Goto, Aya; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Thi Tu Van; Pham, Nghiem Minh; Chung, Thi Mong Thuy; Trinh, Huu Phuc; Yabe, Junko; Sasaki, Hitomi; Yasumura, Seiji
We conducted this cross-sectional study among 392 Japanese and 294 Vietnamese mothers who attended routine child health visits in a Japanese city and at a tertiary hospital in Vietnam, in order to investigate the prevalence and associated sociodemographic, parenting, and psychological characteristics of low maternal confidence in child rearing…
Examined association of three maternal regulating behaviors with children's positive and negative behaviors toward siblings in 40 Japanese families. Observed maternal regulating behaviors more frequently when younger sibling was still in early developmental stage. Older siblings' negative behaviors toward younger positively correlated with…
Yasuda, T.; Sueyoshi, M.
Interdecadal variability and linear trend of sea level along the Japanese coast during the 20th century and their causes are investigated using tide gauge, altimeter, and ocean heat content data. We also examine those in the future climate projected by IPCC-AR4 CGCMs. Historical tide gauge data show that sea level along the Japanese coast has no significant trend during the 20th century. Rather, bidecadal variability and simultaneous variation along the Japanese coast are remarkable. In order to examine the causes of this sea level variability, OGCM experiments forced by the historical atmospheric reanalysis data have been conducted. The long-term variability of the sea level along the Japanese coast is mainly due to the baroclinic Rossby waves forced by changes in the large-scale wind stress fields in the North Pacific with a lag of several years. The bidecadal variability is caused primarily by the meridional shift of the boundary between the subtropical and subpolar gyres, which is forced by the shifting of the westerlies over the central North Pacific. Sea level along the Japanese coast has risen significantly since the mid-1980s. Although this is partly explained by the dynamical response to the wind stress fields, it can be considered that the global mean thermal expansion contributes considerably. On the sea level rise along the Japanese coast in the future climate, multi-model ensemble means indicate sea level change associated with the northward shift of the Kuroshio Extension. 18cm change in the east of Japan is comparable to global mean steric sea level rise. It remains large uncertainty in the atmospheric change over the midlatitude North Pacific associated with global warming. Therefore, it is important to reduce its uncertainty, in addition to evaluate other contributions such as ice sheet melting.
Caudill, William; Frost, Lois
Previous studies have shown that American mothers, in contrast to Japanese, do more lively chatting to their babies, and that as a result, the American babies have a generally higher level of vocalization and, particularly, they respond with greater amounts of happy vocalization and gross motor activity than do Japanese babies. Thus, it appears…
Average maternal age at birth has been rising steadily in Western and some Asian countries. Older maternal age has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; however, studies on the relationship between maternal age and young children’s health remain scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of maternal age with child health outcomes in the Japanese population. We analyzed data from two birth cohorts of the nationwide Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century (n2001 = 47,715 and n2010 = 38,554). We estimated risks of unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 and 66 months according to maternal age, controlling for the following potential confounders: parental education; maternal parity, smoking status, and employment status; household income; paternal age, and sex of the child. We also included the following as potential mediators: preterm births and birthweight. We observed a decreasing trend in the risks of children’s unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 months according to maternal age in both cohorts. In the 2001 cohort, compared to mothers <25 years, odds ratios of hospital admission at 18 months were 0.97 [95% CI: 0.86, 1.09], 0.92 [0.81, 1.05], 0.76 [0.65, 0.90], and 0.71 [0.51, 0.98] for mothers aged 25.0–29.9, 30.0–34.9, 35.0–39.9, and >40.0 years, respectively, controlling for confounders. Our findings were in line with previous findings from population-based studies conducted in the United Kingdom and Canada suggesting that older maternal age may be beneficial for early child health. PMID:28234951
Mori, Emi; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Maehara, Kunie; Iwata, Hiroko; Sakajo, Akiko; Tamakoshi, Koji
The aim of the study was to assess fatigue, depressive symptoms, and maternal confidence or satisfaction among older primiparae during the first month postpartum. The number of older Japanese primiparae has rapidly increased. Older primiparae are believed to be at high risk for puerperal morbidity. A multicentre prospective cohort study design was used. Data were examined from 2854 Japanese women who participated in a 6-month prospective cohort study conducted between May 2012 and September 2013. The women were classified into 4 groups based on maternal age and parity. All participants completed the Postnatal Accumulated Fatigue Scale, Japanese Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Postpartum Maternal Confidence Scale, and Postpartum Maternal Satisfaction Scale. Primiparae in all age groups were more severely fatigued and had a higher risk of postpartum depression than multiparous mothers during the first month postpartum. Older primiparae had significantly lower scores on maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction than the other 3 groups at 1 month postpartum. These findings suggest that postpartum nursing should focus on promoting adequate sleep, providing emotional support, and fostering the process of maternal role adaptation among older Japanese primiparae, particularly during the first postpartum month.
Kawabata, Terue; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kimura, Fumiko; Miyazawa, Teruo; Saito, Shoji; Arima, Takahiro; Nakai, Kunihiko; Yaegashi, Nobuo
Background: The transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), to the fetus from maternal stores increases depending on the fetal requirements for PUFA during the last trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, maternal blood PUFA changes physiologically with gestational age. However, the changes in PUFA levels in maternal blood erythrocytes during pregnancy and after childbirth have not been fully investigated in a fish-eating population. Objective: To examine the changes of ARA and DHA levels in maternal erythrocytes with the progress of pregnancy and the relationship between maternal and umbilical cord erythrocyte PUFA levels in pregnant Japanese women who habitually eat fish and shellfish. Design: This study was performed as a part of the adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS). The participants were 74 pregnant women. The maternal blood samples were collected at 27, 30, and 36 weeks of pregnancy, and 2 days and 1 month after delivery, and umbilical cord blood was collected at delivery. The fatty acid levels of erythrocytes in these blood samples were determined. Results: ARA and DHA levels in maternal erythrocytes tended to decrease with the progress of pregnancy. While the DHA level decreased further after delivery, the ARA level returned to the value at 27 weeks of pregnancy within 1 month after delivery. The n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels in maternal erythrocytes at 27, 30, and 36 weeks of pregnancy were significantly positively correlated with the corresponding fatty acid levels in umbilical cord erythrocytes. Conclusion: The present findings showed a significant change in erythrocyte PUFA levels during pregnancy and after childbirth in a fish-eating population. The PUFA levels of maternal blood after the second trimester may be a reliable marker for predicting PUFA levels in infants’ circulating blood. PMID:28272345
Tsuji, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Imai, K.
The tsunami of the Chilean Earthquake (Mw8.8) of February 27, 2010 was detected also on the coasts of the Japanese Islands about 23 hours after the occurrence of the main shock. It caused no human damage. There was slight house damage manly in Miyagi prefecture, south part of Sanriku coast; six and fifty one houses were flooded above and below the floor, respectively. It caused remarkable fishery loss of 75 Million US$ mainly due to breaking of cultivation rafts. The tsunami of the 1960 Chilean Earthquake(Mw9.5) also hit the Japanese coasts more severely. It caused more immense damage than the 2010 tsunami; 142 people were killed, 1,581 houses were entirely destroyed, and 1,256 houses were swept away. Most of damage occurred in the districts of Sanriku coast, where inundation heights exceeded six meters at several points. We made field survey along the Japanese coast, visited offices of fishermen’s cooperatives at over 300 fishery ports, gathered eyewitnesses counts, and obtained information of the inundation limit, arrival time, and building and fishery damage. On the basis of the information of inundation, we measured tsunami heights. We obtained data of tsunami height at more than two hundred points (Tsuji et al., 2010). The distributions of the two tsunamis of the 1960 and the 2010 Chilean earthquakes on the coasts along the Japanese Islands are shown as Fig. 1. The maximum height of 2.2 meters was recorded at Kesennuma City, Miyagi Prefecture. The heights of the 2010 tsunami were generally one third of those of the 1960 tsunami. An eminent peak appears at Sanriku coast commonly for both tsunamis. In addition smaller peaks also appear commonly at the coasts of the east part of Hokkaido, near the top of Boso peninsula, near the top of Izu Peninsula, the east coast of Kii Peninsula, Tokushima prefecture, eastern part of Shikoku, and near the Cape Ashizuri in western part of Shikoku. Fig. 1 Trace height distributions of the tsunamis of the 1960(red) and the 2010
Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio
The relation of maternal caffeine intake with birth outcomes is still inconclusive and has not been examined in Japan, where the sources of caffeine intake are different from those in Western countries. We hypothesized that maternal consumption of total caffeine and culture-specific major sources of caffeine would be associated with birth outcomes among Japanese pregnant. The study subjects were 858 Japanese women who delivered singleton infants. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Birth outcomes considered were low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks of gestation), and small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile). The main caffeine sources were Japanese and Chinese tea (73.5%), coffee (14.3%), black tea (6.6%), and soft drinks (3.5%). After controlling for confounders, maternal total caffeine intake during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 100 mg/d caffeine increase, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.58; P for trend = .03). However, no evident relationships were observed between total caffeine intake and risk of LBW or SGA. As for caffeine sources, higher Japanese and Chinese tea consumption was associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 1 cup/d increase, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.30; P for trend = .04), but not LBW or SGA. There were no associations between consumption of the other beverages examined and birth outcomes. In conclusion, this prospective birth cohort in Japan suggests that higher maternal total caffeine intake, mainly in the form of Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of PTB.
Yamaguchi, Manabu; Ikeda, Kentaro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Higashiyama, Masakazu; Watanabe, Akira
The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p<0.01), and the same trend (p<0.05) was observed at 2 and 3 months of age. This resulted in body weight that was significantly higher for the BS-group between 1 and 3 months of age than what was observed for the BB-group (p<0.05). Heart girth was significantly greater in the BS-group than in the BB-group throughout the experimental period (p<0.01), and chest depth and withers height in the BS-group were significantly greater from 2 to 4 months of age (p<0.05) and at 4 months of age only (p<0.05). No difference in body length (p>0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan.
Takahashi, Yuki; Tamakoshi, Koji
Maternity blues and postpartum depression are common mental health problems during the early postpartum period. However, few studies have examined the factors associated with maternity blues and postpartum depression in healthy mothers with spontaneous births of healthy full-term infants. This study aimed to determine the demographic and obstetric factors, various feelings during pregnancy, and psychological factors by using the Maternity Blues Scale (MBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) among healthy Japanese mothers. We distributed the MBS and EPDS self-administered questionnaires to 100 Japanese mothers during their 4-5 day hospitalization and at a health check-up 1-month after delivery, respectively. Multiple regression analyses were performed including the above-mentioned variables as independent variables and the maximum MBS or EPDS scores as dependent variables. The answers "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [beta (95% confidence interval) = -1.53 (-2.68 - -0.378)] and "Satogaeri bunben", a Japanese traditional support system wherein a postnatal woman lives with her husband/parents [-2.82 (-4.73 - -0.898)] were significantly associated with MBS scores. The answer "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [-2.83 (-4.76 - -0.903)] was also significantly associated with EPDS scores, although the association between the partner's age and these scores was marginally significant [-0.106 (-0.008 - 0.221)]. This study shows that it is important to provide support for healthy women without delivery complications, both at home and in the community.
Shi, Su-Fen; Li, Min; Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Chao-Ping; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Brown, Christopher L; Yang, Ting-Bao
Recent studies indicate that the northwestern Pacific Ocean is an ideal system in which to study and understand the roles of the Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and ocean currents in shaping phylogeographic patterns of species, but most of these investigations have been concerned with vertebrates, and only a few have focused on invertebrates. In the present study, we examined the genetic population structure and historic demography of a platyhelminth species, Gotocotyla sawara (Monogenea, Gotocotylidae), a gill parasite of Japanese Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus niphonius , along the coast of China. A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene for 169 individuals and the internal transcribed spacers for 24 individuals were sequenced from specimens representing 8 populations of this parasite along the coast of China. High levels of COI haplotype diversity (0.9994) and nucleotide diversity (0.015805) were detected for G. sawara. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no phylogeographical pattern for G. sawara in the sample area. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed no significant differences at all hierarchical levels, and pairwise FST analysis demonstrated a high rate of gene flow of this parasite among different populations in coastal Chinese waters. Moreover, the exact test of differentiation supported the null hypothesis that G. sawara along the coast of China constitutes a panmictic population. Both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution revealed that G. sawara underwent population expansion in the late Pleistocene era. Recent range expansion after the last glacial maximum and insufficient time to attain migration-drift equilibrium may account in part for the lack of genetic structure in the geographic areas considered in this study. Dispersal of parasite eggs and larvae along ocean currents, coupled with the long-distance migrations of host fishes, could also be responsible for genetic homogeneity of this parasite. It is also
Liu, D; Veit, H P; Wilson, J H; Denbow, D M
This study evaluated the effects of maternal dietary lipids on chemical components and mechanical and histological properties of tibia in progeny of Japanese quail fed different dietary lipids. Laying hens were fed a basal diet containing either soybean oil (SBO), hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO), chicken fat (CF), or menhaden fish oil (FO) at 50 g/kg of the diet. The various maternal dietary lipid treatments did not affect growth of progeny at any developmental stage. There were no differences in tibial length, diameter, or collagen content. Tibial percentage ash was significantly higher in newly hatched progeny from hens fed the FO and HSBO diets. The levels of tibial deoxypyridinoline and total pyridinium crosslinks were higher in the FO and HSBO groups at hatch. At 7 d of age, the tibial deoxypyridinoline links remained higher in the FO group compared to the CF and SBO groups. Likewise, progeny from hens consuming the FO or HSBO diet had higher tibial shear force and stiffness at 7 and 14 d of age. There were no pronounced differences in tibial fracture energy and deflection among treatments. Maternal FO or HSBO enlarged the cartilaginous proliferative and hypertrophic zones of the tibial proximal end in newly hatched quail, which was accompanied by a thicker cortical bone in the diaphysis. However, the width of the hypertrophic zones tended to be smaller in these two groups coupled with improvement in trabecular density and cortical thickness in the proximal end and cortical density in the diaphysis at 3 wk of age. These results suggest that maternal dietary lipids altered bone development by influencing organic matrix quality and mineralization in embryos.
Duval, Camille; Cassey, Phillip; Lovell, Paul G.; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S. James; Spencer, Karen A.
Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown) is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green) is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control) or corticosterone (treatment). We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an avian visual
Tohno, S.; Hoeller, R.; Ito, K.; Onishi, Y.; Ma, C. J.; Kasahara, M.; Cahill, T. A.; Cliff, S.
During springtime the Japanese archipelago is periodically influenced by haze events originating from the Asian continent. The sources of these materials include both anthropogenic and natural aerosol, including the well-known yellow sand (Kosa) events, which can be recognized at places as far as Hawaii and the west coast of the United States. But there is also strong evidenced, which we want to support in this study, that these Kosa events are accompanied by strongly absorbing material as well as sulfates and organics. The springtime of 2001 was characterized by several strong dust events, which happened to be during the international ACE-Asia campaign. We participated in the ACE observation network by setting up a monitoring station during the period March 19 to April 6, 2001 for the measurement of aerosol optical, physical and chemical properties as well as observations of sky radiation. The measurement site is located on the coast of the Japanese Sea (Tango Peninsula, Kyoto Prefecture). Tango was chosen as an observation site, since it is relatively unpolluted and can therefore serve as a background site for studies of the direct impact of the mainland Asian outflow on the western Pacific area. The purpose of this work is to perform local and column closure experiments on aerosol properties, and to distinguish the anthropogenic part of the aerosol from the natural one. For this purpose, backward air-mass trajectories are calculated to identify potential sources of the observed aerosol. For measurements of aerosol mass-size distributions we used 12-stage low-pressure impactors, which were subsequently analyzed for elemental and ionic concentrations by PIXE, and Ion-chromatography, respectively. In addition, to get both the necessary time- and size-resolution, a DRUM sampler was operated with continuous collection and analysis for mass and optical transmission from 320 nm to 850 nm. Analysis is scheduled by synchrotron-XRF to < 0.1 ng/m3 for trace elemental
McCurdy, Carrie E.; Hetrick, Byron; Houck, Julie; Drew, Brian G.; Kaye, Spencer; Lashbrook, Melanie; Bergman, Bryan C.; Takahashi, Diana L.; Dean, Tyler A.; Gertsman, Ilya; Hansen, Kirk C.; Philp, Andrew; Hevener, Andrea L.; Chicco, Adam J.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.; Grove, Kevin L.; Friedman, Jacob E.
Maternal obesity is proposed to alter the programming of metabolic systems in the offspring, increasing the risk for developing metabolic diseases; however, the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of a maternal Western-style diet (WSD) alone, or in combination with obesity (Ob/WSD), on fetal skeletal muscle metabolism studied in the early third trimester. We find that fetal muscle responds to Ob/WSD by upregulating fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial complex activity, and metabolic switches (CPT-1, PDK4) that promote lipid utilization over glucose oxidation. Ob/WSD fetuses also had reduced mitochondrial content, diminished oxidative capacity, and lower mitochondrial efficiency in muscle. The decrease in oxidative capacity and glucose metabolism was persistent in primary myotubes from Ob/WSD fetuses despite no additional lipid-induced stress. Switching obese mothers to a healthy diet prior to pregnancy did not improve fetal muscle mitochondrial function. Lastly, while maternal WSD alone led only to intermediary changes in fetal muscle metabolism, it was sufficient to increase oxidative damage and cellular stress. Our findings suggest that maternal obesity or WSD, alone or in combination, leads to programmed decreases in oxidative metabolism in offspring muscle. These alterations may have important implications for future health. PMID:27734025
Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Ohya, Yukihiro; Fukushima, Wakaba; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Yoshio
Epidemiological studies associated with breastfeeding have provided conflicting results about whether it is preventive or a risk factor for atopic eczema in children. The current prospective study investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and the risk of atopic eczema in Japan. A birth cohort of 763 infants was followed. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between 2 and 9 months postpartum collected information on potential confounding factors and atopic eczema status. Data on breastfeeding and symptoms of atopic eczema were obtained from questionnaires in the third survey from 16 to 24 months postpartum. The following variables were a priori selected as potential confounders: maternal age, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, indoor domestic pets (cats, dogs, birds, or hamsters), family income, maternal and paternal education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, baby's sex, baby's birth weight, baby's older siblings, household smoking in the same room as the infant, and time of delivery before the third survey. In the third survey, 142 infants (18.6%) were revealed to have developed atopic eczema based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. In an overall analysis, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding was significantly related to the risk of atopic eczema. After excluding 64 infants identified with suspected atopic eczema in the second survey, both exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months or more and partial breastfeeding for 6 months or more were independently associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema only among infants with no parental history of allergic disorders [multivariate odds ratios were 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.55) and 3.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-12.36), respectively]. The authors found that, overall, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding had a strong impact on the risk of atopic eczema. However, a parental
Hoeller, R.; Yabe, T.; Tohno, S.; Kasahara, M.
The characterization of the optical properties of the atmospheric aerosol as well as its size-resolved chemical composition is on of the main objectives of ACE-Asia. This is necessary to constrain the radiative forcing by the Asian aerosol, which will become more important as emissions in this area are predicted to increase dramatically. We set up a monitoring station on the coast of the Japanese Sea (Tango Peninsula, Kyoto Prefecture) for the measurements of aerosol optical and chemical properties as well as sky radiation during ACE-Asia in spring 2001. The instrumentation at Tango includes a 3-wavelenght nephelometer (TSI 3563), an OPC (RION KC-01D), a pyrheliometer (EKO MS-53), a 5-wavelength sunphotometer (EKO MS-110A), and a pyranometer (EKO MS-801). The sunphotometer also has a near infrared channel (938 nm) for evaluations of precipitable water; visible channels are used to retrieve aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponents. Filter sampling is performed collocated to the optical measurements for subsequent analysis of elemental and ionic composition of the aerosol. Filters are also analyzed by the integrating plate method for measurements of aerosol absorption coefficients. Size-resolved chemical composition obtained from low-pressure impactor samples are used to calculate aerosol optical properties and compare them to directly measured optical properties. Quality checked parameters are henceforth input into a radiative transfer model (MODTRAN 4.0) to calculate the radiative forcing of the aerosol. This enables us to evaluate which chemical species control the optical properties and radiative forcing of the aerosol. We also compare the radiative impact of clear days with days with heavy dust loadings. >http://aerosol.energy.kyoto- u.ac.jp/~hoeller/ACEmineyama.html
Conley, Justin M; Watson, Atlee T D; Xie, Lingtian; Buchwalter, David B
Selenium (Se) trafficking in oviparous species remains understudied and a major source of uncertainty in developing sound Se regulations. Here, we utilized (75)Se to follow Se through a simulated natural food chain (water, periphyton, mayflies (Centroptilum triangulifer), fish (Japanese medaka)). We specifically examined Se assimilation efficiency, tissue distribution, efflux rate, and maternal transfer in medaka. Selenium assimilation efficiency (AE) averaged 63.2 ± 8.8% from mayfly diets and was not affected by mayfly [Se] across a dietary range of 5.6-38.7 μg g(-1) (dry wt). However, AE decreased significantly as mayfly larva size increased. Efflux rate constants (ke) were consistent between reproductively inactive (0.066 d(-1)) and spawning females (0.069 d(-1)). Total Se loss rate constant (ke+egg; efflux and egg deposition) was 0.17 d(-1) in spawning females. Interestingly, medaka appeared to rapidly shuttle Se to their eggs directly from their diet via the ovary, as opposed to mobilization from surrounding tissues, resulting in dynamic egg [Se] that was more attributable to recent dietary Se ingestion than female whole body [Se] in this asynchronous spawning fish. Spawning strategy likely plays a large role in the process of fish egg Se deposition and requires further attention to understand risk and toxicity of Se to fish.
Yamada, M; Aono, T; Hirano, S
Marine organisms, i.e. fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, shellfish, and algae, were collected in the early 1990s along the Sea of Japan coast and the Japanese Pacific coast and analyzed for their 239 + 240Pu and 137Cs concentrations. The 239 + 240Pu concentrations in muscle of fish were below 0.4 mBq/kg wet wt. and the lowest among the analyzed marine organisms. Most 137Cs concentrations in muscle of fish ranged from 100 to 300 mBq/kg wet wt. Higher concentrations of 239 + 240Pu, ranging from 1.6 to 5.7 mBq/kg wet wt., were observed in viscera of cephalopods than in their muscle. The 239 + 240Pu concentrations in whole soft tissues of bivalves varied approximately one order of magnitude from 0.8 to 6.1 mBq/kg wet wt., while 137Cs concentrations had little variation, being approximately 60 mBq/kg wet wt. The 239 + 240Pu concentrations in algae had a wide variation, ranging from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt., and were higher than those of the other marine organisms. No statistically significant difference in mean concentrations of 239 + 240Pu was detected among the whole soft tissues of bivalves, viscera of cephalopods and crustaceans, and whole bodies of cephalopods and crustaceans within the 95% confidence limit. The mean concentrations of 137Cs became higher in the order, cephalopods and crustaceans and bivalves, algae, viscera of fish, muscles of fish. The mean concentrations of 239 + 240Pu were comparable for algae collected along the Japan Sea coast and the Pacific coast. Furthermore, the difference in mean concentrations of 137Cs in algae between the Japan Sea coast and the Pacific coast was not statistically significant within the 95% confidence limit. These results can be considered to indicate no definite influence from radioactive dumping into the Japan Sea by the former USSR and Russia with respect to radioactive pollution of marine organisms collected along the Japanese coast.
Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Arakawa, M
The present case-control study examined the relationship between IL5RA SNPs and eczema in young adult Japanese women. Cases and control subjects were selected from pregnant women who participated in the baseline survey of the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study, which is an ongoing prebirth cohort study. Cases comprised 188 women with eczema in the previous 12 months as defined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), regardless of the presence of a doctor's diagnosis of atopic eczema. Control subjects comprised 1130 women without eczema as defined according to the ISAAC criteria who also had not been diagnosed with atopic eczema by a doctor. Compared with the AA genotype of IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the AT genotype, but not the TT genotype, was significantly associated with a decreased risk of eczema. The ATTAGA haplotype and the GTAGCA haplotype of rs17882210, rs3804797, rs334809, rs9831572, rs6771148 and rs17881144 were significantly associated with an increased risk of eczema. In contrast, the GCTGCA haplotype was significantly related to a decreased risk of eczema. Multiplicative interactions between IL5RA SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and smoking with respect to eczema were marginally significant (P = 0.07 and 0.07, respectively). This is the first study to show significant associations between IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the ATTAGA haplotype, the GTAGCA haplotype, and the GCTGCA haplotype and eczema. Smoking may modify the relationships between SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and eczema.
Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Hirota, Yoshio
Dietary habits established in early childhood contribute to lifelong dietary pattern and the development of early risk factors for disease in adulthood. Although a large body of epidemiologic data from Western countries show that the dietary pattern of children is influenced by maternal socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, information on this topic in non-Western countries is absolutely lacking. The present study identified dietary patterns among infants aged 16-24 months, and then examined the influence of maternal socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics on identified dietary patterns. Subjects were 758 Japanese mother-child pairs. Dietary data of infants were collected from the mothers using a questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted from the consumption of 15 foods (times week(-1)) by cluster analysis. The following two dietary patterns were identified: 'fruits, vegetables and high-protein foods' (n = 483) and 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' (n = 275) patterns. After adjustment for all other predictors, maternal educational level, number of infants' siblings and maternal dietary patterns were independently associated with dietary patterns of infants. Infants whose mothers had a higher educational level and the 'rice, fish and vegetables' dietary pattern were less likely to belong to the 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' pattern, whereas infants whose mothers had a higher number of children and the 'wheat product' dietary pattern were more likely to belong to the 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' than the 'fruits, vegetables and high-protein foods' pattern. In conclusion, the mother's socio-economic position and dietary patterns were associated with the dietary patterns of infants in the Japanese pairs as observed in the Western populations.
Lim, Hong-Chiun; Ahmad, Abu Talib; Nuruddin, Ahmad Adnan; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah
We evaluated genetic differentiation among ten presumed Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus populations along the coast of Peninsular Malaysia based on the partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (982 bp). Genetic divergences (Kimura-2 parameter) ranged from 0.5% to 0.8% among nine of the ten populations while these nine populations were 4.4% to 4.6% diverged from the Kuala Besar population located at the Northeast coast. The constructed Neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees based on haplotypes showed the Kuala Besar population forming an isolated cluster. The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) of the ten populations a priori assigned into four regions, revealed that most of the variation occurred within population with a fairly low but significant level of regional differentiation (FST = 0.07, p < 0.05, FSC = 0.00, p > 0.05 and FCT = 0.07, p < 0.05) attributed to the Kuala Besar population. p Value after Bonferroni correction revealed that only pairwise FST values involving the Kuala Besar population with the other nine populations were significant. Thus, this study revealed that the N. japonicus populations off Peninsular Malaysia were panmictic. However, the Kuala Besar population, although morphologically identical was composed of a genetically discrete taxon from the rest. These findings are important contributions in formulating sustainable fishery management policies for this important fishery in Peninsular Malaysia.
Kim, Yong-Yul; Choi, Hyung-Soon; Kang, Bum-Yong
We have constructed an AFLP-based linkage map of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc.) using haploid DNA samples of 96 megagametophytes from a single maternal tree, selection clone Kyungbuk 4. Twenty-eight primer pairs generated a total of 5,780 AFLP fragments. Five hundreds and thirteen fragments were verified as genetic markers with two alleles by their Mendelian segregation. At the linkage criteria LOD 4.0 and maximum recombination fraction 0.25(theta), a total of 152 markers constituted 25 framework maps for 19 major linkage groups. The maps spanned a total length of 2,341 cM with an average framework marker spacing of 18.4 cM. The estimated genome size was 2,662 cM. With an assumption of equal marker density, 82.2% of the estimated genome would be within 10 cM of one of the 230 linked markers, and 68.1% would be within 10 cM of one of the 152 framework markers. We evaluated map completeness in terms of LOD value, marker density, genome length, and map coverage. The resulting map will provide crucial information for future genomic studies of the Japanese red pine, in particular for QTL mapping of economically important breeding target traits.
Matsumura, Hajime; Harunari, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Hiroto
On June 27, 2015, a flammable starch-based powder exploded at Formosa Fun Coast in Taipei, Taiwan, injuring 499 people, and more than 200 people were in critical condition with severe burns. Although a cultured epidermal autograft (CEA) was not approved or used in clinical practice, the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration requested a Japanese CEA manufacturer to donate CEA for the burn victims as part of international medical assistance. The authors cooperated in this project and participated in the patient selection, wound bed management for CEA, and technical assistance for CEA use. Here, we provide an overview of the project. Nine patients were enrolled, and two patients were excluded from the skin biopsy; seven skin biopsies were collected approximately 1 month after the disaster. The average TBSA% burned was 81.0%, and the mean age was 20.1 years. CEA was grafted in five patients; wound closure had been obtained in one patient, and one patient was severely ill at the time of grafting. The CEA was combined with a wide split auto mesh graft or patch graft. The mean re-epithelization rate at 4 weeks after the grafting was 84.2% by patient, and all of the patients survived. Although this project had many obstacles to overcome, CEA grafting was successful and contributed to wound closure and survival.
[Introduction of the psychoprophylactic method and its influence on the prenatal care program for institutional parturition in Japan: the practice in the Central Hospital of Maternity of the Japanese Red Cross Society and Oomori Red Cross Hospital, 1953-1964].
Fujihara, Satoko; Tsukisawa, Miyoko
The psychoprophylactic method is one of the methods for providing 'painless childbirth without drugs' and was invented by applying I. Pavlov's theory of higher nervous activity. In 1951, it was adopted as a national policy in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. This method was then introduced in the People's Republic of China in 1952. In 1953, it was brought to Japan by Masatomo SUGAI, an obstetrician, and was introduced into the Central Hospital of Maternity of the Japanese Red Cross Society with the support of the director, Naotarou KUJI. The practice of this method by the research team, which consisted of the obstetricians and midwives of the Central Hospital of Maternity of the Japanese Red Cross Society and Oomori Red Cross Hospital, resulted in the initiation and characterization of the prenatal care program to encourage the autonomy of the pregnant women for normal parturition in the institutions of Japan.
Kaneko, Mariko; Ali, Moazzam; Ushijima, Hiroshi
This research was performed in an effort to understand the decrease in fertility that has occurred over the past few decades. The objective of the study was to analyze female fertility according to maternal age; data were based on the number of children born per mother. The records of 18-year-old college students were obtained, and the mothers of the students were categorized into age groups according to the year of their birth (1915 to 1949). The number of children born to each mother was then analyzed. The total sample size was 4078. The results showed that an increase in two-children families led to a reduction in the mean number of children per mother. While the decrease in the maternal age at the time of the birth of the last child in the family was observed, the maternal age at the time of the first birth did not increase. Thus, the reduction in fertility may not be the result of delayed motherhood. The group of mothers, who gave birth to the largest number of children, had their highest fertility rate in the twenties. In addition, their fertility rate in the thirties was almost equal to other groups, who had the same fertility level in their twenties.
Miyake, Yoshihiro; Hitsumoto, Shinichi; Tanaka, Keiko; Arakawa, Masashi
We examined the association between thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and eczema in young adult Japanese women. Cases were 188 women who met the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) for eczema. Controls were 565 women without eczema according to the ISAAC criteria, who had not been diagnosed with asthma, atopic eczema, and/or allergic rhinitis by a doctor and who had no asthma as defined by the European Community Respiratory Health Survey criteria and no rhinoconjunctivitis according to the ISAAC criteria. Compared with women with the TT genotype of SNP rs1837253, those with the TC or CC genotype had a significantly increased risk of eczema after adjustment for age and smoking, although this association was not significant in crude analysis. There were no relationships between SNP rs3806933 or rs2289276 and eczema. The TC and CC genotypes combined of SNP rs1837253 may be significantly positively associated with eczema.
Suzuki, Susumu; Oka, Yoshitomo; Kadowaki, Takashi; Kanatsuka, Azuma; Kuzuya, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Masashi; Sanke, Tokio; Seino, Yutaka; Nanjo, Kishio
Diabetes mellitus with the mitochondrial DNA 3243(A-G) mutation is reported to represent 0.5-2.8% of the general diabetic population. Since the characterization of diabetes with the mutation is still incomplete, we undertook a nation-wide case-finding study of genetically defined patients using questionnaires in Japan. One hundred and thirteen Japanese diabetic patients with the mutation were registered and analyzed. The patients had a high prevalence of maternal inheritance of diabetes and deafness, short and thin stature, and showed an early middle-aged onset of diabetes and deafness. Eighty-six percent of the patients required insulin therapy due to the progressive insulin secretory defect. Glucose intolerance of the mothers was associated with an early middle-aged onset of diabetes, reduction in the insulin secretory capacity, early requirement of insulin therapy, and increases in the daily insulin dose. The heteroplasmic concentrations of the 3243 mutation in leukocytes were low and declined with aging. The patients had advanced microvascular complications, and mitochondria-related complications such as cardiomyopathy, cardiac conductance disorders, neuromuscular symptoms, neuropsychiatric disturbance, and macular pattern dystrophy. Thus, this study has revealed that: (1) diabetes mellitus with the 3243 mutation is a subtype of diabetes mellitus with mitochondria-related complications; and (2) insulin secretory ability is more severely impaired in the patients whose mothers were glucose intolerance.
Endo, Tetsuya; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Haraguchi, Koichi; Baker, C Scott
Total mercury (T-Hg), methyl mercury (M-Hg), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in the organs of melon-headed whales from a mass stranding on the Japanese coast were analyzed. The mean concentration of T-Hg in the liver (126+/-97 microg/wet g, n=13) was markedly higher than those in kidney (6.34+/-2.36 microg/wet g, n=12) and muscle (4.90+/-2.33 microg/wet g, n=15). In contrast, the mean concentration of M-Hg in the liver (9.08+/-2.24 microg/wet g) was similar to those in the kidney (3.47+/-0.91 microg/wet g) and muscle (3.78+/-1.53 microg/wet g). The mean percentage of M-Hg in the T-Hg found in the liver (13.1+/-10.3) was significantly lower than those in the kidney (58.3+/-15.0) and muscle (78.9+/-8.4). The molar ratio of T-Hg to Se in the liver was effectively 1.0, but those in the kidney and muscle were markedly lower. Conversely, the mean concentration of Cd was markedly higher in the kidney (24.4+/-7.4 microg/wet g) than in the liver (7.24+/-2.08 microg/wet g) and muscle (less than 0.05 microg/wet g). These results suggest that the formation of Hg-Se compounds mainly occurs in the liver after the demethylation of M-Hg, and Cd preferentially accumulates in the kidney of melon-headed whales.
Minami, Naoki; Matsuura, Minoru; Koshikawa, Yorimitsu; Yamada, Satoshi; Honzawa, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Shuji
Background/Aims Our physicians work to expand the possibilities to treat female patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who wish to become pregnant. Although many drugs, including 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA), corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and biologics, are used safely during pregnancy, few reports have described the therapeutic regimen throughout pregnancy and the management of patients who relapse during pregnancy precisely. The aim of this study was to assess the management of patients with IBD during pregnancy. Methods We identified 19 patients (five with Crohn's disease and 14 with ulcerative colitis [UC]) who became pregnant with a total of 23 pregnancies between May 2005 and May 2015 by reviewing the medical records of Kyoto University Hospital. The following data were collected: the maternal variables, the IBD treatment type, the disease activity, the pregnancy outcome, and the mode of delivery. Results Among the 19 patients, 18 had become pregnant after being diagnosed with IBD, while one had developed UC newly after pregnancy. Throughout the gestation, all patients were treated with probiotics, 5-ASA, prednisolone, cytapheresis, or infliximab. The relapse rate during pregnancy was 21.7% (5/23 cases). The five patients who experienced a relapse were able to pursue their pregnancy after intensification of their treatments. There were no adverse fetal or neonatal problems, except in one case that required an emergency Caesarean section because of placental dysfunction and in which a very low-birth-weight infant was born preterm. Conclusions Our present data confirmed that even if the disease flares up during pregnancy, good pregnancy outcomes can be achieved with an optimal intensification of the patient's treatment. PMID:28239318
Sakamoto, Mineshi; Kubota, Machi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Nakai, Kunihiko; Sonoda, Ikuko; Satoh, Hiroshi
Methylmercury (MeHg) is one of the most hazardous substances that affects the fetus through fish consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in the level of exposure to MeHg by assessing the mercury (Hg) concentrations of the segmental hair at parturition and 3 months after parturition, and to study their correlations with the total Hg concentrations of maternal and cord red blood cells (RBCs) and neonatal hair as biomarkers of fetal exposure to MeHg at parturition. In total, 40 paired samples of maternal hair from the scalp, maternal and cord RBCs, and 21 samples of neonatal hair from the scalp were collected at parturition. In addition, 19 samples of maternal hair from the scalp were collected at 3 months after parturition. The maternal hair samples were cut into 1cm segments from the scalp end toward the tip. The geometric mean of the Hg concentrations in cord RBCs was approximately 1.6 times higher than that in the maternal RBCs, and a strong correlation coefficient (r=0.91) was found between them. The increase or decrease in the Hg concentrations of the segmental hair during gestation differed largely among individuals. The correlation coefficients between the Hg concentrations of the segmental hair and cord RBCs were the strongest (r=0.90) in the hair segment 1cm from the scalp and decreased gradually with the distance from the scalp. The correlation coefficients between the Hg concentrations of the segmental hair collected at 3 months after parturition and maternal RBCs were over 0.9 in the hair segments 5 and 6 cm from the scalp, suggesting that the time required for the incorporation of Hg from the blood into a growing hair was very short. The geometric mean of Hg concentrations in the neonatal hair at parturition was similar to that in the maternal hair 1cm from the scalp at parturition, and they exhibited a strong correlation (r=0.95). The findings of this study indicate that maternal hair close to the scalp at parturition and
Various isomers and metabolites of DDT disrupt endocrine systems and gonadal development in fish andxwildlife and o,p'-DDT has been shown to be a relatively potent estrogen agonist. In this study, we exposed Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to o,p'-DDT using two exposure protoco...
Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.
Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio
Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later.
Murakami, Kentaro; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Hirota, Yoshio
Although a large body of epidemiologic data accumulated in Western countries show that individuals with a higher socioeconomic position consume higher quality diets, information on such socioeconomic differences in the diets of non-Western populations, including Japanese, is absolutely lacking. This cross-sectional study examined the association of socioeconomic position with dietary intake in a group of pregnant Japanese women. Subjects were 1002 Japanese women during pregnancy. Socioeconomic position was assessed by education, occupation, and household income. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Education was associated positively with intake of protein; total n-3 and marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; dietary fiber; cholesterol; potassium; calcium; magnesium; iron; vitamins A, D, E, and C; and folate 9 and inversely with that of carbohydrate. No associations were seen between education and intake of total fat; saturated, monounsaturated, and total and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; alcohol; or sodium. Regarding food, higher education was associated with a higher intake of vegetables, fish and shellfish, and potatoes and lower intake of rice. Education was not associated with intake of bread, noodles, confectioneries and sugars, fats and oils, pulses and nuts, meat, eggs, dairy products, or fruit. For occupation, housewives had a higher intake of dietary fiber, magnesium, iron, vitamin A, folate, and pulses and nuts than working women. Household income was not associated with any nutrient or food examined. In conclusion, education, but not occupation or household income, was positively associated with favorable dietary intake patterns in a group of pregnant Japanese women.
Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.
Analyzes and compares Japanese and American industrial policy and labor practices. Proposes that certain aspects of the Japanese system be adapted by American businesses for purpose of increasing international competitiveness. Proposes specific actions and plans for both the Japanese and American systems. (ML)
Hart, Kimberly; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Yamada, Tadasu K; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Shinsuke
As a result of the phase-out of production of perfluorooctanesulfonyl-based compounds by a major producer, concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in marine mammals from North American and European coastal waters have been declining since the early 2000s. Nevertheless, temporal trends in perfluorochemical (PFC) concentrations in marine mammals from Asian coastal waters have not been examined. In this study, PFCs were determined in livers of melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) collected along the coast of Japan, from three mass strandings that occurred during the past 25 years. Concentrations of nine PFCs were determined in livers of 48 melon-headed whales that were collected during strandings in 1982, 2001/2002, and 2006. In addition, concentrations in liver tissues obtained from two pregnant females and their fetuses were compared for determination of transplacental transfer rates of PFCs during gestation. PFOS and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) were the predominant PFCs found in livers of melon-headed whales collected in 1982 (n = 22). PFOS, PFOSA, perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were found in whales collected in 2001/2002 (n = 21) and in 2006 (n = 5). Concentrations of PFOS and PFOSA were approximately 10-fold higher in 2001/2002 than in 1982. Whereas concentrations of PFOSA then declined by 2-fold from 2001/ 2002 to 2006, concentrations of PFOS and perfluorocarboxylates did not decline after 2001/2002. Conversely, concentrations of PFNA and PFDA increased significantly from 2001/2002 to 2006. The proportion of perfluoroalkylsulfonates in total PFC concentrations decreased from 75% in 1982 to 51% in 2006. Conversely, the contribution of perfluorocarboxylates to total PFC concentrations increased from 25% in 1982 to 49% in 2006. PFUnDA was the major perfluorocarboxylate found in whale livers collected after 2000. Analysis of paired samples of mother
Tanaka, K; Miyake, Y; Hanioka, T; Arakawa, M
Epidemiological evidence on the relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and periodontal disease is inconsistent. We investigated associations between four VDR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including rs731236 (TaqI), rs7975232 (ApaI), rs1544410 (BsmI) and rs2228570 (FokI), and the risk of periodontal disease among young Japanese women. Cases included 131 women who had at least one tooth with a probing depth of 3.5 mm or deeper. Controls included 1019 women without periodontal disease. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, education, toothbrushing frequency and use of an interdental brush. Compared with the AA genotype of SNP rs731236, the GG genotype had a significantly increased risk of periodontal disease: the adjusted OR was 3.68 (95% confidence interval: 1.06-12.78). There were no significant relationships between SNPs rs7975232, rs1544410 or rs2228570 and periodontal disease. None of the haplotypes were significantly related to periodontal disease. Compared with subjects with the AA or AG genotype of SNP rs731236 who had never smoked, those with the GG genotype who had ever smoked had a significantly increased risk of periodontal disease; nevertheless, neither multiplicative nor additive interaction was significant. The additive interaction between SNP rs7975232 and smoking was significant, although the multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant. No multiplicative or additive interactions were observed between the other SNPs and smoking. Our results indicated that VDR SNP rs731236 might be associated with periodontal disease. In addition, we present new evidence for a biological interaction between VDR SNP rs7975232 and smoking that affects periodontal disease.
Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Mitani, Yasuhiro; Ikemi, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Satoshi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Hirota, Yoshio
The role of traffic-related air pollution in the initiation of allergic disorders in children is still not clearly understood. The present prospective study examined the relation between proximity of the home during pregnancy to the nearest main road, which was used as a surrogate for traffic-related air pollutants, and the risk of allergic disorders in Japanese infants in an urban area. Subjects were 756 mother-child pairs. Distance of each subject's home during pregnancy from the center line of all of the 235 main roads in Osaka Prefecture was computed using geographical information system software. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between 2 and 9 months post-partum collected information on potential confounding factors. In the third survey, which was from 16 to 24 months post-partum, a self-administered questionnaire included questions on allergic disorders. In the third survey, 22.1% and 18.7% of infants became positive for wheeze and atopic eczema based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), respectively. The risk of doctor-diagnosed asthma and doctor-diagnosed atopic eczema was 4.4% and 8.9%, respectively. A shorter distance of the residence during pregnancy from the nearest main road was associated with an increased risk of doctor-diagnosed asthma and atopic eczema (adjusted odds ratios for comparison of <50 m with 200 m or more = 4.01 and 2.26, 95% confidence intervals: 1.44-11.24 and 1.08-4.59, p for trend = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). No evident relationships were observed between the distance of the residence during pregnancy from the nearest main road and the risk of wheeze or atopic eczema based on the ISAAC criteria. It was difficult to distinguish the effect of the pre-natal from the post-natal exposure because most subjects lived at the same home address both before and after childbirth. Our results are likely to support the hypothesis that intrauterine exposure to traffic
Maternity blues is a transient change of mood that occurs mainly between the 1st and 10th day of puerpartum and is characterized by bursts of tears, mild depressive mood, anxiety and liability of mood. The frequency of maternity blues varies in different studies form 4% to 80%. A number of biological and psychosocial parameters have been studied in order to determine their correlation with maternity blues. The most well studied biological parameters are progesterone and cortizol although their relation with maternity blues has not yet been clearly defined. Stress and the emotional state of the woman during pregnancy as well as history of mood disorders or maternity blues in a previous birth are the psychosocial parameters that are more likely to correlate with the occurrence of maternity blues. Most of the authors suggest that information on maternity blues and reassurance of the woman are the best way to deal with maternity blues both on preventive and therapeutical basis.
This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.
Buck, James H.
From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…
GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.
The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.
Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László
Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.
... of the San Joaquin valley. Santa Catalina and San Clemente Islands, warmed by the morning sun, are visible through the marine stratus ... bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; San Diego is at ...
This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.
Chu, Helen Y.; Englund, Janet A.
Maternal immunization has the potential to protect the pregnant woman, fetus, and infant from vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G is actively transported across the placenta, providing passive immunity to the neonate and infant prior to the infant's ability to respond to vaccines. Currently inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines are recommended during pregnancy. Several other vaccines have been studied in pregnancy and found to be safe and immunogenic and to provide antibody to infants. These include pneumococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcus vaccines. Other vaccines in development for potential maternal immunization include respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus vaccines. PMID:24799324
Onda, T; Fukushima, K; Tanaka, T; Sawa, R; Hayashi, Z; Tsutsumi, O; Takai, Y; Yoshida, K; Nakamura, Y; Hoshi, K; Fukada, Y; Okai, T; Sakai, M; Kitagawa, M; Akiyama, Y; Shimomura, K; Myrick, F; Dowman, A C; Grier, R E
Owing to differences in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotrophin and oestriol levels between native Japanese and Caucasian women screened in this laboratory, a study was conducted to measure amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFAFP) levels in native Japanese pregnancies. When the native Japanese AFAFP levels were compared with a United States (non-Black) population, the Japanese medians did not decrease as rapidly over the 14 to 22 weeks of gestation period investigated. At 14 weeks, the difference was negligible, graduating to a difference of 20 per cent by 22 weeks' gestation. Native Japanese pregnancy AFAFP levels should be interpreted based upon population data from that group alone. From these findings, prenatal screening laboratories should be encouraged to collect preliminary data for comparison before screening is initiated for a defined ethnic group.
Compared impact of maternal influences and impact of peer influences on eating problems among Japanese adolescent girls. Found greater impact of peer interactions in grades 10 and 11, while maternal influence was stronger in grades 8 and 9. Measured participants' sensitivity to social evaluation and found no effects of grade in this area. (SD)
Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E
Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication.
Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.
This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…
Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…
Oikawa, Shinji; Watabe, Teruhisa; Takata, Hyoe
A radioactivity measurement survey was carried out from 24 April 2008 to 3 June 2011 to determine the levels of plutonium isotopes and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the marine environments off the sites of commercial nuclear power stations around the Japanese islands; the sampling period extended to two months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In our previous study (Oikawa et al., 2015), data on Pu isotopes and (241)Am in sediments have already been reported. In this study, we report those on Pu isotopes in seawater as well as sediments, and the characteristics of sediments in addition (e.g., ignition loss and biogenic opals). Concentrations of (239+240)Pu in seawater and bottom sediments remained nearly constant at all sampling locations during the survey period. In addition, no regional differences were observed in the (239+240)Pu concentrations in surface waters. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were found in bottom waters at deeper sampling locations, but the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were nearly constant regardless of the water depth. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were also found in bottom sediments at deeper sampling locations, but vice versa for (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios as reported in the previous report. The sediments samples from deeper locations showed the higher percentage of ignition loss as well as the higher content of biogenic opal. There was likely to be some driving force participating in the transfer of Pu isotopes associated with biogenic substances to the deeper seabed. The present survey showed that the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station did not contribute much to the inventory of Pu isotopes in the adjacent sea area.
Parks, Kimberley Roberts
Starting with a U.S. presidential proclamation regarding Japanese enemy aliens on December 7, 1941, through legislative and educational information in 2002, the federal government of the United States has published, in varied media, numerous documents concerning its 1942-1945 internment of persons of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast.…
Maykovich, Minako K.
The major theme of this book is the label "Quiet American" for the Japanese American. In order to locate Japanese Americans sociologically and psychologically in the structure of American society, various concepts such as "marginal man,""alienation," and "inauthenticity" are examined, specifying these…
Presents the history of the Japanese American incarceration during World War II. Focuses on issues such as Executive Order 9066, what happened to the Japanese Americans during the war, and the forms of resistance that occurred. Questions whether something like this could ever happen again. (CMK)
This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…
There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.
HIBBETT, HOWARD; ITASAKA, GEN
VOLUME II OF THIS INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN JAPANESE CONTAINS 60 READING PASSAGES IN JAPANESE SCRIPT TO BE USED WITH THE VOCABULARY AND NOTES IN VOLUME I. THE READINGS ARE GRADED AND HAVE BEEN SELECTED TO REPRESENT GOOD MODERN JAPANESE USAGE. THE BEGINNING LESSONS ARE IN EASY INFORMAL STYLES AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.…
Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen
President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)
Pittet, Florent; Le Bot, Océane; Houdelier, Cécilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie
Early maternal deprivation impairs the behavioral development of young individuals. Recently, strong differences between mothered and maternally deprived chicks have been reported concerning their emotionality, sociality, and spatial skills. Here we investigated long-term and cross-generational impacts of maternal deprivation by comparing the characteristics of the non-reproductive and the maternal behavior of 22 mothered and 22 non-mothered adult female Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) and by comparing the behavior of their respective fostered chicks. We reveal that non-brooded mothers were more fearful and less competent in spatial tasks and expressed impaired maternal care, characterized by more aggression towards chicks, higher activity rates, and more abnormal pacing during the first days of the care period. Chicks' behavior was clearly affected by maternal care inducing strong differences in their fearfulness and social motivation. Our results show both long-term and cross-generational impacts of early maternal deprivation in precocial birds.
EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.
Chambers, D W
The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry.
Pittet, Florent; Houdelier, Cécilia; Le Bot, Océane; Leterrier, Christine; Lumineau, Sophie
Our study investigated relationships between a precocial bird's fearfulness and maternal care, and the implication of maternal care as a vector for non-genomic transmission of fearfulness to chicks. We compared care given to chicks between two sets of female Japanese quail selected to present either high (LTI) or low fearfulness (STI). Chicks, from a broiler line, were adopted by these females following a sensitization procedure. Chicks' fearfulness after separation from their mother was assessed by well-established procedures. LTIs took longer to present maternal responses, pecked chicks more during the first days post-hatch, presented impaired maternal vocal behaviour and were globally less active than STI females. Chicks mothered by LTIs presented more fearful reactions than did chicks mothered by STIs, supporting the hypothesis of a non-genetic maternal transmission of fearfulness. We suggest that the longer latencies required by LTIs to become maternal are a consequence of their greater fear of chicks, and that their lower general and vocal activity could be components of a heightened antipredatory strategy. We discuss the transmission of maternal fearfulness to fostered chicks, taking into account the possible implication of several well-known mechanisms underlying maternal effects.
Grindstaff, Jennifer L
Young vertebrates are dependent primarily on innate immunity and maternally derived antibodies for immune defense. This reliance on innate immunity and the associated inflammatory response often leads to reduced growth rates after antigenic challenge. However, if offspring have maternal antibodies that recognize an antigen, these antibodies should block stimulation of the inflammatory response and reduce growth suppression. To determine whether maternal and/or offspring antigen exposure affect antibody transmission and offspring growth, female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and their newly hatched chicks were immunized. Mothers were immunized with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), killed avian reovirus vaccine (AR), or were given a control, phosphate-buffered saline, injection. Within each family, one-third of offspring were immunized with LPS, one-third were immunized with AR, and one-third were given the control treatment. Maternal immunization significantly affected the specific types of antibodies that were transmitted. In general, immunization depressed offspring growth. However, offspring immunized with the same antigen as their mother exhibited elevated growth in comparison to siblings immunized with a different antigen. This suggests that the growth suppressive effects of antigen exposure during development can be partially ameliorated by the presence of maternal antibodies, but in the absence of specific maternal antibodies, offspring are dependent on more costly innate immune defenses. Together, the results suggest that the local disease environment of mothers prior to reproduction significantly affects maternal antibody transmission and these maternal antibodies may allow offspring to partially maintain growth during infection in addition to providing passive humoral immune defense.
Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A
Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels (N = 98). Following Mary Ainsworth's lead, our maternal sensitivity measures were primarily based on ratings of direct observations. Six sets of measures were obtained: positive maternal style at home (a mean of four different ratings); providing a sensitive framework, limit setting, allowing autonomy, criticizing/cutting in (each a mean over two laboratory joint tasks); and tension-making (a mean of three different ratings in a fear-inducing task). Regression analyses showed firstly that maternal anxiety rather than behavioral inhibition or sex of child was the significant predictor of each maternal sensitivity measure; and secondly that these measures rather than maternal anxiety or sex were the significant predictors of security of attachment. Finally, ANOVA's indicated which sets of maternal ratings were associated with each pattern of attachment (Avoidant, Secure, Ambivalent, or Controlling).
Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire
Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…
A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…
The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…
THREE JAPANESE READERS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CONTAIN VOCABULARY, NOTES, AND DRILL SENTENCES. THE THREE READERS--(1) ARU SARARIIMAN NO ITI-NITI, (2) OTOOSAN WA KAMI-SAMA, AND (3) ARU GAKUSEI NO HANNITI--ARE WRITTEN IN THE ROMAJI ALPHABET. EACH READER HAS A VOCABULARY LISTING WITH ENGLISH EXPLANATIONS AND DRILL SENTENCES. AN ENGLISH WORD DEFINITION…
This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents data and facts concerning yearly publications (books, magazines, and textbooks), translations, and illustrations of Japanese children's literature. The report then discusses at length recent trends in children's literature and library activities for children in the past, present, and…
This paper discusses the relationship between linguistic reconstructions and their historical validity using the case of Old Japanese (8th century A.D.) vowels as an example. Reconstructions throughout the paper include only those cases in which the modern reflexes and phonological correspondences between two or more genetically related languages…
For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.
Gallavan, Nancy P.; Roberts, Teresa A.
In 1942, less than four months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent United States entry into World War II , nearly 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry living along the west coast of the United States were ordered to evacuate their homes and sent to internment camps. The evacuees, separated from their extended families, former…
An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.
Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.
Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.
Focuses on the identity formation of Japanese students temporarily living in the United States. The students were enrolled in Japanese Saturday school and in American public schools. Student interviews reveal a mixture of Japanese and American characteristics. Suggests Japanese students do not reject either culture--Japanese or American--but that…
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.
The National Center for Science Information System Japanese Scientific and Engineering Database Access Project, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Japan's NACSIS, has added four new databases to its free service, bringing the total number of available databases to 13.The new Directory of Japanese Researchers covers researchers affiliated with Japanese universities and academic research centers. Each researcher is listed by name, date of birth, organizational affiliation, education and degrees, memberships and awards, areas of specialization, and representative publications. Non-Japanese researchers are also covered.
In most areas of the world, too many people live or play along the coast. Municipal and industrial wastes pollute coastal waters. Rivers spew erosion sediment and pollutants into these waters. Economic development is often the only management strategy for coastal zones, and economic development has little concern for resource degradation and watershed management. 53 countries have coastal management plans, but few have adequately implemented them. Almost 66% of the world's population lives within 150 km of the coast; by 2025, 75% will live as close to the coast. In the US, the coastal population has grown faster than that of the entire US, so that the population density is now almost 400 persons/sq m compared to 275 persons/sq m in 1960. Urbanization continues in the US coastal zones, where 7 of the 10 US largest cities exist. 94% of China's population lives in the eastern 3rd of the country. The population density along China's coast is more than 600/sq km. In Shanghai, it is more than 2000/sq km. Many people are moving from poorer provinces in the central and western regions to the economic free zones and special economic zones along the coast. At any moment, 30-60 million Chinese are moving. Most everyone in southeastern Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America live in coastal areas. By 2025, the coastal zone between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo will be all urbanized This is also occurring on Chile's coast between Valparaiso and Concepcion. The Mediterranean has the most overcrowded coastline in the developed world. Unchecked development could lead to continuous urban sprawl between Spain and Greece. Development pressures have caused a sizable decline in or a collapse of coastal fisheries. In Asia, all waters within 15 km of the coastline have been overfished. Coral reefs and mangrove forests are being destroyed with inadequate resources targeted for their protection.
article title: Wetlands of the Gulf Coast ... web of estuarine channels and extensive coastal wetlands that provide important habitat for fisheries. The city of New Orleans ... or below sea level. The city is protected by levees, but the wetlands which also function as a buffer from storm surges have been ...
NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.
Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth
The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…
Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community,"…
Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko
This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8…
Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.
These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…
Kuriki, Ichiro; Lange, Ryan; Muto, Yumiko; Brown, Angela M; Fukuda, Kazuho; Tokunaga, Rumi; Lindsey, Delwin T; Uchikawa, Keiji; Shioiri, Satoshi
Despite numerous prior studies, important questions about the Japanese color lexicon persist, particularly about the number of Japanese basic color terms and their deployment across color space. Here, 57 native Japanese speakers provided monolexemic terms for 320 chromatic and 10 achromatic Munsell color samples. Through k-means cluster analysis we revealed 16 statistically distinct Japanese chromatic categories. These included eight chromatic basic color terms (aka/red, ki/yellow, midori/green, ao/blue, pink, orange, cha/brown, and murasaki/purple) plus eight additional terms: mizu ("water")/light blue, hada ("skin tone")/peach, kon ("indigo")/dark blue, matcha ("green tea")/yellow-green, enji/maroon, oudo ("sand or mud")/mustard, yamabuki ("globeflower")/gold, and cream. Of these additional terms, mizu was used by 98% of informants, and emerged as a strong candidate for a 12th Japanese basic color term. Japanese and American English color-naming systems were broadly similar, except for color categories in one language (mizu, kon, teal, lavender, magenta, lime) that had no equivalent in the other. Our analysis revealed two statistically distinct Japanese motifs (or color-naming systems), which differed mainly in the extension of mizu across our color palette. Comparison of the present data with an earlier study by Uchikawa & Boynton (1987) suggests that some changes in the Japanese color lexicon have occurred over the last 30 years.
Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko
The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with…
Pick, Joel L; Ebneter, Christina; Hutter, Pascale; Tschirren, Barbara
Organizational processes during prenatal development can have long-term effects on an individual's phenotype. Because these early developmental stages are sensitive to environmental influences, mothers are in a unique position to alter their offspring's phenotype by differentially allocating resources to their developing young. However, such prenatal maternal effects are difficult to disentangle from other forms of parental care, additive genetic effects, and/or other forms of maternal inheritance, hampering our understanding of their evolutionary consequences. Here we used divergent selection lines for high and low prenatal maternal investment and their reciprocal line crosses in a precocial bird-the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)-to quantify the relative importance of genes and prenatal maternal effects in shaping offspring phenotype. Maternal but not paternal origin strongly affected offspring body size and survival throughout development. Although the effects of maternal egg investment faded over time, they were large at key life stages. Additionally, there was evidence for other forms of maternal inheritance affecting offspring phenotype at later stages of development. Our study is among the first to successfully disentangle prenatal maternal effects from all other sources of confounding variation and highlights the important role of prenatal maternal provisioning in shaping offspring traits closely linked to fitness.
The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.
Focusing on the forcible relocation of West Coast Japanese-American citizens during World War II, the unit poses the question: Can democratic ideals and processes survive the conditions of total war? Some aspects of this episode considered are: public and official reactions to the Pearl Harbor attack; racial antipathies underlying the decision for…
Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S
One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines. PMID:11930023
The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.
Actors are not the only people who act on a regular basis--everyone does some "acting" in his everyday life. The merchant is acting when he pays compliments to his annoying customers. Neurotics often exaggerate their sufferings and assume poses in order to impress their therapists with the seriousness of their illness. When this acting is done so poorly that everyone but the person himself perceives its penny-dreadful nature, the neurosis might be designated a hysteria. Such dramatics can be observed not only in the demeanor of neurotics, but also in their symptoms. The unconscious and concealed acting revealed in the symptoms of neurotics, especially in those of anthropophobiacs, whose main concern is with their appearance in the eyes of others, is what I would like to examine in this paper. I will attempt to eludicate the psychopathology of a large element in Japanese neurosis--that is, of anthropophobia--in relation to unconscious acting.
Rehder, Robert R.
In contrast to the American system of management, Japanese management motivates its employees by challenging them with high goals and by providing inhouse training and development opportunities to meet their self-fulfillment needs. (Author/LD)
The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose.
Robinson, Edward T.
Reviews topics discussed in the OAH article, "Incarcerating Japanese Americans" (Roger Daniels). States that the three internment cases were correct. Asks whether internment could re-occur given the climate in U.S. society since September 11, 2001. (CMK)
... by a virus spread by infected mosquitoes in Asia and the western Pacific. JE virus is one ... Where does Japanese encephalitis occur? JE occurs in Asia and parts of the western Pacific. It usually ...
Hashimoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Sagiya, T.
The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake forced the policy of counter-measurements to earthquake disasters, including earthquake hazard evaluations, to be changed in Japan. Before the March 11, Japanese earthquake hazard evaluation was based on the history of earthquakes that repeatedly occurs and the characteristic earthquake model. The source region of an earthquake was identified and its occurrence history was revealed. Then the conditional probability was estimated using the renewal model. However, the Japanese authorities changed the policy after the megathrust earthquake in 2011 such that the largest earthquake in a specific seismic zone should be assumed on the basis of available scientific knowledge. According to this policy, three important reports were issued during these two years. First, the Central Disaster Management Council issued a new estimate of damages by a hypothetical Mw9 earthquake along the Nankai trough during 2011 and 2012. The model predicts a 34 m high tsunami on the southern Shikoku coast and intensity 6 or higher on the JMA scale in most area of Southwest Japan as the maximum. Next, the Earthquake Research Council revised the long-term earthquake hazard evaluation of earthquakes along the Nankai trough in May 2013, which discarded the characteristic earthquake model and put much emphasis on the diversity of earthquakes. The so-called 'Tokai' earthquake was negated in this evaluation. Finally, another report by the CDMC concluded that, with the current knowledge, it is hard to predict the occurrence of large earthquakes along the Nankai trough using the present techniques, based on the diversity of earthquake phenomena. These reports created sensations throughout the country and local governments are struggling to prepare counter-measurements. These reports commented on large uncertainty in their evaluation near their ends, but are these messages transmitted properly to the public? Earthquake scientists, including authors, are involved in
community/Art%20Program/ex- hibit3/e30012a.htm). 18 JSOU Report 05-7 have prepared the Service with unique skills.” 42 Figure 2 depicts an early direct...including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson...FEB 2006 2 . REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coast Guard SOF 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER
NAVFAC Southwest Lora E. Morrow Deputy for Small Business NAVFAC Southwest NAVFAC Southwest Industry Forum Navy Gold Coast August...REPORT DATE 13 AUG 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Industry Forum Navy Gold Coast 5a...S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast
Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.
Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne
We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.
missions, although their designations are identical. Aircraft are designated according to the Japanese calendar year when the model went into service. The...those of August, 1941. Designed especially for Coast Artillery. Red fabkote binding; pocket size $ .50 ARMY FOOD AND MESSING No. 31 Formerly titled...welcome. You may send us the cards you want enclosed, or the JOURNAL will inclose a gift card of its own design , as you prefer. ,I, IIII I Fiction
Chang, Yu-Lin; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie
The oceanic migration of silver Japanese eels starts from their continental growth habitats in East Asia and ends at the spawning area near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain. However, the actual migration routes remain unknown. In this study, we examined the possible oceanic migration routes and strategies of silver Japanese eels using a particle tracking method in which virtual eels (v-eels) were programmed to move vertically and horizontally in an ocean circulation model (Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2, JCOPE2). Four horizontal swimming strategies were tested: random heading, true navigation (readjusted heading), orientation toward the spawning area (fixed heading), and swimming against the Kuroshio. We found that all strategies, except random swimming, allowed v-eels swimming at 0.65 m s−1 to reach the spawning area within eight months after their departure from the south coast of Japan (end of the spawning season). The estimated minimum swimming speed required to reach the area spawning within eight months was 0.1 m s−1 for true navigation, 0.12 m s−1 for constant compass heading, and 0.35 m s−1 for swimming against the Kuroshio. The lowest swimming speed estimated from tracked Japanese eels at sea was 0.03 m.s−1, which would not allow them to reach the spawning area within eight months, through any of the tested orientation strategies. Our numerical experiments also showed that ocean circulation significantly affected the migration of Japanese v-eels. A strong Kuroshio could advect v-eels further eastward. In addition, western Pacific ocean currents accelerated the migration of navigating v-eels. The migration duration was shortened in years with a stronger southward flow, contributed by a stronger recirculation south of Japan, an enhanced subtropical gyre, or a higher southward Kuroshio velocity. PMID:26982484
Chang, Yu-Lin; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie
The oceanic migration of silver Japanese eels starts from their continental growth habitats in East Asia and ends at the spawning area near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain. However, the actual migration routes remain unknown. In this study, we examined the possible oceanic migration routes and strategies of silver Japanese eels using a particle tracking method in which virtual eels (v-eels) were programmed to move vertically and horizontally in an ocean circulation model (Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2, JCOPE2). Four horizontal swimming strategies were tested: random heading, true navigation (readjusted heading), orientation toward the spawning area (fixed heading), and swimming against the Kuroshio. We found that all strategies, except random swimming, allowed v-eels swimming at 0.65 m s-1 to reach the spawning area within eight months after their departure from the south coast of Japan (end of the spawning season). The estimated minimum swimming speed required to reach the area spawning within eight months was 0.1 m s-1 for true navigation, 0.12 m s-1 for constant compass heading, and 0.35 m s-1 for swimming against the Kuroshio. The lowest swimming speed estimated from tracked Japanese eels at sea was 0.03 m.s-1, which would not allow them to reach the spawning area within eight months, through any of the tested orientation strategies. Our numerical experiments also showed that ocean circulation significantly affected the migration of Japanese v-eels. A strong Kuroshio could advect v-eels further eastward. In addition, western Pacific ocean currents accelerated the migration of navigating v-eels. The migration duration was shortened in years with a stronger southward flow, contributed by a stronger recirculation south of Japan, an enhanced subtropical gyre, or a higher southward Kuroshio velocity.
This study investigated language attitudes and Japanese language maintenance among a group of second-generation Japanese in Melbourne (Australia). Subjects were 66 Japanese high school students (second-generation) attending Japanese-language schools and 109 Japanese mothers (first-generation) self-identified as Japanese-identity,…
Harnischfeger, Annegret; Wiley, David E.
This paper discusses ways in which maternal attitudes may serve as mediating variables linking social class characteristics of the family to the socialization of children. Reference is made to the Family Problem Scale (Ernhart and Loevinger) which provides a psychological characterization of social class levels on five dimensions or subscales:…
Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui
Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…
In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…
... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial and recreational Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended...
... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial, recreational and tribal Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are...
The Japanese Board of General Thoracic Surgery (JBGTS) consisted by Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS) and The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS) has been certified Japanese Board Certified Thoracic Surgeon (JBCTS) since 2004. At present, JBCTS is obtained by being of Certified Surgeon by Japan Surgical Society( JSS), completion of minimum requirement of surgical experience, scientific papers, presentation at medical assembly, learning of postgraduate educational programs, and examination approximate 11 years after graduation of medical school. Thirteen hundreds JBCTS throughout Japan are engaged in operation for 77,000 cases/year, including 38,000 lung cancer patients/year. The operative volume has been growing lineally these 30 years, and operative mortality in lung cancer patients has been less than 1% these several years. Japanese Medical Specialty Board (JMSB) published a guideline of the new system of medical specialty certification system in Jury 2014, in which fundamental structure is consisted by basic specialties of 19 medical fields and following subspecialties and program based system rather than curriculum based system. According to this guideline, JBGTS has been collaborated with JSS in order to establish sequential programs of the 2 specialties, and proposed an improved certification system to accomplish the mission that it educates trainees to be thoracic surgical professionals who is able to perform safe and standalized procedures.
Ichihara, Yasuyo G.
In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.
Yoneda, Masayasu; Yamane, Kiminori; Jitsuiki, Kuniaki; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Kamei, Nozomu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kohno, Nobuoki
Metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by the accumulation of multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis. Japanese-Americans in the U.S. have a more rapid and intense progression of atherosclerosis than native Japanese in Japan due to a westernization of their lifestyle. We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between 416 native Japanese (194 men and 222 women) in Hiroshima and 574 Japanese-Americans (217 men and 357 women) in Los Angeles, aged 30-89 years. According to the criteria proposed by the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, the prevalence was 13.9 and 2.7% for native Japanese men and women, and 32.7 and 3.4% for Japanese-American men and women, respectively. According to the IDF or AHA/NHLBI criteria, the prevalence was 20.1 and 6.3%, and 38.7 and 4.5%, or 13.4 and 14.4%, and 30.9 and 27.7%, respectively. Thus, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by all the three criteria. However, the prevalence in women was similar between native Japanese and Japanese-American by the Japanese and IDF criteria, whereas it was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by the AHA/NHLBI criteria. This report demonstrates that a westernization of lifestyle can increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese-Americans as compared to native Japanese.
Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin
Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…
Discusses myths about the Japanese management styles; what the West can learn from the Japanese; the concept of nonlinear management; and training modules which teach self-discipline, tolerance, and nonlinear management. (CT)
A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City.
Bridges, Robert S
The expression of maternal behavior in mammals is regulated by the developmental and experiential events over a female's lifetime. In this review the relationships between the endocrine and neural systems that play key roles in these developmental and experiential processes that affect both the establishment and maintenance of maternal care are presented. The involvement of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and lactogens are discussed in the context of ligand, receptor, and gene activity in rodents and to a lesser extent in higher mammals. The roles of neuroendocrine factors, including oxytocin, vasopressin, classical neurotransmitters, and other neural gene products that regulate aspects of maternal care are set forth, and the interactions of hormones with central nervous system mediators of maternal behavior are discussed. The impact of prior developmental factors, including epigenetic events, and maternal experience on subsequent maternal care are assessed over the course of the female's lifespan. It is proposed that common neuroendocrine mechanisms underlie the regulation of maternal care in mammals.
Azria, E; Stewart, Z; Gonthier, C; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C
Although medical literature on social inequalities in perinatal health is qualitatively heterogeneous, it is quantitatively important and reveals the existence of a social gradient in terms of perinatal risk. However, published data regarding maternal health, if also qualitatively heterogeneous, are relatively less numerous. Nevertheless, it appears that social inequalities also exist concerning severe maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. Analyses are still insufficient to understand the mechanisms involved and explain how the various dimensions of the women social condition interact with maternal health indicators. Inadequate prenatal care and suboptimal obstetric care may be intermediary factors, as they are related to both social status and maternal outcomes, in terms of maternal morbidity, its worsening or progression, and maternal mortality.
Japanese school management should consider more broad-based, active participation in school board policymaking and should democratize school board-school relationships by adopting the lay-control principle. Both U.S. and Japanese schools should improve the exercise of appropriate administrator leadership. Japanese schools are evaluated on a…
Wojtan, Linda S.
Certain Japanese educational practices serving as worthwhile examples to the United States' educational system are highlighted in this overview of Japanese education. However, it is stressed that because the United States and the Japanese educational systems are dependent upon their social context and exist in a symbiotic relationship within that…
This paper presents an overview of the history of Japanese in Colorado. Japanese immigrants first came to Colorado between 1900 and 1910 as railroad laborers. Some became coal miners in southern Colorado; most others became farm laborers. Although the Japanese population during this period was small, communities developed in several locales. The…
Shuster, Donald R.
This review of Japanese educational policy in Micronesia from 1920-36 describes the separate school systems established for natives and for Japanese immigrants. Native schools offered a shorter, less rigorous program whose main intent was socialization to Japanese language and culture. (SJL)
Engel, John W.
Empirical studies of Japanese work ethics have tended to focus on male workers while neglecting women. In addition, work values in both Japan and the United States appear to be changing. More information is needed on the work values of American and Japanese female workers. A study was conducted to explore the work ethics of Japanese women and to…
Analyzes the existing Japanese population data, focusing on changes in the timing of events in a family life cycle of Japanese women. Analysis revealed that the overall pattern of the family career of Japanese women today closely resembles that of their American and Canadian counterparts. (LLL)
Kitano, Harry H. L.
The story of people of Japanese descent in the United States is told in its historic context. The Japanese came to America with cultural values that differed greatly from the mainstream U.S. society. They were also set apart by appearance. Conflict between Japan and the United States exacerbated the problems between the Japanese Americans and the…
Japanese nursery school and kindergarten activities are designed to facilitate the socialization of Japanese children. The culture of the home and the culture of the school (and by extension the rest of Japanese society) are so different from each other that it is believed the open and unselfconscious help of the education system is necessary to…
Yoshiwara, Florence M.
An historical review of the immigration and resettlement patterns, and a demographic profile of Japanese Americans reveals a myth of the "successful minority." Since the founding of the Japanese American Citizens League in 1928, Japanese Americans have defeated alien land laws, discriminatory immigration quotas, anti-miscengenation laws,…
JAPANESE VERBS AND THE PARTICLES WHICH OFTEN ACCOMPANY THEM PRESENT DIFFICULTIES TO LEARNERS OF THAT LANGUAGE. THE TRADITIONAL GRAMMATICAL TERMS, "TRANSITIVE" AND "INTRANSITIVE" (VERBS), REFLECT CONCEPTS WHICH ARE VALID IN ENGLISH BUT NOT IN JAPANESE. THE AUTHOR, IN ATTEMPTING TO CLASSIFY ALL JAPANESE VERBS ACCORDING TO THEIR…
Business Japanese should be the study of Japanese language and culture for business communication and should include values and beliefs and institutional constraints on which the Japanese act as well as business etiquette and terminology. Topics to be covered in instruction will vary depending on the role (seller, buyer, or colleague) played by…
Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki
JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.
Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa
To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840
Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular…
Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important endemic encephalitis in the world especially in Eastern and Southeastern Asia. JE affects over 50,000 patients and results in 15,000 deaths annually. JE virus is a single stranded positive sense RNA virus belonging to family flaviviridae. JE virus is transmitted through a zoonotic cycle between mosquitoes, pigs and water birds. Humans are accidentally infected and are a dead end host because of low level and transient viremia. In the northern region, large epidemics occur during summers whereas in the southern region JE tends to be endemic: cases occur throughout the year with a peak in the rainy season. Occurrence of JE is more closely related to temperature than to humidity. JE is regarded as a disease of children in the endemic areas but in the newly invaded areas, it affects both the adults and children because of the absence of protective antibodies. For every patient of JE, there are large numbers of subclinical cases (25-1000). Symptomatic JEV infection manifests with nonspecific febrile illness, aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. Encephalitis manifests with altered sensorium, seizures and focal neurological deficit. Acute flaccid paralysis may occur due to anterior horn cell involvement. A wide variety of movement disorders especially transient Parkinsonian features and dystonia (limb, axial, orofacial) are reported in 20-60% patients. JE mainly affects thalamus, corpus striatum, brainstem and spinal cord as revealed by MRI and on autopsy studies. Coinfection of JE and cysticercosis occurs because of the important role of pigs in the life cycle of both JEV and cysticercosis. Laboratory diagnosis of JE is by IgM capture ELISA, which has high sensitivity and specificity. In the absence of specific antiviral therapy, JE is managed by symptomatic and supportive therapies and preventive measures. Purified formalin inactivated mouse brain derived vaccine and live attenuated vaccine (SA 14-14-2) are
Phenylketonuria is a genetic disease affecting 1:10,000 to 14,000 live births. In NSW there is an average of nine cases diagnosed each year (Dietitians Working Party 1996). This paper discusses the management of phenylketonuria, and in particular the value of breastfeeding, complemented with a low phenylalanine infant formula, in facilitating easier maintenance of satisfactory phenylalanine blood levels. The 'diet for life' approach to managing phenylketonuria is to avoid long-term neurological deficits and, in particular, the risk that maternal PKU, which is not under strict dietary control, will have adverse effects on infants born of mothers with the disease. There have been 31 successful pregnancies to 1997 managed by the Nutrition and Dietetics Department of The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney. The Maternal PKU diet is presented with the case of a client with phenylketonuria who has achieved two normal pregnancies and breastfed her second child for six months.
Carroll, J. C.
Maternal serum screening (MSS) measures three serum markers: alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol, from which the risk of fetal Down syndrome or open neural tube defect is calculated. Initially, 8% of women will have positive results. I present a protocol for investigating these women. Family physicians should be informed about MSS so they can give their patients information and guidance. PMID:7524838
Chait, Richard P.
The Japanese theory of participatory management is seen as thriving on American campuses under the rubrics of shared governance and collegiality. Participatory management, quality control circles, lifetime employment, superordinate goals, and interdependent leadership are discussed. More commerce between academic administrators and corporate…
The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…
Haiqi, Zhang; Yamazaki, Shigeaki
Evaluates Japanese journals--128 indexed in the 1994 "Journal Citation Reports"--in bibliometric parameters such as impact factors (IFs), mean IFs from citing and cited journals, and self-citing and self-cited rates. Results: only 15 journals, with a wide variation of self-citing and self-cited rates, have obtained a current impact…
Osako, Masako Murakami
Despite advanced industrialization, Japanese women are subjected to occupational inequality by businesses that place them on a career track separate from men in terms of wages, promotion, and retirement and by a cultural environment that fosters the values of motherhood and stresses female authority only in domestic situations. (WI)
Discussion of whether the Japanese copula can adequately be described as a dummy, i.e., as an element which although existing in the surface structure can be dispensed with in the deep structure of a sentence; based on a paper read at the 1970 meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia. (RS)
McAbee, Michael K.
In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)
Miksch, Karen L.; Ghere, David
Few events in American history are so universally deplored as the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The United States government has acknowledged the error and the injustice that resulted with an official Presidential apology and a Congressional disbursement of reparations to the victims of the incarceration policy. The…
Chiba, Reiko; And Others
Examined the attitudes of 169 Japanese university students toward varieties of spoken English. Results found that the students with more instrumental motivation were more positive toward nonnative English accents than those with less instrumental motivation, and that the students' familiarity with accents had an influence on their acceptance of…
Beer, A E; Billingham, R E
Without altering the structural integrity of the placenta by irradiation or drugs, we have shown that it is possible to immunize females both adoptively and actively against the paternally inherited transplantation antigens of their fetuses. Such immunization causes a high incidence of runt disease among the litters. Although the putative chimeric status of the affected offspring has yet to be confirmed, the results of our experiments support the thesis that runt disease is caused by the activities of "unwanted" immigrant lymphocytes from the maternal circulation. Our results suggest that immunologically activated cells are more likely to cross the placenta than normal cells and that this greater mobility may not be related to the immunologic specificity of the activated cells. Two factors may have contributed to the apparent failure of numerous previous attempts to demonstrate the capacity of transplantation immunity to affect the well-being of a fetus or, more correctly, its placenta, in the way that might be expected of a homograft. (i) Investigators were preoccupied with obtaining a classic type of rejection, in utero, analogous to the rejection of an orthotopic skin homograft. The birth of consistently healthy-looking litters, interpreted as a failure of the experiment, convinced the investigators of the efficacy of nature's solution of the homograft problem and there was no reason for them to suspect its possible limitations. Observation of the litters for several weeks might have uncovered the phenomenon of maternally induced runt disease. (ii) Most investigators resorted to hyperimmunization of the mothers. This would have facilitated the synthesis of protective isoantibodies capable of interfering with the expression of the potentially harmful cellular immune response (6). Ever since the abnormalities of runt disease were first described they have repeatedly been compared to those observed in patients with certain lymphomas (17). Various theories have been
At least three moment magnitude (M) 7 earthquakes occurred along California's north coast in the second half of the nineteenth century. The M 7.3 earthquake on 23 November 1873 occurred near the California-Oregon coast and likely was located on the Cascadia subduction zone or within the North American plate. The M 7.0 + earthquake on 9 May 1878 was located about 75 km offshore near the Mendocino fault. The surface-wave magnitude (M(s)) 7.0 earthquake on 16 April 1899 was located about 150 km offshore within the Gorda plate. There were at least three M 7 north-coast earthquakes in the 35 years before 1906, two M 7 earthquakes in the 20 years after 1906, no M 7 earthquakes from 1923 until 1980, and four M 7 earthquakes since 1980. The relative seismic quiescence after 1906 for M 7 earthquakes along California's north coast mimics the post-1906 seismic quiescence in the San Francisco Bay area for M 6 earthquakes. The post-1906 relative quiescence did not extend to lower magnitudes in either area. The 18 April 1906 earthquake apparently influenced the rate of occurrence of M 7 north-coast earthquakes as it apparently influenced the rate of M 6 earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay area. The relative seismic quiescence along the California north-coast region after 1906 should be taken into account when evaluating seismic hazards in northwest California.
Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C
Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in
Jagt-Yazykova, E. A.; Zonova, T. D.
This work presents the results of a study of the biogeographical distribution of Late Albian-Maastrichtian ammonites, found in sequences of the Pacific coast of Russia. The taxa typical of the Pacific Realm were identified, and their distribution traced beyond the borders of this region. In addition, species-migrants, distributed within the studied area were established. As a results of our works, a high level of endemism of ammonite fauna of the East of Russia was noted (75-88% of endemic species, on average). The bipolarity, previously established in the distribution of ammonoids within the Pacific Paleobiogeographical Realm, as well as their high regional provincialism, was confirmed. The following division of the studied area into faunal ammonite provinces in the Late Cretaceous was proposed: Arctic Province; Boreal-Pacific Province, including northeastern Russia (Chukotka Peninsula, the Koryak Upland, Penzhyna Gulf) and the boreal coast of North America (Alaska Peninsula, Arctic Canada and British Columbia); Northwest Pacific Province, including the Primorye Territory, Sakhalin and Shikotan Islands, the Japanese Islands; Northeast Province of the Pacific (the western coast of the United States and Mexico); Southwest Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, Oceania) and Southeast (the western coast of South America and Antarctica, Seymour and James Ross Islands) Provinces. This division is confirmed by data on inoceramid species. In addition, levels of global transgressions and general sea level rise, associated with the appearances of most of widespread marine taxa in the Pacific shelf seas, are established. These include Late Albian, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, Late Coniacian, Late Campanian, Early-Late Maastrichtian boundary. Moreover, migration of ammonites occurred due to the Tethys Ocean extension and followed the northern sea straits in the Arctic Ocean and within the Pacific Realm, depending on warm currents. Both the counter and one-way migrations were
McGann, M.; Sloan, D.; Cohen, A.N.
The earliest record in western North America of Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifer common in Japanese estuaries, is from sediment collected in Puget Sound in 1971. It was first found in San Francisco Bay in sediment samples taken in 1983, and since 1986 has been collected at 91% of the sampled sites in the Bay, constituting up to 93% of the foraminiferal assemblage at individual sites. The species is also present in recent sediment samples from 12 other sites along the west coast of North America. The evidence indicates that T. hadai is a recent introduction to San Francisco Bay, and is probably also not native to the other North American sites. Trochammina hadai was probably transported from Japan in ships' ballast tanks, in mud associated with anchors, or in sediments associated with oysters imported for mariculture. Its remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay suggests the potential for massive, rapid invasions by other marine microorganisms.
In English and Chinese, questions with a "wh"-object and a universally quantified subject (e.g. "What did everyone buy?") allow an individual answer ("Everyone bought apples.") and a pair-list answer ("Sam bought apples, Jo bought bananas, Sally bought..."). By contrast, the pair-list answer is reportedly unavailable in Japanese and Korean. This…
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...
Shojo, M; Okanishi, T; Anada, K; Oyama, K; Mukai, F
Heritabilities of and genetic correlations between additive direct and maternal genetic effects for calf market weight, and additive direct genetic effects for carcass traits, were estimated for Japanese Black cattle by REML procedures under 2-trait animal models. Data were collected from calf and carcass markets in Hyogo and Tottori prefectures and analyzed separately by prefecture. Calf market weight was measured on 42,745 and 23,566 calves in Hyogo and Tottori, respectively. Only the fattening animals with calf market weight were extracted from the carcass database and used for estimation. The carcass traits analyzed were carcass weight, ribeye area, rib thickness, subcutaneous fat thickness, yield estimate, beef marbling score, and 4 meat characters (color, brightness, firmness, and texture). Direct and maternal heritabilities for calf market weight were estimated to be 0.22 and 0.07 in Hyogo, and 0.37 and 0.15 in Tottori, respectively. The estimates of heritabilities for carcass traits were moderate to high in both prefectures. The estimates of direct-maternal genetic correlations for calf market weight were positive (0.17) in Hyogo and negative (-0.63) in Tottori. The direct effect for calf market weight was positively correlated with the direct effect for carcass weight (0.87 and 0.56 in Hyogo and Tottori, respectively) but negatively correlated with the direct effect for beef marbling score (-0.10 in both prefectures). The estimates of genetic correlations between the maternal effect for calf market weight and the direct effects for carcass traits varied from -0.13 to 0.34 in Hyogo and from -0.14 to 0.15 in Tottori. Because direct and maternal genetic effects for early growth traits can be evaluated from calf market weight data in the production system of Japanese Black cattle, this information should be incorporated into selection and mating schemes of the breed.
Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J
The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress
Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.
Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…
Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.
Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal…
Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat.
Enkin, Murray W.
Current practices of obstetrical care tend to hinder rather than facilitate family development and maturation. A program of family centred maternity care is described. Husbands are invited to prenatal visits, and are involved in intensive preparation for labor and delivery. Their presence and active participation in labor, delivery, and postpartum course are encouraged. This, along with a rooming-in policy for the baby, and the utilization of the postpartum period for an intensive training in parenthood, appears to produce a safe and satisfying obstetrical experience for the family. PMID:20468914
Hashimoto, Manabu; Jackson, David D.
We analyze over a century of geodetic data to study crustal deformation and plate motion around the Japanese Islands, using the block-fault model for crustal deformation developed by Matsu'ura et al. (1986). We model the area including the Japanese Islands with 19 crustal blocks and 104 faults based on the distribution of active faults and seismicity. Geodetic data are used to obtain block motions and average slip rates of faults. This geodetic model predicts that the Pacific plate moves N deg 69 +/- 2 deg W at about 80 +/- 3 mm/yr relative to the Eurasian plate which is much lower than that predicted in geologic models. Substantial aseismic slip occurs on the subduction boundaries. The block containing the Izu Peninsula may be separated from the rigid part of the Philippine Sea plate. The faults on the coast of Japan Sea and the western part of the Median Tectonic Line have slip rates exceeding 4 mm/yr, while the Fossa Magna does not play an important role in the tectonics of the central Japan. The geodetic model requires the division of northeastern Japan, contrary to the hypothesis that northeastern Japan is a part of the North American plate. Owing to rapid convergence, the seismic risk in the Nankai trough may be larger than that of the Tokai gap.
... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2013-2014 Biennial...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2013-2014 Biennial Specifications and... specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts...
...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery... coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the...
Goto, T.; Satake, K.; Sugai, T.; Ishibe, T.; Harada, T.; Murotani, S.
. According to Japanese historical documents, candidates of tsunamis are from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the 1933 and 1896 Sanriku earthquakes, the 1793 Miyagi-oki earthquake, the 1763 Aomori-oki earthquake, the 1677 Boso-oki earthquake, and the 1611 Sanriku earthquake. Some trans-Pacific tsunamis such as the 1700 Cascadia and 1960 Chilean tsunamis also caused severe damage along the Sanriku coast and these tsunami deposits may be also preserved.
Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Goebert, Deborah; Hishinuma, Earl; Miyamoto, Robin; Anzai, Neal; Izutsu, Satoru; Yanagida, Evelyn; Nishimura, Stephanie; Andrade, Naleen; Baker, F. M.
Develops and assesses a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, and anxiety in Japanese American and part-Japanese American high school seniors. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the scale and reported fewer anxiety symptoms than part-Japanese American adolescents. The model had a good overall fit, suggesting that…
Basu, Anirban; Dutta, Kallol
Japanese encephalitis is a flaviviral disease that is endemic to the South, Southeast Asia, and Asia Oceania regions. Given that about 60% of the world’s population (about 7.4 billion) resides in this region (about 4.4 billion), this disease poses a significant threat to global health. Active vaccination campaigns conducted in endemic countries have led to a decrease in the number of reported cases over the years. In this article, we strive to briefly highlight recent advances in understanding the role of microRNAs in disease pathology, focus on providing brief summaries of recent clinical trials in the field of Japanese encephalitis therapeutics, and review the current prophylactic strategies. PMID:28357054
Montemayor, Raymond; Clayton, Mark D.
The relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development is enormously complex, and no simple generalizations are possible. Many intervening variables alter the impact that maternal employment has on adolescent development. There is an urgent need to discover what impact this arrangement has on adolescent development. (CJ)
Moorad, Jacob A.; Nussey, Daniel H.
Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton’s evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton’s age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species. PMID:26715745
There is much debate about whether vowel centralization results from reduction of undershoot. The results of research conducted by Keating and Huffman (1984) indicated that Japanese vowels in prose were formed closer to the center of vowel chart than in words. However, they did not provide any statistical information and the information about the preceding consonants in the prose. Thus, there was a possibility that the preceding consonants led to the vowel centralization through undershoot. To address this question, I conducted research, in which Japanese function vowels [a, e, o] were compared with content vowels. The results showed that F1 of function /a/ following /g/ (average 609.8 Hz) was statistically lower than content /a/ (average 696.3 Hz) [F(1,65)=73.40, p<0.001]. However, there were no significant differences of F2 of /e/ following /d/ and F2 of /o/ following /t/ between function and content. At first, it appeared centralization played a role. However, close examination of the results indicated that vowel undershoot was the source of the /a/ centralization. Japanese function /a/ was statistically shorter than content /a/ and there was a significant correlation between duration and normalized vowel displacements for /a/ [Pearson's r=0.466, p<0.001]. This short duration caused the difference of F1 between content /a/ and function /a/.
Japanese steeplejacks are good at working in high places as construction workers, and they have been called tobi for a longtime. They now play an important role in completing modern civil engineering projects and in the construction of high-rise buildings; however, their lifestyle is considered by most to be quaint but outdated. Originally, they were unskilled workmen at construction sites. In the 18th century, they were engaged in repairing houses or setting up scaffolding, helping carpenters, but they worked as firefighters whenever fires broke out. Their traditional work system did not change throughout the Meiji era, although Japanese society became greatly modernized. After World War II, the industrialization of Japanese society required highly developed technology in civil engineering and architecture. This provided an opportunity for them to establish their positions as trained professional workers. However, the number of skilled tobi professionals has continued to decrease because the younger generation does not consider this profession desirable career. Improving not only the professional skills but also the way of living to the extent as a modern high-tech society demands will be the key for the tobi's work system to become attractive.
Ikeda, Maiko; Inaba, Jennifer Saeko; Ikeda, Ayako Christina; Kihara, Miki
On Friday, March 11, 2011, one of the worst disasters in the world hit the country of Japan. A magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the coast of Japan, forever changing the lives of the people and the state of the country. Not only were lives lost and homes destroyed, the tsunami that followed caused numerous nuclear accidents around the Fukushima…
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BC01 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl Rationalization Program; Reconsideration... proposes revisions to several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl...
Previous research shows that American learners of Japanese (AJs) tend to differ from native Japanese speakers in their compliment responses (CRs). Yokota (1986) and Shimizu (2009) have reported that AJs tend to respond more negatively than native Japanese speakers. It has also been reported that AJs' CRs tend to lack the use of avoidance or…
Taylor, Harvey M.
Each culture has its own nonverbal as well as its verbal language. Movements, gestures and sounds have distinct and often conflicting interpretations in different countries. For Americans communicating with Japanese, misunderstandings are of two types: Japanese behavior which is completely new to the American, and Japanese behavior which is…
Examined accentuation patterns that appear in Japanese adaptation of French words. Argues that these patterns reflect the default accentuation of Japanese grammar; they correspond to accent patterns found in some marginal sectors of Japanese vocabulary where the accent is predictable. (Author/VWL)
Hounton, Sennen; De Bernis, Luc; Hussein, Julia; Graham, Wendy J; Danel, Isabella; Byass, Peter; Mason, Elizabeth M
Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR) system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR ≤ 30 per 100,000 by 2030).
Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR) system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR ≤ 30 per 100,000 by 2030). PMID:23279882
This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC
Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Hirota, Yoshio; Kanzaki, Hideharu; Kitada, Mitsuyoshi; Horikoshi, Yorihiko; Ishiko, Osamu; Nakai, Yuichiro; Nishio, Junko; Yamamasu, Seiichi; Yasuda, Jinsuke; Kawai, Seigo; Yanagihara, Kazumi; Wakuda, Koji; Kawashima, Tokio; Narimoto, Katsuhiko; Iwasa, Yoshihiko; Orino, Katsuhiko; Tsunetoh, Itsuo; Yoshida, Junichi; Iito, Junichi; Kaneko, Takuzi; Kamiya, Takao; Kuribayashi, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Takeshi; Takemura, Hideo; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Oda, Hajime; Ohya, Yukihiro
Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy is an important determinant of fetal growth. Although the effects of several nutrients and foods have been well examined, little is known about the relationship of overall maternal diet in pregnancy to fetal growth, particularly in non-Western populations. We prospectively examined the relationship of maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy to neonatal anthropometric measurements at birth and risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth among 803 Japanese women with live-born, singleton, term deliveries. Maternal diet in pregnancy was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from thirty-three predefined food groups (g/4184 kJ) were extracted by cluster analysis. The following three dietary patterns were identified: the 'meat and eggs' (n 326), 'wheat products', with a relatively high intake of bread, confectioneries and soft drinks (n 303), and 'rice, fish and vegetables' (n 174) patterns. After adjustment for potential confounders, women in the 'wheat products' pattern had infants with the significantly lowest birth weight (P = 0·045) and head circumference (P = 0·036) among those in the three dietary patterns. Compared with women in the 'rice, fish and vegetables' pattern, women in the 'wheat products' pattern had higher odds of having a SGA infant for weight (multivariate OR 5·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 24·4), but this was not the case for birth length or head circumference. These results suggest that a diet high in bread, confectioneries, and soft drinks and low in fish and vegetables during pregnancy might be associated with a small birth weight and an increased risk of having a SGA infant.
Duquette, William H.
COAST, the Controller's Assistant, is a semi-automated player of the CBS wargave training simulation. It uses rule-based techniques to maneuver a collection of platoons through a complex infiltration mission in response to a single high-level order from a CBS controller.
Miyao, M; Furuta, M; Matsushita, Y; Ogiso, M; Ishihara, S; Teo, P C
The relationship between maternal smoking and the head circumference of newborns were analyzed using a matched-pair longitudinal method. For the study, data was collected from Japanese primiparas in Aichi, Japan. Forty-seven smoking and nonsmoking mothers were matched using multivariate caliper matching for birth weight and gender for their newborns, and gestational period and age for the gravidas. Significantly smaller head circumferences of the newborns from the smoking mothers were observed.
Yuanita, Nita; Pratama, Roka; Husrin, Semeidi
Modeling of Shoreline Changes of Tulamben Coast, Bali Indonesia Tulamben coast is located in Lombok Strait on the northeastern coast of Bali island, Indonesia, as part of Karang Asem district. Severe erosion along the coastline has long been occurred in Karang Asem area and threatening houses, religious buildings (Hindu temples), and a national heritage site. As one of most popular diving site in Bali Island, Tulamben attracted many local and international tourist since 1980. The main attraction of Tulamben diving site is the USAT Liberty ship that was shipwrecked in Tulamben beach in 1942, after attacked by Japanese torpedo in Lombok Strait. Currently about 150 diver visit Tulamben per day. Due to physical changes of coastal environmental such as coastal erosion, sliding, and scouring, the shipwreck is vulnerable. It had been slipped off the beach several times and is predicted would be moved to deeper offshore floor if it is not protected. Coastal erosion in Karang Asem district is occurred probably due to interaction between cross-shore and long-shore wave-generated current and river sand supply decreasing after sand mining activities. In this study, the effect of cross-shore and longshore transport to coastal erosion in Tulamben is analyzed by doing numerical model. Numerical simulation of shoreline changes is performed by using Beach Processes Module of CEDAS (Coastal Engineering Design and Analysis System) consists of SBEACH and GENESIS. The model domain is covered Karang Asem coastline about 60 km length and wave data is calculated from hourly wind data (10 years). Simulated shoreline is calibrated using shoreline data from 1972 to 2013. Using calibrated model, then the simulation is performed from 2003 - 2013. From the simulation it is determined that longshore current and longshore sediment contribute to coastal erosion in Tulamben. Based on model results, several alternatives of general layout and configuration of coastal protection structures is proposed
Reports results of a bibliometric study of the literature on Japanese-style management published in western languages from 1971-84 in order to: (1) determine Japanese contributions to the literature; (2) determine whether there are nuclear journals for the subject; and (3) investigate how the flow of information from Japan to overseas countries…
A hidden participant/observer working in a Japanese auto plant in the United States discovered worker resistance to Japanese management practices in the form of sabotage, protest, agitation, and confrontation. Results questioned assumptions that participatory techniques increase worker control and decentralized authority increases worker autonomy.…
The increasing pace and scope of global structural change has left Japanese flagship universities at a crossroads. Reflecting upon historical trends, current policy changes and respective institutional strategies for global marketing among Japanese top research universities, the author discusses possible future directions for these institutions…
Over the past 25 years, much educational research in the United States has focused on effective schools. This paper presents findings of a study that examined the characteristics of Japanese education, which is often considered effective by American researchers. It compares features of the Japanese education system to characteristics of effective…
This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child…
Saito-Abbott, Yoshito; Samimy, Keiko
A study investigated influences on attrition in Japanese second language instruction in one U.S. university. Subjects were students enrolled in the fall semester of beginning (n=134 students) and intermediate (n=79) levels of Japanese courses. In the fifth week of classes, students were administered a series of questionnaires to gather data on…
CHAPLIN, HAMAKO ITO; MARTIN, SAMUEL E.
THIS IS THE FIRST OF THREE VOLUMES WRITTEN TO TEACH THE 881 ESSENTIAL OR "EDUCATION" CHARACTERS TO ENGLISH-SPEAKING STUDENTS OF JAPANESE. THE AUTHORS ASSUME THAT THE STUDENTS HAVE ALREADY LEARNED THE HIRAGANA AND KATAKANA SYLLABARIES AND HAVE A BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF JAPANESE GRAMMAR. ORTHOGRAPHIC CONVENTIONS USED FOLLOW CLOSELY THOSE…
The Center for Japanese Study Abroad (CJSA) is a Japanese immersion and study abroad program implemented as a magnet program at inner-city Brien MacMahon High School in Norwalk, Connecticut. The program is supported by a grant from the state department of education. Attended by 60-70 students from high schools in southern Fairfield County…
Thomas, Paul F.
The most striking feature of the Japanese social studies curriculum at the elementary level is its role as the instructor of Japanese national values and attitudes. The social studies curriculum has gone through four major revisions since World War II. In the most recent revision, in the early 1980's, the focus has been on instituting new teaching…
Tokuda, Yasuharu; Inoguchi, Takashi
Our main objective in this paper is to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness among Japanese people. Based on cross-sectional data for the Japanese general population from the Asia Barometer Survey (2003-2006), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness using a logistic…
Japanese cornmint (Mentha canadensis L.) is a subtropical essential oil crop grown in Asia and South America. The essential oil of Japanese cornmint is the source for production of crystal (-)-menthol, which is a major aromatic agent used as a flavor, fragrance, and cooling sensation vector in the ...
Marriott, Helen E.
The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…
Salkind, Neil J.; Kojima, Hideo
The purpose of this study was to compare performances by Japanese and American children on the Matching Familiar Figures Test, the primary measure of cognitive tempo. Data on more than 3400 Japanese and American children (approximately half male, half female) were used. Factorial analyses of variance revealed significant age x nationality…
YAMAGIWA, JOSEPH K.
INCLUDED AMONG THE 18 SELECTIONS IN THIS READER FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS OF JAPANESE ARE SUCH ARTICLES AND EXCERPTS FROM BOOKS AS "THE TAIKA REFORMS" BY SAKAMOTO TAROO (1935) AND "THE SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT OF INCOME BY KOKU AND FEUDALISM" BY NAKAMURA KICIJI (1960). THESE TEXTS ARE REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS THEY APPEARED IN JAPANESE-LANGUAGE PUBLICATIONS…
Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko
A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…
Responds to the article, "The Japanese 'Internment' Cases Revisited," (Edward T. Robinson) in this issue of OAH Magazine of History. Focuses on three court cases related to Japanese internment. Believes that the possibility of whether internment can happen again should not be dismissed so easily. (CMK)
Silva, David J., Ed.
A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese…
This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…
Jenkins, Susan; Hinds, John
Examination of business letters in English, French, and Japanese, focusing on prescriptive accounts in the respective languages, found that, despite amazingly similar surface characteristics, American business letters were reader-oriented, French business letters were writer-oriented, and Japanese business letters were oriented to the space…
This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…
This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising language as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the aims of advertising and the advantages of learning advertising language in the classroom based on previous research. Next, it discusses language strategies used in Japanese advertising,…
This article explores Japanese EFL learners' classroom silence in a Japanese EFL context. The existence of silence in second language learning contexts can be a source of conflict between students and teachers and even among students themselves. It can also be an obstacle to acquiring the target language. In order to tackle this problem and to…
Beck, Audrey N.; Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,975) to examine the association between mothers’ partnership changes and parenting behavior during the first five years of their children’s lives. We compare coresidential with dating transitions, and recent with more distal transitions. We also examine interactions between transitions and race/ethnicity, maternal education and family structure at birth. Findings indicate that both coresidential and dating transitions were associated with higher levels of maternal stress and harsh parenting; recent transitions had stronger associations than distal transitions. Maternal education significantly moderates these associations, with less educated mothers responding more negatively to instability in terms of maternal stress, and more educated mothers responding more negatively in terms of literacy activities. PMID:21423848
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...
... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Tribal Fishery for... rule for the 2012 Pacific whiting fishery under the authority of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery... rights in the area ] covered by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) request...
... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2010 Tribal Fishery for... coastal treaty Indian tribes' rights to harvest Pacific Coast groundfish. Washington coastal treaty Indian... rights in the area covered by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) can request...
... Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery... rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the commercial Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan...
... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to...) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to allow fisheries to access...
... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516), including, among other species, darkblotched.... Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, and revised...
...-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial... economic zone (EEZ) and state waters off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, as authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). These specifications include the level...
... West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of Information Collection... fisheries operating in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off West Coast states. This new part 660 included a... regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and...
... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Comment Period Extension...; Amendment 16-5; and Amendment 23 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP). The... specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts...
Rosenfield, A; Maine, D
The authors are responding to a LANCET editorial that asserted that female education, rather than family planning, should be advocated for prevention of maternal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Family planning can prevent maternal deaths in 2 ways. The 1st is prevention of pregnancy among women at high risk of complicated pregnancy and delivery, including illegal abortion. The 2nd is simply prevention of pregnancy and, thus, exposure to complications. If only women who say they want no more children had no further births, an estimated 33% of maternal deaths in developing countries would be prevented. In reality, the effect of family planning might well be greater, since it plays an essential part in reducing mortality from illicitly induced abortion. Although improvement of education for Third World women will improve the quality of their lives, it is not likely to reduce maternal mortality. Once pregnant, 10-15% of women will have serious complicatons of pregnancy or delivery, no matter what the setting. The primary responsibility of health professionals is not socioeconomic development but prevention of maternal deaths resulting from lack of effective medical care. Interest in the issue is growing. In February, 1987, the World Bank, with the World Health Organization and the UN Fund for Population Activities, sponsored a meeting in Nairobi to launch the "Safe Motherhood Initiative." This initiative will contain a variety of activities. The authors hope that foremost will be those that act directly to prvent maternal deaths--prevention of unwanted pregnancies and early treatment of complications.
Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Song, Xiaorui; Song, Linsheng
Maternal immunity refers to the immunity transferred from mother to offspring via egg, playing an important role in protecting the offspring at early life stages and contributing a trans-generational effect on offspring's phenotype. Because fertilization is external in most of the molluscs, oocytes and early embryos are directly exposed to pathogens in the seawater, and thus maternal immunity could provide a better protection before full maturation of their immunological systems. Several innate immune factors including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like lectins, and immune effectors like lysozyme, lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability-increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) and antioxidant enzymes have been identified as maternally derived immune factors in mollusc eggs. Among these immune factors, some maternally derived lectins and antibacterial factors have been proved to endue mollusc eggs with effective defense ability against pathogen infection, while the roles of other factors still remain untested. The physiological condition of mollusc broodstock has a profound effect on their offspring fitness. Many other factors such as nutrients, pathogens, environment conditions and pollutants could exert considerable influence on the maternal transfer of immunity. The parent molluscs which have encountered an immune stimulation endow their offspring with a trans-generational immune capability to protect them against infections effectively. The knowledge on maternal transfer of immunity and the trans-generational immune effect could provide us with an ideal management strategy of mollusc broodstock to improve the immunity of offspring and to establish a disease-resistant family for a long-term improvement of cultured stocks.
Due to recent activities of local libraries and museums in Japan for collecting and cataloguing historical books and documents and their increased efforts to publicize such information via Internet services, we are now in a position to have a much easier and better access to the historical resources preserved than in the past. With this background, we started in 2002 a project under governmental support for four years, to make a general inventory of Japanese archives in astronomy and relating disciplines written or published before 1870. Since in pre-modern Japan astronomical knowledge and books were circulated mainly in hand-written form so that they have been apt to be lost in wars and fires, there are good reasons for us to now compile such an inventory through extensive and systematic surveys of both domestic and overseas sources. In April 2003, we published an inventory book of 250 pages, which is intended to be a basis for our survey, including about 4600 titles collected from known source materials. We expect that by March 2006 the number of titles will be increased by 30-35%. This paper briefly introduces the current status of this project and presents the characteristics and problems of Japanese astronomical archives.
Blanck, E. L.
Approximately, 1996, Unocal historian Darwin Sainz mentioned the newly built Union Oil “Oilport” refinery in what is now Shell Beach (between Pismo & Avila Beaches and at 50 to 100 feet elevation) was destroyed by a tsunami in the early 1900’s. July 2009, George Plafker reported, “a bigger earthquake and a more destructive tsunami than the 1964 event are possible in the future”. The 1812 Santa Barbara Channel earthquake produced 5 tsunami waves approximately 50 feet in height to the front of the Santa Barbara Presidio based on a Franciscan Father’s journal. A book on “Shipwrecks, Smugglers, and Maritime Mysteries” by Wheeler & Kallman reports the largest wave was 48-50 feet estimated by the USGS west of Santa Barbara near Goleta. The “History of San Luis Obispo County, California” by Thompson & West (1883) reports 12 feet tsunamis occurred on August 13, 1868 (Peruvian earthquake) and April 16, 1877. On November 22, 1878, turbulent water in the absence of wind produced tsunamis that broke over the Morro Bay sand spit (current quad sheet high elevations 66 to 97 feet N to S), destroyed Avila & Pt. Sal piers, damaging Cayucos pier. A Japanese earthquake resulted in a tsunami at 12:40 PM December 9, 1907, near high tide and in already heavy seas, that stood out from the rest of the storm due to its’ enormous height. It wrecked the Ventura pier (12-13-1907, SLO Tribune) and the Oilport pier (12-13-1907, SLO Tribune & 12-6-1976 also 12-14-1907, Santa Maria Times & 12-10-1907 SLO Telegram) at Shell beach and destroyed the Oilport refinery (Darwin Sainz, personal communication). Before 7 AM on November 26, 1913, tsunamis wrecked the Monterey area including waves 10 to15 feet above the Del Monte wharf. At Seaside, “Immense domes of water and foam shot up above the general height” … “appearing from here to be higher than the highest sandhills along the shore.”(12-2-1913, SLO Tribune) Current quad sheet high elevations are 120 feet. These
Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui
Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074
Lv, Leining; Gao, Xuesong; Teo, Timothy
This article reports on a study that investigated how 665 Japanese language learners, who had started learning Japanese at different times in the last 3 decades, had been motivated to learn Japanese in China. Analysis of the survey data revealed that the participants displayed similar intercultural orientations when learning Japanese despite the…
Japanese has a rich set of focus particles, several exclusive and additive particles, and, in addition, contrastive particles. This thesis provides a formal description of the meanings of Japanese focus particles and addresses two general questions: "What kinds concepts do Japanese focus particles express?" and "Why does Japanese have a larger…
This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…
Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. During the period 1 May to 30 June 1973 material was processed and interpreted for use in analyzing the three ocean seasons along the California coast. ERTS imagery from the first season of the year, called the Davidson Current period, was mosaiced and analyzed. The second season of the year, the Upwelling period, was mosaiced and interpretation was initiated. Imagery for the third ocean season, the Oceanic period, is being collected for future study.
Gulf Coast lignites are examined as a feedstock for a gasification facility making substitute natural gas (SNG). Advantages and disadvantages are explored in the areas of project development factors, gasification technology and physical and chemical characteristics of the lignite. The Texas Gasification Project currently under study at Phillips Coal is used to exemplify these factors. It has been found that the use of Gulf Coast lignite has several natural developmental advantages over fuels from other parts of the U.S. A project is relatively close to markets for all of its products including SNG, carbon dioxide and all by-products. The Gulf Coast has adequate supplies of basic commodities such as water. Most potential gasification plant locations have a good local infrastructure in existence. Labor can be drawn from one or more metropolitan areas within commuting distance. State regulatory agencies interact with energy development projects of all sizes on a regular basis providing a solid working knowledge of energy policies and accepted project development guidelines. Finally, a positive business climate exists at both the state and local levels providing support and encouragement to go forward with projects. The physical and chemical characteristics of the lignite are shown to have a major effect on the operability of the gasification process. Lignite properties examined include moisture content, friability, and ash content.
... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl Rationalization... future trawl rationalization program under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP... participants in the Pacific Coast groundfish trawl rationalization program and announcing the databases...
Brakman, Sarah-Vaughan; Scholz, Sally J
We criticize a view of maternity that equates the natural with the genetic and biological and show how such a practice overdetermines the maternal body and the maternal experience for women who are mothers through adoption and ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies). As an alternative, we propose a new framework designed to rethink maternal bodies through the lens of feminist embodiment. Feminist embodied maternity, as we call it, stresses the particularity of experience through subjective embodiment. A feminist embodied maternity emphasizes the physical relations of the subjective lived-body rather than the genetic or biological connections. Instead of universalizing claims about the maternal body, embodied maternity looks to communicable experiences and empathetic understanding.
Kano, Yuki; Sato, Toru; Kita, Jun; Hirabayashi, Shinichiro; Tabeta, Shigeru
A numerical simulation was conducted to predict the change of pCO(2) in the ocean caused by CO(2) leaked from an underground aquifer, in which CO(2) is purposefully stored. The target space of the present model was the ocean above the seafloor. The behavior of CO(2) bubbles, their dissolution, and the advection-diffusion of dissolved CO(2) were numerically simulated. Here, two cases for the leakage rate were studied: an extreme case, 94,600 t/y, which assumed that a large fault accidentally connects the CO(2) reservoir and the seafloor; and a reasonable case, 3800 t/y, based on the seepage rate of an existing EOR site. In the extreme case, the calculated increase in DeltapCO(2) experienced by floating organisms was less than 300 ppm, while that for immobile organisms directly over the fault surface periodically exceeded 1000 ppm, if momentarily. In the reasonable case, the calculated DeltapCO(2) and pH were within the range of natural fluctuation.
Maternal mental illness is a significant public health concern, with established adverse outcomes on both mother and infant, such as impaired mother-infant bonding and infant cognitive and emotional development. In severe cases, maternal mortality and infanticide can tragically occur. This is a report on the suicide of a mother who jumped to her death at three months postpartum. She suffered from puerperal psychosis with bipolar features, with onset at six weeks postpartum. The case highlights the burden of maternal mental illness in our community as well as the need for resources and services to care well for mothers. With a better understanding of its presentation and risk factors, early identification and intervention can reduce morbidity and mortality.
Japan experienced a very rapid industrialization and economic growth in the era of income doubling in 1960s and at the same time Japan experienced very severe damage from various types of environmental pollution. In this paper, historical development of population, GNP, energy consumption with classification of petroleum, coal and electric power, and CO2 emission are introduced as basic background data on Japanese development. The tragic experience of Minamata disease and Itai-itai disease caused by methyl mercury and cadmium, respectively, are introduced. In two tables, historical development of water pollution and air pollution are summarized. Regarding solid wastes management, the total mass balance in Japan and recent development in legislation framework for enhancement of recycling of wastes are introduced briefly.
The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) program has made significant progress. The JEM preliminary design review was completed in July 1992; construction of JEM operation facilities has begun; and the micro-G airplane, drop shaft, and micro-G experiment rocket are all operational. The national policy for JEM utilization was also established. The Space Experiment Laboratory (SEL) opened in June '92 and will function as a user support center. Eight JEM multiuser facilities are in phase B, and scientific requirements are being defined for 17 candidate multiuser facilities. The National Joint Research Program is about to start. Precursor missions and early Space Station utilization activities are being defined. This paper summarizes the program in outline and graphic form.
... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...
Carpenter, Edward K.; Cliff, Ursula
This article compares two approaches to regional planning. In San Francisco, a citizen-initiated supra-agency was organized to prevent overdevelop ment of the coastline. The New York coastline, developed by one man, Robert Moses, is now victim of an inadequate and inefficient system of development that ecologically threatens the area. (MA)
Ando, Yuki; Uyama, Yoshiaki
Multiregional clinical trials including Japanese subjects are playing a key role in new drug development in Japan. In addition to the consideration of differences in intrinsic and extrinsic ethnic factors, deciding the sample size of Japanese subjects is an important issue when a multiregional clinical trial is intended to be used for Japanese submission. Accumulated experience suggests that there are several points to consider, such as the basic principles described in the guidance document, drug development strategy, trial phase, and disease background. The difficulty of interpreting the results of Japanese trials should also be considered.
Shiwa, Mami; Yoneda, Masayasu; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Oki, Kenji; Yamane, Kiminori; Kohno, Nobuoki
Objective To evaluate whether a Japanese lifestyle during childhood could protect against the future development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases by comparing native Japanese with Japanese-Americans in whom genetic factors are the same. Methods Study subjects were 516 native Japanese and 781 Japanese-Americans who underwent medical examinations between 2007 and 2010. Japanese-Americans were divided into 444 first-generation immigrants (JA-1), who were born in Japan, and 337 second- or later-generation descendants (JA-2), who were born in the United States. The JA-2 group was then divided into the kibei subgroup (N = 79), who had moved to Japan before the age of 18 years and later returned to the United States, and the non-kibei subgroup (N = 258), who had never lived in Japan. Results The JA-2 group had the highest percentages of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes compared with native Japanese and JA-1. Furthermore, among JA-2, the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the kibei subgroup was significantly lower than that in the non-kibei subgroup. The prevalence of diabetes in the kibei subgroup also tended to be lower than in the non-kibei subgroup. Conclusions The prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases differed with residence in Japan during childhood among Japanese-Americans. These findings indicate the possibility that Japanese lifestyle during childhood could reduce the future risks for obesity-associated metabolic diseases. PMID:25807391
Yamada, M.; Iwasaki, N.; Suzuki, A.; Aono, T.
Precious corals belong to the subclass Octocorallia of the class Anthozoa. Its major component is calcium carbonate and the crystal structure is high-Mg calcite. Their skeletal axes are used for jewellery, rosary, amulet, etc. They are found mainly in the Japanese coast, the Mediterranean and off the Midway Islands and they are distributed at a depth of 100 m to 1500m. The growing skeletons of precious corals have potential for recording environmental change. Pb-210 is a naturally occurring radionuclide with a half-life of 22.3 years. Pb-210 is a natural sediment marker suitable for dating events that have occurred over the past 100 years and has been used to measure the sedimentation rates of lake and coastal marine sediments. The objectives of this study were to measure the Pb-210 concentration in the skeletons of Japanese red coral, pink coral and white coral and to estimate the radial growth rate using Pb-210 dating method. The radial growth rate of the skeleton can be estimated by the gradual decrease in Pb-210 concentrations measured from the surface inwards. The radial growth rate of the pink coral skeleton (Corallium elatius), collected at depths of 200 to 300 m off the coast of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, was 0.15 mm/year, so slow that it would take as long as 50 years for a colony to grow to 15 mm in diameter.
Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi
In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.
Vasey, Paul L
Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate. Japanese macaques represent excellent models for examining issues related to sexual preference in animals because females, in certain populations, routinely engage in both heterosexual and homosexual behavior over the course of their life spans. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques is a sexual behavior, not a sociosexual one. Additional evidence indicates that female Japanese macaques do not engage in homosexual behavior simply because acceptable male mates are unavailable or unmotivated to copulate. Patterns of sexual partner choice by female Japanese macaques that are the focus of intersexual competition indicate that females of this species choose same-sex sexual partners even when they are simultaneously presented with a motivated, opposite-sex alternative. Thus, in some populations of Japanese macaques, females prefer certain same-sex sexual partners relative to certain male mates, and vice versa. Taken together, this evidence suggests that female Japanese macaques are best characterized as bisexual in orientation, not preferentially homosexual or preferentially heterosexual.
Fujihara, Satoko; Tsukisawa, Miyoko
The methods of painless childbirth are generally divided into two kinds: "with drugs" and "without drugs." In Japan, the full-scale initiation of these two types of painless childbirth methods in clinical practice started in the early 1950s. The practice of the psychoprophylaxis method (PPM)--one of the painless childbirth methods "without drugs"--started in 1953. Japanese obstetricians had discussed the practicability of PPM for painless childbirth and had doubted the scientific nature and originality of PPM as a viable method. Therefore, they published a series of articles in the Japanese medical journal "Obstetrics and Gynecology" from 1954 to 1957. Two representative obstetricians developed this controversy. Naotaro KUJI, the director of the Central Maternity Hospital of the Japanese Red Cross Society and the chief practitioner of PPM, emphasized that PPM was a more practical method, considering the Japanese medical legal situation where midwives were prohibited to use drugs. On the other hand, Kakuichi ANDO, the chief professor of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Keio University and the team leader of the practitioners of painless childbirth "with drugs," doubted the practicability of PPM. In the course of these discussions, both groups of obstetricians gradually came to a consensus to use the concept of "pain relief" in labor, instead of "painless" childbirth. They also agreed to adopt methods "with drugs" and "without drugs," including PPM, according to the presented case.
This MODIS true-color image, acquired March 4, 2002, shows a phytoplankton bloom along the coast of Namibia. Phytoplankton is a microscopic organism that utilizes chlorophyll, which sunlight reflects off of to create this intense blue-green color in the water. Also prominent in this image is the Skeleton Coast Game Park, which runs along Namibia's northern coast and here glows a beautiful coral-orange color.
Caregivers' emotional responses to children influence children's social and emotional development. This study investigated the association between maternal emotional expressiveness in the context of mother-child interactions and young children's sensitivity to teacher criticism. Sensitivity to teacher criticism was assessed among 53 Japanese preschoolers using hypothetical scenarios in which a puppet child representing the participant made a small error, and a puppet teacher pointed out the error. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure maternal expressiveness. The results demonstrated that negative maternal expressiveness toward one's own children was positively related to children's ratings of their own ability and negatively related to children's motivation to continue with the task after teacher criticism. Positive maternal expressiveness was not related to children's sensitivity to criticism. These findings suggest that children who have experienced more negative emotion from mothers may be more likely to hold negative beliefs about how others will respond to their behavior more generally. This may, in turn, lead to a defensively positive view of one's own abilities and a disinclination to persevere as protection from additional opportunities for teacher evaluation.
Koriyama, Chihaya; Yamamoto, Megumi; Anan, Ayumi; Shibata, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshihiro
Background. Previous studies have shown that psychological stress is linked to asthma prevalence. Parental psychological stress may potentially influence inflammatory responses in their allergic children. The purpose of this study is to clarify the association between maternal psychological status and inflammatory response of allergic young children. Methods. The study subjects were 152 young allergic children (median age: 13 months) who had not shown any allergic symptoms in the past one month. mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory response genes IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-22 were quantified by qRT-PCR. Maternal psychological status was assessed by standardized questionnaires: the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression and the Japanese Perceived Stress Scale (JPSS) for perceived stress. Results. A significant positive association was observed between maternal CES-D scores and IL-6 mRNA expression in the children with asthma. The JPSS scores were also positively associated with IL-8 mRNA expression in asthmatic children and IL-6 mRNA expression in children with allergic rhinitis. Similar trends were observed among children positive for house dust mite-specific IgE, but these associations were not significant. Conclusion. This study supports the hypothesis that maternal psychological stress affects the inflammatory response in their allergic children. PMID:26819847
Lemasson, Alban; Jubin, Ronan; Masataka, Nobuo; Arlet, Malgorzata
It has been historically claimed that call production in nonhuman primates has been shaped by genetic factors, although, recently socially-guided plasticity and cortical control during vocal exchanges have been observed. In humans, context-dependent vocal convergence with relatives, friends or leaders’ voices can be found. Comparative studies with monkeys and apes presenting tolerant social organizations have demonstrated that affiliative bonding is the determining factor of convergence. We tested whether vocal copying could also exist in a primate species with a despotic social organization. We compared the degree of inter-individual similarity of contact calls in two groups of Japanese macaques as a function of age, dominance rank, maternal kin and affiliative bonds. We found a positive relationship between dyadic acoustic similarity and female rank differences. Since most call exchanges were initiated by dominant females and since this species is known for the ability of responders to acoustically match initiators’ calls, we conclude that high social status may motivate vocal convergence in this despotic society. Accordingly, intra-individual comparisons showed that isolated calls were more stereotyped than exchanged calls, and that dominants had more stereotyped voices than subordinates. This opens new lines of research with regard to social motivation guiding acoustic plasticity in primates. PMID:26880673
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nomachi, Shinobu; Suganuma, Nobuhiko
This study compared the nutritional status before pregnancy, as well as dietary profiles and biomarkers during first trimester, between never-smokers and antenatal quitters among Japanese women. One hundred fifty pregnant women (79 never-smokers and 71 antenatal quitters) from two obstetrics and gynecology clinics were recruited in Japan. Subjects' prepregnancy nutritional status was indicated by their body mass index (BMI). In the first trimester, their dietary profiles were assessed by the Brief Diet-History Questionnaire (BDHQ) and pregnancy outcomes were screened by biomarker tests. Generalized linear regression was used to examine the differences of energy-adjusted dietary intakes and biomarker results between the two smoking groups, with adjustment of maternal age, BMI, gestation week, and parity. The results showed that antenatal quitters were more likely to have a prepregnancy underweight status than never-smokers. During the first trimester, antenatal quitters had significantly higher intakes of unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants (vegetable lipids and isoflavone), and lower intakes of total cholesterol than never-smokers. Moreover, antenatal quitters had a significantly higher level of serum homocysteine (6.36 nmol/mL vs 4.88 nmol/mL) than never-smokers. In conclusion, antenatal quitters are more likely to have a poor nutritional status before pregnancy than never-smokers. Quitting smoking before pregnancy and having a good nutritional profile during the trimester may not sufficiently reverse the adverse effects of former smoking behaviors on pregnancy outcomes.
Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.
Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…
In 1947 the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) defined the pacifist principles for post-war Japanese education and was revised in 2006 for the first time in nearly 60 years. The revised FLE stipulates the importance of teaching love for country and region and Japanese culture and traditions with special emphasis on moral education. Today, this…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger
Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…
Goto, Courtney T.
With high rates of out-marriage and dwindling need for bilingual worship, Japanese-American churches face a critical question: "Why retain the Japanese part of our identity?" This article explores how one layperson (Naomi Takahashi Goto) draws from her experience as an artist, teacher, and mother to help her congregation answer this question.…
This article reports on an experimental investigation of knowledge of distributivity in nonnative (L2) Japanese learners whose first language (L1) is English or Korean. The availability of distributive scope in Japanese is modulated by word order and the semantic features of quantifiers. For English-speaking learners, these subtle interpretive…
... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...; request for comments. SUMMARY: This final rule makes inseason adjustments to commercial and tribal...
Kim, Sohye; Strathearn, Lane
Although dramatic postnatal changes in maternal behavior have long been noted, we are only now beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms that support this transition. The present paper synthesizes growing insights from both animal and human research to provide an overview of the plasticity of the mother's brain, with a particular…
Einstein, Francine H
Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germline transmission through alterations in DNA methylation.
Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin
Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War II with homogamy and intermarriage with Whites for the prewar (1930–1940) and resettlement (1946–1966) marriage cohorts. The authors applied log-linear models to census microsamples (N = 1,590,416) to estimate the odds ratios of homogamy versus intermarriage. The unadjusted odds ratios of Japanese Americans declined between cohorts and appeared to be consistent with the assimilation hypothesis. Once compositional influences and educational pairing patterns were adjusted, however, the odds ratios increased and supported the heightened exclusion hypothesis. PMID:21116449
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC631 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1..., by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC738 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through 11 AGENCY..., by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY31 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12...-6667 and 800-662- 9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel 16 VHF-FM...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and Management Measures and Secretarial... the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY08 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 9..., and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel 16 VHF-FM and 2182...
... Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 120424023-1023-01] RIN 0648-XA921 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (Salmon...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC686 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY: National... number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA184 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... managed under a ``framework'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC282 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 22... effective, by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC438 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... ``framework'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (Salmon...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-AY60 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... managed under a ``framework'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery...
... Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 130108020-3409-01] RIN 0648-XC964 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12 Through 34... comments. Mail: William W. Stelle, Jr., Regional Administrator, West Coast Region, NMFS, 7600 Sand...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and Management Measures and Secretarial... (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY83 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 14..., by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662- 9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-AY68 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl Rationalization... ``Initial Issuance Final Rule''). In addition, that rule restructured the entire Pacific Coast...
Morse, Zac; Sano, Kimito; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Kanri, Tomio
There is very little information about the practice of sedation in Japan. Despite the remarkable advances in dentistry, fear and anxiety continue to be significant deterrents for seeking dental services. Most dental procedures can fortunately be undertaken with the aid of sedation. A comprehensive survey of all the dental schools in Japan was carried out to determine what sedation practices were used in Japan. All 29 dental schools in Japan possessed a dedicated department of anesthesiology at the time of this survey. The survey attempted to determine the specific sedation methods (techniques, routes of administration, and agents used in sedation) as well as practices (monitoring, fasting, location, education, and fees involved in sedation). The results indicate that there was a broad range in sedation practices. The Japanese Dental Society of Anesthesiology may wish to examine the findings of this study and may wish to formulate guidelines appropriate for the practice of sedation in Japan. Others may also wish to compare their own practices with those of Japan. PMID:15497299
Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.
The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and maternal health are closely linked. NCDs such as diabetes, obesity and hypertension have a significant adverse impact on maternal health and pregnancy outcomes, and through the mechanism of intrauterine programming maternal health impacts the burden of NCDs in future generations. The cycle of vulnerability to NCDs is repeated with increasing risk accumulation in subsequent generations. This article discusses the impact, interlinkages and advocates for integration of services for maternal and child health, NCD care and prevention and health promotion to sustainably improve maternal health as well address the rising burden of NCDs.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coast Guard ensign. 23.15 Section 23.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.15 Coast Guard ensign. The Coast Guard...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coast Guard ensign. 23.15 Section 23.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.15 Coast Guard ensign. The Coast Guard...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coast Guard ensign. 23.15 Section 23.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.15 Coast Guard ensign. The Coast Guard...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard ensign. 23.15 Section 23.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.15 Coast Guard ensign. The Coast Guard...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.324 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coast Guard ensign. 23.15 Section 23.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.15 Coast Guard ensign. The Coast Guard...
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 53 RIN 1625-AB33 Protection for Whistleblowers in the Coast Guard AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: By this direct final rule, the Coast Guard is amending its ``Coast Guard Whistleblower Protection'' regulations to conform...
Armour, William S.; Iida, Sumiko
Recent research into Japanese as a foreign language education has strongly emphasized the link between Japanese popular culture and learning Japanese. However, these studies have only targeted Japanese language learners in formal education contexts and have largely ignored those who are not studying Japanese or studying Japanese informally. This…
Poindron, Pascal; Lévy, Frédéric; Keller, Matthieu
Sheep and goats rapidly establish an exclusive relationship with their neonate following contact with it during a sensitive period of maternal responsiveness induced by the physiological events occurring at parturition. The data concerning the sensory, physiological, and neurobiological factors involved in the activation of both maternal responsiveness and the establishment of selective nursing indicates that these processes are activated simultaneously by the combined action of two main factors, the prepartum rise in circulating estrogen and the vaginocervical stimulation (VCS) caused by fetus expulsion. On the one hand, these two factors act on a neural network including the main olfactory system (MOB), the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) to induce maternal responsiveness towards any neonate. The intracerebral release of oxytocin (OT) from the PVN, and the triggering of olfactory attraction for amniotic fluid (AF) are key elements in this process. On the other hand, VCS at birth also sets the MOB ready to memorize the individual odor of the neonate, through the release of peptides and neurotransmitters (noradrenaline and acetylcholine). In addition to the MOB, the network involved in recognition mainly includes the medial and cortical amygdala. Across consolidation processes, reorganization occurs in the network engaged in lamb recognition. Whether this memorization may be potentiated by other sensory cues is not known. The identification of the chemosensory compounds involved in the attraction for AF and in the recognition of the neonate is important for understanding the mechanisms of maternal attachment.
Zhang, Kun; Smith, George W.
Oocyte quality is a critical factor limiting the efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and pregnancy success in farm animals and humans. ART success is diminished with increased maternal age, suggesting a close link between poor oocyte quality and ovarian-aging. However, the regulation of oocyte quality remains poorly understood. Oocyte quality is functionally linked to ART success because the maternal-to-embryonic transition is dependent on stored maternal factors, which are accumulated in oocytes during oocyte development and growth. The maternal-to-embryonic transition consists of critical developmental processes including maternal RNA depletion and embryonic genome activation. In recent years, key maternal proteins encoded by maternal-effect genes have been determined, primarily using genetically modified mouse models. These proteins are implicated in various aspects of early embryonic development including maternal mRNA degradation, epigenetic reprogramming, signal transduction, protein translation and initiation of embryonic genome activation. Species differences exist in number of cell divisions encompassing the maternal-to-embryonic transition and maternal-effect genes controlling this developmental window. Perturbations of maternal control result in decreased oocyte quality, some of which are associated with ovarian aging. PMID:25695370
Vibrant reds, emerald greens, brilliant whites, and pastel blues adorn this view of the area surrounding the Jakobshavn Glacier on the western coast of Greenland. The image is a false-color (near-infrared, green, blue) view acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera. The brightness of vegetation in the near-infrared contributes to the reddish hues; glacial silt gives rise to the green color of the water; and blue-colored melt ponds are visible in the bright white ice. A scattering of small icebergs in Disco Bay adds a touch of glittery sparkle to the scene.The large island in the upper left is called Qeqertarsuaq. To the east of this island, and just above image center, is the outlet of the fast-flowing Jakobshavn (or Ilulissat) glacier. Jakobshavn is considered to have the highest iceberg production of all Greenland glaciers and is a major drainage outlet for a large portion of the western side of the ice sheet. Icebergs released from the glacier drift slowly with the ocean currents and pose hazards for shipping along the coast.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer views the daylit Earth continuously and the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude is observed every 9 days. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired on June 18, 2003 during Terra orbit 18615. The image cover an area of about 254 kilometers x 210 kilometers, and use data from blocks 34 to 35 within World Reference System-2 path 10.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.
Vasudevan, Chakrapani; Renfrew, Mary; McGuire, William
In many industrialised countries, one in five women booking for antenatal care is obese. As well as affecting maternal health, maternal obesity may have important adverse consequences for fetal, neonatal and long-term health and well-being. Maternal obesity is associated with a higher risk of stillbirth, elective preterm birth and perinatal mortality. The incidence of severe birth defects, particularly neural tube and structural cardiac defects, appears to be higher in infants of obese mothers. Fetal macrosomia associated with maternal obesity and gestational diabetes predisposes infants to birth injuries, perinatal asphyxia and transitional problems such as neonatal respiratory distress and metabolic instability. Maternal obesity may also result in long-term health problems for offspring secondary to perinatal problems and to intrauterine and postnatal programming effects. Currently, the available interventions to prevent and treat maternal obesity are of limited proven utility and further research is needed to define the effects of maternal weight management interventions on fetal and neonatal outcomes.
Bernstein, Gail A; Layne, Ann E; Egan, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Lara P
The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother-child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic anxiety on the Brief Symptom Inventory were significantly associated with higher levels of separation anxiety in children. After controlling for clinician rating of SAD severity, maternal phobic anxiety emerged as a significant predictor of maternal ratings of child separation anxiety, accounting for 19% of the variance. Phobic mothers endorsed levels of separation anxiety in their children that exceeded levels endorsed by clinicians, suggesting maternal overreporting.
van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf
Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016
Boutaleb, Y; Mesbahi, M; Lahlou, D; Aderdour, M
94 maternal deaths and 1546 fetal and neonatal deaths were registered among 28,706 births at the CHU Averroes in Casablanca between 1978-80. 45% of women who deliver at the clinic are very poor and only 10% are relatively well off. Obstetrical antecedents were noted in 27% of the fetal deaths. 70% of the maternal deaths occurred in women aged 20-34. 32 maternal deaths occurred among 16,232 women with 1-2 children, 30 among 6514 women with 3-5 children, and 32 among 5960 women with 6-14 children. 11,027 of the 28,706 were primaparas. Perinatal mortality was 4.46% among primaparas, 8.24% among grand multiparas, and 4.1% among secondiparas. In 58 of the 94 cases of maternal mortality the woman was hospitalized after attempting delivery at home or in a village clinic. Among women with 1 or 2 children, hemorrhage was the cause of death in 8 cases, infection in 7 cases, eclampsia in 3 cases, thromboembolism in 2 cases, uterine inversion in 2 cases, pulmonary tuberculosis in 1 case, embolism in 5 cases, and other causes 1 case each. Among women with 3-5 children hemorrhage was the cause of death in 10 cases, septicemia in 3 cases, uterine rupture in 3 cases, eclampsia in 3 cases, uterine inversion in 2 cases, viral hepatitis in 2 cases, emboli in 2 cases, and other reasons 1 case each. Among grand multiparas hemorrhage was the cause of death in 11 cases, uterine rupture in 12 cases, peritonitis in 2 cases, eclampsia in 2 cases, emboli in 2 cases, and other causes 1 case each. 19 of the maternal deaths were judged to have been avoidable with better management. Prematurity and birth weight of 1000-2500 g associated or not with other pathology were found in 714 of 1546 perinatal deaths. Of 390 cases of death in utero with retention and maceration, 68 were caused by reno-vascular syndromes, 76 by maternal infections, 33 by maternal syphilis, 26 by fetal malformation, 18 by maternal diabetes, 10 by Rh incompatability, and 159 by indeterminate causes. In 795 cases of
The Jurassic Coast is Britain's only natural World Heritage site, a tangible time-line that takes one through 185 million years of history in 95 miles of coast. It provides individuals with a world-famous educational resource and an unrivalled outdoor classroom that has played a key role in the study of earth sciences. The author is keen to ignite…
Burrell, Matthew D.
Gulf Coast Community College in Panama City, Florida, is celebrating a fifty-year anniversary in 2007. Maintained by the library, the school's archives represent the historical contributions on a local and national level. Gulf Coast Community College library is ensuring the school's historical significance through the digitization of its…
Hall, Eugene R.; Caro, Paul W.
This paper describes a total-program application of the systems engineering concept of the U.S. Coast Guard aviation training programs. The systems approach used treats all aspects of the training to produce the most cost-effective integration of academic, synthetic, and flight training for the production of graduate Coast Guard aviators. The…
Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE) on the Sunshine Coast is growing rapidly. It has expanded from one inaugural Year 8 class in 2012 to the current state of play with the involvement of over 3,000 CASE students from eleven Sunshine Coast State High Schools. It is being taught by more than seventy CASE teachers with…
Fais, Laurel; Kajikawa, Sachiyo; Werker, Janet; Amano, Shigeaki
Adult Japanese speakers ``hear'' epenthetic vowels in productions of Japanese-like words that violate the canonical CVCVCV form by containing internal consonant clusters (CVCCV) [Dupoux et al., J. Exp. Psychol. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. Given this finding, this research examined how Japanese adults rated the goodness of Japanese-like words produced without a vowel in the final syllable (CVC), and words produced without vowels in the penultimate and final syllables (CVCC). Furthermore, in some of these contexts, voiceless vowels may appear in fluent, casual Japanese productions, especially in the Kanto dialect, and in some, such voiceless vowels may not appear. Results indicate that both Kanto and Kinki speakers rated CVC productions for contexts in which voiceless vowels are not allowed as the worst; they rated CVC and CVCC contexts in which voiceless vowel productions are allowed as better. In these latter contexts, the CVC words, which result from the loss of one, final, vowel, are judged to be better than the CVCC words, which result from the loss of two (final and penultimate) vowels. These results mirror the relative seriousness of the phonotactic violations and indicate listeners have tacit knowledge of these regularities in their language.
Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A.; Townley, Stuart
There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations. PMID:24722346
Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P
Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.
Furnham, Adrian; Ota, Hiromi; Tatsuro, Hosoe; Koyasu, Masuo
Examines the cultural differences among Japanese students, British students, and Japanese students studying in Britain, concerning their beliefs on overcoming five psychological problems: depression, obesity, smoking cessation, agoraphobia, and lack of confidence. (CMK)
3. View of Japanese village, type C structure, facing east-southeast - Nevada Test Site, Japanese Village, Type C Structure, Area 4, Yucca Flat, 4-04 Road near Rainier Mesa Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV
Lowensohn, Richard I.; Stadler, Diane D.; Naze, Christie
Background A nutrient-rich maternal diet before and during pregnancy is associated with improved fetal health, more appropriate birth weight, and increased rates of maternal and infant survival. Physicians need a better understanding of the role of diet in shaping fetal outcomes. Given this background, we reviewed and summarized articles on maternal nutrition found in MEDLINE since 1981, written in English, and limited to human subjects. For the Offspring Maternal diets high in sugar and fat lead to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. Folic acid should be supplemented prior to conception and continued through at least the first 28 days of fetal life to prevent neural tube defects, and vitamin C should be given to women who smoke to lower the incidence of asthma and wheezing in the children. Iodine deficiency is increasing, and iodine should be included in prenatal supplements. If the maternal hemoglobin is 7 g/dL or more, there is no evidence that iron supplementation is needed. Fish intake during pregnancy is protective against atopic outcomes, whereas high-meat diets contribute to elevated adult blood pressure and hypersecretion of cortisol. For the Mother Calcium supplementation lowers the risk of preeclampsia and hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Conclusions Given the limits of our current knowledge, a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and selected fish is desirable for the best outcomes. Diets high in sugar and fat lead to higher rates of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Folic acid, iodine, and calcium in all pregnant women and vitamin C in smokers are the only supplements so far shown to be of value for routine use. The physician treating a pregnant woman should be ready to advise a healthy diet for the benefit of the fetus. Target Audience Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives After participating in this activity, the
... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a) Coast stations that receive a distress alert should defer acknowledgement for a short interval so...
... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a) Coast stations that receive a distress alert should defer acknowledgement for a short interval so...
... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a) Coast stations that receive a distress alert should defer acknowledgement for a short interval so...
Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs), chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening. PMID:26237388
Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca
Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease.
Hook, E B
Data are analysed on livebirths with trisomic syndromes associated with unbalanced Robertsonian translocations born from 1968 to 1981 and reported to the New York State Chromosome Registry. The maternal ages of reported cases were compared with those of the livebirths in the general population who were born in the same year. The number of translocations studied, the mean case-control differences in years in maternal age (and the standard errors of the mean) were respectively, as follows: D/21 mutants, n = 36, -0.1 (+/- 0.9); G/21 mutants, n = 46, +1.5 (+/-0.8); D/13 mutants, n = 16, +0.6 (+/-1.5); D/21 inherited, n = 12, -1.0 (+/-1.4); G/21 inherited, n = 3, -0.3 (+/-4.4); and D/13 inherited, n = 6, +2.1 (+/-2.4). There was little change in any category if the few cases diagnosed prenatally were included. Only the value for the G/21 mutants is significantly different from zero at the 0.05 level. (The results on G/21 mutants in maternal age are consistent with an earlier Japanese report of an increase of about 2 years over the control values.) The distribution of maternal ages suggests that G/21 mutants may be produced both by maternal age-independent and maternal age-dependent components. The data on D/21 mutants, however, do not indicate the negative association with maternal age reported in Japan. Differences between this study and the Japanese study in analyses of controls may explain this slight variation. But in any event both studies reveal no evidence for an increase in maternal age for unbalanced D/21 mutant or D/21 inherited translocations associated with Down syndrome. This is evidence against the hypothesis that relaxed selection during gestation, after recognition of pregnancy, accounts for the maternal age effects of 47, +21. In comparison with the results on Robertsonian translocations, the case-control differences in maternal age in years (and the standard errors of the mean) for 47, +21 for 2148 livebirths was +4.6 (+/-0.2), and for 2354 cases
Chen, H. Julie; Cramer, Peter K.; Kojima, Toshihisa
A study examined the extent to which culture-specific traits persist or change in American and Japanese business people who interact in business. Data were drawn from 13 interviews with both Japanese and American employees of Japanese companies. Interviewees were asked about their perceptions or stereotypes of people from the other culture before…
A comparison of native and nonnative (Japanese) English speakers' expressions for offers and requests found that Japanese subjects were typically too direct in most situations and sounded rude, even when they intended to be polite. This suggests that the pragmatic competence of Japanese learners of English needs to be reinforced in language…
Shimahara, N. Ken
Discusses Japanese teacher professional development strategies, which are driven by a peer-based model using peer collaboration, planning, and management, exploring how the Japanese perspective of teaching as craft contributes to elementary professional development. Critical issues inherent in the Japanese model are discussed, noting its basic…
Horwitz, Elaine K.
This article describes the classroom management component of the Professional Development of Japanese Teachers of Texas (PDJT), a certification program for teachers of Japanese. In addition, it offers suggestions in classroom management for teachers of Japanese and other foreign languages as well as guidance for teacher trainers to help new…
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...
Dunn, Kerri F.; Cowan, Gloria
Compares social influence strategies of 40 Japanese and 41 U.S. college women for various targets. Free responses indicate that Japanese women use strong and neutral strategies more frequently and weak strategies less frequently than U.S. women. U.S. women use manipulation more frequently and reasoning less frequently than Japanese women. (SLD)
Engel, John W.
Traditional ideals discourage Japanese women from working outside the home. This study was conducted to explore generational differences in Japanese attitudes toward women's employment and to interpret those differences in terms of social change. Questionnaires were distributed to approximately 900 Japanese men and women. Subjects were classified…
Mukai, Takayo; McCloskey, Laura A.
Examined familial and peer correlates of eating attitudes in 38 American and 70 Japanese preadolescent girls. Responses showed correlates of eating attitudes shared by American and Japanese girls were self-perception of being overweight, number of friends dieting, and frequency of talking with mother about food and diet. Japanese girls were more…
Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.
A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…
Examines the impact of Japanese nationalistic thought on the administrative systems and structures of colonial and modern higher education in Korea and analyzes Japanese educational policy in Korea in the colonial period (1910-1945). Identifies beneficial and negative impacts of the Japanese colonial education system. (SLD)
This study investigated contemporary Japanese college students' attitudes towards Japan English (JE) and American English (AE) through a verbal guise test (VGT) as well as a questionnaire. Forty-four Japanese college students listened to four Japanese and four North Americans reading a text in English, rated them in terms of solidarity-related…
The Japanese-American internment experience during World War II continues to affect the Japanese-American community. This ERIC Digest provides six suggestions for teaching about the Japanese-American internment, touching on civil rights, immigration, the media, "loyalty," redress and reparations, and primary and secondary sources.…
Fukuda, Eriko; Saklofske, Donald H.; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Fung, Tak Shing; Miyaoka, Yayoi; Kiyama, Sachiko
This article reports the psychometric properties of two emotional intelligence measures translated into Japanese. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the factor structure of a Japanese version of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) completed by 310 Japanese university students. A second study employed CFA…
The Japanese Americans are numerically the largest of all the Asian American ethnic groups. In contrast to the other Asian American groups in the United States, the Japanese Americans are predominantly native born. Although first and second generation Japanese Americans had been subject to intense employment discrimination before World War II and…
Jefferson County School District R-1, Denver, CO.
This book was written by 94 students, aged 8-14, at Westridge Elementary School (Littleton, Colorado) during a summer enrichment class. The book was written for anyone who wants to learn about Japanese-American culture and heritage. Chapter 1 gives an overview of Japanese history before American contact, the immigration of Japanese to America, the…
Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...
Anzai, Yayoi; And Others
To explore the portrayals of Americans in Japanese television commercials and Japanese in American television commercials, and how those portrayals are perceived by each nationality, a two-part study examined 745 American commercials and 956 Japanese commercials. Researchers first coded the number of American males and females who appeared in the…
Yanagawa, Toru; Yamaguchi, Akira; Harada, Hiroyuki; Yamagata, Kenji; Ishibashi, Naomi; Noguchi, Masayuki; Onizawa, Kojiro; Bukawa, Hiroki
Cheilitis glandularis (CG) is a rare disorder characterized by swelling of the lip with hyperplasia of the labial salivary glands. CG is most frequently encountered in the lower lip, in middle-aged to older Caucasian men; however Asian cases were rarely reported. In this paper we present two cases of CG in Asian-Japanese men. One was a 23-year-old male with CG of the superficial suppurative type. The other was a 54-year-old male with deep suppurative type. We also reviewed the Japanese cases of CG in the literature and discussed about clinical feature of Japanese CG. PMID:21991474
Pregnant women with a third trimester breech presentation are almost invariably offered Caesarean section as the mode of delivery of first choice, especially when external version has failed to turn the fetus to cephalic. However, increasingly women are resorting to alternatives, to avoid either operative delivery or manipulative intervention in late pregnancy. This paper reviews some of the options for women with breech presentation, focusing especially on integrating these options into conventional maternity care.
Jeong, Goun; Park, Sung Won; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Ko, Sun Young
Purpose This study investigated self-food restriction during breastfeeding, reviewed the literature showing the effect of maternal diet on the health of breast-fed infants, and explored the validity of dietary restrictions. Methods Questionnaire data were collected from breastfeeding Korean mothers who visited the pediatric clinic of Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center from July 2015 through August 2015. The survey included items assessing maternal age, number of children, maternal educational attainment, household income, degree of difficulty with self-food restriction, types of self-restricted foods, dietary customs during breastfeeding, and sources of information about breastfeeding. Results The questionnaire was completed by 145 mothers. More than a third (n=56, 39%) had discomfort from and usually avoided 4–5 types of food (mean, 4.92). Mothers younger than 40 years had more discomfort (odds ratio [OR], 12.762; P=0.017). Primiparas felt less discomfort than multiparas (OR, 0.436; P=0.036). Dietary practices were not influenced by maternal educational attainment or household income. The most common self-restricted foods were caffeine (n=131, 90.3%), spicy foods (n=124, 85.5%), raw foods (n=109, 75.2%), cold foods (n=100, 69%), and sikhye (traditional sweet Korean rice beverage) (n=100, 69%). Most mothers (n=122, 84.1%) avoided foods for vague reasons. Conclusion Most mothers restricted certain foods unnecessarily. Literature review identified no foods that mothers should absolutely avoid during breastfeeding unless the infant reacts negatively to the food. PMID:28392822
Fujiwara, Takeo; Shimazu, Akihito; Tokita, Masahito; Shimada, Kyoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Watai, Izumi; Iwata, Noboru; Kawakami, Norito
The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between parental workaholism and child body mass index (BMI) among Japanese dual-income families. In 2011, 379 dual-income families from urban Tokyo with children aged 0–5 years were recruited for a baseline survey, and 160 (42.2%) were followed up in 2012. Demographics, workaholism, work demands, work control, time spent with children, and parental and child weights and heights were assessed using a questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to determine the association between maternal and paternal workaholism in 2011 and child BMI in 2012, considering the mediating effects of time spent with children. Paternal workaholism showed a direct significant positive association with child BMI after 1 year (standardized coefficient: 0.19; p < 0.001), while maternal workaholism was not associated with child BMI. Both maternal and paternal time spent with children did not mediate the association. Paternal work demands showed a strong positive association with workaholism but paternal work control did not. Paternal, but not maternal, workaholism was associated with an increase in child BMI over 1 year. Interventions that target workaholism by reducing paternal work demands might be effective in preventing overweight in offspring. PMID:27014678
Azak, Schale; Raeder, Sabine
This study investigated trajectories of maternal parenting behavior across the infants' first 18 months of life in relation to maternal depression. Furthermore, predictors of the quality of the mother-infant relationship at 18 months were examined. Participants consisted of three types of mother-infant dyads: mothers with comorbid depression and anxiety (n=19), mothers with depression (n=7) and nondepressed mothers (n=24). Maternal behaviors and the quality of relationship were rated on a global scale (NICHD) from video-taped mother-infant interactions. Maternal behaviors rated at six, 12 and 18 months were collapsed into a composite variable maternal style. The quality of the relationship captured as dyadic mutuality was rated at 18 months. Comorbid and depressed mothers showed lower quality in maternal style compared with the nondepressed mothers at six months. Over the follow-up the comorbid mothers were lower in maternal style compared to the nondepressed mothers, but the comorbid mothers increased significantly in maternal style despite elevated depression symptoms. Mean maternal style and infant cognitive skills predicted the quality in relationship at 18 months suggesting that the mother-toddler relationship depends on contributions from the mother and the child. Higher growth in maternal style despite of depression symptoms among comorbid mothers was interpreted against the background that the majority of the comorbid mother-infant dyads received several treatments.
Matsumoto, K.; Higuchi, K.; Kimura, H.; Takeda, N.; Matsubara, S.; Izumita, M.; Toyama, Y.; Kato, M.; Kato, H.
The first telescience testbed experiments for the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the Space Station Freedom, conducted after the three year studies of its system requirements, are described. Three experiment themes of the First Material Processing Test (FMPT) of the Japanese Spacelab Mission are chosen for estimating communications requirements between the JEM and a ground station. A paper folding experiment is used to examine instruction aspects of onboard manual processing and onboard coaching. More than 10 principal investigators partipated in the experiments and were requested to answer a rating questionnaire for data acquisition. The results extracted from the questionnaire are summarized.
Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Geraut, Annie; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand
The use of Japanese swords for homicidal attempts is rare. A Japanese samurai sword is a sharp and cutting object. When faced with the use of this weapon, one must distinguish between stabs and incised wounds. Incised wounds can rarely lead to death, but because of the size of the weapon, stabs usually cause much more serious injuries. Stabs also imply a penetrating movement, whereas incised wounds can be the consequence of protective circular blows. Therefore, it is important to distinguish clinically between these two kinds of wounds. We report a case where the perpetrator argued he had given a circular blow, unfortunately hitting the victim. The pieces of evidence are discussed.
This study aimed to compare the perception of short vs. long vowel contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) by four groups of listeners differing in their linguistic backgrounds: native Arabic (NA), native Japanese (NJ), non-native Japanese (NNJ) and Australian English (OZ) speakers. The NNJ and OZ groups shared the first language…
Muddy coasts are land-sea transitional environments common along low-energy shorelines around the world. They exist in climatic settings and tidal regimes ranging from microtidal to macro-tidal. Climatic warming and relative sea level rise are likely to have a greater impact on low-lying muddy coasts and deltas than most other coastal environments. This was the working hypothesis of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group 106, “Relative Sea Level and Muddy Coasts of the World,” which concluded its deliberations in the late 1990s.
This true-color image was taken by MODIS as it passed over the southwest coast of Greenland (right) and the Davis Strait (center and left). The Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay to the north and the Labrador Sea to the south, and separates Greenland from Baffin Island, Canada. The Davis Strait is part of the Northwest Passage, a navigable seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The image shows the prevailing currents in the area, with the warm water of a branch of the North Atlantic Drift flowing northward along the Greenland coast, and the cold, iceberg-filled Labrador Current flowing southward along the Baffin Island coast.
Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger
Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were examined and compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were positively related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother object-oriented behaviors were positively related only among European Americans. In all groups, infant and mother behaviors within each modality were mutually contingent. Culture moderated lead-lag relations: Japanese infants were more likely than their mothers to respond in object-oriented interactions, European American mothers were more likely than their infants to respond in person-oriented interactions. Japanese American dyads behaved more like European American dyads. Interaction, infant effects, and parent socialization findings are set in cultural and accultural models of transactions between young infants and their mothers. PMID:22860874
Rachdi, Radhouane; Kaabi, Mehdi; Zayene, Houssine; Basly, Mohamed; Messaoudi, Fathi; Messaoudi, Lotfi; Chibani, Mounir
Severe gravidic toxemia gives heavy maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study is to loosen the factors of bad maternal and foetal prognostic. It's a retrospective study about 100 cases of severe and complicated gravidic toxemia repertorieted in the maternity of Military Hospital of Tunis. Maternal morbidity is dominated by the complications of hypertension and a blood disorders. We raised 4 cases of eclampsia, 9 cases of retro placental hematome and 5 cases of HELLP syndrome. We don't deplore any maternal death. Perinatal mortality is 28.8%. The rate of delay intra-uterine growth was 43.8% and the prematurity 65.9%. More toxemia appears early during pregnancy more maternal and foetal prognostic is compromised.
Dempsey, Jack; McQuillin, Samuel; Butler, Ashley M; Axelrad, Marni E
This study examines the impact of maternal depression on reductions in children's behavior problems severity following implementation of the Brief Behavioral Intervention-a brief, manualized parent management training treatment. The parents of 87 children aged 2-6 years of age received parent management training at a metropolitan hospital. Parents of participants completed measures of externalizing behavior and maternal depression. The association between pre-post treatment change in externalizing behavior and maternal depression was examined using an autoregressive cross-lagged model. Results showed that self-reported maternal depressive symptoms at pre-treatment negatively influenced the overall magnitude of reduction of reported externalizing behaviors in children following treatment. Results indicate that aspects of family functioning not specifically targeted by parent management training, such as maternal depression, significantly affect treatment outcomes. Clinicians providing parent management training may benefit from assessing for maternal depression and modifying treatment as indicated.
These six Japanese science education centers signify a sweeping reform of elementary and secondary school science teaching. They achieve their striking results because they are established on a permanent, local basis and are supported mainly by the local boards of education. They have avoided control by pedagogues and specialists in "education." Instead, they are operated by trained scientists and experienced school teachers who work together to devise programs specially suited to the needs of their teachers. With small and practicable steps, the teachers improve their understanding of methods which they can readily test in their own classrooms rooms and laboratories. The laboratory equipment in the science education centers is only slightly superior to that which the teachers have in their own schools, but superior enough to make them desire to improve their own facilities. Major facilities, such as x-ray machines, electron microscopes, telescopes (15-cm), and machine shops, as well as good working collections of minerals and fossils, and adequate greenhouses, permit the teachers to work with more expensive equipment, to gain a firsthand knowledge of its operation, and to bring groups of students to the center to observe what such instruments make possible. The use of American experimental course content improvement programs is widespread. Every science education center I visited is using PSSC, CHEMS, CBA, BSCS, or ESCP materials and studying the philosophy of these programs. Yet no center is entirely dependent on these programs, but uses them critically to supplement and improve its own courses. The emphasis is on good laboratory and field teaching as a basis for understanding scientific methods and concepts. Science as investigation and inquiry, instead of treatment solely as an authoritative body of facts, is coming into its own. The few defects of the science education centers of Japan inhere in the educational situation itself. The centers are at present
Ockleford, E M; Vince, M A
The effects of exposure to light were investigated during and shortly after the period of light stimulation. A particular objective was to evaluated any responses to the type of illumination conditions generally used for observation of avian embryos. Twenty 16-day Japanese quail embryos were illuminated for 15 minutes each during a total recording period of 55 minutes. Heart rate, respiration rate and an approximate measure of activity were recorded. Mean heart rate was found to be higher during stimulation than before and did not return to the prestimulation level during the recording period after stimulation ceased. The lack of an immediate heart rate response to the onset of stimulation separates the effects of light from those of touch, rotation, odours, tastes and maternal calls. The possibility that light may act to stimulate accelerated development is discussed.
Tests request strategies used by speakers of Japanese and British English in two culturally neutral situations likely to trigger a request. Concludes that the degree of imposition goes on a par with the number of politeness strategies but that there are differences in the types of strategies used: the British use conventional forms and supportive…
Provides an overview of Japanese management theory and suggests applications to library administration. Highlights include participative management; shared decision making; long-term objectives; organizational philosophy; staff training and human resource development; strategic planning; staffing issues; cooperation; quality control; and total…
Kitao, Kenji; Kitao, S. Kathleen
The problems encountered by native Japanese-speakers in reading English as a second language are examined. The available literature on the subject as well as firsthand experiences in teaching English, developing reading materials, and conducting research projects are discussed. The discussion focuses on five major areas: the reading process; the…
This study investigates the properties of particles in Japanese from a pragmatic viewpoint. The main target of analysis is "wa" and "ga", which are regarded as a topic and nominative marker respectively. The research is based on the pragmatic theory proposed by Levinson (2000). This dissertation consists of three parts as…
Shi, Lili; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi
This article examines the Japanese response in terms of innovation capacity and entrepreneurship enhancement under the ever-changing economic environment. Particular focus would go to the interactions among government, industry and universities in the national innovation system at a macro level, and entrepreneurship education at the institutional…
This article is an anthropological analysis of the recent policy reforms of the Japanese preschool system. It takes the introduction of the "nintei-kodomoen" ("accredited children's centre") as a point of entry to discuss the historical, social and political debates concerning early childhood education and care. The "dual…
Liberal education has been a target of political discourse in many countries, and Japan is no exception. In Japanese higher education, there are three types of institutions: national public, local public, and private. In June 2015, Japan's minister of education, Hakubun Shimomura, called upon the country's national universities to take…
Since a reading knowledge of Japanese is an indispensable research tool for advanced work in Chinese studies, the student of Chinese is faced with the task of "developing a facility in two of the most difficult written languages of the world." With the goal of making this task as easy as possible, a course has been developed at Cornell University…
Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Chou, Ping-Yi; Fang, Jia-Cen
An intelligent genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed to solve Japanese nonograms and is used as a method in a university course to learn evolutionary algorithms. The IGA combines the global exploration capabilities of a canonical genetic algorithm (CGA) with effective condensed encoding, improved fitness function, and modified crossover and…
United Japanese Society of Hawaii, Honolulu.
This handbook contains the history of the first hundred years of Japanese activity in Hawaii, of the pioneer immigrant workers and their progeny. The book offers valuable source material to the people of Hawaii who want to know their origins and who wish to teach their children of the achievements of their ancestors. Ninety-one pages of black and…
Japanese employs different strategies for expressing relative clauses and complement clauses. The relative clause constructions are generally described as Externally Headed Relative Clauses (EHRCs), which are the closest analogue to English relative clauses, and Headless Relative Clauses (HRCs) (also called Internally Headed Relative Clauses)…
Torigoe, Takashi; And Others
Interviewed 38 adults with deafness and little schooling in Okinawa concerning their social and language environment. Many of the individuals used an indigenous gestural system shared with hearing people that enabled them to participate in the hearing community. Most had only limited contact with the deaf community and Japanese Sign Language.…
BRITAIN STUDIED SUPERVISORY TRAINING IN JAPAN, IN ORDER TO GAIN INSIGHT INTO ITS OWN TRAINING PROBLEMS. TRADITIONAL SUPERVISION IN JAPANESE INDUSTRY HAD PRODUCED INCAPABLE FOREMEN THROUGH SENIORITY PROMOTION, CAUSED DIFFICULT RELATIONSHIPS BECAUSE OF AUTHORITARIAN ATTITUDES, AND FAILED TO CLARIFY AUTHORITY ROLES. THE GOVERNMENT RECOMMENDED MORE…
Nagoshi, Craig T.
Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…
Der-Karabetian, Aghop; And Others
Nationalism and worldmindedness are social cognitions that have both culture-unique and culture-universal aspects. To compare cross-cultural manifestations of these 2 sentiments, 270 Japanese and 210 American university students in Tokyo and Los Angeles answered questions on national resources, self-sufficiency and interdependence, communication,…
Continuing concern regarding the quality and future of education in both America and Japan prompts many comparisons of their nation's educational systems. Chapter 1, "Japanese Schools' Higher Achievement, Literacy, Efficiency, Discipline, Classroom Management, and Strengths of Civilization," attempts to explain the superior performance…
Best, Paul J.
An educational foundation (interdisciplinary) approach is used to examine the development of Japan in order to discover what role, if any, the Japanese higher educational system can play in the internationalization of the country. Some historical, geopolitical, and sociocultural background is provided. It is suggested that Japan can no longer…
Goodman, Roger, Ed.; Phillips, David, Ed.
The nine papers included in this book are: "The Why, What and How of Educational Reform in Japan" (Roger Goodman); "Why Reform Japanese Education?" (William K. Cummings); "Destruction and Reconstruction: A Comparative Analysis of the Education Reform in Japan and Germany under the U.S. Military Occupation After World War…
Business expansion in the 1960s and its associated international strategies have meant that many Japanese company employees and their families were sent abroad on long-term assignments. The children who accompanied their parents on such assignments and then returned to Japan were first described as "educational refugees" and were…
Japanese students often feel it difficult to acquire communicative skills in English at school. Although many of them appear to have positive, favorable attitudes towards learning English, their annual Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) total score means has been consistently low. The present paper discusses this paradox from two points…
Pickering, Susan M.; Walker, Lori B.
Maintains that little is written for elementary and middle school students about the World War II Japanese internment camps. Asserts that the issue can help teach about democratic principles and citizenship. Presents a role-playing dialog on the topic and includes recommended materials for students and teachers. (CFR)
This Historical Reader on "Japanese American Internment" in World War II introduces students to key events and issues during the period through the voices of people with firsthand experienced. Source documents and illustrations are arranged in chronological order and/or thematic units that establish context. Each selection is followed by…
"Ijime," which means the intimidation of the weakest people in a social group, has become prevalent in the Japanese educational system. Between April and October of 1985, 155,066 cases of bullying were reported in Japan's schools. The education council cites the rigorous discipline measures undertaken by teachers as the cause of rising…
This paper explores the social dimension of lifelong learning from the perspective of demographics, with particular focus on the issue of the birth of fewer children, which has become one of the most important current social issues in Japanese society. When considering the relationship between lifelong learning and demographics, the issues arising…
Education for international understanding in Japan was focused to develop its own national identity as well as to recognize its coexistence through intercultural education. Then, we have investigated the opinions of Japanese school teachers in terms of their recognition of the necessary content to introduce school instruction of intercultural…
Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret
This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…
The Language Play Method (LPM), a teaching method developed to systematically instruct preschool children in the structure of Japanese and Hiragana letters, is described in this paper. LPM develops three fundamental abilities which contribute to oral skill and literacy in kindergartners: the ability to recognize letters, the ability to decode…
Saltzman, Wendy; Maestripieri, Dario
In nonhuman primates and humans, similar to other mammals, hormones are not strictly necessary for the expression of maternal behavior, but nevertheless influence variation in maternal responsiveness and parental behavior both within and between individuals. A growing number of correlational and experimental studies have indicated that high circulating estrogen concentrations during pregnancy increase maternal motivation and responsiveness to infant stimuli, while effects of prepartum or postpartum estrogens and progestogens on maternal behavior are less clear. Prolactin is thought to play a role in promoting paternal and alloparental care in primates, but little is known about the relationship between this hormone and maternal behavior. High circulating cortisol levels appear to enhance arousal and responsiveness to infant stimuli in young, relatively inexperienced female primates, but interfere with the expression of maternal behavior in older and more experienced mothers. Among neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, preliminary evidence indicates that oxytocin and endogenous opioids affect maternal attachment to infants, including maintenance of contact, grooming, and responses to separation. Brain serotonin affects anxiety and impulsivity, which in turn may affect maternal behaviors such as infant retrieval or rejection of infants’ attempts to make contact with the mother. Although our understanding of the neuroendocrine correlates of primate maternal behavior has grown substantially in the last two decades, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying these effects, e.g., the extent to which these mechanisms may involve changes in perception, emotion, or cognition. PMID:20888383
Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.
Focuses on Sea Partners, by the United States Coast Guard, that enables students to understand how pollution affects the marine environment. Correlates the activities with the National Science Education Standards. (DDR)
The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893, and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in September, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians (yipchisa) without limit and controlled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed.) Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulations for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentists Suk-Tae Ham was register No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some Korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan, it was was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. It was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. The Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only) to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche' -- 'Japan and Korea and one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese controlled
Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin
We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…
Costa, Natalie M.; Weems, Carl F.
This study tested a model of the association between maternal and child anxiety that views mother and child attachment beliefs and children's perceptions of maternal control as mediators of the association. The study was conducted with mothers and their children aged 6 to 17 (N = 88). Maternal anxiety was significantly associated with child…
Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.
This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…
This Quick Time movie captures Hurricane Linda moving off the Baja California coast in September 1997. The strongest hurricane on record for the eastern Pacific at that time, Hurricane Linda invaded Southern California with winds that had gusted to 105 mph (174 kph). While off the coast of Mexico, her winds gusted up to 220 mph (354 kph). Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.
Nakano, Yuki; Shimazaki, Takeru; Kobayashi, Nobuko; Miyoshi, Yukiko; Ono, Aoi; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Shiragami, Chieko; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Tsujikawa, Akitaka
Purpose To establish the normative database of retinal oximetry using Oxymap T1 in a healthy Japanese population, and study the reproducibility of the measurements in Japanese. Methods We measured oxygen saturation in the major retinal vessels with Oxymap T1 in 252 eyes of 252 healthy Japanese subjects. Fundus images acquired using Oxymap T1 were processed using built-in Oxymap Analyzer software. Reproducibility of retinal oximetry was investigated using 20 eyes of 20 healthy subjects. Results The mean retinal oxygen saturation of 4 quadrants in healthy Japanese was 97.0 ± 6.9% in arteries and 52.8 ± 8.3% in veins. The mean arteriovenous difference in oxygen saturation was 44.2 ± 9.2%. Both arterial and venous oxygen saturation were significantly lower in the temporal side of the retina, especially in the temporal-inferior vessels. However, the arteriovenous difference in oxygen saturation was limited in the 4 quadrants. Interphotograph, intervisit, and interevaluator intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.936–0.979, 0.809–0.837, and 0.732–0.947, respectively. In the major retinal arteries, oxygen saturation increased with age (r = 0.18, p<0.01), at a rate of 0.67% per 10 years. However, venous oxygen saturation showed no correlation with age. Conclusions This study provides the normative database for the Japanese population. The arterial saturation value appears to be higher than other previous studies. Mean retinal oximetry in 4 quadrants with Oxymap T1 has high reproducibility. PMID:27434373
Hayward, Lisa S; Wingfield, John C
Many environmental perturbations may elevate plasma corticosterone in laying birds, including disease, poor body condition, high predator density, anthropogenic disturbance, and/or food scarcity. When adverse conditions are not dire enough to dictate foregoing reproduction, maternal corticosterone in egg yolk may phenotypically engineer offspring so as to maximize success under the constraints of the local environment. We tested the hypotheses that corticosterone in avian egg yolk should correlate with corticosterone in maternal circulation at the time of laying, and that high corticosterone in yolk should then influence offspring development and adult phenotype. We implanted female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with corticosterone-filled or empty implants and measured concentrations of corticosterone in the yolk of their eggs. Then we incubated the eggs and raised the chicks to test for effects on growth and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal response to capture and restraint in adult offspring. We found that corticosterone implants significantly increased corticosterone in yolk. Furthermore, chicks of corticosterone-implanted mothers grew more slowly than controls and showed higher activity of the hypothalamo-adrenal axis in response to capture and restraint as adults. These results suggest that stress experienced by a laying bird has significant effects on offspring development and adult phenotype, possibly mediated by the transfer of maternal corticosterone to yolk.
Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah
Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing
Hirano, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Yamane, Kiminori
We have conducted medical surveys of Japanese-Americans, in whom westernization of life style occurred earlier and more intensively, in order to clarify the impact of westernization of life style on diseases in Japanese. This survey is started in Hawaii in 1970, and Los Angeles in 1978. We clarified that the prevalence of obesity, which leads to insulin resistance, is higher in Japanese-Americans than that in Japanese, and that insulin resistance which is associated with diabetes, hypertention, and dyslipidemia could increase macroangiopathy such as ischemic heart disease and stroke in Japanese-Americans. The mortality rate of Japanese-Americans with diabetes from ischemic heart disease increased to be similar extent to that of Caucasian in the U.S. It could be concluded that Japanese-Americans are at high risk for macroangiopathy.
Onogi, A; Ogino, A; Komatsu, T; Shoji, N; Shimizu, K; Kurogi, K; Yasumori, T; Togashi, K; Iwata, H
Because fatty acid composition influences the flavor and texture of meat, controlling it is particularly important for cattle breeds such as the Japanese Black, characterized by high meat quality. We evaluated the predictive ability of single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) in fatty acid composition of Japanese Black cattle by assessing the composition of seven fatty acids in 3088 cattle, of which 952 had genome-wide marker genotypes. All sires of the genotyped animals were genotyped, but their dams were not. Cross-validation was conducted for the 952 animals. The prediction accuracy was higher with ssGBLUP than with best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) for all traits, and in an empirical investigation, the gain in accuracy of using ssGBLUP over BLUP increased as the deviations in phenotypic values of the animals increased. In addition, the superior accuracy of ssGBLUP tended to be more evident in animals whose maternal grandsire was genotyped than in other animals, although the effect was small.
Langer, A; Lozano, R; Hernandez, B
Maternal mortality in Mexico has declined significantly over the past half century. The maternal mortality rate was 53/10,000 live births in 1940 and 5.1 in 1990. The greatest and most rapid decline occurred in the 1940s. The maternal mortality rate is still too high, and in addition the differential between Mexican rates and those of the developed countries has increased. The average age at maternal death is 29 years, a full 40 years less than potential life expectancy. The risk of death from causes related to reproduction varies substantially by educational level. Of all maternal deaths between 1986 and 1991, 26% were in illiterate women, 33% in women with incomplete primary, and 24% in those with complete primary. In 1990, the average female school attainment was complete primary. The maternal mortality rate was eight times higher among illiterate women and five times higher in those not completing primary than in those finishing preparatory. Geographically, states with low maternal mortality rates of under 3.1 are mainly located in the north and those with high maternal mortality of over 6.0 are in the south. The central zone is an intermediate area. The 1991 maternal mortality rates of Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, and the state of Mexico are similar to those of Nuevo Leon 30 years ago or Aguascalientes, Sonora, and Baja California 20 years ago. 72% of maternal deaths in the 1980s occurred in rural areas. The rates were 6.5/10,000 in rural areas and 4.1/10,000 in urban areas. The maternal mortality rate also increases with marginalization. An index of marginalization constructed with census data using multivariate techniques showed that fertile aged women in very marginalized municipios had maternal mortality rates of 11.5/10,000, or a risk of death three times greater than women in municipios scoring low for marginalization. Maternal mortality continues to be a priority public health problem in Mexico. Because so many maternal deaths are preventable
Zureick-Brown, Sarah; Newby, Holly; Chou, Doris; Mizoguchi, Nobuko; Say, Lale; Suzuki, Emi; Wilmoth, John
CONTEXT Despite the fact that most maternal deaths are preventable, maternal mortality remains high in many developing countries. Target A of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 calls for a three-quarters reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between 1990 and 2015. METHODS We derived estimates of maternal mortality for 172 countries over the period 1990–2008. Trends in maternal mortality were estimated either directly from vital registration data or from a hierarchical or multilevel model, depending on the data available for a particular country. RESULTS The annual number of maternal deaths worldwide declined by 34% between 1990 and 2008, from approximately 546,000 to 358,000 deaths. The estimated MMR for the world as a whole also declined by 34% over this period, falling from 400 to 260 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Between 1990 and 2008, the majority of the global burden of maternal deaths shifted from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa. Differential trends in fertility, the HIV/ AIDS epidemic and access to reproductive health are associated with the shift in the burden of maternal deaths from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSIONS Although the estimated annual rate of decline in the global MMR in 1990–2008 (2.3%) fell short of the level needed to meet the MDG 5 target, it was much faster than had been thought previously. Targeted efforts to improve access to quality maternal health care, as well as efforts to decrease unintended pregnancies through family planning, are necessary to further reduce the global burden of maternal mortality. PMID:23584466
Toyofuku, Takashi; Duros, Pauline; Fontanier, Christophe; Mamo, Briony; Bichon, Sabrina; Buscail, Roselyne; Chabaud, Gérard; Deflandre, Bruno; Goubet, Sarah; Grémare, Antoine; Menniti, Christophe; Fujii, Minami; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Koho, Karoliina Annika; Noda, Atsushi; Namegaya, Yuichi; Oguri, Kazumasa; Radakovitch, Olivier; Murayama, Masafumi; de Nooijer, Lennart Jan; Kurasawa, Atushi; Ohkawara, Nina; Okutani, Takashi; Sakaguchi, Arito; Jorissen, Frans; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Kitazato, Hiroshi
On March 11(th), 2011 the Mw 9.0 2011 Tōhoku-Oki earthquake resulted in a tsunami which caused major devastation in coastal areas. Along the Japanese NE coast, tsunami waves reached maximum run-ups of 40 m, and travelled kilometers inland. Whereas devastation was clearly visible on land, underwater impact is much more difficult to assess. Here, we report unexpected results obtained during a research cruise targeting the seafloor off Shimokita (NE Japan), shortly (five months) after the disaster. The geography of the studied area is characterized by smooth coastline and a gradually descending shelf slope. Although high-energy tsunami waves caused major sediment reworking in shallow-water environments, investigated shelf ecosystems were characterized by surprisingly high benthic diversity and showed no evidence of mass mortality. Conversely, just beyond the shelf break, the benthic ecosystem was dominated by a low-diversity, opportunistic fauna indicating ongoing colonization of massive sand-bed deposits.
Powers, Theodore R.; And Others
This report presents the results of research that had as its objective the evaluation of the curricula of the U.S. Coast Guard Academy. Over 125 Coast Guard officers and men were interviewed to gather detailed background information about the Coast Guard, the Coast Guard Academy, and job requirements of Academy graduates. These data were developed…
5. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF ENTIRE COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard Official Photograph, 12th Coast Guard District, San Francisco. 1960. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coast Guard commission pennant. 23.20 Section 23.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.20 Coast Guard commission...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations....
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coast Guard emblem. 23.10 Section 23.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.10 Coast Guard emblem. (a) The...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of Coast Guard forms. 173.83 Section 173.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Number § 173.83 Availability of Coast Guard forms. In a State where the Coast Guard is the...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations....
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of Coast Guard forms. 173.83 Section 173.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Number § 173.83 Availability of Coast Guard forms. In a State where the Coast Guard is the...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...
... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard number. 50.10-30 Section 50.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-30 Coast Guard number. (a) The Coast Guard number...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Coast Guard forms. 173.83 Section 173.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Number § 173.83 Availability of Coast Guard forms. In a State where the Coast Guard is the...
... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard number. 50.10-30 Section 50.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-30 Coast Guard number. (a) The Coast Guard number...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coast Guard identifying insignia. 23.12 Section 23.12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.12 Coast Guard identifying...
... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for Coast Guard investigation. 850.30... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.30 Procedures for Coast Guard investigation. (a) The Coast Guard conducts an investigation...
... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures for Coast Guard investigation. 850.30... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.30 Procedures for Coast Guard investigation. (a) The Coast Guard conducts an investigation...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations....
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Views of the Coast Guard. 52.42 Section 52.42 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL BOARD FOR CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Submissions by the Coast Guard and Other...
... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard district. 4.03-20 Section 4.03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coast Guard commission pennant. 23.20 Section 23.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.20 Coast Guard commission...
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard number. 50.10-30 Section 50.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-30 Coast Guard number. (a) The Coast Guard number...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...
... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coast Guard identifying insignia. 23.12 Section 23.12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.12 Coast Guard identifying...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coast Guard emblem. 23.10 Section 23.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.10 Coast Guard emblem. (a) The...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coast Guard commission pennant. 23.20 Section 23.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.20 Coast Guard commission...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Availability of Coast Guard forms. 173.83 Section 173.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Number § 173.83 Availability of Coast Guard forms. In a State where the Coast Guard is the...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public coast stations using telegraphy. 80.121... Coast Stations § 80.121 Public coast stations using telegraphy. (a) Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP... transmission of the signature the coast station must, following the signal “COL”, routinely repeat all...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coast Guard emblem. 23.10 Section 23.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.10 Coast Guard emblem. (a) The...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard district. 4.03-20 Section 4.03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the...
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for Coast Guard investigation. 850.30... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.30 Procedures for Coast Guard investigation. (a) The Coast Guard conducts an investigation...
... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures for Coast Guard investigation. 850.30... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.30 Procedures for Coast Guard investigation. (a) The Coast Guard conducts an investigation...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public coast stations using telegraphy. 80.121... Coast Stations § 80.121 Public coast stations using telegraphy. (a) Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP... transmission of the signature the coast station must, following the signal “COL”, routinely repeat all...
... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures for Coast Guard investigation. 850.30... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.30 Procedures for Coast Guard investigation. (a) The Coast Guard conducts an investigation...
... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard number. 50.10-30 Section 50.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-30 Coast Guard number. (a) The Coast Guard number...
... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...
... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard district. 4.03-20 Section 4.03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the...
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...
... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard number. 50.10-30 Section 50.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-30 Coast Guard number. (a) The Coast Guard number...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations....
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public coast stations using telegraphy. 80.121... Coast Stations § 80.121 Public coast stations using telegraphy. (a) Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP... transmission of the signature the coast station must, following the signal “COL”, routinely repeat all...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard identifying insignia. 23.12 Section 23.12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.12 Coast Guard identifying...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Views of the Coast Guard. 52.42 Section 52.42 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL BOARD FOR CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Submissions by the Coast Guard and Other...
... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard district. 4.03-20 Section 4.03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coast Guard identifying insignia. 23.12 Section 23.12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.12 Coast Guard identifying...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coast Guard identifying insignia. 23.12 Section 23.12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.12 Coast Guard identifying...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coast Guard commission pennant. 23.20 Section 23.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.20 Coast Guard commission...
... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availability of Coast Guard forms. 173.83 Section 173.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Number § 173.83 Availability of Coast Guard forms. In a State where the Coast Guard is the...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations....
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard commission pennant. 23.20 Section 23.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.20 Coast Guard commission...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public coast stations using telegraphy. 80.121... Coast Stations § 80.121 Public coast stations using telegraphy. (a) Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP... transmission of the signature the coast station must, following the signal “COL”, routinely repeat all...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coast Guard emblem. 23.10 Section 23.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.10 Coast Guard emblem. (a) The...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Views of the Coast Guard. 52.42 Section 52.42 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL BOARD FOR CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Submissions by the Coast Guard and Other...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard emblem. 23.10 Section 23.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.10 Coast Guard emblem. (a) The...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public coast stations using telegraphy. 80.121... Coast Stations § 80.121 Public coast stations using telegraphy. (a) Narrow-band direct-printing (NB-DP... transmission of the signature the coast station must, following the signal “COL”, routinely repeat all...
... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Views of the Coast Guard. 52.42 Section 52.42 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL BOARD FOR CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Submissions by the Coast Guard and Other...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Views of the Coast Guard. 52.42 Section 52.42 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL BOARD FOR CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Submissions by the Coast Guard and Other...
... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard district. 4.03-20 Section 4.03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the...
....: 1008270400-0400-01] Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition AGENCY: Economic Development... announces the upcoming availability of funding for the Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster (RIC... found at the Space Coast RIC Web site at http://www.eda.gov/SpaceCoastRIC . Applicants are advised...
Aagaard-Tillery, Kjersti; Spong, Catherine Y.; Thom, Elizabeth; Sibai, Baha; Wendel, George; Wenstrom, Katharine; Samuels, Philip; Simhan, Hyagriv; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; Meis, Paul; O’Sullivan, Mary J.; Conway, Deborah; Wapner, Ronald J.
OBJECTIVE To assess whether functional maternal or fetal genotypes along well-characterized metabolic pathways (ie, CYP1A1, GSTT1, and CYP2A6) may account for varying associations with adverse outcomes among pregnant women who smoke. METHODS DNA samples from 502 smokers and their conceptuses, alongside women in a control group, were genotyped for known functional allelic variants of CYP1A1 (Ile462Val AA>AG/GG), GSTT1(del), and CYP2A6 (Lys160His T>A). Modification of the association between smoking and outcome by genotype was evaluated. Outcomes included birth weight, pregnancy loss, preterm birth, small for gestational age, and a composite outcome composed of the latter four components plus abruption. RESULTS No interaction between maternal or fetal genotype of any of the polymorphisms and smoking could be demonstrated. In contrast, the association of smoking with gestational age–adjusted birth weight (birth weight ratio) was modified by fetal GSTT1 genotype (P for interaction=.02). Fetuses with GSTT1(del) had a mean birth weight reduction among smokers of 262 g (P=.01), whereas in fetuses without the GSTT1(del) the effect of tobacco exposure was nonsignificant (mean reduction 87 g, P=.16). After adjusting for confounding, results were similar. CONCLUSION Fetal GSTT1 deletion significantly and specifically modifies the effect of smoking on gestational age–corrected birth weight. PMID:20177288
Fawcus, Susan R
Unsafe abortions refer to terminations of unintended pregnancies by persons lacking the necessary skills, or in an environment lacking the minimum medical standards, or both. Globally, unsafe abortions account for 67,900 maternal deaths annually (13% of total maternal mortality) and contribute to significant morbidity among women, especially in under-resourced settings. The determinants of unsafe abortion include restrictive abortion legislation, lack of female empowerment, poor social support, inadequate contraceptive services and poor health-service infrastructure. Deaths from unsafe abortion are preventable by addressing the above determinants and by the provision of safe, accessible abortion care. This includes safe medical or surgical methods for termination of pregnancy and management of incomplete abortion by skilled personnel. The service must also include provision of emergency medical or surgical care in women with severe abortion complications. Developing appropriate services at the primary level of care with a functioning referral system and the inclusion of post abortion contraceptive care with counseling are essential facets of abortion care.
Bergevin, Yves; Fauveau, Vincent; McKinnon, Britt
Maternal mortality has been reduced by half from 1990 to 2010, yet a woman in sub-Saharan Africa has a lifetime risk of maternal death of 1 in 39 compared with around 1 in 10,000 in industrialized countries. Annual rates of reduction of maternal mortality of over 10% have been achieved in several countries. Highly cost-effective interventions exist and are being scaled up, such as family planning, emergency obstetric and newborn care, quality service delivery, midwifery, maternal death surveillance and response, and girls' education; however, coverage still remains low. Maternal mortality reduction is now high on the global agenda. We examined scenarios of reduction of maternal mortality by 2035. Ending preventable maternal deaths could be achieved in nearly all countries by 2035 with challenging yet realistic efforts: (1) massive scaling-up and skilling up of human resources for family planning and maternal health; (2) reaching every village in every district and every urban slum toward universal health coverage; (3) enhanced financing; (4) knowledge for action: enhanced monitoring, accountability, evaluation, and R&D.
Ekas, Naomi; Whitman, Thomas L.
Researchers examining the relationship of autism "symptomatology" and maternal stress have defined symptomatology in terms of level of severity, frequency of occurrence, or symptom type. In the present study, the relationship of maternal perceptions of these dimensions, along with a fourth, symptom diversity, and negative and positive indices of…
Chen, Mandy; Johnston, Charlotte
This study extends previous research by examining whether maternal inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are associated with different parenting behaviors. Ninety-six mother-son dyads participated in the study, and the boys ranged between 4 and 8 years of age. Maternal inattention was uniquely and positively associated with mothers' use of…
The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice.
DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.
Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…
Starzyk, Patricia M.
The nature of maternity services has changed in the past 20 years, with a movement away from traditional (physician delivery in a hospital) towards other alternative services. This study examined alternative maternity services in Washington State, which ranks eighth in the country in the use of such services. Data were collected from birth and…
Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Golden, Robert N.; Roberts, Jane; Ford, Amy
Maternal depression in families having a child with a disability has been the subject of considerable research over the past 25 years. This review was designed to describe the literature on maternal depression, critique its research methodology, identify consensus findings across studies, and make recommendations for future research. A particular…
... Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Pacific Whiting and Non... October 4, 2012. This action is authorized by regulations implementing the Pacific Coast Groundfish... available for harvest to other sectors of the trawl fishery. For 2012 the Washington Coast treaty...
Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.
Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story
Faucette, Azure N.; Unger, Benjamin L.; Gonik, Bernard; Chen, Kang
BACKGROUND Infections remain one of the leading causes of morbidity in pregnant women and newborns, with vaccine-preventable infections contributing significantly to the burden of disease. In the past decade, maternal vaccination has emerged as a promising public health strategy to prevent and combat maternal, fetal and neonatal infections. Despite a number of universally recommended maternal vaccines, the development and evaluation of safe and effective maternal vaccines and their wide acceptance are hampered by the lack of thorough understanding of the efficacy and safety in the pregnant women and the offspring. METHODS An outline was synthesized based on the current status and major gaps in the knowledge of maternal vaccination. A systematic literature search in PUBMED was undertaken using the key words in each section title of the outline to retrieve articles relevant to pregnancy. Articles cited were selected based on relevance and quality. On the basis of the reviewed information, a perspective on the future directions of maternal vaccination research was formulated. RESULTS Maternal vaccination can generate active immune protection in the mother and elicit systemic immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal IgG, IgA and IgM responses to confer neonatal protection. The maternal immune system undergoes significant modulation during pregnancy, which influences responsiveness to vaccines. Significant gaps exist in our knowledge of the efficacy and safety of maternal vaccines, and no maternal vaccines against a large number of old and emerging pathogens are available. Public acceptance of maternal vaccination has been low. CONCLUSIONS To tackle the scientific challenges of maternal vaccination and to provide the public with informed vaccination choices, scientists and clinicians in different disciplines must work closely and have a mechanistic understanding of the systemic, reproductive and mammary mucosal immune responses to vaccines. The use of animal models should be
Haraguchi, T.; Fujiwara, O.; Shimazaki, K.
Holocene tsunami history was analyzed by using a drilling core obtained from the Ohtsuchi Bay on the Sanriku coast, Pacific side of NE Japan. The saw-tooth Sanriku coast line, facing the Japan Trench, is well known for repeated suffers from the historical great tsunamis. The worst tsunami damage in Japanese history, more than 20,000 fatalities, by the AD1896 Meiji Sanriku Tsunami (M 8 1/2) centered off Sanriku was recorded from this coast. However, the geological records of ancient tsunami such as tsunami deposits have been rarely reported from the Sanriku coast.Reconstruction of the pale-tsunami history including the recurrence interval is fundamental data for the tsunami disaster mitigation on the coast. The core, 24-meter long, obtained from a bay center of 10 m-deep is mainly composed of sandy mud excluding the basal gravel bed (core bottom reached SL-34 m). Sand and gravelly sand beds ranging from several to 200 cm-thick are intercalated in the core and denoted TS-22 to TS-1 in ascending order. Most of these coarse-grained beds have evidences of deposition from high-energy and density currents, basal erosion surface, rip-up clasts mixed mulluscan shells, inverse- and normal grading, and generally upward-fining sequence.Most likely origin of these event deposits is great tsunami, because the coring site is a deep and low energy bay floor isolated from major river mouth. Low sediment supply by river floods and small disturbance by wind waves at the drilling site are favorable for the preservation of tsunami deposits. Depositional ages of TS-1 to TS-22 were estimated from a depositional curve of the core based on ten 14C ages of marine shells. Recurrence interval of 13 sand and gravel beds in the lower part of the core, TS22 (ca. 7800 cal BP) to TS-10 (AD1660-1700), is 400 to 500 years.The number of event beds in the upper part of the core, deposited during the last 400 years (TS-9 to TS-1), approximates to that of historic large tsunamis recorded around the
SHIOZAKI, Akira; AMANO, Masao
A survey of helminths and ectoparasites, including epizoits, was conducted in narrow-ridged finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) from Japanese five populations using dead stranded or incidentally caught animals. In total, 13 helminth species were found (6 nematodes, 4 trematodes, 2 cestodes and 1 acanthocephalan) in 137 porpoises. A new location record of Stenurus nanjingensis and a new host record of Tetrabothrius sp. were obtained. Eight species of helminth were considered common in the Japanese populations of the finless porpoise: Pharurus sunameri, Pharurus asiaeorientalis, Nasitrema spathulatum, Nasitrema sunameri, Halocercus pingi, Halocercus sunameri, Campula oblonga and Synthesium elongatum. No anisakid nematodes were found. N. spathulatum was found only in the western waters of the Seto Inland Sea. Low prevalence of C. oblonga in the Omura Bay was demonstrated. H. pingi was mostly found in very young porpoises before starting to eat prey, indicating prenatal or transmammary infection. However, a congeneric species, H. sunameri, mainly infected weaned porpoises, indicating that these two species possess different transmission pathways. This study provides information on the geographical distribution and prevalence of helminth parasites in finless porpoises off the Japanese coast. PMID:28070088
...This action implements revisions to the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program (program), a catch share program, and includes regulations that affect all commercial sectors (limited entry trawl, limited entry fixed gear, and open access) managed under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action includes regulatory amendments to further implement......
...NMFS is implementing Amendments 20 and 21 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), which were partially approved by the Secretary on August 9, 2010. Amendment 20 establishes a trawl rationalization program for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery. Amendment 20's trawl rationalization program consists of: an individual fishing quota (IFQ) program for the shorebased trawl......
...This proposed action would establish the 2011-2012 harvest specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act and the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP). This action revises the collection of......
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA184 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XRO1 Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... trawl rationalization program that would affect the limited entry trawl fishery of the Pacific...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC223 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 15... the action was effective, by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S....
Lian, C; Miwa, M; Hogetsu, T
This study employed microsatellite loci to analyse outcrossing rate and pollen dispersal in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) in an isolated stand. The average offspring outcrossing rate for 29 cones was 0.955. Significant differences in outcrossing rates between offspring groups on individual branches that extended in different directions at different heights were not detected. Male parents of 874 offspring collected from the maternal tree were assessed by exclusion using polymorphisms at three microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis indicated that at least 31% of the offspring were fertilized by pollen from trees outside the stand. The average distance of pollen migration within the study stand was 68 m, with a maximum value of 325 m. There was excess mating with nearby P. densiflora trees, of which only a few were predominant pollen donors. In addition, a weakly directional bias in P. densiflora pollination was also detected in the study stand, suggesting that female strobili on a branch of the maternal tree were more easily fertilized by pollen from trees in that direction.
Sugahara, Kanako; Kaneko, Yuko; Ito, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Sakio, Hitoshi; Hoshizaki, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Wajiro; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Setoguchi, Hiroaki
Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata: Hippocastanaceae) is one of the typical woody plants that grow in temperate riparian forests in the Japanese Archipelago. To analyze the phylogeography of this plant in the Japanese Archipelago, we determined cpDNA haplotypes for 337 samples from 55 populations covering the entire distribution range. Based on 1,313 bp of two spacers, we determined ten haplotypes that are distinguished from adjacent haplotypes by one or two steps. Most of the populations had a single haplotype, suggesting low diversity. Spatial analysis of molecular variance suggested three obvious phylogeographic structures in western Japan, where Japanese horse chestnut is scattered and isolated in mountainous areas. Conversely, no clear phylogeographic structure was observed from the northern to the southern limit of this species, including eastern Japan, where this plant is more common. Rare and private haplotypes were also found in southwestern Japan, where Japanese horse chestnuts are distributed sparsely. These findings imply that western Japan might have maintained a relatively large habitat for A. turbinata during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, while northerly regions could not.
Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako
The present study investigated the relative age effect, a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese male athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 4,318 male athletes was evaluated from 12 sports: baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, golf, horse racing, rugby, American football, sumo, Ekiden (track and field in long distance), and badminton. They played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. The distribution of the birth dates was examined in each sport and showed significant relative age effect in baseball, soccer, volleyball, Ekiden, basketball, sumo, and horse racing, but not in all sports. The findings suggest that although the school year in Japan starts on April 1, significant relative age effects are observed in some sporting events.
Reich, M R; Frumkin, H
This paper provides an overview of Japanese occupational health and evaluates the current situation from three perspectives. Major occupational health hazards are assessed using four sources of data, showing patterns similar to those found in other advanced industrial societies. Institutional structures for occupational health policy are then examined, illustrating strengths and weaknesses of the Japanese legal and administrative systems. Trade union activities are presented, indicating the constraints of enterprise unions, and the tendency for a greater orientation toward compensation than prevention. Significant occupational health problems persist among marginal workers in Japan, including women and various minority groups. The analysis demonstrates a record for occupational health in Japan considerably more mixed than the conventional view. PMID:2968056
Chang, Yu-Lin; Sheng, Jinyu; Ohashi, Kyoko; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Miyazawa, Yasumasa
The Japanese eel larvae hatch near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain and travel through the North Equatorial Current (NEC), the Kuroshio, and the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) region during their shoreward migration toward East Asia. The interannual variability of circulation over the subtropical and tropical regions of the western North Pacific Ocean is affected by the Philippines–Taiwan Oscillation (PTO). This study examines the effect of the PTO on the Japanese eel larval migration routes using a three-dimensional (3D) particle tracking method, including vertical and horizontal swimming behavior. The 3D circulation and hydrography used for particle tracking are from the ocean circulation reanalysis produced by the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2 (JCOPE2). Our results demonstrate that bifurcation of the NEC and the strength and spatial variation of the Kuroshio affect the distribution and migration of eel larvae. During the positive phase of PTO, more virtual eels (“v-eels”) can enter the Kuroshio to reach the south coast of Japan and more v-eels reach the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait; the stronger and more offshore swing of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea leads to fewer eels entering the East China Sea and the onshore movement of the Kuroshio to the south of Japan brings the eels closer to the Japanese coast. Significant differences in eel migration routes and distributions regulated by ocean circulation in different PTO phases can also affect the otolith increment. The estimated otolith increment suggests that eel age tends to be underestimated after six months of simulation due to the cooler lower layer temperature. Underestimation is more significant in the positive PTO years due to the wide distribution in higher latitudes than in the negative PTO years. PMID:26642318
Chang, Yu-Lin; Sheng, Jinyu; Ohashi, Kyoko; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Miyazawa, Yasumasa
The Japanese eel larvae hatch near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain and travel through the North Equatorial Current (NEC), the Kuroshio, and the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) region during their shoreward migration toward East Asia. The interannual variability of circulation over the subtropical and tropical regions of the western North Pacific Ocean is affected by the Philippines-Taiwan Oscillation (PTO). This study examines the effect of the PTO on the Japanese eel larval migration routes using a three-dimensional (3D) particle tracking method, including vertical and horizontal swimming behavior. The 3D circulation and hydrography used for particle tracking are from the ocean circulation reanalysis produced by the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2 (JCOPE2). Our results demonstrate that bifurcation of the NEC and the strength and spatial variation of the Kuroshio affect the distribution and migration of eel larvae. During the positive phase of PTO, more virtual eels ("v-eels") can enter the Kuroshio to reach the south coast of Japan and more v-eels reach the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait; the stronger and more offshore swing of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea leads to fewer eels entering the East China Sea and the onshore movement of the Kuroshio to the south of Japan brings the eels closer to the Japanese coast. Significant differences in eel migration routes and distributions regulated by ocean circulation in different PTO phases can also affect the otolith increment. The estimated otolith increment suggests that eel age tends to be underestimated after six months of simulation due to the cooler lower layer temperature. Underestimation is more significant in the positive PTO years due to the wide distribution in higher latitudes than in the negative PTO years.
Groenevelt, C J
"Just in time," a Japanese management philosophy that has been applied successfully in manufacturing operations, also can be used to improve management of patient accounts departments. Under its principles, healthcare organizations would develop standardized procedures; involve workers in decision making; set up training and education programs aimed at creating a multi-skilled pool of workers; establish smooth production schedules; and foster cooperation and commitment to the philosophy throughout the organization.
Chiba, Shiori; Funato, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu
Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy.
Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi
Many guidelines for the management of epilepsy have been published since the introduction of evidence-based medicine. In Japan, the first clinical guideline for epilepsy management was published by the Japanese Society of Neurology (JSN) in 2002. The Japan Epilepsy Society (JES) has been publishing guidelines for several topics since 2005. However, owing to recent advances in epileptology and the accumulation of related knowledge, it has become necessary to revise these guidelines. Four medical societies-JSN, JES, the Japanese Society of Neurological Therapeutics, and the Japanese Society of Child Neurology-have together published new epilepsy-related clinical guidelines for practitioners. The guideline committee consists of 23 specialists representing the 4 societies. The guidelines primary target general practitioners treating epilepsy patients and are designed to be user friendly-in the form of 81 "clinical questions" (CQs). The CQs comprehensively cover various aspects of epilepsy management including those related to diagnosis, treatment, surgery, pregnancy, and social issues. Recommendations are concisely described with levels from A to D. The evidence level (I to IV) of the references is based on the literature review conducted by the committee. These guidelines were published in October 2010.
Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko
This paper reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of the English Developmental Sentence Scoring model (Lee, 1974). Using this measure, we calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8 and 5;2 on the basis of 100-sentence samples collected from free-play child-adult conversations. The analysis showed a high correlation of the DSSJ overall score with the Mean Length of Utterance. The analysis of the DSSJ subarea scores revealed large variations between these subarea scores for children with similar overall DSSJ scores. When investigating the high-scoring children (over 1 SD over group average), most children scored high in three to five subareas, but the combination of scores for these subareas varied from child to child. It is concluded that DSSJ is a valuable tool especially for the language acquisition research. The overall DSSJ score reliably reflects the overall morpho-syntactic development of Japanese children, and the subarea scores provide specific information on individual acquisition patterns. PMID:25414535
Tada, Norio; Maruyama, Chizuko; Koba, Shinji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Birou, Sadatoshi; Teramoto, Tamio; Sasaki, Jun
To demonstrate the reasons for low morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease (CAD) and reconfirm the effectiveness of the Japanese dietary lifestyle for preventing CAD, we herein review the CAD risk transition, and post-war changes in Japanese food and nutrient intake. Large-scale cohort studies in Japan were selectively reviewed. Low serum total cholesterol contributed to preventing CAD, and decreased blood pressure was the major factor favoring stroke reduction. Japanese consumed more plant and marine origin foods, but fewer animal foods with saturated fatty acids (SFA) during the 1960-70s than in recent decades. Adequate control of total energy with restriction of saturated fatty acids from animal foods, increased intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including fish, soybean products, fruits and vegetables together with low salt intake are responsible for promoting CAD and stroke prevention. A diet with adequate total calories and increased intake of fish and plant foods, but decreased intake of refined carbohydrates and animal fat, a so-called Japan diet, appears to be quite effective for prevention of CAD risk factors and is recommended as dietary therapy for preventing CAD.
CHIBA, Shiori; FUNATO, Shingo; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; INOKUMA, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu
Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy. PMID:25421501
Yamamoto, Yukio; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Hirata, Naru; Shinohara, Iku
In this presentation, we will introduce Japanese contributions to the data archives for international collaborations. In Japan, the importance of planetary data archive was not recognized enough until early in 2000's. While NASA and ESA started their collaborations to their archives: PDS and PSA, and tried to make the new standard, JAXA was looking for the way of contributions because Japan did not have own data and archiving policy. The activities of NASA and ESA extended to the international collaborations, and International Planetary Data Alliance was established. JAXA had an opportunity to join the IPDA as an agency member. One of the contributions, the IPDA chairman was undertaken by Japanese member. The projects in IPDA were managed and were proceeded successfully during the term. For the technical part, JAXA is making several pilot systems to share planetary data. Planetary Data Access Protocol, PDAP, developed by IPDA, is implemented in JAXA's system, and provides a search system for Hayabusa and Kaguya (SELENE) data. Not only for Japanese data, but also Apollo's seismic data archives are prepared for scientific communities. The seismic data on the moon has not been measured for a long time, and Apollo's data are still precious and should be archived together with much information. The contributions to planetary data archives has just started and continues as a member of IPDA.
Arakawa, Hirokazu; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Kohno, Yoichi; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Kondo, Naomi; Nishima, Sankei; Nishimuta, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Akihiro
The Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Diseases 2017 (JAGL 2017) includes a minor revision of the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Asthma 2012 (JPGL 2012) by the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology. The section on child asthma in JAGL 2017 provides information on how to diagnose asthma between infancy and adolescence (0-15 years of age). It makes recommendations for best practices in the management of childhood asthma, including management of acute exacerbations and non-pharmacological and pharmacological management. This guideline will be of interest to non-specialist physicians involved in the care of children with asthma. JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline in that JAGL emphasizes diagnosis and early intervention of children with asthma at <2 years or 2-5 years of age. The first choice of treatment depends on the severity and frequency of symptoms. Pharmacological management, including step-up or step-down of drugs used for long-term management based on the status of asthma control levels, is easy to understand; thus, this guideline is suitable for the routine medical care of children with asthma. JAGL also recommends using a control test in children, so that the physician aims for complete control by avoiding exacerbating factors and appropriately using anti-inflammatory drugs (for example, inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists).
Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Akagi, Hirokatsu
The human fetus is known to be exposed to methylmercury (MeHg), but little is known about the risk of infant exposure via breast milk. To evaluate the lactational exposure to MeHg via breast milk in Japanese infants, the levels of total mercury (THg) and MeHg were determined in breast milk and maternal blood using samples from a birth cohort study at the Tohoku Study of Child Development. Maternal blood and breast milk were collected one day postpartum and one month after delivery, respectively. The median THg (and MeHg) concentrations in maternal RBCs, plasma and breast milk were 17.8 ng g(-1) (17.8 ng g(-1)), 1.51 ng g(-1) (1.33 ng g(-1)) and 0.81 ng g(-1) (0.45 ng g(-1)), respectively (n=27). The median percentage of MeHg in THg was 54% in breast milk. Breast milk contained substantial amounts of MeHg, which was strongly associated with the internal accumulation of MeHg and the lipid content of the milk (r=0.684). The range of lipid contents in milk varied widely from 0.50 to 6.60 g/100 g of milk, with a median of 3.60 g/100 g. The median (range) weekly average intake of MeHg via breast milk was estimated to be 0.63 μg kg(-1) (0.08-1.68 μg kg(-1)) BW/week. Because the MeHg and lipid contents in milk substantially fluctuate, an investigation of the variations of MeHg and lipid content in breast milk may be required for a more precise risk assessment.