included in this analysis were cases not reported in the literature for which the authors provided identification of the fungi, diagnosis, or treatment. The analysis revealed that, for three diseases, the number of imported mycoses cases in Japan is much higher than previously reported: 31 cases of coccidioidomycosis, 34 cases of histoplasmosis, and 17 cases of paracoccidioidomycosis. Additionally, one case of penicilliosis marneffei was found. The most rapid increase in the incidence of these mycoses occurred from 1991 to 1995. Analysis of the patients' profiles provided the following information: (1) coccidioidomycosis infection in Japan is increasing very rapidly, (2) Japan might be an endemic area of histoplasmosis infection, (3) histoplasmosis is a potentially fatal disease; and (4) reliable serodiagnostic methods have been used only infrequently. Because of the increase of international travel and immigration, the incidence of imported mycoses in Japan is expected to continue rising, and mycoses that have never been reported in Japan, such as blastomycosis, might also be encountered in the near future. To cope with this newly emerging health problem to residents of Japan, the Japanese medical system must train its members to identify and treat mycoses.

  10. 61 FR 41181 - Vector Supercomputers From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Vector Supercomputers From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION..., by reason of imports from Japan of vector supercomputers that are alleged to be sold in the...

  11. Japanese Higher Education and Japan's "Internationalization" (Kokusaika).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Paul J.

    An educational foundation (interdisciplinary) approach is used to examine the development of Japan in order to discover what role, if any, the Japanese higher educational system can play in the internationalization of the country. Some historical, geopolitical, and sociocultural background is provided. It is suggested that Japan can no longer…

  12. Teaching about Japan in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Helen W.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that a good starting point for social studies curriculum units on Japan at the secondary school level is an analysis of the interrelationships between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on population figures, industrialization, standard of living indicators, consumer price indexes, and crude birth and death rates for…

  13. Political Literacy in Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Mizuyama, Mitsuharu; Ikeno, Norio; Parmenter, Lynne; Mori, Chiho

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss findings from the project "Political Literacy in Japan and England". They do so to follow up on work published in this journal in 2011. The now completed project involved two schools in England and three schools in Japan, and had the aim of exploring what teachers would do in each country when asked to use the same…

  14. Highlights of Good Manufacturing Practice in Japan.

    PubMed

    Morita, K

    1990-01-01

    Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in the pharmaceutical industry originated in the United States. Japan, having absorbed many things from the U.S., is actively seeking to establish Good Manufacturing Practice to match the pharmaceutical manufacturing climate in Japan. Several of the themes which highlight Japanese GMP efforts are presented below.

  15. Japan: Language Policy and Planning in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    This monograph discusses the language situation in Japan, with an emphasis on language planning and policy. Japan has long considered itself to be a monoethnic and therefore monolingual society, despite the existence of substantial old-comer ethnic minorities, and this--with the instrumental exception of English--has been reflected in its language…

  16. Human Infections with Borrelia miyamotoi, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kozue; Takano, Ai; Konnai, Satoru; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Takuya; Koyama, Kojiro; Kaneko, Minoru; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    We confirmed infection of 2 patients with Borrelia miyamotoi in Japan by retrospective surveillance of Lyme disease patients and detection of B. miyamotoi DNA in serum samples. One patient also showed seroconversion for antibody against recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase of B. miyamotoi. Indigenous relapsing fever should be considered a health concern in Japan. PMID:25061761

  17. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  18. Perspectives on Japan: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John J., Ed.; Schneider, Donald O., Ed.

    Provided are some perspectives, ideas, and resources for teaching about Japan and the Japanese. A major objective is to provide an opportunity for K-12 students to study a culture that can be both compared and contrasted to their own. Following an introduction, which provides a rationale for teaching about Japan, there are three major parts.…

  19. Educational Reform in Japan for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawachi, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the current state of affairs and reform in Japan in 2007 of the theory, policy, and practice of lifelong education. As in most countries, Japan has been talking of decentralisation in government, of giving more local autonomy to communities and of promoting individuality in education. In line with these aims, the government…

  20. Crisis of Public Broadcasting Japan's Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabira, Chosei

    The public broadcasting service in Japan, the NHK, is a nongovernmental, noncommercial, and nonprofit making organization that is financed solely by fees collected from viewing households. At present, 80% of the total number of households in Japan have a contract with NHK and 96.5% of these households have actually paid the receiving fee to NHK.…

  1. Learning by the Aged in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekiguchi, Reiko W.

    This paper discusses demographic changes in Japan, the sources of pleasure of the retired Japanese senior citizen, and lifelong learning. It also describes a study that examined learning preferences of Japanese senior citizens. Data for 1983 show that life expectancy has increased in Japan to 74.20 years for males and 79.78 for females. The level…

  2. Japan's Winning Margins. Management, Training, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorriman, John; Kenjo, Takashi

    This book explains the fundamental reasons for Japan's astonishing commercial success in relation to its Western competitors. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 discusses implications of Japanese history for education, training, and management. Chapter 3 looks at the first winning margin--education. It covers the following: Japan's long…

  3. Permanent disability social insurance programs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Rajnes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Japan's permanent disability social insurance programs. Because there is limited information available about these programs in the literature outside Japan, this analysis helps to further international disability research. Primary public pension systems and their corresponding programs for permanently disabled workers and their families are described, including trends in the number of beneficiaries and benefit expenditures. Importantly, the article analyzes the determination and appeals processes in Japan for claiming permanent social insurance disability pensions. The study also references the Social Security Disability Insurance program operating in the United States and offers comparisons with the system in Japan, which provides insights about operational procedures to researchers and policymakers in both countries. Permanent disability programs in Japan and the United States share similar characteristics, including aspects of their benefit determination and appeals procedures. However, these country program experiences diverge markedly in several areas, making the comparison worthwhile from a policy perspective.

  4. Cultural characteristics of nursing practice in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Mayuko; Ishigaki, Kazuko; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Fujita, Junko; Katakura, Naoko; Ogata, Yasuko; Mochizuki, Yuki; Okamoto, Yuko; Shinohara, Yuko

    2016-04-01

    The population of Japan has become multi-cultural, and there is more demand for culturally competent nursing care. The purpose of this study was to explore cultural characteristics of nursing practice in Japan focusing on behaviour. We interviewed 25 professionals with experience in or knowledge of nursing practice both in Japan and either the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Thailand or South Korea. Qualitative content analysis has yielded three themes for cultural characteristics of nursing practice in Japan: practice expectations, communication and relationships with patients. Practice expectations for nurses in Japan involved various aspects; nurses conducted a wide range of basic nursing tasks, including bed baths and toileting. They often relied on non-verbal communication to deliver thoughtfulness and perceptiveness. They typically show deference to doctors and colleagues, emphasizing building and maintaining harmony with them. This emphasis on a multifaceted, non-verbal, and harmonious approach seemed characteristic of practice among Japanese nurses. © 2016 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Space debris studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Susumu; Yasaka, Tetsuo

    1993-08-01

    The Space Debris Study Group of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences was established in September 1990 and the Interim Report was published in January 1992. The group has five subgroups: Observation, Cause, Modeling, Protection, and Social Impact. It intends to promote an awareness for the problem and put together related researches, to define the urgently needed activity area by first describing the present situation in each engineering field and then summarizing on-going respective researches. It is expected that sound technological base line understandings to the problem are to be attained at various institutions. International cooperations are indispensable, and Japanese efforts should be focused on those which do not duplicate but are complementary to achievements in other countries. Some of the results obtained by the group are presented and several examples of individual researches are summarized.

  6. DNA Data Bank of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mashima, Jun; Kodama, Yuichi; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Katayama, Toshiaki; Okuda, Yoshihiro; Kaminuma, Eli; Ogasawara, Osamu; Okubo, Kousaku; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2017-01-01

    The DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) has been providing public data services for thirty years (since 1987). We are collecting nucleotide sequence data from researchers as a member of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, http://www.insdc.org), in collaboration with the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). The DDBJ Center also services Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive (JGA), with the National Bioscience Database Center to collect human-subjected data from Japanese researchers. Here, we report our database activities for INSDC and JGA over the past year, and introduce retrieval and analytical services running on our supercomputer system and their recent modifications. Furthermore, with the Database Center for Life Science, the DDBJ Center improves semantic web technologies to integrate and to share biological data, for providing the RDF version of the sequence data. PMID:27924010

  7. [Pediatric renal transplant in Japan].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kazuharu

    2010-09-01

    Transplantation is the optimal renal replacement therapy for children with end-stage renal disease. Compared with dialysis, successful transplantation in children and adolescents not only ameliorates uremic symptoms but also allows for significant improvement of delayed growth, sexual maturation, and psychosocial functioning. The child with a well-functioning kidney can enjoy a quality of life that cannot be achieved with dialysis therapy. The 5- and 10-year patient/graft survival rate in transplant recipients are 97.9/88.8% and 96.2%/79.4% based on Japanese Renal Transplant Registry Society data. This article reviews recent reports of pediatric renal transplantation including ABO-incompatible and preemptive renal transplantation in Japan.

  8. The Beveridge Report and Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yoneyuki

    2014-01-01

    After World War II, Japanese health insurance systems rejected the idea of a flat-rate premium contribution, a central concept in the Beveridge Report. Allegedly, outside of Great Britain, no other country was more influenced by this Report than Japan. However, the postwar Japanese health insurance systems adopted flat-rate benefits and earnings-related contributions, a clear rejection of the flat-rate premium contributions for flat-rate benefits advocated in the Report. This is not just a simple difference from the premium contributions method, it throws up fundamental questions concerning the essence of social insurance, and ultimately, the power of the State and the relationship between the State and the individual. This article aims to analyze the reasons for this rejection.

  9. Venomous Snake Bites in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Hideki; Matsuda, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    Few reliable data are available on the incidence of snake bites in developing and developed nations. Insufficient epidemiologic data have hindered the recognition of snake bite as an important public health issue. We verified statistics of snake bites (mamushi and habu bites) in Japan by using a currently available, nationally representative, hospital-based database. We identified 1,670 inpatients with snake bites from 404 hospitals during July 1–December 31 in 2007 and 2008. More than 60% were males, the average age was 60.1 years, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 0.2%. The incidence of mamushi bite, distributed between latitudes 30°N and 46°N, was estimated to be 1.67 bites/100,000/6 months. It is important to continue collecting all available data to monitor the trends of this life-threatening disease. PMID:21212215

  10. Sanger Center reaches out. Japan.

    PubMed

    1997-06-01

    In an interview with the Japanese Family Planning Association (FPA), Alexander Sanger, president of Margaret Sanger Center International (MSCI), Planned Parenthood of New York City (PPNYC), sketched the history of the clinic and research center founded by his grandmother, Margaret Sanger. The first person to come to the clinic from another country for training was Shidzue Kato of Japan. In addition to providing FP services and training, the clinic became known as a research center for new methods of contraception. After its 1973 merger with PPNYC, the clinic continued to function as an international training center with funding from the US Agency for International Development and the UN Population Fund. MSCI works with governments and nongovernmental organizations worldwide and focuses on 1) improving quality of care in FP clinics, 2) integrating FP into primary health-care centers, 3) promoting family life education, 4) improving male involvement in FP, 5) HIV/AIDS education, and 6) training FPAs in FP and women's rights advocacy. Sanger noted that FP advocates in the US were unsuccessful in lobbying to prevent a decrease in US funding of international FP programs (down to $385 million in 1996 from $548 million in 1994). Sanger called upon Japan and European countries to help make US politicians understand that providing FP funding is a responsibility of the most powerful nation in the world. Rather than cutting support, the US should be increasing funds for international FP efforts in conjunction with the US commitment to the International Conference on Population and Development's Program of Action.

  11. SURVIVAL OF CENTENARIANS IN JAPAN.

    PubMed

    Murotani, Kenta; Zhou, Bin; Kaneda, Hideaki; Nakatani, Eiji; Kojima, Shinsuke; Nagai, Yoji; Fukushima, Masanori

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the survival trends of centenarians in Japan. A cohort of centenarians born between 1881 and 1900 was analysed based on national census data, and the average life expectancy at 100 years of age, risk of death and maximum age were estimated. An analysis of covariance and a Cox regression analysis were performed to explore the factors associated with life expectancy and risk of death. The death rates in centenarians tended to decrease with birth year, and the average life expectancy from the age of 100 slightly increased at a rate of 0.013 years (95% CI: 0.007-0.019) by birth year in men and 0.026 in women. Women had a longer life expectancy than men, with a difference of 0.174 years (95% CI: 0.071-0.277) at birth year 1881 and increasing by 0.013 years per year thereafter. The risk of death in both sexes decreased significantly by birth year over the course of the period analysed, and the risk of death in men was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.14-1.19) times that of women. In women, death rates at every age significantly decreased with birth year over the course of the period analysed until age 104. However, this trend did not hold true for ages 105 and older. The average life expectancy of centenarians at the age of 100 in Japan increased by birth year in the 1881-1900 birth cohort. In addition, Japanese centenarians had the lowest death rates among several countries.

  12. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  13. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  14. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan.

  15. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2016-11-01

    Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis) and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause clinical signs in a dog and in humans. This review documents the studies and reports about Anaplasma spp. in Japan.

  16. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis) and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause clinical signs in a dog and in humans. This review documents the studies and reports about Anaplasma spp. in Japan. PMID:27956767

  17. Infection control in healthcare settings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Morikane, Keita

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, the practice of infection control in healthcare settings has a short history of less than 3 decades. Before that, infection control practices were far from perfect and even ignored. This review summarizes changes in infection control in Japan since the 1980s and offers some comparisons with practices in foreign countries, especially the United States. Infection control is far better now than 25 years ago, but there remain fundamental issues that limit the development of better infection control practices. These problems include insufficient funding and human resources due to the socialized healthcare insurance system in Japan and the lack of interest in infection control research.

  18. Ferret hepatitis E virus infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Terada, Yutaka; Takeda, Naokazu; Takaji, Wakita; Maeda, Ken

    2015-01-01

    We examined 85 fecal samples from pet ferrets in 10 animal hospitals in Japan for the detection of ferret hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA. We found that 6 (7.1%) of the samples were positive for ferret HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial ORF1 indicated that these ferret HEV strains were clearly separated from the Netherlands strains and were divided into 2 distinct clusters. These results suggest that ferret HEV is genetically diverse, and since ferrets are not indigenous to Japan, ferret HEV has been introduced into Japan through importation.

  19. Teaching Primary School Children about Japan through Art. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Patricia Berg

    There are a variety reasons for teaching about Japan. Many students in the United States are of Japanese heritage; Japan is the second largest trading partner of the United States; and some healing still needs to occur between the United States and Japan because of the damage and pain of World War II. Further, the Unites States and Japan share the…

  20. Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook. Third Edition Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Roberta, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to supplement and enliven standard textbook presentations of Japan, this workbook, through student exercises, seeks to answer some of the most common questions U.S. students have about Japan and its people. Classes exploring only one aspect of Japan as well as those seeking an integrated picture of Japan's traditional culture and…

  1. Deoxygenation of Lake Ikeda, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, R.; Hasegawa, N.

    2010-12-01

    Lake Ikeda (Kagoshima prefecture, Japan) is a deep lake with a maximum depth of 233 m. Monitoring data of lake Ikeda exist since 1975. We have analyzed the long-term variability in the water conditions of Lake Ikeda. Recently, Lake Ikeda has exhibited the phenomenon of incomplete overturning because of climate warming. The concentrations of DO (dissolved oxygen) in the deepest parts of the lake have reduced. This phenomenon was observed to have started in the 1980s, and gradually, the deepest parts of the lake became anoxic. Later, the anoxic layer became thicker. Currently, winter mixing in Lake Ikeda reaches to depths of only 100 m. According to our simple estimation, the total volume of oxygen in Lake Ikeda will reduce from approximately 70% in the mid-1980s to 40% by the end of 2010. In addition to this phenomenon, the oxygen concentration appears to vary with several years oscillations. The depths to which mixing occurs depends on the severity of the winter, such as the air temperature during the winter season. The mixing period generally occurs in February; hence, the limnological year is considered to start in February. During our analysis period, the total DO mass showed high values in 1996, 2001, and 2003. Air temperature data obtained for regions near Lake Ikeda (the station name is Ibusuki) are used to clarify the cause of the high DO mass values in the three abovementioned years. During the period prior to the occurrence of the high DO mass in February 1996, i.e., in December 1995 and January 1996, the air temperature was low. Similarly, in 2001 and 2003, the air temperature was low in January (one month before the high DO mass was observed). In January 2001 and 2003, the AO (Atlantic Oscillation) index was negative. When the AO index is negative, there tends to be a greater movement of cold polar air into mid-latitudinal regions including Japan (Yamakawa, 2005). This movement induced a low air temperature in Ibusuki, and consequently, a high DO mass

  2. [Japan Trauma Data Bank (JTDB) managed by Japan Trauma Care and Research (JTCR)].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Junichiro

    2016-02-01

    Japan Trauma Care and Research (JTCR) was founded for operating the trauma care education and research in 2005. Japan Advanced Trauma Evaluation and Care (JATEC) is an educational program of trauma care established by The Japanese Association for The Surgery of Trauma (JAST) and the Japanese Association of Acute Medicine (JAAM), managed by JTCR. The Japan Trauma Data Bank (JTDB) is the only database organization of Japan trauma registry that was also established by JAST and JAAM, and managed by JTCR. Registry data that is collected from the JTDB is compiled annually and disseminated in the forms of hospital benchmark reports, data quality reports, and research data sets.

  3. Satellite Radar Measures Tohoku, Japan Earthquake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-01

    This radar image, called a coseismic interferogram, using satellite data from the European Space Agency Envisat depicts ground displacements resulting from the March 11, 2011, magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake in Japan.

  4. US--Japan energy policy consultations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    These papers, from the US--Japan Energy Policy Consultations Meeting in Hawaii, deal with topics relating to: energy outlook; electric utilities; nuclear energy; coal and petroleum based energies; and new energy source development. (JF)

  5. US--Japan energy policy consultations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    These papers, from the US--Japan Energy Policy Consultations Meeting in Hawaii, deal with topics relating to: energy outlook; electric utilities; nuclear energy; coal and petroleum based energies; and new energy source development. (JF)

  6. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  7. 67 FR 2454 - Sodium Azide From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sodium Azide From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination... determine whether termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on sodium azide from...

  8. 62 FR 770 - Sodium Azide from Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sodium Azide from Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Cancellation of hearing and briefs. EFFECTIVE DATE: December 30, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  9. [Cutaneous mycoses in Japan originating from animals].

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Human cases of dermatophytoses are occasionally transmitted from animals, and suffered from tinea corporis and sometimes Kerion celsi. The most frequent causative agent of these diseases is Microsporum canis. The other dermatophyte, Arthroderma benhamiae is now prevailing in rabbits, rodents and hedgehogs that are popular household pets in Japan. Therefore, some human cases of A. benhamiae infection were reported and the transmission of this infection from rabbits and rodents was confirmed.Cryptococcosis is regarded as dangerous zoonosis, but its transmission from animal to peoples has not been documented in Japan. Animal cases of cryptococcosis are possible to increase in number by developing immunosuppressive animals as well as by spreading of newly introduced C. gattii to Japan.Animal cases of sporotrichosis are rarely reported in Japan. However, feline sporotrichosis should be prevented and promptly treated since it easily transmitted to people from cat lesions and the exudates where copious numbers of organisms are found in tissues.

  10. Dismay at Japan's new whaling targets.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nigel

    2007-12-18

    The fleet setting off last month for Japan's largest target for scientific whaling, including up to 50 humpback whales, the lucrative stars of whale-watching tourists worldwide, is set to face a battle with infuriated governments, researchers and conservationists.

  11. Japan’s Rearmament Dilemma: Obstacles to Rearmament.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    world, surely Japan could afford to spend more for her defense if she needed to, but the fact remains Japan has chosen not to rearm massively. The last...upon the military power of the U.S., relieved Japan of costly military expenditures . Zbigniew Brezezinski has pointed out that Japan’s low defense ...first" policy, which has been supported in a large measure by the minimal defense spendings , is under severe strain. As Japan saw a continuing U.S

  12. Applications of artificial intelligence in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, N.; Ohsato, A.

    1988-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive report on the recent research and development of artificial intelligence (AI) in Japan, focusing especially on industrial applications. First, historical background of AI research and the future trends of AI Marketing in Japan are reported. Then, industrial applications of AI are introduced with respect to three fields: expert systems, machine translation, and applications of fuzzy set theory. Finally, problems for future research projects are outlined. 21 references.

  13. Distant Mt. Fuji, Island of Honshu Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This distant view of Mt. Fuji, on the main home island of Honshu, Japan (34.0N, 139.0E) was taken from about 450 miles to the south. Evan at that great distance, the majestic and inspiring Mt. Fuji is still plainly visible and easily recognized as a world renowned symbol of Japan. The snow capped extinct volcano lies just a few miles south of Tokyo.

  14. Research and improving web accessibility in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Hitoshi; Ando, Masaya; Ohta, Kenji; Shimizu, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Yoshio; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Yamazaki, Ryoji

    2001-12-01

    Internet use by the people with disabilities and the elderly in Japan is still low, but growing. However, the majority of web contents written in Japanese, even government sites, have very low accessibility. This paper introduces the active measures being taken in Japan to improve such conditions; consideration of a web contents accessibility guideline tailored to the unique characteristics of the Japanese language, development of a system to evaluate accessibility and implementation of actual trials.

  15. Distant Mt. Fuji, Island of Honshu Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-11-01

    This distant view of Mt. Fuji, on the main home island of Honshu, Japan (34.0N, 139.0E) was taken from about 450 miles to the south. Evan at that great distance, the majestic and inspiring Mt. Fuji is still plainly visible and easily recognized as a world renowned symbol of Japan. The snow capped extinct volcano lies just a few miles south of Tokyo.

  16. Progress in infant health in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) defined as the number of infant and newborn deaths per 1000 live births, respectively, are widely accepted as population indicators of the level of perinatal and postnatal health. Since the end of World War II, Japan has made substantial progress in reducing its IMR and NMR. This resulted from improving living standards and the provision of universal maternal and child health care (MCH) services. Okinawa, the island prefecture that is the furthest from mainland Japan, had the third highest IMR and the highest low-birth-weight rate (LBW) among all prefectures when its statistics were integrated into Japan in 1973. Even though the LBW rate in Okinawa has remained higher than the all-Japan average, Okinawa has shown a considerable improvement in IMR and NMR. The aim is to review the trends in IMR, NMR, and LBW in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss sociodemographic trends, economics, and the provision of health care services. The IMR and NMR in Okinawa decreased during that time from 14.8 to 2.4 and from 7.5 to 0.8, respectively. The LBW rate decreased until the mid-1980s, but since then it has increased to 11.5 (Okinawa) and 9.6 (Japan) in 2009. Okinawa's public health and primary health care model for infants has been very successful and may be applicable to child health in island nations of the Asia-Pacific region.

  17. [History of pandemic influenza in Japan].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Keizo

    2010-09-01

    In Japan, influenza like epidemics were described many times since Heian era. However, Spanish flu as the modern medicine invaded Japan in 1918, thus almost infected 390,000 patients died with associated pneumonia. After the discovery of influenza virus in 1933, Japan experienced pandemic influenza--Asian flu(H2N2) in 1957. After about 10 years, Hong Kong flu (H3N2) came to Japan at 1968. However, we had many reliable antibiotics but had not any antiviral drug at the early time. After year 2000, we fortunately obtained reliable three antiviral drugs such as amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. Moreover, very useful rapid test kits for influenza A and B viruses were developed and used in Japan. 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic occured in Japan after the great epidemic in Mexico and North America but elderly patient was few. With together, host conditions regarding with high risk are changing. Lessons from past several pandemic influenza are those that many issues for changing high risk conditions, viral genetic changes, developing antiviral agents, developing new useful vaccins and determinating bacterial secondary pathogens are important.

  18. Monitoring Obesity Trends in Health Japan 21.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of non-communicable diseases is more important than ever especially for the elderly to live a healthy life in the super-aged society of Japan. In 2000, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan started Health Japan 21 as goal-oriented health promotion plan like Healthy People in the US and the Health of the Nation in the UK. Its second term started in 2013 with the aim of prolonging healthy life expectancy and reducing health inequalities. Improvement in both individuals' lifestyle and their social environment will help achieve the goal of the 2nd Health Japan 21. The National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) is conducted every year to monitor the health and nutritional situation of the Japanese using a representative population. The NHNS data are useful for target setting and evaluation of the 2nd Health Japan 21, and the NHNS has shown an increasing trend of overweight (BMI≥25) only for male adults in the most recent 10 y. In contrast, the dietary intake survey of the NHNS shows a decreasing trend of total energy intake both in male and female adults aged 69 y old or younger, and the trend for physical activity is not well known. Thus, we need further investigations on the causes of the obesity trend in Japan.

  19. On Earthquake Prediction in Japan

    PubMed Central

    UYEDA, Seiya

    2013-01-01

    Japan’s National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author’s view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology — on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

  20. DNA Data Bank of Japan.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Jun; Kodama, Yuichi; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Katayama, Toshiaki; Okuda, Yoshihiro; Kaminuma, Eli; Ogasawara, Osamu; Okubo, Kousaku; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2017-01-04

    The DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) has been providing public data services for thirty years (since 1987). We are collecting nucleotide sequence data from researchers as a member of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, http://www.insdc.org), in collaboration with the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). The DDBJ Center also services Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive (JGA), with the National Bioscience Database Center to collect human-subjected data from Japanese researchers. Here, we report our database activities for INSDC and JGA over the past year, and introduce retrieval and analytical services running on our supercomputer system and their recent modifications. Furthermore, with the Database Center for Life Science, the DDBJ Center improves semantic web technologies to integrate and to share biological data, for providing the RDF version of the sequence data. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  2. Cord blood transplantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Cord blood transplantation (CBT) has increasingly been used in Japan and the annual number of CBT now exceeds 1,200. The cumulative number of CBT reached 12,853 in 2015, accounting for almost 1/3 of total CBT performed worldwide. It is true that smaller body size and lower costs, as compared to western countries, have been advantages for Japanese people in using CB as graft alternative. In addition, several novel findings regarding serious issues following CBT have been obtained, which further enhanced the use of CB. First, several mechanisms of engraftment failure following CBT other than cell dose have been reported, such as the presence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies or the development of hemophagocytic syndrome. Second, unique profiles of infectious complications following CBT have been reported, such as higher incidences of early bacterial infections and HHV-6 encephalitis, as compared to those following bone marrow (BM)/peripheral blood (PB) transplants. Third, the incidence of disease relapse was comparable to those following BM/PB transplants. Novel pre-transplant conditioning regimens using intravenous busulfan have been investigated with promising results being obtained to date. A recent analysis of Japanese transplant registry data revealed similar survival following CBT to HLA-matched unrelated BM/PB transplants.

  3. X ray lithography in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, James T.; Hill, Robert W.; Cerrina, Franco; Fuller, Gene E.; Pease, R. F.

    1991-10-01

    Integrated circuits (semiconductors) are the key components of modern computers, communication systems, consumer electronics, and the new generations of smart machines and instruments. Japan's strong position and growing influence in the manufacture of semiconductors and systems based on them is well known and well documented. Microlithography is one the most critical elements of the semiconductor manufacturing process because it determines the minimum feature size and the functional capabilities of the semiconductor. Because it is used many times in the manufacturing sequence, the quality of the microlithography process (i.e., number of defects, control for feature size, etc.) is critical in determining the yield and cost of semiconductors and hence the competitiveness of the electronics industry. At present all volume semiconductor manufacturing is done with optical UV (ultraviolet) projection lithography, twenty-year-old photographic technology which has been and is still evolving. There are many issues that limit the technical capability and cost-effectiveness of UV lithography, and thus, alternate lithographic techniques are continuously being researched and developed. X-ray lithography, which was invented in the early 1970's, holds the promise of providing higher yields in manufacturing semiconductors by virtue of enhanced process latitude, process robustness, and resolution.

  4. Life in Japan: A Culture Studies Unit for Grades 7-9. Today's Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Enrichment, Inc., Williamsburg, VA.

    This unit's multidisciplinary approach is well-suited to students in grades 7 through 9. "Life in Japan" is a unit of "Today's Japan": Learning Environment's three level series on Japanese culture. This resource is designed to help teachers with this effort. The program was developed in consultation with classroom teachers by a…

  5. Stepping-Stones: Teaching about Japan in Elementary Grades. Selected Lesson Plans from the "Japan Alumni."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Elgin, Comp.

    This document is a compilation of 30 lesson plans for teaching about Japan in elementary grades. Produced by "Japan Alumni," North American classroom teachers who became acquainted with Japanese society through a program of travel/study fellowships, the lessons are divided into the following categories: motivational activities, land and…

  6. Japan and Georgia: Economic Partners. For Students in Grade Eight. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Jane; Morgan, Nancy

    This manual provides suggestions and materials for teaching about Japan. Designed as a supplement to typical textbook treatments, the lessons provide a range of readings, visuals, and activities to enrich and deepen student learning about Japan. Organized around topics dealing with history, geography, government, economics, and culture, the…

  7. [Future tuberculosis care in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shigeto, Eriko

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, the care of patients with tuberculosis has been mainly dependent on the state of hospital wards. The number of patients that have tuberculosis has steadily declined over the years, and we are now on the way to low prevalence state of tuberculosis. However there is a need for discussion about how future care for patients with tuberculosis should take place. The problems of present tuberculosis care system are as follows: (i) there is inefficiency and difficulty in maintaining the tuberculosis wards because of the declining number of patients and specialists; (ii) there are difficulties in treating complications such as renal insufficiency which requires blood dialysis, delivery, psychiatric diseases in tuberculosis beds; (iii) there is a high proportion of elderly patients that require substantial nursing care and long-term admission in the hospital; (iv) there is not only insufficient patient care but also financial support for patients with socioeconomic problems such as foreign-born worker or homelessness, (v) in addition to the medical care for patients of MDR-TB being insufficient, there are also inappropriate environment and amenities for long-term hospitalization. Moreover the public subsidy system for medical treatment requires patients to pay 5% of expense cost in the outpatient clinic. The following points should be discussed for the future tuberculosis care system: (i) general hospitals should take more part in caring for patients with complications and there should be a close cooperation among general hospitals, tuberculosis specialists and the administration; (ii) there should be a limited number of hospitals maintained for the integrated treatment of MDR-TB including surgical treatment and suitable circumstances for long-term hospital care. Additionally, there should be a system of detention for non-adherent patients or home isolation for adherent patient; (iii) there should be reinforcement of public commitment for patients with

  8. Ocean Science Communication in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

  9. Cooperation needed for securing Japan`s imports of refined products from neighbors

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Yasuo; Ogawa, Yoshike

    1996-08-26

    As of April 1996, Japan repealed the Provisional Law on Importation of Specified Petroleum Products (Plispp), thus further freeing imports from regulation. Since the dawn of the 1990s, Asia has suffered an imbalance of soaring oil demand and lack of refining capacity. In addition, to intraregional trade, product imports from outside the region, such as the US West Coast and the Mediterranean Sea, have expanded. Given such conditions in Asia, as well as japan`s stringent product specifications for environmental reasons, potential exporters of the three specified products (gasoline, diesel, and kerosene) in Asia should virtually be limited to the Republic of Korea (ROK), Taiwan, and Singapore. This study is designed to make an in-depth examination of the current and future supply/demand and trade for refined products of the three countries with respect to Japan`s potential import needs.

  10. Reconsidering Japan's underperformance in pharmaceuticals: evidence from Japan's anticancer drug sector.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Maki

    2010-01-01

    Unlike its automobile or electronics industries, Japan's pharmaceutical industry did not become a global leader. Japan remains a net importer of pharmaceuticals and has introduced few global blockbuster drugs. Alfred Chandler argued that Japan's pharmaceutical firms remained relatively weak because Western firms enjoyed an insurmountable first first-mover advantage. However, this case study of the anticancer drug sector illustrates that Chandler's explanation is incomplete. Japanese medical culture, government policy, and research environment also played a substantial role in shaping the industry. In the 1970s and 1980s, these factors encouraged firms to develop little few effective drugs with low side effects, and profit from Japan's domestic market. But, these drugs were unsuitable to foreign markets with more demanding efficacy standards. As a result, Japan not only lost more than a decade in developing ineffective drugs, but also neglected to create the infrastructure necessary to develop innovative drugs and build a stronger pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Electronics manufacturing and assembly in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukowski, John A.; Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    In the consumer electronics industry, precision processing technology is the basis for enhancing product functions and for minimizing components and end products. Throughout Japan, manufacturing technology is seen as critical to the production and assembly of advanced products. While its population has increased less than 30 percent over twenty-five years, Japan's gross national product has increase thirtyfold; this growth has resulted in large part from rapid replacement of manual operations with innovative, high-speed, large-scale, continuously running, complex machines that process a growing number of miniaturized components. The JTEC panel found that introduction of next-generation electronics products in Japan goes hand-in-hand with introduction of new and improved production equipment. In the panel's judgment, Japan's advanced process technologies and equipment development and its highly automated factories are crucial elements of its domination of the consumer electronics marketplace - and Japan's expertise in manufacturing consumer electronics products gives it potentially unapproachable process expertise in all electronics markets.

  12. Cenozoic rift tectonics of the Japan Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.

    1988-08-01

    The Japan Sea is one of the back-arc basins in trench-arc systems bordering the western Pacific. Recent paleomagnetic works suggest the Japan Sea opened during early to middle Miocene. Radiometric and microfossil ages of the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands elucidate the rift tectonics of the Japan Sea. The rifting history is summarized as follows: nonmarine volcanic formations of prerift stage before 50 Ma, rift-onset unconformity at 40 Ma, nonmarine volcanic formations of synrift stage 20-33 Ma, breakup unconformity 19 Ma showing the opening of the Japan Sea, marine volcanic and sedimentary formations of synrift stage 14.5-18 Ma, beginning of regional subsidence 14.5 Ma corresponding to the end of the Japan Sea opening, marine sedimentary formations of postdrift stage after 14.5 Ma. Rifting is not limited to the synrift stage but is continued to the syndrift stage. Rifting led to a horst-and-graben structure. Thus, the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands are suited for a study of rift tectonics because the sequences were subaerially exposed by the late Miocene-Holocene island-arc tectonics. Rift tectonics cannot be studied as easily in most Atlantic-type passive margins.

  13. Population support a priority for Japan.

    PubMed

    1991-05-01

    The Japanese government has approved an increase in both financial and technical assistance for family planning in developing countries for FY1991. Japan's contribution to the United National Population FUnd (UNFPA) will total US$56.8 million, a 1.83% increase from the previous year, and it will be the largest donation by any country. Japanese support of UNFPA has skyrocketed from an initial contribution of US$1.5 million to today's level. Besides its multilateral assistance through UNFPA, the country will also provide bilateral technical assistance through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Increasing by 7.8% from 1990, technical assistance will total US$8.54 million, and it will go to the following countries: Colombia, Egypt, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Peru, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. Japan will provide the equipment and supplies needed for transferring technical expertise from Japanese experts to personnel from the recipient countries. Japan will also host an international family planning seminar for developing countries. Japan's pledge of assistance reflects the country's desire to improve the social conditions and quality of life for people living in developing countries, and it indicated the growing awareness of the Japanese public concerning population and family planning issues.

  14. Electronics manufacturing and assembly in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukowski, John A.; Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    In the consumer electronics industry, precision processing technology is the basis for enhancing product functions and for minimizing components and end products. Throughout Japan, manufacturing technology is seen as critical to the production and assembly of advanced products. While its population has increased less than 30 percent over twenty-five years, Japan's gross national product has increase thirtyfold; this growth has resulted in large part from rapid replacement of manual operations with innovative, high-speed, large-scale, continuously running, complex machines that process a growing number of miniaturized components. The JTEC panel found that introduction of next-generation electronics products in Japan goes hand-in-hand with introduction of new and improved production equipment. In the panel's judgment, Japan's advanced process technologies and equipment development and its highly automated factories are crucial elements of its domination of the consumer electronics marketplace - and Japan's expertise in manufacturing consumer electronics products gives it potentially unapproachable process expertise in all electronics markets.

  15. Social security reform ideas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Noriyasu

    2002-01-01

    Japan has a complex social security system. This article discusses the demographic and economic situation in Japan as background for understanding the setting in which the social security system functions. Japan has a three-pillar system for retirement income. The first pillar is the social security pension plan; the second pillar is the voluntary occupational pension plan; and the third pillar is personal savings, including the personal pension plan. The most important part of the retirement income system is the social security pension plan, which paid benefits accounting for 64% of the total income of elderly households in 1998. The five Employees' Pension Plans are established on a compulsory social insurance basis. Most large Japanese employers have a mandatory retirement age. Over 90% of all employees, including public sector ones, must retire from their career jobs at age 60.

  16. Insights into software development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Lorraine M.

    1992-01-01

    The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

  17. [Intraaortic balloon pumping( IABP) in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ono, Tomoyuki; Tanoue, Yoshihisa; Tominaga, Ryuji

    2014-07-01

    The intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) is the most widely used circulatory assist device. IABP increases coronary perfusion in diastolic phase by the inflation of the balloon in the descending aorta (diastolic augmentation) and reduces afterload in systolic phase by the deflation of the balloon( systolic unloading). IABP improves the hemodynamic condition of patients who fall into acute heart failure and/or cardiogenic shock. Six-type IABP system can be used in Japan. The IABP-SHOCK II trial shows that there is no significant difference in mortality between optimal medical treatment with IABP and without IABP in addition to early revascularization. Clinical backgrounds in Japan are different from those in IABP-SHOCK II trial, and the further prospective studies of IABP in Japan thus called for.

  18. [Recent trends of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Yoshio

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of mushroom poisoning was studied statistically from 2001 to 2010 in Japan. The total incident of mushroom poisoning was 569 cases, which involved 1,920 patients and 10 deaths. The average incident was 56.9 cases per year, involving 192 patients and 1 death. On regional differences, the mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan. The rate of total incidents for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to symptoms caused, 54.6% in the type of gastro-intestinal disorder, 11.6% in the type of neurological symptoms, and 2.4% in the type of intracellular disorder (violent vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration and hepato-nephrosis, or rhabdomyolysis, or erroneous perception, etc.), respectively. Two species of poisonous mushrooms with gastro-intestinal disorder, Lampteromyces japonicus and Rhodophyllus rhodopolius caused the majority (52%) of all poisonings in Japan.

  19. Introduction of nuclear medicine research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inubushi, Masayuki; Higashi, Tatsuya; Kuji, Ichiei; Sakamoto, Setsu; Tashiro, Manabu; Momose, Mitsuru

    2016-12-01

    There were many interesting presentations of unique studies at the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine, although there were fewer attendees from Europe than expected. These presentations included research on diseases that are more frequent in Japan and Asia than in Europe, synthesis of original radiopharmaceuticals, and development of imaging devices and methods with novel ideas especially by Japanese manufacturers. In this review, we introduce recent nuclear medicine research conducted in Japan in the five categories of Oncology, Neurology, Cardiology, Radiopharmaceuticals and Technology. It is our hope that this article will encourage the participation of researchers from all over the world, in particular from Europe, in scientific meetings on nuclear medicine held in Japan.

  20. Recent earthquake prediction research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mogi, K

    1986-07-18

    Japan has experienced many major earthquake disasters in the past. Early in this century research began that was aimed at predicting the occurrence of earthquakes, and in 1965 an earthquake prediction program was started as a national project. In 1978 a program for constant monitoring and assessment was formally inaugurated with the goal of forecasting the major earthquake that is expected to occur in the near future in the Tokai district of central Honshu Island. The issue of predicting the anticipated Tokai earthquake is discussed in this article as well as the results of research on major recent earthquakes in Japan-the Izu earthquakes (1978 and 1980) and the Japan Sea earthquake (1983).

  1. [Update on Cancer Epidemiology in Japan].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Motoki

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated epidemiological evidence has revealed several risk and preventive factors for cancer. Thus, cancer prevention guidelines for the Japanese population have been developed on the basis of scientific evidence from mainly studies conducted in Japan. In Japan, tobacco smoking and infections are the major causes of cancer. Further control of these factors will contribute to substantial reductions in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan. Concurrently, large-scale molecular epidemiologic studies are ongoing in order to obtain epidemiological evidence for personalized prevention strategies. In particular, evidence from omics analyses and investigation of gene-environment interactions may contribute to the further understanding of the biological mechanism underlying cancer occurrence. In addition, the establishment of preventive measures according to individual disease risk, on the basis of risk prediction models including omics data, is necessary.

  2. Epidemic of charcoal burning suicide in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Eiji; Hanley, Sharon J B; Kawanishi, Yasuyuki; Saijo, Yasuaki

    2014-01-01

    The charcoal burning suicide epidemics in both Hong Kong and Taiwan have been well documented. However, little is known about the situation in Japan. To examine the impact of charcoal burning suicide on the overall and other method-specific suicide rates between 1998 and 2007 in Japan. Using data obtained from the Vital Statistics of Japan, negative binomial regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of the charcoal burning method. In males and females aged 15-24 and 25-44 years, the charcoal burning epidemic led to a substantial increase in overall suicides, without a decrease in other methods. In all other age groups, no such trend was observed. In young Japanese, the charcoal burning method may have appealed to individuals who might not have chosen other highly or relatively lethal methods, and consequently led to an increase in overall suicides.

  3. History of pine wilt disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Y

    1988-04-01

    Pine wilt disease induced by the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a great threat to pine forests in Japan. The first occurrence of the disease was reported in Nagasaki, Kyushu. During the 1930s the disease occurrence was extended in 12 prefectures, and in the 1940s the disease was found in 34 prefectures. The annual loss of pine trees increased from 30,000 m(3) to 1.2 million m(3) during these two decades. The enormous increase in timber loss in the 1970s resulted in 2.4 million m(3) of annual loss in 1979. The affected area expanded into 45 prefectures of 47 prefectures in Japan. In cool areas the disease differs in epidemiology from that in heavily infested areas in the warm regions. A national project for controlling pine wilt disease lays special emphasis on the healthy pine forests predominating throughout cool areas in northern Japan.

  4. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan.

    PubMed

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L; Whisman, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries.

  5. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-07

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  7. Recycling scheme for scrapped automobiles in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masao; Nakajima, Akira; Taya, Sadao

    1995-12-31

    Over 5 million cars are scrapped yearly in Japan. After dismantling scrapped automobiles, they are put into a shredder for differential recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The residue, which is called shredder dust, runs over 1.2 million tons per year. This paper reports a entire sequence of scrapping cars in Japan with the following sections: (1) production and scrapped car management, (2) material composition, (3) dismantling, (4) shredder plant, (5) differential recovery of metals including specific gravity and newly developed color separation.

  8. The emperor of Japan and the aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S. I.

    On October 3, 1985, I gave a special lecture on the aurora for the Emperor of Japan in his palace in Tokyo. It seems the Emperor, a marine biologist, has an unusual interest in the aurora. After my slide presentation, he asked how we confirm ancient sighting reports of the aurora in Japan. He was not satisfied with my response that anomalous events in the sky were well documented in an ancient publication entitled Japanese Meteorological Data and asked further how one could confirm such sightings as auroral events. He was visibly pleased to learn that the dates of these sightings coincided with those recorded elsewhere in the world.

  9. [Medical safety and the Japan Surgical Society].

    PubMed

    Kokudo, Norihiro

    2013-03-01

    Medical safety has been one of the most important issues addressed by the Japan Surgical Society (JSS), and the topic has been discussed at every annual meeting of the JSS since 2004. In 2008, the Medical Safety Committee was established under the JSS. The JSS is one of the principal founding members of the Japan Council for Quality Health Care (JCQHR) and has placed many members on evaluation committees for a majority of malpractice cases. In cooperation with the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine and JCQHR, the JSS is trying to lead the Japanese medical community to create an official third-party organization for medical safety.

  10. Current Indoor Air Quality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Hideto

    2016-01-01

    People spend more than two thirds of their daily time indoors. Hence, maintaining a healthy indoor environment is indispensable for the prevention of building related illness. In Japan, guidelines for indoor air quality have been established for 13 volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs). These guidelines are now under revision by the Committee on Sick House Syndrome: Indoor Air Pollution. In order to gain information on the current indoor air pollutants and their levels, we carried out a nation-wide survey of VOCs and aldehydes in indoor residential air during 2012-2013. In this review, I concisely summarized the current indoor air quality of Japan.

  11. Epidemiology and ecology of sporotrichosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukushiro, R

    1984-07-01

    Some characteristics in epidemiology and ecology of sporotrichosis in Japan are summarized as follows: 1) In some areas of Japan, sporotrichosis shows relatively high incidence. 2) Frequent onset of the infection in the cold season. 3) Preponderance of the infection in females. 4) Preponderance of the infection in children and aged persons. 5) Predilection of lesions on the face of children as well as on the upper extremity in the case of adolescent and adult patients. 6) Familial occurrence. 7) High frequency of demonstration of the parasite in tissue.

  12. US/Japan Seminar on Superalloys Held at Susono, Japan on 7-11 December 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    OffiCe of Scientific R~search Dec. 31. 1984 Bolling Air Fotce Base, D.C. 20332 . NUMBEROfPAGES 14. MONITORING AGENCY N ME & ADDRES(If dlfferen IF I...Superalloys was held-st Fuji Kyoiku Kemshusho. Susono, Japan on December 1-11, 1984 . A delegitJof fifteen US scientists and engineers, headed by Profess s...Report to £7061 -X Grant No. APOSR-0262 Principal Investigator - N. S. Stoloff US/Japan Seminar on Superalloys December 7-11, 1984 The US/Japan Seminar

  13. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On...

  14. History Textbook Reform in Allied Occupation Japan, 1945-52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakur, Yoko H.

    1995-01-01

    Observes that, although textbook reform in occupied Japan originally supported democratic principles of openness and competition, it later became a mechanism for anticommunist censorship. Maintains that interpretations of Japan's military conduct remain highly politicized and controversial. (MJP)

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, 89 Sairas Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-JST-90-039 21 AUGUST 1990 FOREIGNJ BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report- Science & Technology Japan 89 SAIRAS SYMPOSIUM 199802O3 312 pixD...DTIC QUALIT ]INS13 MMED a JPRS-JST-90-039 21 AUGUST 1990 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY JAPAN 89 SAIRAS SYMPOSIUM 906C0047 Tokyo SAIRAS 89 PROCEEDINGS in...Laboratory, STA, National Space Development Agency of Japan, and Institute of Space and Astronautical Science .] CONTENTS Japan/U.S.A. Sessions Program

  16. 75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... chromium from Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted a review pursuant... revocation of the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead...

  17. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  18. 78 FR 7451 - Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... COMMISSION Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on clad steel plate from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... contained in USITC Publication 4370 (January 2013), entitled Clad Steel Plate from Japan: Investigation No...

  19. 78 FR 66767 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Japan of chlorinated isocyanurates, provided for in... than fair value (LTFV) from Japan and subsidized by the Government of China.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is...

  20. Privacy and Data Protection in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Srinija

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of individual rights and privacy in Japan focuses on the Privacy Protection Act, which acknowledges the threat posed by government databases to the individual's right of privacy. Characteristics of the Japanese legal system are described, origins of privacy in Japanese law are examined, and privacy and government databases are…

  1. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  2. The Teaching Materials System in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimizu, Atsumi

    An overview is given of the state of teaching materials and aids used in schools in Japan. In section I, an outline is presented of the Japanese system of providing teaching materials. Several laws and regulations regarding the provision and use of textbooks are described, including: (1) school education law; (2) law concerning the organization…

  3. Japan: Implications of an Expanded Military Role,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-03

    Soviet attitudes. Argues that Japan will not accede to U.S. pressure to participate in an Informal triple alliance with the PRC against the Soviet Union...future, since many of them are still wary of the spectre of Japanese militarism." Salto , Seichiro. "Tonan Ajia va Nihon no Kalken Rongi o Do L Mite

  4. Free Resources for Teaching About Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This publication describes free print and audiovisual materials for teaching about Japan in elementary and secondary schools. The booklet was written to enable teachers to take advantage of the many free materials that are currently available. The first section cites sources of free materials in the United States. Names and addresses of groups…

  5. Teacher Cognition in Corrective Feedback in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    Based on qualitative data, the current study explored how the knowledge and beliefs of two EFL professionals shaped their corrective feedback practices. The two teachers teaching in Japan had in common two main agendas that they kept in mind as they provided or opted not to provide corrective feedback. They aimed to teach the language and to…

  6. Ideas for Teaching about Japan in Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokon, Elizabeth

    This curriculum unit consists of a series of lesson plans focused on Japan for preschool students ages 3 to 5 years. The unit has five themes: (1) geography; (2) language; (3) people and clothing; (4) customs; and (5) food. Each theme has from four to eight activity lessons which address different developmental domains, including language, social…

  7. The State of Continuing Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong…

  8. Child Development and Childcare in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

  9. Japan's Poetry Boxers Get Ready to Grumble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that in Japan, a scholar of communications, in the hope of getting people to talk with one another, holds "boxing" competitions in which the blows are thrown verbally, in verse. In a crowded Yokohama hall, boxers file into a ring watched by cheering students and a panel of university professors. Nobody is predicting…

  10. Sharing a Common Future. Report from Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Makoto

    This document contains seven previously published papers examining trends in adult education in Japan. "Deepening Democracy" (1992) examines democracy and adult education for special needs groups (women, dropouts, disabled persons, ethnic minorities, and refugees). "Literacy Movement" (1990) traces literacy education in Japan…

  11. Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

  12. With a Little Help from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, John

    2009-01-01

    Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

  13. Market and Higher Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    1997-01-01

    Examines the market orientation of Japan's higher education institutions, particularly in the private sector, and the role of government in higher education administration and finance. Outlines efforts to reform teaching and service functions of the university and institutional administration in this context. Notes a shift from the traditional…

  14. Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

  15. With a Little Help from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, John

    2009-01-01

    Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

  16. Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

  17. Child Development and Childcare in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

  18. Academic Libraries in Australia and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Megumi

    1987-01-01

    Compares academic libraries in Japan and Australia in three areas: general background (number of libraries, financial support, size of collections, and student/staff ratios); the role of libraries (services offered, library instruction, accessibility, library cooperation, and expenditures); and library staffs (qualifications of directors, staff…

  19. The chemical disaster response system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center.

  20. Free Resources for Teaching About Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This publication describes free print and audiovisual materials for teaching about Japan in elementary and secondary schools. The booklet was written to enable teachers to take advantage of the many free materials that are currently available. The first section cites sources of free materials in the United States. Names and addresses of groups…

  1. Freeing Up Free Trade with Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the causes and implications of the severe trade imbalances between Japan and the United States. Dole argues that protectionist Japanese trade restrictions have made it nearly impossible for American businesses to enter Japanese markets. Efforts to renegotiate trade agreements are described. (AM)

  2. The School Textbook System in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawakami, Yasuo

    In this paper on the school textbook system in Japan, information is provided on the school textbook system during the post-war period. Topics discussed in this area include: (1) the establishment of the school textbook authorization system; (2) improvements to the school textbook system; (3) putting the free school (public school) textbook system…

  3. Multicultural and Multiethnic Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomoto, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the Ainu people have been living mainly in Hokkaido and many Koreans continue to live since the end of the World War Two. Since 1990's, the number of migrant workers has increased rapidly. In this sense, Japanese society has been multicultural and multiethnic. However, those minority groups have been strictly discriminated against in…

  4. The State of Continuing Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong…

  5. Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

  6. Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

    2009-01-01

    To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

  7. University Entrance Examinations in China and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    1992-01-01

    Discusses (1) Japan's use of a combination of the National Uniform Test and locally administered exams as the sole criteria for university admission and (2) China's use of a National Entrance Examination, experimental examinations administered in Shanghai and Guangzhou, and a Qualifying Test for students over age 25 as university admissions…

  8. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN JAPAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    JAPAN HAD AN ESTIMATED POPULATION OF 97,000,000 IN 1964. BECAUSE LESS THAN 40 PERCENT OF THE LAND IS ARABLE AND MINERAL WEALTH IS SMALL, IMPORTING FOODSTUFFS AND RAW MATERIALS IS NECESSARY. LARGE-SCALE CAPITALIZED FIRMS AND SMALL HANDICRAFT WORKSHOPS PRODUCE CONSUMER GOODS. THE NATION'S ECONOMY IS BASED UPON FOREIGN TRADE. THE FIRST 9 YEARS OF…

  9. Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

  10. Recent Developments in Japan's Lifelong Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makino, Atsushi

    In the wake of economic and social change in Japan, several lifelong learning initiatives have been implemented. Structural changes such as internationalization, the coming of the information age, and the maturation of Japanese society caused the formerly homogeneous society to become more flexible, paving the way for lifelong learning. Additional…

  11. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  12. Basic Skills in Asian Studies: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains 20 learning activities for developing basic skills while teaching about Japan at the secondary level. The activities are self-contained and each consists of a short description, followed by a five-item true or false test and five open-ended questions for student practice. The learning activities are followed by a…

  13. Japan's Poetry Boxers Get Ready to Grumble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that in Japan, a scholar of communications, in the hope of getting people to talk with one another, holds "boxing" competitions in which the blows are thrown verbally, in verse. In a crowded Yokohama hall, boxers file into a ring watched by cheering students and a panel of university professors. Nobody is predicting…

  14. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  15. Core Discussion Networks in Japan and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boase, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Ken'ichi

    2012-01-01

    Arguments regarding the high prevalence of interpersonal collectivism in Japan typically hinge on the assumption that Japanese communication networks are more enduring, frequently contacted, and dominated by kin and work ties than networks in Western countries. However, this assumption has not been examined using nationally representative data.…

  16. Transition from School to Work in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genda, Yuji; Kurosawa, Masako

    Using retrospective data of young people's work experience in Japan, a study found that initial labor market conditions (i.e., when workers first enter the labor market after permanently leaving school) have a significant lasting impact on the employment experiences of workers in their teens and twenties. An increase in the unemployment rate at…

  17. Unconscious Provocations - America and Japan Before 1941

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    but a sophisticated foreign policy approach toward China is America’s most prudent course. 15. SUBJECT TERMS China, Foreign Policy , Deterrence...20 March 2012 WORD COUNT: 5,553 PAGES: 26 KEY TERMS: China, Foreign Policy , Deterrence CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Rising powers, such...sophisticated foreign policy approach toward China is America’s most prudent course. UNCONSCIOUS PROVOCATIONS – AMERICA AND JAPAN BEFORE

  18. Iron distributions in the water column of the Japan Basin and Yamato Basin (Japan Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Satoshi; Kuma, Kenshi; Ishikawa, Satoko; Nishimura, Shotaroh; Nakayama, Yuta; Ushizaka, Satomi; Isoda, Yutaka; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Aramaki, Takafumi

    2010-12-01

    In the Japan and Yamato basins (Japan Sea), dissolved Fe ([D-Fe], <0.22 μm fraction) was characterized by surface depletion, mid-depth maxima, then a slight decrease with depth in deep water and uniform concentration in bottom waters because of biological uptake in the surface water and release by microbial decomposition of sinking organic matter in mid-depth waters. Total Fe concentrations ([T-Fe]) in the surface water of the Japan Sea were 1-4 nM, a little higher than those in the surface waters of the nutrient-deficient subtropical western North Pacific and extremely higher than the nutrient-rich subarctic western North Pacific and the nutrient-deficient subtropical central North Pacific, resulting from high atmospheric Fe input to nutrient-depleted surface water of the Japan Sea. In the Japan Basin, the [T-Fe] in bottom water were lower than those in deep water, resulting from (1) the injection of new bottom water with the lower [T-Fe] into the Japan Basin bottom water, (2) the particulate Fe removal by particle scavenging during the bottom water circulation of the Japan Basin, or (3) the injection of deep water with the higher [T-Fe] into the Japan Basin deep water. On the other hand, the [T-Fe] in deep water of the Yamato Basin and the slope regions were variable with different [T-Fe] levels among stations and depths. We found a significant relationship between [T-Fe] and water transmittance in deep water, probably resulting from the iron supply into the deep water because of the lateral transport of resuspended sediment from the slope.

  19. A Hybrid Tsunami Risk Model for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseemkunju, A. V.; Smith, D. F.; Khater, M.; Khemici, O.; Betov, B.; Scott, J.

    2014-12-01

    Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, denser oceanic plates slipping under continental plates cause subduction earthquakes generating large tsunami waves. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates create damaging interplate earthquakes followed by huge tsunami waves. It was a rupture of the Japan Trench subduction zone (JTSZ) and the resultant M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that caused the unprecedented tsunami along the Pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. EQECAT's Japan Earthquake model is a fully probabilistic model which includes a seismo-tectonic model describing the geometries, magnitudes, and frequencies of all potential earthquake events; a ground motion model; and a tsunami model. Within the much larger set of all modeled earthquake events, fault rupture parameters for about 24000 stochastic and 25 historical tsunamigenic earthquake events are defined to simulate tsunami footprints using the numerical tsunami model COMCOT. A hybrid approach using COMCOT simulated tsunami waves is used to generate inundation footprints, including the impact of tides and flood defenses. Modeled tsunami waves of major historical events are validated against observed data. Modeled tsunami flood depths on 30 m grids together with tsunami vulnerability and financial models are then used to estimate insured loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami. The primary direct report of damage from the 2011 tsunami is in terms of the number of buildings damaged by municipality in the tsunami affected area. Modeled loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami is proportional to the number of buildings damaged. A 1000-year return period map of tsunami waves shows high hazard along the west coast of southern Honshu, on the Pacific coast of Shikoku, and on the east coast of Kyushu, primarily associated with major earthquake events on the Nankai Trough subduction zone (NTSZ). The highest tsunami hazard of more than 20m is seen on the Sanriku coast in northern Honshu, associated with the JTSZ.

  20. Clinical statistics of gynecologic cancers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Wataru; Nagase, Satoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Ino, Kazuhiko; Hachisuga, Toru; Aoki, Daisuke; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2017-03-01

    Cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers, have both high morbidity and mortality among the gynecologic malignant tumors in Japan. The present study was conducted using both the population-based cancer registry and the gynecologic cancer registry to elucidate the characteristics of gynecologic malignant tumors in Japan. Based on nationwide estimates from the population-based cancer registry in Japan, the morbidities and mortality of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were obtained and used for analysis. Clinicopathologic factors for cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, including age, clinical stage, postsurgical stage, histological type, therapeutic strategy, and prognosis were retrieved from the gynecologic cancer registry published by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and used for analysis. The morbidities of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were 10,908, 13,606, and 9,384 women in 2012, respectively. The prevalence of endometrial cancer has significantly and consistently been increasing and represents the most common gynecologic malignant tumor in Japan. The mortalities of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were 2.1, 1.3, and 3.2 per 100,000 in 2012, respectively. In 2014, 52.2% of cervical cancer patients were classified as stage I, 22.5% as stage II, 10.2% as stage III, and 11.2% as stage IV. In addition, 71.9% of endometrial cancer patients were classified as stage I, 6.0% as stage II, 13.3% as stage III, and 7.5% as stage IV. Finally, 43.2% of ovarian cancer patients were classified as stage I, 9.1% as stage II, 27.6% as stage III, and 7.2% as stage IV. Twelve-point six percent of ovarian cancer patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  1. What is nuclear power in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    The aggressive use of such non-fossil energy as the atomic energy with high power density and energy production efficiency is an indispensable choice aiming at the low-carbon society. There is a trial calculation that the carbon dioxide emission of 40000 ton can be suppressed by nuclear power generation by one ton of uranium. The basis of nuclear research after the Second World War in Japan was established by the researchers learnt in Argonne National Laboratory. In 2010, NPPs under operation are 54 units and the total electric generating power is 48.85GW. The amount of nuclear power generation per person of the people is 0.38kW in Japan, and it is near 0.34kW of the United States. However, the TMI accident and the Chernobyl disaster should have greatly stagnated the nuclear industry of Japan although it is not more serious than the United States. A lot of Japanese unconsciously associate a nuclear accident with the atomic bomb. According to the investigation which Science and Technology Agency carried out to the specialist in 1999, ``What will be the field where talent should be emphatically sent in the future?'' the rank of nuclear technology was the lowest in 32 fields. The influence of the nuclear industry stagnation was remarkable in the education. The subject related to the atomic energy of a university existed 19 in 1985 that was the previous year of the Chernobyl disaster decreased to 7 in 2003. In such a situation, we have to rely on the atomic energy because Japan depends for 96% of energy resources on import. The development of the fuel reprocessing and the fast breeder reactor has been continued in spite of a heavy failure. That is the only means left behind for Japan to be released from both fossil fuel and carbon dioxide.

  2. The cost of schizophrenia in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sado, Mitsuhiro; Inagaki, Ataru; Koreki, Akihiro; Knapp, Martin; Kissane, Lee Andrew; Mimura, Masaru; Yoshimura, Kimio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Schizophrenia is a disorder that produces considerable burdens due to its often relapsing/remitting or chronic longitudinal course. This burden is felt not only by patients themselves, but also by their families and health care systems. Although the societal burden caused by this disorder has been evaluated in several countries, the magnitude of the societal cost of schizophrenia in Japan has never been estimated. The aim of this study is to clarify the societal burden of schizophrenia by estimating the cost of schizophrenia in Japan in 2008. Methods: A human capital approach was adopted to estimate the cost of schizophrenia. The total cost of schizophrenia was calculated as the sum of the direct, morbidity, and mortality costs. Schizophrenia was defined as disorders coded as F20.0–F20.9 according to the International Classification of Diseases-10. The data required to estimate the total cost was collected from publicly available statistics or previously reported studies. Results: The total cost of schizophrenia in Japan in 2008 was JPY 2.77 trillion (USD 23.8 billion). While the direct cost was JPY 0.770 trillion (USD 6.59 billion), the morbidity and mortality costs were JPY 1.85 trillion (USD 15.8 billion) and JPY 0.155 trillion (USD 1.33 billion), respectively. Conclusion: The societal burden caused by schizophrenia is tremendous in Japan, similar to that in other developed countries where published data exist. Compared with other disorders, such as depression or anxiety disorders, the direct cost accounted for a relatively high proportion of the total cost. Furthermore, absolute costs arising from unemployment were larger, while the prevalence rate was smaller, than the corresponding results for depression or anxiety in Japan. PMID:23785238

  3. Japan-US collaboration in Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arima, Akito

    2009-10-01

    I will mention some highlights from the history of Japan-US collaboration in Nuclear Physics. Although I have memories of my personal strong ties with many friends in US, I shall rather skip them, and focus on three major collaborative works which have made significant impacts on the developments of nuclear physics. The first one is the INS (Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo) - Berkeley collaboration. As well known, this led to the beginning of Rare Isotope (RI) beam experiments as a global trend and consequently the discovery of neutron halo by Tanihata et al. This Berkeley experiment was inspired by the Japanese Numatron project, which has remained only a plan. The second one would be RHIC. The RHIC is probably one of the most successful products of the INS- Berkeley project at least conceptually. Nagamiya has led US efforts over years, which has produced QGP finally, while he has moved back to Japan before this moment. The third point I would like to mention is the RIKEN Brookhaven Center. This has been supported by T.D. Lee strongly, and has contributed to the developments of spin physics, QGP experiments, Lattice QCD calculation. It also encouraged US young theoreticians by the supportive program with US universities. I now see many active physicists who were under this program. Now we have JUSTIPEN (Japan-US Theory Institute of Physics with Exotic Nuclei) program by DOE through the University of Tennessee. Since the summer of 2007, over fifty physicists including experimentalists have come to Japan for theoretical studies, and many workshops have been organized. Thanks also to its Japanese matching fund EFES(International Research Network on Exotic Femto Systems), a large number of Japanese physicists visited US, having many workshops and collaborations. At the era of RIBF completion and FRIB initialization, the Japan-US collaboration becomes of more significance, and I hope that this workshop and the joint meeting this week will accelerate the

  4. Clinical statistics of gynecologic cancers in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nagase, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers, have both high morbidity and mortality among the gynecologic malignant tumors in Japan. The present study was conducted using both the population-based cancer registry and the gynecologic cancer registry to elucidate the characteristics of gynecologic malignant tumors in Japan. Based on nationwide estimates from the population-based cancer registry in Japan, the morbidities and mortality of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were obtained and used for analysis. Clinicopathologic factors for cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, including age, clinical stage, postsurgical stage, histological type, therapeutic strategy, and prognosis were retrieved from the gynecologic cancer registry published by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and used for analysis. The morbidities of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were 10,908, 13,606, and 9,384 women in 2012, respectively. The prevalence of endometrial cancer has significantly and consistently been increasing and represents the most common gynecologic malignant tumor in Japan. The mortalities of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were 2.1, 1.3, and 3.2 per 100,000 in 2012, respectively. In 2014, 52.2% of cervical cancer patients were classified as stage I, 22.5% as stage II, 10.2% as stage III, and 11.2% as stage IV. In addition, 71.9% of endometrial cancer patients were classified as stage I, 6.0% as stage II, 13.3% as stage III, and 7.5% as stage IV. Finally, 43.2% of ovarian cancer patients were classified as stage I, 9.1% as stage II, 27.6% as stage III, and 7.2% as stage IV. Twelve-point six percent of ovarian cancer patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:28198168

  5. Determining Ionospheric Irregularity Spectral Density Function from Japan GEONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, E. H.; Light, M. E.; Parker, P. A.; Carrano, C. S.; Haaser, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Japan's GEONET GPS network is the densest GPS monitoring network in the world, with 1200+ receivers over the area of Japan. Measuring and calibrating the integrated total electron content (TEC) from each station has been done in many cases to provide detailed maps of ionospheric disturbances over Japan. We use TEC measurements from Japan's GEONET array to determine an empirically derived description of the 2-dimensional scale sizes of spatial irregularities above Japan. The contributions from various scale sizes will be included in a statistical description for the irregularity spectral density (ISD) function. We will compare the statistics of the spatial irregularities between calm and moderately scintillated conditions.

  6. Recycling of used aluminum beverage cans in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Itou, Tatsuo

    1995-12-31

    Both sales volume of aluminum cans and the recycling rate are remarkably increasing in Japan. In 1993, recycled can volume was 11.78 billion cans (116,258 metric tons) and its recycling rate 57.8 percent. Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, the leading manufacturer of aluminum cans in Japan, and their affiliated companies are very deeply involved in recycling used beverage cans (U.B.C) and recycling them back to can stock. In this paper, the author presents the following: (1) recent trends of beverage can consumption in Japan; (2) trend of aluminum cans and recycling rate in Japan; and (3) future of the aluminum can business in Japan.

  7. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 23, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-23

    ;Partial Contents: Advanced Materials (New Uses Bring New Life to Carbon Fiber); Aerospace (Preliminary Results of Microgravity Experiment by TR-1A, MHI Takes Seat on Corporate-Jet Project; Ground Facilities To Launch J-1 Rocket); Automotive Technologies (Japan: JEVA`s 4th Standardization of FY 1995 Reported, Integrated CAD/CAM/CAT System for Body Assembly Jigs); Nuclear Technologies (Monju Breeder-Reactor Accident Breeds Public Distrust); Science and Technology Policy (Japan: JSC Chairman on S&T Issues); Defense Industries (Japan: TRDI`s Organization, Duties Outlined, Japan: Defense Agency Officials Attend Defense Industry Conference, Japan: GSDF Official on Developing Military Technology).

  8. Psychohistorical Hypotheses on Japan's History of Hostility Towards China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Rudmin, Floyd

    2016-01-01

    The accelerating tensions and military posturing between Japan and China have created a serious crisis with a danger of a catastrophic war. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the events of the current crisis, and to put it in the context of Japan's long history of hostility to China and repeated attempts at conquest. The historical record shows that Japan has attacked China at least seven times, even though China has never attacked Japan. The irrationality of Japan's behavior is demonstrated by the repetition of this hostile behavior despite the enormous human and economic costs that Japan has suffered because of it. The irrationality of Japan's militarism suggests that psychological explanations may be required to understand this phenomenon. Several hypotheses are proposed, including 1) projected paranoid aggression, 2) collective Zeigarnik compulsion, 3) perceived weakness exciting aggression, 4) national inferiority feelings, 5) cultural narcissism, and 6) Oedipal-like hatred of a parent culture.

  9. [Medical pots of Yakushi Buddha in Japan].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Noro, Yukio; Ito, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The origin of Yakushi buddha (Bhaisajyaguru in Sanscrit, buddha of healing) is not clearly known. It has been proposed the original statue of Yakushi buddha may have been conceived from Varna, a god in Brahminism, believed to be a god of justice who possessed medicines and prolonged life. It is believed that Yakushi buddha appeared in Japan when the buddhism was imported from Korea and China in VI century, Yakushi buddha was believed more profoundly in Japan, compared with Korea and China.The reasons are probably as follows: Yakushi buddha is buddha of healing, Emperor Temmu (672-685) built Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, Emperor Shomu (724-749) built Kokubun-ji temples at principal towns. The principal statues of buddha in these temples are Yakushi buddha. In Japan, there are 252 Yakushi Buddha statues in Buddhistical Temples, which are listed in Important Cultural Property including 14 National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in the Horin-ji temple in Nara. Among the 252 Yakushi Buddha statues, 224 are in wood, 15 are in copper, 6 are in picture and etc. 212 (84,1%) have medicinal pots (or rarely, a bowl) on the palm of left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji temple (Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) has a medicinal pot on the palm of the left hand in which an offering (220 g materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean, adzuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori Graminei, Acori Calami, Radix Ginseng, Flos Caryophylli, Lignum Santali Albi), and five minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue glasse, CaCO3, particles, silver and golden foils). DNA analysis proved those three randomly selected seeds of rice all belongs to the template

  10. Sub Moho boundary beneath island arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iidaka, T.; Igarashi, T.; Lee, C.; Iwasaki, T.; Niu, F.

    2008-12-01

    Moho is a seismic boundary discovered by Mohorovicic in 1909. It is generally considered as the boundary between Earth"fs crust and mantle, although the origin of the Moho and the definition of the crust-mantle boundary are still debated. Regardless whether it represents a phase or chemical boundary, it has been investigated world wide by seismologists since its discovery. Reflection/refraction data acquired from active sources were the main sources of the investigation. Recently, receiver function analysis provided an emerging tool for mapping this boundary below a seismic station. Since reflection/refraction data sample P- wave structure while receiver-function data are basically sensitive to S-wave velocity, a comparison of the two can provide better constraints on the composition of the lowermost crust and the uppermost mantle. In this study, we used receiver function data to determine subsurface boundaries. Receiver functions are calculated from teleseismic records of a borehole seismic network in Japan, the Hi-net, which covers the entire Japan with a 20-km station spacing. We used the multi-taper deconvolution method to generate individual receiver functions and a common-conversion-point gathering method for stacking the receiver functions. Results along several profiles where seismic refraction surveys have been conducted in the past were selected for comparison. We found remarkable difference between southwestern and central/northeastern Japan. In southwestern Japan both receiver function and refraction data yield a consistent and distinct Moho at around 35 km. In central and northeastern Japan, however, receiver function images reveal two P-to-S conversion events at approximately 30 km and 40 km, respectively. The shallow 30-km deep boundary is consistent with the refraction Moho. The deep boundary (sub-Moho) is about 10 km deeper than the refraction Moho boundary. The uppermost mantle seismic structure at central and northeastern Japan was known to be

  11. New expectations: pediatric cochlear implantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Janette

    2013-03-01

    FUNDING FOR COCHLEAR IMPLANTS: The Japanese health-care system provides universal health coverage for the entire 127 million population of Japan. This includes all aspects of cochlear implantation, from diagnosis to implantation to mapping and habilitation aftercare. Japan has the third largest developed economy; however, the uptake rate for cochlear implants is lower than that of countries with similar economic status. Japan has an uptake rate of approximately 1% of potentially suitable subjects of all ages, compared with 5.6% in the USA. In Japan, about 55% of cochlear implant recipients are children of less than 18 years of age. This represents an increase of 20% in the last 10 years, with a relative increase in the numbers of children receiving implants compared with the numbers of adults. However, only 3-4% of children under the age of 3 years are being implanted at less than 18 months of age. This is in accordance with the Japanese ENT Academy's guidelines, which currently puts the minimum age limit for implants in children at 18 months. For hearing loss was first piloted nationally in Japan in 2000. Funding for screening subsequently stopped in 2005, though the national treasury provided a further 2 years' funding. Since 2007 local government organizations have been given responsibility to support these screening programs, but there remains considerable variation in funding between different prefectures. In one prefecture, Okayama, 95% of babies were screened and followed up for 2 years. However, the support system for children who need further diagnostic testing after screening remains insufficient. When diagnosed, children with hearing loss are referred for counselling, hearing aids and habilitation. The responsibility for these is divided between the Ministry of Health and Welfare (including surgery, device programming, and therapy) and the Ministry of Education. Schools for the deaf and preschool hearing impaired education centers have had most of the

  12. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  13. Family psychology and family therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kameguchi, K; Murphy-Shigematsu, S

    2001-01-01

    The development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan has occurred mostly since the 1980s. This development was originally activated by the major social issue in contemporary Japan of school refusal, in which more than 127,000 children either overtly refuse to or claim that they cannot go to school. From a family perspective, this problem is analyzed as it relates to the confusion that children experience from unbalanced and unclear boundaries in family relations or "membranes." An approach to family therapy that adapts systems theory and integrates a clay sculpting medium has been developed to work with Japanese families confronting this problem. The design and implementation of preventative family psychology programs applied at the community level are also an important part of the future development in these fields.

  14. Steatitis in egrets and herons from Japan.

    PubMed

    Neagari, Yasuko; Arii, Suzue; Udagawa, Mai; Onuma, Manabu; Odaya, Yoshiya; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tenpaku, Makio; Hayama, Hisayo; Harada, Ken-ichi; Mizukami, Masaya; Murata, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    More than 70 egrets and herons were found sick or dead at an agricultural water reservoir in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan between September and October 2008. The birds showed weakness, lethargy, and inability to fly before death. Postmortem findings included large amounts of firm subcutaneous and cavitary fat comprised of necrotic adipose tissues with infiltrates of heterophils and macrophages. The birds were diagnosed with steatitis on the basis of the gross lesions and histopathology. Egrets with steatitis had low blood levels of vitamin E. High counts of cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) were found in the reservoir concurrent with the outbreak of steatitis. No microcystin was detected in the reservoir water or the livers from the egrets. This is the first report of steatitis in wild birds in Japan.

  15. Viewpoint of Science Council of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Syunsuke

    The Science Council of Japan (SCJ) is an academic body that represents Japanese 700,000 scientists. The activity of SCJ is changing rapidly, in which the science associated with society is increasingly important. In this context, the engineering education for ethics is treated at SCJ. The importance of engineering ethics was first recognized at the 5th division of 17th term (1999-2001) of SCJ, in which education for engineering ethics based on the analysis of ethical problems occurred in Japan is recommended and it asked the engineering societies to establish the code of ethics. Following this proposal, SCJ founded a committee to treat the problem at 18th and 19th terms. The committee proposed a procedure to prevent misconduct associated with scientific activities and the importance of education of science and engineering ethics especially for young students at tertiary education.

  16. Periventricular leukomalacia is decreasing in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tokio; Goto, Tatenobu; Ueda, Hiroko; Ito, Koichi; Kakita, Hiroki; Nagasaki, Rika; Mizuno, Keisuke; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kato, Ineko; Togari, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia is recognized as the leading cause of cerebral palsy in preterm infants. To clarify the prevalence of periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy in Japan, a nationwide survey was performed. The prevalence of periventricular leukomalacia in the group of surviving preterm infants of gestational ages less than 33 weeks born in 2007 was 2.7% (78/2883) on ultrasound diagnosis, and 3.3% (92/2824) on magnetic resonance imaging. The prevalence of cerebral palsy was 4.3% (125/2883) on clinical diagnosis. In our previous study, the prevalences of periventricular leukomalacia in 1990-1991, 1993-1994, 1996, and 1999 were 4.8%, 4.9%, 4.9%, and 5.3% on ultrasound, and 7.9%, 7.7%, 6.9%, and 7.3% on magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. The prevalence of periventricular leukomalacia has decreased significantly in Japan.

  17. Standing out in Canada and Japan.

    PubMed

    Tafarodi, Romin W; Marshall, Tara C; Katsura, Haruko

    2004-08-01

    The need for separation or individuation is held to be a prime motive in Western psychology. Varied accounts of the meaning of selfhood in Japan indicate that separation may be much less important-or as important-for understanding the construction of self-identity in that culture. We focus here on personal distinctiveness, one vehicle for separation from others. We propose that the desire for distinctiveness is not absent or negligible in Japan, but is subject to more constrained expression than in the West. The results of two studies comparing Japanese and Canadian students suggest that Japanese are less desirous of standing out for their own sake and more likely to experience this form of distinctiveness as aversive. The results also suggest that although Japanese and Canadians derive positive distinctiveness from much the same sources, Japanese are less gratified by this type of experience.

  18. Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Mikkel B.; Sessions, October; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come. PMID:26711518

  19. Culture and the environment in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murota, Yasuhiro

    1985-03-01

    This article discusses the environmental problems of Japan from a cultural point of view. The traditional Japanese view of nature differs from that of Western culture. During the 19th century, Japan introduced Western technology to modernize its industries as quickly as possible. Its transition into the modern industrial world was successful but resulted in serious problems. One of these was the rapid destruction of the natural environment; another, the feeling of homelessness that the Japanese people experienced in their newly Westernized surroundings. The Japanese people have now reached the point where they must reevaluate their traditional ideas about nature and their responses to technology. Their solutions to some of the problems that result from industrialization may be useful to Western countries as well.

  20. Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299

  1. Japan’s National Interests in Taiwan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    compete for prominence within the larger mechanism of Japan’s foreign policy in the execution of Japanese national interests.50...principle, in connection with this, is bringing about ever more fruitful intercultural ties among the peoples of Japan and this region, something that...non-governmental institutions serve to quietly and competently forward Japan’s balance-of-power interests. One such organization is the Okazaki

  2. Japan, Indonesia to investigate condom plant feasibility.

    PubMed

    1981-04-01

    The Japanese government has begun investigations on the possibility of constructing a condom manufacturing plant in Indonesia in response to a request by the Indonesian government. Indonesia, which hopes to reduce its birthrate as of 1971 by 1/2 by 1990, asked for Japanese assistance in building a condom plant based on the expectation that demand for this contraceptive method, although quite low at present, will increase rapidly in the near future with stepped-up motivation campaigns. As a 1st step in the investigation, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) sent a study team of family planning experts headed by Family Planning Federation of Japan Chairman Dr. Hidebumi Kubo and including JOICFP International Division Director MR. Tameyoshi Katagiri to Indonesia from March 15-24. During its visit, the JICA team held discussions with representatives of BKKBN (the National Family Planning Coordinating Board) including its Chairman and Minister of Health Dr. Suwardjono and reached agreement on the scope and schedule of work toward determining the feasibility of building and operating a condom plant in Indonesia. In defining the scope of work and the schedule, the JICA team and the BKKBN representatives decided on specific issues to be investigated in the feasibility study to be carried out by JICA and scheduled to be completed by the end of October of this year. To be included in the feasibility study are: estimation of future domestic demand for condoms, examination of the domestic supply of latex capacity, chemicals and packaging materials, and collection of information on infrastructure relating to water, energy, transportation, etc. Actual data collection for the study is expected to begin in late May or early June. Dr. Kubo and Mr. Katagiri, upon returning to Japan, reported great enthusiasm for the project in Indonesia and expressed the hope that the plant construction will be feasible so that the country's family planning program can be given a boost

  3. Japan/East Sea Model Predictability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-29

    Tsushima and Tsugaru Straits and with the Okhotsk Sea through the Soya and Tatar Straits. In addition, JES contains three major basins called the Japan Basin...and Kawase, 1998). The LCC flows southward along the Russian coast, beginning at latitudes slightly north of Soya Strait, terminating off Vladivostok...Tsugaru and Soya straits. There is no evident volume transport through the Tatar Strait (Martin and Kawase, 1998), which was taken as 0 in this study

  4. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-x Y x O3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm(-1) at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm(-1) at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  5. Energy R and D in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Dooley

    1999-08-09

    In 1997, the public and private sectors in Japan invested $90.3 billion in R and D. Japan is the second largest supporter of R and D after the United States. A very large percentage (79.4%) of all R and D in Japan is supported by the private sector. The prolonged economic recession that has plagued the Japanese economy for most of the 1990s has significantly reduced the scale of the Japanese R and D effort compared to what it would have been had the economy been more robust. The Japanese government has recently attempted to bring the economy out of this recession through the use of economic stimulus packages. These stimulus packages have contained significant new funding for R and D, although it is apparent that much of the funding is going to R and D programs and R and D construction projects with very near tern payoff and not to the support of longer term R and D. In 1998, the Japanese government devoted 13.7% of all public R and D funds to the support of energy R and D. The priority accorded to energy R and D in Japan is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. The Japanese energy R and D program, which was funded at $2.5 billion in 1997, is overwhelmingly focused on nuclear energy R and D. Nuclear energy R and D (fission and fusion) accounts for 75% of the total national energy R and D budget. The fission energy R and D effort has decreased nearly 24% since 1996 as the government attempts to refocus this program in the face of growing public opposition to the Japanese government's efforts to expand the nuclear power program. Energy efficiency R and D (8% of the total national energy R and D budget) and renewable energy R and D receive relatively modest support from the Japanese government.

  6. Study Tour of Industrial Robots in Japan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    robots in Japanese manufacturing industry. Visits to fourteen organizations are described of which some seven were engaged in the design and manufacture of... robots as well as in their application. The majority of robots seen were engaged in spot-welding and arc-welding applications, although it was...these appear to be classified as robots when statistics are presented in Japan. No intelligent robots were seen, and very few programmable numerically controlled robot controllers were in evidence. (Author)

  7. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-29

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  8. Shear wall experiments and design in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.

    1994-12-01

    This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the available experimental data bases and design codes/standards for reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures in Japan. Information related to the seismic design of RC reactor buildings and containment structures was emphasized in the survey. The seismic requirements for concrete structures, particularly those related to shear strength design, are outlined. Detailed descriptions are presented on the development of Japanese shear wall equations, design requirements for containment structures, and ductility requirements.

  9. Lifestyle and cardiovascular disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iso, Hiroyasu

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to give on overview of the profile of cardiovascular disease, vascular pathology and the relationships between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease in Japanese. Compared with the United States and Europe, the higher mortality from stroke and lower mortality from coronary heart disease constitute a unique cardiovascular profile for Japan. A selective review of population-based pathology, trend and prospective cohort studies was performed to clarify the characteristics of cardiovascular disease and vascular pathology, trends in the incidence and mortality of cardiovascular disease, and the relationships between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease among Japanese adults. Since the 1970s, mortality from coronary heart disease as well as stroke has declined substantially in Japan, probably due to a major decline in blood pressure levels and for men a more recent decline in smoking, in spite of an increase in body mass index and total cholesterol levels. However, the decline in mortality was smaller and plateaued in middle-aged men aged 30-49 in the metropolitan cities of Tokyo and Osaka. The incidence of coronary heart disease has increased among middle-aged men residing in the suburbs of Osaka. As for the associations between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease, higher sodium, lower calcium and lower animal protein content in the diet and for men higher alcohol consumption may account for the higher prevalence of hypertension and higher risk of stroke for Japanese than for western populations. On the other hand, lower saturated fat (meat) and higher n3 polyunsaturated fat (fish) in the Japanese diet may contribute to the lower prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and lower risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese. Japan is unique among developed countries in that coronary heart disease mortality has been low and has continued to decline, while stroke mortality has declined substantially. However, a recent trend for coronary heart disease incidence to

  10. Marine Geography of the Sea of Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-01-01

    coast line. In general, the volcanoes that still con be identified in Japan ore not older than the Pleistocene or Glacic; epoch (1 million years...Oe ee nuneros volcanoes and frequent ethquokes. Reoevences: RESTRICTED Many submarine canyons are present on the continental shelf, but due to the... volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. References: Balzak, S. S., V. F. Vasyutin, and Y. G. Feigin, "Economic Geography of the USSR," The Macmillion Company

  11. Testing the Nuclear Will of Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    recommenced after North Korea conducted missile tests over the Sea of Japan in 1998. In 2006, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe enters office with a...Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited China before coming to the United States. The second reason is that the international institutions, treaties, and...Japanese public. It demonstrated that the anti-nuclear sentiment was still alive and well. In September 2006, Shinzo Abe was appointed Prime Minister and

  12. Japan’s Changing Defense Posture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Institute, RAND’s OSD-supported Federally Funded Research and Development Center. The author is grateful to Yukio Satoh and Kenneth Hunt for their...details on these features and a comprehensive assessment of Japanese security issues, see Yukio Satoh, The Evolution of Japanese Security Policy, Adelphi...34autonomous defense" had a long history-and mostly emotional content-in Japan. In the latter 1960s, Prime Minister Sato , Defense Agency Director

  13. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term ‘solid state ionics’ was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1–xYxO3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm–1 at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm–1 at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology. PMID:28804526

  14. [Beginning Knowledge of Transfusion in Japan].

    PubMed

    Mazda, Toshio; Shimizu, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Blood components and plasma derivatives are two of the most useful tools in modern medicine. When the Portuguese opened the maritime routes to the Far East in the 16th century. Western medicine traveled to Japan on the trading vessels that carried physicians and barber-surgeons to care for the body and Christian missionaries to care for the soul. Skilled interpreters such as Kōgyū Yoshio translated and studied Dutch editions of early medical books, like Lorenz Heister's "Chirurgie" (Nürnberg, 1719), that illustrate the concept of transfusion. The oldest description of transfusion originating in Japan is a handwritten manuscript entitled "Bansui Sensi Chojutsu Shomoku" by Masamichi Nishijima, a student of Bansui Otsuki. It is a list of Otsuki's translated works. He described book names and chapter names in the manuscript, and when he finished translation of a chapter, he marked a circle on the chapter name. The transfusion chapter had a circle. That dates the earliest writing on transfusion in Japanese to 1804, shortly after the death of Kōgyū. Unfortunately, the manuscript translation no longer exists. In 1814, Shunzō Yoshio, grandson of Kōgyū, and in 1820, Tokki Koshimura, translated the figure legends of "Chirurgie." Soon afterwards, after the first report of transfusion from human-to-human by James Blundell in London in 1818, Western medical books published on the subject began to arrive. The works of Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, Georg Friedrich Most and Carl Canstatt all mentioning transfusion, albeit without details, were translated by Kōan Ogata and Shinryō Tsuboi. During the Edo period, Japan was a closed country; only open to the Dutch through a tiny island in Nagasaki. But Japanese doctors in the Edo period learned about blood transfusion through Dutch-translated versions of Western medical Books. Transfusion began being practiced in Japan in 1919, almost exactly 100 years after the concept was introduced

  15. Development of celestial mechanics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, Y.

    1998-08-01

    In this article, a brief history of Japanese astronomy before the Meiji restoration is described at the beginning. Then the development of celestial mechanics research in Japan after the Meiji is traced until the 1950s by describing, particularly, the careers and works of H. Terao, K. Hirayama and Y. Hagihara, the three consecutive professors of celestial mechanics at Tokyo University, as well as those by their students.

  16. Development of celestial mechanics in Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, Yoshihide

    1998-08-01

    In this article, a brief history of Japanese astronomy before the Meiji restoration is described at the beginning. Then the development of celestial mechanics research in Japan after the Meiji is traced until the 1950s by describing, particularly, the careers and works of H. Terao, K. Hirayama and Y. Hagihara, the three consecutive professors of celestial mechanics at Tokyo University, as well as those by their students.

  17. Should Japan Become a Normal Country

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Defense Forces to be sent to Iraq. Today, the ruling coalition is formed by the conservative LDP and also the New Clean Government Party ( Shin ...Takashi Inoguchi, “Japans Ambition for Normal Statehood,” in Jorge I. Dominguez and Byung -kook Kim, eds., Between Compliance And Conflict: East Asia...Dominguez and Byung -kook Kim, eds., Between Compliance And Conflict: East Asia, Latin America and The “New” Pax Americana, (London and New York

  18. Urologic cancer in Japan: role of Japan at the frontier of issues in Asia.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of urological cancer in Japan can be summarized in the following points. (i) As the onset of this type of cancer is typically seen in elderly patients, it is becoming a major social issue in Japan that has already become an aging society. (ii) Many diverse treatment methods are available and a response is required that prioritizes quality of life. (iii) Although vigorous research and development efforts into new drugs are being carried out on a global level, resulting in beneficial medical agents becoming more readily available, unless concepts relating to cost vs. effectiveness are further developed and there is a real risk that medical systems and structures in their current form will become unsustainable. (iv) Although at the current point there are no original large-scale clinical trials being conducted in Asia, Japan has a wealth of experience of participating in many international joint clinical trials and it is therefore an urgent and pressing challenge to organize joint clinical trials in Asia and amass a body of knowledge that is unique to Asia. In view of this current situation and given Japan's position at the frontier of issues, it is important for Japan to take the initiative in Asia in cooperating with other Asian nations in efforts to resolve and overcome various challenges.

  19. Surrogacy: donor conception regulation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Semba, Yukari; Chang, Chiungfang; Hong, Hyunsoo; Kamisato, Ayako; Kokado, Minori; Muto, Kaori

    2010-09-01

    As of 2008, surrogacy is legal and openly practised in various places; Japan, however, has no regulations or laws regarding surrogacy. This paper reports the situation of surrogacy in Japan and in five other regions (the USA, the UK, Taiwan, Korea and France) to clarify the pros and cons of prohibiting surrogacy, along with the problems and issues relating to surrogacy compensation. Not only in a country such as France that completely prohibits surrogacy within the country, but also in a country such as the UK that allows non-commercial surrogacy, infertile couples travel overseas for the purpose of surrogacy. In addition, some couples might seek underground surrogacy if the government prohibits surrogacy. If an intended parent couple and a surrogate make an agreement among themselves and then a problem occurs, they cannot ask for support from professionals or bring a case to court, as can be observed in South Korea and Taiwan. We also conclude that there is little difference between commercial surrogacy and non-commercial surrogacy in the absence of a clear definition of 'reasonable expenses.' In the UK, the law does not allow surrogates to receive compensation. However, in reality, there may be little difference between the amounts paid to surrogates for profit in the US and those paid to surrogates for reasonable expenses in the UK. We conclude that the issue of surrogacy demands further discussion in Japan.

  20. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  1. Looking for Japan's missing third baby boom.

    PubMed

    Baba, Sachiko; Goto, Aya; Reich, Michael R

    2017-10-10

    High-income countries are now experiencing a decline in fertility. After experiencing baby booms in 1947-1949 and 1971-1974, Japan's population has been decreasing since 2015. In an attempt to predict the next baby boom, we searched for any upward demographic trends occurring after 1974. We analyzed time trends of the numbers and rates of live births, stillbirths and induced abortions using Japanese government data from 1975 to 2014. We then selected two birth cohorts: the first baby boomers who were 0-4 years old in 1950, and the second baby boomers who were 0-4 years old in 1975, and analyzed their rates of live births, stillbirths, and abortions by five-year age groups. There was no upswing in the numbers of births, stillbirths, or induced abortions; however, the abortion rate increased during 1996-2002. Compared with the first baby boomer cohort, the second baby boomer cohort had half the peak live birth rate for the same age group (25-29 years old), and half the peak rate of abortions, with a shift toward a younger age group (20-24). This analysis of Japanese fertility trends derived from all pregnancy outcomes showed no upward trend in fertility in Japan since 1974. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Medical Internet exchange project in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, H; Uchiyama, E; Akiyama, M; Yamamoto, R; Tatsumi, H

    1998-01-01

    The Internet has been widely used by medical institutes and hospitals around the world, however; its use for telemedicine is still low. The main reason for this is the availability of bandwidth and poor security through the net. Meanwhile, we have established and have been operating 'Cancer Information Network' among 11 Cancer Centers in Japan, mainly for Multipoint TV Conference using HDTV image. There are also similar projects among 9 cardiovascular centers in Japan. By March, all 240 national hospitals will have been connected by an IP network using an ATM backbone. The above network projects are operated independently, and have an 'Intranet' characteristics within them. There are also many hospitals and clinics connected to the Internet by commercial internet providers. To make a secure and efficient network between these medical networks and medical sites, we started the Medical Internet eXchange project (MDX project) constructing a Medical Network Operation Center to create a link between them. To provide the administrative policy of this project, we established the Medical Internet eXchange Association. We are planning to expand this project to Asian-Pacific countries using the Asian-Pacific Advanced Network (APAN), and also expand it to worldwide connections in the future. For this purpose, we are currently asking other countries to form a structure similar to MDX-Japan. The concept, hardware system, software system, firewall configuration, and routing policy will be also discussed.

  3. Changing epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Manami

    2017-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is known as the most important cause of gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies widely by geographic area, age, and socioeconomic status. In Japan, H. pylori infection has been highly correlated with the incidence rate of gastric cancer, and a reduction in H. pylori infection is therefore crucial for decreasing the incidence of gastric cancer, especially at the population level. Infection occurs during childhood, commonly before 5 years of age. In Japan, where gastric cancer has ranked as the most common cancer by incidence and mortality for the last several decades, the prevalence of H. pylori infection has dramatically declined by birth cohort effect, mainly due to improvements in the general hygiene environment in childhood. Older generations born before around 1950 show a high prevalence of around 80-90 %, decreasing with age to reach around 10 % or less in those born around the 1990s, and less than 2 % for children born after the year 2000. This change will have generational effects on gastric cancer prevention strategies, both primary and secondary. The risk-stratified approach to gastric cancer prevention should be considered in Japan and other countries which have similarly experienced rapid economic development.

  4. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology.

  5. The fetal alcohol syndrome in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Arima, M; Suzuki, N

    1981-01-01

    In this retrospective study, the clinical findings of 26 cases borne by alcoholic mothers in Japan are summarized. The information on maternal alcohol drinking and abnormal offspring was gathered by a questionnaire survey. Twenty cases, mostly in institutions for mental retardation, were checked from all areas of Japan. Six children from another group were followed during health examinations of children in a selected area with many heavy drinkers. Growth deficiency was found in half of these cases with an increased rate of low birth weight babies (42% of cases) including small-for-date babies (23% of cases). More than 90% of these cases were in the retarded range of intelligence, 50% of which had IQ scores of 51-75. Gross motor development was also delayed. In all of the 6 follow-up cases, craniofacial anomalies such as hypoplastic nose and philtrum, narrow lip vermilion and short palpebral fissures were observed, although these facial features were mild. An aberrant palmar crease was seen with high frequency. CT of 3 cases did not show constant findings. The mothers were said to have drunk about 0.41 or more of 'sake' or whisky daily (average 110 ml of absolute alcohol) throughout pregnancy. Although typical cases of the fetal alcohol syndrome are less than one-third, this report provides evidence for the presence of mentally retarded children borne by alcoholic mothers in Japan and should alert many medical professionals to this problem.

  6. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the UK. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  7. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2010-04-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  8. [Neurology in Japan before World War II].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Modern Western medicine was introduced into Japan by a Dutch doctor Pompe van Meerdervoort in 1855. A German physician EOE von Balz devoted himself to educating medicine at Tokyo Medical School, the predecessor of the present University of Tokyo for 25 years. Hiroshi Kawahara and Kinnosuke Miura, pioneers of Japan Neurology, received their education by him. Kawahara first described X-linked bulvo-spinal muscular atrophy, and published the first Japanese textbook of clinical neurology in 1897. In 1902, Miura and others founded the Japanese Society of Neuro-Psychiatry, the forerunner of the present " Japanese Society of Neurology ". Both Seizo Katsunuma, Professor of Nagoya University, and Junnjiro Kato, Professor of Tohoku University, succeeded Miura's neurology. Miura investigated into the cause of beriberi, but ended in failure. Hasegawa's proposal at the Diet in 1894 that the Japan Government should found an independent department of neurology in the University of Tokyo was unfortunately rejected. There was no foundation of independent institute, department and clinic of neurology before World War II. Consequently Japanese neurology was on the ebb at that time.

  9. [Japan Spastic Paraplegia Research Consortium (JASPAC)].

    PubMed

    Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2014-10-01

    Japan Spastic Paraplegia Research Consortium (JASPAC), a nationwide clinical and genetic survey of patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), was started in 2006 as a project of the Research Committee for Ataxic Diseases of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, Japan. To date (April 4, 2014), 448 indexed patients with HSP have been registered from 46 prefectures in Japan. We are now performing molecular testing of the HSP patients using Sanger sequencing (SPG4, SPG11, SPG31, and ARSACS), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array (SPG1, 2, 3A, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 20, 21, 31, 33, 39, 42, ABCD1, alsin, and ARSACS), and resequencing microarray (SPG1, 2, 3A, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 17, 20, 21, 31, 33, and ABCD1). In 206 Japanese families with autosomal dominant HSP, SPG4 was the most common form, accounting for 38%, followed by SPG3A (5%), SPG31 (5%), SPG10 (2%), and SPG8 (1%). In 88 patients with autosomal recessive HSP, although SPG11 was the most common form, accounting for 6%, most showed significant genetic heterogeneity. The results of molecular testing will be applicable to patients in terms of improved positive diagnosis, follow-up, and genetic counseling. JASPAC will contribute to elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying HSP, and will facilitate the development of better treatments for HSP.

  10. Current affairs in earthquake prediction in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, Seiya

    2015-12-01

    As of mid-2014, the main organizations of the earthquake (EQ hereafter) prediction program, including the Seismological Society of Japan (SSJ), the MEXT Headquarters for EQ Research Promotion, hold the official position that they neither can nor want to make any short-term prediction. It is an extraordinary stance of responsible authorities when the nation, after the devastating 2011 M9 Tohoku EQ, most urgently needs whatever information that may exist on forthcoming EQs. Japan's national project for EQ prediction started in 1965, but it has made no success. The main reason for no success is the failure to capture precursors. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this stance has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. This paper tries to explain how this situation came about and suggest that it may in fact be a legitimate one which should have come a long time ago. Actually, substantial positive changes are taking place now. Some promising signs are arising even from cooperation of researchers with private sectors and there is a move to establish an "EQ Prediction Society of Japan". From now on, maintaining the high scientific standards in EQ prediction will be of crucial importance.

  11. Dynamic axes of informed consent in Japan.

    PubMed

    Specker Sullivan, Laura

    2017-02-01

    Scholarship in cross-cultural bioethics routinely frames Japanese informed consent in contrast to informed consent in North America. This contrastive analysis foregrounds cancer diagnosis disclosure and physician paternalism as unique aspects of Japanese informed consent that deviate from American practices. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 Japanese medical professionals obtained during fieldwork in Japan from 2013 to 15, this article complicates the informed consent discourse beyond East-West comparisons premised on Anglo-American ethical frameworks. It expands professional perspectives to include nurses, medical social workers, clinical psychologists, and ethicists and it addresses informed consent for a broad range of conditions in addition to cancer. The results suggest that division of affective labor is an under-theorized dimension of informed consent that is perceived as at odds with principled demands for universal informed consent. These practical tensions are conceptualized as cultural differences, with Japan identified in terms of omakase as practical and supportive and the United States identified in terms of jiko kettei as principled and self-determining. These results have implications for the methodology of cross-cultural bioethics as well as for theories and practices of informed consent in both Japan and the United States. I conclude that responsible cross-cultural work in bioethics must begin from the ground up, incorporating all relevant stakeholder perspectives, attitudes, and experiences.

  12. Survey of ceramic machining in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P.; Blau, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report is a compilation of four subcontract reports provided by B. P. Bandyopadhyay who, while a visiting professor at Toyohashi University in Japan, conducted a survey of ceramic machining technology in that country from January 1 through December 31, 1992. Various aspects of machining technology were surveyed: types of parts being produced, types of ceramic materials being used, the nature of current ceramic machining research and development, and types of machine tools. The four separate reports compiled here were originally provided in a narrative, chronological form, and some of the information has been reorganized into topical areas for this compilation. This report is organized into three sections: The first describes ten ceramic machining research and development organizations and provides a reference list of their current technical publications; the second, two major trade shows; and the third, several other products and commercial developments noted during the course of Bandyopadhyay`s stay in Japan. An Appendix lists key individuals who are currently conducting ceramic machining research in Japan.

  13. Organic solvent use in enterprises in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Yasuhiro; Ukai, Hirohiko; Okamoto, Satoru; Samoto, Hajime; Itoh, Kenji; Moriguchi, Jiro; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Ohashi, Fumiko; Takada, Shiro; Kawakami, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    This study was initiated to elucidate possible changes in types of organic solvents (to be called solvents in short) used in enterprises in Japan through comparison of current solvent types with historical data since 1983. To investigate current situation in solvent use in enterprises, surveys were conducted during one year of 2009 to 2010. In total, workroom air samples in 1,497 unit workplaces with solvent use were analyzed in accordance with regulatory requirements. Typical use pattern of solvents was as mixtures, accounting for >70% of cases. Adhesives spreading (followed by adhesion) was relatively common in small-scale enterprises, whereas printing and painting work was more common in middle-scale ones, and solvent use for testing and research purpose was basically in large-scaled enterprises. Through-out printing, painting, surface coating and adhesive application, toluene was most common (being detected in 49 to 82% of workplaces depending on work types), whereas isopropyl alcohol was most common (49%) in degreasing, cleaning and wiping workplaces. Other commonly used solvents were methyl alcohol, ethyl acetate and acetone (33 to 37%). Comparison with historical data in Japan and literature-retrieved data outside of Japan all agreed with the observation that toluene is the most commonly used solvent. Application of trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, once common in 1980s, has ceased to exist in recent years.

  14. The origins of scientific psychology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takasuna, Miki

    2006-01-01

    The origins of scientific psychology in Japan arrived primarily through six routes. First, psychology was imported through translations by Amane Nishi, which resulted in the coining of words such as "psychology," "subject," and "object." Second, psychology arrived in the form of education that was directed by American Christian missionaries. The third route brought psychology through lectures presented at universities (e.g., Masakazu Toyama began lecturing at the University of Tokyo in 1877). The fourth route relates to teacher education: Shuji Izawa and Hideo Takamine introduced psychology as part of the first curriculum at Tokyo Higher Normal School in 1879. The fifth route was created by Japanese philosophers who studied abroad, such as Tetsujiro Inouye. Finally, the sixth and most important avenue involved the introduction of experimental psychology, as well as a formal educational curriculum for psychologists (e.g., Yujiro Motora was the first Japanese to introduce experimental psychology to Japan, where he trained many students). Consequently, the establishment of scientific psychology in Japan was primarily owed to the Japanese scholars who studied abroad in the U.S. and Germany.

  15. Admixtures and fibers for shotcrete in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tazawa, Yujiro

    1995-12-31

    In recent years in Japan the following additives are increasingly being used for Shotcreting in tunnels: Accelerator for shotcreting based on calcium aluminate; dust control agent; and fiber. While dry mix shotcrete was predominantly used in Japan, accelerator of shotcrete based on inorganic salts contributed a great deal to the performance of shotcrete. However this type of accelerator is not so effective to wet mix which has been taking the place of dry mix in recent years. For wet mix shotcrete, accelerator for shotcrete based on Amorphous calcium aluminate is found to be quite effective in gaining sufficient early strength without aggravating long term strength. Practical performance in various cases is reported. A dust control agent for shotcreting is often used to improve working conditions in tunnels. This agent is reported to reduce a great deal of the dust generated in shotcreting operations. A variety of dust control agents are now available, of which constituents are cellulose epoxy , acrylic epoxy, polyvinyl alcohol etc. Use of fibers in shotcrete is also becoming popular in Japan to increase strength and toughness of the concrete. Not only steel fibers but also glass fibers are widely used. Recently more variety of materials such as PVA fiber acrylic and aramid fibers have been tested and some of them are being put into practical use, giving similar properties to shotcrete with steel fibers.

  16. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  17. Epidemiologic survey of locomotive syndrome in Japan.

    PubMed

    Seichi, Atsushi; Kimura, Atsushi; Konno, Shinichi; Yabuki, Shoji

    2016-03-01

    The authors have developed a screening tool, the 25-Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25), for the early detection of locomotive syndrome (LS). However, few studies have examined the prevalence of LS in the general population. This study estimated the prevalence of LS in Japan using the GLSF-25 and investigated age specific mean values for this scale. A nationwide cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to reveal standard values for the GLFS-25 and to estimate the total number of individuals with LS in Japan. Subjects were individuals selected from residents aged 40-79 years in Japan by a stratified, two-stage random sampling method in 2014. The survey period was from February to March 2014. A total of 9028 subjects were invited to participate. The GLFS-25 was used to estimate the prevalence of LS. We also investigated the degree of recognition of LS. Answers for the questionnaire were obtained from 5162 subjects (57.2%); 22.1% of responders had heard of LS. According to the GLSF-25, 614 subjects were regarded as having LS, representing a prevalence of 11.9%. When standardizing this value with the age distribution of the Japanese population, the total number of individuals with LS between the 40s and 70s in Japan was estimated to be approximately 7.5 million. Age specific standard values on the GLFS-25 were 4.4 in the 40s, 5.5 in the 50s, 7.1 in the 60s, and 12.7 in the 70s. The prevalence of LS increased with age and was particularly high in subjects aged 70-79. The degree of recognition of LS was 22%. This study demonstrated sex- and age specific standard values of the GLFS-25 and estimated the total number of individuals with LS in Japan based on a representative population. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High-resolution seismic imaging in the Japan Trench axis area off Miyagi, northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Kodaira, Shuichi; Miura, Seiichi; Regalla, Christine; Takahashi, Narumi

    2013-05-01

    obtained high-resolution seismic data reveal the detailed structure of the Japan Trench axis off Miyagi, Japan, in the region of large shallow slip during the 11 March 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake. Correlation of seismic images with previous drilling results identifies a possible basal chert-rich layer and hemipelagic/pelagic mudstones overlying igneous Pacific crust. Mapping of acoustic basement depicts the subduction of horst-and-graben topography. The basement and basal chert are subducted beneath a seismically chaotic frontal prism, but the majority of overlying hemipelagic mudstones is offscraped and imbricated at the trench axis as a result of plate boundary compression. A possible décollement is imaged as a seaward dipping reflection at landward part of the trench graben and was likely generated by loading and failure of underthrust sediments. Collectively, these analyses provide a structural framework for understanding sedimentary inputs and the localization of shallow plate boundary slip at the Japan Trench.

  19. IPS Space Weather Research: Korea-Japan-UCSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-27

    measure the selected radio sources around the sky at 327 MHz which is same frequency for use in Japan during last 30 years to derive solar wind velocities...Environment Laboratory (STELab), Japan . The new KSWC system is dedicated to IPS observation and observed data can be used for UCSD model input in...version of the UCSD 3-D IPS model at KSWC for space weather forecasting purpose based on the observed data primarily from Japan and Korea

  20. (US-Japan cooperative program on neutron scattering)

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, R.M.

    1990-06-11

    The traveler participated in a meeting on May 22, 1990, at JAERI Headquarters, Tokyo, Japan, to discuss methods of arranging for JAERI participation in the design of the ANS. On May 23, 1990, while at Tokai Research Establishment, Tokai, Japan, he toured the new JRR-3 reactor and attended the Steering Committee Meeting at which plans and budgets for the US-Japan Cooperative Program on Neutron Scattering were discussed and approved.

  1. Surface Observation Climatic Summaries (SOCS) for Yokota AB, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    0*tSAFETAC/DS-88/202A OIC FILE COPY 0 00 N1 SURFACE OBSERVATION CLIMATIC SUMMARIES 0 FOR YOKOTA AB, JAPAN h F~ E TAC Prepared by 01-A, USAFETAC...62225-5438 REVIEW AND APPROVAL STATEMENT USAFETAC/DS-88/202, SURFACE OBSERVATION CLIMATIC SUMMARIES FOR YOKOTA AB JAPAN , NOVEMBER 1988, HAS BEEN REVIEWED...AB JAPAN 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS: OPERATING LOCATION A, USAFETAC, FEDERAL BUILDING, ASHEVILLE, NC 28801-2723 8. PERFORMING

  2. A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.

    2002-02-25

    This paper is entitled ''A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN''. Since the first statement on the strategy for radioactive waste management in Japan was made by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1976, a quarter century has passed, in which much experience has been accumulated both in technical and social domains. This paper looks back in this 25-year history of radioactive waste management in Japan by highlighting activities related to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal.

  3. Japanese-U.S. Economic Relations. Japan Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    World War II was the last time when overall U.S.-Japan relations, and the economic relationship in particular, were as bad as appears to be the case in the 1990s. The United States and Japan are, respectively, the two largest economies in the world. The Japanese have the second leading market for U.S. products trailing only Canada. Japan buys more…

  4. The implementation of Narrative Pedagogy into nursing education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Asako

    2005-01-01

    The conventional approach to nursing education has been dominant in the teaching and learning environment in Japan. Some teachers are now seeking alternative approaches that can offer new ways of practice for reforming nursing education. Narrative Pedagogy can be used to guide the reconstruction of nursing education in Japan. The author reviews contemporary approaches to nursing education in Japan and discusses the strategies for implementing Narrative Pedagogy into the nursing education environment.

  5. A Realistic Approach to the US-Japan Alliance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    remilitarized Japan . These avenues include an approach I which deemrphasizes pressures on Japan to increase defense spending but encourag s force...political constraints, the one percent of GNP defense spending barrier, and a slow but steady trend toward increased Japanese security aware- ness...iniproverrent, expanded roles and missions for the Japan Self Defense Force (JSDF), increased joint and conbined training, and expanded technological exchange

  6. U.S./Japan Burdensharing: Constraints to Increased Japanese Contribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    ares Department of diitaveSens iii ABSTRACT This thesis explores issues relevant to U.S./ Japan burdensharing. As U.S. defense expenditures are reduced in...This thesis explores constraints to increased Japanese defense spending , Japanese perceptions of U.S. commitment, Soviet threat perceptions in Japan ...wealth and ability to contribute, have caused many Americans to believe that Japan is enjoying a "free ride" on American defense spending and capability

  7. Japan and the East Asian Balance of Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    suggest, as the US defense establishment must, that a trade war with Japan would endanger higher political and military interests is a difficult...standi is weak, but the case of security con- siderations must be pressed. The third lever that might move Japan is related to the first- defense ... Japan and the East Asian Balance of Power JEROME K. HOLLOWAY T hirteen years after the collapse of the American enterprise in Vietnam, there

  8. Surface Observation Climatic Summaries (SOCS) for Kadena AB, Japan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Ceiling; Cloud cover; Snow depth; Humidity; Barometric pressure; Atmospheric precipitation; Snow; Atmospheric temperature; Visibility; Wind; Kadena AB Japan; Military facilities; Computer printouts. (EDC)

  9. Robotics Technology In Japan And Its Impact On Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiko

    1984-08-01

    Japan's capabilities in robotics technology has developed with amazing speed. The nation has gone from an importer of robotics technology to the leading exporter in a little more than fifteen years. How did Japan manage to achieve such a feat? Are workers happy with this new technology? In order to answer these and other questions, the author spent several weeks in Japan in the summer of 1983 visiting many organizations and interviewing individuals. This paper summarizes the author's findings on the current status of Japan's robotization and its implications to workers.

  10. Advances in food composition tables in Japan-Standard Tables Of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Kawai, Ryoko

    2018-01-01

    The latest version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015- comprises the main food composition table (Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015-[Seventh revised Edition)) and three supplementary books. The supplementary books are Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Amino Acids -, Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Fatty Acids - and Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Available Carbohydrates, Polyols and Organic Acids-. We believe understanding these food composition tables can give greater insight into Japan's gastronomic culture and changes in eating habits. We expect them to play important roles as part of the East Asia food composition tables. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. New expectations: Pediatric cochlear implantation in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Janette

    2013-01-01

    Funding for cochlear implants The Japanese health-care system provides universal health coverage for the entire 127 million population of Japan. This includes all aspects of cochlear implantation, from diagnosis to implantation to mapping and habilitation aftercare. Japan has the third largest developed economy; however, the uptake rate for cochlear implants is lower than that of countries with similar economic status. Japan has an uptake rate of approximately 1% of potentially suitable subjects of all ages, compared with 5.6% in the USA. Cochlear implant provision for children In Japan, about 55% of cochlear implant recipients are children of less than 18 years of age. This represents an increase of 20% in the last 10 years, with a relative increase in the numbers of children receiving implants compared with the numbers of adults. However, only 3–4% of children under the age of 3 years are being implanted at less than 18 months of age. This is in accordance with the Japanese ENT Academy's guidelines, which currently puts the minimum age limit for implants in children at 18 months. Neonatal screening For hearing loss was first piloted nationally in Japan in 2000. Funding for screening subsequently stopped in 2005, though the national treasury provided a further 2 years' funding. Since 2007 local government organizations have been given responsibility to support these screening programs, but there remains considerable variation in funding between different prefectures. In one prefecture, Okayama, 95% of babies were screened and followed up for 2 years. However, the support system for children who need further diagnostic testing after screening remains insufficient. Referral When diagnosed, children with hearing loss are referred for counselling, hearing aids and habilitation. The responsibility for these is divided between the Ministry of Health and Welfare (including surgery, device programming, and therapy) and the Ministry of Education. Schools for the deaf and

  12. Nationwide tsunami hazard assessment project in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Nakamura, H.; Osada, M.; Ohsumi, T.; Morikawa, N.; Kawai, S.; Aoi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Matsuyama, H.; Toyama, N.; Kito, T.; Murashima, Y.; Murata, Y.; Inoue, T.; Saito, R.; Akiyama, S.; Korenaga, M.; Abe, Y.; Hashimoto, N.

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, we began a project of nationwide Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) in Japan to support various measures (Fujiwara et al., 2013, JpGU; Hirata et al., 2014, AOGS). The most important strategy in the nationwide PTHA is predominance of aleatory uncertainty in the assessment but use of epistemic uncertainty is limited to the minimum, because the number of all possible combinations among epistemic uncertainties diverges quickly when the number of epistemic uncertainties in the assessment increases ; we consider only a type of earthquake occurrence probability distribution as epistemic uncertainty. We briefly show outlines of the nationwide PTHA as follows; (i) we consider all possible earthquakes in the future, including those that the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japanese Government, already assessed. (ii) We construct a set of simplified earthquake fault models, called "Characterized Earthquake Fault Models (CEFMs)", for all of the earthquakes by following prescribed rules (Toyama et al., 2014, JpGU; Korenaga et al., 2014, JpGU). (iii) For all of initial water surface distributions caused by a number of the CEFMs, we calculate tsunamis by solving a nonlinear long wave equation, using FDM, including runup calculation, over a nesting grid system with a minimum grid size of 50 meters. (iv) Finally, we integrate information about the tsunamis calculated from the numerous CEFMs to get nationwide tsunami hazard assessments. One of the most popular representations of the integrated information is a tsunami hazard curve for coastal tsunami heights, incorporating uncertainties inherent in tsunami simulation and earthquake fault slip heterogeneity (Abe et al., 2014, JpGU). We will show a PTHA along the eastern coast of Honshu, Japan, based on approximately 1,800 tsunami sources located within the subduction zone along the Japan Trench, as a prototype of the nationwide PTHA. This study is supported by part of the research

  13. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Following the comprehensive systematic review of domestic and overseas scientific evidence, the "Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese, 2005 (DRI-J)" was published in April, 2005. The DRIs-J were prepared for health individuals and groups and designed to present a reference for intake values of energy and 34 nutrients to maintain and promote health and to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and illness due to excessive consumption of either energy or nutrients. The DRI-J also includes a special chapter for basic knowledge of DRIs. The energy recommendation is provided as an estimated energy requirement (EER), while five indices were used for nutrients: Estimated average requirement (EAR), recommended dietary allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI), tolerable upper intake level (UL), and tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related [chronic non-communicable] diseases (DG). Whilst the first four indices are same as the ones used in other countries, DG is unique index in Japan, which was set as a reference value for preventing non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular (including hypertension), major types of cancer and osteoporosis. This report (DRI-J) is the first dietary guidance in Japan, which applied evidence-based approach utilizing a systematic review process. Only a few articles from within Japan and other Asian countries could be used for its establishment. The project to establish the DRI-J revealed a severe lack of researchers and publications focused upon establishing DRIs for Japanese. Further review is therefore required in preparation for the next revision scheduled in 2010.

  14. Women and class structure in contemporary Japan.

    PubMed

    Shirahase, S

    2001-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine how to determine the class position of women, especially married women, in Japan. This study examines three different approaches to conceptualizing women's position in the class structure: the conventional approach, the individual approach, and the dominance approach. Since 1975, the overall rate of female labour force participation in Japan has increased, and given this growth, particularly of employees working outside home, I discuss whether the increased entry of women, particularly married women, into the labour market challenges the conventional way of assigning class positions to women by simply deriving them from their husband's class positions. The data set used in this study is derived from the 1995 Japanese Social Stratification and Mobility Survey. An examination of class distributions suggests that the pictures of macro-class structure provided by the conventional approach and the dominance approach show very little difference. Married women who belong to the female-dominant family still form a very small minority of all married women in the society. Furthermore, the male-dominant family shows the greatest stability over the life course whereas the female-dominant family, where the wife experiences withdrawal from the labour market, is least stable. The increasing number of married women in the labour market, thus, has not yet become a major threat to the conventional way of assigning women to a class position in contemporary Japan. Women, even among those working on a full-time basis, perceive their position in the stratification system using not only their own work, but also their husband's. In contrast, men's perception is determined by their own education and employment, not by their wives'. This asymmetry in the effect of the husband's class and of the wife's class on class identification is related not only to gender inequality within the labour market but also to the division of labour by gender within

  15. Obesity and gastrointestinal liver disorders in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Bunzo; Nunoi, Hiroaki; Miyake, Teruki; Hiasa, Yoichi; Onji, Morikazu

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, the prevalence of obesity in adult men has increased since the 1970s, while that in adult women has not changed. The prevalence of obesity in 5-, 8-, 11-, and 14-year-old boys and girls increased from the late 1980s to late 1990 s and has decreased since 2000, while that in 17-year-old girls increased in 2002, similar to that for boys, but has since decreased. In 2009, 33.3% of adult men and 25.0% of adult women were obese, and 8-10% of children (age, 5-17 years) were obese. The prevalence of visceral obesity in adults was 50.8% of men and 18.0% of women. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, affects insulin resistance and increases metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]) and various cancers. In Japan, with a body mass index (BMI) of 23-25 as the reference category, the hazard ratio of total mortality is 1.36 for a BMI of 30-40 in men and 1.37 with a BMI of 30-40 in women. The frequency of patients with NAFLD has gradually increased in proportion to the increase in the population with obesity. From recent studies in Japan, the number of NAFLD patients is estimated to be 10 million, and around 2 million are considered to have non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Dietary and behavioral modification is effective for body weight loss and for improvement of obesity-related gastrointestinal liver diseases. If necessary, bariatric surgery is useful for obesity treatment. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Lesson Plans for a Secondary Level Unit on Japan To Accompany "Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsunoda, Elizabeth P.; And Others

    These 30 lesson plans were designed to accompany "Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook", a collection of class activities, primary source selections, student readings, and role-play exercises. The lesson plans are based primarily on materials in the workbook, although materials from other sources also are recommended. Some of the…

  17. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: Results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported “private events”, for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and “private events” on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship. PMID:24572682

  18. Disaster relief activities of the Japan self-defense force following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa

    2014-06-01

    Cooperation between civilian and military forces, including the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF), enabled wide-ranging disaster relief after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nevertheless, many preventable fatalities occurred, particularly related to an inability to treat chronic disease, indicating the need to plan for the provision of long-term medical aid after natural disasters in stricken areas and evacuation shelters. To assist in this effort, this report (1) provides an overview of the consequences of the medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake, the largest natural disaster ever to hit Japan, focusing on the role and actions of the JSDF; (2) discusses the lessons learned regarding the provision of medical aid and management by the JSDF after this disaster, looking at the special challenges of meeting the needs of a rapidly aging population in a disaster situation; and (3) provides recommendations for the development of strategies for the long-term medical aid and support after natural disasters, especially with regard to the demographics of the Japanese population.

  19. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported "private events", for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and "private events" on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship.

  20. Picturing Life in Japan. For Students in Grades Three through Five. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sherry L.; Labbo, Linda D.

    This manual provides accurate, up-to-date information about contemporary life in Japan and provides opportunities for students to develop cross-cultural awareness. The content of the lessons includes concepts traditionally taught in elementary school social studies programs. Lessons provide multiple opportunities for students to develop a variety…

  1. Japan Pancreatic Cancer Registry; 30th year anniversary: Japan Pancreas Society.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Shinichi; Toma, Hiroki; Ohigashi, Hiroaki; Okusaka, Takuji; Nakao, Akimasa; Hatori, Takashi; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Akio; Tanaka, Masao

    2012-10-01

    Since 1981, the Japan Pancreas Society has been hosting a nationwide pancreatic cancer registry. To commemorate its 30th anniversary, we review its history and latest achievement. During 3 decades, more than 350 leading institutions in Japan contributed voluntarily to register and periodic follow-up. The registry was modified to protect privacy by encrypting and hash algorithm. From 1981 to 2007, 32,619 cumulative records were analyzed. The overall survival of invasive cancer was improved significantly. More patients with earlier stage or with intraductal and cystic neoplasms underwent resection. The strongest prognostic factor of Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stage IIA and IIB tubular adenocarcinoma in the pancreatic head was histological grade, followed by tumor size, extent of lymph node dissection, and postoperative chemotherapy. The 5-year survival rate of Union for International Cancer Control stage 0 reached 85%. The improvement of survival of patients with invasive cancer in Japan can be attributed to the introduction of effective chemotherapies, regionalization, and the earlier diagnosis and treatment. Simple definition of "early pancreatic cancer" is needed. At the 30th year anniversary, the Japan Pancreas Society nationwide pancreatic cancer registry is more shining than ever for current perspectives and for future diagnostic and treatment tactics.

  2. Congenital Minamata disease: warnings from Japan's experience.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K

    2000-07-01

    Minamata disease is alkylmercury poisoning causing Hunter-Russell syndrome due to ingestion of seafood polluted by industrial waste. Two epidemics occurred in Minamata (1956) and Niigata (1965), Japan. Many infants with "cerebral palsy" in villages where adult cases occurred were established as having congenital Minamata disease. Developing brains were affected by alkylmercury through transplacental exposure and even by breastfeeding. This report reviews the history, clinical features, pathology, epidemiology, metal analysis, experiments, and sociolegal aspects of congenital Minamata disease. Many victims are still alive and their present conditions are reviewed.

  3. The 1998 World Solar Rallye: Akita, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacklock, Andy; Duke, Mike; Burgess, Nigel

    In early August 1998, 81 solar/electric vehicles participated in a three day endurance race in Japan. The objective was to complete as many laps of the 31 km circuit as possible. Some of the cars used state-of-the-art motors, batteries, chassis, solar cells and tyres to produce vehicles which could travel at speeds of 70-80 km/h on about 1 kW of input power. With only 20 kg of battery, some solar cars were travelling around 450 km a day. This paper tells the story of the race and the technological developments behind the successful vehicles.

  4. Japan at the Crossroads Armaments and Independence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    industries. 65 Despite the Triple Intervention by Russia, 6ermany and France to limit Japan’s gains from its victorv over the Chinese it was...show. Because of the strain imposed by heavy expenditures for war and arma- ment expenditures of the national government tripled from 1893 to 1903. They...Facciam i About 50 4@aber* W .M I bk 01 e6aa I~vaaava Mlchi recent boreia Miter Salto guaftaichi leasel Za~ki tsbl Secretary Gaeteal.* LDP Spete Aea m~ sk I

  5. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.

  6. Cultural influences on suicide in Japan.

    PubMed

    Russell, Roxanne; Metraux, Daniel; Tohen, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Following the economic crash of the late 1990s, the suicide rate in Japan increased to a rate of over 30 000 people per year and has been one of the highest in the world. Cultural factors have influenced this high suicide rate, such as a tradition of honorable suicide as well as permissive attitudes towards suicide that remain in modern times. Additionally, the economic downturn, particularly the trend of unemployment in middle-aged men, also played a significant role in the high suicide rate. The suicide rate has started to decrease in recent years perhaps in part due to suicide prevention measures undertaken by the government.

  7. Overview of spherical tokamak research in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Fujita, T.; Fukumoto, N.; Fukuyama, A.; Hanada, K.; Idei, H.; Nagata, M.; Ono, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Uchida, M.; Horiuchi, R.; Kamada, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Masuzaki, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Oishi, T.; Saito, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsuji-Iio, S.

    2017-10-01

    Nationally coordinated research on spherical tokamak is being conducted in Japan. Recent achievements include: (i) plasma current start-up and ramp-up without the use of the central solenoid by RF waves (in electron cyclotron and lower hybrid frequency ranges), (ii) plasma current start-up by AC Ohmic operation and by coaxial helicity injection, (iii) development of an advanced fuelling technique by compact toroid injection, (iv) ultra-long-pulse operation and particle control using a high temperature metal wall, (v) access to the ultra-high-β regime by high-power reconnection heating, and (vi) improvement of spherical tokamak plasma stability by externally applied helical field.

  8. Seismology in Japan in 1939-1947

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kawasumi, Hirosi

    1950-01-01

    In the latter half of this period the seismology in Japan was so much affected by the war that retrogressions in the instrumental seismology became very remarkable. Much regretted three leading seismologists, professors Ishimoto, Sezawa, and Inamura died in this period. But the seismic activities in this well-known land of earthquakes were not less active than usual as will be seen in the annexed table of destructive earthquakes. Seismologists in this country are now endeavoring to restore its former prosperity in this bitter circumstance.

  9. Countermeasures against chemical terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Seto, Yasuo; Fuse, Akira

    2013-04-10

    Japan has experienced numerous incidents of chemical disasters and terrorist attacks. Here we review the history of changes in countermeasures against such incidents. Since 2004, the Civil Protection Law, more formally known as the "Law Concerning the Measures for Protection of the People in Armed Attack Situations etc" was enacted to fully prepare the nation for chemical terrorism. According to this law, the Japanese government must carry out Civil Protection Exercises on an annual basis to gauge response. Problem areas that remain are chosen and addressed one by one until they are judged to be resolved in subsequent exercises.

  10. CAD system for VLSI in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, T.; Ohtsuki, T.; Goto, S.

    1983-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development and the state-of-the-art of computer-aided design for very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits in Japan. Logic design tools are discussed including logic simulators, gate-level simulators, and functional-level simulators. Attention is likewise given to the testing and diagnosis of digital logic circuits. With reference to circuit and timing simulators, general-circuit and MOS-timing simulators are described. Several layout systems are evaluated, such as building block, hierarchical and masterslice systems. Device simulators are discussed and a VLSI computer-aided system is presented, noting its hierarchical and structural design, LSI design language and database controller.

  11. Knowledge-based systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Edward; Engelmore, Robert S.; Friedland, Peter E.; Johnson, Bruce B.; Nii, H. Penny; Schorr, Herbert; Shrobe, Howard

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a study of the state-of-the-art in knowledge-based systems technology in Japan, organized by the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC) under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The panel visited 19 Japanese sites in March 1992. Based on these site visits plus other interactions with Japanese organizations, both before and after the site visits, the panel prepared a draft final report. JTEC sent the draft to the host organizations for their review. The final report was published in May 1993.

  12. Japan’s Strategic Future: Coalition Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    of life only through sufferance, and in a search of further plunder abroad furnished the tools for the military to embark upon its ill-fated venture...all the amenities of home including a gym, internet café, library, and of course a karaoke bar. All JSDF personnel will be confined to the camp...the Indian 106 J Sean Curtin, "Japan’s ’Fortress of Solitude’ in Iraq-plus karaoke ." Asia Times Online, 20 February 2004

  13. Heart transplants: Japan tries limited experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A

    Japan's Ministry of Health will fund a major new heart transplantation project in an effort to resume heart transplants halted by a public outcry against the first such transplant 17 years ago. Opposition to organ donation, which has been attributed variously to Buddhist and Confucian views of the body and to Japanese cultural values, has resulted in the heaviest use of renal dialysis per capita in the world and to an interest in artificial heart research. Goals of the heart transplant project are first to win public support and then to promote research on animal transplants, organ preservation, a distribution system, immunological control mechanisms, and artificial hearts as backup devices.

  14. Distribution of scientific researchers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Kiyoshi

    In order to evaluate the research activities of Japanese scientists internationally, the author researches organizations, institutions, and their locations, which Japanese scientists belong to, by analysing "Current Contents Address Directory - Science & Technology 1984". By the analysis of scientists in major cities and universities in Japan, it became obvious that the majority of Japanese scientists are concentrated in national universities and government-supported institutions. Such a concentration is traced back to the foundation of national universities (ex-Teidai) by the Meiji Government about 100 years ago.

  15. Barriers to mental health care in Japan: Results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey.

    PubMed

    Kanehara, Akiko; Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito

    2015-09-01

    The reasons for accessing and maintaining access to mental health services in Japan may be different to those in other countries. Using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Japan survey data, this study investigated the prevalence of sociodemographic correlates of barriers for the use of, reasons for delayed access to, and reasons for dropping out from mental health care in a Japanese community-based sample. An interview survey was conducted with a random sample of residents living in 11 communities across Japan during the years 2002-2006. Data from 4130 participants were analyzed. The most frequently reported reason for not seeking mental health care was a low perceived need (63.9%). The most common reason for delaying access to help was the wish to handle the problem on one's own (68.8%), while the most common reason for dropping out of care was also a low perceived need (54.2%). Being a woman and of younger age were key sociodemographic barriers to the use of mental health services. Low perceived need was a major reason for not seeking, delay in using, and dropout from mental health services in Japan. In addition, low perceived need and structural barriers were more frequently reported than attitudinal barriers, with the exception of a desire to handle the problem on one's own. These findings suggest that improving therapist-patient communication and quality of mental health care, as well as mental health literacy education in the community, might improve access to care in Japan. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  16. Barriers to mental health care in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kanehara, Akiko; Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-01-01

    Aim The reasons for accessing and maintaining access to mental health services in Japan may be unique in those of other countries. Using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Japan survey data, this study investigated the prevalence of sociodemographic correlates of barriers for the use of, reasons for delayed access to, and reasons for dropping out from mental health care in a Japanese community-based sample. Methods An interview survey was conducted with a random sample of residents living in 11 communities across Japan during the years 2002–2006. Data from 4,130 participants were analyzed. Results The most frequently reported reason for not seeking mental health care was a low perceived need (63.9%). The most common reason for delaying access to help was the wish to handle the problem on one's own (68.8%), while the most common reason for dropping out of care was also a low perceived need (54.2%). Being a woman and of younger age were key sociodemographic barriers to the use of mental health services. Conclusion Low perceived need was a major reason for not seeking, delay in using, and dropout from mental health services in Japan. In addition, low perceived need and structural barriers were more frequently reported than attitudinal barriers, with the exception of a desire to handle the problem on one's own. These findings suggest that to improve therapist-patient communication and quality of mental health care, as well as mental health literacy education in the community, might improve access to care in Japan. PMID:25523280

  17. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  18. Premature mortality in Japan due to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawahda, Amin; Yamashita, Ken; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Junichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Chen, Fang; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, all 47 prefectures conduct routine air quality monitoring at 1145 stations throughout the country to assess environmental effects. This study aims to provide a better understanding of possible estimations of premature mortality in Japan caused by exposure to monitored and modeled concentrations of tropospheric ozone during the period from January to December, 2005. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of ozone concentrations were modeled using the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system coupled with the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (CMAQ/REAS). Premature mortality caused by exposure to ozone was calculated assuming a relative risk (RR) value of 1.003 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.001-1.004] for concentrations above 35 ppb according to the SOMO35 index (annual Sum of daily maximum 8-h Ozone Means Over 35 ppb) recommended by WHO (2008). Based on CMAQ/REAS simulations, the estimated all-cause premature mortality in 2005 is about 13,000 (95% CI: 4320-17,300) cases. This value is 2.5 times greater than the estimated premature mortality based on monitored ozone concentrations, which is 5220 (95% CI: 1740-6960) cases.

  19. Trend of motorcycle engine valves in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kiriyama, M.; Sasakura, T.

    1997-12-31

    Production of motorcycles in Japan has greatly decreased after peaking in 1981. However, as a result of an increase in local production, mainly in Asian nations, the production of sets, often called Knock Down (KD) sets, has been increasing. These sets are a shipment of parts that are ready for assembly in the importing country. In this area, motorcycle manufacturers are trying to improve performance and decrease noise and pollution. This report will outline the trends in motorcycle engine valves and the changes that have occurred with respect to valve materials, valve design specifications, and valve manufacturing processes, as experienced by Nittan Valve Co., Ltd. over the past 15 years. Motorcycles are used in various ways. They are used for transportation, sport, leisure, and hobby. Therefore, the forms and specifications of their bodies and engines are quite varied. The production of motorcycles in Japan has sharply decreased from an era of peak production in 1981 and in recent years, has remained low at around 3 million motorcycles per year. As a result, each motorcycle manufacturer has been promoting the local production in each country, and the production of KD sets is rapidly increasing today. The motorcycle and parts manufacturers are working on employing new technologies for anti-pollution measures, improving performance, decreasing noise, and better safety measures. With this in mind, the technological trends of Japanese engine valves being manufactured by Nittan Valve Co., Ltd. will be reported.

  20. Kampo medicine for palliative care in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Kampo medicines are currently manufactured under strict quality controls. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan has approved 148 Kampo formulas. There is increasing evidence for the efficacy of Kampo medicines, and some are used clinically for palliative care in Japan. The specific aim of this review is to evaluate the clinical use of Kampo medicines in palliative care in the treatment of cancer. The conclusions are as follows: Juzentaihoto inhibits the progression of liver tumors in a dose-dependent manner and contributes to long-term survival. Hochuekkito has clinical effects on cachexia for genitourinary cancer and improves the QOL and immunological status of weak patients, such as postoperative patients. Daikenchuto increases intestinal motility and decreases the postoperative symptoms of patients with total gastrectomy with jejunal pouch interposition, suppresses postoperative inflammation following surgery for colorectal cancer, and controls radiation-induced enteritis. Rikkunshito contributes to the amelioration of anorectic conditions in cancer cachexia-anorexia syndrome. Goshajinkigan and Shakuyakukanzoto reduce the neurotoxicity of patients with colorectal cancer who undergo oxaliplatin and FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil/folinic acid plus oxaliplatin) therapy. Hangeshashinto has the effect of preventing and alleviating diarrhea induced by CPT-11(irinotecan) and combination therapy with S-1/CPT-11. O’rengedokuto significantly improves mucositis caused by anticancer agents. PMID:24447861

  1. [Evaluation of voriconazole oral dosage in Japan].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yukihiro; Kawasumi, Noriyo; Hirai, Jun; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2014-10-01

    Voriconazole (VRCZ), a broad-spectrum triazole, is served in two dosage forms-injection and oral. VRCZ is difference dosage of oral and intravenous administration writing a medical package insert in Japan. 6 mg/kg intravenous injection (IV) twice daily for first day as initial loading dose, followed by 3-4 mg/kg IV twice daily between meals is recommended. 300 mg orally twice daily for first day as initial loading dose, followed by 150-200 mg orally twice daily between meals is recommended. Patients weighing over 40 kg, 200 mg orally twice daily between meals is recommended. Patients weighing under 40 kg, 100 mg orally twice daily between meals is recommended, increase to 150 mg twice daily if inadequate response. This study evaluated VRCZ trough concentration and oral dosage in the 23 cases which administered VRCZ to analysis for TDM in Aichi University Hospital. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated to examine relationships among variables. The level of statistical significance was set at p=0.05. All data were analyzed and processed on JMP 8 (SAS Institute Japan). There was a significant positive correlation between VRCZ trough concentration and dose/weight (r=0.47 p<0.05). In this result, VRCZ oral dosage is appropriate to administer dose/weight (mg/kg) twice a day as same as IV.

  2. Evolution of genotoxicity test methods in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sofuni, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of methods to assess genotoxicity of test compounds is thought to be one of the important subjects in The Japanese Environmental and Mutagen Society (JEMS). In 1970, the Ministry of Education of Japan (at that time) organized a research group (Organizer: Y. Tazima, National Institute of Genetics), and started a systematic research on the genotoxic effects induced by chemical substances. Considering the importance of this issue through the outcomes of the research group, JEMS was established in 1972, and President Tazima organized the 1st annual meeting in the August in Tokyo with the participation of experts in this field working in national institutes, universities and others in Japan. The discovery that food additives possessed genotoxic potential triggered various scientific activities in the field of genotoxicity. Another important point was the correlation between genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, in which the establishment of the reverse mutation assay played an important role. Other critical factors, such as side effects of drugs, occupational cancer, and environmental pollution due to genotoxic chemicals, emphasized the importance of genotoxicity tests for human safety. The tests performed to assess genotoxicity from 1960s to 1980s will be described to understand that many different genotoxic methodologies were discussed in these periods.

  3. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high.

  4. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

  5. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed. PMID:25763120

  6. Interlaboratory comparison of olfactometry in Japan.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, T; Masuda, J

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, 2001, and 2002, interlaboratory comparison of olfactometry was carried out in order to collect basic data for the establishment of a quality control procedure and the determination of quality criteria for the triangular odour bag method. In 2000, interlaboratory comparison was conducted by using a measurement method for samples taken at smoke stacks. On the other hand, the measurement method for samples taken at boundary lines was used for interlaboratory comparison in 2001. A total of seven olfactometry laboratories in Japan participated in each test, and mean values, repeatability standard deviations, reproducibility standard deviations, and standard deviations under intermediate conditions of detection threshold of ethyl acetate were calculated from the results. These values can be used in a quality control process of olfactometry. In 2002, interlaboratory comparison was carried out by using a measurement method for samples taken at smoke stacks. A total of 137 olfactometry laboratories in Japan participated in the test, and 69% of them lay within the permissible range of the odour index.

  7. High Energy Astrophysical Missions in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    There are five X-ray astronomy satellites launched from Japan. The latest satellite, Suzaku, was launched in 2005. MAXI is an all sky survey mission in X-ray that was attached to the ISS in 2009. These two are functioning at present. ASTRO-H is the only approved mission in X-ray that will be launched in 2014. There are four X-ray detectors on board ASTRO-H, SXS, SXI, HXI and SGD as well as X-ray telescopes made of thin foil mirrors. Most of the future missions heavily depend on them both in technology and in science. From this point of view, we have to concentrate on ASTRO-H so that we can expand our activities in future. In Japan, the small scientific satellite project is now on-going. Two missions are already allocated while no X-ray mission is approved. DIOS, PolariS, CAST and FFAST are proposed. Here we explain FFAST in detail that will study the evolution of the universe.

  8. Source location of secondary microseisms in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Ryota; Nishida, Kiwamu

    2017-04-01

    Non-linear interactions of ocean swells generate secondary microseisms. Although observation of microseisms have been established well in several decades, source locations of secondary microseisms remain difficult to determine well. In the present study, we try to locate dominant microseism sources observed in the Japan islands using Hi-net records. In order to locate microseisms source, we first estimate back azimuths of Rayleigh waves in the period of 4-8 s based on polarization analysis. Since fundamental Rayleigh waves generally have retrograde particle motions, back azimuth of incident Rayleigh wave can be determined without uncertainty of 180 degrees from three component records at single stations. We estimated locations which can explain the back azimuth distribution and picked up source locations with small location errors. The microseism sources mainly distribute in two specific regions: 100-200 km off the coast of Fukushima in the Pacific and off Tottori in the Sea of Japan. The off Tottori sources dominate in the winter season whereas the off Fukushima sources are detected stationary. The off Tottori and off Fukushima sources are located at an ocean basin with the depth of 1000-2500 m and at shelf slope with the ocean depth of 2000-6000 m, respectively. The oceanic depths are close to the resonance depth of 1500-3000 m for the period of 4-8 s. Improving source locations and investigating their frequency dependence may deepen our understanding of mechanism of microseisms.

  9. Current status of measles in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Zhou, Jianhui; Fujino, Motoko

    2003-03-01

    Approximately 20,000 to 30,000 cases of measles are reported annually in Japan, although the actual number of measles infections is considered to be five to ten times higher than the number of reported cases. Despite the availability of effective and safe live attenuated vaccines, regional outbreaks in Okinawa, transmission in adults, and secondary vaccine failures continue. Recent advances in molecular technology have contributed to molecular epidemiological studies, new concepts of asymptomatic infection, and the identification of different characteristics among measles virus genotypes. Measles virus strains isolated in Japan since 1984 were classified into the genotypes C1 (-1985), D3 (1985-1990), D5 (1990-1997), and Chicago-type D3 (1997-1999) from the results of sequencing the hemagglutinin gene. After 2000, the D5 genotype emerged, and, recently, the H1 genotype, which is now dominant, was introduced from Korea. Some of the currently circulating wild-types have different characteristics (high growth rate at 39 degrees C-40 degrees C). The cumulative vaccine coverage has reached 81%, but most measles cases involved unvaccinated individuals. Measles is a preventable disease and can be eradicated by increasing the vaccine coverage, and promoting the motivation for vaccination, in accordance with the worldwide measles strategy.

  10. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress.

  11. Rail safety and rail privatisation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew W

    2010-07-01

    Over the period from 1980 to the present, the economic status of the main line railway systems in many developed countries has changed, by privatisation or economic deregulation or both. The principal aims of such changes have been to improve the economic performance of the railways, and not to change the safety performance. Nevertheless, it is recognised that changing the organisational structure of railways might affect safety. The empirical evidence of the effect of restructuring on safety is limited, both in railways and in other industries. This paper adds to the empirical evidence by analysing train accidents in Japan before and after the privatisation of the Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1987. The paper finds that the JNR achieved downward trends in the mean number of train accidents per train-kilometre in the 16 years 1971-1986, and the paper takes the extrapolation of these favourable trends as the yardstick by which to judge the safety performance of the privatised railways. The paper finds that the privatised railway had fewer train accidents in total than this yardstick in 1987-2006. This finding applies whether or not the high-speed Shinkansen train operations are included. Thus there is no evidence that rail privatisation in Japan had an adverse effect on train accidents. The methods adopted and the results are similar to those previously found by the author for rail privatisation in Great Britain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed.

  13. Laser-assisted rapid prototyping in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathuria, Yash P.

    2002-04-01

    In the recent past years, developments in the rapid prototyping of various parts have taken new dynamic turns in manufacturing technology. Besides the use of new materials, unrelenting demands for the downsizing of miniature components in the micro-domain have expanded the application area of the rapid prototype product. Their requirements with reduced time lag have forced the manufacturers to adopt and develop innovative techniques which meet these demands. In order to overcome this problem, several techniques, predominantly laser stereolithography, have successfully been used in Japan for the past several years to generate a complex micro-/macro part of polymer resin based in two- or three-dimensional domains. The main disadvantage of this process is that they consist of two or more steps for producing metallic/metal-matrix composite microstructures. But recently developed new technologies of selective laser sintering/generating and ballistic particles manufacturing processes offer the possibility of the direct generation of these microstructures in a single step process. The last two processes actually have limitations on the feature size produced, due to the minimum size of the molten droplet. But the selective laser sintering technique can bind the particles by melting together at the interfacial grain contact area only and thus producing smaller feature sizes. Based upon these techniques, the present paper aims to review the current status and the future prospective of laser assisted rapid prototyping in Japan.

  14. Occupational stress among healthcare workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shinya; Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Kitazawa, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    High distress levels in healthcare workers in Japan may deteriorate safe service provision. To clarify job stress of healthcare workers, we compared Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) scores among physicians, nursing staff and administrative workers. Healthcare workers (n=9,137) in 20 hospitals in Japan were asked to answer BJSQ. BJSQ is job stress questionnaire to measure "Job Stressors", "Stress Responses" and "Social Supports". The "Total Health Risk" of the healthcare workers was 10% higher than the national average. While the physicians felt the stress of the quantitative and qualitative job overload, they had support from supervisors and coworkers and showed mild "Stress Responses". The nursing staff felt the stress of the quantitative and qualitative job overload at the same level as the physicians, but they did not have sufficient support from supervisors and coworkers, and showed high "Stress Responses". The administrative workers did not have sufficient support from supervisors and coworkers, but they experienced less stress as measured by the quantitative and qualitative job overload than the physicians or the nursing staff and showed moderate "Stress Responses". Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms and the influence of other factors to the stress trait in healthcare workers.

  15. The English Language in Japan: History, Attitudes, and Functions. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.; Smith, Larry E.

    1995-01-01

    Introduces this special issue on the English language in Japan, which focuses on the historical phases of the introduction of English, the role of English in the educational system and the media, the contact and convergence of Japanese and English, the functions of English in Japan, and Japanese attitudes toward English. (three references) (MDM)

  16. Ideas for Integrating Japan into the Curriculum. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest discusses how, by studying Japan, the larger context of the Asia-Pacific region can be explored and students can be introduced to current realities. The top 5 competitive countries for 1994 were the United States, Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, and Germany. Because of the increasing interdependence between the United States and…

  17. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  18. Outfought and Outthought: Reassessing the Mongol Invasions of Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    taken on an almost mythical quality, not so much because of the brave samurai defense of Japan, but rather, due to the fact that both invasions......almost mythical quality, not so much because of the brave samurai defense of Japan, but rather, due to the fact that both invasions ended disastrously

  19. Our Common Home: Earth. Japan (A Culture Study Unit).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    Designed to provide students and teachers with opportunities to investigate the social, cultural, and historical traits of Japan, this study unit can be adapted to the needs of any group within the social studies curriculum (grades 4-12). An overview and outline on Japan covers the areas of geography, population, history, unique features (e.g.,…

  20. Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

  1. Ethics Education for Professionals in Japan: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Yasushi; Ueno, Tetsu

    2010-01-01

    Ethics education for professionals has become popular in Japan over the last two decades. Many professional schools now require students to take an applied ethics or professional ethics course. In contrast, very few courses of professional ethics for teaching exist or have been taught in Japan. In order to obtain suggestions for teacher education,…

  2. Perceptions of Aging and Disability among College Students in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Nicholas J.; Kamimura, Akiko; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Stephens, Emily; Omi, Keita; Kanaoka, Ana; Ishikawa, Ai; Yamanaka, Katsuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan launched the Long-term Care Insurance program in 2000, and ratified the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2014. Japan has been taking significant steps to support their elderly population and individuals with disabilities. However, information is lacking on the understanding and opinions of either of…

  3. Epidemiology of Esophageal Cancer in Japan and China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yingsong; Totsuka, Yukari; He, Yutong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Qiao, Youlin; Ueda, Junko; Wei, Wenqiang; Inoue, Manami; Tanaka, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for a collaborative multidisciplinary study of the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer, the authors reviewed the published literature to identify similarities and differences between Japan and China in esophageal cancer epidemiology. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type, while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma remains extremely low in both countries. Numerous epidemiologic studies in both countries show that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are contributing risk factors for ESCC. There are differences, however, in many aspects of esophageal cancer between Japan and China, including cancer burden, patterns of incidence and mortality, sex ratio of mortality, risk factor profiles, and genetic variants. Overall incidence and mortality rates are higher in China than in Japan, and variation in mortality and incidence patterns is greater in China than in Japan. During the study period (1987–2000), the decline in age-adjusted mortality rates was more apparent in China than in Japan. Risk factor profiles differed between high- and low-incidence areas within China, but not in Japan. The association of smoking and drinking with ESCC risk appears to be weaker in China than in Japan. Genome-wide association studies in China showed that variants in several chromosome regions conferred increased risk, but only genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing genes were significantly associated with ESCC risk in Japan. A well-designed multidisciplinary epidemiologic study is needed to examine the role of diet and eating habits in ESCC risk. PMID:23629646

  4. Over-Education and Its Opportunity Cost in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucel, Aleksander; Molina, Ivette Fuentes; Raya, Josep Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the determinants of over-education in Japan and evaluate its opportunity costs for university graduates. To this end, we use the REFLEX data. Results reveal that over-education level in Japan is high and it brings an important wage penalty for Japanese workers. Large firm and high occupations point toward a…

  5. 76 FR 8773 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On December 22, 2010...

  6. English, Language Shift and Values Shift in Japan and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This is a comparative study of English language education in Japan and Singapore and the role English plays in both countries. English language education in Japan has not been very effective. Although the communicative approach to teaching English was introduced in the 1980s, schools still use the grammar-translation method and most Japanese do…

  7. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  8. Japan: The Dilemmas of Success. Headline Series No. 277.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pempel, T. J.

    This booklet examines Japan's unparalleled economic achievements and its growing political prominence. Reflecting upon Japan's economic, political, and societal dynamism, the document offers helpful insights into how this nation, nearly devoid of natural resources but blessed with a self-sacrificing, highly skilled, and dedicated work force, has…

  9. Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

  10. Japan Trail '83: American Art Education Odyssey to the Orient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1983-01-01

    Five American middle school students went to Japan for two weeks in 1983 as ambassadors for American art education. Art education in Japan is much more centralized than in America. In addition to school study, children are exposed to traditional arts like the tea ceremony, calligraphy, and ikebana. (CS)

  11. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; And Others

    This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,…

  12. Over-Education and Its Opportunity Cost in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucel, Aleksander; Molina, Ivette Fuentes; Raya, Josep Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the determinants of over-education in Japan and evaluate its opportunity costs for university graduates. To this end, we use the REFLEX data. Results reveal that over-education level in Japan is high and it brings an important wage penalty for Japanese workers. Large firm and high occupations point toward a…

  13. Continuity and Change in Disaster Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe post-war continuity and change in disaster education in Japan. Preparedness for natural disasters has been a continuous agenda in Japan for geographical and meteorological reasons, and disaster education has been practised in both formal and informal settings. Post-war disaster management and education have taken a…

  14. Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

  15. Japan's Democracy: How Much Change? Headline Series No. 305.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Ellis S.

    This booklet analyzes the changes that have occurred in Japan in the postwar period. The book is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1, "Revolutionary Change: American Occupation, 1945-52," focuses on the dramatic changes brought by Occupation forces. Chapter 2, "Evolutionary Change: Japan's Democracy from the Occupation through the…

  16. Income Inequality and Economic Development, A Case Study: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Tsunehiko

    The changes in income inequality during the post-war period in Japan are investigated quantitatively and extensively in order to shed some light on the relationship between income inequality and the rapid economic development experienced in Japan. Following a presentation of some summary pictures on income inequality in the Japanese society the…

  17. Tora no Maki III. Lessons for Teaching about Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    The elements of Japan, including history, geography, economics, civics, and cultural studies, are in this collection of original lesson plans. The lessons are meant to provide original content about Japan to augment and supplement an existing unit of study and evoke a spirit of inquiry and introspection. The 24 lessons are as follows: (1)…

  18. A review of liquid rocket propulsion programs in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of Japan's current capabilities in the areas of space and transatmospheric propulsion is presented. The primary focus is upon Japan's programs in liquid rocket propulsion and in space plane and related transatmospheric areas. Brief reference is also made to their solid rocket programs, as well as to their supersonic air breathing propulsion efforts that are just getting underway.

  19. The Issue of Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to problematize that which has been taken for granted about the notion of multiculturalism in Japan. Multiculturalism is a "hot" issue in Japan. As the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" since 1980s, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural…

  20. Japan's Teacher Acculturation: Critical Analysis through Comparative Ethnographic Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Edward R.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-cultural teaching and research in Canada and Japan is reported. Ethnographic narrative methods were used to examine Japan's teacher acculturation. Canada's teachers are largely required to work in isolation, to learn their practice through trial and error. There is little provision for mentorship and insufficient time to reflect. In…

  1. The Independent Living Movement in Asia: Solidarity from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Reiko; Okuhira, Masako

    2008-01-01

    Independent living movements of disabled people are emerging in Asian countries, supported by independent living centres (ILCs) in Japan. A study was conducted in Japan to explore the impact of the training program offered by Japanese ILCs to disabled people from other Asian countries. A sample of 35 people was selected by a snowballing method.…

  2. The Independent Living Movement in Asia: Solidarity from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Reiko; Okuhira, Masako

    2008-01-01

    Independent living movements of disabled people are emerging in Asian countries, supported by independent living centres (ILCs) in Japan. A study was conducted in Japan to explore the impact of the training program offered by Japanese ILCs to disabled people from other Asian countries. A sample of 35 people was selected by a snowballing method.…

  3. Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

  4. The Politics of Religion: Modernity, Nationhood and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2008-01-01

    While religion in Japan is traditionally linked to nationhood and nation-building, the post-war period has seen Shinto consciously invoked to restore a sense of national identity through a focus on Japan's victimhood. In this context, there is a focus on the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to the war dead and an icon of contemporary Japanese cultural…

  5. Income Inequality and Economic Development, A Case Study: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Tsunehiko

    The changes in income inequality during the post-war period in Japan are investigated quantitatively and extensively in order to shed some light on the relationship between income inequality and the rapid economic development experienced in Japan. Following a presentation of some summary pictures on income inequality in the Japanese society the…

  6. Education, Science and the Economic Development of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    Examines changes in the educational system of Japan from 1868-1912 as a result of changes in attitudes toward science, technology, and professional and vocational training. Widespread fervor for utilitarian education during this period played a large part in Japan's commercial and industrial modernization. (Author/DB)

  7. Our Common Home: Earth. Japan (A Culture Study Unit).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    Designed to provide students and teachers with opportunities to investigate the social, cultural, and historical traits of Japan, this study unit can be adapted to the needs of any group within the social studies curriculum (grades 4-12). An overview and outline on Japan covers the areas of geography, population, history, unique features (e.g.,…

  8. Teaching about Japan 1941-1991: A Personal Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, A. Elgin

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a teacher's views of changes in education about and attitude toward Japan as it shifted from a military to an economic power. Describes pre-World War II views of Japan and the evolution of U.S. public opinion over time. Includes information on university outreach programs, private cooperative groups, resource centers, and teacher travel…

  9. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; And Others

    This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,…

  10. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    PubMed

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange."

  11. Twinning Program for Asian Students Studying in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshihiro

    Recently, Japan announces the government policy which increases the number of foreign students studying in Japan from one hundred thousand at the present time to three hundred thousand until 2025. In order to realize the policy, there are many problems to be solved. One resolution is the twinning program with good performance for the living and educational cost and high quality higher education.

  12. Intercultural Communication: Between Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji; Kitao, S. Kathleen

    This collection of papers on the intercultural communication between the United States and Japan is divided into three sections. The first section, "Introduction to Intercultural Communication," describes the background of the relationship between Japan and the United States, the history of the study of intercultural communication, and…

  13. Japan and America: A Tale of Two Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Carol

    1991-01-01

    Discusses contact between the United States and Japan. Comments that the history of the relationship is a long one that becomes increasingly interdependent. Describes the relationship as characterized by a disparity of power and interest now shifting toward Japan. Emphasizes that changes in the relationship have always depended on the world…

  14. Media Education in Japan (Retrospect and Present Trends).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takakuwa, Yasuo

    This overview of the development of media education in Japan begins with a discussion of the motion picture as entertainment and the public attitude toward film in Japan during the early years of the century. The introduction of film education into the schools in the 1920s--both teaching by film and teaching about film--is then described together…

  15. English, Language Shift and Values Shift in Japan and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This is a comparative study of English language education in Japan and Singapore and the role English plays in both countries. English language education in Japan has not been very effective. Although the communicative approach to teaching English was introduced in the 1980s, schools still use the grammar-translation method and most Japanese do…

  16. Bunko: Private Mini-Libraries for Children in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Satoru

    "Bunko" are local mini-libraries for children in Japan, operated voluntarily by individuals or groups of parents, intended to nurture children's reading interest by offering them an inviting reading environment. In 1993, there were an estimated 4,000 bunko in Japan, with approximately 32,000 adult bunko members (90% female). Bunko…

  17. Japan Trail '83: American Art Education Odyssey to the Orient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1983-01-01

    Five American middle school students went to Japan for two weeks in 1983 as ambassadors for American art education. Art education in Japan is much more centralized than in America. In addition to school study, children are exposed to traditional arts like the tea ceremony, calligraphy, and ikebana. (CS)

  18. A Historical Review of English in Japan (1600-1880).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Minoru

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the early history of the English language in Japan, from its introduction in the early 17th century through the 20th century, focusing on the role of English in regard to education, nationalism, and modernization. Also discussed is the current status of English instruction in Japan. (16 references) (MDM)

  19. U.S.-Japan Relations: Progress Toward a Mature Partnership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    General of the Japan Defense Agency, Shigeru Ishiba, noted their mutual concern about the threats posed by terrorism, North Korea’s nuclear weapons...Japan Defense Agency officials and leaders of Japan’s private sec- tor defense industries are now urging the government to lift the ban on the

  20. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…