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Sample records for japanese diagnosis procedure

  1. Mortality of neuroleptic malignant syndrome induced by typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs: a propensity-matched analysis from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Yasunaga, Hideo; Miyata, Hiroaki; Shimada, Takafumi; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Matsuda, Shinya

    2012-04-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome induced by atypical antipsychotics presents atypical clinical manifestations with fewer symptoms compared with neuroleptic malignant syndrome induced by typical antipsychotics. However, any differences in prognosis between these 2 types of drug-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome remain unknown. We examined neuroleptic malignant syndrome-related mortality in patients treated with typical or atypical antipsychotics by using a national administrative claims database. Data of patients with a diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome between July and December in each of the 5 years from 2004 to 2008 were extracted from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. Data included patient background, use of antipsychotics, and in-hospital mortality. Propensity score matching was performed to formulate a balanced 1:1 matched study and to compare in-hospital mortality between neuroleptic malignant syndrome patients taking typical antipsychotics and those taking atypical antipsychotics. We identified 423 neuroleptic malignant syndrome patients treated with typical antipsychotics and 215 neuroleptic malignant syndrome patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Matching based on propensity scores produced 210 patients in each drug group. In-hospital mortality was substantially lower in the atypical antipsychotic group compared with the typical antipsychotic group, but the difference was not significant (3.3% vs 7.6%; OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.17-1.11; P = .084). The results show that neuroleptic malignant syndrome remains a life threatening disease among patients receiving antipsychotics. A tendency for lower mortality in the atypical antipsychotic group may reflect differences in the pathophysiology. However, to clarify whether there is a difference in neuroleptic malignant syndrome-related mortality with the 2 types of antipsychotics, further studies with larger samples are needed. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press

  2. Seasonal Variations in the Risk of Reoperation for Surgical Site Infection Following Elective Spinal Fusion Surgery: A Retrospective Study Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination Database.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Junichi; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Oichi, Takeshi; Kato, So; Matsui, Hiroki; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Sakae; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2017-07-15

    A retrospective study of data abstracted from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) database, a national representative database in Japan. The aim of this study was to examine seasonal variations in the risk of reoperation for surgical site infection (SSI) following spinal fusion surgery. Although higher rates of infection in the summer than in other seasons were thought to be caused by increasing inexperience of new staff, high temperature, and high humidity, no studies have examined seasonal variations in the risk of SSI following spinal fusion surgery in the country where medical staff rotation timing is not in summer season. In Japan, medical staff rotation starts in April. We retrospectively extracted the data of patients who were admitted between July 2010 and March 2013 from the DPC database. Patients were included if they were aged 20 years or older and underwent elective spinal fusion surgery. The primary outcome was reoperation for SSI during hospitalization. We performed multivariate analysis to clarify the risk factors of primary outcome with adjustment for patient background characteristics. We identified 47,252 eligible patients (23,659 male, 23,593 female). The mean age of the patients was 65.4 years (range, 20-101 yrs). Overall, reoperation for SSI occurred in 0.93% of the patients during hospitalization. The risk of reoperation for SSI was significantly higher in April (vs. February; odds ratio, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.43, P = 0.03) as well as other known risk factors. In subgroup analysis with stratification for type of hospital, month of surgery was identified as an independent risk factor of reoperation for SSI among cases in an academic hospital, although there was no seasonal variation among those in a nonacademic hospital. This study showed that month of surgery is a risk factor of reoperation for SSI following elective spinal fusion surgery, nevertheless, in the country where medical staff rotation timing is not in

  3. Establishment of superovulation procedure in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Atsuko; Tanaka, Minako; Morita, Mami; Ushijima, Hitoshi; Tomogane, Hiroshi; Okada, Konosuke

    2016-08-01

    Japanese field vole (Microtus montebelli) is a wild-derived rodent and have unique characteristic. Thus, these species have been expected as model animal. This study was performed to develop novel superovulation procedure for Japanese field vole. First, when 30 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and 30 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were administrated 48 hours apart, females showed higher response to hCG compared with three concentrations of PMSG. Second, to effectively induce ovulation on females after vaginal opening, they were mated with vasectomized male instead of hCG administration. Average number of ovulated oocytes using PMSG mating (13.9 ± 1.9 oocytes) was higher than PMSG-hCG (control; 6.9 ± 2.3 oocytes) or PMSG-hCG mating (6.8 ± 0.8 oocytes). Finally, we attempted superovulation using GnRH agonist (GnRHa). With this treatment, we speculated that GnRHa might induce endogenous luteinizing hormone releasing to cause ovulation. Such superovulation was performed with 30 IU PMSG and different concentration of 20% polyvinylpyrrolidone-GnRHa (15, 30, 45, and 60 μg/kg). As results, average number of ovulated oocytes was highest with 30 μg/kg GnRHa (14.5 ± 4.1 oocytes). The numbers of ovulated oocytes of other concentrations were 5.0 ± 1.4 (15 μg/kg), 12.8 ± 2.7 (45 μg/kg), and 8.8 ± 3.7 oocytes (60 μg/kg). Nuclear status of most collected oocytes was the second meiotic division (range, 94.3%-100%). These superovulation procedures will be useful for development of in vitro culture systems and assisted reproductive technologies for not only Japanese field vole but also other voles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Validity of diagnoses, procedures, and laboratory data in Japanese administrative data.

    PubMed

    Yamana, Hayato; Moriwaki, Mutsuko; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Kodan, Mariko; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2017-10-01

    Validation of recorded data is a prerequisite for studies that utilize administrative databases. The present study evaluated the validity of diagnoses and procedure records in the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) data, along with laboratory test results in the newly-introduced Standardized Structured Medical Record Information Exchange (SS-MIX) data. Between November 2015 and February 2016, we conducted chart reviews of 315 patients hospitalized between April 2014 and March 2015 in four middle-sized acute-care hospitals in Shizuoka, Kochi, Fukuoka, and Saga Prefectures and used them as reference standards. The sensitivity and specificity of DPC data in identifying 16 diseases and 10 common procedures were identified. The accuracy of SS-MIX data for 13 laboratory test results was also examined. The specificity of diagnoses in the DPC data exceeded 96%, while the sensitivity was below 50% for seven diseases and variable across diseases. When limited to primary diagnoses, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.9% and 93.2%, respectively. The sensitivity of procedure records exceeded 90% for six procedures, and the specificity exceeded 90% for nine procedures. Agreement between the SS-MIX data and the chart reviews was above 95% for all 13 items. The validity of diagnoses and procedure records in the DPC data and laboratory results in the SS-MIX data was high in general, supporting their use in future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diarrhea after bariatric procedures: Diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Yves M; Osterwalder, Alice; Kröll, Dino; Nett, Philipp C; Inglin, Roman A

    2017-07-14

    Diarrhea after bariatric procedures, mainly those with malabsorptive elements including Roux-Y Gastric Bypass and Biliopancreatic Diversion, is common and an essential determinant of quality of life and micro- and macronutrient deficiencies. Bariatric surgery is the only sustainably successful method to address morbid obesity and its comorbidities, particularly gaining more and more importance in the specific treatment of diabetic patients. Approximately half a million procedures are annually performed around the world, with numbers expected to rise drastically in the near future. A multitude of factors exert their influence on bowel habits; preoperative comorbidities and procedure-related aspects are intertwined with postoperative nutritional habits. Diagnosis may be challenging owing to the characteristics of post-bariatric surgery anatomy with hindered accessibility of excluded segments of the small bowel and restriction at the gastric level. Conventional testing measures, if available, generally yield low accuracy and are usually not validated in this specific population. Limited trials of empiric treatment are a practical alternative and oftentimes an indispensable part of the diagnostic process. This review provides an overview of causes for chronic post-bariatric surgery diarrhea and details the particularities of its diagnosis and treatment in this specific patient population. Topics of current interest such as the impact of gut microbiota and the influence of bile acids on morbid obesity and especially their role in diarrhea are highlighted in order to provide a better understanding of the specific problems and chances of future treatment in post-bariatric surgery patients.

  6. Disclosure of true diagnosis in Japanese cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, T; Awazu, H; Fukunishi, I; Okuyama, T; Wogan, J

    1999-01-01

    Full disclosure of medical diagnosis to cancer patients in Japan remains controversial. Some physicians in Japan believe that full disclosure may affect the outcome of treatment, create stress and psychiatric problems, or lead to suicide. Although the trend toward full disclosure is increasing in Japan, approximately 70% of current cancer patients are still not fully informed of their condition. In this study, the authors examined the psychiatric status and effects of full disclosure among 100 otolaryngology patients at Tokai University Hospital (50 with benign diseases, 50 with malignancy) using major depression and adjustment disorders criteria of the DSM-III-R Structured Clinical Interview (SCID). This demonstrated that 15 of 50 (30%) patients with benign diseases and 23 of 50 (46%) patients with malignant diseases met the criteria for depression and adjustment disorder; 29 of the 50 patients (58%) with malignant cancer were not informed of their true condition, according to the wishes of their families (21 were fully informed). The prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders was 42.9% among the informed group and 48.3% among the uninformed group. These findings suggest that concealing the true diagnosis was not related to the presence of psychiatric disorders in Japanese cancer patients.

  7. Japanese Preschoolers' Understanding of Biological Concepts Related to Procedures for Animal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko; Lee, Yuu Mei; Muto, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    Studied whether 41 Japanese 6-year olds' voluntary participation in animal care activities in school was associated with children's understanding of animal care procedures. Found that children experienced in such activities had better understanding of animal care procedures than those who were not, but levels of participation were not associated…

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scintigrams from Japanese patients: importance of training database.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Sjöstrand, Karl; Edenbrandt, Lars

    2012-10-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software for bone scintigrams have recently been introduced as a clinical quality assurance tool. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two CAD systems, one based on a European and one on a Japanese training database, in a group of bone scans from Japanese patients. The two CAD software are trained to interpret bone scans using training databases consisting of bone scans with the desired interpretation, metastatic disease or not. One software was trained using 795 bone scans from European patients and the other with 904 bone scans from Japanese patients. The two CAD softwares were evaluated using the same group of 257 Japanese patients, who underwent bone scintigraphy because of suspected metastases of malignant tumors in 2009. The final diagnostic results made by clinicians were used as gold standard. The Japanese CAD software showed a higher specificity and accuracy compared to the European CAD software [81 vs. 57 % (p < 0.05) and 82 vs. 61 % (p < 0.05), respectively]. The sensitivity was 90 % for the Japanese CAD software and 83 % for the European CAD software (n.s). The CAD software trained with a Japanese database showed significantly higher performance than the corresponding CAD software trained with a European database for the analysis of bone scans from Japanese patients. These results could at least partly be caused by the physical differences between Japanese and European patients resulting in less influence of attenuation in Japanese patients and possible different judgement of count intensities of hot spots.

  9. Reexamining Reading Diagnosis: New Trends and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Susan Mandel, Ed.; And Others

    In an effort to better understand children's reading behavior, this volume offers naturalistic assessments of reading performance in multiple settings and at all levels. The chapters and their authors are as follows: (1) "Reexamining Reading Diagnosis" (Susan Mandel Glazer and Lyndon W. Searfoss); (2) "Reexamining the Role of…

  10. An English Pronunciation Learning System for Japanese Students Based on Diagnosis of Critical Pronunciation Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsubota, Yasushi; Dantsuji, Masatake; Kawahara, Tatsuya

    2004-01-01

    We have developed an English pronunciation learning system which estimates the intelligibility of Japanese learners' speech and ranks their errors from the viewpoint of improving their intelligibility to native speakers. Error diagnosis is particularly important in self-study since students tend to spend time on aspects of pronunciation that do…

  11. Establishment of an on-site diagnostic procedure for detection of orf virus from oral lesions of Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    PubMed Central

    INOSHIMA, Yasuo; TAKASU, Masaki; ISHIGURO, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    Orf virus infection has been prevalent continuously in the population of wild Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus), goat-like grazing cloven-hoofed mammal species that live mainly in mountainous areas of Japan. Currently, definitive diagnosis of infection requires time-consuming laboratory work. To diagnose rapidly on-site, we developed a field-friendly procedure for the detection of orf virus from oral cavity lesions. DNA was extracted from goat saliva spiked with orf virus as a proxy for Japanese serows by a commercial kit without the use of electricity, and the quality of the extracted DNA was evaluated by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Extracted DNA was amenable to DNA amplification, the same as when extracted in a laboratory. Next, to find optimal conditions for DNA amplification by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), Bst and Csa DNA polymerases and 3 colorimetric indicators for visual diagnosis, hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB), malachite green and D-QUICK, were compared using a portable cordless incubator. The combination of Bst or Csa DNA polymerase with HNB was found to be easiest for visual diagnosis by the naked eye, and viral DNA was successfully amplified from all orf virus strains used. These results suggest that the procedure established here can work completely on-site and can be useful for definitive diagnosis and differentiation of orf virus infection in Japanese serows in remote mountainous areas. PMID:27628591

  12. Procedural Discourse in Intellectual Disability and Dual Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, J.; Woodyatt, G.; Copeland, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of discourse abilities of adults with intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness is limited. The present study examined the procedural discourse skills of two cohorts of adults with ID--one cohort with (n = 7) and one cohort without (n = 7) a psychiatric diagnosis of psychosis. Methods: Participants completed the "dice…

  13. Procedural Discourse in Intellectual Disability and Dual Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, J.; Woodyatt, G.; Copeland, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of discourse abilities of adults with intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness is limited. The present study examined the procedural discourse skills of two cohorts of adults with ID--one cohort with (n = 7) and one cohort without (n = 7) a psychiatric diagnosis of psychosis. Methods: Participants completed the "dice…

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of TMA based on Japanese clinical guides.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hideo; Hasegawa, Kei; Watanabe, Maki

    Patients with thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs), which include thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli hemolytic uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS), exhibit multiple symptoms. These include thrombocytopenia (platelet count <15×10(4)/µl), microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (hemoglobin <10 g/dl), and organ damage, such as renal dysfunction or neurological abnormalities. Guidelines for the management of TTP, aHUS, and STEC-HUS have been published. Diagnosis of TTP, STEC-HUS, or aHUS requires ADAMTS13 activity <10%, the detection of STEC or Shiga toxins, or a genetic analysis to investigate the complement regulatory system, respectively. In the established management of TMAs, fresh frozen plasma is used for congenital TTP to supplement ADAMTS13. Plasma exchange (PE) is used in acquired TTP (ATTP) to remove inhibitors and replace ADAMTS13. Steroid therapy is administered in ATTP to suppress inhibitor production, and rituximab is administered in ATTP without response to PE or with high titers of ADAMTS13 inhibitors. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody for complement protein 5, is used for the treatment of aHUS. Supportive therapy is required for some TMAs, particularly STEC-HUS, but platelet transfusion is generally contraindicated for other TMAs, such as TTP. Treatments should be administered in accordance with these guidelines to improve the outcome of TMAs.

  15. Molecular Diagnosis of Subcutaneous Spirometra erinaceieuropaei Sparganosis in a Japanese Immigrant

    PubMed Central

    Tappe, Dennis; Berger, Luise; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Harder, Yves; Specht, Katja; Prazeres da Costa, Clarissa; Poppert, Sven

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of subcutaneous sparganosis in a 68-year-old female Japanese immigrant in Germany. The patient complained of a painless erythema caudal of the umbilicus with a palpable subcutaneous cherry-sized lump. Polymerase chain reaction on formalin-fixed parasite tissue identified Spirometra erinaceieuropaei as the causative agent; the proliferative form of sparganosis, which is caused by the branching and disseminating Sparganum proliferum, could, thus, be excluded. From the excised sparganum, an immunofluorescence test was established and revealed an antibody response directed against the parasite's tegument. Histological key features of the plerocercoid that facilitate diagnosis with different stains are presented. PMID:23166198

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of bone metastasis: comprehensive guideline of the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology, Japanese Orthopedic Association, Japanese Urological Association, and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

    PubMed

    Shibata, H; Kato, S; Sekine, I; Abe, K; Araki, N; Iguchi, H; Izumi, T; Inaba, Y; Osaka, I; Kato, S; Kawai, A; Kinuya, S; Kodaira, M; Kobayashi, E; Kobayashi, T; Sato, J; Shinohara, N; Takahashi, S; Takamatsu, Y; Takayama, K; Takayama, K; Tateishi, U; Nagakura, H; Hosaka, M; Morioka, H; Moriya, T; Yuasa, T; Yurikusa, T; Yomiya, K; Yoshida, M

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of bone metastasis requires various types of measures, specialists and caregivers. To provide better diagnosis and treatment, a multidisciplinary team approach is required. The members of this multidisciplinary team include doctors of primary cancers, radiologists, pathologists, orthopaedists, radiotherapists, clinical oncologists, palliative caregivers, rehabilitation doctors, dentists, nurses, pharmacists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, medical social workers, etc. Medical evidence was extracted from published articles describing meta-analyses or randomised controlled trials concerning patients with bone metastases mainly from 2003 to 2013, and a guideline was developed according to the Medical Information Network Distribution Service Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. Multidisciplinary team meetings are helpful in diagnosis and treatment. Clinical benefits such as physical or psychological palliation obtained using the multidisciplinary team approaches are apparent. We established a guideline describing each specialty field, to improve understanding of the different fields among the specialists, who can further provide appropriate treatment, and to improve patients' outcomes.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of bone metastasis: comprehensive guideline of the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology, Japanese Orthopedic Association, Japanese Urological Association, and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, H; Kato, S; Sekine, I; Abe, K; Araki, N; Iguchi, H; Izumi, T; Inaba, Y; Osaka, I; Kato, S; Kawai, A; Kinuya, S; Kodaira, M; Kobayashi, E; Kobayashi, T; Sato, J; Shinohara, N; Takahashi, S; Takamatsu, Y; Takayama, K; Takayama, K; Tateishi, U; Nagakura, H; Hosaka, M; Morioka, H; Moriya, T; Yuasa, T; Yurikusa, T; Yomiya, K; Yoshida, M

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of bone metastasis requires various types of measures, specialists and caregivers. To provide better diagnosis and treatment, a multidisciplinary team approach is required. The members of this multidisciplinary team include doctors of primary cancers, radiologists, pathologists, orthopaedists, radiotherapists, clinical oncologists, palliative caregivers, rehabilitation doctors, dentists, nurses, pharmacists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, medical social workers, etc. Medical evidence was extracted from published articles describing meta-analyses or randomised controlled trials concerning patients with bone metastases mainly from 2003 to 2013, and a guideline was developed according to the Medical Information Network Distribution Service Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. Multidisciplinary team meetings are helpful in diagnosis and treatment. Clinical benefits such as physical or psychological palliation obtained using the multidisciplinary team approaches are apparent. We established a guideline describing each specialty field, to improve understanding of the different fields among the specialists, who can further provide appropriate treatment, and to improve patients’ outcomes. PMID:27843593

  18. Standard operating procedures for sows and piglets in farrowing and lactation in Japanese commercial herds.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroki; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to advance the development of standard operating procedures for sows and piglets during farrowing and lactation in Japanese herds by surveying management procedures and to examine the relationships between the procedures and herd reproductive performance. In 2009, 115 herds using the same recording system were asked to complete a questionnaire about their management procedures. Data from 96 (83.5%) returned questionnaires were coordinated with the respective herd reproductive performance. The participating herds were classified into two groups based on the upper 25th percentile of pigs weaned per mated female per year: high-performing (>23.8 pigs) or ordinary herds. ANOVA was used to compare the procedures between two herd groups. Modeling with backward elimination was performed to establish the most important procedures for herd performance. More high-performing herds practiced farrowing induction and high-performing herds also had a higher percentage of farrowing-induced sows than ordinary herds (P<0.05). Modeling showed that herds feeding lactating sows with dietary fiber had 1.4% lower preweaning mortality risk than those that did not (P<0.05). Herds practicing fostering techniques or using nurse sows had 0.2 kg heavier average pig weaning weight than those not using these procedures (P<0.05). There was no association between pigs born alive and any of the surveyed management procedures. Based on these results, we recommend improving performances in breeding herds by feeding lactating sows with dietary fiber, performing fostering techniques and using nurse sows.

  19. An evaluation of the usefulness of neuroimaging for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Dung, N M; Turtle, Lance; Chong, W K; Mai, N T; Thao, T T; Thuy, T T; Kneen, R; Phu, N H; Wills, B; Farrar, J; Das, K; Solomon, Tom

    2009-12-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is estimated to cause 30–50,000 cases of encephalitis every year. The disease occurs mainly in rural Asia and is transmitted to humans from birds and pigs by mosquitoes of the genus Culex. JE is diagnosed with antibody testing of the serum and CSF, but this is not available in many hospitals. Neuroimaging abnormalities, particularly thalamic hypodensity on computed tomography (CT) and hyperintensity on T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been described in case studies, but their usefulness for diagnosing JE is not known. We have therefore evaluated the usefulness of neuroimaging (CT and MRI) for the diagnosis of JE. The findings of thalamic lesions were compared with the final serological diagnosis in a cohort of 75 patients (children and adults) with suspected CNS infections in Southern Vietnam, a JEV endemic area. Thalamic lesions on CT and/or MRI combined had sensitivity 23% (95% confidence interval 12.9–33.1%), specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 42.1% (95% confidence interval 30.2–53.8%) for a diagnosis of JE in this cohort. Over time, the thalamic lesions resolved in some patients. One patient showed disappearance of lesions on CT followed by reappearance of the lesions some time later, known as the fogging effect. In this setting, the presence of thalamic abnormalities suggested the diagnosis of JE, but their absence did not exclude it.

  20. Plasma free metanephrines in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: diagnostic accuracy and strategies for Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuko; Isobe, Kazumasa; Ma, Enbo; Imai, Tsuneo; Kikumori, Toyone; Matsuda, Tadashi; Maeda, Yuji; Sakurai, Akihiro; Midorikawa, Sanae; Hataya, Yuji; Kato, Taiya; Kamide, Kei; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Okada, Yosuke; Adachi, Masahiro; Yanase, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Hideto; Yokoyama, Chie; Arai, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Koichi; Shimano, Hitoshi; Hara, Hisato; Kawakami, Yasushi; Takekoshi, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the levels of the plasma free metanephrines (PFMs) represents a recently developed and promising test for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in the United States and Europe. As this test has not yet been evaluated in Japan, it is necessary to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of measuring the levels of PFMs compared with the standard measurement of the urinary excretion of metanephrines (uMNs) whose reliability is well established to detect of pheochromocytoma. A total of 101 Japanese subjects clinically suspected of having pheochromocytoma in were included in this study. Subsequently, we prospectively measured the PFMs levels in all patients, compared with those of biochemical markers of the catecholamine secretion and metabolisms in the plasma and urine. All subjects with adrenal tumors underwent tumor excision. Data were available for 84 of the 101 patients, 47 of whom had histopathologically proven pheochromocytoma and 37 were finally diagnosed with non-pheochromocytoma. The results of comparisons in the accuracy of measurement for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma between PFMs and the urinary excretion of metanephrines (uMNs) were 0.980 VS 0.951 for AUC of receiver operatorating characteristic (ROC) curve, 0.957 VS 0.894 for sensitivity, and 0.973 VS 0.946 for specificity, respectively. Although the differences were small, the results of our study definitely demonstrated that measurement of PFMs was not inferior to standard urinary metanephrines (uMNs) measurement, which is established to be the most reliable biochemical method to detect pheochromocytoma. This study clearly shows measuring the PFMs levels to be a reliable and efficient method for diagnosing pheochromocytoma in Japanese patients, as demonstrated in previous reports.

  1. Forecast on the application of Japanese universal service fund to remote diagnosis for frozen section.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Isao

    2010-12-01

    Due to the socioeconomic reason in Japan, some cancer patient is sometimes operated at a rural hospital where only several surgeons perform and no pathologist checks its malignancy. Therefore, the system of the remote diagnosis for frozen section has been standing up in this country for 7 years. In Japan, the USF has started from February 2007 to support only telecommunications operator's hardware (NTT's equipment such as digital switch board) in high cost areas, not for the reimbursement of the tariff of the public users, such as telepathology. To solve such social cormorant equality, when the USF and PAs were supported in the present quick frozen intraoperative telepathology diagnosis, the quality of the cancer treatment in rural area will be improved. Based on the past data of the Japanese telepathology with beta distribution function, it can be estimated that user terminals becomes five times more than present users with support of USF and PAs. Moreover, using VPN on the B'FLETS, the effect of other teleconsultations will spread to the nationwide.

  2. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration is useful as an initial procedure for the diagnosis of lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Korrungruang, Potjanee; Oki, Masahide; Saka, Hideo; Kogure, Yoshihito; Tsuboi, Rie; Oka, Saori; Nakahata, Masashi; Hori, Kazumi; Murakami, Yasushi; Ise, Yuko; Ahmed, Shimaa Nour Moursi; Kitagawa, Chiyoe

    2016-01-01

    The usefulness of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for evaluating hilar, mediastinal and central parenchymal lesions has been well established. However, its utility for diagnosing lymphoma is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of EBUS-TBNA for the definitive diagnosis of de novo lymphoma with subtype classification. Patients with lymphoma who underwent EBUS-TBNA for diagnostic purposes at a single institution between March 2004 and May 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 971 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA during the study period, 19 patients, who did not have a previous history of lymphoma, had a final diagnosis of lymphoma. EBUS-TBNA provided a diagnosis accompanied with subtype classification in 6 patients (32%), a suspicious but not definitive classification in 10 patients (53%), and a negative classification in 3 patients (16%). Immunohistochemical staining for definitive diagnosis was performed in 15 of 16 patients (94%), with suspicious results from routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. No procedure-related complications occurred. EBUS-TBNA is a useful initial diagnostic procedure, aiding decisions for the management of patients with suspected lymphoma, even though the sensitivity of EBUS-TBNA for diagnosing lymphoma with subtype classification was lower than previously reported. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How do the trends in the prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy change after a non-invasive prenatal test becomes available? A Japanese single center study.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Sekizawa, Akihiko

    2015-04-01

    To clarify the trends in the use of the prenatal diagnosis of and screening for aneuploidy after a non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) was made available at a single Japanese hospital. The subjects included consecutive pregnant females who visited our hospital for maternal checkups and delivery between January 2012 and April 2014. After the subjects were divided into those who desired a prenatal diagnosis or screening before the availability of NIPT and those who did after the availability of NIPT, the frequencies of various prenatal diagnosis and screening procedures were compared between the two groups. A total of 544 patients who visited the hospital before NIPT was available and 703 who visited the hospital after NIPT became available were analyzed. While only 16.2 % of pregnant females received a prenatal diagnosis or screening before the NIPT was available, 27.5 % of them considered undergoing a prenatal diagnosis or screening after the NIPT was available before genetic counseling, and 24.0 % ultimately received a prenatal diagnosis or screening following genetic counseling. Of these patients, 7.7 % underwent NIPT. First trimester ultrasound screening for chromosomal abnormalities was unlikely to be selected (from 12.9 to 10.5 %, p = 0.212), although the rate of amniocentesis significantly increased after genetic counseling (from 1.5 to 3.7 %, p = 0.021). Since NIPT became available in 2013, pregnant females have demonstrated a deep interest in obtaining a prenatal diagnosis and screening. Whereas some patients choose to forgo a screening after receiving genetic counseling, others prefer invasive diagnostic tests in contrast to screening.

  4. Optimum Testing Procedures for System Diagnosis and Fault Isolation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-31

    fault detection and isolation procedures are directed...Conference, Vol. 32 (1968), pp. 529-534. 4. Cohn, H. Y. and Ott, G., "Design of Adaptive Procedures for Fault Detection and Isolation ," IEEE... detection and isolation Built-in-test Optimum sequenceof testing Branch-and Bound 20. ABSTRACT (Contin... on revera. .ide f nwcider’ and identify

  5. Timeliness of Diagnosing Lung Cancer: Number of Procedures and Time Needed to Establish Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Akash; Lim, Albert Y.H.; Tai, Dessmon Y.H.; Goh, Soon Keng; Kor, Ai Ching; A., Dokeu Basheer A.; Chopra, Akhil; Abisheganaden, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To study number of procedures and time to diagnose lung cancer and factors affecting the timeliness of clinching this diagnosis. Retrospective cohort study of lung cancer patients who consecutively underwent diagnostic bronchoscopy in 1 year (October 2013 to September 2014). Out of 101 patients diagnosed with lung cancer from bronchoscopy, average time interval between first abnormal computed tomogram (CT) scan-to-1st procedure, 1st procedure-to-diagnosis, and 1st abnormal CT scan-to-diagnosis was 16 ± 26, 11 ± 19, and 27 ± 33 days, respectively. These intervals were significantly longer in those requiring repeat procedures. Multivariate analysis revealed inconclusive 1st procedure to be the predictor of prolonged (>30 days) CT scan to diagnosis time (P = 0.04). Twenty-nine patients (28.7%) required repeat procedures (n = 63). Reasons behind repeating the procedures were inadequate procedure (n = 14), inaccessibility of lesion (n = 9), inappropriate procedure (n = 5), mutation analysis (n = 2), and others (n = 2). Fifty had visible endo-bronchial lesion, 20 had positive bronchus sign, and 83 had enlarged mediastinal/hilar lymph-nodes or central masses adjacent to the airways. Fewer procedures, and shorter procedure to diagnosis time, were observed in those undergoing convex probe endobronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) (P = 0.04). Most patients exhibit enlarged mediastinal lymph node or mass adjacent to the central airway accessible by convex probe EBUS-TBNA. Hence, combining it with conventional bronchoscopic techniques such as bronchoalveolar lavage, brush, and forceps biopsy increases detection rate, and reduces number of procedures and time to establish diagnosis. This may translate into cost and resource savings, timeliness of diagnosis, greater patient satisfaction, and conceivably better outcomes. PMID:26200646

  6. Prenatal Diagnosis: Current Procedures and Implications for Early Interventionists Working with Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasco, Patricia M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article provides an overview of procedures commonly used in prenatal screening and diagnosis including ultrasound, amniocentesis, chorionic villus biopsy, maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis. Emphasis is on the role of the early interventionist in supporting families during prenatal diagnosis. (Author/DB)

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis: Current Procedures and Implications for Early Interventionists Working with Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasco, Patricia M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article provides an overview of procedures commonly used in prenatal screening and diagnosis including ultrasound, amniocentesis, chorionic villus biopsy, maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis. Emphasis is on the role of the early interventionist in supporting families during prenatal diagnosis. (Author/DB)

  8. Differential Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infections with the Inbios JE Detect™ and DEN Detect™ MAC-ELISA Kits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Barbara W.; Goodman, Christin H.; Jee, Youngmee; Featherstone, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of pediatric viral neurological disease in Asia. The JEV-specific IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum is the recommended method of laboratory diagnosis, but specificity of JEV MAC-ELISA can be low due to cross-reactivity. To increase the specificity of the commercially available JE Detect™ MAC-ELISA (JE Detect), a differential testing algorithm was developed in which samples tested by JE Detect with positive results were subsequently tested by the DEN Detect™ MAC-ELISA (DEN Detect) kit, and results of both tests were used to make the final interpretation. The testing algorithm was evaluated with a reference panel of serum and CSF samples submitted for confirmatory testing. In serum, the false Japanese encephalitis (JE) positive rate was reduced, but sequential testing in CSF resulted in reduced JE specificity, as true JEV+ CSF samples had positive results by both JE Detect and DEN Detect and were classified as JE− (dengue virus [DENV]+). Differential diagnosis of JE by sequential testing with JE Detect and DEN Detect increased specificity for JE in serum, but more data with CSF is needed to make a final determination on the usefulness of this testing algorithm for CSF. PMID:26856911

  9. Differential Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infections with the Inbios JE Detect™ and DEN Detect™ MAC-ELISA Kits.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Barbara W; Goodman, Christin H; Jee, Youngmee; Featherstone, David A

    2016-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of pediatric viral neurological disease in Asia. The JEV-specific IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum is the recommended method of laboratory diagnosis, but specificity of JEV MAC-ELISA can be low due to cross-reactivity. To increase the specificity of the commercially available JEDetect™ MAC-ELISA (JEDetect), a differential testing algorithm was developed in which samples tested by JEDetect with positive results were subsequently tested by the DENDetect™ MAC-ELISA (DENDetect) kit, and results of both tests were used to make the final interpretation. The testing algorithm was evaluated with a reference panel of serum and CSF samples submitted for confirmatory testing. In serum, the false Japanese encephalitis (JE) positive rate was reduced, but sequential testing in CSF resulted in reduced JE specificity, as true JEV+ CSF samples had positive results by both JEDetect and DENDetect and were classified as JE- (dengue virus [DENV]+). Differential diagnosis of JE by sequential testing with JEDetect and DENDetect increased specificity for JE in serum, but more data with CSF is needed to make a final determination on the usefulness of this testing algorithm for CSF.

  10. Dengue NS1 and prM antibodies increase the sensitivity of acute dengue diagnosis test and differentiate from Japanese encephalitis infection.

    PubMed

    Gowri Sankar, S; Balaji, T; Venkatasubramani, K; Thenmozhi, V; Dhananjeyan, K J; Paramasivan, R; Tyagi, B K; John Vennison, S

    2014-05-01

    Accurate and early diagnosis of dengue infection is essential for dengue case management. In outbreak conditions, it is essential to include two different tests to diagnose dengue and the choice depends on the number of days after the onset of illness in which the sample is collected. During the laboratory diagnosis of dengue in late acute and convalescent phase by MAC-ELISA, it is necessary to rule out possible cross reactions of closely related flavivirus, such as Japanese encephalitis virus which is commonly co-circulating. In the present investigation, the usefulness of dengue virus NS1 and prM antibodies in diagnosing and differentiating dengue from Japanese encephalitis infection was assessed using samples collected during out-breaks. It was shown here that, detection of antibodies against dengue NS1 and prM proteins increases the sensitivity of dengue diagnosis until 15days. Moreover, detection of antibodies against both proteins was able to differentiate dengue from Japanese encephalitis infection.

  11. Diagnosis of Marek's Disease From a Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica) Using Paraffin-embedded Liver

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A single paraffin-embedded liver section was submitted from a research flock of Japanese quail that had revealed focal infiltrations of immature lymphocytes within multiple visceral organs. Tumor cells were characterized as T-cells positive for Marek's disease virus (MDV) pp38 antigen by IHC dual st...

  12. Preparation of proteins from different organs of Japanese morning glory by an in vivo electro-elution procedure.

    PubMed

    Yanohara, Taishi; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Hongye, Zhao; Nakamura, Yasushi; Matsuo, Tomoaki

    2005-01-01

    An electro-elution procedure has been employed efficiently to collect proteins from stem segments, young leaves and roots of the Japanese morning glory. Electrophoretic conditions were optimised, including the size of segments (10-30 mm), the strength of the current for electro-elution (2.5-10 mA), and the exposure time of electro-elution (2-12 h). From the same quantity of organs, the in vivo electro-elution procedure permitted the collection of an amount of protein up to six times greater than that obtained with an earlier-reported centrifugation procedure. Both preparations were analysed by SDS-PAGE and showed similar protein profiles. This new technique provided an interesting insight into the large differences in both the quality and quantity of proteins between different organs of the plants. The average amount of protein collected from organs was 0.1 mg/g of tissue fresh weight. It is expected that this procedure may facilitate the discovery of new proteins with unique functions in extracellular matrices involved in the response of plants to various external stimuli.

  13. Comprehensive molecular diagnosis of a large cohort of Japanese retinitis pigmentosa and Usher syndrome patients by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Maho; Oishi, Akio; Gotoh, Norimoto; Ogino, Ken; Higasa, Koichiro; Iida, Kei; Makiyama, Yukiko; Morooka, Satoshi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-10-16

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a major cause of blindness in developed countries, has multiple causative genes; its prevalence differs by ethnicity. Usher syndrome is the most common form of syndromic RP and is accompanied by hearing impairment. Although molecular diagnosis is challenging, recent technological advances such as targeted high-throughput resequencing are efficient screening tools. We performed comprehensive molecular testing in 329 Japanese RP and Usher syndrome patients by using a custom capture panel that covered the coding exons and exon/intron boundaries of all 193 known inherited eye disease genes combined with Illumina HiSequation 2500. Candidate variants were screened using systematic data analyses, and their potential pathogenicity was assessed according to the frequency of the variants in normal populations, in silico prediction tools, and compatibility with known phenotypes or inheritance patterns. Molecular diagnoses were made in 115/317 RP patients (36.3%) and 6/12 Usher syndrome patients (50%). We identified 104 distinct mutations, including 66 novel mutations. EYS, USH2A, and RHO were common causative genes. In particular, mutations in EYS accounted for 15.0% of the autosomal recessive/simplex RP patients or 10.7% of the entire RP cohort. Among the 189 previously reported mutations detected in the current study, 55 (29.1%) were found commonly in Japanese or other public databases and were excluded from molecular diagnoses. By screening a large cohort of patients, this study catalogued the genetic variations involved in RP and Usher syndrome in a Japanese population and highlighted the different distribution of causative genes among populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. Spectrum of allergens for Japanese cedar pollinosis and impact of component-resolved diagnosis on allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Takashi; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    The high prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan is associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of patients, as well as significant loss of productivity among the workforce in early spring, thus representing a serious social problem. Furthermore, the prevalence is increasing, and has risen by more than 10% in this decade. Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were identified as the major allergens in Japanese cedar pollen (JCP), and in 2004, the existence of other major and minor allergens were revealed by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis. Allergenome analysis identified a chitinase, a lipid transfer protein, a serine protease, and an aspartic protease as novel IgE-reactive allergens in patients with JCP allergy. Thaumatin-like protein (Cry j 3) was shown to be homologous to Jun a 3, a major allergen from mountain cedar pollen. Isoflavone reductase-like protein was also characterized in a study of a JCP cDNA library. The characterization of component allergens is required to clarify the sensitizer or cross-reactive elicitor allergens for component-resolved diagnosis (CRD). Increasing evidence from numerous clinical trials indicates that CRD can be used to design effective allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the eight characterized JCP allergens and discuss the impact of CRD and characterization of novel allergens on allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  15. Japanese consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. Part 1: Pediatric radiopharmaceutical administered doses (JSNM pediatric dosage card). Part 2: Technical considerations for pediatric nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Okuno, Mitsuo; Oguma, Eiji; Onuma, Hiroshi; Kanegawa, Kimio; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kida, Tetsuo; Kono, Tatsuo; Kondo, Chisato; Sasaki, Masayuki; Terada, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Hataya, Hiroshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Hirono, Keishi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Hoshino, Ken; Yano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine has recently published the consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. This article is the English version of the guidelines. Part 1 proposes the dose optimization in pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Part 2 comprehensively discusses imaging techniques for the appropriate conduct of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures, considering the characteristics of imaging in children.

  16. Associations of HIV testing and late diagnosis at a Japanese university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Horino, Tetsuya; Sato, Fumiya; Kato, Tetsuro; Hosaka, Yumiko; Shimizu, Akihiro; Kawano, Shinji; Hoshina, Tokio; Nakaharai, Kazuhiko; Nakazawa, Yasushi; Yoshikawa, Koji; Yoshida, Masaki; Hori, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to clarify the rate of late diagnosis of HIV infection and to identify relationships between the reasons for HIV testing and a late diagnosis. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted among HIV-positive patients at the Jikei University Hospital between 2001 and 2014. Patient characteristics from medical records, including age, sex, sexuality, the reason for HIV testing and the number of CD4-positive lymphocytes at HIV diagnosis, were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 459 patients (men, n=437; 95.2%) were included in this study and the median age at HIV diagnosis was 36 years (range, 18–71 years). Late (CD4 cell count <350/mm3) and very late (CD4 cell count <200/mm3) diagnoses were observed in 61.4% (282/459) and 36.6% (168/459) of patients, respectively. The most common reason for HIV diagnosis was voluntary testing (38.6%, 177/459 patients), followed by AIDS-defining illness (18.3%, 84/459 patients). Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association of voluntary HIV testing with non-late and non-very-late diagnoses and there was a high proportion of AIDS-defining illness in the late and very late diagnosis groups compared with other groups. Men who have sex with men was a relative factor for non-late diagnosis, whereas nonspecific abnormal blood test results, such as hypergammaglobulinemia and thrombocytopenia, were risk factors for very late diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Voluntary HIV testing should be encouraged and physicians should screen all patients who have symptoms or signs and particularly hypergammaglobulinemia and thrombocytopenia, that may nonspecifically indicate HIV infection. PMID:26934235

  17. The utility of the diagnosis of pedophilia: a comparison of various classification procedures.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Drew A; Firestone, Philip; Moulden, Heather M; Bradford, John M

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the utility of the diagnosis of pedophilia in a sample of extra-familial child molesters assessed at a university teaching hospital between 1982 and 1992. Pedophilia was defined in one of four ways: (1) DSM diagnosis made by a psychiatrist; (2) deviant phallometric profile; (3) DSM diagnosis and a deviant phallometric profile; and, (4) high scores based on the Screening Scale for Pedophilic Interest (Seto & Lalumière, 2001). Demographic data, psychological tests, and offence history were obtained and group differences were analyzed along with the ability of certain variables to contribute uniquely to the classification of pedophilia. Results indicated that few significant differences existed on psychological measures between pedophilic and nonpedophilic extra-familial child molesters regardless of the classification system employed. Finally, results indicated that the procedures used to define pedophilia were not significantly related to one another. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of the diagnosis of pedophilia.

  18. [An adjustment procedure for comparing migration data based on different definitions in Japanese censuses].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Y; Inoue, T; Matsunaka, R

    1998-11-01

    "Change of migration definition in [the] 1990 census of Japan prevents us from comparing the migration data reported in it with those in [the] 1970 and 1980 censuses. However, the adjustment procedure we propose in this article enables us to directly compare them.... The observed migration data based on the 1970/80 definition and the estimated data based on the 1990 definition are compared for the period of 1965-70 and 1975-80. Furthermore, temporal changes of age-specific inter-regional migration size during the period between 1965-70 and 1985-90 are explained." (EXCERPT)

  19. Usefulness of Cardiac Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Prosthetic Coronary Artery Graft with Interposition Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Wake, Ryotaro; Iwata, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Masashi; Doi, Atsushi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Otsuka, Ryo; Hozumi, Takeshi; Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Ehara, Shoichi; Hanatani, Akihisa; Muro, Takashi; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    An 80-year-old Japanese man was admitted with orthopnea and pitting edema of both lower legs. We diagnosed congestive heart failure (CHF) on the basis of a chest X-ray and an echocardiogram. An electrocardiogram showed a heart rate of 120 beats/min with atrial fibrillation rhythm (Af). The patient developed aortic valve failure and destruction of the base of right coronary artery (RCA) due to infectious endocarditis at 71 years of age. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting with an interposed graft with polyester vascular graft to RCA. The patient recovered from CHF after the 6 days of treatment with diuretics and verapamil. We confirmed the patency of coronary arteries and bypass grafts using a 64-slice cardiac computed tomography scan (CT) and diagnosed CHF due to Af. Here we describe the estimation of the prosthetic coronary artery graft patency with the interposition procedure using 64-slice cardiac CT. PMID:21079753

  20. [Clinical results after Sauve-Kapandji procedure in relation to diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Daecke, W; Martini, A-K; Schneider, S; Streich, N A

    2004-11-01

    We present the results of a retrospective study on 56 patients who underwent the Sauve-Kapandji procedure for chronic disorders of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Outcome was assessed with special regard to the diagnosis. The average follow-up was 5.9 years (1-12 years). Patients were assessed for pain, range of motion of wrist and forearm, and radiological features. The DASH score and Mayo wrist score were used. The diagnosis had an influence on the outcome. Patients with primary arthrosis of the DRUJ demonstrated better results than patients with traumatic disorders. Patients with growth deficiency-related complaint of the DRUJ showed slightly inferior results after the Sauve-Kapandji procedure compared to all patients. Patients were free of pain or had pain only during heavy labor in 81% of cases; 95% of the patients rated the outcome as excellent or improved, but only 50% were free of symptoms on the operated side during heavy manual labor. Symptoms of ulnar impingement were found in 11%. Improvement in range of motion of wrist and forearm was significant. The postoperative DASH score was 24.2+/-22.5 and the Mayo wrist score was 76.1+/-17.6. Our results confirm the Sauve-Kapandji procedure to be a reliable salvage procedure resulting in high patient satisfaction and reliable improvement in range of motion. However, decreased grip strength on the affected side must be accepted to some extent. The diagnosis of a DRUJ disorder influences the outcome.

  1. Official American Thoracic Society/Japanese Respiratory Society Clinical Practice Guidelines: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Francis X; Gupta, Nishant; Finlay, Geraldine R; Young, Lisa R; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Glasgow, Connie G; Steagall, Wendy K; Johnson, Simon R; Sahn, Steven A; Ryu, Jay H; Strange, Charlie; Seyama, Kuniaki; Sullivan, Eugene J; Kotloff, Robert M; Downey, Gregory P; Chapman, Jeffrey T; Han, MeiLan K; D'Armiento, Jeanine M; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Henske, Elizabeth P; Bissler, John J; Colby, Thomas V; Kinder, Brent W; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; Brown, Kevin K; Cordier, Jean F; Meyer, Cristopher; Cottin, Vincent; Brozek, Jan L; Smith, Karen; Wilson, Kevin C; Moss, Joel

    2016-09-15

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare cystic lung disease that primarily affects women. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of LAM. Systematic reviews were performed to summarize evidence pertinent to our questions. The evidence was summarized and discussed by a multidisciplinary panel. Evidence-based recommendations were then formulated, written, and graded using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. After considering the panel's confidence in the estimated effects, the balance of desirable (i.e., benefits) and undesirable (i.e., harms and burdens) consequences of treatment, patient values and preferences, cost, and feasibility, recommendations were formulated for or against specific interventions. These included recommendations for sirolimus treatment and vascular endothelial growth factor D testing and recommendations against doxycycline and hormonal therapy. Evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with LAM are provided. Frequent reassessment and updating will be needed.

  2. Prognostic factors in young Japanese women with breast cancer: prognostic value of age at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Miwa; Shimizu, Chikako; Fukutomi, Takashi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Ando, Masashi; Hojo, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2011-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to verify whether breast cancer patients aged <35 at diagnosis have poorer prognoses than those aged 35-39, in other words, to identify the prognostic value of age in younger premenopausal patients under 40 years old. The secondary objective was to assess prognostic factors specific for younger premenopausal patients. We identified 242 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer before the age of 40 and underwent surgery between 1990 and 2004. We compared disease-free survival and overall survival in patients aged <35 years and those aged 35-39 years, and evaluated clinicopathological factors associated with disease-free survival or overall survival in each age group and in all patients under the age of 40. Ninety-nine (41%) patients were younger than 35 years and 143 (59%) were between 35 and 39 years. No significant difference in disease-free survival or overall survival was found between the two groups. In our cohort of patients under the age of 40, the independent factors associated with poor disease-free survival and overall survival included positive axillary lymph nodes and triple-negative status, but not age at diagnosis. Adverse prognostic factors also did not differ considerably between the two age groups. Age at diagnosis was not an independent prognostic factor in our study. Our findings suggest that other clinicopathological features rather than age should be used to determine individualized treatment courses for breast cancer patients younger than 40 years.

  3. Vascular Air Embolism During Bronchoscopy Procedures- Incidence, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kanchustambham, Venkatkiran; Saladi, Swetha; Mehta, Kris; Mwangi, John; Jamkhana, Zafar

    2017-01-01

    Vascular air embolism (VAE) is a rare, but potentially fatal complication of invasive medical or surgical procedures. It is a very rare complication of bronchoscopy and is most frequently reported with therapeutic bronchoscopy with Argon plasma coagulation (APC) or neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser. Despite being rare, as a result of its high chance of mortality and morbidity, it is imperative that physicians have high clinical suspicion to allow for early recognition and treatment. In this article, we provide a concise review of the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis management and outcomes of air embolism during bronchoscopy procedures. PMID:28405537

  4. Giardia lamblia allergenic extract as diagnosis procedures for determining sensitization to this protozoa.

    PubMed

    Crespo Guerrero, V; Alfonso Fernández, L A; Gómez Echevarría, A H

    1991-12-01

    We studied 200 patients assisting at the Allergy Department and the Gastroenterology Department in "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Clinical-Surgical Hospital. They were clinically and immunologically tested for giardiasis through duodenal fortis or gall bladder drainage and total IgE serum levels. All patients underwent intradermal and skin prick tests with Giardine allergenic extract. These skin tests showed high sensitivity and increased specificity. Thus, our procedure in diagnosis is accurate, accessible and economical.

  5. Molecular-based allergy diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in Aspergillus fumigatus-sensitized Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, H; Fukutomi, Y; Yasueda, H; Takeuchi, Y; Saito, A; Watai, K; Sekiya, K; Tsuburai, T; Asano, K; Taniguchi, M; Akiyama, K

    2015-12-01

    Distinguishing between patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and Aspergillus fumigatus (Af)-sensitized asthmatic patients without ABPA is sometimes difficult owing to the IgE-cross-reactivity between Af and other fungal allergens. To establish the usefulness of molecular-based allergy diagnostics using allergen components from Af in distinguishing ABPA from Af-sensitized asthma without ABPA. Sera from Japanese patients with ABPA (n = 53) and Af-sensitized asthma without ABPA (n = 253) were studied. The levels of IgE and IgG antibodies to allergen components from Af and IgE antibodies to different fugal allergen extracts were measured by ImmunoCAP. Comorbid atopic dermatitis (AD) was taken into consideration in the sensitization profile analysis. Patients with ABPA possessed significantly higher levels of IgE antibodies to Asp f 1, and Asp f 2 than asthmatic patients without ABPA. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the levels of IgE to Asp f 1 and Asp f 2 as diagnostic markers of ABPA were 0.75 and 0.78, respectively. The presence of IgE positivity to Asp f 1 and/or Asp f 2 resulted in increased sensitivity while losing little specificity. Comorbid AD was associated with higher levels of IgE to Asp f 6 (manganese superoxide dismutase from Af, a ubiquitous pan-allergen in fungi) and low but positive levels of IgE to other Af-components, which hampered the serological discrimination of ABPA. The levels of IgE to Asp f 1 and/or Asp f 2 can effectively differentiate ABPA from Af-sensitized asthma, suggesting that the amounts of IgE specific for these molecules are markers for genuine Af-sensitization in ABPA. However, comorbid AD must be taken into consideration in the interpretation of high IgE to Asp f 6. Establishing of IgE-sensitization profiles using panel of Af-allergen components provides valuable information for distinguishing genuine vs. cross-reactive sensitization in Af-sensitized patients. © 2015 John

  6. Total cholesterol performance of Abell-Levy-Brodie-Kendall reference measurement procedure: Certification of Japanese in-vitro diagnostic assay manufacturers through CDC's Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yokoyama, Shinji; Kayamori, Yuzo; Koyama, Isao; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Dasti, Mahnaz; Vesper, Hubert W; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2015-05-20

    Accurate measurement of total cholesterol (TC) is important for cardiovascular disease risk management. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network (CRMLN) perform Abell-Levy-Brodie-Kendall (AK) reference measurement procedure (RMP) for TC as a secondary reference method, and implement Certification Protocol for Manufacturers. Japanese CRMLN laboratory at Osaka performed the AK RMP for 22 years, and conducted TC certification for reagent/calibrator/instrument systems of six Japanese manufacturers every 2 years for 16 years. Osaka TC performance was examined and compared to CDC's reference values. AK RMP involved sample hydrolysis, cholesterol extraction, and determination of cholesterol levels by spectrophotometry. The Certification Protocol for Manufacturers includes comparison with AK RMP using at least 40 fresh specimens. Demonstration of average bias ≤3% and total coefficient of variation ≤3% qualified an analytical system for certification. In the AK RMP used in the Osaka CRMLN laboratory, the regression equation for measuring TC was y (Osaka)=1.000x (CDC)+0.032 (n=619, R(2)=1.000). Six Japanese manufacturers had allowable performance for certification. The AK RMP for TC measurement was accurate, precise, and stable for 22 years. Six Japanese manufacturers were certified for 16 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Hemodialysis on Procedural Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion: Insights From the Japanese Multicenter Registry.

    PubMed

    Nakachi, Tatsuya; Kohsaka, Shun; Yamane, Masahisa; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Okamura, Atsunori; Kashima, Yoshifumi; Matsuno, Shunsuke; Sakurada, Masami; Kijima, Mikihiko; Tanabe, Masaki; Habara, Maoto

    2017-10-11

    Among patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion (CTO-PCI), patients on long-term hemodialysis are at significantly high risk for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, clinical or angiographic predictors that might aid in better patient selection remain unclear. We aimed to assess the acute impact of hemodialysis in patients who underwent CTO-PCI. The Retrograde Summit registry is a multicenter, prospective registry of patients undergoing CTO-PCI at 65 Japanese centers. Patient characteristics and procedural outcomes of 4749 patients were analyzed, according to the presence (n=313) or absence (n=4436) of baseline hemodialysis. A prediction model for technical failure among hemodialysis patients was also developed. The technical success rate of CTO-PCI was significantly lower in hemodialysis than in nonhemodialysis patients (78.0% versus 89.1%, P<0.001). The rates of in-hospital major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events were similar between the 2 groups (1.6% versus 0.9%, P=0.24). Irrespective of clinical/angiographic characteristics or previously developed scoring systems, hemodialysis independently predicted technical failure for CTO-PCI. Among hemodialysis patients, predictors of technical failure were blunt stump (odds ratio 2.45, 95% confidence interval, 1.15-5.21, P=0.021), severe lesion calcification (odds ratio 2.50, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-5.24, P=0.015), and absence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 3.15, 95% confidence interval, 1.49-6.64, P=0.003). In hemodialysis patients without these predictors, the technical success rate was 96.2%. Hemodialysis is significantly associated with technical failure. Contemporary CTO-PCI seems feasible and safe in selected hemodialysis patients. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. [Color Doppler evaluation and diagnosis of local complications after arterial endovascular procedures].

    PubMed

    Novelli, Marco; Righi, Daniele; Pilato, Alida

    2012-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous endovascular procedures have become more and more common in recent years, and so also the number of local complications has increased. After such procedures a simple clinical examination may show the presence of an inguinal mass, but does not permit a diagnosis, while Color Doppler and Duplex Scanner can make a differential diagnosis between hematoma, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula or other disease. Color Doppler is ubiquitously used to diagnose such complications as it offers a low-cost, easy-to-use method, only minimally uncomfortable for the patient. This ultrasound system can provide both anatomic and haemodynamic information. Our study highlights the diagnostic possibilities offered by the Color Doppler and Duplex Scanner and details, using many illustrations and examples, how the most common complications such as hematoma, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula and thrombosis are imaged. Hematoma appears as a hypoechogenic zone, with no color inside, as flow is not present. Pseudoaneurysms, unlike hematoma, maintain a connection with an injured blood vessel, and so they show blood flow both inside the lesion and in the communicating channel, with a typical pattern. The arteriovenous fistula is a vascular channel created, after a percutaneous procedure, between an artery and an adjacent vein that have both been damaged. An endovascular thrombus is directly shown as a luminal defect of flow. Other less common complications are discussed and illustrated.

  9. Laboratory procedures for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract diseases of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Matz, M E; Guilford, W G

    2003-12-01

    An increasing number of laboratory tests are available for diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract diseases in dogs and cats. Use of these tests can lead to more accurate and rapid diagnoses. This review discusses laboratory tests, both new and old, and the role they currently play in the evaluation of animals presented with gastrointestinal problems. A minimum database helps assess the severity of the disorder, detect extra-gastrointestinal causes of problems and assists in formulating diagnostic and therapeutic plans. Faecal examination remains one of the most important diagnostic procedures in the investigation of gastrointestinal problems. Zinc sulphate faecal flotation is an excellent routine screening technique for helminth and protozoal infections, including giardiasis. Rectal cytology can assist in the diagnosis of large bowel disorders. Interpretation of faecal immunodiagnostic tests is hampered by insufficient knowledge of test sensitivities and specificities. Routine faecal cultures are not warranted and faecal occult blood tests are rarely indicated. Serum tests for gastric inflammation are now under development. The serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity test remains the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Breath hydrogen tests can be helpful in assessing the functional relevance of mild abnormalities in small-bowel biopsy specimens. Subnormal concentrations of serum cobalamin appear to be more specific indicators of gastrointestinal disease in cats than in dogs. Tests for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth remain controversial and assessment of gastrointestinal permeability has yet to prove its value in the diagnostic assessment of companion animals with gastrointestinal problems. Faecal alpha1-protease inhibitor shows promise for the diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy.

  10. [Inflammatory bowel diseases: diagnosis (including new procedures for small intestine examination)].

    PubMed

    Hahne, M; Riemann, J F

    2002-11-20

    Medical history, clinical examination, general laboratory data and microbial stool examinations are basic diagnostics in inflammatory bowel diseases. Specific immunologic parameters can make classification easier in indefinite disease, their use is still in an experimental state. Ultrasound and endoscopic examinations have largely replaced conventional radiological procedures. For the experienced examiner, ultrasound allows assessment of small bowel and colon as well as other organs. Ileo-colonoscopy with biopsies remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases. For small bowel examination, modern methods like push-enteroscopy, capsule endoscopy or the Hydro-MRI can be employed. At the moment, their usage is limited to specialized centers. Because of its broad availability small bowel follow through is still the standard in small bowel examination. After 8 years of colitis ulcerosa, ileo-colonoscopy with biopsy should be performed every year according to the guidelines. If these recommendations also apply to Crohn's disease is not sure yet.

  11. A practical procedure for achieving a steady state of NOx concentration in plasma: with special reference to the NOx content of Japanese daily food.

    PubMed

    Himeno, Mariko; Ishibashi, Takaharu; Nakano, Shigeru; Furuya, Keisuke; Kigoshi, Toshikazu; Uchida, Kenzo; Nishio, Matomo

    2003-02-01

    To establish a concrete procedure to achieve a steady state plasma NOx concentration with Japanese daily food, NOx contents of about 200 types of food and beverages consumed daily were measured and NOx concentration in plasma was monitored till steady state after various degree of intake of NOx restricted food. The NOx content was found to be high in dark green leaved vegetables and low in grains, processed food, fresh and processed seafood. Tap water and mineral water were found to contain various amounts of NOx that were drastically reduced by treatment with a reverse osmosis column and remained in trace amounts after ion exchange column treatment. NOx content was low in drinks such as cola, but was extremely high in vegetable juice containing dark green leaved vegetables. The intake of high NOx drinks resulted in elevated plasma NOx concentration, but intake of low NOx drinks did not change the plasma NOx concentration. Based on these findings, a steady state could be achieved by 18 hours fasting after the intake of a moderately NOx-restricted diet (about 370, micromoles/day) and by 13 hours fasting after the intake of an extremely NOx-restricted diet (< 100 micromoles/day). NOx concentrations in randomly collected blood samples without these conditions were sometimes ten times higher than that at steady state. This procedure can be undertaken under normal Japanese daily life and is expected to be applicable even to outpatients.

  12. Japanese Elementary School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Harold W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the development of Japanese elementary education in the context of three periods of its history. Considers salient characteristics of Japanese elementary schools and teaching procedures; these include curriculum; social and moral education; classroom environment; teachers; afterschool classes; college entrance examinations; the kyoiku…

  13. Comparison of the second and third generation anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody assays in the diagnosis of Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shidara, Kumi; Inoue, Eisuke; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hoshi, Daisuke; Seto, Yohei; Nakajima, Ayako; Momohara, Shigeki; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2011-05-01

    The anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody has become increasingly important in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), especially for early diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic usefulness of the second and third generation anti-CCP antibody kits among Japanese patients with RA. Anti-CCP antibody titers were measured with the second generation (MESACUP CCP test, Medical and biological laboratories) and third generation (QUANTA Lite CCP3 IgG ELISA, Inova Diagnostics) kits using serum samples from 106 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 57 non-RA patients. Sensitivities and specificities were compared. The sensitivity and specificity of the second generation anti-CCP (anti-CCP2) kit were 88.7 and 89.5%, and those of the third generation anti-CCP (anti-CCP3) kit were 91.5 and 87.7%. Area under the receiver operating curve showed that anti-CCP2 and anti-CCP3 had similar diagnostic performances. Diagnostic performance of the anti-CCP3 assay was comparable with the anti-CCP2 assay in Japanese patients with RA.

  14. Diagnosis of Japanese patients with HHH syndrome by molecular genetic analysis: a common mutation, R179X.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, T; Kanazawa, N; Kato, S; Kawakami, M; Inoue, Y; Kuhara, T; Inoue, T; Takeshita, K; Tsujino, S

    2001-01-01

    Patients with mitochondrial ornithine transporter deficiency (or HHH syndrome) present with various neurological symptoms, including mental retardation, spastic paraparesis with pyramidal signs, cerebellar ataxia, and episodic disturbance of consciousness or coma due to hyperammonemia. We previously described three novel mutations in the ORNT1 gene in Japanese patients with HHH syndrome. In this article, we report a new patient with HHH syndrome, a 52-year-old woman, who had the typical clinical features, except for an absence of mental retardation. When we screened this patient, as well as a previously described Japanese patient, for mutations in the ORNT1 gene, we found that both were homozygous for a nonsense mutation (R179X). Furthermore, reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fibroblast RNA from one patient showed exon 4 skipping, as had been observed in a previously reported patient with R179X. These results, together with the findings in our previous report, show that, in three of our five reported Japanese HHH patients (six of ten alleles), R179X is present, suggesting that this is a common mutation in Japanese patients with HHH syndrome.

  15. [Diagnosis and treatment of varicose veins: part 2: therapeutic procedures and results].

    PubMed

    Nüllen, H; Noppeney, T

    2010-12-01

    This is the second of two articles on the diagnosis and treatment of varicose veins. Primary varicosis is a congenital degenerative disease of the peripheral venous system of the lower extremities. Treatment is carried out according to an individualized concept which takes the incurability and progression of the disease into consideration. Conservative treatment with compression bandages is an option for all forms of varicosis and the accompanying complications. Veins can be specifically ablated by sclerotherapy of varices. In addition to high ligation and stripping mini-phlebectomy and subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery (SEPS) can also be performed. The indications in cases of SEPS should be extremely limited because of possible severe complications. Radiofrequency ablation (RFO) and endovenous laser therapy (ELT) are also available as endovenous therapy options. Information in the literature on recurrence rates of the various procedures is extremely variable and the reasons for recurrent varicosis are the subject of controversy. The data relating to the results of RFO and ELT are relatively good and both procedures show a significant improvement in quality of life and the venous clinical severity score (VCSS).

  16. A simple procedure for measuring pharyngeal sensitivity: a contribution to the diagnosis of sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Dematteis, M; Levy, P; Pepin, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe apnoea may have an impaired pharyngeal dilating reflex related to decreased pharyngeal sensitivity. The accuracy of a simple new procedure to measure pharyngeal sensitivity and to diagnose sleep disordered breathing (SDB) was investigated. Methods: Pharyngeal disappearance and appearance sensory perception thresholds were measured by delivering different airflow rates on the soft palate using an intraoral device in 17 controls and 50 patients suffering from SDB evaluated by overnight polygraphy. The procedure was performed before (baseline) and after three successive administrations of a topical anaesthetic to sensitise the pharyngeal sensory impairment. Pharyngeal sensitivity was then evaluated according to SDB severity. SDB was classified as mild, moderate or severe according to the relative proportion of obstructive apnoeas-hypopnoeas and the amount of desaturation. Results: Patients had higher baseline disappearance and appearance sensory thresholds than controls (mean (SD) 0.62 (0.44) v 0.26 (0.06) l/min and 0.85 (0.40) v 0.40 (0.19) l/min, p<0.001, respectively). Such differences were enhanced by topical anaesthesia. Impairment of pharyngeal sensitivity and the number of patients with impaired sensitivity increased from the least to the most severe SDB group as indicated by the test sensitivity for a respiratory disturbance index of >20/hour (50%, 73.7% and 88.5% in the mild, moderate, and severely affected groups, respectively). Conclusions: This simple and safe procedure showed that impairment of pharyngeal sensitivity is correlated with severity of SDB. Using this test in routine clinical practice may simplify the diagnosis of sleep apnoea, particularly for the most severe patients. PMID:15860719

  17. Quality assurance and training procedures for computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems in clinical use.

    PubMed

    Huo, Zhimin; Summers, Ronald M; Paquerault, Sophie; Lo, Joseph; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey; Armato, Samuel G; Freedman, Matthew T; Lin, Jesse; Lo, Shih-Chung Ben; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Fryd, David; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) is increasingly used for decision support by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. However, there are no quality assurance (QA) requirements for CAD in clinical use at present. QA of CAD is important so that end users can be made aware of changes in CAD performance both due to intentional or unintentional causes. In addition, end-user training is critical to prevent improper use of CAD, which could potentially result in lower overall clinical performance. Research on QA of CAD and user training are limited to date. The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to these issues, inform the readers of the opinions of the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) CAD subcommittee, and thus stimulate further discussion in the CAD community on these topics. The recommendations in this paper are intended to be work items for AAPM task groups that will be formed to address QA and user training issues on CAD in the future. The work items may serve as a framework for the discussion and eventual design of detailed QA and training procedures for physicists and users of CAD. Some of the recommendations are considered by the subcommittee to be reasonably easy and practical and can be implemented immediately by the end users; others are considered to be "best practice" approaches, which may require significant effort, additional tools, and proper training to implement. The eventual standardization of the requirements of QA procedures for CAD will have to be determined through consensus from members of the CAD community, and user training may require support of professional societies. It is expected that high-quality CAD and proper use of CAD could allow these systems to achieve their true potential, thus benefiting both the patients and the clinicians, and may bring about more widespread clinical use of CAD for many other diseases and applications. It is hoped that the awareness of the need

  18. Quality assurance and training procedures for computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems in clinical usea)

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Zhimin; Summers, Ronald M.; Paquerault, Sophie; Lo, Joseph; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey; Armato, Samuel G.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Lin, Jesse; Ben Lo, Shih-Chung; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Fryd, David; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) is increasingly used for decision support by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. However, there are no quality assurance (QA) requirements for CAD in clinical use at present. QA of CAD is important so that end users can be made aware of changes in CAD performance both due to intentional or unintentional causes. In addition, end-user training is critical to prevent improper use of CAD, which could potentially result in lower overall clinical performance. Research on QA of CAD and user training are limited to date. The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to these issues, inform the readers of the opinions of the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) CAD subcommittee, and thus stimulate further discussion in the CAD community on these topics. The recommendations in this paper are intended to be work items for AAPM task groups that will be formed to address QA and user training issues on CAD in the future. The work items may serve as a framework for the discussion and eventual design of detailed QA and training procedures for physicists and users of CAD. Some of the recommendations are considered by the subcommittee to be reasonably easy and practical and can be implemented immediately by the end users; others are considered to be “best practice” approaches, which may require significant effort, additional tools, and proper training to implement. The eventual standardization of the requirements of QA procedures for CAD will have to be determined through consensus from members of the CAD community, and user training may require support of professional societies. It is expected that high-quality CAD and proper use of CAD could allow these systems to achieve their true potential, thus benefiting both the patients and the clinicians, and may bring about more widespread clinical use of CAD for many other diseases and applications. It is hoped that the awareness of the

  19. [A research of Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment standard procedure for patients with HIV associated pruritus based on experts' questionnaires].

    PubMed

    Pan, Ju-Hua; Wang, Jie; Huang, Shi-Jing; Xue, Liu-Hua; Wu, Wei; Li, Xing-Wang; Wang, Jian

    2013-07-01

    To establish Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment standard procedure for patients with HIV associated pruritus. A Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment standard procedure for patients with HIV associated pruritus was established by literature retrieval and peer review. Two questionnaires were carried out to investigate the confirmation and advice of in-group specialists to key points of the draft including diagnosis, treatment and nursing. Then the procedures were revised accordingly. The recovery rate of complete questionnaires in the 1st survey was 96%. Specialists confirmed more on case history and physical examinations, syndrome differentiation of three syndrome types, treatment of blood deficiency wind dryness syndrome (BDWDS) and nursing. They held different opinions on the outlines, auxiliary examinations, treatment of blood heat induced wind evil syndrome (BHWES) and wind cold and dampness accumulation syndrome (WCDAS), of which the coefficient of variations (CVs) was within 0.1603 -0.2473. The procedures were revised and the 2nd survey was launched. The recovery rate of complete questionnaires in the 2nd survey was 100%. Specialists confirmed more on case history and physical examinations, diagnostic criteria, syndrome differentiation of BDWDS and WCDAS, and treatment of BDWDS, of which CVs was 0. All indicated high agreement and good compliance. The CVs of other items were within 0.0638-0.1439, less than those of the 1st survey. The consistency of experts' opinions were somewhat improved. The contribution by one single item showed less difference in assessing the overall results in the two surveys. A new revision of the procedure was preliminarily established according to results of two surveys. Experts' activeness, concentration, and coordination were good in the two surveys. They had reached consensus in key points of the draft including diagnosis, treatment, and nursing.

  20. [To evaluate the auxiliary diagnostic value of Japanese respiratory society scoring system for the rapid diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in inpatients with community acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xin; Jin, Xin; Niu, Wenkai; Cui, Qian; Liu, Huiying; Zheng, Jing; Heng, Zhizhi; Bai, Changqing

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the auxiliary diagnostic value of Japanese respiratory society (JRS) scoring system for the rapid diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MP) in inpatients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The clinical data of inpatients with CAP between January 2013 and Novermber 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The gold standard for identification of MP infection was determined by both positive culture and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Blood and sputum culture were used to detect other bacteria and fungi, and real time PCR to detect Chlamydia and Legionella pneumonia and the common respiratory viruses. Diagnostic test results consistency inspection was performed by Kappa test and continuous variable analysis was performed using t test. Data from 139 CAP inpatients were analyzed. An aetiological diagnosis was made for 61 patients (43.9%). Thirty-five cases (25.2%) were diagnosed as MP infection by the gold standard, while 72 cases (52.0%) by the JRS scoring system. The sensitivity of JRS scoring system for the diagnosis of MP infection was 85.7% (30/35), specificity 59.6% (62/104), positive predictive value 41.7% (30/72)and negative predictive value 92.5% (62/67). According to age, for the patients younger than 40 years old, the sensitivity of JRS routine scoring system for the diagnosis of MP infection was 24/24, specificity was 4/29, positive predictive value 24/49 and negative predictive value was 4/4. The JRS scoring system provides an auxiliary value for the identification of MP pneumonia. It has a high sensitivity and a strong negative predictive value. For patients younger than 40 yrs with low grades of JRS swring system. MP infection can be almost excluded from.

  1. Office-Based Procedures for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Laryngeal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Wellenstein, David J; Schutte, Henrieke W; Takes, Robert P; Honings, Jimmie; Marres, Henri A M; Burns, James A; van den Broek, Guido B

    2017-09-18

    Since the development of distal chip endoscopes with a working channel, diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in the outpatient clinic in the management of laryngeal pathology have increased. Which of these office-based procedures are currently available, and their clinical indications and possible advantages, remains unclear. Review of literature on office-based procedures in laryngology and head and neck oncology. Flexible endoscopic biopsy (FEB), vocal cord injection, and laser surgery are well-established office-based procedures that can be performed under topical anesthesia. These procedures demonstrate good patient tolerability and multiple advantages. Office-based procedures under topical anesthesia are currently an established method in the management of laryngeal pathology. These procedures offer medical and economic advantages compared with operating room-performed procedures. Furthermore, office-based procedures enhance the speed and timing of the diagnostic and therapeutic process. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnosis and Control of a LPAI H5N8 Outbreak in a Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Commercial Flock in the Central Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Carnaccini, Silvia; Crossley, Beate; Breitmeyer, Richard; Charlton, Bruce R; Bland, Mark; Fowler, Kent; De La Torre, Felicia; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Wong, Sook-San; Wilson, Dennis; Jones, Annette; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2015-06-01

    In April 2014 an outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 North American genetic lineage was diagnosed in a commercial quail operation in Stanislaus County, California. Sudden increase in mortality prompted the submission of 20 Japanese quail hens (Coturnix c. japonica) to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, Turlock Branch. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs tested positive for influenza A virus H5N8 by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The virus was subsequently isolated. In vivo assay and sequencing of the hemagglutinin protein cleavage site classified the virus as a North American genetic lineage of low pathogenicity for chickens. Following the diagnosis, a rapid and coordinated response took place to contain the outbreak. The affected premise was depopulated, cleaned, and disinfected. Three areas from the affected premises-a 3 kilometer (km) radius (High Risk Zone), a 3-10 km area (Buffer Zone), and a 10-20 km (Surveillance Zone)-were established for avian influenza testing of commercial and noncommercial poultry operations. Surveillance testing and rapid control measures were successful in the control and eradication of the outbreak and revealed no area of spread of the virus from the index flock. This report describes the history, diagnosis, surveillance, and control measures applied to manage this outbreak.

  3. Occurrence of infection following prostate biopsy procedures in Japan: Japanese Research Group for Urinary Tract Infection (JRGU) - a multi-center retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Togo, Yoshikazu; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Taoka, Rikiya; Hiyama, Yoshiki; Uehara, Teruhisa; Hashimoto, Jiroh; Kurimura, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Miyazaki, Jun; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Kira, Shinichiro; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Yazawa, Satoshi; Niwa, Naoya; Hongo, Hiroshi; Oya, Mototsugu; Kato, Taku; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Deguchi, Takashi; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Hoshinaga, Kiyotaka; Matsumoto, Minori; Shigemura, Katsumi; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Wada, Koichiro; Uehara, Shinya; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Sho, Takehiko; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Shingo

    2014-04-01

    We retrospectively investigated the incidence of genitourinary tract infection in 5895 patients who underwent transrectal and/or transperineal prostate biopsy procedure between January and December 2011 at 46 institutions belonging to Japanese Research Group for Urinary Tract Infection (JRGU). The total rate of genitourinary tract infection after prostate biopsy was 0.76%, while that following transrectal procedure was 0.83% and following transperineal procedure was 0.57%, which were not significantly different. In contrast, febrile infection associated with a fever (≥38 °C) occurred significantly more frequently after transrectal (0.71%) than transperineal (0.16%) approach (P = 0.04). Notably, in infectious cases, Escherichia coli was most frequently isolated. Of the 9 E. coli strains isolated by urine culture, 6 (66.7%) produced extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and 7 (77.8%) showed levofloxacin resistance. Similarly, of 6 E. coli strains isolated by blood culture, 4 (66.7%) produced ESBL and 6 (100%) showed levofloxacin resistance. When the efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) with levofloxacin for the patients undergoing transrectal or transperineal biopsy was compared between a single dose (500 mg) and that given for 2 or more days, no significant difference was observed for the rate of infection (transrectal: 0.82% vs. 1.04%, p = 0.94; transperineal: 0.30% vs. 0.46%, p = 0.68). Although a single dose of levofloxacin for AMP is sufficient to prevent genitourinary infection after transrectal or transperineal prostate biopsy, and recommended in this era of increased multi-drug resistant pathogens, the increase in fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli and ESBL-producing E. coli has emerged as a profound problem for surveillance.

  4. Measurement of Ara h 1-, 2-, and 3-specific IgE antibodies is useful in diagnosis of peanut allergy in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Movérare, Robert; Sato, Sakura; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Borres, Magnus P; Komata, Takatsugu

    2012-09-01

    Food challenges are time-consuming, expensive, and not always possible to perform. Therefore, new tools to diagnose food allergy are desired. The aim was to evaluate IgE antibodies to peanut allergens in the diagnosis of peanut allergy in Japanese children using ImmunoCAP(®) and IgE immunoblotting. The study included 2-13-yr-old consecutive patients (n = 57) referred to our specialist clinic for investigation of current peanut allergy using food challenge. All children had a previous doctor's diagnosis of peanut allergy and were on elimination diet. Serum samples were analyzed for IgE reactivity to peanut, recombinant (r) Ara h 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 9. IgE immunoblotting (n = 23) was performed using extracts from raw and roasted peanut. Twenty-six of the children failed (allergic group), and 31 passed the peanut challenge (tolerant group). The rAra h 2 ImmunoCAP test was superior in its ability to differentiate between children in the allergic and tolerant groups with a sensitivity and specificity of 88% and 84%, respectively (cutoff, 0.35 kU(A)/l). The combination of rAra h 1, 2, and 3 resulted in a higher specificity (94%) when IgE to all of them was the criteria for positivity. ImmunoCAP generally showed a good agreement with immunoblotting using both raw and roasted peanut for IgE reactivity to Ara h 1, 2, and 3. Measurement of IgE antibodies to rAra h 1, 2, and 3 is useful in the diagnosis of peanut allergy and in the investigation of reactions to raw and roasted peanut. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. A Proteomic Approach for the Diagnosis of ‘Oketsu’ (blood stasis), a Pathophysiologic Concept of Japanese Traditional (Kampo) Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Chinami; Kojima, Tetsuko; Ogawa, Kazuo; Kamegai, Satoshi; Oyama, Takuya; Shibagaki, Yukari; Kawasaki, Tetsuo; Fujinaga, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kozo; Hikiami, Hiroaki; Goto, Hirozo; Kiga, Chizuru; Koizumi, Keiichi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Muramoto, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Terasawa, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    ‘Oketsu’ is a pathophysiologic concept in Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, primarily denoting blood stasis/stagnant syndrome. Here we have explored plasma protein biomarkers and/or diagnostic algorithms for ‘Oketsu’. Sixteen rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were treated with keishibukuryogan (KBG), a representative Kampo medicine for improving ‘Oketsu’. Plasma samples were diagnosed as either having an ‘Oketsu’ (n = 19) or ‘non-Oketsu’ (n = 29) state according to Terasawa's ‘Oketsu’ scoring system. Protein profiles were obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) and hierarchical clustering and decision tree analyses were performed. KBG treatment for 4 or 12 weeks decreased the ‘Oketsu’ scores significantly. SELDI protein profiles gave 266 protein peaks, whose expression was significantly different between the ‘Oketsu’ and ‘non-Oketsu’ states. Hierarchical clustering gave three major clusters (I, II, III). The majority (68.4%) of ‘Oketsu’ samples were clustered into one cluster as the principal component of cluster I. The remaining ‘Oketsu’ profiles constituted a minor component of cluster II and were all derived from patients cured of the ‘Oketsu’ state at 12 weeks. Construction of the decision tree addressed the possibility of developing a diagnostic algorithm for ‘Oketsu’. A reduction in measurement/pre-processing conditions (from 55 to 16) gave a similar outcome in the clustering and decision tree analyses. The present study suggests that the pathophysiologic concept of Kampo medicine ‘Oketsu’ has a physical basis in terms of the profile of blood proteins. It may be possible to establish a set of objective criteria for diagnosing ‘Oketsu’ using a combination of proteomic and bioinformatics-based classification methods. PMID:18955217

  6. A Proteomic Approach for the Diagnosis of 'Oketsu' (blood stasis), a Pathophysiologic Concept of Japanese Traditional (Kampo) Medicine.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chinami; Kojima, Tetsuko; Ogawa, Kazuo; Kamegai, Satoshi; Oyama, Takuya; Shibagaki, Yukari; Kawasaki, Tetsuo; Fujinaga, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kozo; Hikiami, Hiroaki; Goto, Hirozo; Kiga, Chizuru; Koizumi, Keiichi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Muramoto, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Terasawa, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Shuichi; Saiki, Ikuo

    2008-12-01

    'Oketsu' is a pathophysiologic concept in Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, primarily denoting blood stasis/stagnant syndrome. Here we have explored plasma protein biomarkers and/or diagnostic algorithms for 'Oketsu'. Sixteen rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were treated with keishibukuryogan (KBG), a representative Kampo medicine for improving 'Oketsu'. Plasma samples were diagnosed as either having an 'Oketsu' (n = 19) or 'non-Oketsu' (n = 29) state according to Terasawa's 'Oketsu' scoring system. Protein profiles were obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) and hierarchical clustering and decision tree analyses were performed. KBG treatment for 4 or 12 weeks decreased the 'Oketsu' scores significantly. SELDI protein profiles gave 266 protein peaks, whose expression was significantly different between the 'Oketsu' and 'non-Oketsu' states. Hierarchical clustering gave three major clusters (I, II, III). The majority (68.4%) of 'Oketsu' samples were clustered into one cluster as the principal component of cluster I. The remaining 'Oketsu' profiles constituted a minor component of cluster II and were all derived from patients cured of the 'Oketsu' state at 12 weeks. Construction of the decision tree addressed the possibility of developing a diagnostic algorithm for 'Oketsu'. A reduction in measurement/pre-processing conditions (from 55 to 16) gave a similar outcome in the clustering and decision tree analyses. The present study suggests that the pathophysiologic concept of Kampo medicine 'Oketsu' has a physical basis in terms of the profile of blood proteins. It may be possible to establish a set of objective criteria for diagnosing 'Oketsu' using a combination of proteomic and bioinformatics-based classification methods.

  7. Things Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigeta, Jessie M.

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…

  8. Development of quantitative neuropsychological tests for diagnosis of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in liver cirrhosis patients and establishment of diagnostic criteria-multicenter collaborative study in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Kato, Akinobu; Kato, Motoichiro; Ishii, Hiromasa; Ichimiya, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Kawasaki, Hironaka; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Kumashiro, Ryukichi; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Kawamura, Naohiro; Hayashi, Naoaki; Matsuzaki, Shohei; Terano, Akira; Okita, Kiwamu; Watanabe, Akiharu

    2004-10-01

    At present, there are no generally accepted diagnostic criteria or methods for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy (SHE) associated with liver cirrhosis. We therefore developed an easily conducted computer-aided quantitative neuropsychiatric function test system for use in routine medical practice. We established normal values in healthy Japanese subjects and determined differences between healthy persons and liver cirrhosis patients without clinical encephalopathy in a multi-center clinical trial. The test system consists of eight tests: number connection tests A and B, a figure position test, a digit symbol test, a block design test, and reaction time tests A, B and C. The test results were affected by age, but not by gender or facility. No learning effect was noted. The results were therefore reported by 5-year quartile ranges and differences were evaluated between 542 healthy subjects and 292 cirrhotic patients. When the cut-off value was set at the 10th/90th percentile of the results in healthy subjects, the results of each of the 8 tests were abnormal in about 25% of cirrhotic patients, and at least 1 of the 8 tests gave values greater than the 10th/90th percentile cut-off value in 58.2% of the 292 liver cirrhosis patients. SHE patients were thought to be included in these 58.2% of patients. The developed test makes it possible to quantitatively assess neuropsychiatric function, and the results obtained can be used as a basis for the diagnosis of SHE.

  9. Work-related factors associated with visiting a doctor for a medical diagnosis after a worksite screening for diabetes mellitus in Japanese male employees.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Kaho; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kawakami, Norito

    2004-09-01

    This paper aims to investigate the work-related factors that affect whether Japanese male employees will seek a medical diagnosis after being screened for diabetes mellitus. Participants in this study received a questionnaire two months after receiving the results of their physical checkup. The analysis focused on 213 regular employees of small and medium-sized companies who were aged 35-64 and who had tested positive for diabetes in a screening. Only 42% of the subjects visited a doctor for medical diagnosis during an average follow-up period of 47.5 d. Cox's proportional hazard regression was used to analyze the length of time between the employees' receipt of the results and their first visit to a doctor's office. The employees who could comfortably take a day off, compared to those who found it difficult to do so, were more likely to visit a doctor (hazard ratio (HR) 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85, 4.42; p for trend 0.05). In addition, employees with a high level of psychological job control, compared to those with low level of job control, were more likely to visit a doctor (HR 1.80; 95%CI 0.94, 3.45; p for trend 0.08). Employees who worked the longest (61 h per week or more) were less likely to visit a doctor than those working from 41 to 60 h weekly (HR 0.41; 95%CI 0.17, 0.98). The findings suggest that a flexible work schedule, autonomy at work, and no excessive working hours tend to improve the chance of visiting a doctor after screening for diabetes mellitus.

  10. Ultrasonography as a guide during vascular access procedures and in the diagnosis of complications.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, A; Manca, T; Vercelli, A; Braghieri, A; Magnacavallo, A

    2013-10-29

    Vascular access used in the treatment of patients involves central and peripheral vein accesses and arterial accesses. Catheterization of central veins is widely used in clinical practice; it is a necessary part of the treatment of patients in various settings. The most commonly involved vessels are the internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral veins. The mechanical, infectious, and thrombotic complications of central venous catheterization are markedly reduced when the procedure is performed with real-time ultrasound guidance or (to a slightly lesser extent) ultrasound assistance. Ultrasound guidance is also used to create peripheral venous accesses, for catheterization of peripheral veins and for peripheral insertion of central venous catheters. In this setting, it increases the catheterization success rate, especially during difficult procedures (e.g., obese patients, children) and reduces complications such as catheter-related infections and venous thrombosis. Arterial cannulation is used for invasive monitoring of arterial pressure and for access during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Ultrasound guidance reduces the risk of catheterization failure and complications. It is especially useful for arterial catheterization procedures performed in the absence of a palpable pulse (e.g., patient in shock, ECMO). Imaging support is being used increasingly to facilitate the creation of vascular accesses under difficult conditions, in part because of the growing use of ultrasonography as a bedside procedure. In clinical settings where patients are becoming increasingly vulnerable as a result of advanced age and/or complex disease, the possibility to reduce the risks associated with these invasive procedures should motivate clinicians to acquire the technical skills needed for routine use of sonographic support during vascular access procedures.

  11. New procedure for gear fault detection and diagnosis using instantaneous angular speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Xining; Wu, Jili

    2017-02-01

    Besides the extreme complexity of gear dynamics, the fault diagnosis results in terms of vibration signal are sometimes easily misled and even distorted by the interference of transmission channel or other components like bearings, bars. Recently, the research field of Instantaneous Angular Speed (IAS) has attracted significant attentions due to its own advantages over conventional vibration analysis. On the basis of IAS signal's advantages, this paper presents a new feature extraction method by combining the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Autocorrelation Local Cepstrum (ALC) for fault diagnosis of sophisticated multistage gearbox. Firstly, as a pre-processing step, signal reconstruction is employed to address the oversampled issue caused by the high resolution of the angular sensor and the test speed. Then the adaptive EMD is used to acquire a number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). Nevertheless, not all the IMFs are needed for the further analysis since different IMFs have different sensitivities to fault. Hence, the cosine similarity metric is introduced to select the most sensitive IMF. Even though, the sensitive IMF is still insufficient for the gear fault diagnosis due to the weakness of the fault component related to the gear fault. Therefore, as the final step, ALC is used for the purpose of signal de-noising and feature extraction. The effectiveness and robustness of the new approach has been validated experimentally on the basis of two gear test rigs with gears under different working conditions. Diagnosis results show that the new approach is capable of effectively handling the gear fault diagnosis i.e., the highlighted quefrency and its rahmonics corresponding to the rotary period and its multiple are displayed clearly in the cepstrum record of the proposed method.

  12. Japanese language and Japanese science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  13. Semi-invasive and invasive procedures for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. I. Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Shaham, D

    2000-05-01

    PTNB is a well-established technique for the diagnosis of lung cancer. In recent years, CT guidance has become the primary imaging modality, replacing fluoroscopy guided biopsies in many institutions. CT fluoroscopy, which is currently not universally available, offers promising advantages and may permit accurate and rapid procedures. A recent innovation in biopsy needles has been the introduction of automatic core biopsy needle devices that yield large specimens and improve the diagnostic accuracy of needle biopsy, particularly in benign lesions. PTNB is one of several methods available for tissue diagnosis of suspected lung cancer. The decision as to which method to use should be tailored to each patient, and is preferably reached by a team consisting of pulmonary physicians, chest surgeons, oncologists, cytologists, and radiologists.

  14. Japanese Competitiveness and Japanese Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minabe, Shigeo

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes and compares Japanese and American industrial policy and labor practices. Proposes that certain aspects of the Japanese system be adapted by American businesses for purpose of increasing international competitiveness. Proposes specific actions and plans for both the Japanese and American systems. (ML)

  15. Importance of the combined urinary procedure for the diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidoses.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Lucia; Padella, Lucia; Marchesiello, Rita Lucia; Santoro, Lucia; Monachesi, Chiara; Giovagnoni, Andrea; Catassi, Carlo; Gabrielli, Orazio; Coppa, Giovanni Valentino; Galeazzi, Tiziana

    2017-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses are characterized by the accumulation of undegraded glycosaminoglycans in lysosomes in multiple organs and by their excretion in high amounts in urine. The aim of this study is to determine if this simple, reliable and reproducible method is useful for the diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidoses. The study included 2154 normal urine samples and 210 samples from 73 patients affected by different types of Mucopolysaccharidoses. The glycosaminoglycans were quantified by a dimethylmethylene blue method and size-fractionated by a modified one-dimensional electrophoresis method. The combination of the two methods allowed to identify all the patients affected by the different types of Mucopolysaccharidosis with 100% sensitivity and specificity. This combined approach gives fast diagnostic orientation about the different types of Mucopolysaccharidoses, offering an important tool for a better understanding of diagnosis and patient management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Total cholesterol performance of Abell–Levy–Brodie–Kendall reference measurement procedure: Certification of Japanese in-vitro diagnostic assay manufacturers through CDC’s Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network☆

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yokoyama, Shinji; Kayamori, Yuzo; Koyama, Isao; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Dasti, Mahnaz; Vesper, Hubert W.; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate measurement of total cholesterol (TC) is important for cardiovascular disease risk management. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network (CRMLN) perform Abell–Levy–Brodie–Kendall (AK) reference measurement procedure (RMP) for TC as a secondary reference method, and implement Certification Protocol for Manufacturers. Japanese CRMLN laboratory at Osaka performed the AK RMP for 22 years, and conducted TC certification for reagent/calibrator/instrument systems of six Japanese manufacturers every 2 years for 16 years. Osaka TC performance was examined and compared to CDC’s reference values. Methods AK RMP involved sample hydrolysis, cholesterol extraction, and determination of cholesterol levels by spectrophotometry. The Certification Protocol for Manufacturers includes comparison with AK RMP using at least 40 fresh specimens. Demonstration of average bias ≤3% and total coefficient of variation ≤3% qualified an analytical system for certification. Results In the AK RMP used in the Osaka CRMLN laboratory, the regression equation for measuring TC was y (Osaka) = 1.000x (CDC) + 0.032 (n = 619, R2 = 1.000). Six Japanese manufacturers had allowable performance for certification. Conclusions The AK RMP for TC measurement was accurate, precise, and stable for 22 years. Six Japanese manufacturers were certified for 16 years. PMID:25818239

  17. Diagnosis of food allergies: the impact of oral food challenge testing.

    PubMed

    Ito, Komei

    2013-01-01

    A diagnosis of food allergies should be made based on the observation of allergic symptoms following the intake of suspected foods and the presence of allergen-specific IgE antibodies. The oral food challenge (OFC) test is the most reliable clinical procedure for diagnosing food allergies. Specific IgE testing of allergen components as well as classical crude allergen extracts helps to make a more specific diagnosis of food allergies. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology issued the 'Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Food Allergy 2012' to provide information regarding the standardized diagnosis and management of food allergies. This review summarizes recent progress in the diagnosis of food allergies, focusing on the use of specific IgE tests and the OFC procedure in accordance with the Japanese guidelines.

  18. Refining calcium test for the diagnosis of medullary thyroid cancer: cutoffs, procedures, and safety.

    PubMed

    Mian, Caterina; Perrino, Michela; Colombo, Carla; Cavedon, Elisabetta; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Ferrero, Stefano; De Leo, Simone; Sarais, Cristiano; Cacciatore, Chiara; Manfredi, Gloria Irene; Verga, Uberta; Iacobone, Maurizio; De Pasquale, Loredana; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Vicentini, Leonardo; Persani, Luca; Fugazzola, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Calcitonin (CT) measurement is crucial to the early diagnosis and the follow-up of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). If the evaluation of stimulated CT levels is required, a provocative test can be performed, being the high-dose Ca test recently reintroduced in clinical practice. Our objective was to identify gender-specific thresholds for MTC diagnosis in a large series of patients who underwent the Ca test. A total of 91 patients (49 females and 42 males) underwent the Ca test (calcium gluconate, 25 mg/kg) before thyroidectomy and both basal CT (bCT) and stimulated CT (sCT) were compared with histological results by receiver operating characteristic plot analyses. To evaluate possible side effects of Ca administration, cardiac function has been extensively studied. bCT levels were found to harbor the same accuracy as sCT in the preoperative diagnosis of MTC. The best Ca thresholds for the identification of MTC were >26 and >68 for bCT and >79 and >544 pg/mL for sCT in females and males, respectively. The high tolerability and safety of the Ca test was demonstrated and advice offered to be followed before and during the test. Gender-specific bCT and sCT cutoffs for the identification of C-cell hyperplasia and/or MTC have been defined. The bCT and sCT were found to have a similar accuracy, indicating that serum CT assays with improved functional sensitivity may likely decrease the relevance of the stimulation test in several conditions. Finally, systematic cardiac monitoring confirms the safety of the Ca test.

  19. Optimum procedure for construction of spectral classification algorithms for medical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Catherine A.; Barr, Hugh; Shepherd, Neil; Stone, Nicholas

    2002-03-01

    Optical spectroscopic detection of early malignancy is becoming more widely accepted in academic circles, however much work remains to be done before full recognition by the medical community is achieved. The majority of published studies to date have demonstrated the potential of optical diagnosis techniques using small sample numbers in a selected patient population. Many are completed without a solid understanding of the shortcomings of histopathology, the 'gold standard' for cancer detection. For the development of a new technique to improve diagnosis it is vital that more rigorous protocols are employed in large-scale clinical trials. The prospect of utilizing NIR-Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of neoplastic gastrointestinal tissue has been thoroughly explored by a multi-disciplinary team including surgeons, pathologists, and spectroscopists. This study demonstrates the need for rigorous experimental protocols and histopathological analysis by a panel of expert pathologists. Measurements of tissue specimens from nine different pathological groups describing the full spectrum of disease in the oesophagus have been made. Only homogeneous samples with consensus pathology opinion were used to construct a training data set of Raman spectra. Models were constructed using multivariate analysis techniques and tested using cross-validation.

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Two Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents as the Sole Procedure in Japanese Patients with Medically Uncontrolled Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Pilot Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Shingo; Yaguchi, Saori

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate efficacy and safety of a trabecular micro-bypass stent system when used as the sole procedure in Japanese patients with medically uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Design. Prospective nonrandomized interventional pilot study. Methods. Ten eyes of 10 Japanese patients with medically uncontrolled POAG taking three ocular hypotensive medications were treated using only the implantation of two iStent trabecular micro-bypass stents. Each patient continued to take the same ocular hypotensive medications used preoperatively throughout the study. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and endothelial cell density (ECD) were determined at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured at baseline and 6 months after surgery. Results. Mean IOP was 22.0 ± 3.0 mmHg at baseline and 16.9 ± 3.6 mmHg at 6 months, which represented a mean reduction of 5.1 mmHg or 23.2%. No significant changes were observed in the ECD and BCVA. Complications that occurred during the early postoperative period included hyphema, peripheral anterior synechiae, and occlusion of the stent by the iris. Conclusion. Implantation of two trabecular micro-bypass stents as the sole procedure in Japanese POAG patients effectively reduced IOP and exhibited a favorable safety profile. Clinical Trials Registration number is UMIN000004002. PMID:28265466

  1. RE-PERG, a new procedure for electrophysiologic diagnosis of glaucoma that may improve PERG specificity

    PubMed Central

    Mavilio, Alberto; Sisto, Dario; Ferreri, Paolo; Cardascia, Nicola; Alessio, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A significant variability of the second harmonic (2ndH) phase of steady-state pattern electroretinogram (SS-PERG) in intrasession retest has been recently described in glaucoma patients (GP), which has not been found in healthy subjects. To evaluate the reliability of phase variability in retest (a procedure called RE-PERG or REPERG) in the presence of cataract, which is known to affect standard PERG, we tested this procedure in GP, normal controls (NC), and cataract patients (CP). Methods The procedure was performed on 50 GP, 35 NC, and 27 CP. All subjects were examined with RE-PERG and SS-PERG and also with spectral domain optical coherence tomography and standard automated perimetry. Standard deviation of phase and amplitude value of 2ndH were correlated by means of one-way analysis of variance and Pearson correlation, with the mean deviation and pattern standard deviation assessed by standard automated perimetry and retinal nerve fiber layer and the ganglion cell complex thickness assessed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Receiver operating characteristics were calculated in cohort populations with and without cataract. Results Standard deviation of phase of 2ndH was significantly higher in GP with respect to NC (P<0.001) and CP (P<0.001), and it correlated with retinal nerve fiber layer (r=−0.5, P<0.001) and ganglion cell complex (r=−0.6, P<0.001) defects in GP. Receiver operating characteristic evaluation showed higher specificity of RE-PERG (86.4%; area under the curve 0.93) with respect to SS-PERG (54.5%; area under the curve 0.68) in CP. Conclusion RE-PERG may improve the specificity of SS-PERG in clinical practice in the discrimination of GP. PMID:28176965

  2. Utility of glycated albumin for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in a Japanese population study: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS).

    PubMed

    Furusyo, N; Koga, T; Ai, M; Otokozawa, S; Kohzuma, T; Ikezaki, H; Schaefer, E J; Hayashi, J

    2011-12-01

    Glycated albumin is a measure of the mean plasma glucose concentration over approximately 2-3 weeks. We determined reference values for glycated albumin, and assessed its utility for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the general population. We studied 1,575 men and women (mean age, 49.9 years; range, 26-78 years) who participated in a periodic health examination in a suburban Japanese town. HbA(1c) and fasting plasma concentrations of glucose (FPG) and glycated albumin were measured. Participants with FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l or HbA(1c) ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) were diagnosed as having diabetes. In our laboratory, the glycated albumin assay had intra-assay and inter-assay CVs of 1.1% and 1.6%, respectively. Glycated albumin levels were significantly correlated with HbA(1c) levels (r = 0.766, p < 0.001) and FPG (r = 0.706, p < 0.001). The presence of diabetes was significantly higher in participants with glycated albumin levels between 15.0% and 15.9% (five of 276, 1.81%) than in those with glycated albumin <14% (three of 672, 0.45%) (p = 0.037), and was markedly increased in those with a glycated albumin level >16% (58 of 207, 28.0%). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that a glycated albumin level of ≥15.5% was optimal for predicting diabetes, with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 83.3%. There is merit to further investigating the potential for glycated albumin to be used as an alternative measure of dysglycaemia for future research and clinical practice.

  3. Opto-numerical procedures supporting dynamic lower limbs monitoring and their medical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Kujawińska, Malgorzata; Rapp, Walter; Sitnik, Robert

    2006-01-01

    New optical full-field shape measurement systems allow transient shape capture at rates between 15 and 30 Hz. These frequency rates are enough to monitor controlled movements used e.g. for medical examination purposes. In this paper we present a set of algorithms which may be applied for processing of data gathered by fringe projection method implemented for lower limbs shape measurement. The purpose of presented algorithms is to locate anatomical structures based on the limb shape and its deformation in time. The algorithms are based on local surface curvature calculation and analysis of curvature maps changes during the measurement sequence. One of anatomical structure of high medical interest that is possible to scan and analyze, is patella. Tracking of patella position and orientation under dynamic conditions may lead to detect pathological patella movements and help in knee joint disease diagnosis. Therefore the usefulness of the algorithms developed was proven at examples of patella localization and monitoring.

  4. Prenatal Diagnosis Procedures and Techniques to Obtain a Diagnostic Fetal Specimen or Tissue: Maternal and Fetal Risks and Benefits.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R Douglas; Gagnon, Alain; Audibert, François; Campagnolo, Carla; Carroll, June

    2015-07-01

    To provide maternity care providers and their patients with current evidence-based guidelines for maternal risk/benefit counselling for a prenatally identified at-risk pregnancy that requires ultrasound-guided prenatal diagnostic procedures and/or techniques for a genetic diagnosis and for subsequent pregnancy management decisions on questions such as level of obstetrical care provider, antenatal surveillance, location of care and delivery, and continuation or termination of pregnancy. This guideline is limited to maternal risk/benefit counselling and pregnancy management decisions for women who require, or are considering, an invasive ultrasound-guided procedure or technique for prenatal diagnosis. Pregnant women identified as having an increased risk of a fetal genetic abnormality secondary to the process of established prenatal screening protocols (maternal serum±imaging, high-risk cell-free DNA results, abnormal diagnostic fetal imaging, or a positive family history of an inherited condition). These women may require or request counselling about pregnancy risks and benefits of an invasive ultrasound-guided procedure to determine the etiology, diagnosis, and/or pathology for the possible fetal anomaly or anomalies. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library in and prior to June 2014 using an appropriate controlled vocabulary (prenatal diagnosis, amniocentesis, chorionic villi sampling, cordocentesis) and key words (prenatal screening, prenatal genetic counselling, post-procedural pregnancy loss rate). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies written in English and published from January 1985 to June 2014. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to June 2014. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology

  5. [Image examination of malignant tumors in lungs observed on the basis of cost analysis using diagnosis procedure combination data].

    PubMed

    Shida, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Mutsumi; Matsumoto, Chiharu; Uto, Yumiko; Kumamoto, Ichirou

    2010-02-20

    Recently, the environment of medical treatment in our country has become more strict. The purpose of this study is to find changes in the implementation of diagnostic imaging from the point of view of cost analysis, through the use of diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) data. The patient data has been extracted from the DPC data. We compared patients (n=693) in terms of their daily income, cost, and image examination cost ratio for malignant tumors in lungs. The results of this study indicated the ratio of the image examination cost of 040040xx99100x was 25.2% in the old grading sheet. The ratio of the image examination cost increased 42.4% in the new grading sheet. The implementation of diagnostic imaging was able to be made visible simply by analyzing the cost. We found one of the methodologies that connected the improvement of that standard treatment with the examination of each DPC.

  6. Validation of an optimized SPM procedure for FDG-PET in dementia diagnosis in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Perani, Daniela; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Cerami, Chiara; Gallivanone, Francesca; Fallanca, Federico; Vanoli, Emilia Giovanna; Panzacchi, Andrea; Nobili, Flavio; Pappatà, Sabina; Marcone, Alessandra; Garibotto, Valentina; Castiglioni, Isabella; Magnani, Giuseppe; Cappa, Stefano F.; Gianolli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic accuracy in FDG-PET imaging highly depends on the operating procedures. In this clinical study on dementia, we compared the diagnostic accuracy at a single-subject level of a) Clinical Scenarios, b) Standard FDG Images and c) Statistical Parametrical (SPM) Maps generated via a new optimized SPM procedure. We evaluated the added value of FDG-PET, either Standard FDG Images or SPM Maps, to Clinical Scenarios. In 88 patients with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's Disease—AD, Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration—FTLD, Dementia with Lewy bodies—DLB and Mild Cognitive Impairment—MCI), 9 neuroimaging experts made a forced diagnostic decision on the basis of the evaluation of the three types of information. There was also the possibility of a decision of normality on the FDG-PET images. The clinical diagnosis confirmed at a long-term follow-up was used as the gold standard. SPM Maps showed higher sensitivity and specificity (96% and 84%), and better diagnostic positive (6.8) and negative (0.05) likelihood ratios compared to Clinical Scenarios and Standard FDG Images. SPM Maps increased diagnostic accuracy for differential diagnosis (AD vs. FTD; beta 1.414, p = 0.019). The AUC of the ROC curve was 0.67 for SPM Maps, 0.57 for Clinical Scenarios and 0.50 for Standard FDG Images. In the MCI group, SPM Maps showed the highest predictive prognostic value (mean LOC = 2.46), by identifying either normal brain metabolism (exclusionary role) or hypometabolic patterns typical of different neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:25389519

  7. Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux and anti-reflux procedures among polish children with gastrostomies: a 10-year nationwide analysis

    PubMed Central

    Toporowska-Kowalska, E; Gębora-Kowalska, B; Fendler, W; Popińska, K; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, A; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, U; Wiernicka, A; Borkowska, A; Sibilska, M; Więcek, S; Hapyn, E; Kierkuś, J

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To analyse the approach to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and the qualification criteria for anti-reflux (AR) procedures in Polish children fed via gastrostomy between 2000 and 2010. Subjects/Methods: An electronic questionnaire containing questions on the demographic and clinical data of patients with gastrostomies was distributed to six Polish centres of nutritional therapy. The portion pertaining to GER included data on clinical exponents, diagnostic procedures (pH-metry, pH-impedance, scintigraphy and upper gastrointestinal (GI) series) and AR. Results: In total, 348 children (M199/F149; age at gastrostomy 5.78±5.49 years) were included. Data on the diagnosis of GER and the AR criteria were available for 343 and 336 subjects, respectively. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed in 258/348 patients (74.1%), while surgery was performed in 80/348 patients (23%). The data from 10/348 (2.9%) cases were unavailable. At least one of the tests for GER was conducted in 177/343 (51.6%) of patients: pH-metry in 74/343 (21.6%), pH-impedance in 17/343 (5.0%), scintigraphy in 60/343 (17.5%) and upper GI series in 102/343 (29.7%). GER was reported in 114/343 cases (33.2%), and fundoplication was performed in 87 children (76.3% of patients with GER). The highest congruence between a positive test result and the decision to perform fundoplication was documented in cases of scintigraphy and upper GI series (P=0.00000 and P=0.00191, respectively). A significant increase in the prevalence of simultaneous gastrostomy and AR was observed over the decade analysed (r=0.8, P=0.009). This study revealed a centre-specific attitude towards the diagnosis of GER and the assessment of qualifications for fundoplication in Polish gastrostomy-fed children. Conclusions: The unified diagnostic algorithm of GER and the universal qualification criteria for AR procedures need to be defined for gastrostomy-fed children. PMID:24065062

  8. [Diagnosis of acute appendicitis over two decades - effects of increasing number of imaging procedures on costs, preoperative reliability and patient outcome].

    PubMed

    Schreiner, M; Spazier, M; Wayand, W

    2010-08-01

    An increasing number of modern imaging procedures are being applied for the diagnosis of appendicitis. We compared one hundred consecutive appendectomies of the years 1988, 1998 and 2008 concerning reliability of preoperative diagnosis and resulting costs. We analysed the first one hundred consecutive patients undergoing appendectomy during the years 1988, 1998 and 2008, 59 % were female and 41 % male. The average age was 26 years, the average BMI 21.09. The costs and results of radiological investigations (US, CT, MRI, X-ray) have been compared in all patients. The sensitivity of ultrasound and CT scan in preoperative diagnosis has been analysed. The number of preoperative imaging procedures for the diagnosis of appendicitis has increased over the last two decades. Simultaneously increased the costs (total costs and costs per partient) for imaging procedures. 2008 the costs were 10 times higher than 1988. CT had a higher sensitivity (77 %) in the diagnosis of appendicitis than ultrasound (33 %). The number of operations because of subacute and chronic appendicitis was lower in 2008 (34 of 100) compared with 1988 (80 of 100) and 1998 (60 of 100). In 2008 (14) we found a higher number of gangrenous and perforated appendicitis compared to 1988 (2) and 1998 (5). The majority (50 of 100) of patients in the group with acute and phlegmonous appendicitis was found in 2008. There has been an increase in the use of preoperative imaging procedures in the diagnosis of appendicitis during the last 20 years. This causes more costs in the public health system. Ultrasound as the standard imaging method for diagnosing appendicitis showed poor sensitivity. CT scans had good results concerning sensitivity, but are expensive and involve exposure to radiation for the patient. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  9. Utilisation of Blood Components in Cardiac Surgery: A Single-Centre Retrospective Analysis with Regard to Diagnosis-Related Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Raoul Georg; Rotering, Heinrich; Buddendick, Hubert; Franz, Dominik; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Kwiecien, Robert; Sibrowski, Walter; Scheld, Hans H.; Martens, Sven; Schlenke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background More blood components are required in cardiac surgery than in most other medical disciplines. The overall blood demand may increase as a function of the total number of cardiothoracic and vascular surgical interventions and their level of complexity, and also when considering the demographic ageing. Awareness has grown with respect to adverse events, such as transfusion-related immunomodulation by allogeneic blood supply, which can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, programmes of patient blood management (PBM) have been implemented to avoid unnecessary blood transfusions and to standardise the indication of blood transfusions more strictly with aim to improve patients' overall outcomes. Methods A comprehensive retrospective analysis of the utilisation of blood components in the Department of Cardiac Surgery at the University Hospital of Münster (UKM) was performed over a 4-year period. Based on a medical reporting system of all medical disciplines, which was established as part of a PBM initiative, all transfused patients in cardiac surgery and their blood components were identified in a diagnosis- and medical procedure-related system, which allows the precise allocation of blood consumption to interventional procedures in cardiac surgery, such as coronary or valve surgery. Results This retrospective single centre study included all in-patients in cardiac surgery at the UKM from 2009 to 2012, corresponding to a total of 1,405-1,644 cases per year. A blood supply was provided for 55.6-61.9% of the cardiac surgery patients, whereas approximately 9% of all in-patients at the UKM required blood transfusions. Most of the blood units were applied during cardiac valve surgery and during coronary surgery. Further surgical activities with considerable use of blood components included thoracic surgery, aortic surgery, heart transplantations and the use of artificial hearts. Under the measures of PBM in 2012 a noticeable decrease in the number of

  10. Utilisation of blood components in cardiac surgery: a single-centre retrospective analysis with regard to diagnosis-related procedures.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Raoul Georg; Rotering, Heinrich; Buddendick, Hubert; Franz, Dominik; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Kwiecien, Robert; Sibrowski, Walter; Scheld, Hans H; Martens, Sven; Schlenke, Peter

    2015-03-01

    More blood components are required in cardiac surgery than in most other medical disciplines. The overall blood demand may increase as a function of the total number of cardiothoracic and vascular surgical interventions and their level of complexity, and also when considering the demographic ageing. Awareness has grown with respect to adverse events, such as transfusion-related immunomodulation by allogeneic blood supply, which can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, programmes of patient blood management (PBM) have been implemented to avoid unnecessary blood transfusions and to standardise the indication of blood transfusions more strictly with aim to improve patients' overall outcomes. A comprehensive retrospective analysis of the utilisation of blood components in the Department of Cardiac Surgery at the University Hospital of Münster (UKM) was performed over a 4-year period. Based on a medical reporting system of all medical disciplines, which was established as part of a PBM initiative, all transfused patients in cardiac surgery and their blood components were identified in a diagnosis- and medical procedure-related system, which allows the precise allocation of blood consumption to interventional procedures in cardiac surgery, such as coronary or valve surgery. This retrospective single centre study included all in-patients in cardiac surgery at the UKM from 2009 to 2012, corresponding to a total of 1,405-1,644 cases per year. A blood supply was provided for 55.6-61.9% of the cardiac surgery patients, whereas approximately 9% of all in-patients at the UKM required blood transfusions. Most of the blood units were applied during cardiac valve surgery and during coronary surgery. Further surgical activities with considerable use of blood components included thoracic surgery, aortic surgery, heart transplantations and the use of artificial hearts. Under the measures of PBM in 2012 a noticeable decrease in the number of transfused cases was observed

  11. The taxonomy of the Japanese oak red scale insect, Kuwania quercus (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kuwaniidae), with a generic diagnosis, a key to species and description of a new species from California.

    PubMed

    San'An, Wu; Nan, Nan; Gullan, Penny; Deng, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The oak red scale insect, Kuwania quercus (Kuwana), was described from specimens collected from the bark of oak trees (Quercus species) in Japan. More recently, the species has been identified from California and China, but Californian specimens differ morphologically from Japanese material and are considered here to be a new species based on both morphological and molecular data. In this paper, an illustrated redescription of K. quercus is provided based on type specimens consisting of adult females, first-instar nymphs and intermediate-stage females, and a lectotype is designated for Sasakia quercus Kuwana. The new Californian species, Kuwania raygilli Wu & Gullan, is described and illustrated based on the adult female, first-instar nymph and intermediate-stage female. A new generic diagnosis for Kuwania Cockerell based on adult females and first-instar nymphs, and a key to species based on adult females are included.

  12. Evaluation of a dengue IgG indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a Japanese encephalitis IgG indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of secondary dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shingo; Alonzo, Maria T G; Kurosawa, Yae; Mapua, Cynthia A; Reyes, Joyce D; Dimaano, Efren M; Alera, Maria Theresa P; Saito, Mariko; Oishi, Kazunori; Hasebe, Futoshi; Matias, Ronald R; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

    2010-03-01

    To establish a new method for the diagnosis of dengue secondary infection, 187 serum samples from the patients with dengue secondary infection, 40 serum samples from the patients with dengue primary infection, and 44 serum samples from the healthy volunteers were tested using the dengue IgG indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DEN IgG ELISA). The results of the test were compared with those from the dengue hemagglutination inhibition (DEN HI) test, which has been recommended as the gold standard by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1997). Japanese encephalitis IgG indirect ELISA (JE IgG ELISA) was also performed to measure anti-flavivirus IgG, which cross-reacts with the Japanese encephalitis virus, to test the possibility of an alternative to DEN IgG ELISA. The results of DEN IgG and JE IgG ELISAs were highly correlated with those of the DEN HI test. In the DEN IgG ELISA, a titer of 1:29,000 was the cut-off value for the diagnosis of dengue secondary infection (91.5% accuracy [95% confidence interval, CI], 90.9% sensitivity [95%CI], and 92.9% specificity [95%CI]). A titer of 1:52,000 was the cut-off value for dengue secondary infection using JE IgG ELISA (95.6% accuracy [95%CI], 98.9% sensitivity [95%CI], and 88.1% specificity [95%CI]). In conclusion, this study confirmed that the results of both DEN IgG and JE IgG ELISAs were highly correlated with the results of DEN HI test. Thus, these ELISAs are simple, rapid, sensitive, and quantitative tests that can be used in the determination of dengue secondary infection.

  13. Japanese Characters in Written Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…

  14. Severe retroperitoneal and intra-abdominal bleeding after stapling procedure for prolapsed haemorrhoids (PPH); diagnosis, treatment and 6-year follow-up of the case.

    PubMed

    Safadi, Wajdi; Altshuler, Alexander; Kiv, Sakal; Waksman, Igor

    2014-10-30

    Procedure for prolapsed haemorrhoids (PPH) is a popular treatment of haemorrhoids. PPH has the advantages of a shorter operation time, minor degree of postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay and quicker recovery but may be followed by several postoperative complications. Rectal bleeding, acute pain, chronic pain, rectovaginal fistula, complete rectal obliteration, rectal stenosis, rectal pocket, tenesmus, faecal urgency, faecal incontinence, rectal perforation, pelvic sepsis and rectal haematoma have all been reported as postoperative complications of PPH. Additionally, one rare complication of the procedure is intra-abdominal bleeding. There are a few case reports describing intra-abdominal bleeding after the procedure. We report a case of a 26-year-old man who developed severe intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal haemorrhage after PPH. The diagnosis was made on the second postoperative day by CT of the abdomen and pelvis. The patient was treated conservatively and had an uneventful recovery. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Rethinking Japanese Language Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Phyllis

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of Seiichi Makino, a scholar of Japanese, noting that his work in establishing the Japanese proficiency guidelines helped make it appear that Japanese language teaching was part of mainstream American language teaching. (Author/VWL)

  16. [Survey on examinations for diagnosis of bone marrow failure in Japan: a report from the Japanese National Research Group on Idiopathic Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes].

    PubMed

    Araseki, Kayano; Matsuda, Akira; Tohyama, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Nakao, Shinji; Tomonaga, Masao; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Kurokawa, Mineo; Omine, Mitsuhiro; Ozawa, Keiya

    2012-07-01

    Using a registration sheet of a prospective registration system for aplastic anemia (AA)/myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), by the National Research Group on Idiopathic Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes, Japan, we carried out a survey on examinations for diagnosis of bone marrow failure. Bone marrow trephine biopsy was performed in 66 of 105 cases (63%) [Original diagnosis: AA 51 cases (80%), MDS 12 (32%), undiagnosable 3 (75%)]. Bone marrow aspiration was performed in all cases, and aspiration was performed at least twice in 36 cases (34%). The first-line anatomic site for bone marrow aspiration was the posterior iliac crest (62%). Cytogenetic examination was performed in 93%. The concordance rate between the original and the central review diagnosis was 93% among the studied cases: AA, Idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS) and MDS in total. Flow cytometry analysis to detect paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)-type blood cells was performed in 32%.

  17. Utility of glycated albumin for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in a Japanese population study: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Populaiton Study (KOPS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glycated albumin is a measure of the mean plasma glucose concentration over approximately 2-3 weeks. We determined reference values for glycated albumin, and assessed its utility for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the general population. We studied 1,575 men and women (mean age, 49.9 y...

  18. Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909

  19. Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas.

  20. [Japanese Board Certified Thoracic Surgeon].

    PubMed

    Chihara, Koji

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese Board of General Thoracic Surgery (JBGTS) consisted by Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS) and The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS) has been certified Japanese Board Certified Thoracic Surgeon (JBCTS) since 2004. At present, JBCTS is obtained by being of Certified Surgeon by Japan Surgical Society( JSS), completion of minimum requirement of surgical experience, scientific papers, presentation at medical assembly, learning of postgraduate educational programs, and examination approximate 11 years after graduation of medical school. Thirteen hundreds JBCTS throughout Japan are engaged in operation for 77,000 cases/year, including 38,000 lung cancer patients/year. The operative volume has been growing lineally these 30 years, and operative mortality in lung cancer patients has been less than 1% these several years. Japanese Medical Specialty Board (JMSB) published a guideline of the new system of medical specialty certification system in Jury 2014, in which fundamental structure is consisted by basic specialties of 19 medical fields and following subspecialties and program based system rather than curriculum based system. According to this guideline, JBGTS has been collaborated with JSS in order to establish sequential programs of the 2 specialties, and proposed an improved certification system to accomplish the mission that it educates trainees to be thoracic surgical professionals who is able to perform safe and standalized procedures.

  1. Medical procedures and outcomes of Japanese patients with trisomy 18 or trisomy 13: analysis of a nationwide administrative database of hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Ishitsuka, Kazue; Matsui, Hiroki; Michihata, Nobuaki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Nakamura, Tomoo; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2015-08-01

    The choices of aggressive treatment for trisomy 18 (T18) and trisomy 13 (T13) remain controversial. Here, we describe the current medical procedures and outcomes of patients with T18 and T13 from a nationwide administrative database of hospitalized patients in Japan. We used the database to identify eligible patients with T18 (n = 438) and T13 (n = 133) who were first admitted to one of 200 hospitals between July 2010 and March 2013. Patients were divided into admission at day <7 (early neonatal) and admission at day ≥7 (late neonatal and post neonatal) groups, and we described the medical intervention and status at discharge for each group. In the day <7 groups, surgical interventions were performed for 56 (19.9%) T18 patients and 22 (34.4%) T13 patients, including pulmonary artery banding, and procedures for esophageal atresia and omphalocele. None received intracardiac surgery. The rate of patients discharged to home was higher in the day ≥7 groups than the day <7 groups (T18: 72.6 vs. 38.8%; T13: 73.9 vs. 21.9%, respectively). Our data show that a substantial number of patients with trisomy received surgery and were then discharged home, but, of these, a considerable number required home medical care. This included home oxygen therapy, home mechanical ventilation, and tube feeding. These findings will be useful to clinicians or families who care for patients with T18 and T13.

  2. Diagnosis of Persistent Fever in the Tropics: Set of Standard Operating Procedures Used in the NIDIAG Febrile Syndrome Study

    PubMed Central

    Alirol, Emilie; Horie, Ninon Seiko; Barbé, Barbara; Lejon, Veerle; Verdonck, Kristien; Gillet, Philippe; Jacobs, Jan; Büscher, Philippe; Kanal, Basudha; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; El Safi, Sayda; Phe, Thong; Lim, Kruy; Leng, Long; Lutumba, Pascal; Mukendi, Deby; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman; Chappuis, François

    2016-01-01

    In resource-limited settings, the scarcity of skilled personnel and adequate laboratory facilities makes the differential diagnosis of fevers complex [1–5]. Febrile illnesses are diagnosed clinically in most rural centers, and both Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) and clinical algorithms can be valuable aids to health workers and facilitate therapeutic decisions [6,7]. The persistent fever syndrome targeted by NIDIAG is defined as presence of fever for at least one week. The NIDIAG clinical research consortium focused on potentially severe and treatable infections and therefore targeted the following conditions as differential diagnosis of persistent fever: visceral leishmaniasis (VL), human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), enteric (typhoid and paratyphoid) fever, brucellosis, melioidosis, leptospirosis, malaria, tuberculosis, amoebic liver abscess, relapsing fever, HIV/AIDS, rickettsiosis, and other infectious diseases (e.g., pneumonia). From January 2013 to October 2014, a prospective clinical phase III diagnostic accuracy study was conducted in one site in Cambodia, two sites in Nepal, two sites in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and one site in Sudan (clinicaltrials.gov no. NCT01766830). The study objectives were to (1) determine the prevalence of the target diseases in patients presenting with persistent fever, (2) assess the predictive value of clinical and first-line laboratory features, and (3) assess the diagnostic accuracy of several RDTs for the diagnosis of the different target conditions. PMID:27812090

  3. Diagnosis of Persistent Fever in the Tropics: Set of Standard Operating Procedures Used in the NIDIAG Febrile Syndrome Study.

    PubMed

    Alirol, Emilie; Horie, Ninon Seiko; Barbé, Barbara; Lejon, Veerle; Verdonck, Kristien; Gillet, Philippe; Jacobs, Jan; Büscher, Philippe; Kanal, Basudha; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; El Safi, Sayda; Phe, Thong; Lim, Kruy; Leng, Long; Lutumba, Pascal; Mukendi, Deby; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman; Chappuis, François

    2016-11-01

    In resource-limited settings, the scarcity of skilled personnel and adequate laboratory facilities makes the differential diagnosis of fevers complex [1-5]. Febrile illnesses are diagnosed clinically in most rural centers, and both Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) and clinical algorithms can be valuable aids to health workers and facilitate therapeutic decisions [6,7]. The persistent fever syndrome targeted by NIDIAG is defined as presence of fever for at least one week. The NIDIAG clinical research consortium focused on potentially severe and treatable infections and therefore targeted the following conditions as differential diagnosis of persistent fever: visceral leishmaniasis (VL), human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), enteric (typhoid and paratyphoid) fever, brucellosis, melioidosis, leptospirosis, malaria, tuberculosis, amoebic liver abscess, relapsing fever, HIV/AIDS, rickettsiosis, and other infectious diseases (e.g., pneumonia). From January 2013 to October 2014, a prospective clinical phase III diagnostic accuracy study was conducted in one site in Cambodia, two sites in Nepal, two sites in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and one site in Sudan (clinicaltrials.gov no. NCT01766830). The study objectives were to (1) determine the prevalence of the target diseases in patients presenting with persistent fever, (2) assess the predictive value of clinical and first-line laboratory features, and (3) assess the diagnostic accuracy of several RDTs for the diagnosis of the different target conditions.

  4. Japanese encephalitis in the USSR*

    PubMed Central

    Graščenkov, N. I.

    1964-01-01

    The author sketches the history of Japanese encephalitis in the USSR, where it has been thoroughly studied since it first occurred in 1938. After a brief outline of its epidemiology, he describes the pathogenesis, the signs and symptoms, and the pathophysiological mechanisms that make this form of encephalitis so dangerous. He also discusses the diagnosis and the methods of treatment and prevention practised in the USSR. PMID:14153405

  5. Enrollment in HIV Care Two Years after HIV Diagnosis in the Kingdom of Swaziland: An Evaluation of a National Program of New Linkage Procedures.

    PubMed

    MacKellar, Duncan A; Williams, Daniel; Storer, Nosipho; Okello, Velephi; Azih, Charles; Drummond, Jennifer; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Preko, Peter; Morgan, Rebecca L; Dlamini, Makhosazana; Byrd, Johnita; Agolory, Simon; Baughman, Andrew L; McNairy, Margaret L; Sahabo, Ruben; Ehrenkranz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    To improve early enrollment in HIV care, the Swaziland Ministry of Health implemented new linkage procedures for persons HIV diagnosed during the Soka Uncobe male circumcision campaign (SOKA, 2011-2012) and the Swaziland HIV Incidence Measurement Survey (SHIMS, 2011). Abstraction of clinical records and telephone interviews of a retrospective cohort of HIV-diagnosed SOKA and SHIMS clients were conducted in 2013-2014 to evaluate compliance with new linkage procedures and enrollment in HIV care at 92 facilities throughout Swaziland. Of 1,105 clients evaluated, within 3, 12, and 24 months of diagnosis, an estimated 14.0%, 24.3%, and 37.0% enrolled in HIV care, respectively, after adjusting for lost to follow-up and non-response. Kaplan-Meier functions indicated lower enrollment probability among clients 14-24 (P = 0.0001) and 25-29 (P = 0.001) years of age compared with clients >35 years of age. At 69 facilities to which clients were referred for HIV care, compliance with new linkage procedures was low: referral forms were located for less than half (46.8%) of the clients, and few (9.6%) were recorded in the appointment register or called either before (0.3%) or after (4.9%) their appointment. Of over one thousand clients newly HIV diagnosed in Swaziland in 2011 and 2012, few received linkage services in accordance with national procedures and most had not enrolled in HIV care two years after their diagnosis. Our findings are a call to action to improve linkage services and early enrollment in HIV care in Swaziland.

  6. Japanese guideline for childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Nishimuta, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Naomi; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Morikawa, Akihiro; Nishima, Sankei

    2011-03-01

    The Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Diseases 2010 (JAGL 2010) describes childhood asthma based on the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Asthma 2008 (JPGL 2008) published by the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology. JAGL 2010 provides information on diagnosis by age groups from infancy to puberty, treatment for acute exacerbations, long-term management by medication, daily life guidance, and patient education to allow physicians, not specialized in childhood asthma, to refer to this guideline for routine medical treatment. JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline (GINA) in that the former emphasizes long-term management of childhood asthma based on asthma severity and early diagnosis and intervention at <2 years and 2-5 years of age. However, a management method, including step-up or step-down of long-term management agents based on the status of asthma symptoms, is easy to understand and thus JAGL is suitable for routine medical treatment. JAGL also introduced treatment and management using a control test for children, recommending treatment and management aimed at complete control through avoiding exacerbation factors and appropriate use of antiinflammatory agents.

  7. Anesthesia for ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT procedure) in fetus with prenatal diagnosis of oral and cervical malformations: case reports.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Daniel Corrêa; Clivatti, Jefferson; Yamashita, Américo Massafuni; Moron, Antonio Fernades

    2012-01-01

    Fetus prenatally diagnosed with neck tumors, or with any other disease that obstructs the airways, should not be treated conventionally, as the assistant physician has to face two challenges right after the infant's delivery: the limited time to establish the access to the potentially difficult airways and the lack of anesthesia of the neonate in case of instrumentation of the airways. The ex utero intrapartum treatment, i.e., the EXIT procedure consists of maintaining the fetoplacental circulation during the cesarean section, until the airways of the fetus be secured. Female patient, 37 years old, G3P2, 38 weeks pregnant, having polyhydramnios and fetus diagnosed with large cervical masses by prenatal ultrasound. A cesarean section was performed using the EXIT procedure to enable safe access to the infant's airways. After hysterotomy, the fetus was intubated by direct laryngoscopy. The neonate was immediately transferred to another operating room, where cervical tumor resection of the neck tumor and tracheostomy were successfully performed. Female patient, 27 years old, G3P1A1, 32 weeks pregnant, whose fetus was prenatally diagnosed with a large oral tumor. As the tumor obstructed the fetus' airways, a tracheostomy was performed when the fetus underwent EXIT procedure. It was then possible to use direct laryngoscopy for neonate intubation. The fetus underwent tumor resection and was sent to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Reports describe the successful use of general anesthesia with isoflurane for cesarean delivery followed by the EXIT procedure in fetus diagnosed with tumors obstructing the airways. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification with the Procedure for Ultra Rapid Extraction kit for the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Shuichi; Maeda, Takuya; Suzuki, Takefumi; Abe, Tatsuhiro; Mikita, Kei; Hamakawa, Yusuke; Ono, Takeshi; Sonehara, Wataru; Miyahira, Yasushi; Kawana, Akihiko

    2015-03-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an innovative molecular technique requiring only a heating device and isothermal conditions to amplify a specific target gene. The results of current microscopic diagnostic tools for pneumocystis pneumonia are not sufficiently consistent for detecting infection with a low-density of Pneumocystis jirovecii. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly sensitive, it is not suitable for resource-limited facilities. LAMP is a potential diagnostic replacement for PCR in such settings but a critical disadvantage of DNA extraction was still remained. Therefore, we employed the Procedure for Ultra Rapid Extraction (PURE) kit, which uses a porous material, to isolate the DNA from clinical samples in a simple way in combination with previously reported LAMP procedure for diagnosing PCP. The detection limit of the PURE-LAMP method applied to artificial bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples was 100 copies/tube, even with the use of massive blood-contaminated solutions. In addition, we concluded the diagnostic procedure within 1 h without the need for additional equipment. PURE-LAMP coupled with suitable primers for specific pathogens has good potential for diagnosing various infectious diseases.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of anteroinferior capsular redundancy associated with anterior shoulder instability using an open Latarjet procedure and capsulorrhaphy.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Mickaël; Cretual, Armel; Kaila, Rajiv; Bonan, Isabelle; Hervé, Anthony; Thomazeau, Hervé

    2016-12-01

    There is a paucity of data detailing management of anterior capsular redundancy (ACR) when using the Latarjet procedure for unidirectional instability. This study aimed to describe the surgical management and to assess the clinical profile of patients presenting with anterior capsular redundancy [ACR(+)] with anterior shoulder instability. Seventy-seven patients who had a Latarjet procedure were followed for a 55-month period. Per-operative ACR was assessed during surgery. ACR was considered present if the inferior capsular flap of a Neer T-shaft capsulorrhaphy was able to cover the superior capsular flap with the arm in the neutral position. Patients with ACR(+) received an additional Neer capsulorrhaphy, while patients with ACR(-) did not. This per-operative finding was correlated with demographics, clinical, radiological pre-operative data and surgical outcome. Patients presenting with a per-operative ACR(+) were significantly associated with a sulcus sign (P < 0.001), a Beighton score >4 (P < 0.01), a low-energy instability history (P < 0.05), a predominant history of subluxations (P < 0.05), fewer Hill-Sachs lesion (P < 0.05) and a female gender (P < 0.05), but not significantly with external rotation >85°. Open standard Latarjet procedures with Neer capsulorrhaphy in ACR(+) patients showed excellent or good results and stability rate of 95 %. All patients except four who presented with a new dislocation after surgery were satisfied with their outcome. Thirteen patients (16 %) had a persistent apprehension sign at the last follow-up. ACR(+) and ACR(-) groups did not show significant difference in the mean values of Rowe, Walch-Duplay and Constant-Murley scores. ACR correlated with a sulcus sign, Beighton score and instability history. In anterior shoulder instability associated with ACR, the Latarjet procedure with a Neer capsulorrhaphy appears a satisfactory treatment alternative to arthroscopic or open capsular shift. It decreased

  10. Japanese viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S

    2002-01-01

    One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines. PMID:11930023

  11. Analysis of inedible substance ingestion at a Japanese psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Yayama, So; Tanimoto, Chie; Suto, Shunji; Matoba, Kei; Kajiwara, Tomomi; Inoue, Masue; Endo, Yoshimi; Yamakawa, Miyae; Makimoto, Kiyoko

    2017-01-27

    Inedible substance ingestion increases the risk of ileus, poisoning, and suffocation. Prevention is especially important in a psychiatric setting. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of inedible substance ingestion in a Japanese psychiatric hospital. Inedible substance ingestion incidents were extracted from an incident report database spanning 2000-2012 at a 400-bed psychiatric hospital in Japan. We tabulated the frequencies of incidents in accordance with major diagnosis, ingested materials, incident levels, and time of occurrence. The incidence rate was 0.09/1000 patient days, and 149 cases in 105 patients were classified as having experienced inedible substance ingestion. The most common diagnosis was dementia (n = 58), followed by schizophrenia (n = 22). Materials ingested by dementia patients were nappies or gauze attached to the patient's body after medical procedures. Materials ingested by schizophrenic patients were liquid soap, detergent or shampoo, and cigarettes. Inedible substance ingestion among dementia patients occurred mostly before or during meals. Among schizophrenic patients, the peak period of incidents was in the evening. Dementia patients were overrepresented in the inedible substance ingestion incidents. Items they wore or applied to their bodies were often subject to ingestion, and such behaviours mostly occurred around meal time. Therefore, the nursing staff were able to discover them quickly and treat most of the cases free of serious consequences. In contrast, schizophrenic patients were underrepresented in the incidents, and most cases involved ingestion of detergent powder or cigarettes, resulting in more serious consequences and requiring treatment. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  12. Japanese guidelines for food allergy 2017.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Fujisawa, Takao

    2017-04-01

    Five years have passed since the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Food Allergy (JPGFA) was first revised in 2011 from its original version. As many scientific papers related to food allergy have been published during the last 5 years, the second major revision of the JPGFA was carried out in 2016. In this guideline, food allergies are generally classified into four clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type of food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) special forms of immediate-type of food allergy such as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Much of this guideline covers the immediate-type of food allergy that is seen during childhood to adolescence. Infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy type is especially important as the onset of most food allergies occurs during infancy. We have discussed the neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy and special forms of immediate type food allergy types separately. Diagnostic procedures are highlighted, such as probability curves and component-resolved diagnosis, including the recent advancement utilizing antigen-specific IgE. The oral food challenge using a stepwise approach is recommended to avoid complete elimination of causative foods. Although oral immunotherapy (OIT) has not been approved as a routine treatment by nationwide insurance, we included a chapter for OIT, focusing on efficacy and problems. Prevention of food allergy is currently the focus of interest, and many changes were made based on recent evidence. Finally, the contraindication between adrenaline and antipsychotic drugs in Japan was discussed among related medical societies, and we reached an agreement that the use of adrenaline can be allowed based on the physician's discretion. In conclusion, this guideline encourages physicians to follow the principle to let patients

  13. Mast cells and basophils are essential for allergies: mechanisms of allergic inflammation and a proposed procedure for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    He, Shao-Heng; Zhang, Hui-Yun; Zeng, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Dong; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-10-01

    The current definition of allergy is a group of IgE-mediated diseases. However, a large portion of patients with clinical manifestations of allergies do not exhibit elevated serum levels of IgE (sIgEs). In this article, three key factors, ie soluble allergens, sIgEs and mast cells or basophils, representing the causative factors, messengers and primary effector cells in allergic inflammation, respectively, were discussed. Based on current knowledge on allergic diseases, we propose that allergic diseases are a group of diseases mediated through activated mast cells and/or basophils in sensitive individuals, and allergic diseases include four subgroups: (1) IgE dependent; (2) other immunoglobulin dependent; (3) non-immunoglobulin mediated; (4) mixture of the first three subgroups. According to our proposed definition, pseudo-allergic-reactions, in which mast cell or basophil activation is not mediated via IgE, or to a lesser extent via IgG or IgM, should be non-IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Specific allergen challenge tests (SACTs) are gold standard tests for diagnosing allergies in vivo, but risky. The identification of surface membrane activation markers of mast cells and basophils (CD203c, CCR3, CD63, etc) has led to development of the basophil activation test (BAT), an in vitro specific allergen challenge test (SACT). Based on currently available laboratory allergy tests, we here propose a laboratory examination procedure for allergy.

  14. Japanese remote manipulator system

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, technicians work on the Japanese remote manipulator system. It is scheduled to fly on a 2008 mission along with the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module Pressurized Module (JEM-PM).

  15. Limiting factors for cytopathological diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: a cytohistological correlation between findings in cervical smears and loop electrical excision procedure.

    PubMed

    Pinto AP, Alvaro P; Tuon, Felipe F B; Torres, Luiz Fernando Bleggi; Collaço, Luiz Martins

    2002-01-01

    The present study sought possible factors leading to the cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) in cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Based on retrospective histopathological analysis of loop electrical excision procedure (LEEP) products that diagnosed HSIL, two study groups were randomly selected. The first was consisted of cases with two consecutive Papanicolaou (Pap) smears with the diagnosis of ASCUS. The second (control) group was represented by cases diagnosed as HSIL by cytology. From the Pap smears diagnosed as ASCUS, the sampling limitations was different from control group (P < 0.05). The median size of the largest lesion in each case with ASCUS was 2.66 mm (+/- 1.71 mm). In the control group, the median size of the largest lesion was 5.15 mm (+/-2.58 mm) (P < 0.05). The size of the lesion and sample limitations led patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasms to be diagnosed as ASCUS for two consecutive times, after a 6-mo period. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Diagnosis of endocrine disease: thyroid ultrasound (US) and US-assisted procedures: from the shadows into an array of applications.

    PubMed

    Papini, Enrico; Pacella, Claudio M; Hegedus, Laszlo

    2014-04-01

    In patients with thyroid nodules, ultrasound (US) imaging represents an indispensable tool for assessment of the risk of malignancy. Over approximately four decades, innovative technology and successive improvements have facilitated its entry into the routine management and greatly improved its predictive value. When US features cannot reliably rule out thyroid cancer, US guidance allows a correct and safe sampling also of small or deeply located thyroid lesions. Obtained in this way, cytological or microhistological specimens may reliably define the nature of most thyroid nodules, and the information from histochemical or molecular markers shows promise in the classification of the remaining indeterminate cases. While a prompt surgical treatment can be offered in the minority of suspicious or definitely malignant cases, most individuals warrant only a follow-up. However, at initial evaluation, or over the years, a fraction of these benign lesions may grow and/or become symptomatic. Such cases may benefit from US-guided minimally invasive procedures as an alternative to surgery. Image-guided percutaneous treatments most often achieve relief of neck complaints, are inexpensive, and can be performed on an outpatient basis. The risk of major complications, after adequate training, is very low. Importantly, thyroid function is preserved. Currently, percutaneous ethanol injection for cystic lesions and thermal ablation, with laser or radiofrequency, for solid nodules are increasingly used and disseminated beyond the initial core facilities. In centres with expertise and high patient volume, their use should be considered as first-line treatment alternatives to surgery for selected patients with benign enlarging or symptomatic thyroid lesions.

  17. Costs and hospital procedures in an urology department of a tertiary hospital. Analysis of groups related by their diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Boronat, F; Barrachina, I; Budia, A; Vivas Consuelo, D; Criado, M C

    The health care system has management tools available in hospitals that facilitate the assessment of efficiency through the study of costs and management control in order to make a better use of the resources. The aim of the study was the calculation and analysis of the total cost of a urology department, including ambulatory, hospitalization and surgery activity and the drafting of an income statement where service costs are compared with income earned from the Government fees during 2014. From the information recorded by the Economic Information System of the Department of Health, ABC and top-down method of cost calculation was applied by process care activity. The cost results obtained were compared with the rates established for ambulatory and hospital production in the Tax Law of the Generalitat Valenciana. The production was structured into outpatient (external and technical consultations) and hospital stays and surgeries (inpatient). A total of 32,510 outpatient consultations, 7,527 techniques, 2,860 interventions and 4,855 hospital stays were made during 2014. The total cost was 7,579,327€; the cost for outpatient consultations was 1,748,145€, 1,229,836 Euros for technical consultations, 2,621,036€ for surgery procedures and 1,980,310€ for hospital admissions. Considered as income the current rates applied in 2014 (a total of 15,035,843€), the difference between income and expenditure was 7,456,516€. The economic balance was positive with savings over 50% and a mean adjusted hospitalization stay rate (IEMAC) rate of 0.67 (33% better than the standard). CMA had a favorable impact on cost control. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  19. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  20. Unaccusative Verbs in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyagawa, Shigeru

    An approach to the study of numeral quantifiers in Japanese reveals some fundamental properties of Japanese, especially those pertaining to movement. Using numeral quantifiers, a demonstration shows that the subject of unaccusative verbs in Japanese originates in the object position and moves to the subject position at S-structure. It is also…

  1. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  2. Bullying in Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…

  3. The Student of Japanese History Vs. the Japanese Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    Students of Japanese history (graduate students with language competence seeking a career in Japanese studies, undergraduates studying the Japanese language, and non-linguist undergraduates and graduate students studying Japanese history for a variety of reasons) have to deal with the Japanese language in different ways. They should all, however,…

  4. Status of lipid-lowering therapy prescribedbased on recommendations in the 2002 report of the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guideline for Diagnosis and Treatment of Hyperlipidemia in Japanese Adults: A study of the Japan Lipid Assessment Program (J-LAP).

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Tamio; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; J-Lap Investigators

    2005-03-01

    In its 1997 Guideline for Diagnosis and Treatment of Hyperlipidemia in Japanese Adults and subsequent revisions, the Japan10 Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) recommends serum lipid management goals (SLMGs) based on a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk classification. A literature search revealed that the status of lipid-lowering therapy based on the current JAS recommendations in Japan has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of current lipid-lowering 10 regimens, and to provide the best possible therapeutic strategies for patients with hyperlipidemia by identifying risk factors for the development of CHD, based on the current JAS recommendations. This multicenter, retrospective study was conducted using data 10 from patients under the care of physicians at 12,500 randomly selected institutions across Japan. Physicians received a survey concerning lipid-lowering therapy, on which each physician provided data from 10 consecutive adult patients with hyperlipidemia who had been prescribed lipid-lowering therapy for at least 3 months before the survey was administered, and who were undergoing routine follow-up on an outpatient basis. Physicians provided patients' demographic and clinical data, including JAS-defined CHD risk classification coronary risk factors and pre- and posttreatment (after ≥3 months) serum lipid levels, and the types and dosages of drugs in patients' current and prior treatment regimens. These data were used to assess the efficacy of lipid-lowering regimens and rates of patients achieving the SLMGs recommended by the JAS. A total of 2540 physicians participated in the survey, and data from 10 24,893 Japanese patients (mean [SD] age, 65.8 [10.5] years) with hyperlipidemia were included in the study. Patients with familial hyperlipidemia (845/24,893 [3.4%]) were excluded from most of the analyses, leaving 24,048 patients with primary hyperlipidemia. The most prevalent coronary risk factors included age (21,902 [91

  5. Japanese astronomy around 1899

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuti, Mine

    2001-10-01

    Japanese astronomy began in the seventh century. Before the mid-nineteenth century, Japanese astronomy followed the Tang Dynasty's style, and then followed western astronomy. Compared with the situation in Hungary, Japanese astronomers were trapped in the traditional system. The development in astrometry was prominent at the beginning of the twentieth century, but the introduction of astrophysical observation was delayed. A brief discussion on the reasons for this is included at the end of this paper.

  6. Design and validation of a RT-qPCR procedure for diagnosis and quantification of most types of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus using a single pair of degenerated primers.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, D; Cutrín, J M; Olveira, J G; Dopazo, C P

    2016-12-27

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is an important virus which affects the salmonid aquaculture industry worldwide; therefore, it is important to develop rapid and reliable methods of diagnosis to detect the disease at early stages. Nowadays, RT-qPCR is replacing other methods because it provides additional information on the viral load, which is important to have a better understanding of the virus replication level and of the stage of the infection and its risk level. The main problem stems from the high diversity of this virus, which can compromise the reliability of the diagnosis. In this study, we have designed an RT-qPCR procedure for diagnosis and quantification of IPNV based on a single pair of primers targeted to segment B. The procedure has been validated, in vitro and in vivo, testing two different types of standards against seven reference strains and 23 field isolates from different types. The procedure is reliable for the detection of any type, with a detection limit of 31 TCID50  mL(-1) , 50 pfu mL(-1) or 66 RNA copies mL(-1) , depending on the standard. All the standard curves showed high reliability (R(2)  > 0.95). The results support the high reliability of this new procedure for the diagnosis and quantification of IPNV.

  7. [Mexico and Japanese emigrants].

    PubMed

    Yanaguida, T; Akagui, T

    1995-08-01

    "Japanese immigration to Mexico began in the last decade of the 19th century with a coffee growing project, and proved a failure. Subsequent attempts [at] sending contract labor migrants by emigration agencies, which involved 10,000 Japanese emigrants in 1901-1908, were also unsuccessful, and Mexico turned for Japanese emigrants into a short step on their way to the United States. The evolution of those who remained in Mexico and the different developments of the Japanese communities in Mexico [are] analyzed here until the period after World War II." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  8. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Yellow Fever Vaccine Course Travel Medicine References: Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 3 (81) Japanese Encephalitis more Tables ...

  9. [Clinical diagnosis of thrombosis and blood coagulation tests].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K

    1998-03-01

    Blood coagulation tests are useful to diagnose some thrombotic diseases. Particularly, these tests are valuable for the diagnosis of familiar thrombophilia, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). For the diagnosis of thrombophilia, determinations of both biological activity and antigen level of antithrombin III, protein C and protein S are important for initial screening. Since activated protein C (APC) resistance is extremely rare in Japanese, APC resistant test that based on APTT, is unnecessary to include as one of the screening tests. Detection of activity and antigen level of either plasminogen or fibrinogen is recommended to screen the plasminogen deficiency or dysfibrinogenemia. Determination of lupus anticoagulant is needed for the diagnosis of APS. At this time, the dilute phospholipid APTT (dAPTT) or the dilute Russell viper venom time (dRVVT) may be useful as a screening test for LA because procedure of these tests are basically simple to perform in Japanese laboratory. In the next step, cross mixing test of dAPTT (or APTT) should be perform to make a diagnose of LA more solid. Final confirm tests can be conveniently carried out with kit of either STACLOT or LA-CONFIRM. Platelet count and FDP (or FDP D dimer) assay are two essential tests for the diagnosis of DIC. Criteria of diagnosis for DIC recommended by Blood Coagulation Research Group of Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare is not unnecessarily appropriate for practical use. TAT and PIC can be a good laboratory tests for early detection of hypercoagulable state in patients with DIC.

  10. Enzyme replacement therapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at diagnosis in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type I: results of a European consensus procedure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disorder that results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans causing progressive multi-organ dysfunction. Its clinical spectrum is very broad and varies from the severe Hurler phenotype (MPS I-H) which is characterized by early and progressive central nervous system (CNS) involvement to the attenuated Scheie phenotype (MPS I-S) with no CNS involvement. Indication, optimal timing, safety and efficacy of the two available treatment options for MPS I, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), are subject to continuing debate. A European consensus procedure was organized to reach consensus about the use of these two treatment strategies. Methods A panel of specialists, including 8 specialists for metabolic disorders and 7 bone marrow transplant physicians, all with acknowledged expertise in MPS I, participated in a modified Delphi process to develop consensus-based statements on MPS I treatment. Fifteen MPS I case histories were used to initiate the discussion and to anchor decisions around either treatment mode. Before and at the meeting all experts gave their opinion on the cases (YES/NO transplantation) and reasons for their decisions were collected. A set of draft statements on MPS I treatment options composed by a planning committee were discussed and revised during the meeting until full consensus. Results Full consensus was reached on several important issues, including the following: 1) The preferred treatment for patients with MPS I-H diagnosed before age 2.5 yrs is HSCT; 2) In individual patients with an intermediate phenotype HSCT may be considered if there is a suitable donor. However, there are no data on efficacy of HSCT in patients with this phenotype; 3) All MPS I patients including those who have not been transplanted or whose graft has failed may benefit significantly from ERT; 4) ERT should be started at diagnosis and may be of value

  11. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  12. Japanese American Identity Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykovich, Minako K.

    The major theme of this book is the label "Quiet American" for the Japanese American. In order to locate Japanese Americans sociologically and psychologically in the structure of American society, various concepts such as "marginal man,""alienation," and "inauthenticity" are examined, specifying these…

  13. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  14. LINGUISTICS AND JAPANESE READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROWLEY, DALE P.

    THE PRINCIPLES OF STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS, THE DEVELOPMENT OF JAPANESE ORTHOGRAPHY, AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING ARE USED AS A BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF A LINGUISTICALLY ORIENTED COURSE IN JAPANESE READING. THE FIRST PART OF THE TEXT IS DEVOTED TO THE RELATION BETWEEN READING AND LINGUISTICS. THE SECOND PART GIVES BACKGROUND MATERIAL ON JAPANESE…

  15. Incarcerating Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Presents the history of the Japanese American incarceration during World War II. Focuses on issues such as Executive Order 9066, what happened to the Japanese Americans during the war, and the forms of resistance that occurred. Questions whether something like this could ever happen again. (CMK)

  16. Japanese Quality Control Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    In recent years, United States scholars with an interest in international business and organizational communication have begun to notice the success of Japanese "quality control circles." These are small groups, usually composed of seven to ten workers, who are organized at the production levels within most large Japanese factories. A…

  17. Suggestions on Japanese Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roy Andrew

    After commenting briefly on the current state of instructional materials available to students and teachers of Japanese at a college level, the paper underlines the need for materials that deal specifically with aspects of Japanese culture, and outlines suggestions for possible materials. Graded intermediate materials that stress particularly the…

  18. The Japanese containerless experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azuma, Hisao

    1990-01-01

    There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.

  19. Japanese Media in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  20. An automated normative-based fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography image-analysis procedure to aid Alzheimer disease diagnosis using statistical parametric mapping and interactive image display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kewei; Ge, Xiaolin; Yao, Li; Bandy, Dan; Alexander, Gene E.; Prouty, Anita; Burns, Christine; Zhao, Xiaojie; Wen, Xiaotong; Korn, Ronald; Lawson, Michael; Reiman, Eric M.

    2006-03-01

    Having approved fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in some patients, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services suggested the need to develop and test analysis techniques to optimize diagnostic accuracy. We developed an automated computer package comparing an individual's FDG PET image to those of a group of normal volunteers. The normal control group includes FDG-PET images from 82 cognitively normal subjects, 61.89+/-5.67 years of age, who were characterized demographically, clinically, neuropsychologically, and by their apolipoprotein E genotype (known to be associated with a differential risk for AD). In addition, AD-affected brain regions functionally defined as based on a previous study (Alexander, et al, Am J Psychiatr, 2002) were also incorporated. Our computer package permits the user to optionally select control subjects, matching the individual patient for gender, age, and educational level. It is fully streamlined to require minimal user intervention. With one mouse click, the program runs automatically, normalizing the individual patient image, setting up a design matrix for comparing the single subject to a group of normal controls, performing the statistics, calculating the glucose reduction overlap index of the patient with the AD-affected brain regions, and displaying the findings in reference to the AD regions. In conclusion, the package automatically contrasts a single patient to a normal subject database using sound statistical procedures. With further validation, this computer package could be a valuable tool to assist physicians in decision making and communicating findings with patients and patient families.

  1. MODERN JAPANESE, A BASIC READER. VOLUME II, JAPANESE TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIBBETT, HOWARD; ITASAKA, GEN

    VOLUME II OF THIS INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN JAPANESE CONTAINS 60 READING PASSAGES IN JAPANESE SCRIPT TO BE USED WITH THE VOCABULARY AND NOTES IN VOLUME I. THE READINGS ARE GRADED AND HAVE BEEN SELECTED TO REPRESENT GOOD MODERN JAPANESE USAGE. THE BEGINNING LESSONS ARE IN EASY INFORMAL STYLES AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.…

  2. MODERN JAPANESE, A BASIC READER. VOLUME II, JAPANESE TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIBBETT, HOWARD; ITASAKA, GEN

    VOLUME II OF THIS INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN JAPANESE CONTAINS 60 READING PASSAGES IN JAPANESE SCRIPT TO BE USED WITH THE VOCABULARY AND NOTES IN VOLUME I. THE READINGS ARE GRADED AND HAVE BEEN SELECTED TO REPRESENT GOOD MODERN JAPANESE USAGE. THE BEGINNING LESSONS ARE IN EASY INFORMAL STYLES AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.…

  3. Do English NHS Microbiology laboratories offer adequate services for the diagnosis of UTI in children? Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership (HQIP) Audit of Standard Operational Procedures.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Verlander, Neville Q; Moore, Philippa C L; Larcombe, James; Dudley, Jan; Banerjee, Jaydip; Jadresic, Lyda

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute of Care Excellence (NICE) 2007 guidance CG54, on urinary tract infection (UTI) in children, states that clinicians should use urgent microscopy and culture as the preferred method for diagnosing UTI in the hospital setting for severe illness in children under 3 years old and from the GP setting in children under 3 years old with intermediate risk of severe illness. NICE also recommends that all 'infants and children with atypical UTI (including non-Escherichia coli infections) should have renal imaging after a first infection'. We surveyed all microbiology laboratories in England with Clinical Pathology Accreditation to determine standard operating procedures (SOPs) for urgent microscopy, culture and reporting of children's urine and to ascertain whether the SOPs facilitate compliance with NICE guidance. We undertook a computer search in six microbiology laboratories in south-west England to determine urine submissions and urine reports in children under 3 years. Seventy-three per cent of laboratories (110/150) participated. Enterobacteriaceae that were not E. coli were reported only as coliforms (rather than non-E. coli coliforms) by 61% (67/110) of laboratories. Eighty-eight per cent of laboratories (97/110) provided urgent microscopy for hospital and 54% for general practice (GP) paediatric urines; 61% of laboratories (confidence interval 52-70%) cultured 1 μl volume of urine, which equates to one colony if the bacterial load is 106 c.f.u. l(-1). Only 22% (24/110) of laboratories reported non-E. coli coliforms and provided urgent microscopy for both hospital and GP childhood urines; only three laboratories also cultured a 5 μl volume of urine. Only one of six laboratories in our submission audit had a significant increase in urine submissions and urines reported from children less than 3 years old between the predicted pre-2007 level in the absence of guidance and the 2008 level following publication of the NICE guidance. Less than a

  4. Do English NHS Microbiology laboratories offer adequate services for the diagnosis of UTI in children? Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership (HQIP) Audit of Standard Operational Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Verlander, Neville Q.; Moore, Philippa C. L.; Larcombe, James; Dudley, Jan; Banerjee, Jaydip; Jadresic, Lyda

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Care Excellence (NICE) 2007 guidance CG54, on urinary tract infection (UTI) in children, states that clinicians should use urgent microscopy and culture as the preferred method for diagnosing UTI in the hospital setting for severe illness in children under 3 years old and from the GP setting in children under 3 years old with intermediate risk of severe illness. NICE also recommends that all ‘infants and children with atypical UTI (including non-Escherichia coli infections) should have renal imaging after a first infection’. We surveyed all microbiology laboratories in England with Clinical Pathology Accreditation to determine standard operating procedures (SOPs) for urgent microscopy, culture and reporting of children's urine and to ascertain whether the SOPs facilitate compliance with NICE guidance. We undertook a computer search in six microbiology laboratories in south-west England to determine urine submissions and urine reports in children under 3 years. Seventy-three per cent of laboratories (110/150) participated. Enterobacteriaceae that were not E. coli were reported only as coliforms (rather than non-E. coli coliforms) by 61 % (67/110) of laboratories. Eighty-eight per cent of laboratories (97/110) provided urgent microscopy for hospital and 54 % for general practice (GP) paediatric urines; 61 % of laboratories (confidence interval 52–70 %) cultured 1 μl volume of urine, which equates to one colony if the bacterial load is 106 c.f.u. l− 1. Only 22 % (24/110) of laboratories reported non-E. coli coliforms and provided urgent microscopy for both hospital and GP childhood urines; only three laboratories also cultured a 5 μl volume of urine. Only one of six laboratories in our submission audit had a significant increase in urine submissions and urines reported from children less than 3 years old between the predicted pre-2007 level in the absence of guidance and the 2008 level following publication

  5. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  6. How the Japanese work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry.

  7. Applying Japanese management tips to patient accounts.

    PubMed

    Groenevelt, C J

    1990-04-01

    "Just in time," a Japanese management philosophy that has been applied successfully in manufacturing operations, also can be used to improve management of patient accounts departments. Under its principles, healthcare organizations would develop standardized procedures; involve workers in decision making; set up training and education programs aimed at creating a multi-skilled pool of workers; establish smooth production schedules; and foster cooperation and commitment to the philosophy throughout the organization.

  8. Japanese guidelines for childhood asthma 2017.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hirokazu; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Kohno, Yoichi; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Kondo, Naomi; Nishima, Sankei; Nishimuta, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Akihiro

    2017-04-01

    The Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Diseases 2017 (JAGL 2017) includes a minor revision of the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Asthma 2012 (JPGL 2012) by the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology. The section on child asthma in JAGL 2017 provides information on how to diagnose asthma between infancy and adolescence (0-15 years of age). It makes recommendations for best practices in the management of childhood asthma, including management of acute exacerbations and non-pharmacological and pharmacological management. This guideline will be of interest to non-specialist physicians involved in the care of children with asthma. JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline in that JAGL emphasizes diagnosis and early intervention of children with asthma at <2 years or 2-5 years of age. The first choice of treatment depends on the severity and frequency of symptoms. Pharmacological management, including step-up or step-down of drugs used for long-term management based on the status of asthma control levels, is easy to understand; thus, this guideline is suitable for the routine medical care of children with asthma. JAGL also recommends using a control test in children, so that the physician aims for complete control by avoiding exacerbating factors and appropriately using anti-inflammatory drugs (for example, inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists).

  9. Technological Diversification of Japanese Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodama, Fumio

    1986-01-01

    Describes an approach for measuring industrial technological diversification behavior. Identifies sectoral patterns of Japanese industry as related to diversification behaviors. Delineates the mechanisms and effectiveness of Japanese corporate and government policies relevant to diversification. (ML)

  10. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...

  11. Cultural Competence in Business Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Shohei

    Cultural competence in business Japanese requires more than superficial knowledge of business etiquette. One must truly understand why Japanese people think and act differently from their American counterparts. For example, instruction in the use of Japanese taxis must be accompanied by instruction in the concept and implications of seating order…

  12. Word Processing Applications for Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recio, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates computer software containing applications for learning Japanese as a second language. Presents overview of software available for Japanese word processing applications, lists publications that are good sources of information on Japanese computer topics, and includes a directory of distributors. (eight references) (Author/CK)

  13. Effect of presampling procedures on real-time PCR used for diagnosis of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cows at routine milk recordings.

    PubMed

    Mahmmod, Y S; Klaas, I C; Nielsen, S S; Katholm, J; Toft, N

    2013-04-01

    Aseptic procedures for milk sample collection are considered crucial for bacterial culture to avoid misdiagnosis and subsequently unnecessary treatment or culling. The objective of this field study was to investigate the effect of presampling procedures on the PCR-positivity at cycle threshold value ≤ 37 of real-time PCR assay to detect Staphylococcus aureus from composite milk samples at routine milk recordings while accounting for known cow-level risk factors. A total of 1,199 dairy cows from 6 herds with conventional milking parlors were sampled and tested by PCR in 2011. Following the farmers' routine premilking preparations, 624 cows of the 1,199 cows were randomly selected for bacterial culture preceded by presampling procedures. These procedures were: cleaning of udder teats, removing the first streams of milk, and 70% alcohol teat disinfection. Data on parity, somatic cell counts, days in milk, daily milk yield, fat %, and protein % were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database, whereas energy-corrected milk was calculated based on the latter 3. The within-herd prevalence of intramammary infections with Staph. aureus was 31%, ranging from 16 to 48% in the 6 herds. Univariable analysis showed that the presampling procedures, somatic cell counts, energy-corrected milk, and days in milk were significantly associated with PCR-positivity, whereas parity was not significant. A multivariable model with herd as random effect showed that presampling procedures decreased the chance of being PCR-positive to 0.75 (95% CI; 0.58-0.97) compared with cows where the presampling procedures were not carried out. In conclusion, presampling procedures decreased the cow's chance of being PCR-positive to Staph. aureus. Presampling procedures appeared to improve the specificity of PCR for detection of Staph. aureus by reducing false positives through destruction of Staph. aureus bacteria colonizing or contaminating the teat skin, orifice, and canal. Random herd effects

  14. [Cost assessment for endoscopic procedures in the German diagnosis-related-group (DRG) system - 5 year cost data analysis of the German Society of Gastroenterology project].

    PubMed

    Rathmayer, Markus; Heinlein, Wolfgang; Reiß, Claudia; Albert, Jörg G; Akoglu, Bora; Braun, Martin; Brechmann, Thorsten; Gölder, Stefan K; Lankisch, Tim; Messmann, Helmut; Schneider, Arne; Wagner, Martin; Dollhopf, Markus; Gundling, Felix; Röhling, Michael; Haag, Cornelie; Dohle, Ines; Werner, Sven; Lammert, Frank; Fleßa, Steffen; Wilke, Michael H; Schepp, Wolfgang; Lerch, Markus M

    2017-09-08

    Background In the German hospital reimbursement system (G-DRG) endoscopic procedures are listed in cost center 8. For reimbursement between hospital departments and external providers outdated or incomplete catalogues (e. g. DKG-NT, GOÄ) have remained in use. We have assessed the cost for endoscopic procedures in the G-DRG-system. Methods To assess the cost of endoscopic procedures 74 hospitals, annual providers of cost-data to the Institute for the Hospital Remuneration System (InEK) made their data (2011 - 2015; § 21 KHEntgG) available to the German-Society-of-Gastroenterology (DGVS) in anonymized form (4873 809 case-data-sets). Using cases with exactly one endoscopic procedure (n = 274 186) average costs over 5 years were calculated for 46 endoscopic procedure-tiers. Results Robust mean endoscopy costs ranged from 230.56 € for gastroscopy (144 666 cases), 276.23 € (n = 32 294) for a simple colonoscopy, to 844.07 € (n = 10 150) for ERCP with papillotomy and plastic stent insertion and 1602.37 € (n = 967) for ERCP with a self-expanding metal stent. Higher costs, specifically for complex procedures, were identified for University Hospitals. Discussion For the first time this catalogue for endoscopic procedure-tiers, based on § 21 KHEntgG data-sets from 74 InEK-calculating hospitals, permits a realistic assessment of endoscopy costs in German hospitals. The higher costs in university hospitals are likely due to referral bias for complex cases and emergency interventions. For 46 endoscopic procedure-tiers an objective cost-allocation within the G-DRG system is now possible. By international comparison the costs of endoscopic procedures in Germany are low, due to either greater efficiency, lower personnel allocation or incomplete documentation of the real expenses. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Japanese experiment module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, T.

    1986-01-01

    Japanese hardware elements studied during the definition phase of phase B are described. The hardware is called JEM (Japanese Experiment Module) and will be attached to the Space Station core. JEM consists of a pressurized module, an exposed facility, a scientific/equipment airlock, a local remote manipulator, and experimental logistic module. With all those hardware elements JEM will accommodate general scientific and technology development research (some of the elements are to utilize the advantage of the microgravity environment), and also accommodate control panels for the Space Station Mobile Remote Manipulator System and attached payloads.

  16. Production of Emotional Facial Expressions in European American, Japanese, and Chinese Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda A.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    European American, Japanese, and Chinese 11-month-olds participated in emotion-inducing laboratory procedures. Facial responses were scored with BabyFACS, an anatomically based coding system. Overall, Chinese infants were less expressive than European American and Japanese infants, suggesting that differences in expressivity between European…

  17. Individualistic Striving and Group Dynamics of Fifth- and Eighth-Grade Japanese Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwalb, David W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Individualistic and competitive striving and group dynamics were compared for 42 fifth grade and 42 eighth grade Japanese boys in central Tokyo using a card-stacking procedure. Results are discussed in terms of social loafing versus social striving and behavior patterns of Japanese adults. (SLD)

  18. Production of Emotional Facial Expressions in European American, Japanese, and Chinese Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda A.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    European American, Japanese, and Chinese 11-month-olds participated in emotion-inducing laboratory procedures. Facial responses were scored with BabyFACS, an anatomically based coding system. Overall, Chinese infants were less expressive than European American and Japanese infants, suggesting that differences in expressivity between European…

  19. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  20. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  1. Japanese Experiment Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-05

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) is moved on its workstand in the Space Station Processing Facility. The JEM will undergo pre-assembly measurements. Developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the JEM will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  2. JAPANESE READERS (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THREE JAPANESE READERS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CONTAIN VOCABULARY, NOTES, AND DRILL SENTENCES. THE THREE READERS--(1) ARU SARARIIMAN NO ITI-NITI, (2) OTOOSAN WA KAMI-SAMA, AND (3) ARU GAKUSEI NO HANNITI--ARE WRITTEN IN THE ROMAJI ALPHABET. EACH READER HAS A VOCABULARY LISTING WITH ENGLISH EXPLANATIONS AND DRILL SENTENCES. AN ENGLISH WORD DEFINITION…

  3. Reconstruction of Japanese Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Haruo

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between linguistic reconstructions and their historical validity using the case of Old Japanese (8th century A.D.) vowels as an example. Reconstructions throughout the paper include only those cases in which the modern reflexes and phonological correspondences between two or more genetically related languages…

  4. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  5. On Japanese Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanare, Shigeo

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents data and facts concerning yearly publications (books, magazines, and textbooks), translations, and illustrations of Japanese children's literature. The report then discusses at length recent trends in children's literature and library activities for children in the past, present, and…

  6. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  7. Japanese Experiment Module arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-29

    Several components for delivery to the International Space Station sit in test stands inside the Space Station Processing Facility highbay. To the right, from back to front, are the Japanese Experiment Module, the Raffaello multi-purpose logistics module, and the European Space Agency's Columbus scientific research module. To the left in front is the starboard truss segment S5. Behind it is the test stand that will hold the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section for the Japanese Experiment Module. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  8. Reflexives in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishida, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…

  9. [Discussion of 2011 Tokyo Declaration on Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hua; Zhong, Ding-Wen; Xu, Da-Zhao; Yuan, Hong-Wen; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Li, Jing; Shu, Fu-Zheng; Liu, Yu-Qi; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Jiang

    2012-12-01

    The contents of 2011 Tokyo Declaration on Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion (Declaration for short) and its effect on development situation, current status, features, opportunities and challenges of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion are introduced, some proposals brought up in the Declaration are analyzed as well. The Declaration summarizes six characteristics of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion, including paying great attention to palpation techniques such as pulse and abdominal diagnosis, always selecting response point in the meridian during acupuncture treatment, etc. Also six proposals have been brought up to promote the development of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion, such as being devoted to spread the latest knowledge of acupuncture and moxibustion to medical professionals and the public in order to get correct understanding and proper evaluation, etc. What's more, the Declaration makes a prospection of improving international academic exchange and promoting the globalization of acupuncture and moxibustion and so on. The Declaration is served as a link between past and future in the history and developing process of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion, which has a great meaning to the development of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion. We should have a clear understanding of weakness and strength in the development of acupuncture and moxibustion, seize the opportunity and develop science of acupuncture and moxibustion with our own characteristics, which makes more contribution to development of international acupuncture and moxibustion.

  10. N-gram support vector machines for scalable procedure and diagnosis classification, with applications to clinical free text data from the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Marafino, Ben J; Davies, Jason M; Bardach, Naomi S; Dean, Mitzi L; Dudley, R Adams

    2014-01-01

    Existing risk adjustment models for intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes rely on manual abstraction of patient-level predictors from medical charts. Developing an automated method for abstracting these data from free text might reduce cost and data collection times. To develop a support vector machine (SVM) classifier capable of identifying a range of procedures and diagnoses in ICU clinical notes for use in risk adjustment. We selected notes from 2001-2008 for 4191 neonatal ICU (NICU) and 2198 adult ICU patients from the MIMIC-II database from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Using these notes, we developed an implementation of the SVM classifier to identify procedures (mechanical ventilation and phototherapy in NICU notes) and diagnoses (jaundice in NICU and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in adult ICU). On the jaundice classification task, we also compared classifier performance using n-gram features to unigrams with application of a negation algorithm (NegEx). Our classifier accurately identified mechanical ventilation (accuracy=0.982, F1=0.954) and phototherapy use (accuracy=0.940, F1=0.912), as well as jaundice (accuracy=0.898, F1=0.884) and ICH diagnoses (accuracy=0.938, F1=0.943). Including bigram features improved performance on the jaundice (accuracy=0.898 vs 0.865) and ICH (0.938 vs 0.927) tasks, and outperformed NegEx-derived unigram features (accuracy=0.898 vs 0.863) on the jaundice task. Overall, a classifier using n-gram support vectors displayed excellent performance characteristics. The classifier generalizes to diverse patient populations, diagnoses, and procedures. SVM-based classifiers can accurately identify procedure status and diagnoses among ICU patients, and including n-gram features improves performance, compared to existing methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Primary Intraocular Lymphoma: Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sen, H. Nida; Bodaghi, Bahram; Le Hoang, Phuc; Nussenblatt, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of PIOL can be challenging. It requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and differential diagnosis includes infectious and non-infectious etiologies particularly the common masquaraders sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, viral retinitis and syphilis. The definitive diagnosis depends on demonstration of malignant lymphoma cells in ocular specimens or CSF. Ocular specimen could include vitreous, aqueous or chorioretinal biopsy. Ocular pathologist should be consulted prior to the diagnostic procedure to help handle and process the specimen appropriately. In addition to cytology, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, molecular analysis and cytokines may be used as adjuncts in facilitating the diagnosis. PMID:19585354

  12. Facing the problem of "false positives": re-assessment and improvement of a multiplex RT-PCR procedure for the diagnosis of A. flavus mycotoxin producers.

    PubMed

    Degola, F; Berni, E; Spotti, E; Ferrero, I; Restivo, F M

    2009-02-28

    The aim of our research project was to consolidate a multiplex RT-PCR protocol to detect aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. Several independent A. flavus strains were isolated from corn and flour samples from the North of Italy and from three European countries. Aflatoxin producing/not producing phenotype was assessed by qualitative and quantitative assays at day five of growth in aflatoxin inducing conditions. Expression of 16 genes belonging to the aflatoxin cluster was assayed by multiplex or monomeric RT-PCR. There is a good correlation between gene expression and aflatoxin production. Strains that apparently transcribed all the relevant genes but did not release aflatoxin in the medium ("false positives") were re-assessed for mycotoxin production after extended growth in inducing condition. All the "false positive" strains in actual fact were positive when aflatoxin determination was performed after 10 days of growth. These strains should then be re-classified as "slow aflatoxin accumulators". To optimise the diagnostic procedure, a quintuplex RT-PCR procedure was designed consisting of a primer set directed against four informative aflatoxin cluster genes and the beta-tubulin gene as an internal amplification control. In conclusion we have provided evidence for the robustness and reliability of our RT-PCR protocol in discriminating mycotoxin producer from non-producer strains of A. flavus. and the molecular procedure we devised is a promising tool with which to screen and control the endemic population of A. flavus colonising different areas of the World.

  13. Risk assessment chart for predicting fatty liver in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Inabe, Fumiyo; Takahashi, Eiko; Moriyama, Kengo; Negami, Masako; Otsuka, Hiroki

    2012-12-20

    The diagnosis of fatty liver is done mainly by ultrasonography, which it is not included in the usual health checkup examinations. The aim of this study was to develop an index to predict the existence of fatty liver using tests that are part of specific health examinations. A total of 7,305 Japanese (4,042 men; 3,263 women) who underwent annual health checks were enrolled. Body mass index (BMI), Waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, and levels of triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were used to predict fatty liver, and a stepwise procedure was used to select an optimal subset of dummy regressors. The probabilities for predicting fatty liver were calculated from the logistic regression equation using the constant and coefficients for each variable. Risk assessment charts for predicting the probability of fatty liver were developed. These probabilities were displayed in a color-coded manner by combining BMI, TG, FPG, ALT, and WC. Our fatty liver-predicting index consisted of the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and ALT, thus indicating a close relationship of fatty liver and MetS. The use of this index enables quantitative assessments of the severity of MetS.

  14. [Epilepsy guidelines: Japanese and international guidelines].

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2011-04-01

    Many guidelines for the management of epilepsy have been published since the introduction of evidence-based medicine. In Japan, the first clinical guideline for epilepsy management was published by the Japanese Society of Neurology (JSN) in 2002. The Japan Epilepsy Society (JES) has been publishing guidelines for several topics since 2005. However, owing to recent advances in epileptology and the accumulation of related knowledge, it has become necessary to revise these guidelines. Four medical societies-JSN, JES, the Japanese Society of Neurological Therapeutics, and the Japanese Society of Child Neurology-have together published new epilepsy-related clinical guidelines for practitioners. The guideline committee consists of 23 specialists representing the 4 societies. The guidelines primary target general practitioners treating epilepsy patients and are designed to be user friendly-in the form of 81 "clinical questions" (CQs). The CQs comprehensively cover various aspects of epilepsy management including those related to diagnosis, treatment, surgery, pregnancy, and social issues. Recommendations are concisely described with levels from A to D. The evidence level (I to IV) of the references is based on the literature review conducted by the committee. These guidelines were published in October 2010.

  15. Procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1986-01-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.

  16. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) and high-risk human papillomavirus (H-HPV) as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in Japanese women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC): a Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Study

    PubMed Central

    Liao, S-Y; Rodgers, W H; Kauderer, J; Bonfiglio, T A; Darcy, K M; Carter, R; Levine, L; Spirtos, N M; Susumu, N; Fujiwara, K; Walker, J L; Hatae, M; Stanbridge, E J

    2011-01-01

    Background: High-risk human papillomavirus (H-HPV) infection is linked to cervical neoplasia but its role in detecting cervical glandular lesions (GLs) is unclear. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) is a hypoxic biomarker that is highly expressed in neoplastic cervical GLs. The diagnostic utility of these biomarkers was evaluated by the Gynecologic Oncology Group in Japanese women with a cytological diagnosis of atypical glandular cells. Methods: Immunostaining was used to detect CA-IX in a conventional Pap smear. Immunoreactivity of CA-IX was interpreted by a panel of pathologists blinded to the histological diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect H-HPV in a liquid-based cytology specimen. Results: Significant cervical lesions (SCLs), defined as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2, CIN3), adenocarcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma, were observed in 37/88 (42%) of women. CA-IX testing alone (n=88) had a sensitivity of 89, 100 or 73% for SCLs, GLs or significant squamous lesions (SLs), respectively, with a false negative rate (FNR) of 14%. Testing for H-HPV (n=84) had a sensitivity of 65, 53 or 80% for SCLs, GLs or SLs, respectively, with a FNR of 22%. The combination of CA-IX and H-HPV testing had a sensitivity of 97, 100 or 93% for SCLs, GLs or SLs, respectively, with a FNR of 5%. Among eight H-HPV-negative GLs, six (75%) had a diagnosis of lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH). Conclusion: The combination of CA-IX and HPV testing improved the diagnostic accuracy. The low rate of H-HPV positivity in the GLs was associated with coexisting LEGH independent of H-HPV. PMID:21157448

  17. Effects of Distributed Practice on the Proceduralization of Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Yuichi; DeKeyser, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether distributed practice works better than massed practice for proceduralization of grammatical knowledge. Learners of Japanese as a second language were trained on an element of Japanese morphology under either massed or distributed practice conditions. Results showed that massed practice led to accurate…

  18. Detraditionalisation: Japanese Students in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Junko

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the identity formation of Japanese students temporarily living in the United States. The students were enrolled in Japanese Saturday school and in American public schools. Student interviews reveal a mixture of Japanese and American characteristics. Suggests Japanese students do not reject either culture--Japanese or American--but that…

  19. Detraditionalisation: Japanese Students in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Junko

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the identity formation of Japanese students temporarily living in the United States. The students were enrolled in Japanese Saturday school and in American public schools. Student interviews reveal a mixture of Japanese and American characteristics. Suggests Japanese students do not reject either culture--Japanese or American--but that…

  20. First case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tanizaki, Ryutaro; Ujiie, Mugen; Kato, Yasuyuki; Iwagami, Moritoshi; Hashimoto, Aki; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kyoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ohmagari, Norio

    2013-04-15

    This is the first case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia. In September 2012, a previously healthy 35-year-old Japanese man presented to National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Tokyo with a two-day history of daily fever, mild headaches and mild arthralgia. Malaria parasites were found in the Giemsa-stained thin blood smear, which showed band forms similar to Plasmodium malariae. Although a nested PCR showed the amplification of the primer of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, he was finally diagnosed with P. knowlesi mono-infection by DNA sequencing. He was treated with mefloquine, and recovered without any complications. DNA sequencing of the PCR products is indispensable to confirm P. knowlesi infection, however there is limited access to DNA sequencing procedures in endemic areas. The extent of P. knowlesi transmission in Asia has not been clearly defined. There is limited availability of diagnostic tests and routine surveillance system for reporting an accurate diagnosis in the Asian endemic regions. Thus, reporting accurately diagnosed cases of P. knowlesi infection in travellers would be important for assessing the true nature of this emerging human infection.

  1. A Prospective Assessment of the Accuracy of Commercial IgM ELISAs in Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infections in Patients with Suspected Central Nervous System Infections in Laos

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Catrin E.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Taojaikong, Thaksinaporn; Jarman, Richard G.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Lee, Sue J.; Chansamouth, Vilada; Thongpaseuth, Soulignasack; Mayxay, Mayfong; Newton, Paul N.

    2012-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major cause of encephalitis in Asia. We estimated the diagnostic accuracy of two anti-JEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Panbio and XCyton JEVCheX) compared with a reference standard (AFRIMS JEV MAC ELISA) in a prospective study of the causes of central nervous system infections in Laos. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; 515 patients) and serum samples (182 patients) from those admitted to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, were tested. The CSF from 14.5% of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) patients and 10.1% from those with AES and meningitis were positive for anti-JEV IgM in the reference ELISA. The sensitivities for CSF were 65.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 51–78) (Xcyton), 69.2% (95% CI = 55–81) (Panbio), however 96.2% (95% CI = 87–100) with Panbio Ravi criteria. Specificities were 89–100%. For admission sera from AES patients, sensitivities and specificities of the Panbio ELISA were 85.7% (95% CI = 42–100%) and 92.9% (95% CI = 83–98%), respectively. PMID:22764310

  2. The Structure of Temperament among Japanese and American Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwawaki, Saburo; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the generalizability of structure of temperament across culture. Responses of 304 Japanese college students (59.5 male) to the Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS) were compared to those of the American sample studied by Lerner, Palermo, Spiro and Nesselroade (1982) through the use of confirmatory factor analytic procedures. (Author/BE)

  3. Diagnosis of urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Schoepke, Nicole; Doumoulakis, Georgios; Maurer, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Acute urticaria do not need extensive diagnostic procedures. Urticaria activity score is a useful tool for evaluation of urticaria. Complete blood count, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein are important investigations for diagnosis of infections in urticaria. Autologous serum skin test is a simple office procedure for diagnosis of auto reactive urticaria. Closed ball point pen tip is a simple test to diagnose dermographism. PMID:23723473

  4. Japanese Experiment Module arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-29

    The Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section for the Japanese Experiment Module arrives at the Space Station Processing Facility for uncrating. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  5. Japanese Experiment Module arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-29

    Inside the Space Station Processing Facility, workers monitor progress as a huge crane is used to remove the top of the crate carrying the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section for the Japanese Experiment Module. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  6. Japanese Experiment Module arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-29

    Inside the Space Station Processing Facility, the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section for the Japanese Experiment Module is revealed after the top of the crate is removed. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  7. Japanese Experiment Module arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-29

    The Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section for the Japanese Experiment Module arrives at the Space Station Processing Facility. The logistics module is one of the components of the Japanese Experiment Module or JEM, also known as Kibo, which means "hope" in Japanese. Kibo comprises six components: two research facilities -- the Pressurized Module and Exposed Facility; a Logistics Module attached to each of them; a Remote Manipulator System; and an Inter-Orbit Communication System unit. Kibo also has a scientific airlock through which experiments are transferred and exposed to the external environment of space. Kibo is Japan's first human space facility and its primary contribution to the station. Kibo will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts can conduct science experiments. The various components of JEM will be assembled in space over the course of three Space Shuttle missions. The first of those three missions, STS-123, will carry the Experiment Logistics Module Pressurized Section aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, targeted for launch in 2007.

  8. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    PubMed

    Iga, M

    1981-01-01

    The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan.

  9. Measurement and correlates of empathy among female Japanese physicians.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hitomi U; Koide, Norio; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2012-06-22

    The measurement of empathy is important in the assessment of physician competence and patient outcomes. The prevailing view is that female physicians have higher empathy scores compared with male physicians. In Japan, the number of female physicians has increased rapidly in the past ten years. In this study, we focused on female Japanese physicians and addressed factors that were associated with their empathic engagement in patient care. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) was translated into Japanese by using the back-translation procedure, and was administered to 285 female Japanese physicians. We designed this study to examine the psychometrics of the JSE and group differences among female Japanese physicians. The item-total score correlations of the JSE were all positive and statistically significant, ranging from .20 to .54, with a median of .41. The Cronbach's coefficient alpha was .81. Female physicians who were practicing in "people-oriented" specialties obtained a significantly higher mean empathy score than their counterparts in "procedure-" or "technology-oriented" specialties. In addition, physicians who reported living with their parents in an extended family or living close to their parents, scored higher on the JSE than those who were living alone or in a nuclear family. Our results provide support for the measurement property and reliability of the JSE in a sample of female Japanese physicians. The observed group differences associated with specialties and living arrangement may have implications for sustaining empathy. In addition, recognizing these factors that reinforce physicians' empathy may help physicians to avoid career burnout.

  10. Japanese research and technology policy.

    PubMed

    Lynn, L

    1986-07-18

    Until recently the Japanese did not spend much on research and what they did spend was concentrated on the commercial development of technology. As a result there have so far been few Japanese breakthroughs in either science or technology. Dramatic changes have recently occurred, however, and Japan now trails only the United States and the Soviet Union in research spending. Beyond this, Japanese policy-makers are making a determined effort to overcome Japan's social and institutional barriers to scientific creativity.

  11. Directory of Japanese researchers available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Center for Science Information System Japanese Scientific and Engineering Database Access Project, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Japan's NACSIS, has added four new databases to its free service, bringing the total number of available databases to 13.The new Directory of Japanese Researchers covers researchers affiliated with Japanese universities and academic research centers. Each researcher is listed by name, date of birth, organizational affiliation, education and degrees, memberships and awards, areas of specialization, and representative publications. Non-Japanese researchers are also covered.

  12. A Report of an Adult Case of Tubulointerstitial Nephritis and Uveitis (TINU) Syndrome, with a Review of 102 Japanese Cases

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Keiichiro; Fukunari, Kenichi; Ikeda, Yuji; Miyazono, Motoaki; Kishi, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Ryoko; Fukuda, Makoto; Ichiumi, Saori; Yoshizaki, Mai; Nonaka, Yasunori; Kanaya, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 44 Final Diagnosis: Tubulointerstitial nephritis • uveitis syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: Loxoprofen sodium hydrate Clinical Procedure: Renal biopsy Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare disease Background: Although TINU syndrome is characterized by idiopathic TIN with bilateral anterior uveitis, few reports have provided a comprehensive summary of the features of this disorder. Previous reports have suggested that many Japanese patients had HLA-A2 and -A24 (7), but there is no evidence. Case Report: A 44-year-old female was referred to our hospital due to renal dysfunction in March 2012. After admission, her symptoms improved spontaneously without medication within 2 weeks. In the outpatient clinic, she was diagnosed with idiopathic bilateral anterior uveitis in May, and her renal dysfunction relapsed in November. A renal biopsy showed diffuse TIN. We made a diagnosis of TINU syndrome because we could not explain the origin, and treated her with a systemic corticosteroid. Her renal function and ocular symptoms have been improving. The patient had HLA-A24, -B7, -DR1, -C*07: 02 and -DQB1*05: 01: 01. We collected 102 Japanese cases in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Japanese Medical Abstracts Society and compared our case with the previous cases. Conclusions: This disorder affects primarily young females (median age, 14 years), and the most common symptom is fever (44/102 cases). We conducted a statistical analysis using contingency table and Pearson’s chi-square test, for HLA-A2 and A24, and calculated the odds ratio (OR). There are no significant differences (A2 was present in 7/22 cases and in 19/50 controls, p value (P) 0.61, OR 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI)) 0.27–2.2; A24 was present in 10/22 cases and in 33/50 controls, P 0.10, OR 0.43, CI 0.16–1.2). PMID:25725230

  13. Quality guidelines and standards for genetic laboratories/clinics in prenatal diagnosis on fetal samples obtained by invasive procedures. An attempt to establish a common European framework for quality assessment. EUCROMIC Quality Assessment Group.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    At a workshop in Leuven, November 8-10, 1996, 24 clinical and laboratory geneticists from 15 countries in Europe met and discussed minimum standards for prenatal diagnosis. These guidelines are intended for use as a reference manual by genetic centres all over Europe, especially in countries without national guidelines, in their efforts to achieve and maintain high standards. The workshop was restricted to discuss quality assessment on established invasive procedures for cytogenetic and molecular studies. The committee brought together from their own countries substantial experience of genetic counselling, cytogenetics, molecular biology and quality assessment. It is hoped that future discussions, embracing all aspects of clinical and laboratory genetic services will lead to the establishment of common guidelines for all European countries.

  14. Sedation in Japanese dental schools.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Zac; Sano, Kimito; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Kanri, Tomio

    2004-01-01

    There is very little information about the practice of sedation in Japan. Despite the remarkable advances in dentistry, fear and anxiety continue to be significant deterrents for seeking dental services. Most dental procedures can fortunately be undertaken with the aid of sedation. A comprehensive survey of all the dental schools in Japan was carried out to determine what sedation practices were used in Japan. All 29 dental schools in Japan possessed a dedicated department of anesthesiology at the time of this survey. The survey attempted to determine the specific sedation methods (techniques, routes of administration, and agents used in sedation) as well as practices (monitoring, fasting, location, education, and fees involved in sedation). The results indicate that there was a broad range in sedation practices. The Japanese Dental Society of Anesthesiology may wish to examine the findings of this study and may wish to formulate guidelines appropriate for the practice of sedation in Japan. Others may also wish to compare their own practices with those of Japan. PMID:15497299

  15. Establishment of an Algorithm Using prM/E- and NS1-Specific IgM Antibody-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays in Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus Infections in Humans.

    PubMed

    Galula, Jedhan U; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Chuang, Shih-Te; Chao, Day-Yu

    2016-02-01

    The front-line assay for the presumptive serodiagnosis of acute Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) infections is the premembrane/envelope (prM/E)-specific IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Due to antibody cross-reactivity, MAC-ELISA-positive samples may be confirmed with a time-consuming plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). In the present study, we applied a previously developed anti-nonstructural protein 1 (NS1)-specific MAC-ELISA (NS1-MAC-ELISA) on archived acute-phase serum specimens from patients with confirmed JEV and WNV infections and compared the results with prM/E containing virus-like particle-specific MAC-ELISA (VLP-MAC-ELISA). Paired-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses revealed no statistical differences in the overall assay performances of the VLP- and NS1-MAC-ELISAs. The two methods had high sensitivities of 100% but slightly lower specificities that ranged between 80% and 100%. When the NS1-MAC-ELISA was used to confirm positive results in the VLP-MAC-ELISA, the specificity of serodiagnosis, especially for JEV infection, was increased to 90% when applied in areas where JEV cocirculates with WNV, or to 100% when applied in areas that were endemic for JEV. The results also showed that using multiple antigens could resolve the cross-reactivity in the assays. Significantly higher positive-to-negative (P/N) values were consistently obtained with the homologous antigens than those with the heterologous antigens. JEV or WNV was reliably identified as the currently infecting flavivirus by a higher ratio of JEV-to-WNV P/N values or vice versa. In summary of the above-described results, the diagnostic algorithm combining the use of multiantigen VLP- and NS1-MAC-ELISAs was developed and can be practically applied to obtain a more specific and reliable result for the serodiagnosis of JEV and WNV infections without the need for PRNT. The developed algorithm should provide great

  16. Clinical manifestations of Japanese encephalitis in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuang Ming; Tsai, Hung Chin; Sy, Cheng Len; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Liu, Yung Ching; Wann, Shue Ren; Wang, Yung Hsing; Mai, Ming Hsin; Chen, Jei Kuang; Wu, Kuan Sheng; Chen, Yi Jan; Chen, Yao Shen

    2009-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus infection is a sporadic infectious disease in Taiwan. Despite progress in laboratory examinations and imaging studies, diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis remains underestimated. This study was conducted to identify clinical symptoms and laboratory findings that may assist in early identification of this disease. This retrospective study included all patients diagnosed with Japanese encephalitis at Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital from January 2000 through December 2007. Epidemiologic data, predisposing factors, neurological and non-neurological signs and symptoms, laboratory data, and treatment were analyzed. Outcomes and neurological complications were evaluated. Eleven patients had Japanese encephalitis, and 10 had sufficient information for enrolment into the study. Nine patients presented with non-significant constitutional symptoms of fever, nausea, or headache. Other signs and symptoms included rhinorrhea, sore throat, abdominal pain, cough, myalgia, or arthralgia. Eight patients had lymphocytic pleocytosis with elevated protein and borderline low glucose levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Leptomeningeal enhancement and low density lesions were the most common computed tomography findings. T2 hyperintensity lesions and leptomeningeal enhancement were seen in 5 patients. Two patients presenting with acute flaccid paralysis had high intensity lesions on the thalamus and basal ganglion. There were no correlations between clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings. None of the patients had neurological sequelae. Presentations, laboratory examination, and clinical signs are not specific for Japanese encephalitis. Sporadic cases are usually seen from May to August, which are associated with monsoon rains. Hence increased awareness of this disease is recommended during these periods.

  17. [Diagnosis of Hansen's disease].

    PubMed

    Yotsu, Rie Roselyne; Suzuki, Koichi; Mori, Shuichi; Ishii, Norihisa

    2011-02-01

    The Leprosy Mailing List (LML) is an e-mailing list open to whoever interested in the field from all over the world. It acts as a forum for exchanging information related to Hansen's disease. It was established in February 2001 in Italy, and the present moderator of the LML is Dr. Salvatore Noto. He and his colleague have recently introduced an atlas for diagnosing Hansen's disease which they brought together information and photos collected through the LML. The atlas is divided into three sections, (1) Introduction, (2) Cardinal signs, and (3) Diagnosis and the clinical spectrum of leprosy, and they are all accompanied with relevant photos. This time, Dr. Noto kindly permitted us to translate the atlas into Japanese to be published in the Japanese Journal of Leprosy and posted in the Japanese Leprosy Association homepage. This article includes the translation and some of the most informative photos. For more information, please refer to the homepage where you will find all photos in the atlas.

  18. Japanese Aircraft Cameras

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-09-01

    Caiaara« by P. S^nosr R.A.3. Ref: JH.3O0J/V93 The note ooiqpriaes a general description of ten different types of Japanese aircraft oamsras. The...5 6 7 9 11 11 U I A 2 3 4*5 6 7 8,9.10 II £ 12 13 1U 15 MB • Keport No. tA.Ztfö Technioal ibte It i. JH.331 1 General ...safety covers to prevent damago to the film during stowage in the aircraft» The general characteristics of the oamera era oe follows:- (a) Siso

  19. The modern Japanese color lexicon.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Ichiro; Lange, Ryan; Muto, Yumiko; Brown, Angela M; Fukuda, Kazuho; Tokunaga, Rumi; Lindsey, Delwin T; Uchikawa, Keiji; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Despite numerous prior studies, important questions about the Japanese color lexicon persist, particularly about the number of Japanese basic color terms and their deployment across color space. Here, 57 native Japanese speakers provided monolexemic terms for 320 chromatic and 10 achromatic Munsell color samples. Through k-means cluster analysis we revealed 16 statistically distinct Japanese chromatic categories. These included eight chromatic basic color terms (aka/red, ki/yellow, midori/green, ao/blue, pink, orange, cha/brown, and murasaki/purple) plus eight additional terms: mizu ("water")/light blue, hada ("skin tone")/peach, kon ("indigo")/dark blue, matcha ("green tea")/yellow-green, enji/maroon, oudo ("sand or mud")/mustard, yamabuki ("globeflower")/gold, and cream. Of these additional terms, mizu was used by 98% of informants, and emerged as a strong candidate for a 12th Japanese basic color term. Japanese and American English color-naming systems were broadly similar, except for color categories in one language (mizu, kon, teal, lavender, magenta, lime) that had no equivalent in the other. Our analysis revealed two statistically distinct Japanese motifs (or color-naming systems), which differed mainly in the extension of mizu across our color palette. Comparison of the present data with an earlier study by Uchikawa & Boynton (1987) suggests that some changes in the Japanese color lexicon have occurred over the last 30 years.

  20. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

  1. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

  2. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community,"…

  3. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with…

  4. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8…

  5. A GLOSSARY OF JAPANESE NEOLOGISMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAILEY, DON C.

    THIS GLOSSARY COMPRISES A LIST OF USEFUL NEW WORDS AND PHRASES IN CURRENT USE NOT FOUND IN JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARIES, SPECIFICALLY KENKYUSHA'S NEW JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1954 EDITION, WHICH HAS SERVED AS THE MODEL IN MOST RESPECTS FOR THE FORMAT AND STYLE. ROMANIZATION OF THE ORTHOGRAPHY FOLLOWS A MODIFIED HEPBURN SYSTEM AND THE JAPANESE…

  6. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community,"…

  7. Reducing Length of Hospital Stay Does Not Increase Readmission Rates in Early-Stage Gastric, Colon, and Lung Cancer Surgical Cases in Japanese Acute Care Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Susumu; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese government has worked to reduce the length of hospital stay by introducing a per-diem hospital payment system that financially incentivizes the timely discharge of patients. However, there are concerns that excessively reducing length of stay may reduce healthcare quality, such as increasing readmission rates. The objective of this study was to investigate the temporal changes in length of stay and readmission rates as quality indicators in Japanese acute care hospitals. We used an administrative claims database under the Diagnosis Procedure Combination Per-Diem Payment System for Japanese hospitals. Using this database, we selected hospitals that provided data continuously from July 2010 to March 2014 to enable analyses of temporal changes in length of stay and readmission rates. We selected stage I (T1N0M0) gastric, colon, and lung cancer surgical patients who had been discharged alive from the index hospitalization. The outcome measures were length of stay during the index hospitalization and unplanned emergency readmissions within 30 days after discharge. From among 804 hospitals, we analyzed 42,585, 15,467, and 40,156 surgical patients for gastric, colon, and lung cancer, respectively. Length of stay was reduced by approximately 0.5 days per year. In contrast, readmission rates were generally stable at approximately 2% or had decreased slightly over the 4-year period. In early-stage gastric, colon, and lung cancer surgical patients in Japan, reductions in length of stay did not result in increased readmission rates.

  8. Reducing Length of Hospital Stay Does Not Increase Readmission Rates in Early-Stage Gastric, Colon, and Lung Cancer Surgical Cases in Japanese Acute Care Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Kunisawa, Susumu; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Background The Japanese government has worked to reduce the length of hospital stay by introducing a per-diem hospital payment system that financially incentivizes the timely discharge of patients. However, there are concerns that excessively reducing length of stay may reduce healthcare quality, such as increasing readmission rates. The objective of this study was to investigate the temporal changes in length of stay and readmission rates as quality indicators in Japanese acute care hospitals. Methods We used an administrative claims database under the Diagnosis Procedure Combination Per-Diem Payment System for Japanese hospitals. Using this database, we selected hospitals that provided data continuously from July 2010 to March 2014 to enable analyses of temporal changes in length of stay and readmission rates. We selected stage I (T1N0M0) gastric, colon, and lung cancer surgical patients who had been discharged alive from the index hospitalization. The outcome measures were length of stay during the index hospitalization and unplanned emergency readmissions within 30 days after discharge. Results From among 804 hospitals, we analyzed 42,585, 15,467, and 40,156 surgical patients for gastric, colon, and lung cancer, respectively. Length of stay was reduced by approximately 0.5 days per year. In contrast, readmission rates were generally stable at approximately 2% or had decreased slightly over the 4-year period. Conclusions In early-stage gastric, colon, and lung cancer surgical patients in Japan, reductions in length of stay did not result in increased readmission rates. PMID:27832182

  9. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  10. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  11. Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Lowe, Howard A.; Jeter, James W.; Kus, Steven M.; Osgood, Roderic; Hurt, W. Todd; Gilman, David; Rogers, David L.; Hoelter, Roger L.; Kamel, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager (JAMI) was developed by Raytheon and delivered to Space Systems/Loral as the Imager Subsystem for Japan's MTSAT-1R satellite. Due to Japan's urgent need to replace MTSAT-1, which was destroyed in a launch failure in 1999, JAMI was developed on an expeditious 39-month schedule. Raytheon's success in responding to the needs of MTSAT-1R and delivering an excellent operational geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) imager was enabled by an elegant instrument architecture and use of newer but proven technology that simplified design, assembly and test of the Imager while simultaneously supplying superior performance. JAMI breaks through limitations of earlier three-axis stabilized GEO instruments with significant improvements in many areas, including spatial sampling, radiometric sensitivity, calibration and performance around local midnight.

  12. Anthropophobia and Japanese performance.

    PubMed

    Takano, R

    1977-08-01

    Actors are not the only people who act on a regular basis--everyone does some "acting" in his everyday life. The merchant is acting when he pays compliments to his annoying customers. Neurotics often exaggerate their sufferings and assume poses in order to impress their therapists with the seriousness of their illness. When this acting is done so poorly that everyone but the person himself perceives its penny-dreadful nature, the neurosis might be designated a hysteria. Such dramatics can be observed not only in the demeanor of neurotics, but also in their symptoms. The unconscious and concealed acting revealed in the symptoms of neurotics, especially in those of anthropophobiacs, whose main concern is with their appearance in the eyes of others, is what I would like to examine in this paper. I will attempt to eludicate the psychopathology of a large element in Japanese neurosis--that is, of anthropophobia--in relation to unconscious acting.

  13. The Japanese "Internment" Cases Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward T.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews topics discussed in the OAH article, "Incarcerating Japanese Americans" (Roger Daniels). States that the three internment cases were correct. Asks whether internment could re-occur given the climate in U.S. society since September 11, 2001. (CMK)

  14. Japanese Management: An American Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, Robert R.

    1979-01-01

    In contrast to the American system of management, Japanese management motivates its employees by challenging them with high goals and by providing inhouse training and development opportunities to meet their self-fulfillment needs. (Author/LD)

  15. Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose.

  16. Japanese guidelines for the management of intussusception in children, 2011.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuo; Kusakawa, Isao; Murata, Yuji; Ukiyama, Etsuji; Kawase, Hirokazu; Kamagata, Shoichiro; Ueno, Shigeru; Osamura, Toshio; Kubo, Minoru; Yoshida, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    The Japanese Society of Emergency Pediatrics has formulated evidence-based guidelines for the management of intussusception in children in order to diagnose intussusceptions promptly, to initiate appropriate treatment as early as possible, and to protect intussuscepted children from death. Literature was collected systematically via the Internet using the key words "intussusception" and "children." The evidence level of each paper was rated in accordance with the levels of evidence of the Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine. The guidelines consisted of 50 clinical questions and the answers. Grades of recommendation were added to the procedures recommended on the basis of the strength of evidence levels. Three criteria of "diagnostic criteria,"severity assessment criteria," and "criteria for patient transfer" were proposed aiming at an early diagnosis, selection of appropriate treatment, and patient transfer for referral to a tertiary hospital in severe cases. Barium is no longer recommended for enema reduction (recommendation D) because the patient becomes severely ill once perforation occurs. Use of other contrast media, such as water-soluble iodinated contrast, normal saline, or air, is recommended under either fluoroscopic or sonographic guidance. Delayed repeat enema improves reduction success rate, and is recommended if the initial enema partially reduced the intussusception and if the patient condition is stable. The guidelines offer standards of management, but it is not necessarily the purpose of the guidelines to regulate clinical practices. One should judge each individual clinical situation in accordance with experiences, available devices, and the patient's condition. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    PubMed

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Japanese guidelines for atopic dermatitis 2017.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Ichiro; Aihara, Michiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shimojo, Naoki; Shoji, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Masami; Yamada, Hidekazu

    2017-04-01

    Given the importance of appropriate diagnosis and appropriate assessment of cutaneous symptoms in treatment of atopic dermatitis, the basics of treatment in this guideline are composed of (1) investigation and countermeasures of causes and exacerbating factors, (2) correction of skin dysfunctions (skin care), and (3) pharmacotherapy, as three mainstays. These are based on the disease concept that atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with eczema by atopic diathesis, multi-factorial in onset and aggravation, and accompanied by skin dysfunctions. These three points are equally important and should be appropriately combined in accordance with the symptoms of each patient. In treatment, it is important to transmit the etiological, pathological, physiological, or therapeutic information to the patient to build a favorable partnership with the patient or his/her family so that they may fully understand the treatment. This guideline discusses chiefly the basic therapy in relation to the treatment of this disease. The goal of treatment is to enable patients to lead an uninterrupted social life and to control their cutaneous symptoms so that their quality of life (QOL) may meet a satisfactory level. The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the "Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008" prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the "Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2015 (ADGL2015)" prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the "Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2016" together with those for other allergic diseases.

  19. Measurement and correlates of empathy among female Japanese physicians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The measurement of empathy is important in the assessment of physician competence and patient outcomes. The prevailing view is that female physicians have higher empathy scores compared with male physicians. In Japan, the number of female physicians has increased rapidly in the past ten years. In this study, we focused on female Japanese physicians and addressed factors that were associated with their empathic engagement in patient care. Methods The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) was translated into Japanese by using the back-translation procedure, and was administered to 285 female Japanese physicians. We designed this study to examine the psychometrics of the JSE and group differences among female Japanese physicians. Results The item-total score correlations of the JSE were all positive and statistically significant, ranging from .20 to .54, with a median of .41. The Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was .81. Female physicians who were practicing in “people-oriented” specialties obtained a significantly higher mean empathy score than their counterparts in “procedure-” or “technology-oriented” specialties. In addition, physicians who reported living with their parents in an extended family or living close to their parents, scored higher on the JSE than those who were living alone or in a nuclear family. Conclusions Our results provide support for the measurement property and reliability of the JSE in a sample of female Japanese physicians. The observed group differences associated with specialties and living arrangement may have implications for sustaining empathy. In addition, recognizing these factors that reinforce physicians’ empathy may help physicians to avoid career burnout. PMID:22726449

  20. Language Attitudes in the Second Generation Japanese Group in Melbourne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasu, Tsuneo

    This study investigated language attitudes and Japanese language maintenance among a group of second-generation Japanese in Melbourne (Australia). Subjects were 66 Japanese high school students (second-generation) attending Japanese-language schools and 109 Japanese mothers (first-generation) self-identified as Japanese-identity,…

  1. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  2. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared between native Japanese and Japanese-Americans.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Masayasu; Yamane, Kiminori; Jitsuiki, Kuniaki; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Kamei, Nozomu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2008-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by the accumulation of multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis. Japanese-Americans in the U.S. have a more rapid and intense progression of atherosclerosis than native Japanese in Japan due to a westernization of their lifestyle. We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between 416 native Japanese (194 men and 222 women) in Hiroshima and 574 Japanese-Americans (217 men and 357 women) in Los Angeles, aged 30-89 years. According to the criteria proposed by the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, the prevalence was 13.9 and 2.7% for native Japanese men and women, and 32.7 and 3.4% for Japanese-American men and women, respectively. According to the IDF or AHA/NHLBI criteria, the prevalence was 20.1 and 6.3%, and 38.7 and 4.5%, or 13.4 and 14.4%, and 30.9 and 27.7%, respectively. Thus, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by all the three criteria. However, the prevalence in women was similar between native Japanese and Japanese-American by the Japanese and IDF criteria, whereas it was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by the AHA/NHLBI criteria. This report demonstrates that a westernization of lifestyle can increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese-Americans as compared to native Japanese.

  4. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  5. Sexual Role Identity Among Japanese and Japanese-American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blane, Howard T.; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    1970-01-01

    Japanese, Japanese-American, and Caucasian high school students were tested to investigate sex role identity. Japanese students were more feminine than either of the other two groups. Within the latter two, the Japanese-Americans were more feminine than the Caucasians on one measure, but not different on the other. (DM)

  6. A Japanese Agenda for Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Howard

    1982-01-01

    Discusses myths about the Japanese management styles; what the West can learn from the Japanese; the concept of nonlinear management; and training modules which teach self-discipline, tolerance, and nonlinear management. (CT)

  7. Japanese respond to campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City.

  8. A Japanese version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: translation and equivalence assessment.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Chizu; Griffiths, Peter

    2007-05-01

    A Japanese version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was developed through the forward-backward translation procedure. Married couples consisting of a native English speaker and a native Japanese speaker acted as translators to enhance the representativeness of language in the target population. Multiple translations were produced, and a panel of reviewers identified problems in conceptual and semantic equivalence between the original scale and the translated version. The Japanese version was altered accordingly with reference to alternate Japanese forms from the original English to Japanese translations. The altered translation was again retranslated into English, and problematic differences were checked. This forward-backward process was repeated until satisfactory agreement had been attained. The RSES was administered to 222 native English speakers, and the developed Japanese version (RSES-J) was administered to 1320 native Japanese speakers. Factor analysis revealed nearly identical factor structure and structural coefficients of the items between two sets of data. Target rotation confirmed the factorial agreement of the two scales in different cultural groups. High Cronbach's alpha coefficients supported the reliability of test scores on both versions. The equivalence between the RSES and the RSES-J was supported in this study. It is suggested that the RSES and the RSES-J are potential tools for comparative cross-cultural studies.

  9. Folie à deux in Japan -- analysis of 97 cases in the Japanese literature.

    PubMed

    Kashiwase, H; Kato, M

    1997-10-01

    In order to clarify the characteristics of folie à deux in Japan, we examined a total of 97 cases of folie à deux in the Japanese literature covering a period of 90 years, and compared them with the cases reported in Western countries. About 75% of the Japanese cases occur in two individuals, and of these are family cases. The most common combinations are mother-child and married couple. Mother-child combinations are much more common than father-child combinations. Female subjects are more often involved than males. The most common diagnosis for the dominant partner is schizophrenia, and the most common diagnosis for the submissive partner is paranoid reaction. Delusion is the most common symptom shared by both partners in Japan. Comparing these Japanese cases to Western ones, sister-sister combinations are less frequent, younger subjects influence the older ones more, and acute religious delusion is more common in Japan than in Western countries.

  10. Standardization of Weed Pollen Extracts, Japanese Hop and Mugwort, in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Choi, Soo Young; Park, Kyung Hee; Park, Hye Jung; Hong, Chein Soo; Lee, Jae Hyun; Park, Jung Won

    2016-03-01

    Japanese hop (Humulus spp.) and mugwort (Artemisia spp.) are notable causes of autumn pollinosis in East Asia. However, Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts, which are widely used for the diagnosis, have not been standardized. This study was performed to standardize Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts. Allergen extracts were prepared in a standardized way using locally collected Humulus japonicus and purchased Artemisia vulgaris pollens. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivities of prepared extracts were compared with commercial extracts via IgE immunoblotting and inhibition analyses. Intradermal skin tests were performed to determine the bioequivalent allergy unit (BAU). The IgE reactive components of the extracts via IgE immunoblotting were similar to those of commercial extracts. A 11-kDa allergen showed the strongest IgE reactivity in Japanese hop, as did a 28-kDa allergen in mugwort pollen extracts. Allergenic potencies of the investigatory Japanese hop and mugwort extracts were essentially indistinguishable from the commercial ones. Sums of erythema of 50 mm by the intradermal skin test (ΣED50) were calculated to be 14.4th and 13.6th three-fold dilutions for Japanese hop and mugwort extracts, respectively. Therefore, the allergenic activity of the prepared extracts was 90827.4 BAU/mg for Japanese hop and 34412 BAU/mg for mugwort. We produced Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts using a standardized method. Standardized Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts will facilitate the production of improved diagnostic and immunotherapeutic reagents.

  11. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840

  12. JABEE in Japanese Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki

    JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.

  13. First Course in Japanese: Character Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niwa, Tamako

    This character workbook is an introduction to Japanese writing designed to be used in conjunction with Parts One and Two of this introductory course in Japanese. All the "hiragana", several "katakana", and 88 Japanese characters are introduced in this text. The workbook, consisting of 30 lessons, is divided into three parts.…

  14. Shattering Myths: Japanese American Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshiwara, Florence M.

    An historical review of the immigration and resettlement patterns, and a demographic profile of Japanese Americans reveals a myth of the "successful minority." Since the founding of the Japanese American Citizens League in 1928, Japanese Americans have defeated alien land laws, discriminatory immigration quotas, anti-miscengenation laws,…

  15. Three Views from Abroad: A Japanese Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakadome, Takeaki

    1993-01-01

    Japanese school management should consider more broad-based, active participation in school board policymaking and should democratize school board-school relationships by adopting the lay-control principle. Both U.S. and Japanese schools should improve the exercise of appropriate administrator leadership. Japanese schools are evaluated on a…

  16. Persistence of Ethnicity: The Japanese of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    This paper presents an overview of the history of Japanese in Colorado. Japanese immigrants first came to Colorado between 1900 and 1910 as railroad laborers. Some became coal miners in southern Colorado; most others became farm laborers. Although the Japanese population during this period was small, communities developed in several locales. The…

  17. Schooling in Micronesia during Japanese Mandate Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Donald R.

    1979-01-01

    This review of Japanese educational policy in Micronesia from 1920-36 describes the separate school systems established for natives and for Japanese immigrants. Native schools offered a shorter, less rigorous program whose main intent was socialization to Japanese language and culture. (SJL)

  18. Schooling in Micronesia during Japanese Mandate Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Donald R.

    1979-01-01

    This review of Japanese educational policy in Micronesia from 1920-36 describes the separate school systems established for natives and for Japanese immigrants. Native schools offered a shorter, less rigorous program whose main intent was socialization to Japanese language and culture. (SJL)

  19. The Work Values of Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Empirical studies of Japanese work ethics have tended to focus on male workers while neglecting women. In addition, work values in both Japan and the United States appear to be changing. More information is needed on the work values of American and Japanese female workers. A study was conducted to explore the work ethics of Japanese women and to…

  20. The Life Cycle of the Japanese Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Fumie

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the existing Japanese population data, focusing on changes in the timing of events in a family life cycle of Japanese women. Analysis revealed that the overall pattern of the family career of Japanese women today closely resembles that of their American and Canadian counterparts. (LLL)

  1. Generations and Identity: The Japanese American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitano, Harry H. L.

    The story of people of Japanese descent in the United States is told in its historic context. The Japanese came to America with cultural values that differed greatly from the mainstream U.S. society. They were also set apart by appearance. Conflict between Japan and the United States exacerbated the problems between the Japanese Americans and the…

  2. A Cultural Context for Japanese Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1985-01-01

    Certain Japanese educational practices serving as worthwhile examples to the United States' educational system are highlighted in this overview of Japanese education. However, it is stressed that because the United States and the Japanese educational systems are dependent upon their social context and exist in a symbiotic relationship within that…

  3. The Nonacademic Curriculum of the Japanese Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Japanese nursery school and kindergarten activities are designed to facilitate the socialization of Japanese children. The culture of the home and the culture of the school (and by extension the rest of Japanese society) are so different from each other that it is believed the open and unselfconscious help of the education system is necessary to…

  4. Intercultural Communication Problems in Japanese Multinationals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    Many large Japanese-owned multinational corporations have established successful subsidiaries in the United States, but distinct ethnic and cultural differences have caused communication problems between Japanese managers and American laborers and business people. Many top executives of the Japanese subsidiaries are sent to the United States on a…

  5. Generations and Identity: The Japanese American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitano, Harry H. L.

    The story of people of Japanese descent in the United States is told in its historic context. The Japanese came to America with cultural values that differed greatly from the mainstream U.S. society. They were also set apart by appearance. Conflict between Japan and the United States exacerbated the problems between the Japanese Americans and the…

  6. Shattering Myths: Japanese American Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshiwara, Florence M.

    An historical review of the immigration and resettlement patterns, and a demographic profile of Japanese Americans reveals a myth of the "successful minority." Since the founding of the Japanese American Citizens League in 1928, Japanese Americans have defeated alien land laws, discriminatory immigration quotas, anti-miscengenation laws,…

  7. The Nonacademic Curriculum of the Japanese Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Japanese nursery school and kindergarten activities are designed to facilitate the socialization of Japanese children. The culture of the home and the culture of the school (and by extension the rest of Japanese society) are so different from each other that it is believed the open and unselfconscious help of the education system is necessary to…

  8. Developing Instructional Materials for Business Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Shohei

    Business Japanese should be the study of Japanese language and culture for business communication and should include values and beliefs and institutional constraints on which the Japanese act as well as business etiquette and terminology. Topics to be covered in instruction will vary depending on the role (seller, buyer, or colleague) played by…

  9. A NEW CLASSIFICATION FOR THE JAPANESE VERB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAKAHASHI, GEORGE

    JAPANESE VERBS AND THE PARTICLES WHICH OFTEN ACCOMPANY THEM PRESENT DIFFICULTIES TO LEARNERS OF THAT LANGUAGE. THE TRADITIONAL GRAMMATICAL TERMS, "TRANSITIVE" AND "INTRANSITIVE" (VERBS), REFLECT CONCEPTS WHICH ARE VALID IN ENGLISH BUT NOT IN JAPANESE. THE AUTHOR, IN ATTEMPTING TO CLASSIFY ALL JAPANESE VERBS ACCORDING TO THEIR…

  10. Other Japanese Educations and Japanese Education Otherwise. Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2011-01-01

    Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular…

  11. Other Japanese Educations and Japanese Education Otherwise. Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2011-01-01

    Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular…

  12. Carrier Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk? Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Options Immune Tolerance Induction Current issues in inhibitors Resources Prophylaxis Types of ... Risk? Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Options Immune Tolerance Induction Current issues in inhibitors Resources Prophylaxis Types of ...

  13. Japanese and non-Japanese patient outcomes in the PLATINUM randomized trial comparing the PROMUS Element and XIENCE V everolimus-eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeru; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Seki, Atsushi; Igarashi, Keiichi; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Yajima, Junji; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Nakamura, Masato; Fujii, Kenshi; Isshiki, Takaaki; Stone, Gregg W; Teirstein, Paul S; Meredith, Ian T; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2014-08-01

    The PLATINUM randomized trial enrolled 1530 patients treated with either the platinum chromium PROMUS Element everolimus-eluting stent (PtCr-EES; Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) or the predicate cobalt chromium PROMUS/XIENCE V EES (CoCr-EES; manufactured as XIENCE V by Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA also distributed as PROMUS by Boston Scientific), including 124 patients from Japanese sites. This substudy examines 2-year outcomes in the Japanese and non-Japanese cohorts. Patients with 1 or 2 de novo native coronary artery lesions (baseline vessel diameter ≥2.50mm to ≤4.25mm and length ≤24mm) were randomized 1:1 to PtCr-EES (N=63 patients in Japan) versus CoCr-EES (N=61 patients in Japan). Several significant differences were noted in baseline demographics, lesion characteristics, and procedural technique between Japanese and non-Japanese patients, including longer fluoroscopy time, less use of contrast, and greater post-dilatation usage and maximum pressure in Japan. Dual antiplatelet usage at 2 years was also higher in Japan. Despite these differences, the 2-year rates of target lesion failure were comparable in patients treated with PtCr-EES and CoCr-EES both in Japan (3.2% vs 5.0% respectively, p=0.68) and outside Japan (4.7% vs 5.9% respectively, p=0.33; p for interaction=0.82). This PLATINUM study subanalysis suggests that the PtCr-EES and CoCr-EES provide comparable safety and efficacy in both Japanese and non-Japanese patients. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  15. Moral Development of Japanese Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Satomi Izumi; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Wilson, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 28 kindergartners, their teachers, and their director to examine Japanese children's moral development. Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed three themes related to moral development: social system morality, emotions, and responsibility. Children made moral decisions based on social system morality…

  16. Japanese Attitudes toward English Accents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiba, Reiko; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the attitudes of 169 Japanese university students toward varieties of spoken English. Results found that the students with more instrumental motivation were more positive toward nonnative English accents than those with less instrumental motivation, and that the students' familiarity with accents had an influence on their acceptance of…

  17. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  18. Japanese Industry Boosts Pollution Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Michael K.

    1975-01-01

    In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)

  19. Dilemmas of Japanese Professional Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osako, Masako Murakami

    1978-01-01

    Despite advanced industrialization, Japanese women are subjected to occupational inequality by businesses that place them on a career track separate from men in terms of wages, promotion, and retirement and by a cultural environment that fosters the values of motherhood and stresses female authority only in domestic situations. (WI)

  20. Look Who Invented Japanese Management!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chait, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    The Japanese theory of participatory management is seen as thriving on American campuses under the rubrics of shared governance and collegiality. Participatory management, quality control circles, lifetime employment, superordinate goals, and interdependent leadership are discussed. More commerce between academic administrators and corporate…

  1. Acquiring Clothing Verbs in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameyama, Megumi

    The acquisition order of four Japanese verbs for the act of clothing was investigated. Each of the verbs investigated corresponds to the act of clothing different body parts. There are two theories for the prediction of acquisition order: the checklist and the prototype theories of word meaning. According to the checklist view, word meanings…

  2. Citation Indicators of Japanese Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiqi, Zhang; Yamazaki, Shigeaki

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates Japanese journals--128 indexed in the 1994 "Journal Citation Reports"--in bibliometric parameters such as impact factors (IFs), mean IFs from citing and cited journals, and self-citing and self-cited rates. Results: only 15 journals, with a wide variation of self-citing and self-cited rates, have obtained a current impact…

  3. Dilemmas of Japanese Professional Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osako, Masako Murakami

    1978-01-01

    Despite advanced industrialization, Japanese women are subjected to occupational inequality by businesses that place them on a career track separate from men in terms of wages, promotion, and retirement and by a cultural environment that fosters the values of motherhood and stresses female authority only in domestic situations. (WI)

  4. Japanese space weather research activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present existing and planned Japanese space weather research activities. The program consists of several core elements, including a space weather prediction system using numerical forecasts, a large-scale ground-based observation network, and the cooperative framework "Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP)" based on a Grant-in Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas.

  5. The Japanese Copula: A Dummy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenck, G.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of whether the Japanese copula can adequately be described as a dummy, i.e., as an element which although existing in the surface structure can be dispensed with in the deep structure of a sentence; based on a paper read at the 1970 meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia. (RS)

  6. Teaching Japanese-American Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksch, Karen L.; Ghere, David

    2004-01-01

    Few events in American history are so universally deplored as the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The United States government has acknowledged the error and the injustice that resulted with an official Presidential apology and a Congressional disbursement of reparations to the victims of the incarceration policy. The…

  7. Look Who Invented Japanese Management!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chait, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    The Japanese theory of participatory management is seen as thriving on American campuses under the rubrics of shared governance and collegiality. Participatory management, quality control circles, lifetime employment, superordinate goals, and interdependent leadership are discussed. More commerce between academic administrators and corporate…

  8. Japanese Industry Boosts Pollution Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Michael K.

    1975-01-01

    In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)

  9. Citation Indicators of Japanese Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiqi, Zhang; Yamazaki, Shigeaki

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates Japanese journals--128 indexed in the 1994 "Journal Citation Reports"--in bibliometric parameters such as impact factors (IFs), mean IFs from citing and cited journals, and self-citing and self-cited rates. Results: only 15 journals, with a wide variation of self-citing and self-cited rates, have obtained a current impact…

  10. The Japanese Copula: A Dummy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenck, G.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of whether the Japanese copula can adequately be described as a dummy, i.e., as an element which although existing in the surface structure can be dispensed with in the deep structure of a sentence; based on a paper read at the 1970 meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia. (RS)

  11. Moral Development of Japanese Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Satomi Izumi; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Wilson, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 28 kindergartners, their teachers, and their director to examine Japanese children's moral development. Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed three themes related to moral development: social system morality, emotions, and responsibility. Children made moral decisions based on social system morality…

  12. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei-Lun; Hsiao, Ching-Hua; Tseng, Hua-Wei; Lee, Tai-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Prenatal examination plays an important role in present medical diagnosis. It provides information on fetal health status as well as the diagnosis of fetal treatment feasibility. The diagnosis can provide peace of mind for the perspective mother. Timely pregnancy termination diagnosis can also be determined if required. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling are two widely used invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures. To obtain complete fetal genetic information and avoid endangering the fetus, noninvasive prenatal diagnosis has become the vital goal of prenatal diagnosis. However, the development of a high-efficiency separation technology is required to obtain the scarce fetal cells from maternal circulation. In recent years, the rapid development of microfluidic systems has provided an effective method for fetal cell separation. Advantages such as rapid analysis of small samples, low cost, and various designs, greatly enhance the efficiency and convenience of using microfluidic systems for cell separation. In addition, microfluidic disks can be fully automated for high throughput of rare cell selection from blood samples. Therefore, the development of microfluidic applications in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis is unlimited. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Comparison of bone mineral content among Japanese, Koreans, and Taiwanese assessed by dual-photon absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, T; Tsutsumi, M; Fujii, Y; Kawakatsu, M; Negishi, H; Lee, M C; Tsai, K S; Fukase, M; Fujita, T

    1992-02-01

    Throughout the world the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis currently involves the measurement of bone mineral content. There are, however, no studies comparing bone mineral content among Asian people. This cross-sectional study was designed to quantify spine and femur bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese and compare BMD among Asian people (Japanese, Koreans, and Taiwanese) using the same model dual-photon system (Norland Model 2600). Following a peak BMD in the third and fourth decades, the Japanese BMD values of the lumbar spine and femoral neck showed a clear decrease (annual loss of 0.99 and 0.74%, respectively) with age in females. On the other hand, Japanese BMD values were stable in males until the fifth decade. There was some decrease in BMD with age after the fifth decade, which was much less obvious than that in females. An age-dependent loss of BMD was clearly observed in Japanese and Korean but not in Taiwanese females. Korean males seemed to have a clearer age-dependent loss of BMD compared to Japanese males. Our findings indicate that differences may exist in the BMD of Asian people and that in addition to the quantitative determination of individual BMD, dual-photon absorptiometry may be useful for the comparison of BMD among different ethnic and cultural groups.

  14. Pair-List Readings in Korean-Japanese, Chinese-Japanese and English-Japanese Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In English and Chinese, questions with a "wh"-object and a universally quantified subject (e.g. "What did everyone buy?") allow an individual answer ("Everyone bought apples.") and a pair-list answer ("Sam bought apples, Jo bought bananas, Sally bought..."). By contrast, the pair-list answer is reportedly unavailable in Japanese and Korean. This…

  15. Pair-List Readings in Korean-Japanese, Chinese-Japanese and English-Japanese Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In English and Chinese, questions with a "wh"-object and a universally quantified subject (e.g. "What did everyone buy?") allow an individual answer ("Everyone bought apples.") and a pair-list answer ("Sam bought apples, Jo bought bananas, Sally bought..."). By contrast, the pair-list answer is reportedly unavailable in Japanese and Korean. This…

  16. Algorithms Could Automate Cancer Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baky, A. A.; Winkler, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Five new algorithms are a complete statistical procedure for quantifying cell abnormalities from digitized images. Procedure could be basis for automated detection and diagnosis of cancer. Objective of procedure is to assign each cell an atypia status index (ASI), which quantifies level of abnormality. It is possible that ASI values will be accurate and economical enough to allow diagnoses to be made quickly and accurately by computer processing of laboratory specimens extracted from patients.

  17. The Japanese Viewpoint on the Histopathology of Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Shigeki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Jansen, Marnix; Kushima, Ryoji

    Japanese histopathologists have traditionally had greater opportunity to study the histology and clinical course of early gastric cancer because of technological developments including double contrast radiography and endoscopy systems, combined with the higher incidence of gastric cancer in the general population in Japan. Endoscopic resection is now considered best practice for treatment of early gastric cancers with a negligible risk of lymph node metastasis. Histopathologic evaluation plays a critical role in assessing the likelihood of lymph node metastasis on endoscopically resected specimens. There remains disparity between Western and Japanese histopathologists in the conceptual approach to the histopathologic evaluation of neoplastic lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract, in particular regarding lesions straddling the borderline between noninvasive and invasive disease. Although in routine practice, the clinical impact of these conceptual differences is small, this disparity does complicate international exchange of datasets and the development of globally applicable formal definitions. Here we review the current practice in histological diagnosis of early gastric cancer in Japan and discuss some of the conceptual differences between Japanese and Western histopathological assessment of lesions in the neoplastic stomach.

  18. Rapid and simple polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic assays for GM2 gangliosidosis variant 0 (Sandhoff-like disease) in Japanese domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad M; Shoubudani, Tomoaki; Mizukami, Keijiro; Chang, Hye-Sook; Hossain, Mohammad A; Yabuki, Akira; Mitani, Sawane; Higo, Takashi; Arai, Toshiro; Yamato, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays combined with microchip electrophoresis were developed and evaluated for diagnosis and genotyping of GM2 gangliosidosis variant 0 (Sandhoff-like disease) in Japanese domestic cats. A preliminary genotyping survey was carried out in the population of Japanese domestic cats (1,015 cats in total) in southern Japan. Three kinds of assays including PCR primer-induced restriction analysis (PIRA) and mutagenically separated (MS)-PCR were carried out using blood-stained Flinders Technology Associates filter papers (FTA cards) as templates. The PCR products were analyzed by both agarose gel and microchip electrophoreses. All assays were sufficient to determine the genotypes of this disease, but MS-PCR offered the most rapid and simplest test, as it does not need the restriction enzyme step required in PCR-PIRA. The use of microchip electrophoresis in combination with FTA cards for sampling could shorten the time required for genotyping and simplify the procedure as well. The genotyping survey in the current study did not find any cats that possessed the mutant allele, suggesting that the prevalence of this allele is low (<0.1%) in southern Japan.

  19. [Museum diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Alcázar, Jaim

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico among physicians it is common to use the term "bus diagnosis" to mean one that can be done only by looking someone, thanks to knowledge, experience and a bit of imagination. Ophthalmologists are able to do specialty diagnosis in some pictures of famous painters, thus "museum diagnosis." An aesthetic and historical research conducted for years provided the material. We present herein some examples of portraits made by Sharaku, Georg Groz, Il Bronzino, De la Tour, Vermeer, Rembrandt, Reynolds, Remedios Varo, Toulouse-Lautrec, Picasso, Ingres and others. The "museum diagnosis" enhances interest and aesthetic pleasure. Art could be useful as a tool for teaching clinical ophthalmology.

  20. Three-dimensional assessment of the normal Japanese glenoid and comparison with the normal French glenoid.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, N; Nonaka, S; Ozaki, R; Yoshida, M; Yoneda, M; Walch, G

    2017-09-28

    In 2014, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty was approved in Japan. We were concerned that the base plate might be incompatible with Japanese who were generally smaller than Westerners. Therefore we investigated the dimensions and morphology of the normal Japanese glenoid and compare with the normal French glenoid. One hundred Japanese shoulders without glenoid lesions (50 men and 50 women) were investigated and compared with 100 French shoulders (50 men and 50 women). Computed tomography was performed with 3-dimensional image reconstruction and images were analyzed using Glenosys software. Glenoid parameters (width, height, retroversion and inclination) were compared between Japanese and French subjects. In Japanese subjects, the meanglenoid width was 25.5mm, height was 33.3mm, retroversion was 2.3° and inclination was 11.6° superiorly. In French subjects, the meanglenoid width was 26.7mm, height was 35.4mm, retroversion was 6.0° and inclination was 10.4° superiorly. Glenoid width and height were significantly smaller in Japanese subjects than French subjects (P=0.001 and P<0.001), while retroversion was significantly greater in French subjects (P <0.001). There was no significant difference of inclination. These findings will help surgeons to identify suitable patients for RSA and perform the procedure with appropriate preoperative planning. IV: retrospective or historical series. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent advances in Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Anirban; Dutta, Kallol

    2017-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis is a flaviviral disease that is endemic to the South, Southeast Asia, and Asia Oceania regions. Given that about 60% of the world’s population (about 7.4 billion) resides in this region (about 4.4 billion), this disease poses a significant threat to global health. Active vaccination campaigns conducted in endemic countries have led to a decrease in the number of reported cases over the years. In this article, we strive to briefly highlight recent advances in understanding the role of microRNAs in disease pathology, focus on providing brief summaries of recent clinical trials in the field of Japanese encephalitis therapeutics, and review the current prophylactic strategies. PMID:28357054

  2. [Japanese demography: paradoxes and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2009-10-01

    Japan is one of the most densely-populated countries with a population estimated at 127.4 millions and an average density of 337 persons per square kilometer. But the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research is concerned: since 1950, the total fertility rate is declining and some pessimistic projections predict the japanese population extinction to 3000. During 2008, several reports, based on the major results of 2005 census, analyse population process components and establish projections based on alternative assumptions, looking for solutions limiting the population dependency ratio. On the site of the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, the population pyramids are shown from 1930 to 2055. Recently, the French National Institute for demographic studies gave a comprehensive report on the Japanese demographic status, explaining the possible consequences for the country's demographic future.

  3. [Japanese encephalitis in Southern Europe].

    PubMed

    Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Braks, Marieta; Van Maanen, Kees; Reusken, Chantal

    2014-07-01

    In 2012, a fragment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome was isolated from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes caught in 2010 and 2011 in Northern Italy. JEV has a broad geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and Oceania, and is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans and also causes encephalitis in horses and fertility problems in pigs. However, recently isolated JEV genome fragments in mosquitoes in Italy could be an indication of repeated introduction of JEV, enzootic circulation of JEV or a related virus in Southern Europe. Until more information is available, Japanese encephalitis remains a travel-related infectious disease for travellers to JEV endemic and epidemic areas outside of Europe.

  4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in elderly Japanese-Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Natasha Priscilla; Chaim, Rita Cristina; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinh; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouvea; Hirai, Amelia Toyomi; Rosa, Camila Moreno; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Okoshi, Marina Politi; Okoshi, Katashi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Prevalence of individuals with a high cardiovascular risk is elevated in elderly populations. Although metabolic syndrome (MS) increases cardiovascular risk, information is scarce on the prevalence of MS in the elderly. In this study we assessed MS prevalence in a population of elderly Japanese-Brazilians using different MS definitions according to waist circumference cutoff values. Material/Methods We studied 339 elderly subjects, 44.8% males, aged between 60 to 88 years (70.1±6.8). MS was defined according to criteria proposed by the Joint Interim Statement in 2009. As waist circumference cutoff point values remain controversial for Asian and Japanese populations, we employed 3 different cutoffs that are commonly used in Japanese epidemiological studies: 1) ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women; 2) ≥85 cm for men and ≥90 cm for women; 3) ≥85 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women. Results MS prevalence ranged from 59.9% to 65.8% according to the different definitions. We observed 90% concordance and no statistical difference (p>0.05) in MS prevalence between the 3 definitions. MS diagnosis according to all 3 cutoff values was found in 55.8% of our population, while in only 34.2% was MS discarded by all cutoffs. The prevalence of altered MS components was as follows: arterial blood pressure 82%, fasting glycemia 65.8%, triglyceride 43.4%, and HDL-C levels 36.9%. Conclusions Elderly Japanese-Brazilians present high metabolic syndrome prevalence independent of waist circumference cutoff values. Concordance between the 3 definitions is high, suggesting that all 3 cutoff values yield similar metabolic syndrome prevalence values in this population. PMID:22293888

  5. STS-114 Japanese Tour Postflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-01

    JSC2005-E-40330 (1 October 2005) --- Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Soichi Noguchi discusses his flight on the mission that returned the Space Shuttle to flight earlier this year with members of the public in Tokyo, Japan, on Oct. 1. Noguchi and the rest of the crew of Discovery for STS-114 visited Japan as guests of JAXA and participated in a variety of public events. Photo Credit: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

  6. A Conceptual Model of Cultural Predictors of Anxiety among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Goebert, Deborah; Hishinuma, Earl; Miyamoto, Robin; Anzai, Neal; Izutsu, Satoru; Yanagida, Evelyn; Nishimura, Stephanie; Andrade, Naleen; Baker, F. M.

    2002-01-01

    Develops and assesses a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, and anxiety in Japanese American and part-Japanese American high school seniors. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the scale and reported fewer anxiety symptoms than part-Japanese American adolescents. The model had a good overall fit, suggesting that…

  7. Keratoacanthoma in Japanese Hawaiians in Kauai, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Reizner, G T; Chuang, T Y; Elpern, D J; Stone, J L; Farmer, E R

    1995-12-01

    This is the first incidence report of keratoacanthoma (KA) in a Japanese ethnic population. The study was designed as a 5-year prospective incidence study using an island-wide survey of Japanese residents in Kauai, Hawaii, during the years 1983 through 1987. Eleven Japanese residents of Kauai, three men and eight women, had KA. The crude incidence is 22.1 per 100,000 Japanese Kauaiian population. Two thirds of the lesions were on the extremities. No recurrence was noted, but a nonmelanoma skin cancer developed in some patients. The incidence of KA in a Japanese ethnic population is not low. Ultraviolet light exposure must, in part, contribute to the development of KA. This is supported by fact that the incidence of KA in Japanese residents in Kauai is much higher than in Japan and that most of the KAS appear on exposed skin.

  8. Japanese children's development of false belief understanding.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2007-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the Japanese children's false belief understanding. Study 1, a small-scale meta-analysis that included 21 Japanese false belief studies yielding 60 data points, revealed that the Japanese children's false belief understanding develops with age (effect size = 2.48 in odds ratio for 1 year), the Japanese children's performance exceeds the chance level at the age of 64 months, and question type (think vs look-for) produced no statistically significant difference. An experiment (Study 2) employing a change-of-locations task was conducted to confirm these findings, manipulating question type as a within-participant factor. Participants were 43 Japanese kindergartners (24 boys and 19 girls; 3 yr. 4 mo. to 6 yr. 1 mo.). The results showed that Japanese children's false belief performance developed with age. Their performance level exceeded the chance level at the age of 5 years, and question type did not affect their performance.

  9. [Eighty years of Japanese immigration in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mita, C

    1995-08-01

    "Japanese emigration to Brazil started in 1908 with some eight hundred subsidized contract workers for coffee plantations. Hard conditions made many of them flee, and the paulista government suppressed subsidies for these projects; however, the Japanese emigration to Brazil kept on under Japanese subsidies from 1925 until 1934 when Brazil imposed immigration quotas unfavorable to Japanese immigration. International circumstances in the late 1930s and local prohibition on the use of the Japanese language in Brazil caused many immigrants to return to Japan between 1939-1941. Emigration to Brazil restarted as diplomatic relations between Japan and Brazil were reestablished in 1952 but decreased in the late 1960s. Subsequent economic evolution in both countries caused Japanese emigrants in Brazil and their [descendants] to initiate dekasegui [labor] migration from Brazil to Japan as from the late 1980s." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  10. Sociocultural dilemma of Japanese steeplejacks.

    PubMed

    Iwata, H

    1997-12-01

    Japanese steeplejacks are good at working in high places as construction workers, and they have been called tobi for a longtime. They now play an important role in completing modern civil engineering projects and in the construction of high-rise buildings; however, their lifestyle is considered by most to be quaint but outdated. Originally, they were unskilled workmen at construction sites. In the 18th century, they were engaged in repairing houses or setting up scaffolding, helping carpenters, but they worked as firefighters whenever fires broke out. Their traditional work system did not change throughout the Meiji era, although Japanese society became greatly modernized. After World War II, the industrialization of Japanese society required highly developed technology in civil engineering and architecture. This provided an opportunity for them to establish their positions as trained professional workers. However, the number of skilled tobi professionals has continued to decrease because the younger generation does not consider this profession desirable career. Improving not only the professional skills but also the way of living to the extent as a modern high-tech society demands will be the key for the tobi's work system to become attractive.

  11. Formants of Japanese function particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Setsuko

    2004-05-01

    There is much debate about whether vowel centralization results from reduction of undershoot. The results of research conducted by Keating and Huffman (1984) indicated that Japanese vowels in prose were formed closer to the center of vowel chart than in words. However, they did not provide any statistical information and the information about the preceding consonants in the prose. Thus, there was a possibility that the preceding consonants led to the vowel centralization through undershoot. To address this question, I conducted research, in which Japanese function vowels [a, e, o] were compared with content vowels. The results showed that F1 of function /a/ following /g/ (average 609.8 Hz) was statistically lower than content /a/ (average 696.3 Hz) [F(1,65)=73.40, p<0.001]. However, there were no significant differences of F2 of /e/ following /d/ and F2 of /o/ following /t/ between function and content. At first, it appeared centralization played a role. However, close examination of the results indicated that vowel undershoot was the source of the /a/ centralization. Japanese function /a/ was statistically shorter than content /a/ and there was a significant correlation between duration and normalized vowel displacements for /a/ [Pearson's r=0.466, p<0.001]. This short duration caused the difference of F1 between content /a/ and function /a/.

  12. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Kurono, Yuichi; Ichimura, Keiichi; Enomoto, Tadao; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Suzaki, Harumi; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2017-04-01

    Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 8th edition was published in 2016, and is widely used today. To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM) introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA), this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

  13. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  14. Geochemical aspects of some Japanese lavas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpotts, J. A.; Martin, W.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    K, Rb, Sr, Ba and rare-earth concentrations in some Japanese lavas have been determined by mass-spectrometric stable-isotope dilution. The samples fall into three rare-earth groups corresponding to tholeiitic, high alumina and alkali basalts. Japanese tholeiites have trace element characteristics similar to those of oceanic ridge tholeiites except for distinctly higher relative concentrations of Ba. Japanese lavas may result from various degrees of partial fusion of amphibole eclogite.

  15. Alexia with agraphia of kanji (Japanese morphograms).

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, M; Hirayama, K; Hasegawa, K; Takahashi, N; Yamaura, A

    1987-01-01

    The case of the right-handed young Japanese woman with alexia with agraphia of kanji (the Japanese morphograms) due to a small circumscribed haematoma in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus is described. Her chief complaint was the inability to read and write kanji. Detailed examination showed that her alexia with agraphia was much more predominant for kanji than kana (the Japanese syllabograms). These facts suggest that the processing of kanji and kana involves different intrahemispheric mechanisms. Images PMID:3668562

  16. Americans and Japanese Nonverbal Communication. Linguistic Communications 15 (Papers in Japanese Linguistics 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harvey M.

    Each culture has its own nonverbal as well as its verbal language. Movements, gestures and sounds have distinct and often conflicting interpretations in different countries. For Americans communicating with Japanese, misunderstandings are of two types: Japanese behavior which is completely new to the American, and Japanese behavior which is…

  17. Default Accentuation and Foot Structure in Japanese: Evidence from Japanese Adaptations of French Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinohara, Shigeko

    2000-01-01

    Examined accentuation patterns that appear in Japanese adaptation of French words. Argues that these patterns reflect the default accentuation of Japanese grammar; they correspond to accent patterns found in some marginal sectors of Japanese vocabulary where the accent is predictable. (Author/VWL)

  18. Compliment Responses: Comparing American Learners of Japanese, Native Japanese Speakers, and American Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsumi, Naofumi

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that American learners of Japanese (AJs) tend to differ from native Japanese speakers in their compliment responses (CRs). Yokota (1986) and Shimizu (2009) have reported that AJs tend to respond more negatively than native Japanese speakers. It has also been reported that AJs' CRs tend to lack the use of avoidance or…

  19. Default Accentuation and Foot Structure in Japanese: Evidence from Japanese Adaptations of French Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinohara, Shigeko

    2000-01-01

    Examined accentuation patterns that appear in Japanese adaptation of French words. Argues that these patterns reflect the default accentuation of Japanese grammar; they correspond to accent patterns found in some marginal sectors of Japanese vocabulary where the accent is predictable. (Author/VWL)

  20. Health Information in Japanese (日本語)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Electroencephalogram) - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Lumbar Puncture - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Neuromuscular Disorders EMG and Nerve Conduction Tests - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  1. Grievance Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, R. Warren

    Because grievances are unavoidable, it is essential for organizations, such as the schools, to utilize an efficient, effective procedure to handle friction between employers and employees. Through successive steps, representatives of labor and management attempt to resolve the grievance, first with meetings of lower level representatives (such as…

  2. Factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban districts in Japan. Multiple regression analysis of data collected from 275 respondents revealed that a decrease in family empowerment level correlated with a higher number of siblings reared together, a shorter period since the diagnosis was made, and lower awareness of social support and self-efficacy in caregivers. Medications, possession of an intellectual disability certificate, infrequent hospital visits of the child, disuse of local services by caregivers, and young caregivers also correlated with a lower level of empowerment in the Japanese family. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross-cultural comparison of motivation to learn in physical education: Japanese vs Swedish schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Tamotsu; Isogai, Hirohisa; Aström, Peter; Karp, Staffan; Johansson, Martin

    2007-10-01

    The present study compared differences between Japanese and Swedish schoolchildren in learning motivation-related variables in physical education. The subjects were 1,562 Japanese fifth and sixth graders (776 boys and 786 girls) ranging in age from 10 to 12 years and 573 Swedish fifth graders (306 boys and 267 girls) from 10 to 13 years (M = 11.4, SD = 0.5). They completed three questionnaires to evaluate the children's learning motivation, factors supporting motivation to learn, and preferences of learning behavior. The questionnaires were taken from Nishida's Diagnosis of Learning Motivation in Physical Education Test, a multidimensional and comprehensive test that measures learning motivation. A 2 x 2 (country by sex) multivariate analysis of variance indicated both Swedish boys and girls scored significantly higher than the Japanese children on most subscales. Results were discussed in relation to differences in the sports environment and culture of the two countries.

  4. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of vitiligo in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oiso, Naoki; Suzuki, Tamio; Wataya-Kaneda, Mari; Tanemura, Atsushi; Tanioka, Miki; Fujimoto, Tomoko; Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Tamihiro; Tsukamoto, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Sano, Shigetoshi; Mitsuhashi, Yoshihiko; Nishigori, Chikako; Morita, Akimichi; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Mizoguchi, Masako; Katayama, Ichiro

    2013-05-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigment disorder in which depigmented macules result from the loss of melanocytes from the involved regions of skin and hair. The color dissimilarity on the cosmetically sensitive regions frequently induces quality of life impairment and high willingness to pay for treatment in patients with vitiligo. The Vitiligo Japanese Task Force was organized to overcome this situation and to cooperate with the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference. This guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of vitiligo in Japan is proposed to improve the circumstances of Japanese individuals with vitiligo. Its contents include information regarding the diagnosis, pathogenesis, evaluation of disease severity and effectiveness of treatment, and evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of vitiligo. The therapeutic algorithm based on the proposed recommendation is designed to cure and improve the affected lesions and quality of life of individuals with vitiligo. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Risk Profiles for Endometriosis in Japanese Women: Results From a Repeated Survey of Self-Reports

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Nagai, Kazue; Mizunuma, Hideki; Kubota, Toshiro; Lee, Jung-Su; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and risk factors for endometriosis may differ according to diagnosis methodologies, such as study populations and diagnostic accuracy. We examined risk profiles in imaging-diagnosed endometriosis with and without surgical confirmation in a large population of Japanese women, as well as the differences in risk profiles of endometriosis based on history of infertility. Methods Questionnaires that included items on sites of endometriosis determined by imaging techniques and surgical procedure were mailed to 1025 women who self-reported endometriosis in a baseline survey of the Japan Nurses’ Health Study (n = 15 019). Results Two hundred and ten women had surgically confirmed endometriosis (Group A), 120 had imaging-diagnosed endometriosis without a surgical procedure (Group B), and 264 had adenomyosis (Group C). A short menstrual cycle at 18–22 years of age and cigarette smoking at 30 years of age were associated with significantly increased risk of endometriosis (Group A plus Group B), while older age was associated with risk of adenomyosis (Group C). In women with a history of infertility, a short menstrual cycle was associated with a significantly increased risk of endometriosis in both Group A and Group B, but risk profiles of endometriosis were different between Group A and Group B in women without a history of infertility. Conclusions Women with surgically confirmed endometriosis and those with imaging-diagnosed endometriosis without surgery have basically common risk profiles, but these risk profiles are different from those with adenomyosis. The presence of a history of infertility should be taken into consideration for evaluation of risk profiles. PMID:25716280

  6. Interventional radiology neck procedures.

    PubMed

    Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation.

  7. Japanese monkeys perceive sensory consonance of chords.

    PubMed

    Izumi, A

    2000-12-01

    Consonance/dissonance affects human perception of chords from early stages of development [e.g., Schellenberg and Trainor, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3321-3328 (1996)]. To examine whether consonance has some role in audition of nonhumans, three Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were trained to discriminate simultaneous two-tone complexes (chords). The task was serial discrimination (AX procedure) with repetitive presentation of background stimuli. Each tone in a chord was comprised of six harmonics, and chords with complex ratios of fundamental frequency (e.g., frequency ratio of 8:15 in major seventh) resulted in dissonance. The chords were transposed for each presentation to make monkeys attend to cues other than the absolute frequency of a component tone. Monkeys were initially trained to detect changes from consonant (octave) to dissonant (major seventh). Following the successful acquisition of the task, transfer tests with novel chords were conducted. In these transfer tests, the performances with detecting changes from consonant to dissonant chords (perfect fifth to major seventh; perfect fourth to major seventh) were better than those with detecting reverse changes. These results suggested that the consonance of chords affected the performances of monkeys.

  8. Performance of Panfungal- and Specific-PCR-Based Procedures for Etiological Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Diseases on Tissue Biopsy Specimens with Proven Infection: a 7-Year Retrospective Analysis from a Reference Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Bernal-Martinez, L.; Castelli, M. V.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J. L.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) results for 151 biopsy samples obtained from 132 patients with proven invasive fungal diseases was performed. PCR-based techniques proved to be fast and sensitive and enabled definitive diagnosis in all cases studied, with detection of a total of 28 fungal species. PMID:24574295

  9. Dual Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis has both a mental disorder and an alcohol or drug problem. These conditions occur together frequently. In particular, alcohol and drug problems tend to occur with Depression Anxiety disorders ...

  10. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    PubMed

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Social Phobia Inventory.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Toshihiko; Nakajima, Takenori; Teo, Alan R; Yamada, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Chiho

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to study the psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN-J) among Japanese subjects with social anxiety disorder (SAD). The sample consisted of 86 subjects with SAD and 86 controls. Diagnosis was based on a modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV. In addition to the SPIN-J, clinician-administered and self-rating scales, including the Japanese versions of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Social Phobia Scale, and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, were used. The SPIN-J showed adequate internal consistency (0.82-0.96) for the total and subscales. Correlations between the SPIN-J and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Social Phobia Scale, and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 and indicated adequate concurrent validity. A cut-off point of 22 between subjects with SAD and controls showed a sensitivity of 96.5% and specificity of 87.2%, indicating robust discriminant validity. The SPIN-J showed adequate reliability and validity for use as a screening tool for social anxiety disorder in Japanese clinical settings. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. A Confirmatory Model for Substance Use Among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanese American adolescents. Significant associations for substance use and impairment included culturally intensified events and Japanese cultural identity- behavior subset. Models had good overall fits and suggested that conflict surrounding cultural identity may contribute to substance use. PMID:23480213

  13. Classification of biliary tract cancers established by the Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery: 3(rd) English edition.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Masaru; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Miyakawa, Shuichi; Nagino, Masato; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Kokudo, Norihiro; Sano, Keiji; Endo, Itaru; Unno, Michiaki; Chijiiwa, Kazuo; Horiguchi, Akihiko; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Oka, Masaaki; Kubota, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Masanori; Uemoto, Shinji; Shimada, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Inui, Kazuo; Tazuma, Susumu; Furuse, Junji; Yanagisawa, Akio; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Kijima, Hiroshi; Takada, Tadahiro

    2015-03-01

    The 3(rd) English edition of the Japanese classification of biliary tract cancers was released approximately 10 years after the 5(th) Japanese edition and the 2(nd) English edition. Since the first Japanese edition was published in 1981, the Japanese classification has been in extensive use, particularly among Japanese surgeons and pathologists, because the cancer status and clinical outcomes in surgically resected cases have been the main objects of interest. However, recent advances in the diagnosis, management and research of the disease prompted the revision of the classification that can be used by not only surgeons and pathologists but also by all clinicians and researchers, for the evaluation of current disease status, the determination of current appropriate treatment, and the future development of medical practice for biliary tract cancers. Furthermore, during the past 10 years, globalization has advanced rapidly, and therefore, internationalization of the classification was an important issue to revise the Japanese original staging system, which would facilitate to compare the disease information among institutions worldwide. In order to achieve these objectives, the new Japanese classification of the biliary tract cancers principally adopted the 7(th) edition of staging system developed by the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). However, because there are some points pending in these systems, several distinctive points were also included for the purpose of collection of information for the future optimization of the staging system. Free mobile application of the new Japanese classification of the biliary tract cancers is available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/classification/cbt15.html. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  14. Literature Review of Japanese Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…

  15. Further Thoughts on the Japanese American Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Responds to the article, "The Japanese 'Internment' Cases Revisited," (Edward T. Robinson) in this issue of OAH Magazine of History. Focuses on three court cases related to Japanese internment. Believes that the possibility of whether internment can happen again should not be dismissed so easily. (CMK)

  16. Study on Japanese Cornmint in Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Japanese cornmint (Mentha canadensis L.) is a subtropical essential oil crop grown in Asia and South America. The essential oil of Japanese cornmint is the source for production of crystal (-)-menthol, which is a major aromatic agent used as a flavor, fragrance, and cooling sensation vector in the ...

  17. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese…

  18. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese…

  19. Factors of Attrition in Japanese Language Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito-Abbott, Yoshito; Samimy, Keiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated influences on attrition in Japanese second language instruction in one U.S. university. Subjects were students enrolled in the fall semester of beginning (n=134 students) and intermediate (n=79) levels of Japanese courses. In the fifth week of classes, students were administered a series of questionnaires to gather data on…

  20. Japanese Childrearing: Two Generations of Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwalb, David W., Ed.; Shwalb, Barbara J., Ed.

    The context of Japanese childrearing has changed during the postwar era. Noting that "new" observations concerning childrearing and socialization may not actually be new, this volume establishes continuity with past researchers by integrating the past half-century of cross-cultural research on Japanese childrearing and socialization,…

  1. Center for Japanese Study Abroad. Fastback 386.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassey, William

    The Center for Japanese Study Abroad (CJSA) is a Japanese immersion and study abroad program implemented as a magnet program at inner-city Brien MacMahon High School in Norwalk, Connecticut. The program is supported by a grant from the state department of education. Attended by 60-70 students from high schools in southern Fairfield County…

  2. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  3. Japanese Robotic SFA during Expedition 22

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-10

    ISS022-E-089764 (10 March 2010) --- Looking through the Kibo airlock, the Japanese robotic Small Fine Arm (SFA), also known as ?Ko-bot?, is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 22 crew member in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station during its installation on the external Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility.

  4. Interpersonal Mistrust and Unhappiness among Japanese People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Inoguchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Our main objective in this paper is to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness among Japanese people. Based on cross-sectional data for the Japanese general population from the Asia Barometer Survey (2003-2006), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness using a logistic…

  5. Principles of Japanese Discourse: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Senko K.

    This handbook offers a detailed description of the structure and rhetorical effects observed in various genres of Japanese discourse. Drawing on Japanese "bunshooron" and incorporating results of Western discourse studies, the book covers principles of overall rhetorical organization, including"ki-shoo-ten-ketsu," topic structure, "danraku," and…

  6. Social Studies in the Japanese Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    1985-01-01

    The most striking feature of the Japanese social studies curriculum at the elementary level is its role as the instructor of Japanese national values and attitudes. The social studies curriculum has gone through four major revisions since World War II. In the most recent revision, in the early 1980's, the focus has been on instituting new teaching…

  7. A MANUAL OF JAPANESE WRITING, BOOK 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAPLIN, HAMAKO ITO; MARTIN, SAMUEL E.

    THIS IS THE FIRST OF THREE VOLUMES WRITTEN TO TEACH THE 881 ESSENTIAL OR "EDUCATION" CHARACTERS TO ENGLISH-SPEAKING STUDENTS OF JAPANESE. THE AUTHORS ASSUME THAT THE STUDENTS HAVE ALREADY LEARNED THE HIRAGANA AND KATAKANA SYLLABARIES AND HAVE A BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF JAPANESE GRAMMAR. ORTHOGRAPHIC CONVENTIONS USED FOLLOW CLOSELY THOSE…

  8. Variation in Japanese Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Roy C.

    A study investigated the relationship between language style and variability in the phonology of Japanese learners of English. The subjects were five adult native speakers of Japanese at the intermediate stage of English learning. Speech materials elicited three different speech styles of varying formality: reading of a word list, reading of a…

  9. Japanese-Style Management: A Bibliometric Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguchi, Sachie

    1988-01-01

    Reports results of a bibliometric study of the literature on Japanese-style management published in western languages from 1971-84 in order to: (1) determine Japanese contributions to the literature; (2) determine whether there are nuclear journals for the subject; and (3) investigate how the flow of information from Japan to overseas countries…

  10. Inside a Japanese Transplant: A Critical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Laurie

    1993-01-01

    A hidden participant/observer working in a Japanese auto plant in the United States discovered worker resistance to Japanese management practices in the form of sabotage, protest, agitation, and confrontation. Results questioned assumptions that participatory techniques increase worker control and decentralized authority increases worker autonomy.…

  11. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  12. Japanese Flagship Universities at a Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The increasing pace and scope of global structural change has left Japanese flagship universities at a crossroads. Reflecting upon historical trends, current policy changes and respective institutional strategies for global marketing among Japanese top research universities, the author discusses possible future directions for these institutions…

  13. Japanese Flagship Universities at a Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The increasing pace and scope of global structural change has left Japanese flagship universities at a crossroads. Reflecting upon historical trends, current policy changes and respective institutional strategies for global marketing among Japanese top research universities, the author discusses possible future directions for these institutions…

  14. Effective School Research from Japanese Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    Over the past 25 years, much educational research in the United States has focused on effective schools. This paper presents findings of a study that examined the characteristics of Japanese education, which is often considered effective by American researchers. It compares features of the Japanese education system to characteristics of effective…

  15. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  16. Cognitive Tempo in Japanese and American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salkind, Neil J.; Kojima, Hideo

    The purpose of this study was to compare performances by Japanese and American children on the Matching Familiar Figures Test, the primary measure of cognitive tempo. Data on more than 3400 Japanese and American children (approximately half male, half female) were used. Factorial analyses of variance revealed significant age x nationality…

  17. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child…

  18. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Helen E.

    1992-01-01

    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  19. The Current Status of Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    A study of the current status of Japanese Americans is divided into three sections. Following a brief introduction, a background section provides an overview of Japanese American history, population size and socioeconomic measures, and selected social characteristics. A second section looks in greater depth at socioeconomic status as reported in…

  20. A New Social Portrait of the Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Nathaniel B.

    1977-01-01

    A series of surveys taken from 1953-73 assessed postwar attitudes of the Japanese toward religion, tradition, culture, politics, and aesthetics. Findings indicate that Japanese attitudes have become more oriented to the individual than to society. Available from: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC…

  1. Classroom Silence: Voices from Japanese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harumi, Seiko

    2011-01-01

    This article explores Japanese EFL learners' classroom silence in a Japanese EFL context. The existence of silence in second language learning contexts can be a source of conflict between students and teachers and even among students themselves. It can also be an obstacle to acquiring the target language. In order to tackle this problem and to…

  2. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child…

  3. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  4. The Strategies Used in Japanese Advertisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurose, Yuki

    This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising language as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the aims of advertising and the advantages of learning advertising language in the classroom based on previous research. Next, it discusses language strategies used in Japanese advertising,…

  5. Interpersonal Mistrust and Unhappiness among Japanese People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Inoguchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Our main objective in this paper is to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness among Japanese people. Based on cross-sectional data for the Japanese general population from the Asia Barometer Survey (2003-2006), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness using a logistic…

  6. Business Letter Writing: English, French, and Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Susan; Hinds, John

    1987-01-01

    Examination of business letters in English, French, and Japanese, focusing on prescriptive accounts in the respective languages, found that, despite amazingly similar surface characteristics, American business letters were reader-oriented, French business letters were writer-oriented, and Japanese business letters were oriented to the space…

  7. Classroom Silence: Voices from Japanese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harumi, Seiko

    2011-01-01

    This article explores Japanese EFL learners' classroom silence in a Japanese EFL context. The existence of silence in second language learning contexts can be a source of conflict between students and teachers and even among students themselves. It can also be an obstacle to acquiring the target language. In order to tackle this problem and to…

  8. Initial Japanese experience with the LAP-BAND system.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Masayuki; Kitano, Seigo; Kai, Seiichiro; Shiromizu, Akio; Iwashita, Yukio; Endo, Yuichi; Kawano, Yuichiro; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2013-02-01

    Laparoscopic bariatric surgery has gradually spread in Japan since it was introduced in 2000. In 2005, we introduced laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) with the LAP-BAND system into Japan. Here, we evaluate our intermediate-term results with the LAP-BAND system. Between August 2005 and June 2010, 27 Japanese patients with morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2) ) underwent LAGB with the LAP-BAND system in our institution. Our patients' average weight was 111 kg and BMI was 41 kg/m(2) . All LAGB procedures were performed through the pars flaccida pathway with band fixation using gastric-to-gastric sutures. The average follow-up period was 48 months. All procedures were completed laparoscopically. One early complication (sudden cardiac arrest due to postoperative bleeding) and three late complications (port trouble, megaesophagus, and band slippage) were experienced, and reoperations were performed in three of the patients. Weight loss and percentage of excess weight loss on average were 26 kg and 53% after 3 years and 22 kg and 53% after 6 years, respectively. In line with this good weight loss, comorbidities, especially those of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome were frequently resolved or improved. LAGB with the LAP-BAND system appears to be beneficial in obese Japanese patients. © 2012 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. IARS mutation causes prenatal death in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takashi; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Takeda, Kenji; Hara, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Kita, Kazuo; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Hanzawa, Kei

    2016-09-01

    Isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IARS) c.235G > C (p.V79L) is a causative mutation for a recessive disease called IARS disorder in Japanese black cattle. The disease is involved in weak calf syndrome and is characterized by low birth weight, weakness and poor suckling. The gestation period is often slightly extended, implying that intrauterine growth is retarded. In a previous analysis of 2597 artificial insemination (AI) procedures, we suggested that the IARS mutation might contribute toward an increase in the incidence of prenatal death. In this study, we extended this analysis to better clarify the association between the IARS mutation and prenatal death. The IARS genotypes of 92 animals resulting from crosses between carrier (G/C) × G/C were 27 normal (G/G), 55 G/C and 10 affected animals (C/C) (expected numbers: 23, 46 and 23, respectively). Compared to the expected numbers, there were significantly fewer affected animals in this population (P < 0.05), suggesting that more than half of the affected embryos died prenatally. When the number of AI procedures examined was increased to 11 580, the frequency of re-insemination after G/C × G/C insemination was significantly higher at 61-140 days (P < 0.001). The findings suggested that the homozygous IARS mutation not only causes calf death, but also embryonic or fetal death. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  11. The Japanese Astronomical Archives Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.

    2004-12-01

    Due to recent activities of local libraries and museums in Japan for collecting and cataloguing historical books and documents and their increased efforts to publicize such information via Internet services, we are now in a position to have a much easier and better access to the historical resources preserved than in the past. With this background, we started in 2002 a project under governmental support for four years, to make a general inventory of Japanese archives in astronomy and relating disciplines written or published before 1870. Since in pre-modern Japan astronomical knowledge and books were circulated mainly in hand-written form so that they have been apt to be lost in wars and fires, there are good reasons for us to now compile such an inventory through extensive and systematic surveys of both domestic and overseas sources. In April 2003, we published an inventory book of 250 pages, which is intended to be a basis for our survey, including about 4600 titles collected from known source materials. We expect that by March 2006 the number of titles will be increased by 30-35%. This paper briefly introduces the current status of this project and presents the characteristics and problems of Japanese astronomical archives.

  12. Mucosal cutting biopsy technique for histological diagnosis of suspected gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Mikinori; Kawai, Takashi; Yagi, Kenji; Sugimoto, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Kei; Hayama, Yasutaka; Nonaka, Masaya; Aoki, Takaya; Fukuzawa, Masakatsu; Fukuzawa, Mari; Itoi, Takao; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2013-05-01

    The Japanese Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) therapeutic guidelines recommend endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy for histological diagnosis. However, before 2010, this technique was only carried out at a minority of medical institutions in Japan. In the present study, we investigated the usefulness of mucosal cutting biopsy. In 18 asymptomatic gastric submucosal tumors, mucosal cutting biopsies were carried out. We examined tumor size, tumor site (lower third: L; middle third: M; upper third: U), histopathological diagnostic yield and complications. In cases that proceeded to surgical resection with a diagnosis of GIST, we compared the pre- and postoperative histopathological diagnosis, and the histological degrees of malignancy. The tumors had a mean size of 20.3 mm and were located at the L site in five cases, M in four, and U in nine. Histological diagnosis of submucosal tumor was obtained in all the cases. (GIST, n = 13; heterotopic pancreas, n = 2; and leiomyoma, n = 3). No complications (e.g. bleeding, perforation or peritonitis) were seen after this procedure. In all 11 patients with GIST who underwent surgical resection, the histopathological findings from the mucosal cutting biopsy specimens were similar to those from the surgically resected specimens, with agreement between the immunostaining findings and the histological degree of malignancy (90.9%) in 10 patients. The mucosal cutting biopsy technique is a useful diagnostic modality for the diagnosis of gastric GIST and for selection of the appropriate treatment. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  13. The Semantics and Pragmatics of Japanese Focus Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasegawa, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Japanese has a rich set of focus particles, several exclusive and additive particles, and, in addition, contrastive particles. This thesis provides a formal description of the meanings of Japanese focus particles and addresses two general questions: "What kinds concepts do Japanese focus particles express?" and "Why does Japanese have a larger…

  14. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of Japanese...

  15. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of Japanese...

  16. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of Japanese...

  17. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of Japanese...

  18. Intercultural Orientations as Japanese Language Learners' Motivation in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Leining; Gao, Xuesong; Teo, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigated how 665 Japanese language learners, who had started learning Japanese at different times in the last 3 decades, had been motivated to learn Japanese in China. Analysis of the survey data revealed that the participants displayed similar intercultural orientations when learning Japanese despite the…

  19. Some Design Issues for an Online Japanese Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…

  20. The Semantics and Pragmatics of Japanese Focus Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasegawa, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Japanese has a rich set of focus particles, several exclusive and additive particles, and, in addition, contrastive particles. This thesis provides a formal description of the meanings of Japanese focus particles and addresses two general questions: "What kinds concepts do Japanese focus particles express?" and "Why does Japanese have a larger…

  1. Intercultural Orientations as Japanese Language Learners' Motivation in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Leining; Gao, Xuesong; Teo, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigated how 665 Japanese language learners, who had started learning Japanese at different times in the last 3 decades, had been motivated to learn Japanese in China. Analysis of the survey data revealed that the participants displayed similar intercultural orientations when learning Japanese despite the…

  2. Some Design Issues for an Online Japanese Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…

  3. Population structure in Japanese rice population

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Masanori; Ideta, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    It is essential to elucidate genetic diversity and relationships among even related individuals and populations for plant breeding and genetic analysis. Since Japanese rice breeding has improved agronomic traits such as yield and eating quality, modern Japanese rice cultivars originated from narrow genetic resource and closely related. To resolve the population structure and genetic diversity in Japanese rice population, we used a total of 706 alleles detected by 134 simple sequence repeat markers in a total of 114 cultivars composed of 94 improved varieties and 20 landraces, which are representative and important for Japanese rice breeding. The landraces exhibit greater gene diversity than improved lines, suggesting that landraces can provide additional genetic diversity for future breeding. Model-based Bayesian clustering analysis revealed six subgroups and admixture situation in the cultivars, showing good agreement with pedigree information. This method could be superior to phylogenetic method in classifying a related population. The leading Japanese rice cultivar, Koshihikari is unique due to the specific genome constitution. We defined Japanese rice diverse sets that capture the maximum number of alleles for given sample sizes. These sets are useful for a variety of genetic application in Japanese rice cultivars. PMID:23641181

  4. Diagnosis of eight groups of xeroderma pigmentosum by genetic complementation using recombinant adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Toshiharu; Okura, Masae; Ishii-Osai, Yasue; Hida, Tokimasa

    2016-10-01

    Because patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) must avoid ultraviolet (UV) light from an early age, an early diagnosis of this disorder is essential. XP is composed of seven genetic complementation groups, XP-A to -G, and a variant type (XP-V). To establish an easy and accurate diagnosis of the eight disease groups, we constructed recombinant adenoviruses that expressed one of the XP cDNA. When fibroblasts derived from patients with XP-A, -B, -C, -D, -F or -G were infected with the adenovirus expressing XPA, XPB, XPC, XPD, XPF or XPG, respectively, and UV-C at 5-20 J/m(2) was irradiated, cell viability was clearly recovered by the corresponding recombinant adenoviruses. In contrast, XP-E and XP-V cells were not significantly sensitive to UV irradiation and were barely complemented by the matched recombinant adenoviruses. However, co-infection of Ad-XPA with Ad-XPE increased survival rate of XP-E cells after UV-C exposure. When XP-V cell strains, including one derived from a Japanese patient, were infected with Ad-XPV, exposed to UV-B and cultured with 1 mmol/L of caffeine, flow cytometry detected a characteristic decrease in the S phase in all the XP-V cell strains. From these results, the eight groups of XP could be differentiated by utilizing a set of recombinant adenoviruses, indicating that our procedure provides a convenient and correct diagnostic method for all the XP groups including XP-E and XP-V. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Laboratory Diagnosis of Pertussis.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Anneke; Schellekens, Joop F P; Mooi, Frits R

    2015-10-01

    The introduction of vaccination in the 1950s significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of pertussis. However, since the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis has been observed in vaccinated populations, and a number of causes have been proposed for this phenomenon, including improved diagnostics, increased awareness, waning immunity, and pathogen adaptation. The resurgence of pertussis highlights the importance of standardized, sensitive, and specific laboratory diagnoses, the lack of which is responsible for the large differences in pertussis notifications between countries. Accurate laboratory diagnosis is also important for distinguishing between the several etiologic agents of pertussis-like diseases, which involve both viruses and bacteria. If pertussis is diagnosed in a timely manner, antibiotic treatment of the patient can mitigate the symptoms and prevent transmission. During an outbreak, timely diagnosis of pertussis allows prophylactic treatment of infants too young to be (fully) vaccinated, for whom pertussis is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Finally, reliable diagnosis of pertussis is required to reveal trends in the (age-specific) disease incidence, which may point to changes in vaccine efficacy, waning immunity, and the emergence of vaccine-adapted strains. Here we review current approaches to the diagnosis of pertussis and discuss their limitations and strengths. In particular, we emphasize that the optimal diagnostic procedure depends on the stage of the disease, the age of the patient, and the vaccination status of the patient.

  6. Laboratory Diagnosis of Pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Schellekens, Joop F. P.; Mooi, Frits R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The introduction of vaccination in the 1950s significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of pertussis. However, since the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis has been observed in vaccinated populations, and a number of causes have been proposed for this phenomenon, including improved diagnostics, increased awareness, waning immunity, and pathogen adaptation. The resurgence of pertussis highlights the importance of standardized, sensitive, and specific laboratory diagnoses, the lack of which is responsible for the large differences in pertussis notifications between countries. Accurate laboratory diagnosis is also important for distinguishing between the several etiologic agents of pertussis-like diseases, which involve both viruses and bacteria. If pertussis is diagnosed in a timely manner, antibiotic treatment of the patient can mitigate the symptoms and prevent transmission. During an outbreak, timely diagnosis of pertussis allows prophylactic treatment of infants too young to be (fully) vaccinated, for whom pertussis is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Finally, reliable diagnosis of pertussis is required to reveal trends in the (age-specific) disease incidence, which may point to changes in vaccine efficacy, waning immunity, and the emergence of vaccine-adapted strains. Here we review current approaches to the diagnosis of pertussis and discuss their limitations and strengths. In particular, we emphasize that the optimal diagnostic procedure depends on the stage of the disease, the age of the patient, and the vaccination status of the patient. PMID:26354823

  7. Polymyositis: Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... themselves being invaded by cells of the immune system. Looking for more information, support or ways to get involved? Contact Us Get Our Emails About Polymyositis (PM) Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research Find your MDA Care Center Current Clinical ...

  8. Comparative research on NIMBY risk acceptability between Chinese and Japanese college students.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunqing; Zhai, Guofang; Li, Shasha; Ren, Chongqiang; Tsuchida, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    Along with the progressive acceleration of urbanization, the need to identify potentially troublesome "Not In My Back Yard" (NIMBY) facilities in the city is inevitable. To resolve NIMBY conflict, it is important to know people's NIMBY risk acceptability for these facilities. A questionnaire survey was used among Chinese and Japanese college students to identify NIMBY risk acceptability. LISREL was used to construct a structural equation model to analyze the difference in NIMBY risk acceptability between the Chinese and Japanese college students. Factors that may affect NIMBY risk acceptability were analyzed: "perceiving utility," "perceiving risk," "trust in government," "reasonable compensation," and "procedural justice." The findings show that Japanese students' concerns were greater than Chinese students' concerns. Perceiving utility and perceiving risk were the most important factors that affect people's NIMBY risk acceptability, followed by procedural justice, trust in government, and reasonable compensation. There is a difference between the different cultural backgrounds in confronting the risk: Chinese students focus more on the reputation and value of real estate, while Japanese students pay more attention to environmental pollution and damage to health. Furthermore, cultural influences play a role in students' risk perception. To improve the risk acceptability for NIMBY facilities and provide a basis for resolving NIMBY conflicts, it is necessary to ensure the benefits of the NIMBY facility while reducing environmental pollution. The findings of this study may be of interest for policy makers and practitioners to devise future NIMBY strategies.

  9. Japanese plan for SSF utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) program has made significant progress. The JEM preliminary design review was completed in July 1992; construction of JEM operation facilities has begun; and the micro-G airplane, drop shaft, and micro-G experiment rocket are all operational. The national policy for JEM utilization was also established. The Space Experiment Laboratory (SEL) opened in June '92 and will function as a user support center. Eight JEM multiuser facilities are in phase B, and scientific requirements are being defined for 17 candidate multiuser facilities. The National Joint Research Program is about to start. Precursor missions and early Space Station utilization activities are being defined. This paper summarizes the program in outline and graphic form.

  10. Japanese experiences of environmental management.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T

    2003-01-01

    Japan experienced a very rapid industrialization and economic growth in the era of income doubling in 1960s and at the same time Japan experienced very severe damage from various types of environmental pollution. In this paper, historical development of population, GNP, energy consumption with classification of petroleum, coal and electric power, and CO2 emission are introduced as basic background data on Japanese development. The tragic experience of Minamata disease and Itai-itai disease caused by methyl mercury and cadmium, respectively, are introduced. In two tables, historical development of water pollution and air pollution are summarized. Regarding solid wastes management, the total mass balance in Japan and recent development in legislation framework for enhancement of recycling of wastes are introduced briefly.

  11. Interventional procedures in the chest.

    PubMed

    Vollmer Torrubiano, I; Sánchez González, M

    2016-05-01

    Many thoracic conditions will require an interventional procedure for diagnosis and/or treatment. For this reason, radiologists need to know the indications and the technique for each procedure. In this article, we review the various interventional procedures that radiologists should know and the indications for each procedure. We place special emphasis on the potential differences in the diagnostic results and complications between fine-needle aspiration and biopsy. We also discuss the indications for radiofrequency ablation of lung tumors and review the concepts related to the drainage of pulmonary abscesses. We devote special attention to the management of pleural effusion, covering the indications for thoracocentesis and when to use imaging guidance, and to the protocol for pleural drainage. We also discuss the indications for percutaneous treatment of pericardial effusion and the possible complications of this treatment. Finally, we discuss the interventional management of mediastinal lesions and provide practical advice about how to approach these lesions to avoid serious complications.

  12. Method for the isolation of citric acid and malic acid in Japanese apricot liqueur for carbon stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Hisatsune, Yuri; Oe, Takaaki; Kawao, Takafumi; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2017-02-15

    A method for detecting the undeclared addition of acidic ingredients is required to control the authenticity of Japanese apricot liqueur. We developed an analytical procedure that minimizes carbon isotope discrimination for measurement of the δ(13)C values of citric and malic acid isolated from Japanese apricot liqueur. Our results demonstrated that freeze-drying is preferable to nitrogen spray-drying, because it does not significantly affect the δ(13)C values of citric acid and results in smaller isotope discrimination for malic acid. Both 0.1% formic acid and 0.2% phosphoric acid are acceptable HPLC mobile phases for the isolation of citric and malic acid, although the δ(13)C values of malic acid exhibited relatively large variation compared with citric acid following isolation using either mobile phase. The developed procedure allows precise δ(13)C measurements of citric and malic acid isolated from Japanese apricot liqueur.

  13. Diagnosis in Reading, What Direction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper discusses and recommends diagnosis and remediation procedures in teaching pupils in the area of reading. The first section of the paper addresses diagnostic emphasis in reading and discusses individualized reading, experience charts, and 5 recommendations for teaching phonics. The next section discusses basal readers, argues that good…

  14. Multiregional clinical trials: Japanese perspective on drug development strategy and sample size for Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yuki; Uyama, Yoshiaki

    2012-09-01

    Multiregional clinical trials including Japanese subjects are playing a key role in new drug development in Japan. In addition to the consideration of differences in intrinsic and extrinsic ethnic factors, deciding the sample size of Japanese subjects is an important issue when a multiregional clinical trial is intended to be used for Japanese submission. Accumulated experience suggests that there are several points to consider, such as the basic principles described in the guidance document, drug development strategy, trial phase, and disease background. The difficulty of interpreting the results of Japanese trials should also be considered.

  15. Japanese Lifestyle during Childhood Prevents the Future Development of Obesity among Japanese-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Mami; Yoneda, Masayasu; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Oki, Kenji; Yamane, Kiminori; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a Japanese lifestyle during childhood could protect against the future development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases by comparing native Japanese with Japanese-Americans in whom genetic factors are the same. Methods Study subjects were 516 native Japanese and 781 Japanese-Americans who underwent medical examinations between 2007 and 2010. Japanese-Americans were divided into 444 first-generation immigrants (JA-1), who were born in Japan, and 337 second- or later-generation descendants (JA-2), who were born in the United States. The JA-2 group was then divided into the kibei subgroup (N = 79), who had moved to Japan before the age of 18 years and later returned to the United States, and the non-kibei subgroup (N = 258), who had never lived in Japan. Results The JA-2 group had the highest percentages of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes compared with native Japanese and JA-1. Furthermore, among JA-2, the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the kibei subgroup was significantly lower than that in the non-kibei subgroup. The prevalence of diabetes in the kibei subgroup also tended to be lower than in the non-kibei subgroup. Conclusions The prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases differed with residence in Japan during childhood among Japanese-Americans. These findings indicate the possibility that Japanese lifestyle during childhood could reduce the future risks for obesity-associated metabolic diseases. PMID:25807391

  16. Hemoptysis: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, James D.; Simmons, Daniel H.

    1977-01-01

    Hemoptysis is one of the most important symptoms of cardiopulmonary disease—first, because bleeding even in small amounts may indicate the presence of such serious diseases as bronchogenic carcinoma or active tuberculosis, and second, because untreated massive hemorrhage is associated with a high mortality rate. The cause of hemoptysis may be suggested by the history, physical examination or chest x-ray findings, but often diagnostic procedures such as bronchoscopy, bronchography and pulmonary angiography are needed for definitive diagnosis. The importance of early localization of the bleeding site and surgical intervention in patients with massive hemoptysis is stressed. PMID:919539

  17. Japanese clinical practice guidelines for congenital biliary dilatation.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hiroki; Shimada, Mitsuo; Kamisawa, Terumi; Fujii, Hideki; Hamada, Yoshinori; Kubota, Masayuki; Urushihara, Naoto; Endo, Itaru; Nio, Masaki; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Ando, Hisami

    2017-01-01

    Until now, there have been no practical clinical guidelines for congenital biliary dilatation (CBD). In this review article, the Japanese Study Group on Congenital Biliary Dilatation (JSCBD) propose to establish clinical practice guidelines for CBD. Because the evidence-based literature is relatively small, we decided to create guidelines based on the consensus of experts, using the medical literature for reference. A total of 20 clinical questions (CQs) were considered by the members of the editorial committee responsible for the guidelines. The CQs included the distinct aspects of CBD: (1) Concepts and Pathology (three CQs); (2) Diagnosis (six CQs); (3) Pancreaticobiliary Complications (three CQs); Treatments and Prognosis (eight CQs). Each statements and comments for CQs were made by the guidelines committee members. CQs were finally approved after review by members of the editorial committee and the guidelines evaluation board of CBD. These guidelines were created to provide assistance in the clinical practice of CBD management; their contents focus on clinical utility, and they include general information on CBD to make this disease more widely recognized. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  18. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  19. Genotype-phenotype correlation in Japanese patients with familial Mediterranean fever: differences in genotype and clinical features between Japanese and Mediterranean populations.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Dai; Nakamura, Akinori; Yazaki, Masahide; Tsuchiya-Suzuki, Ayako; Matsuda, Masayuki; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2014-09-27

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disease characterized by recurrent self-limiting fever and serositis that mainly affects Mediterranean populations. Many patients with FMF have been reported in Japan due to increasing recognition of this condition and the availability of genetic analysis for the gene responsible, MEFV. The present study was performed to elucidate the clinical characteristics of Japanese FMF patients and to examine the precise genotype-phenotype correlation in a large cohort of Japanese FMF patients. We analyzed the MEFV genotypes and clinical manifestations in 116 patients clinically diagnosed as having FMF and with at least one mutation. The most frequent mutation in Japanese patients was E148Q (40.2%), followed by M694I (21.0%), L110P (18.8%), P369S (5.4%), and R408Q (5.4%). In contrast, common mutations seen in Mediterranean patients, such as M694V, V726A, and M680I, were not detected in this population. The clinical features with M694I were associated with more severe clinical course compared to those seen with E148Q. P369S/R408Q showed variable phenotypes with regard to both clinical manifestations and severity. Patients with M694I showed a very favorable response to colchicine therapy, while those with P369S and R408Q did not. Clinical features and efficacy of treatment in Japanese FMF patients vary widely according to the specific MEFV gene mutation, and therefore genetic analysis should be performed for diagnosis in cases of Japanese FMF.

  20. Complication rates after functional endoscopic sinus surgery: analysis of 50,734 Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Sayaka; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Kondo, Kenji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-08-01

    The complication rates associated with different types of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) remain to be fully examined. Retrospective cohort study. We extracted data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database on 50,734 patients (aged ≥ 16 years) who underwent FESS for chronic rhinosinusitis between 2007 and 2013. We focused on specific types of surgery and stratified the patients into three groups: group 1 (single sinus surgery), group 2 (multiple sinus surgery), and group 3 (whole sinus surgery). Patient characteristics and early postoperative complications including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, orbital injury, severe hemorrhage, and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) that occurred during 1 to 2 weeks of each hospitalization were compared. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between overall complication rate and background characteristics, with adjustment for within-hospital clustering. The overall complication rate was 0.50%; the rates of CSF leakage, orbital injury, hemorrhage requiring surgery, blood transfusion, and TSS were 0.09%, 0.09%, 0.10%, 0.18%, and 0.02%, respectively. Ethmoidectomy combined with sphenoidotomy was associated with higher overall complication rates (1.40%). The rate of orbital injury was highest in group 2, whereas that of other complications did not differ significantly among the groups. Extent of FESS showed no significant association with overall complication rate. More extensive FESS was not associated with increased rates of postoperative CSF leakage, hemorrhage, or TSS. Multiple sinus surgery was associated with a higher rate of orbital injury. The extent of surgery did not significantly affect the overall complication rate. 2b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. [International Relationship of Japanese General Thoracic Surgeons].

    PubMed

    Okumura, Meinoshin

    2017-01-01

    Japanese thoracic surgeons have created personal relationship with European and North American surgeons. During the last 10 years, official relation between Japanese Association for Chest Surgery(JACS) and European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) has been established besides personal interaction, and communication among the thoracic surgeons in Asia was prompted through Asia Thoracoscopic Surgery Education Program( ATEP). International relationship through academic associations is expected to contribute to encouraging general thoracic surgeons.

  2. Melanoma Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  3. Pathophysiology and Japanese clinical characteristics in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Daishi; Takeda, Norifumi; Imai, Yasushi; Inuzuka, Ryo; Komuro, Issei; Hirata, Yasunobu

    2014-08-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant heritable disorder of the connective tissue, caused by mutations of the gene FBN1, which encodes fibrillin-1, a major component of the microfibrils of the extracellular matrix. Fibrillin-1 interacts with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and dysregulated TGF-β signaling plays a major role in the development of connective tissue disease and familial aortic aneurysm and dissection, including Marfan syndrome. Losartan, an angiotensin II blocker, has the potential to reduce TGF-β signaling and is expected to be an additional therapeutic option. Clinical diagnosis is made using the Ghent nosology, which requires comprehensive patient assessment and has been proven to work well, but evaluation of some of the diagnostic criteria by a single physician is difficult and time-consuming. A Marfan clinic was established at the University of Tokyo Hospital in 2005, together with cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, pediatricians, orthopedists, and ophthalmologists in one place, for the purpose of speedy and accurate evaluation and diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in diagnosis and treatment of Marfan syndrome, and the characteristics of Japanese patients with Marfan syndrome.

  4. [Clinical manifestations of ocular sarcoidosis in Japanese patients].

    PubMed

    Ohara, K

    1994-06-01

    Ocular sarcoidosis was found in 57.5 to 93.5% of Japanese patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Many studies reported a high female/male ratio with high percentage of patients at 20s and 50s in age in ocular sarcoidosis. A cardinal involvement was intraocular and manifested as uveitis. A combinations of granulomatous iritis, trabecular nodules, tent-like peripheral anterior synechia, snow-ball vitreous opacities, perivasculitis, and candle-wax or spotty chorioretinal exudates were characteristic and highly specific intraocular lesions. The lesions often lead ophthalmologists to systemic examinations. In suspects of ocular sarcoidosis who had no or sparse systemic findings, a diagnosis should remain tentative. Transbronchial lung biopsy showed non-caseating epithelioid granuloma in 37 of 60 patients with suspected ocular sarcoidosis who showed no bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy.

  5. A Japanese Family with Congenital Erythrocytosis Caused by Haemoglobin Bethesda.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Shinobu; Tamura, Tadahiko; Gima, Hiroya; Nishikawa, Akinori; Okamoto, Yukiharu; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Relvas, Luis; Cunha, Elizabete; Frances McMullin, Mary; Bento, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    We herein present a case of congenital erythrocytosis caused by haemoglobin (Hb) Bethesda in a Japanese family. A 55-year-old asymptomatic man was referred to our hospital for the investigation of erythrocytosis, which was present in other members of his family. The patient's serum erythropoietin level was normal, and the JAK2 V617F mutation was not detected. His P50 value was mildly decreased, thus we suspected the presence of an Hb variant with a high oxygen affinity. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed an abnormal Hb, and by direct sequencing we identified the Hb Bethesda variant in this patient. For the differential diagnosis, we recommend the estimation of the P50 value as a practical and useful test.

  6. Recent application of quantification II in Japanese medical research.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, T; Kudo, A

    1979-01-01

    Hayashi's Quantification II is a method of multivariate discrimination analysis to manipulate attribute data as predictor variables. It is very useful in the medical research field for estimation, diagnosis, prognosis, evaluation of epidemiological factors, and other problems based on multiplicity of attribute data. In Japan, this method is so well known that most of the computer program packages include the Hayashi Quantification, but it seems to be yet unfamiliar with the method for researchers outside Japan. In view of this situation, we introduced 19 selected articles of recent applications of the Quantification II in Japanese medical research. In reviewing these papers, special mention is made to clarify how the researchers were satisfied with findings provided by the method. At the same time, some recommendations are made about terminology and program packages. Also a brief discussion of the background of the quantification methods is given with special reference to the Behaviormetric Society of Japan. PMID:540587

  7. Measurement of empathy among Japanese medical students: psychometrics and score differences by gender and level of medical education.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hitomi U; Koide, Norio; Ochi, Koji; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2009-09-01

    To examine psychometric properties of a Japanese translation of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), and to study differences in empathy scores between men and women, and students in different years of medical school. The student version of the JSPE was translated into Japanese using back-translation procedures and administered to 400 Japanese students from all six years at the Okayama University Medical School. Item-total score correlations were calculated. Factor analysis was used to examine the underlying components of the Japanese version of the JSPE. Cronbach coefficient alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency aspect of reliability of the instrument. Finally, empathy scores for men and women were compared using t test, and score differences by year of medical school were examined using analysis of variance. Factor analysis confirmed the three components of "perspective taking," "compassionate care," and "ability to stand in patient's shoes," which had emerged in American and Mexican medical students. Item-total score correlations were all positive and statistically significant. Cronbach coefficient alpha was .80. Women outscored men, and empathy scores increased as students progressed through medical school in this cross-sectional study. Findings provide support for the construct validity and reliability of the Japanese translated version of the JSPE for medical students. Cultural characteristics and educational differences in Japanese medical schools that influence empathic behaviors are described, and implications for cross-cultural study of empathy are discussed.

  8. Diagnosis of Subtraction Bugs Using Bayesian Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun; Corter, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of misconceptions or "bugs" in procedural skills is difficult because of their unstable nature. This study addresses this problem by proposing and evaluating a probability-based approach to the diagnosis of bugs in children's multicolumn subtraction performance using Bayesian networks. This approach assumes a causal network relating…

  9. Diagnosis of Subtraction Bugs Using Bayesian Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun; Corter, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of misconceptions or "bugs" in procedural skills is difficult because of their unstable nature. This study addresses this problem by proposing and evaluating a probability-based approach to the diagnosis of bugs in children's multicolumn subtraction performance using Bayesian networks. This approach assumes a causal network relating…

  10. Sexual partner preference in female Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Paul L

    2002-02-01

    Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate. Japanese macaques represent excellent models for examining issues related to sexual preference in animals because females, in certain populations, routinely engage in both heterosexual and homosexual behavior over the course of their life spans. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques is a sexual behavior, not a sociosexual one. Additional evidence indicates that female Japanese macaques do not engage in homosexual behavior simply because acceptable male mates are unavailable or unmotivated to copulate. Patterns of sexual partner choice by female Japanese macaques that are the focus of intersexual competition indicate that females of this species choose same-sex sexual partners even when they are simultaneously presented with a motivated, opposite-sex alternative. Thus, in some populations of Japanese macaques, females prefer certain same-sex sexual partners relative to certain male mates, and vice versa. Taken together, this evidence suggests that female Japanese macaques are best characterized as bisexual in orientation, not preferentially homosexual or preferentially heterosexual.

  11. Detecting Differential Item Functioning in the Japanese Version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Lei, Pui-Wa; Suen, Hoi K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the differential item functioning (DIF) of the English version and the Japanese-translated version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised (MAACL-R) using the logistic regression (LR) procedure. The results of the LR are supplemented by multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). A total of five items are…

  12. High stimulus variability in nonnative speech learning supports formation of abstract categories: evidence from Japanese geminates.

    PubMed

    Sadakata, Makiko; McQueen, James M

    2013-08-01

    This study reports effects of a high-variability training procedure on nonnative learning of a Japanese geminate-singleton fricative contrast. Thirty native speakers of Dutch took part in a 5-day training procedure in which they identified geminate and singleton variants of the Japanese fricative /s/. Participants were trained with either many repetitions of a limited set of words recorded by a single speaker (low-variability training) or with fewer repetitions of a more variable set of words recorded by multiple speakers (high-variability training). Both types of training enhanced identification of speech but not of nonspeech materials, indicating that learning was domain specific. High-variability training led to superior performance in identification but not in discrimination tests, and supported better generalization of learning as shown by transfer from the trained fricatives to the identification of untrained stops and affricates. Variability thus helps nonnative listeners to form abstract categories rather than to enhance early acoustic analysis.

  13. A Japanese Family With Autosomal Dominant Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 4.

    PubMed

    Oki, Ryoko; Yamada, Kisaburo; Nakano, Satoko; Kimoto, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Ken; Kondo, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Toshiaki

    2017-02-01

    We report the clinical characteristics of a Japanese family with autosomal dominant oculocutaneous albinism and a SLC45A2 gene mutation. A total of 16 members of a Japanese family with general hypopigmentation and foveal hypoplasia underwent detailed clinical examinations. We evaluated the severity of foveal hypoplasia using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and graded it according to the criteria of Thomas et al. DNA was extracted from 17 family members and used for genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and linkage analysis. Mutational search was performed for the SLC45A2 gene responsible for oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4). All 16 patients exhibited hypopigmentation of their hair and/or iris. They showed foveal hypoplasia, including 3 patients with grade 1 foveal hypoplasia, 7 with grade 2, and 6 with grade 3. No patient had grade 4 foveal hypoplasia. Optical coherence tomography showed macular ganglion cell complex thinning in the temporal area, and a slight reduction of visual field sensitivity in the centrotemporal area. A maximum multipoint parametric logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of approximately 2.00 to 3.56 was obtained on chromosome 5, spanning approximately 7.2 Mb between rs13187570 and rs395967 that included the SLC45A2 gene. All affected members showed a novel heterozygous variant, c.208T>C (p.Y70H), in the SLC45A2 gene, which supported a diagnosis of OCA4. The present study reports a very rare family with autosomal dominant OCA4 whose diagnosis was confirmed by a mutational analysis. Most family members exhibited mild general hypopigmentation and low-grade foveal hypoplasia.

  14. Fanconi Anemia and its Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Arleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by diverse congenital malformations, progressive pancytopenia, and predisposition to both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Congenital anomalies vary from patient to patient and may affect skeletal morphogenesis as well as any of the major organ systems. Although this highly variable phenotype makes accurate diagnosis on the basis of clinical manifestations difficult in some patients, laboratory study of chromosomal breakage induced by diepoxybutane (DEB) or other crosslinking agents provides a unique cellular marker for the diagnosis of the disorder either prenatally or postnatally. Diagnosis based on abnormal response to DNA crosslinking agents can be used to identify the pre-anemia patient as well as patients with aplastic anemia or leukemia who may or may not have the physical stigmata associated with the syndrome. This overview will present our present knowledge regarding the varied phenotypic manifestations of FA and procedures for diagnosis based upon abnormal DNA damage responses. PMID:19622403

  15. Translation and equivalence assessment for a Japanese version of the modified Parental Nurturance Scale: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Chizu; Griffiths, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper reports on the modification of the Parental Nurturance Scale (PNS), translation of the modified version (PNSM) from English to Japanese, and equivalence assessment between the PNSM and the translated version (PNSM-J). The PNS was modified so as to enable its use in nurturance studies where the prime source of nurturance might vary between respondents. Method It was translated into Japanese through the forward-backward translation procedure. With attempting to enhance representativeness of language in the target populations, translators used were married couples that consisted of a native English speaker and a native Japanese speaker. Multiple translations were produced and used to make a single Japanese version. A panel of reviewers identified problems in conceptual and semantic equivalence between the original and the translated versions. The Japanese version was altered accordingly with reference to alternate Japanese forms from the original English to Japanese translations. The altered translation was again re-translated into English and problematic differences were checked. This forward-backward process was repeated until satisfactory agreement was attained. The PNSM was administered to 222 native English speakers and the PNSM-J to 1320 native Japanese speakers. Results Factor analysis and target rotation revealed a nearly identical factor structure and factor loadings of the items of the PNSM and PNSM-J between the different cultural groups. High Cronbach's alpha coefficient supported the reliability of the test scores on both versions. Conclusion The equivalence between the two scales was supported. It is suggested that the PNSM and PNSM-J are suitable tools for comparative cross-cultural studies. PMID:17371574

  16. Randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of a clinical decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis based on SV ¹H MRS: evaluation as an additional information procedure for novice radiologists.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carlos; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2014-02-01

    The results of a randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of the clinical decision support system Curiam BT are reported. We evaluated the system's feasibility and potential value as a radiological information procedure complementary to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist novice radiologists in diagnosing brain tumours using MR spectroscopy (1.5 and 3.0T). Fifty-five cases were analysed at three hospitals according to four non-exclusive diagnostic questions. Our results show that Curiam BT improved the diagnostic accuracy in all the four questions. Additionally, we discuss the findings of the users' feedback about the system, and the further work to optimize it for real environments and to conduct a large clinical trial.

  17. Survey of Japanese infertile couples' attitudes toward surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiko; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2009-09-01

    To clarify Japanese infertile couples' attitudes toward surrogacy, and analyse the results according to the contextual factors: ethical, social and medical aspects. We performed a questionnaire survey anonymously on the attitude toward gestational surrogacy and traditional surrogacy in Japanese infertile couples (103 women and 60 men) between June and August 2000. We examined the relation between the acceptability of surrogacy and the background factors (age, type of procedure, the number of clinics visited, etc.), and also analysed the woman required as each type of surrogate mother whether the presence or absence of siblings in any of the infertile couple. The rates of using gestational and traditional surrogacy if they were necessary were 17% and 7% of women, 23% and 8% of men, respectively. ART group, > or =35 years of age group and < or =2 clinics visited group as a contextual factor influenced their affirmative determinants. Approximately 70% of the infertile couples preferred anonymity as a surrogate gestational mother. Regardless of whether each partner had a full sister, these tendencies were observed. We found the contextual factors related to the acceptability of surrogacy. The ongoing deliberations toward surrogacy considering certain conditions of a concerned couple would be highly desirable.

  18. Lack of KIR4.1 autoantibodies in Japanese patients with MS and NMO

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Osamu; Sakai, Waka; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Niino, Masaaki; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Fukazawa, Toshiyuki; Kikuchi, Seiji; Fujihara, Kazuo; Matsuo, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine anti-KIR4.1 antibodies by 2 different assays in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Methods: One hundred sixty serum samples from 57 patients with MS, 40 patients with NMO/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and 50 healthy controls (all were Japanese) were tested with ELISA using a synthetic peptide of the first extracellular portion of human KIR4.1. In addition, we attempted to detect anti-KIR4.1 immunoglobulin G in the serum by the luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) with the full length of human KIR4.1 produced in a human cell line, which is highly sensitive to single or multiple epitopes. Results: We failed to detect antibodies to the peptide fragment KIR4.183–120 in any case of MS and NMO/NMOSD using ELISA. Antibodies to the recombinant full length of KIR4.1 protein were detected in only 2 patients with MS and none in the patients with NMO/NMOSD by the LIPS assay. Conclusions: We developed 2 different methods (ELISA and LIPS) to measure autoantibodies to KIR4.1 in serum. We detected anti-KIR4.1 immunoglobulin G at a very low frequency in Japanese patients with MS or NMO/NMOSD. Serologic testing for human KIR4.1-specific antibodies is unlikely to improve the diagnosis of MS or NMO/NMOSD in Japanese patients. PMID:27489866

  19. A Comparison of Maternal Care and Infant Behavior in Japanese-American, American, and Japanese Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, William; Frost, Lois

    Previous studies have shown that American mothers, in contrast to Japanese, do more lively chatting to their babies, and that as a result, the American babies have a generally higher level of vocalization and, particularly, they respond with greater amounts of happy vocalization and gross motor activity than do Japanese babies. Thus, it appears…

  20. Pretending to Be Japanese: Artistic Play in a Japanese-American Church and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2008-01-01

    With high rates of out-marriage and dwindling need for bilingual worship, Japanese-American churches face a critical question: "Why retain the Japanese part of our identity?" This article explores how one layperson (Naomi Takahashi Goto) draws from her experience as an artist, teacher, and mother to help her congregation answer this question.…

  1. Re-Examining Patriotism in Japanese Education: Analysis of Japanese Elementary School Moral Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    In 1947 the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) defined the pacifist principles for post-war Japanese education and was revised in 2006 for the first time in nearly 60 years. The revised FLE stipulates the importance of teaching love for country and region and Japanese culture and traditions with special emphasis on moral education. Today, this…

  2. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  3. Distributive Quantifier Scope in English-Japanese and Korean-Japanese Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an experimental investigation of knowledge of distributivity in nonnative (L2) Japanese learners whose first language (L1) is English or Korean. The availability of distributive scope in Japanese is modulated by word order and the semantic features of quantifiers. For English-speaking learners, these subtle interpretive…

  4. Re-Examining Patriotism in Japanese Education: Analysis of Japanese Elementary School Moral Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    In 1947 the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) defined the pacifist principles for post-war Japanese education and was revised in 2006 for the first time in nearly 60 years. The revised FLE stipulates the importance of teaching love for country and region and Japanese culture and traditions with special emphasis on moral education. Today, this…

  5. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  6. Pretending to Be Japanese: Artistic Play in a Japanese-American Church and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2008-01-01

    With high rates of out-marriage and dwindling need for bilingual worship, Japanese-American churches face a critical question: "Why retain the Japanese part of our identity?" This article explores how one layperson (Naomi Takahashi Goto) draws from her experience as an artist, teacher, and mother to help her congregation answer this question.…

  7. Vaginitis: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Quan, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Vaginitis is one of the most common ambulatory problems to occur in women. It is a disorder responsible for > 10% of visits made to providers of women's health care. Although vaginal infections are the most common cause, other considerations include cervicitis, a normal vaginal discharge, foreign-body vaginitis, contact vaginitis, atrophic vaginitis, and desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. The medical history and examination are an important source of clues to the underlying diagnosis. However, making a definitive diagnosis requires skillful performance of office laboratory procedures, including the vaginal pool wet mount examination, determination of the vaginal pH, and the whiff test. Vaginal and cervical cultures, nucleic acid tests, and point-of-care tests are available and may be required in selected patients. Once a specific diagnosis is made, effective therapy can be prescribed. Candida vaginitis is generally treated with either the vaginal administration of an imidazole or triazole antifungal agent or the prescription of oral fluconazole. Oral nitroimidazole agents, metronidazole or tinidazole, are the only effective treatments for trichomoniasis in the United States. Bacterial vaginosis, which has been linked to important gynecologic and pregnancy complications, can be treated with an available oral or topical agent containing either a nitroimidazole or clindamycin.

  8. Reprogenetics: Preimplantational genetics diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Coco, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Preimplantational Genetics Diagnosis (PGD) is requested by geneticists and reproductive specialists. Usually geneticists ask for PGD because one or both members of the couple have an increased genetic risk for having an affected offspring. On the other hand, reproductive specialists ask for embryo aneuploidy screening (PGS) to assures an euploid embryo transfer, with the purpose to achieve an ongoing pregnancy, although the couple have normal karyotypes. As embryonic aneuploidies are responsible for pre and post implantation abortions, it is logical to considerer that the screening of the embryonic aneuploidies prior to embryo transfer could improve the efficiency of the in vitro fertilization procedures. Nevertheless, it is still premature to affirm this until well-designed clinical trials were done, especially in women of advanced age where the rate of embryos with aneuploidies is much greater. Although the indications of PGD are similar to conventional prenatal diagnosis (PND), PGD has less ethical objections than the PND. As with the PGD/PGS results only unaffected embryos are transferred, both methods can avoid the decision to interrupt the pregnancy due to a genetic problem; this makes an important difference when compared to conventional prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24764761

  9. Reprogenetics: Preimplantational genetics diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Coco, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Preimplantational Genetics Diagnosis (PGD) is requested by geneticists and reproductive specialists. Usually geneticists ask for PGD because one or both members of the couple have an increased genetic risk for having an affected offspring. On the other hand, reproductive specialists ask for embryo aneuploidy screening (PGS) to assures an euploid embryo transfer, with the purpose to achieve an ongoing pregnancy, although the couple have normal karyotypes. As embryonic aneuploidies are responsible for pre and post implantation abortions, it is logical to considerer that the screening of the embryonic aneuploidies prior to embryo transfer could improve the efficiency of the in vitro fertilization procedures. Nevertheless, it is still premature to affirm this until well-designed clinical trials were done, especially in women of advanced age where the rate of embryos with aneuploidies is much greater. Although the indications of PGD are similar to conventional prenatal diagnosis (PND), PGD has less ethical objections than the PND. As with the PGD/PGS results only unaffected embryos are transferred, both methods can avoid the decision to interrupt the pregnancy due to a genetic problem; this makes an important difference when compared to conventional prenatal diagnosis.

  10. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans With Whites Surrounding World War II

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War II with homogamy and intermarriage with Whites for the prewar (1930–1940) and resettlement (1946–1966) marriage cohorts. The authors applied log-linear models to census microsamples (N = 1,590,416) to estimate the odds ratios of homogamy versus intermarriage. The unadjusted odds ratios of Japanese Americans declined between cohorts and appeared to be consistent with the assimilation hypothesis. Once compositional influences and educational pairing patterns were adjusted, however, the odds ratios increased and supported the heightened exclusion hypothesis. PMID:21116449

  11. [Cytological methods for the diagnosis of pleuritis].

    PubMed

    Grigoruk, O G; Bazulina, L M; Lazarev, A F

    2010-01-01

    Data are presented on a cytological examination of 2948 patients with pleuritis carried out during 7 years. Routine methods alongside centrifuging, cytological material staining, immunocytochemical and morphometric procedures were used. Each stage of the investigation was evaluated. Thanks to use of complex procedures, sensitivity of cytological methods for pleuritis diagnosis was raised to 95.2%, specificity--to 100%.

  12. Retinitis Pigmentosa with EYS Mutations Is the Most Prevalent Inherited Retinal Dystrophy in Japanese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yuuki; Maeda, Akiko; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Ishigami, Chie; Kosugi, Shinji; Mandai, Michiko; Kurimoto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Masayo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information about disease prevalence and to identify the responsible genes for inherited retinal dystrophies (IRD) in Japanese populations. Clinical and molecular evaluations were performed on 349 patients with IRD. For segregation analyses, 63 of their family members were employed. Bioinformatics data from 1,208 Japanese individuals were used as controls. Molecular diagnosis was obtained by direct sequencing in a stepwise fashion utilizing one or two panels of 15 and 27 genes for retinitis pigmentosa patients. If a specific clinical diagnosis was suspected, direct sequencing of disease-specific genes, that is, ABCA4 for Stargardt disease, was conducted. Limited availability of intrafamily information and decreasing family size hampered identifying inherited patterns. Differential disease profiles with lower prevalence of Stargardt disease from European and North American populations were obtained. We found 205 sequence variants in 159 of 349 probands with an identification rate of 45.6%. This study found 43 novel sequence variants. In silico analysis suggests that 20 of 25 novel missense variants are pathogenic. EYS mutations had the highest prevalence at 23.5%. c.4957_4958insA and c.8868C>A were the two major EYS mutations identified in this cohort. EYS mutations are the most prevalent among Japanese patients with IRD. PMID:26161267

  13. Are Australian Fans of Anime and Manga Motivated to Learn Japanese Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William S.; Iida, Sumiko

    2016-01-01

    Recent research into Japanese as a foreign language education has strongly emphasized the link between Japanese popular culture and learning Japanese. However, these studies have only targeted Japanese language learners in formal education contexts and have largely ignored those who are not studying Japanese or studying Japanese informally. This…

  14. Are Australian Fans of Anime and Manga Motivated to Learn Japanese Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William S.; Iida, Sumiko

    2016-01-01

    Recent research into Japanese as a foreign language education has strongly emphasized the link between Japanese popular culture and learning Japanese. However, these studies have only targeted Japanese language learners in formal education contexts and have largely ignored those who are not studying Japanese or studying Japanese informally. This…

  15. Adult perceptions of phonotactic violations in Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, Laurel; Kajikawa, Sachiyo; Werker, Janet; Amano, Shigeaki

    2004-05-01

    Adult Japanese speakers ``hear'' epenthetic vowels in productions of Japanese-like words that violate the canonical CVCVCV form by containing internal consonant clusters (CVCCV) [Dupoux et al., J. Exp. Psychol. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. Given this finding, this research examined how Japanese adults rated the goodness of Japanese-like words produced without a vowel in the final syllable (CVC), and words produced without vowels in the penultimate and final syllables (CVCC). Furthermore, in some of these contexts, voiceless vowels may appear in fluent, casual Japanese productions, especially in the Kanto dialect, and in some, such voiceless vowels may not appear. Results indicate that both Kanto and Kinki speakers rated CVC productions for contexts in which voiceless vowels are not allowed as the worst; they rated CVC and CVCC contexts in which voiceless vowel productions are allowed as better. In these latter contexts, the CVC words, which result from the loss of one, final, vowel, are judged to be better than the CVCC words, which result from the loss of two (final and penultimate) vowels. These results mirror the relative seriousness of the phonotactic violations and indicate listeners have tacit knowledge of these regularities in their language.

  16. Adult perceptions of phonotactic violations in Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, Laurel; Kajikawa, Sachiyo; Werker, Janet; Amano, Shigeaki

    2001-05-01

    Adult Japanese speakers ``hear'' epenthetic vowels in productions of Japanese-like words that violate the canonical CVCVCV form by containing internal consonant clusters (CVCCV) [Dupoux et al., J. Exp. Psychol. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. Given this finding, this research examined how Japanese adults rated the goodness of Japanese-like words produced without a vowel in the final syllable (CVC), and words produced without vowels in the penultimate and final syllables (CVCC). Furthermore, in some of these contexts, voiceless vowels may appear in fluent, casual Japanese productions, especially in the Kanto dialect, and in some, such voiceless vowels may not appear. Results indicate that both Kanto and Kinki speakers rated CVC productions for contexts in which voiceless vowels are not allowed as the worst; they rated CVC and CVCC contexts in which voiceless vowel productions are allowed as better. In these latter contexts, the CVC words, which result from the loss of one, final, vowel, are judged to be better than the CVCC words, which result from the loss of two (final and penultimate) vowels. These results mirror the relative seriousness of the phonotactic violations and indicate listeners have tacit knowledge of these regularities in their language.

  17. [Prenatal diagnosis using chorionic villi].

    PubMed

    Vega Hernández, M E; Hicks, J J; González-Angulo, J

    1991-07-01

    Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) has a promising future about early detection of fetal abnormalities. It has the potential to become a major tool in the prenatal diagnosis and therapy of genetic disorders. Villus samples can be analyzed by means of cytogenetic, biochemical or molecular technics. Information available at present indicates fetal loss rate should be in the same proportion than amniocentesis. CVS appears to be a reasonably safe and reliable method of prenatal diagnosis in the first trimester of pregnancy. This procedure is setting as fast as it is possible like an excellent alternative to amniocentesis.

  18. [Identification and diagnosis of three novel mutations in SLC25A13 gene of neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency].

    PubMed

    Song, Yuan-zong; Sheng, Jian-sheng; Ushikai, Miharu; Hwu, Wuh-liang; Zhang, Chun-hua; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2008-06-01

    Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD, OMIM #605814) is a novel autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the gene SLC25A13 that encodes for citrin, a liver-type aspartate/glutamate carrier located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. SLC25A13 was cloned in 1999 by Kobayashi et al at Kagoshima University in Japan, and until now, most of the NICCD patients reported in the world were Japanese. Most of the Chinese NICCD patients diagnosed by genetic analysis had the same SLC25A13 mutations as Japanese, however, in some cases, known mutations were not detected. This research aimed to identify novel SLC25A13 mutations in Chinese NICCD patients and to explore the experimental conditions for their genetic diagnosis. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 3 NICCD patients from Taiwan (P757), Guangdong (P1194) and Hebei province (P1443) of China, respectively, and all the 18 exons and their flanking sequences of SLC25A13 gene were sequenced. Furthermore, the identified novel mutations were diagnosed by amplification with PCR, digestion with corresponding restriction endonuclease, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Three novel mutations identified in SLC25A13 gene of the 3 NICCD patients were an abnormal splicing IVS7-2A > G (P757), a missense A541D (c.1622C > A, P1194) and a nonsense R319X (c.955C > T, P1443). The PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) procedures for their genetic diagnosis were also established, with specific fragments on electrophoresis after digestion of the PCR products with three different restriction endonucleases Msp I, Hpy188I and Taq I, respectively. So far as we know, the three novel mutations in SLC25A13 gene of Chinese NICCD patients were first identified, suggesting that SLC25A13 mutation distributed in Chinese population is somewhat different from that in Japanese. Moreover, the PCR-RFLP diagnostic procedures established in this research provide valuable tools not only for the genetic

  19. The Korean-Japanese Territorial Dispute Over Dokdo/Takeshima

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    176 Bernard S. Silberman and Harry D. Harootunian, eds., Modern Japanese Leadership (Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona...21 (1998): 1606- 1646. Silberman , Bernard S. and Harry D. Harootunian, eds. Modern Japanese Leadership. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press

  20. Beliefs about Overcoming Psychological Problems among British and Japanese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Ota, Hiromi; Tatsuro, Hosoe; Koyasu, Masuo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the cultural differences among Japanese students, British students, and Japanese students studying in Britain, concerning their beliefs on overcoming five psychological problems: depression, obesity, smoking cessation, agoraphobia, and lack of confidence. (CMK)

  1. 3. View of Japanese village, type C structure, facing eastsoutheast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Japanese village, type C structure, facing east-southeast - Nevada Test Site, Japanese Village, Type C Structure, Area 4, Yucca Flat, 4-04 Road near Rainier Mesa Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  2. Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... org/ vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious infection caused by the Japanese ... long periods of time. • Most people infected with JE virus don’t have any symptoms. Others might ...

  3. A Novel Mutation in a Japanese Family with X-linked Alport Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Yoshifusa; Iyoda, Masayuki; Nozu, Kandai; Hibino, Satoshi; Hihara, Kei; Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Yamamura, Tomohiko; Minamikawa, Shogo; Iijima, Kazumoto; Shibata, Takanori; Itabashi, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a novel mutation in a Japanese family with an X-linked Alport syndrome (AS) mutation in COL4A5. Patient 1 was a 2-year-old Japanese girl. She and her mother (patient 2) had a history of proteinuria and hematuria without renal dysfunction, deafness, or ocular abnormalities. Pathological findings were consistent with AS, and a genetic analysis revealed that both patients had a heterozygous mutation (c.2767G>C) in exon 32. In summary, the identification of mutations and characteristic pathological findings was useful in making a diagnosis of AS. For a close long-term follow-up, the early detection and treatment of women with X-linked AS are important. PMID:27725546

  4. Granular cell tumor of the common bile duct: A Japanese case

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Junko; Kitagawa, Michiko; Kusanagi, Hiroshi; Kano, Nobuyasu; Ishii, Eiji; Nakaji, So; Hirata, Nobuto; Hoshi, Kazuei

    2012-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the biliary system is rare. It is reported that it occurs more commonly in young black women. We report here our seldom experience of a Japanese case in whom icterus was found as a first symptom just after a caesarean operation. A 36-year-old Japanese woman developed icterus after delivery by the Caesarean operation. A surgical operation was performed without can deny that there was a tumor-related change in a bile duct as a result of examination for various images. As a result of pathological evaluation, GCT was diagnosed. By the preoperative organization biomicroscopy result, it was not able to be attachd a right diagnosis. It was thought that this tumor, although rare, should be considered as one of the causes of biliary stenosis in the younger population. PMID:23180955

  5. [Japanese cedar pollen in house dust].

    PubMed

    Enomoto, T; Ohnishi, S; Dake, Y; Sakoda, T; Saitoh, Y; Sogo, H; Seno, S; Fujiki, Y; Fujimura, S

    2001-06-01

    Caring for oneself against Japanese cedar pollinosis is important as well as receiving medical-care. Although the importance of avoiding pollen is described in the guideline for nasal allergy medical treatment, however, there is no information for effective dust cleaning for the home. This study examined how many cedar pollens were included in indoor dust in order to obtain basic data whether dust removal for cedar pollen is available for pollinosis suffers. As a result, the study found that there were many Japanese cedar pollens in indoor dust even before the pollen season. Cedar pollen increased with the increasing number of airborne pollen. The highest number of pollen found in one week was approximately 450 pollens in a square meter of a living room floor. The study concluded that cleaning is one of the best way to remove Japanese cedar pollens found in indoor dust.

  6. An Analysis of Japanese Medical Periodicals

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Mayumi

    1965-01-01

    Medical periodicals published in Japan were studied by analyzing the journals abstracted in Igaku Chuo Zasshi (ICZ), the most comprehensive abstracting service for Japanese medical journal articles. Since the inauguration of medical periodicals in 1869, the number of journals has increased remarkably. In 1963 ICZ abstracted 1,074 journals published in Japan (960 in Japanese and 114 in other languages). Of these 1,074 titles, 855 were on medical sciences, of which 740 were substantive. A subject analysis of the substantive journals in ICZ, as compared to the 124 Japanese journals currently indexed in Index Medicus, was also made. Data were presented relating the number of periodicals to the size of the medical scene in Japan and the United States, and it was pointed out that good control of the literature, by whatever methods, requires a knowledge of the extent of the publications. PMID:14223738

  7. [Diagnosis, pathomechanism and treatment of CADASIL].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Toshiki

    2012-01-01

    During the past 10 years, our understanding of the pathomechanism and pathophysiology of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) has improved through clinical examination, imaging studies, pathological studies, cell experiments and the development of transgenic mice. Although epidemiological studies of CADASIL in Japan have been limited, more than 100 cases of this condition have been diagnosed in Japan. In our laboratory, we diagnosed 37 CADASIL cases genetically and identified three features common to Japanese cases. One is the wide distribution of onset age for clinical symptoms other than migraine, with the onset of symptoms being later than age 60 in 22% of cases. Second, the majority (65%) of Japanese CADASIL cases have stroke risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or smoking. Third, in 22% cases there was no definite family history of stroke. However, the previous diagnostic criteria proposed by Dabous excluded several definite cases in our cohort. Therefore, to avoid missing undiagnosed cases of CADASIL, we have generated new diagnostic criteria for Japanese CADASIL based on the knowledge accumulated during the past 10 years, and compared sensitivity of two criteria. In our diagnosed Japanese CADASIL cases, the sensitivity of the new criteria was 19% and 78% for probable and possible cases, respectively, and only one case was (Fig. 3) missed when using the new criteria. In comparison, the sensitivity of Dabous's was 11% and 51% for probable and possible cases, respectively, and 24% cases were excluded due to hypertension, elderly onset or no family history, although these cases showed recurrent strokes, white matter lesions and NOTCH3 mutations. Using our new criteria, diagnosis of CADASIL can be made even in cases with elderly onset, stroke risk factors, and obscure family history.

  8. Evaluating Japanese patients with the Marfan syndrome using high-throughput microarray-based mutational analysis of fibrillin-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Naomi; Imai, Yasushi; Takahashi, Yuji; Nawata, Kan; Hara, Kazuo; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Kato, Masayoshi; Takeda, Norifumi; Kohro, Takahide; Morita, Hiroyuki; Taketani, Tsuyoshi; Morota, Tetsuro; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Goto, Jun; Tsuji, Shoji; Takamoto, Shinichi; Nagai, Ryozo; Hirata, Yasunobu

    2011-12-15

    Marfan syndrome (MS) is an inherited connective tissue disorder, and detailed evaluations of multiple organ systems are required for its diagnosis. Genetic testing of the disease-causing fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1) is also important in this diagnostic scheme. The aim of this study was to define the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with MS and enable the efficient and accurate diagnosis of MS with mutational analysis using a high-throughput microarray-based resequencing system. Fifty-three Japanese probands were recruited, and their clinical characteristics were evaluated using the Ghent criteria. For mutational analysis, an oligonucleotide microarray was designed to interrogate FBN1, and the entire exon and exon-intron boundaries of FBN1 were sequenced. Clinical evaluation revealed more pulmonary phenotypes and fewer skeletal phenotypes in Japanese patients with MS compared to Caucasians. The microarray-based resequencing system detected 35 kinds of mutations, including 23 new mutations. The mutation detection rate for patients who fulfilled the Ghent criteria reached 71%. Of note, splicing mutations accounted for 19% of all mutations, which is more than previously reported. In conclusion, this comprehensive approach successfully detected clinical phenotypes of Japanese patients with MS and demonstrated the usefulness and feasibility of this microarray-based high-throughput resequencing system for mutational analysis of MS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Italy-Japan agreement and discrepancies in diagnosis of superficial gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Vindigni, Carla; Marini, Mario; Cevenini, Gabriele; Raffaella Ambrosio, Maria; Onorati, Monica; Frosini, Giorgio; Gotoda, Takuji; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Tosi, Piero

    2010-01-01

    The agreement between Italian and Japanese endoscopists and pathologists on endoscopic and histopathological diagnoses of superficial gastric lesions is verified with the use of Paris and Vienna classifications. The correlations between Paris endoscopic types and Vienna histopathological categories is high in both the independent Italian and Japanese evaluations. However, the agreement between Italian and Japanese endoscopists is moderate due to the difficult evaluation of the height of the lesions, in particular when they are mixed. The agreement on the size of the lesions is fairly good. The probability of the same allocation to the Vienna categories of a single case is 87 per cent, disagreements remaining in dysplasia grading, between dysplasia, not only high-grade but also low-grade, and in situ carcinoma, and on cancer invasion of the lamina propria. The results indicate that use of the Paris and Vienna classifications has reduced the discrepancies between Western and Japanese endoscopists and pathologists in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  10. Cheilitis Glandularis: Two Case Reports of Asian-Japanese Men and Literature Review of Japanese Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Toru; Yamaguchi, Akira; Harada, Hiroyuki; Yamagata, Kenji; Ishibashi, Naomi; Noguchi, Masayuki; Onizawa, Kojiro; Bukawa, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Cheilitis glandularis (CG) is a rare disorder characterized by swelling of the lip with hyperplasia of the labial salivary glands. CG is most frequently encountered in the lower lip, in middle-aged to older Caucasian men; however Asian cases were rarely reported. In this paper we present two cases of CG in Asian-Japanese men. One was a 23-year-old male with CG of the superficial suppurative type. The other was a 54-year-old male with deep suppurative type. We also reviewed the Japanese cases of CG in the literature and discussed about clinical feature of Japanese CG. PMID:21991474

  11. Pulmonary histoplasmosis in a Japanese male: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Murayama, F; Yamaguchi, T; Hasegawa, T; Sohara, Y; Fuse, K; Fujii, T; Saito, K

    1998-01-01

    A case of pulmonary histoplasmosis, which is rare in Japan, is reported herein. A 43-year-old man who had worked in Mexico for 2 years and had come back to Japan 3 months earlier, presented at our hospital because of an abnormal shadow on his chest roentogenogram with no symptoms. His chest roentogenogram as well as chest computed tomograms revealed a 2-cm-diameter nodule in the anterior basal segment of his right lung and an enlargement of the subcarinal lymph node. Although these pictures seemed to indicate an advanced lung cancer, no malignant cells were found based on the brushing cytology findings after bronchoscopy. An exploratory thoracoscopic tumor resection and biopsy of the enlarged lymph node led to a histological diagnosis of an abscess due to histoplasma. The hospital course was uneventful. Postoperatively, amphotericin B was administered for 1 year. This is the eighth case of pulmonary histoplasmosis reported in Japan. A pulmonary nodule together with mediastinal lymphoadenopathy seems to be characteristic in these patients. Histoplasmosis should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis, since overseas travel has now become common-place for the Japanese.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Buntzen, Steen; Christensen, Peter; Khalid, Ali; Ljungmann, Ken; Lindholt, Jan; Lundby, Lilli; Walker, Line Rossell; Raahave, Dennis; Qvist, Niels

    2013-12-01

    These guidelines provide a review of diagnosis, conservative and surgical treatment of haemorrhoids with primary focus on the surgical treatment. In symptomatic hemorrhoids it is recommended, that conservative treatment is used as basic treatment regardless of grading. The vast majority of grade II haemorrhoids are treated conservatively, but surgery may be considered in a few cases with pronounced symptoms. In these cases chirurgia minor, Doppler guided dearterilization procedures or stapled haemorrhoidopexy are recommended. In grade III and IV Doppler guided dearterilization procedures, stapled haemorrhoidopexy (Grade III) or conventional Milligan Morgan haemorrhoidectomy are recommended.

  13. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...

  14. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  15. Teaching about Japanese-American Internment. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary

    The Japanese-American internment experience during World War II continues to affect the Japanese-American community. This ERIC Digest provides six suggestions for teaching about the Japanese-American internment, touching on civil rights, immigration, the media, "loyalty," redress and reparations, and primary and secondary sources.…

  16. Japanese College Students' Attitudes towards Japan English and American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated contemporary Japanese college students' attitudes towards Japan English (JE) and American English (AE) through a verbal guise test (VGT) as well as a questionnaire. Forty-four Japanese college students listened to four Japanese and four North Americans reading a text in English, rated them in terms of solidarity-related…

  17. Factor Structure of Japanese Versions of Two Emotional Intelligence Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuda, Eriko; Saklofske, Donald H.; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Fung, Tak Shing; Miyaoka, Yayoi; Kiyama, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the psychometric properties of two emotional intelligence measures translated into Japanese. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the factor structure of a Japanese version of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) completed by 310 Japanese university students. A second study employed CFA…

  18. Eating Attitudes among Japanese and American Elementary Schoolgirls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Takayo; McCloskey, Laura A.

    1996-01-01

    Examined familial and peer correlates of eating attitudes in 38 American and 70 Japanese preadolescent girls. Responses showed correlates of eating attitudes shared by American and Japanese girls were self-perception of being overweight, number of friends dieting, and frequency of talking with mother about food and diet. Japanese girls were more…

  19. Japanese Higher Education Policy in Korea (1910-1945).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2002-01-01

    Examines the impact of Japanese nationalistic thought on the administrative systems and structures of colonial and modern higher education in Korea and analyzes Japanese educational policy in Korea in the colonial period (1910-1945). Identifies beneficial and negative impacts of the Japanese colonial education system. (SLD)

  20. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  1. Kids Explore America's Japanese American Heritage. Westridge Young Writers Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County School District R-1, Denver, CO.

    This book was written by 94 students, aged 8-14, at Westridge Elementary School (Littleton, Colorado) during a summer enrichment class. The book was written for anyone who wants to learn about Japanese-American culture and heritage. Chapter 1 gives an overview of Japanese history before American contact, the immigration of Japanese to America, the…

  2. The Japanese Model of Professional Development: Teaching as Craft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimahara, N. Ken

    1998-01-01

    Discusses Japanese teacher professional development strategies, which are driven by a peer-based model using peer collaboration, planning, and management, exploring how the Japanese perspective of teaching as craft contributes to elementary professional development. Critical issues inherent in the Japanese model are discussed, noting its basic…

  3. Classroom Management for Teachers of Japanese and Other Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Elaine K.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the classroom management component of the Professional Development of Japanese Teachers of Texas (PDJT), a certification program for teachers of Japanese. In addition, it offers suggestions in classroom management for teachers of Japanese and other foreign languages as well as guidance for teacher trainers to help new…

  4. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  5. The Asian American Employment Market: The Japanese Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Kazuo

    The Japanese Americans are numerically the largest of all the Asian American ethnic groups. In contrast to the other Asian American groups in the United States, the Japanese Americans are predominantly native born. Although first and second generation Japanese Americans had been subject to intense employment discrimination before World War II and…

  6. Offers and Requests: Performance by Japanese Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Saeko

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of native and nonnative (Japanese) English speakers' expressions for offers and requests found that Japanese subjects were typically too direct in most situations and sounded rude, even when they intended to be polite. This suggests that the pragmatic competence of Japanese learners of English needs to be reinforced in language…

  7. Factor Structure of Japanese Versions of Two Emotional Intelligence Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuda, Eriko; Saklofske, Donald H.; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Fung, Tak Shing; Miyaoka, Yayoi; Kiyama, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the psychometric properties of two emotional intelligence measures translated into Japanese. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the factor structure of a Japanese version of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) completed by 310 Japanese university students. A second study employed CFA…

  8. Social Influence Strategies among Japanese and American College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Kerri F.; Cowan, Gloria

    1993-01-01

    Compares social influence strategies of 40 Japanese and 41 U.S. college women for various targets. Free responses indicate that Japanese women use strong and neutral strategies more frequently and weak strategies less frequently than U.S. women. U.S. women use manipulation more frequently and reasoning less frequently than Japanese women. (SLD)

  9. Generational Differences in Japanese Attitudes toward Women's Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Traditional ideals discourage Japanese women from working outside the home. This study was conducted to explore generational differences in Japanese attitudes toward women's employment and to interpret those differences in terms of social change. Questionnaires were distributed to approximately 900 Japanese men and women. Subjects were classified…

  10. Eating Attitudes among Japanese and American Elementary Schoolgirls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Takayo; McCloskey, Laura A.

    1996-01-01

    Examined familial and peer correlates of eating attitudes in 38 American and 70 Japanese preadolescent girls. Responses showed correlates of eating attitudes shared by American and Japanese girls were self-perception of being overweight, number of friends dieting, and frequency of talking with mother about food and diet. Japanese girls were more…

  11. Kids Explore America's Japanese American Heritage. Westridge Young Writers Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County School District R-1, Denver, CO.

    This book was written by 94 students, aged 8-14, at Westridge Elementary School (Littleton, Colorado) during a summer enrichment class. The book was written for anyone who wants to learn about Japanese-American culture and heritage. Chapter 1 gives an overview of Japanese history before American contact, the immigration of Japanese to America, the…

  12. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  13. The Asian American Employment Market: The Japanese Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Kazuo

    The Japanese Americans are numerically the largest of all the Asian American ethnic groups. In contrast to the other Asian American groups in the United States, the Japanese Americans are predominantly native born. Although first and second generation Japanese Americans had been subject to intense employment discrimination before World War II and…

  14. The Anatomy of the Hara: Japanese Self in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Merry I.; Taniuchi, Lois K.

    Because Japanese society has traditionally emphasized the group rather than the individual, less research has been done to understand how Japanese culture conceptualizes the individual and how that individual develops within the society. This paper focuses on the individual in Japanese society. Following an introduction (Section I), Section II…

  15. Mutual Images: Americans and Japanese in TV Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Yayoi; And Others

    To explore the portrayals of Americans in Japanese television commercials and Japanese in American television commercials, and how those portrayals are perceived by each nationality, a two-part study examined 745 American commercials and 956 Japanese commercials. Researchers first coded the number of American males and females who appeared in the…

  16. Offers and Requests: Performance by Japanese Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Saeko

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of native and nonnative (Japanese) English speakers' expressions for offers and requests found that Japanese subjects were typically too direct in most situations and sounded rude, even when they intended to be polite. This suggests that the pragmatic competence of Japanese learners of English needs to be reinforced in language…

  17. Joint Japanese-American Conference on Sociolinguistics. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorden, Eleanor H.

    This final substantive report includes the working papers presented by the American and Japanese participants, notes on discussions, a summary of an address by William Labov, and draft proposals for joint sociolinguistic research. The working papers involve several sociolinguistic issues in Japanese-American and Japanese culture. The American…

  18. Japanese College Students' Attitudes towards Japan English and American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated contemporary Japanese college students' attitudes towards Japan English (JE) and American English (AE) through a verbal guise test (VGT) as well as a questionnaire. Forty-four Japanese college students listened to four Japanese and four North Americans reading a text in English, rated them in terms of solidarity-related…

  19. Japanese and American Cross-Cultural Business Pragmatics: A Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, H. Julie; Cramer, Peter K.; Kojima, Toshihisa

    A study examined the extent to which culture-specific traits persist or change in American and Japanese business people who interact in business. Data were drawn from 13 interviews with both Japanese and American employees of Japanese companies. Interviewees were asked about their perceptions or stereotypes of people from the other culture before…

  20. Ovarian cancer: the neglected diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Barbara P; Barrette, Brigitte A; Wollan, Peter C

    2004-10-01

    To investigate presenting signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer and stage of tumor in a community cohort of women with the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of all women who sought primary and specialty care in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1997, to evaluate presenting symptoms, time from first symptom to diagnosis of ovarian cancer, and stage of tumor at diagnosis. Of 107 women with a diagnosis of ovarian cancer, the most commonly documented presenting symptom was crampy abdominal pain. Urinary symptoms and abdominal pain were the most commonly documented presenting symptom in patients with stage I and II ovarian cancers, whereas abdominal pain and increased abdominal girth were the most commonly documented symptoms in patients with stage III and IV cancer. Approximately 15% of tumors (n = 15) were found during routine evaluations or during a procedure for another problem. Less than 25% of presenting symptoms (n = 24 women) related directly to the pelvis or were more traditional gynecologic symptoms. Delays in women seeking medical care, health care system issues, competing medical conditions, physicians' failure to follow up, and women not returning for follow-up were associated with longer time to diagnosis. Both stage I and II cancer are associated with symptoms, but few symptoms are directly related to the reproductive pelvic organs or unique to ovarian cancer. A longer interval from first sign or symptom to diagnosis of ovarian cancer is associated with both patient and health care system factors.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of Japanese posttraumatic stress measures after a complex disaster: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuriko; Yabe, Hirooki; Horikoshi, Naoko; Yasumura, Seiji; Kawakami, Norito; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Maeda, Masaharu

    2017-03-01

    The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) has been widely used among traumatized populations to screen people with PTSD; however, the Japanese version of the PCL has yet to be validated. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of the Japanese version PCL-Specific (PCL-S) and the abbreviated versions of the PCL-S among the evacuees of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Fifty-one participants were recruited from an evacuee and clinical sample. The PCL-S, Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview were administered. Screening properties of the PCL-S, IES-R, and abbreviated PCL-S against PTSD diagnosis, including sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic efficiency, were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn, and optimal cutoff points were examined. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic efficiency of the PCL-S were 66.7%, 84.9%, and 79.2%, respectively (at 52, the area under the curve was 0.83). The cutoff point method for the PCL-S performed better than did the symptom cluster method. The screening properties of the abbreviated versions were comparable with those of the full version. The Japanese version of the PCL-S showed moderate diagnostic accuracy and improved performance over the IES-R for PTSD diagnosis based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. The Japanese version of the PCL-S was a reliable and valid measure, and its diagnostic accuracy was reasonable for both full and abbreviated versions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Telescience testbed result for Japanese experiment module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Higuchi, K.; Kimura, H.; Takeda, N.; Matsubara, S.; Izumita, M.; Toyama, Y.; Kato, M.; Kato, H.

    1990-10-01

    The first telescience testbed experiments for the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the Space Station Freedom, conducted after the three year studies of its system requirements, are described. Three experiment themes of the First Material Processing Test (FMPT) of the Japanese Spacelab Mission are chosen for estimating communications requirements between the JEM and a ground station. A paper folding experiment is used to examine instruction aspects of onboard manual processing and onboard coaching. More than 10 principal investigators partipated in the experiments and were requested to answer a rating questionnaire for data acquisition. The results extracted from the questionnaire are summarized.

  3. Homicide attempt with a Japanese samurai sword.

    PubMed

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Geraut, Annie; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2003-07-01

    The use of Japanese swords for homicidal attempts is rare. A Japanese samurai sword is a sharp and cutting object. When faced with the use of this weapon, one must distinguish between stabs and incised wounds. Incised wounds can rarely lead to death, but because of the size of the weapon, stabs usually cause much more serious injuries. Stabs also imply a penetrating movement, whereas incised wounds can be the consequence of protective circular blows. Therefore, it is important to distinguish clinically between these two kinds of wounds. We report a case where the perpetrator argued he had given a circular blow, unfortunately hitting the victim. The pieces of evidence are discussed.

  4. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P < 0.0001). When stratified by age, the prevalence was highest among young patients, and tended to decrease in patients aged 50 years or older. The anti-East-Asian CagA-specific antibody was negative in 99.4% of H. pylori-positive Mongolian patients. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia scores were significantly lower in Mongolian compared to Japanese H. pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001), with the exception of the intestinal

  5. Adoption of radio-frequency identification to establish traceability in Taiwanese eel exported to the Japanese market.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Shu-Ching; Wu, Chun-Lung; Yang, I-Da

    2013-01-01

    Eel culture and export to the Japanese market is an important industry in Taiwan; however, the average amount produced by each farm is small. Eels from different farms might be mixed before export, making it difficult to determine which farm is responsible for eels containing drug residues. Therefore, the Taiwanese government uses a two-stage procedure of inspection and accreditation for validating the use of good practice in aquaculture farming. Nevertheless, it is still difficult to trace any farm that has produced eels containing drug residues. Radio-frequency identification has the potential to establish traceability in eel products. Here we suggest that Japanese eel importers should insist on the use of radio-frequency identification by Taiwanese eel exporters to enable verification of the safety of eel products being exported to the Japanese market.

  6. [Chronic surplus of Japanese cardiac surgeon--ideal nurse practitioner for cardiac surgery, cardiac surgeon's attitude toward the future].

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Hirohisa

    2014-03-01

    It is chronically surplus of doctors in the world of cardiac surgery. There are too many cardiac surgeons because cardiac surgery requires a large amount of manpower resources to provide adequate medical services. Many Japanese cardiac surgeons do not have enough opportunity to perform cardiac surgery operations, and many Japanese cardiac surgery residents do not have enough opportunity to learn cardiac surgery operations. There are physician assistants and nurse practitioners in the US. Because they provide a part of medical care to cardiac surgery patients, American cardiac surgeons can focus more energy on operative procedures. Introduction of cardiac surgery specialized nurse practitioner is essential to deliver a high quality medical service as well as to solve chronic problems that Japanese cardiac surgery has had for a long time.

  7. Laboratory diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Webster, H L

    1983-01-01

    The demonstration of abnormally high concentrations of electrolytes in eccrine sweat is still the only practical laboratory procedure available for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Properly performed, the sweat test is very reliable, but there are many published reports that all of the methods in current use frequently generate incorrect diagnoses. Analysis of potential for error in sweat test methods shows that of the three essential phases involved, stimulation, collection, and analysis, the major cause of intrinsic inaccuracy occurs in the collection process. In this case the problem is due to condensate formation, which leads to the subsequent analysis of nonrepresentative sweat. Human error is also an important cause of false results and is a direct function of the number of critical manual operations involved in the technic. This review provides a critical examination of sweat test methods, identifying problem areas and suggesting ways to improve procedures in the interests of clinically reliable laboratory data in support of diagnosis.

  8. The first report on human cases serologically diagnosed as Japanese encephalitis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Igarashi, A; Suwendra, P; Inada, K; Maha, M S; Kari, K; Suda, H; Antonio, M T; Arhana, B N; Takikawa, Y; Maesawa, S; Yoshida, H; Chiba, M

    1999-12-01

    Although Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus was isolated from mosquitos in 1974, human JE cases have never been reported in Indonesia in spite of the prevalence of anti-JE antibodies among human and pig populations as well as abundant JE vector mosquitos. In this report, we describe serological diagnosis of JE cases in Bali. Indonesia. using IgM-capture ELISA both on serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the patients. In the first series of our investigation (Series 1), we examined serum specimens from 12 patients with clinical diagnosis of viral encephalitis, meningitis or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and found 2 possible JE cases. In the next series (Series 2), we examined both serum and CSF from encephalitis patients and gave laboratory diagnosis of JE. One of them was suspected to have concomitant or recent infection with dengue virus, probably type 3. These results strongly indicated that JE has been prevalent in Bali, Indonesia.

  9. The Concept of Learning Japanese: Explaining Why Successful Students of Japanese Discontinue Japanese Studies at the Transition to Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, Ryoko; Harvey, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Student attrition and falling tertiary education enrolments afflict languages education across the "inner circle" English speaking world. In the southern hemisphere, in New Zealand and Australia, Japanese has become one of the most successful languages of education. However, numbers of students are now declining. This paper examines why…

  10. Non-Native Japanese Listeners' Perception of Vowel Length Contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukada, Kimiko

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the perception of short vs. long vowel contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) by four groups of listeners differing in their linguistic backgrounds: native Arabic (NA), native Japanese (NJ), non-native Japanese (NNJ) and Australian English (OZ) speakers. The NNJ and OZ groups shared the first language…

  11. Non-Native Japanese Listeners' Perception of Vowel Length Contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukada, Kimiko

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the perception of short vs. long vowel contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) by four groups of listeners differing in their linguistic backgrounds: native Arabic (NA), native Japanese (NJ), non-native Japanese (NNJ) and Australian English (OZ) speakers. The NNJ and OZ groups shared the first language…

  12. ADHD: Is Objective Diagnosis Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lynda G.

    2005-01-01

    Although attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common cognitive disorders, the usual diagnostic procedures pursued by psychiatrists, neurologists, pediatricians, and family practitioners are based largely, if not exclusively, on subjective assessments of perceived behavior. The recommended approaches to ADHD diagnosis are reviewed, first from the perspective of the various expert panels, and then from the research literature upon which those recommendations are based. The authors agree that ADHD is a clinical diagnosis, and that the assessment of subjective reports can be systematic. But they propose that objective data should also contribute to the clinical diagnosis of ADHD; and that new computerized assessment technology can generate objective cognitive data in an efficient and cost-effective way. Computerized tests can also improve the assessment of treatment response over time. PMID:21120096

  13. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were examined and compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were positively related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother object-oriented behaviors were positively related only among European Americans. In all groups, infant and mother behaviors within each modality were mutually contingent. Culture moderated lead-lag relations: Japanese infants were more likely than their mothers to respond in object-oriented interactions, European American mothers were more likely than their infants to respond in person-oriented interactions. Japanese American dyads behaved more like European American dyads. Interaction, infant effects, and parent socialization findings are set in cultural and accultural models of transactions between young infants and their mothers. PMID:22860874

  14. The Japanese science education centers.

    PubMed

    Glass, B

    1966-10-14

    These six Japanese science education centers signify a sweeping reform of elementary and secondary school science teaching. They achieve their striking results because they are established on a permanent, local basis and are supported mainly by the local boards of education. They have avoided control by pedagogues and specialists in "education." Instead, they are operated by trained scientists and experienced school teachers who work together to devise programs specially suited to the needs of their teachers. With small and practicable steps, the teachers improve their understanding of methods which they can readily test in their own classrooms rooms and laboratories. The laboratory equipment in the science education centers is only slightly superior to that which the teachers have in their own schools, but superior enough to make them desire to improve their own facilities. Major facilities, such as x-ray machines, electron microscopes, telescopes (15-cm), and machine shops, as well as good working collections of minerals and fossils, and adequate greenhouses, permit the teachers to work with more expensive equipment, to gain a firsthand knowledge of its operation, and to bring groups of students to the center to observe what such instruments make possible. The use of American experimental course content improvement programs is widespread. Every science education center I visited is using PSSC, CHEMS, CBA, BSCS, or ESCP materials and studying the philosophy of these programs. Yet no center is entirely dependent on these programs, but uses them critically to supplement and improve its own courses. The emphasis is on good laboratory and field teaching as a basis for understanding scientific methods and concepts. Science as investigation and inquiry, instead of treatment solely as an authoritative body of facts, is coming into its own. The few defects of the science education centers of Japan inhere in the educational situation itself. The centers are at present

  15. Association of Japanese dietary pattern with serum adiponectin concentration in Japanese adult men.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Niu, K; Monma, H; Kobayashi, Y; Guan, L; Sato, M; Minamishima, D; Nagatomi, R

    2012-03-01

    Although previous studies suggest that the traditional Japanese dietary pattern is independently associated with a low cardiovascular disease mortality risk, the mechanisms mediating or linking this association are not well understood. Adiponectin has emerged as a valuable biomarker for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with serum adiponectin concentration in Japanese adult men. We designed a cross-sectional study of 702 men (median [interquartile range] age, 44.5 [37.8-54.2] years) living in Japan. Dietary consumption was assessed via a 75-item food frequency questionnaire. We used principal-components analysis to derive 3 major dietary patterns-"Japanese", "sweets-fruits" and, "Izakaya (Japanese Pub)"- from 39 food groups. Serum adiponectin concentration was measured by using a specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After adjustment for potential confounders, the geometric mean (95% confidence interval) for log-transformed adiponectin concentration associated with "Japanese" dietary pattern factor score tertiles were 5.24 (4.84-5.69) for the lowest tertile, 5.82 (5.39-6.29) for the middle tertile, and 5.95 (5.47-6.46) for the highest tertile (P for trend <0.01). In contrast, a significant inverse association was found between the "Izakaya" pattern factor score tertiles and adiponectin concentration (P for trend = 0.03). Greater adherence to the "Japanese" dietary pattern was independently associated to a higher serum adiponectin concentration in Japanese adult men. This finding supports the hypothesis that the traditional Japanese diet may have a potentially beneficial effect on adiponectin concentrations. A long-term prospective study or randomized trials are required to clarify this causality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ross, S.A.; Novak, Z.; Pati, S.; Boppana, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is recognized as the most common congenital viral infection in humans and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. This recognition of the clinical importance of invasive CMV disease in the setting of immunodeficiency and in children with congenital CMV infection has led to the development of new diagnostic procedures for the rapid identification of immunocompromised individuals with CMV disease, as well as fetuses and infants with congenital infection. Diagnosis of acute maternal CMV infection by the presence of IgM and low IgG avidity requires confirmation of fetal infection which is typically performed by CMV PCR of the amniotic fluid. Viral culture of the urine and saliva obtained within the first two weeks of life continue to be the gold standard for diagnosis of congenitally infected infants. PCR assays of dried blood spots from infants have not been shown to have sufficient sensitivity for the identification of most infants with congenital CMV infection. However, saliva PCR assays are currently being assessed as a useful screening method for congenital CMV infection. In the immunocompromised host, newer rapid diagnostic assays such as pp65 antigenemia and real-time CMV PCR of blood or plasma have allowed for preemptive treatment reducing morbidity and mortality. However, lack of standardized real-time PCR protocols hinders the comparison of the data across different centers and the development of uniform guidelines for the management of invasive CMV infections in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:21827433

  17. Change in Japanese encephalitis virus distribution, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nitatpattana, Narong; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Souris, Marc; Barbazan, Philippe; Yoksan, Sutee; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2008-11-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotypes in Thailand were studied in pigs and mosquitoes collected near houses of confirmed human JEV cases in 2003-2005. Twelve JEV strains isolated belonged to genotype I, which shows a switch from genotype III incidence that started during the 1980s.

  18. Japanese Children's Reasoning about Conflicts with Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-five Japanese children (aged 6-12) were interviewed using hypothetical stories to examine their reasoning about parent-child conflicts. Participants were most likely to reject parental authority and to support child's discretion in conflict situations where the parent interfered in the child's personal choice and gave the child commands…

  19. Can the Japanese Change Their Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Roger, Ed.; Phillips, David, Ed.

    The nine papers included in this book are: "The Why, What and How of Educational Reform in Japan" (Roger Goodman); "Why Reform Japanese Education?" (William K. Cummings); "Destruction and Reconstruction: A Comparative Analysis of the Education Reform in Japan and Germany under the U.S. Military Occupation After World War…

  20. Japanese American Internment: A Historical Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Susan M.; Walker, Lori B.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that little is written for elementary and middle school students about the World War II Japanese internment camps. Asserts that the issue can help teach about democratic principles and citizenship. Presents a role-playing dialog on the topic and includes recommended materials for students and teachers. (CFR)

  1. Japanese-American Internment. A Historical Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This Historical Reader on "Japanese American Internment" in World War II introduces students to key events and issues during the period through the voices of people with firsthand experienced. Source documents and illustrations are arranged in chronological order and/or thematic units that establish context. Each selection is followed by…

  2. In Defense of Japanese Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Rie

    2016-01-01

    Liberal education has been a target of political discourse in many countries, and Japan is no exception. In Japanese higher education, there are three types of institutions: national public, local public, and private. In June 2015, Japan's minister of education, Hakubun Shimomura, called upon the country's national universities to take…

  3. Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…

  4. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  5. Ijime: The Bullying of Japanese Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoolland, Ken

    1986-01-01

    "Ijime," which means the intimidation of the weakest people in a social group, has become prevalent in the Japanese educational system. Between April and October of 1985, 155,066 cases of bullying were reported in Japan's schools. The education council cites the rigorous discipline measures undertaken by teachers as the cause of rising…

  6. Deaf Life on Isolated Japanese Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torigoe, Takashi; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Interviewed 38 adults with deafness and little schooling in Okinawa concerning their social and language environment. Many of the individuals used an indigenous gestural system shared with hearing people that enabled them to participate in the hearing community. Most had only limited contact with the deaf community and Japanese Sign Language.…

  7. Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU) satellite rendezvous

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-720-042 (13 Jan. 1996) --- The crew members captured this 70mm view of the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU) just prior to the jettisoning of the solar panels. Later, they used the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to latch onto the satellite and berth it in the Space Shuttle Endeavour’s aft cargo bay.

  8. Japanese Robotic SFA during Expedition 22

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-11

    ISS022-E-090362 (11 March 2010) --- The Japanese Robotic Manipulator System / Small Fine Arm (RMS/SFA), is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 22 crew member on the International Space Station. The SFA is also known as ?Ko-bot?.

  9. Politics of Education for Japanese Returnee Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Rieko

    2009-01-01

    Business expansion in the 1960s and its associated international strategies have meant that many Japanese company employees and their families were sent abroad on long-term assignments. The children who accompanied their parents on such assignments and then returned to Japan were first described as "educational refugees" and were…

  10. THE FOREMAN PROBLEM IN JAPANESE INDUSTRY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THURLEY, KEITH

    BRITAIN STUDIED SUPERVISORY TRAINING IN JAPAN, IN ORDER TO GAIN INSIGHT INTO ITS OWN TRAINING PROBLEMS. TRADITIONAL SUPERVISION IN JAPANESE INDUSTRY HAD PRODUCED INCAPABLE FOREMEN THROUGH SENIORITY PROMOTION, CAUSED DIFFICULT RELATIONSHIPS BECAUSE OF AUTHORITARIAN ATTITUDES, AND FAILED TO CLARIFY AUTHORITY ROLES. THE GOVERNMENT RECOMMENDED MORE…

  11. Japanese Information Network and Bibliographic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Robert W., Jr.; Kunkel, Barbara K.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the state-of-the-art of Japanese information activities, detailing the comprehensive national plan Japan has developed. The volume of scientific and technological publications is discussed: monographs and technical reports briefly, and periodicals in more depth, including subject areas, language of publication, and accessibility to…

  12. Interferometic Observations of Japanese Winter Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, M.; Kawasaki, Z. I.; Kudo, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Ushio, T.

    2016-12-01

    Japanese winter lightning happens along the northern coast of Japan, where storms occur because of warm air residing over the sea of Japan. Thunderstorms can occur over the Japanese Alps, and also along the coastal area between the mountains and the water. Because of the cold temperatures, the charge layers of the thunderstorm are very close to the ground. Perhaps because of their proximity to the ground, these winter storms produce strikes to ground of both positive and negative polarity, which can propagate in either the downward (from the cloud) and upward (from the ground) direction. Presented are the first observations made by the Lightning Interferometer via VHF Emission (LIVE) of Japanese winter lightning. LIVE was deployed in Uchinada for the 2015 winter season, and consisted of 4 flat plate VHF antennas (30-80 MHz) separated by about 25 meters, and recorded by a 180 MHz digitizer. Japanese winter lightning is found to have extremely active negative breakdown regions. In cloud negative leaders in winter lightning appear to step much more frequently than the in cloud negative leaders of summer lightning.

  13. Lexical Representation of Japanese Vowel Devoicing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogasawara, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Vowel devoicing happens in Japanese when the high vowel is between voiceless consonants. The aim of this study is to investigate the lexical representation of vowel devoicing. A long-term repetition-priming experiment was conducted. Participants shadowed words containing either a devoiced or a voiced vowel in three priming paradigms, and their…

  14. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Trials of Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lili; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the Japanese response in terms of innovation capacity and entrepreneurship enhancement under the ever-changing economic environment. Particular focus would go to the interactions among government, industry and universities in the national innovation system at a macro level, and entrepreneurship education at the institutional…

  15. THE FOREMAN PROBLEM IN JAPANESE INDUSTRY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THURLEY, KEITH

    BRITAIN STUDIED SUPERVISORY TRAINING IN JAPAN, IN ORDER TO GAIN INSIGHT INTO ITS OWN TRAINING PROBLEMS. TRADITIONAL SUPERVISION IN JAPANESE INDUSTRY HAD PRODUCED INCAPABLE FOREMEN THROUGH SENIORITY PROMOTION, CAUSED DIFFICULT RELATIONSHIPS BECAUSE OF AUTHORITARIAN ATTITUDES, AND FAILED TO CLARIFY AUTHORITY ROLES. THE GOVERNMENT RECOMMENDED MORE…

  16. Nationalism and Worldmindedness: Japanese Versus American Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Der-Karabetian, Aghop; And Others

    Nationalism and worldmindedness are social cognitions that have both culture-unique and culture-universal aspects. To compare cross-cultural manifestations of these 2 sentiments, 270 Japanese and 210 American university students in Tokyo and Los Angeles answered questions on national resources, self-sufficiency and interdependence, communication,…

  17. Japanese and American Education: Attitudes and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Harry

    Continuing concern regarding the quality and future of education in both America and Japan prompts many comparisons of their nation's educational systems. Chapter 1, "Japanese Schools' Higher Achievement, Literacy, Efficiency, Discipline, Classroom Management, and Strengths of Civilization," attempts to explain the superior performance…

  18. Japanese Higher Education and Japan's "Internationalization" (Kokusaika).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Paul J.

    An educational foundation (interdisciplinary) approach is used to examine the development of Japan in order to discover what role, if any, the Japanese higher educational system can play in the internationalization of the country. Some historical, geopolitical, and sociocultural background is provided. It is suggested that Japan can no longer…

  19. Can the Japanese Change Their Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Roger, Ed.; Phillips, David, Ed.

    The nine papers included in this book are: "The Why, What and How of Educational Reform in Japan" (Roger Goodman); "Why Reform Japanese Education?" (William K. Cummings); "Destruction and Reconstruction: A Comparative Analysis of the Education Reform in Japan and Germany under the U.S. Military Occupation After World War…

  20. Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…